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Sample records for estructura san pedro

  1. SAN PEDRO WATERSHED DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro River Geo-Data Browser was jointly developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Tucson, AZ). Since 1995, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and U...

  2. SAN PEDRO GEODATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV). The goal of the Landscape Sciences Program is to improve decision-making relative to natural and human resource management through the development...

  3. SAN PEDRO WATERSHED DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The San Pedro River Geo-Data Browser was jointly developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Tucson, AZ). Since 1995, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EP A) and U...

  4. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Martir (TSPM) is a new ground-based optical telescope project, with a 6.5 meters honeycomb primary mirror, to be built in the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) located in Baja California, Mexico. The OAN-SPM has an altitude of 2830 meters above sea level; it is among the best location for astronomical observation in the world. It is located 1830 m higher than the atmospheric inversion layer with 70% of photometric nights, 80% of spectroscopic nights and a sky brightness up to 22 mag/arcsec2. The TSPM will be suitable for general science projects intended to improve the knowledge of the universe established on the Official Mexican Program for Science, Technology and Innovation 2014-2018. The telescope efforts are headed by two Mexican institutions in name of the Mexican astronomical community: the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. The telescope has been financially supported mainly by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT). It is under development by Mexican scientists and engineers from the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development. This development is supported by a Mexican-American scientific cooperation, through a partnership with the University of Arizona (UA), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation in charge of enclosure and building design. The TSPM will be designed to allow flexibility and possible upgrades in order to maximize resources. Its optical and mechanical designs are based upon those of the Magellan and MMT telescopes. The TSPM primary mirror and its cell will be provided by the INAOE and UA. The telescope will be optimized from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared wavelength range (0.35-2.5 m), but will allow observations up to 26μm. The TSPM will initially offer a f/5 Cassegrain focal station. Later, four folded Cassegrain and

  5. 76 FR 50710 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA AGENCY... CFR 165.1154, Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California, by providing a common... radius around any cruise ship that is located within the San Pedro Bay port area landward of the sea...

  6. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  7. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  8. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  9. Trends in Streamflow of the San Pedro River, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2006-01-01

    Total annual streamflow of the San Pedro River at Charleston in southeastern Arizona (fig. 1) decreased by about 66 percent from 1913 to 2002 (fig. 2). The San Pedro River is one of the few remaining free-flowing perennial streams in the arid Southwestern United States, and the riparian forest along the river supports several endangered species and is an important habitat for migratory birds. The decreasing trend in streamflow has led to concerns that riparian habitat may be damaged and that overall long-term water supply for a growing population may be threatened. Resource managers and the public have an interest in learning more about the trend and the possible causes of the trend.

  10. The Telescopio San Pedro Mártir project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Michael G.; Lee, William H.; González, Jesús; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Sánchez, Beatriz; Rosales Ortega, Fabián.; Alcock, Charles; Carramiñana Alonso, Alberto; García Díaz, Ma. Teresa; Gutiérrez, Leonel; Herrera, Joel; Hill, Derek; Norton, Timothy J.; Pedrayes, Maria H.; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Reyes-Ruíz, Mauricio; Serrano Guerrero, Hazael; Sierra, Gerardo; Teran, Jose; Urdaibay, David; Uribe, Jorge A.; Watson, Alan M.; Zaritsky, Dennis; García Vargas, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Mártir project intends to construct a 6.5m telescope to be installed at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir in northern Baja California, Mexico. The project is an association of Mexican institutions, lead by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica and the Instituto de Astronomía at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, in partnership with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona's Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory. The project is currently in the planning and design stage. Once completed, the partners plan to operate the MMT and TSPM as a binational astrophysical observatory.

  11. Ecological Impact of LAN: San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric Richard; Craine, Brian L.

    2015-08-01

    The San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona is home to nearly 45% of the 900 total species of birds in the United States; millions of songbirds migrate though this unique flyway every year. As the last undammed river in the Southwest, it has been called one of the “last great places” in the US. Human activity has had striking and highly visible impacts on the San Pedro River. As a result, and to help preserve and conserve the area, much of the region has been designated the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA). Attention has been directed to impacts of population, water depletion, and border fence barriers on the riparian environment. To date, there has been little recognition that light at night (LAN), evolving with the increased local population, could have moderating influences on the area. STEM Laboratory has pioneered techniques of coordinated airborne and ground based measurements of light at night, and has undertaken a program of characterizing LAN in this region. We conducted the first aerial baseline surveys of sky brightness in 2012. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) shapefiles allow comparison and correlation of various biological databases with the LAN data. The goal is to better understand how increased dissemination of night time lighting impacts the distributions, behavior, and life cycles of biota on this ecosystem. We discuss the baseline measurements, current data collection programs, and some of the implications for specific biological systems.

  12. Fossil proboscidea and edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gidley, James Williams

    1926-01-01

    A preliminary report on the fossil vertebrates of the San Pedro Valley, Ariz., collected by Kirk Bryan and me in the winter of 1920 and 1921 was published in 1922. This report includes a brief statement regarding the geology of the locality and a preliminary list of fossil vertebrates obtained by the expedition of 1921, with descriptions of the rodents and rabbits. Two additional papers on this interesting fauna have also appeared, one on the turtles by C.W. Gilmore and one on the birds by Alexander Wetmore. The present contribution deals with the proboscideans and edentates and gives a somewhat fuller discussion of the geology of the fossil-bearing beds.

  13. 77 FR 1025 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA AGENCY... for cruise ships visiting San Pedro Bay, California by providing a common description of all security zones to encompass only navigable waters within a 100-yard radius around any cruise ship that is located...

  14. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  15. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  16. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  17. Visual Spectroscopy of Asteroids at San Pedro Mártir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, A.; Covino, S.; di Martino, M.

    2001-04-01

    We present low resolution reflectance spectra over the wavelength range 5000--10,000 Å for 4 asteroids (three belonging to the Nysa family and one Near-Earth asteroid) obtained at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir (México) using the 2.1 m telescope. Though the limited wavelength range covered often makes a classification difficult, the analysis of the available data reveals that two asteroids of the Nysa family, (2007) McCuskey and (3130) Hillary, are probably of F-type and (3384) Daliya of S-type. Near-Earth asteroid (3908) Nyx (Amor asteroid) shows a spectrum, within the limits of our signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), consistent with a V-type taxonomic classification and may be a fragment excavated from Vesta by an impact.

  18. Site Prospection at San Pedro Mártir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohigas, J.; Nuñez, J. M.; Guillén, P. F.; Lazo, F.; Hiriart, D.; Calvario, T.; Escoboza, O.; Valdez, J.; Córdova, A.; Sohn, E.

    2008-04-01

    Seeing and weather observations were conducted at 5 sites within the boundaries of the area reserved for astronomy at the Sierra of San Pedro Mártir National Park (SPM), for at least 15 nights at each one of these. Weather variables were measured using a Davis Weather Station and a Metek Ultrasonic Anemometer. Seeing information was collected with a NOAO RoboDIMM unit. Seeing and weather results were compared to those being delivered at the same time by the instrumentation of the Thirty Meter Telescope Project at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) at SPM. Seeing differences are small in most cases. We recommend a long term campaign at the easily accessible site Llano Alto 1, where we found that seeing may be slightly better.

  19. Seafloor geology and benthic habitats, San Pedro Shelf, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.

    2012-01-01

    Seafloor samples, videography, still photography, and real-time descriptions of geologic and biologic constituents at or near the seafloor of the San Pedro Shelf, southern California, advance the study of natural and man-made processes on this coastal area off the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Multibeam echo-sounder data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1998 and 1999 guided sampling and camera work in 2004 resulting in a new seafloor character map that shows possible benthic habitats in much higher resolution (4- and 16-m pixels) than previously available. The seafloor is characterized by primarily muddy sand and sand with outcrops of Miocene and Pliocene bedrock along the Palos Verdes Fault Zone. Observed benthic populations indicate low abiotic complexity, low biotic complexity, and low biotic coverage. The data are provided for use in geographic information systems (GIS).

  20. Night Sky Brightness at San Pedro Martir Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Richer, M. G.; Colorado, E.; Herrera, J.; Córdova, A.; Ceseña, U.; Ávila, F.

    2017-03-01

    We present optical UBVRI zenith night sky brightness measurements collected on 18 nights during 2013 to 2016 and SQM measurements obtained daily over 20 months during 2014 to 2016 at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM) in México. The UBVRI data is based upon CCD images obtained with the 0.84 m and 2.12 m telescopes, while the SQM data is obtained with a high-sensitivity, low-cost photometer. The typical moonless night sky brightness at zenith averaged over the whole period is U = 22.68, B = 23.10, V = 21.84, R = 21.04, I = 19.36, and SQM = 21.88 {mag} {{arcsec}}-2, once corrected for zodiacal light. We find no seasonal variation of the night sky brightness measured with the SQM. The typical night sky brightness values found at OAN-SPM are similar to those reported for other astronomical dark sites at a similar phase of the solar cycle. We find a trend of decreasing night sky brightness with decreasing solar activity during period of the observations. This trend implies that the sky has become darker by Δ U = 0.7, Δ B = 0.5, Δ V = 0.3, Δ R=0.5 mag arcsec-2 since early 2014 due to the present solar cycle.

  1. Surface layer seeing at San Pedro Mártir revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, L. J.; Avila, R.; Agabi, A.; Azouit, M.; Cuevas, S.; Cruz, D. X.; Cruz-González, I.; Garfias, F.; González, S. I.; Harris, O.; Masciadri, E.; Orlov, V. G.; Vernin, J.; Ruelas-Mayorga, A.; Voitsekhovich, V. V.

    2007-10-01

    Results from experiments measuring the contribution of the surface layer (2.3 to 15 m) to the optical seeing at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM) are reported. Microthermal sensors placed at 7 heights on a 15-m-high instrumented mast were used to measure the structure constant of the refractive index C_{mathrm{n}}(2) . The integrated seeing parameter was measured with a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) during 23 nights. Log-normal statistics were found for the DIMM seeing with a median value of 0rlap .(arcsec) 84. The surface layer average seeing was found to be 0rlap .(arcsec) 16. The measured optical turbulence of this layer has a mean contribution of 5.2% to the total C_{mathrm{n}}(2) , which corresponds to a mean degradation of 3.2% of the total seeing. These values are similar to those found in other observatories around the world, suggesting that the presence of trees in the OAN-SPM does not have a significant effect on the surface layer seeing.

  2. Hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, D.R.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Parker, John T.; Macy, J.P.; Thomas, Blakemore

    2010-01-01

    Water managers in rural Arizona are under increasing pressure to provide sustainable supplies of water despite rapid population growth and demands for environmental protection. This report describes the results of a study of the hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed. The components of this report include: (1) a description of the geologic setting and depositional history of basin fill sediments that form the primary aquifer system, (2) updated bedrock altitudes underlying basin fill sediments calculated using a subsurface density model of gravity data, (3) delineation of hydrogeologic units in the basin fill using lithologic descriptions in driller's logs and models of airborne electrical resistivity data, (4) a digital three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) that represents spatial extents and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs), and (5) description of the hydrologic properties of the HGUs. The lithologic interpretations based on geophysical data and unit thickness and extent of the HGUs included in the HFM define potential configurations of hydraulic zones and parameters that can be incorporated in groundwater-flow models. The hydrogeologic framework comprises permeable and impermeable stratigraphic units: (1) bedrock, (2) sedimentary rocks predating basin-and-range deformation, (3) lower basin fill, (4) upper basin fill, and (5) stream alluvium. The bedrock unit includes Proterozoic to Cretaceous crystalline rocks, sedimentary rocks, and limestone that are relatively impermeable and poor aquifers, except for saturated portions of limestone. The pre-basin-and-range sediments underlie the lower basin fill but are relatively impermeable owing to cementation. However, they may be an important water-bearing unit where fractured. Alluvium of the lower basin fill, the main water-bearing unit, was deposited in the structural trough between the uplifted ridges of bedrock and (or) pre-basin-and-range sediments. Alluvium of

  3. 77 FR 55268 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-San Pedro Railroad Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--San Pedro Railroad Operating Company, LLC Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under: (1) 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(1) to acquire and operate over San Pedro Railroad Operating Company...

  4. 78 FR 53477 - Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) San Pedro Project Office...

  5. The San Pedro Basin: A Case Study of US and Mexican Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs 1917

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The San Pedro River originates in northern Sonora near the town of Cananea and spans the U.S. – Mexico border into southeastern Arizona. The San Pedro Basin and perennial portions of its river support one of the most ecological diverse regions in the world. The regional groundwater aquifer which l...

  6. Bottom current and sediment transport on San Pedro Shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, David E.; Cacchione, David A.; Karl, Herman A.

    1985-01-01

    GEOPROBE (Geological Processes Bottom Environmental) tripods were used to measure bottom currents, pressure, and light transmission and scattering and to obtain time-series photographs of the sea floor at depths of 23 m and 67 m on San Pedro shelf between 18 April and 6 June 1978. Winds were light (< 5 m/s) with a mean direction from the southwest throughout the measurement period. Hourly averaged currents 1 m above the bottom never exceeded 21 cm/s; average speeds were about 5 cm/s at the 23-m site and 6.8 cm/s at 67 m, and the strongest currents were produced by the tides. The mean flow of bottom water was less than 3 cm/s at both GEOPROBES and was rather persistently southward (offshelf). Wave-generated bottom currents and bottom-pressure variations were sampled at hourly intervals; average wave period and wave height were 12.8 s and 0.44 m, respectively, at the 23-m site. Wave orbital velocities ranged from about 5 to 30 cm/s at 23 m and from 2 to 8 cm/s at 67 m. Bottom photographs at 67 m show that the relatively sluggish tide-generated and mean currents were below threshold velocity for the silty, very fine sand throughout the observational period. Threshold depth for wave rippling of very fine sand averaged about 28 m with a range from about 12 m to 50 m. Wave-generated currents were the only currents that exceeded threshold levels. The wave currents maintained relatively high concentrations of sediment in suspension near the bottom over the inner shelf (< 25 m), and this material (principally silt and clay) was transported offshore by the weak mean flow. Approximately 50% of this material was deposited as the bottom orbital velocities decreased to subthreshold values ( nearly equal 10-15 cm/s). The observed movement of fine sediment across the inner shelf can account for a portion of the mud content of the modern silty sands on the central shelf and on the outer shelf. However, it is clear that the sand fractions, which constitute greater than 70% of the

  7. Reconnaissance radiological characterization for the White Point Nike Missile Site, San Pedro, California

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Jensen, M.K.; Pierce, G.A.; Smith, S.M.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of field work performed at the former White Point Nike Missile Site, San Pedro, California. The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program tasked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in Grand Junction, Colo., with this project. The objective was to determine whether or not radioisotopes possibly associated with past Department of Defense (DOD) operations were present and within accepted background levels. The radiation survey was accomplished by performing three independent radiation surveys, both outdoors and indoors, and random soil sampling. Initially, the site was land surveyed to develop a grid block system. A background radiation investigation was performed out in the San Pedro area.

  8. Reconnaissance radiological characterization for the White Point Nike Missile Site, San Pedro, California

    SciTech Connect

    Espegren, M.L.; Jensen, M.K.; Pierce, G.A. ); Smith, S.M. )

    1993-01-01

    This report is the result of field work performed at the former White Point Nike Missile Site, San Pedro, California. The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program tasked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in Grand Junction, Colo., with this project. The objective was to determine whether or not radioisotopes possibly associated with past Department of Defense (DOD) operations were present and within accepted background levels. The radiation survey was accomplished by performing three independent radiation surveys, both outdoors and indoors, and random soil sampling. Initially, the site was land surveyed to develop a grid block system. A background radiation investigation was performed out in the San Pedro area.

  9. 33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. 165.1151 Section 165.1151 Navigation and Navigable... Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Liquefied Hazardous Gas” as used in this section means a...

  10. Tamarisk and river restoration along the San Pedro and Gila Rivers

    Treesearch

    Juliet Stromberg; Sharon Lite; Charles Paradzick

    2005-01-01

    The abundance of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima and related species) along the San Pedro and Gila River flood plains varies with differences in stream flow regimes. Tamarisk abundance, relative to Fremont cottonwood and Goodding willow, is greater at sites with more intermittent stream flows and deeper and more fluctuating ground-water levels....

  11. SCENARIO ANALYSIS FOR THE SAN PEDRO RIVER, ANALYZING HYDROLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES FOR A FUTURE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of future management and policy options based on different assumptions provide a mechanism to examine possible outcomes and especially their likely benefits and consequences. The San Pedro River in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico is an area that has undergone rapid changes in ...

  12. APPLYING THE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES CONCEPT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO BASIN, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper San Pedro River flows intermittently north from Sonora, Mexico into southeastern Arizona and is one of the last few large unimpounded rivers in the American Southwest. The remaining perennial reaches support a desert riparian ecosystem that is a rare remnant of what ...

  13. APPLYING THE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES CONCEPT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO BASIN, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper San Pedro River flows intermittently north from Sonora, Mexico into southeastern Arizona and is one of the last few large unimpounded rivers in the American Southwest. The remaining perennial reaches support a desert riparian ecosystem that is a rare remnant of what ...

  14. Flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, Cochise County, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Makings

    2005-01-01

    The flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA) consists of 618 taxa from 92 families, including a new species of Eriogonum and four new State records. The vegetation communities include Chihuahuan Desertscrub, cottonwood-willow riparian corridors, mesquite terraces, sacaton grasslands, rocky outcrops, and cienegas. Species...

  15. SCENARIO ANALYSIS FOR THE SAN PEDRO RIVER, ANALYZING HYDROLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES FOR A FUTURE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of future management and policy options based on different assumptions provide a mechanism to examine possible outcomes and especially their likely benefits and consequences. The San Pedro River in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico is an area that has undergone rapid changes in ...

  16. Alternative Futures for Landscapes in the Upper San Pedro River Basin of Arizona and Sonora

    Treesearch

    Carl Steinitz; Robert Anderson; Hector Arias; Scott Bassett; Michael Flaxman; Tomas Goode; Thomas Maddock III; David Mouat; Robert Peiser; Allan Shearer

    2005-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in southeastern Arizona is well known for its avian diversity; however, water use by Sierra Vista, Fort Huachuca, and agriculture in the basin threatens to lower its water table. This, in turn, could alter vegetation in the basin in a way that would negatively impact habitat currently supporting nesting of the endangered Southwestern...

  17. The lower San Pedro River: hydrology and flow restoration for biodiversity conservation

    Treesearch

    Jeanmarie Haney

    2005-01-01

    The lower San Pedro River, downstream from Benson, is a nearly unfragmented habitat containing perennial flow reaches that support riparian vegetation that serve as “stepping stones” for migratory species. The Nature Conservancy has purchased farm properties and retired agricultural pumping along the lower river, based largely on results from hydrologic analyses...

  18. The offshore Palos Verdes fault zone near San Pedro, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.; Langenheim, V.E.; Calvert, A.J.; Sliter, R.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data are combined with a variety of other geophysical and geological data to interpret the offshore structure and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro shelf, near Los Angeles, California. Prominent structures investigated include the Wilmington graben, the Palos Verdes fault zone, various faults below the west part of the San Pedro shelf and slope, and the deep-water San Pedro basin. The structure of the Palos Verdes fault zone changes markedly along strike southeastward across the San Pedro shelf and slope. Under the north part of the shelf, this fault zone includes several strands, with the main strand dipping west. Under the slope, the main fault strands exhibit normal separation and mostly dip east. To the southeast near Lasuen Knoll, the Palos Verdes fault zone locally is low angle, but elsewhere near this knoll, the fault dips steeply. Fresh seafloor scarps near Lasuen Knoll indicate recent fault movement. We explain the observed structural variation along the Palos Verdes fault zone as the result of changes in strike and fault geometry along a master right-lateral strike-slip fault at depth. Complicated movement along this deep fault zone is suggested by the possible wave-cut terraces on Lasuen Knoll, which indicate subaerial exposure during the last sea level lowstand and subsequent subsidence of the knoll. Modeling of aeromagnetic data indicates a large magnetic body under the west part of the San Pedro shelf and upper slope. We interpret this body to be thick basalt of probable Miocene age. This basalt mass appears to have affected the pattern of rock deformation, perhaps because the basalt was more competent during deformation than the sedimentary rocks that encased the basalt. West of the Palos Verdes fault zone, other northwest-striking faults deform the outer shelf and slope. Evidence for recent movement along these faults is equivocal, because we lack age dates on deformed or offset sediment.

  19. Geologic and bayhymetric reconnaissance overview of the San Pedro Shelf Region, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Stephen C.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a series of maps that describe the bathymetry and late Quaternary geology of the San Pedro shelf area as interpreted from seismic-reflection profiles and 3.5-kHz and multibeam bathymetric data. Some of the seismic-reflection profiles were collected with Uniboom and 120-kJ sparker during surveys conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1973 (K-2-73-SC), 1978 (S-2-78-SC), and 1979 (S-2a-79-SC). The remaining seismic-reflection profiles were collected in 2000 using Geopulse boomer and minisparker during USGS cruise A-1-00-SC. The report consists of seven oversized sheets: 1. Map of 1978 and 1979 uniboom seismic-reflection and 3.5-kHz tracklines used to map faults and folds on San Pedro Shelf. 2. Maps of multibeam shaded bathymetric relief with faults and folds, and bathymetric contours. 3. Isopach map of unconsolidated sediment, seismic-reflection profile across the San Pedro shelf, seismic-reflection profile across San Gabriel paleo-valley. 4. Seismic-reflection profiles across the Palos Verdes Fault Zone. 5. Geologic map and samples of Uniboom and 120-kJ sparker seismic-reflection profiles used to make the map. 6. Map showing thickness of uppermost (Holocene?) sediment layer. 7. Map of San Gabriel Canyon paleo-valley and associated drainage basins.

  20. Sediments, geomorphology, magnetostratigraphy, and vertebrate paleontology in the San Pedro Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.H.; Smith, G.A.; Haynes, C.V.; Opdyke, N.D. )

    1990-07-01

    The San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona was probably formed by block faulting during the Miocene. Sediments that filled the valley, primarily the St. David Formation, have yielded a robust vertebrate fossil record, calibrated during the last 25 years by magnetostratigraphy and isotopic dating of volcanic ejecta. This chronologic framework is combined with new sedimentologic, paleomagnetic, and geomorphic data to evaluate the influence of subsequent tectonism within the basin. The authors conclude that tectonism in the San Pedro Valley has been relatively quiescent following the initial block faulting and suggest that ensuring rates of sedimentation and incision were most likely controlled by climatic factors rather than tectonic-geologic ones. Vertebrate datum planes established in 1975 are revised on the basis of new paleontologic and geologic-isotopic data. The authors now recognize only three faunal datum planes in the St. David Formation, and have abandoned the youngest (Lepus) datum plane.

  1. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment Proposed SMC Military Family Housing, San Pedro, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    in the Palos Verdes and San Pedro area also contain a varied and abundant fossil fauna, including mollusks, echinoids, bryozoa , and marine and...mollusks, echinoids, and bryozoa (Petra Resources, 1995c). A vertebrate and an invertebrate fossil locality are located within a one mile radius of the...contain a varied and abundant fossil fauna, including mollusks, echinoids, bryozoa , and marine and terrestrial vertebrates. Fragments of

  2. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  3. Telescopio San Pedro Mártir Observatory preliminary design and project approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Jose; Lee, William H.; Richer, Michael G.; Sánchez, Beatriz S.; Urdaibay, David; Hill, Derek; Adriaanse, David; Hernandez-Limonchi, Regina

    2016-07-01

    The Instituto de Astronomia of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) along with Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are developing the Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM) project, a 6.5m diameter optical telescope. M3 Engineering and Technology Corp. (M3) is the design and construction management firm responsible for all site infrastructure, enclosure and support facilities. The Telescopio San Pedro Mártir project (TSPM) will be located within the San Pedro Mártir National Park in Baja California, Mexico at 2,830 m. above sea level, approximately 65 km. east of the Pacific Ocean, 55km west of the Sea of Cortes (Gulf of California) and 180km south of the United States and México border. The aim of the paper is to present the preliminary design of the site infrastructure, enclosure and support facilities to date and share the design and construction approach.

  4. Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Relative-gravity data and absolute-gravity data were collected in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, in May–June 2014 and 2015. Data from 2014 and a description of the survey network were published in USGS Open-File Report 2015–1086. Data presented in the shapefile here are the following:(1) Network-adjusted values from 2015,(2) Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, and(3) Survey-grade coordinates obtained from a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey in 2015. 2015 data and network adjustment results are presented in Kennedy, J.R., 2016, Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open–File Report 2016–1155, 15 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr201611552014 data and network adjustment results are presented inKennedy, J.R., 2015, Gravity data from the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open–File Report 2015–1086, 26 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151086

  5. Oral health in prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama oases, Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R E; Neves, W A

    2015-12-01

    After almost 2000 years of local development, including limited trading with neighboring ethnic groups, the societies that occupied the oases of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile, became part of the trade web of the Tiwanaku empire, between 500 and 1000 CE. Archaeological evidence tends to support the idea that the period under the influence of the altiplano (high plane) empire was very affluent. Here we investigate the possibility that this affluence had a positive impact on the health status of the Atacameneans, using the oral health as an indirect indicator of quality of life. Dental decay, dental abscess, dental wear, linear enamel hypoplasia, periodontal disease and dental calculus were analyzed on 371 skeletons from 12 sites from San Pedro de Atacama oases. We believe that if, indeed, there were better biological conditions during the altiplano influence, this could have been caused by the access to a more diversified food intake promoted by the intensification of the trading network established by Tiwanaku in the central-south Andes, of which San Pedro de Atacama became an important node. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. El Observatorio de San Pedro Mártir: A World-Class Site for Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehinger, P.

    2007-06-01

    This paper outlines the characteristics of San Pedro Mártir as a super site for major astronomical telescopes. The extremely dark sky, high percentage of clear nights year round, excellent seeing, low water vapor content, and related logistical matters make SPM the number one choice for major new telescope projects. Clearly, SPM is a most attractive site, affording ease of access by land, sea, and air, with significantly shorter supply lines and same day access from Santa Cruz, Pasadena, Tucson, San Diego, Mexico City, and other astronomical centers.

  7. Gain-loss study of lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, May-October 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    Five streamflow gain-loss measurement surveys were made along lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River from Mitchell Street to South Loop 410 east of Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, during May–October 1999. All of the measurements were made during dry periods, when stormwater runoff was not occurring and effects of possible bank storage were minimized. San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River were divided into six subreaches, and streamflow measurements were made simultaneously at the boundaries of these subreaches so that streamflow gains or losses and estimates of inflow from or outflow to shallow ground water could be quantified for each subreach. There are two possible sources of ground-water inflow to lower San Pedro Creek and the San Antonio River east of Kelly Air Force Base. One source is direct inflow of shallow ground water into the streams. The other source is ground water that enters tributaries that flow into the San Antonio River. The estimated mean direct inflow of ground water to the combined San Pedro Creek and San Antonio River study reach was 3.0 cubic feet per second or 1.9 million gallons per day. The mean tributary inflow of ground water was estimated to be 1.9 cubic feet per second or 1.2 million gallons per day. The total estimated inflow of shallow ground water was 4.9 cubic feet per second or 3.2 million gallons per day. The amount of inflow from springs and seeps (estimated by observation) is much less than the amount of direct ground-water inflow estimated from the gain-loss measurements. Therefore, the presence of springs and seeps might not be a reliable indicator of the source of shallow ground water entering the river. Most of the shallow ground water that enters the San Antonio River from tributary inflow enters from the west side, through Concepcion Creek, inflows near Riverside Golf Course, and Six-Mile Creek. 

  8. Transient Electromagnetic Study of the Geologic Framework, Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultman, M. W.; Gray, F.; Flemming, J. B.; Callegary, J.; Kleinkopf, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    The San Pedro River flows north from near Cananea, Mexico into the U.S. and ends at its confluence with the Gila River in Arizona. The river supports a riparian habitat that is important for its biological diversity and is the most significant flyway for migrating birds in southwest North America. Nearby communities in Arizona and Mexico are pumping groundwater from basin fill in the San Pedro valley and there is much concern about the effects of this pumping on the baseflow of the San Pedro River. Local, State, and National agencies have been studying this issue from a wide variety of perspectives. To help address the problem, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken an integrative research effort utilizing geologic mapping, multiple geophysical techniques, and multi-spectral imaging to better understand the geology, geometry, structure and basin fill sediments in the San Pedro basin in Mexico. An existing aeromagnetic survey coupled with a natural source audio frequency magnetotelluric study indicates that the basin is less than 1km deep in most places and contains at least two sub-basins. These sub-basins are separated by a subsurface bedrock high that is well below the present water table. Also, several vertical electrical soundings, acquired by Grupo Mexico in the region, indicate that the central portion of the basin may contain several, potentially thick, sequences of clay. The transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey was designed to provide more information on the nature of the basin fill sediments and to provide a better estimate of the depth of the bedrock structural high. The TEM data was acquired with a Zonge ZeroTEM instrument at 104 locations with 150m per side square loops using approximately 3.6 amps of current at a base frequency of 16 Hz. The locations of the TEM stations, generally spaced 0.5km apart, were designed to obtain a conductivity-depth profile along approximately 30km of the San Pedro River in Mexico and at three locations perpendicular

  9. Nitrogen and Sediment Inputs to the San Pedro River Riparian Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M.; Huth, A. K.; Hamblen, J.; Villinski, J.; Grimm, N.; Lewis, D.; Schade, J.

    2002-05-01

    The San Pedro River in southern Arizona is the last undammed major river in the Western U.S. The riparian habitat along the upper San Pedro is under pressure due to competing water use by nearby agriculture and municipal demands. Numerous nongovernmental organizations and government agencies are cooperating to investigate the functioning of the riparian area, including water and nutrient cycling. The multi-institutional NSF Science and Technology Center for Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) is using two 500-m study sites along the upper San Pedro River (one gaining and one losing-intermittent) to investigate nutrient and sediment fluxes. Sampling of over 80 shallow piezometers installed in the stream, in gravel bars and in riparian terraces (among cottonwoods and willows) showed nitrate levels were highest in the riparian terrace and gravel bars throughout the year. Nitrate levels in shallow stream piezometers were lower and more variable. Seasonal algal blooms were correlated with decreases in nitrate and organic nitrogen in the stream channel. Intensive sampling during a 300 cfs flood (July 17-18, 2001) in the intermittant-losing reach showed significant increases in nitrate levels during the storm, apparently from the gravel bars and riparian terrace. Hydrograph separation indicated a substantial fraction of the water in the river had been in contact with the river banks. During storm events, substantial sediment transport occurs, as well as scour and fill. As much of the nitrogen cycling in microbially controlled, sediment scour and fill is being monitored concomitantly with respiration measurements in a meander point bar in the losing-intermittant reach. By focusing on key processes in the shallow stream sediments, gravel bars and riparian terraces, we are establishing linkages between the different zones of the riparian area in order to characterize nitrogen uptake capacity of the riparian system.

  10. Investigating cultural heterogeneity in San Pedro de Atacama, northern Chile, through biogeochemistry and bioarchaeology.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Kelly J; Torres-Rouff, Christina

    2009-04-01

    Individuals living in the San Pedro de Atacama oases and the neighboring upper Loa River Valley of northern Chile experienced the collapse of an influential foreign polity, environmental decline, and the appearance of a culturally distinct group during the Late Intermediate Period (ca. AD 1,100-1,400). We investigate cultural heterogeneity at the Loa site of Caspana through analyses of strontium and oxygen isotopes, cranial modification styles, and mortuary behavior, integrating biological aspects of identity, particularly geographic origins, with cultural aspects of identity manifested in body modification and mortuary behavior. We test the hypothesis that the Caspana population (n = 66) represents a migrant group, as supported by archeological and ethnographic evidence, rather than a culturally distinct local group. For Caspana archeological human tooth enamel, mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr = 0.70771 +/- 0.00038 (1sigma, n = 30) and mean delta(18)O(c(V-PDB)) = -3.9 +/- 0.6 per thousand (1sigma, n = 16); these isotopic data suggest that only one individual lived outside the region. Material culture suggests that the individuals buried at Caspana shared some cultural affinity with the San Pedro oases while maintaining distinct cultural traditions. Finally, cranial modification data show high frequencies of head shaping [92.4% (n = 61/65)] and an overwhelming preference for annular modification [75.4% (n = 46/61)], contrasting sharply with practices in the San Pedro area. Based on multiple lines of evidence, we argue that, rather than representing a group of altiplano migrants, the Caspana population existed in the region for some time. However, cranial modification styles and mortuary behavior that are markedly distinct from patterns in surrounding areas raise the possibility of cultural heterogeneity and cultural fissioning.

  11. Gravity change from 2014 to 2015, Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2016-09-13

    Relative-gravity data and absolute-gravity data were collected at 68 stations in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, in May–June 2015 for the purpose of estimating aquifer-storage change. Similar data from 2014 and a description of the survey network were published in U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015–1086. Data collection and network adjustment results are presented in this report, which is accompanied by a supporting Web Data Release (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7SQ8XHX). Station positions are presented from a Global Positioning System campaign to determine station elevation.

  12. Marine geology and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro Shelf region, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Michael A.; Normark, William R.; Langenheim, V.E.; Calvert, Andrew J.; Sliter, Ray

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data have been com- bined with a variety of other geophysical and geological data to interpret the offshore structure and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro Shelf, near Los Angeles, California. Prominent structures investigated include the Wilmington Graben, the Palos Verdes Fault Zone, various faults below the western part of the shelf and slope, and the deep-water San Pedro Basin. The structure of the Palos Verdes Fault Zone changes mark- edly southeastward across the San Pedro Shelf and slope. Under the northern part of the shelf, this fault zone includes several strands, but the main strand dips west and is probably an oblique-slip fault. Under the slope, this fault zone con- sists of several fault strands having normal separation, most of which dip moderately east. To the southeast near Lasuen Knoll, the Palos Verdes Fault Zone locally is a low-angle fault that dips east, but elsewhere near this knoll the fault appears to dip steeply. Fresh sea-floor scarps near Lasuen Knoll indi- cate recent fault movement. The observed regional structural variation along the Palos Verdes Fault Zone is explained as the result of changes in strike and fault geometry along a master strike-slip fault at depth. The shallow summit and possible wavecut terraces on Lasuen knoll indicate subaerial exposure during the last sea-level lowstand. Modeling of aeromagnetic data indicates the presence of a large magnetic body under the western part of the San Pedro Shelf and upper slope. This is interpreted to be a thick body of basalt of Miocene(?) age. Reflective sedimentary rocks overlying the basalt are tightly folded, whereas folds in sedimentary rocks east of the basalt have longer wavelengths. This difference might mean that the basalt was more competent during folding than the encasing sedimentary rocks. West of the Palos Verdes Fault Zone, other northwest-striking faults deform the outer shelf and slope. Evidence for recent movement along these

  13. The BOOTES-5 telescope at San Pedro Martir National Astronomical Observatory, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiriart, D.; Valdez, J.; Martínez, B.; García, B.; Cordova, A.; Colorado, E.; Guisa, G.; Ochoa, J. L.; Nuñez, J. M.; Ceseña, U.; Cunniffe, R.; Murphy, D.; Lee, W.; Park, Il H.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    BOOTES-5 is the fifth robotic observatory of the international network of robotic telescopes BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring Optical System). It is located at the National Astronomical Observatory at Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. It was dedicated on November 26, 2015 and it is in the process of testing. Its main scientific objective is the observation and monitoring of the optic counterparts of gamma-ray bursts as quickly as possible once they have been detected from space or other ground-based observatories. BOOTES-5 fue nombrado Telescopio Javier Gorosabel en memoria del astrónomo español Javier Gorosabel Urkia.

  14. Seafloor terrain analysis and geomorphology of the greater Los Angeles Margin and San Pedro Basin, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, P.; Gardner, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    The seafloor off greater Los Angeles, California, has been extensively studied for the past century. Terrain analysis of recently compiled multibeam bathymetry reveals the detailed seafloor morphology along the Los Angeles Margin and San Pedro Basin. The terrain analysis uses the multibeam bathymetry to calculate two seafloor indices, a seafloor slope, and a Topographic Position Index. The derived grids along with depth are analyzed in a hierarchical, decision-tree classification to delineate six seafloor provinces-high-relief shelf, low-relief shelf, steep-basin slope, gentle-basin slope, gullies and canyons, and basins. Rock outcrops protrude in places above the generally smooth continental shelf. Gullies incise the steep-basin slopes, and some submarine canyons extend from the coastline to the basin floor. San Pedro Basin is separated from the Santa Monica Basin to the north by a ridge consisting of the Redondo Knoll and the Redondo Submarine Canyon delta. An 865-m-deep sill separates the two basins. Water depths of San Pedro Basin are ??100 m deeper than those in the San Diego Trough to the south, and three passes breach a ridge that separates the San Pedro Basin from the San Diego Trough. Information gained from this study can be used as base maps for such future studies as tectonic reconstructions, identifying sedimentary processes, tracking pollution transport, and defining benthic habitats. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  15. Submarine landslides of San Pedro Escarpment, southwest of Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, R.G.; Gardner, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal infrastructure of the southern greater Los Angeles metropolitan area would be profoundly affected by a large tsunami. Submarine slope failures and active faults, either of which could have generated a tsunami, are known on the shelf and slope near Long Beach. Large slope failures are present on the San Pedro Escarpment and on the basin slope adjacent to the San Pedro shelf. The southeastern part of the escarpment has had a long history of slope failure. The most recent failure, the Palos Verdes slide, is over 4.5 km long, has been dated as 7500 years old, and involved over 0.34 km 3 of material, which now litters the adjacent basin floor. Other, smaller, deposits from nearby failures are also present, as are buried wedges of debris that indicate slope failures have occurred locally throughout the Holocene and much of the late Pleistocene. Slope failures have occurred in response to continual Quaternary uplift of the Palos Verdes anticlinorium. The Palos Verdes slide could potentially have generated a failure-related tsunami with an amplitude in the range of 8-12 m because it apparently failed catastrophically, started in shallow water, evolved on low-drag bedding planes, had a long slide path, and involved high-strength lithified material. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An estimate of the temporal fraction of cloud cover at San Pedro Mártir Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Carramiñana, A.; Sánchez, L. J.; Avila, R.; Cruz-González, I.

    2012-02-01

    San Pedro Mártir in the north-west of Mexico is the site of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional. It was one of the five candidate sites for the Thirty Meter Telescope, whose site-testing team spent four years measuring the atmospheric properties on site with a very complete array of instrumentation. Using the public data base created by this team, we apply a novel method to solar radiation data to estimate the daytime fraction of time when the sky is clear of clouds. We analyse the diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles of cloud cover. We find that 82.4 per cent of the time the sky is clear of clouds. Our results are consistent with those obtained by other authors, using different methods, adding support to this value and proving the potential of the applied method. The clear conditions at the site are particularly good showing that San Pedro Mártir is an excellent site for optical and infrared observations.

  17. Quantifying and valuing ecosystem services: An application of ARIES to the San Pedro River basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius J.; Villa, Ferdinando; Johnson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research exists that identifies and values ecosystem services - the benefits that ecosystems provide to humans (MA, 2005) - and their underlying ecological processes. However, the development of software decision support tools that integrate ecology, economics and geography that can be independently used within the public, private, academic and NGO sectors is a more recent phenomenon (Ruhl et al., 2007; Daily et al., 2009). Spurred by growing demand for more sophisticated analysis of the social and economic consequences of land management decisions, the US Department of Interior - Bureau of Land Management (BLM) launched a pilot project with the US Geological Survey (USGS) to assess the usefulness and feasibility of ecosystem service assessment and valuation tools to provide inputs to decision-making. The project analysed ecosystem services in the US portion of the San Pedro River watershed, which includes the BLM-managed San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA), to improve the understanding of complex social and ecological relationships that transcend administrative divisions. The BLM manages some 99 million hectares, primarily in the western United States, and 283 million hectares of sub-surface mineral estate. BLM's multiple-use mission requires that it appropriately balance non-extractive uses such as habitat conservation, recreation and archaeological heritage protection and the extractive use of resources such as timber, oil and gas, coal, uranium, and other minerals.

  18. Comparison of Methods to Estimate Ephemeral Channel Recharge, Walnut Gulch, San Pedro River Basin, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Williams, D. G.; Unkrich, C. L.; Hogan, J. F.; Scott, R. L.; Hultine, K. R.; Pool, D. R.; Coes, A. L.; Miller, S. N.

    2004-12-01

    Ephemeral channel transmission loss represents an important groundwater-surface water exchange in arid and semiarid regions and is potentially a significant source of recharge at the basin scale. However, identification of the processes and dynamics that control this exchange is a challenging problem. Specifically, data on the proportion of runoff transmission losses that escape from near-channel transpiration and wetted channel evaporation to become deep groundwater recharge are difficult to obtain. This issue was addressed through coordinated field research and modeling within the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) located in the San Pedro River Basin of southeastern Arizona. Recharge was estimated using several independent methods which included a reach water balance approach, with near-channel ET estimated using sap flux and micrometeorological measurements; geochemical methods such as chloride mass balance; modeling of changes in groundwater level or microgravity measurements; and vadose zone water and temperature transport modeling. It was found that during the relatively wet 1999 and average 2000 monsoon seasons, the range of ephemeral channel recharge estimated from these methods differed by a factor of less than three. A rough scaling to the entire San Pedro Basin indicates that ephemeral channel recharge constitutes between approximately 15 percent and 40 percent of total annual recharge to the regional aquifer as estimated from a calibrated groundwater model. In contrast, during the weak monsoon seasons of 2001 and 2002 limited runoff and stream channel infiltration did occur but no discernable deep aquifer recharge was detected.

  19. San Pedro leucogranite from A Coruña, Northwest of Spain: Uses of a heritage stone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Place names often provide examples of the importance that a heritage stone has had with the foundation of cities and throughout its subsequent history. The heritage of a town is related to its geological environment, which provides its construction materials. The historic quarry of San Pedro leucogranite in northwest Spain is considered here and its petrological characteristics, utilization throughout history and its heritage value are evaluated. The Romans used this stone, however there was an initial boom in the use of San Pedro leucogranite for Galician Romanesque sculptures during the Middle Ages. Notable among other monuments such as the twelfth century Romanesque churches of Santa María del Campo and Santiago and it has also been used to build the pedestal of Herculeś Tower, this is a majestic lighthouse in A Coruña city, it was declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 2 009. San Pedro leucogranite is part of the pavement of the main tourist streets of A Coruña city (Calle Real and Cantones, to name some of the most popular). Betanzos is a historical village about 25 km from A Coruña, its historical center was declared historic-artistic site in 1970. The Betanzos historical center also provides major utilization of this stone in sculptures and ashlars of San Francisco and Santa María de Azogue churches, among others. Color, rarity, appearance, quality and durability are the primary characteristics that have led to San Pedro leucogranite being used for sculpting and building. These characteristics and historical quarrying should be assessed with respect to its heritage significance and strategic location near the city of A Coruña. The preservation and enhancement of its historic quarries that are essential for conservation work and restoration of heritage assets built with the San Pedro leucogranite in this region.

  20. 78 FR 25299 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the San Pedro Riparian National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the San Pedro... of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976...

  1. Investigating Historic Parcel Changes to Understand Land Use Trends: A Methodology and Application for the San Pedro River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land use and land cover change, and the associated impacts, pose critical challenges to sustaining healthy communities and ecosystems. In this study, a methodology was developed to use parcel data to evaluate land use trends in southeast Arizona’s San Pedro River Water...

  2. Assessment of Goods and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (AGAVES), San Pedro River Basin, U.S./Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A consortium of federal, academic, and non-government organizations (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of e...

  3. Assessment of Goods and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (AGAVES), San Pedro River Basin, U.S./Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A consortium of federal, academic, and non-government organizations (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of e...

  4. Investigating Historic Parcel Changes to Understand Land Use Trends: A Methodology and Application for the San Pedro River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land use and land cover change, and the associated impacts, pose critical challenges to sustaining healthy communities and ecosystems. In this study, a methodology was developed to use parcel data to evaluate land use trends in southeast Arizona’s San Pedro River Water...

  5. A dendrochronology based fire history of Jeffry pine-mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Scott L. Stephens; Carl N. Skinner; Samantha J. Gill

    2003-01-01

    Conifer forests in northwestern Mexico have not experienced systematic fire suppression or logging, making them unique in western North America. Fire regimes of Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico, were determined by identifying 105 fire dates from 1034 fire scars in 105 specimens. Fires were...

  6. Depth to bedrock in the upper San Pedro Valley, Cochise County, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.; Houser, Brenda B.

    2000-01-01

    The thickness, distribution, and character of alluvial sediments that were deposited in the structural subbasins of the upper San Pedro basin in southeastern Arizona during the late Cenozoic provide important constraints on ground-water availability of the area. Two sedimentary units are recognized; the Oligocene and Miocene Pantano(?) Formation and an unnamed upper Miocene through lower Pleistocene unit termed basin fill. The complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows that there are three major structural subbasins in the upper San Pedro basin north of the international border with Mexico. The Tombstone subbasin is north of Tombstone, and two more are located north and south of Sierra Vista, respectively. This report concentrates on the two subbasins north and south of Sierra Vista. The northern subbasin (termed the Huachuca City subbasin) extends from east of Huachuca City to northeast of Whetstone, and the southern subbasin (termed the Palominas subbasin) extends southward from a line between Nicksville and Hereford to the border. The locations and shapes of these subbasins, thickness of basin fill, and depth to bedrock were estimated using a procedure involving interpolation of (1) the density functions derived in this study, (2) stratigraphic data from water wells, and (3) a residual gravity anomaly grid obtained by subtracting the gravity effects of the bedrock ranges bordering the basin from the complete Bouguer gravity anomaly. This procedure indicates that the subbasins are shallow and contain significant thicknesses of the Pantano(?) Formation in addition to the overlying younger basin fill. The maximum depth to bedrock is about 1,700 m in the Palominas subbasin and 800m in the Huachuca City subbasin; the basin-fill unit occupies the upper 250-350 m in general with local thickenings exceeding 1,000 m in the Palominas subbasin. An east-west trending buried bedrock high beneath Fort Huachuca, Sierra Vista, and Charleston separates the subbasins. The depth

  7. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  8. Applied geointegration to hydrocarbon exploration in the San Pedro-Machango Area, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, A.; Navarro, A.; Osorio, R.; Corvo, F.; Arismendi, J.

    1996-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration has nowadays a diversity of technological resources to capture, merge and interpret information from diverse sources. To accomplish this, the integration of geodata for modeling was done through the use of new technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Systems of Information and applied to the San Pedro-Machango area, located in the Serrania de Trujillo, west of Costa Bolivar (onshore), eastern Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The main purpose of this work was to optimize the design of an exploration program in harmony with environmental conservation procedures. Starting with satellital and radar images that incorporated geophysical, geological and environmental information, they then were analyzed and merged to improve the lithological, structural and tectonic interpretation, generating an integrated model that allowed better project design. The use of a system that combines information of geographical, geodetical, geophysical and geological origins with satellital and radar images produced up to date cartography and refined results of image interpretation.

  9. Eruptive Productivity of the Ceboruco-San Pedro Volcanic Field, Nayarit, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, H. M.; Lange, R. A.; Hall, C. M.; Delgado-Granados, H.

    2002-12-01

    High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology coupled with GIS spatial analysis provides constraints on magma eruption rates over the past 1 Myr of the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field (1870 km2), located in the Tepic-Zacoalco rift in western Mexico. The volcanic field is part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic arc and is dominated by the andesitic-dacitic stratocone of Volcan Ceboruco and includes peripheral fissure-fed flows, domes, and monogenetic cinder cones. The ages of these volcanic features were determined using 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating techniques on groundmass or mineral separates, with 78% of the 52 analyses yielding plateau ages with a 2 sigma error < 50 kyrs. The volumes were determined using high resolution (1:50,000) digital elevation models, orthophotos, and GIS software, which allowed for the delineation of individual volcanic features, reconstruction of the pre-eruptive topography, and volume calculations by linear interpolation. The relative proportions of the 80 km3 erupted over the past 1 Myr are 14.5% basaltic andesite, 64.5% andesite, 20% dacite, and 1% rhyolite, demonstrating the dominance of intermediate magma types (in terms of silica content). Overall, there appears to be no systematic progression in the eruption of different magma types (e.g., basalt, andesite, dacite, etc.) with time. However, more than 75% of the total volume of lava within the Ceboruco-San Pedro volcanic field erupted in the last 100 kyrs. This reflects the youthfulness of Volcan Ceboruco, which was constructed during the last 50 kyrs and has a present day volume of 50 +/- 2.5 km3, accounting for 81% of the andesite and 50% of the dacite within the volcanic field. Eleven cinder cones, ranging from the Holocene to 0.37 Ma, display a narrow compositional range, with 52-58 wt% SiO2, 3-5.5 wt% MgO, and relatively high TiO2 concentrations (0.9-1.8 wt%). The total volume of the cinder cones is 0.83 km3. No lavas with < 51 wt% SiO2 have erupted in the past 1 Myr. Peripheral

  10. Gravity data from the San Pedro River Basin, Cochise County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Winester, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona Water Science Center in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geodetic Survey has collected relative and absolute gravity data at 321 stations in the San Pedro River Basin of southeastern Arizona since 2000. Data are of three types: observed gravity values and associated free-air, simple Bouguer, and complete Bouguer anomaly values, useful for subsurface-density modeling; high-precision relative-gravity surveys repeated over time, useful for aquifer-storage-change monitoring; and absolute-gravity values, useful as base stations for relative-gravity surveys and for monitoring gravity change over time. The data are compiled, without interpretation, in three spreadsheet files. Gravity values, GPS locations, and driving directions for absolute-gravity base stations are presented as National Geodetic Survey site descriptions.

  11. Analysis of Pollution Potential of the Upper San Pedro and Upper Santa Cruz Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincicome, A. D.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Transboundary aquifers along the U.S.-Mexico border are subject to unique demands and constraints, and are a focus of priority assessment under the auspices of the Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program. The Upper Santa Cruz and Upper San Pedro basins in southern Arizona are experiencing rapid population growth and development, and the associated water and environmental resource demands are stressors to water resource sustainability. A groundwater vulnerability assessment was performed to evaluate groundwater resources within these two basins using DRASTIC (Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone media, and hydraulic Conductivity of the aquifer). DRASTIC analysis is a standardized method developed by the Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating groundwater pollution potential. DRASTIC was used to characterize the potential for contamination of groundwater by land surface sources. Data layers for the DRASTIC analysis were compiled and analyzed separately based on rating methods from DRASTIC. These methods rate each layer on a scale of one to ten, one being the least vulnerable to contamination and ten being the most vulnerable. Weights for each layer were also provided by DRASTIC based on each layer's contribution to the overall vulnerability of the aquifer. These layers were then analyzed using the equation: DRDW+RRRW+ARAw+SRSW+TRTW+IRIW+CRCW = Pollution Potential, where R = rating, and W = weight. This assessment was coupled with current knowledge of groundwater contamination and current land use practices to identify zones of potential concern. This information can be used to better direct city planning, zoning programs, and groundwater monitoring and remediation efforts throughout the Upper Santa Cruz and Upper San Pedro basins.

  12. Quantity and sources of base flow in the San Pedro River near Tombstone, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Gungle, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Base flow in the upper San Pedro River at the gaging station (USGS station 09471550) near Tombstone, Arizona, is an important factor in the long-term sustainability of the river's riparian ecosystem. Most base flow occurs during the non-summer months (typically, from November to May), because evapotranspiration (ET) is greater than groundwater discharge to the riparian zone during the growing season and typically causes periods of zero flow in the spring and fall. Streamflow during the summer months occurs only as a result of rainfall and runoff. Using a hydrograph separation technique that partitions streamflow into stormflow and base flow, based on the change in runoff from the previous day, median base flow at the Tombstone gage from 1968 to 2009 (1987 to 1996 data absent) is 4,890 acre-ft/yr. Median base flow for the earlier period of record, 1968 to 1986, is 5,830 acre-ft/yr and for the later period, 1997 to 2009, is 2,880 acre-ft/yr. Base flow in the upper San Pedro River is derived from groundwater discharge to the river from the regional and alluvial aquifer. The regional aquifer is defined as having recharge zones away from the river, primarily at mountain fronts and along ephemeral channels. The alluvial aquifer is recharged mainly from stormflow. Based on environmental isotope data, the composition of base flow in the upper San Pedro River at the gaging station near Tombstone is 74 +/- 10 percent regional groundwater and 26 +/- 10 percent summer storm runoff stored as alluvial groundwater for the 2000 to 2009 period. The volume of base flow in a given year is well explained, using multiple regression, by mean daily flow during the previous October and by rainfall during the months of December and January (R2 = 0.9). This does not suggest that streamflow is composed only of these two sources; rather, these two sources control the degree of saturation of the near-stream alluvial aquifer and, therefore, the amount of winter base-flow infiltration that is

  13. Mechanical conceptual design of 6.5 meter telescope: Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Jorge; Bringas, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Tovar, Carlos; López, Aldo; Caballero, Xóchitl; Martínez, César; Toledo, Gengis; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; González, Jesús; Richer, Michael; Sánchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Rubio, Saúl; González, Germán.; Hernández, Obed; Segura, José; Macias, Eduardo; García, Mary; Lazaro, José; Rosales, Fabián.; del Llano, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM) project intends to build a 6.5 meters telescope with alt-azimuth design, currently at the conceptual design. The project is an association between Instituto de Astronomía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IA-UNAM) and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica Electrónica (INAOE) in partnership with department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory of University of Arizona and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory of Harvard University. Conceptual design of the telescope is lead and developed by the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI). An overview of the feasibility study and the structural conceptual design are summarized in this paper. The telescope concept is based on telescopes already commissioned such as MMT and the Baade and Clay Magellan telescopes, building up on these proven concepts. The main differences relative to the Magellan pair are; the elevation axis is located 1 meter above the primary mirror vertex, allowing for a similar field of view at the Cassegrain and both Nasmyth focal stations; instead of using a vane ends to position the secondary mirror TSPM considers an Steward platform like MMT; finally TSPM has a larger floor distance to m1 cell than Magellans and MMT. Initially TSPM will operate with an f/5 Cassegrain station, but the design considers further Nasmyth configurations from a Cassegrain f/5 up to a Gregorian f/11. The telescope design includes 7 focal stations: 1 Cassegrain; 2 Nasmyth; and 4 folded-Cassegrain. The telescope will be designed and manufactured in Mexico, will be design in Queretaro by CIDESI and built between Queretaro and Michoacán manufacturing facilities; it will be preassembled in these facilities and disassembled to send it to the San Pedro Mártir Observatory for final integration. The azimuth and altitude structure is planned to be constructed in modules and transported by truck and shipped to Ensenada and finally to the OAN where is going

  14. Using Geochemical Tracers to Quantify Baseflow Inputs to the San Pedro River, Southeast Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, M. N.; Hogan, J. F.; Ekwurzel, B.; Wahi, A. K.; Eastoe, C. J.

    2005-05-01

    Groundwater managers in the semiarid Southwest U.S. must balance the demands of growing populations against the needs of rare riparian ecosystems. The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Southeastern Arizona provides water for the rapidly growing area of Fort Huachuca, Sierra Vista, and surrounding communities. This basin also supports the riparian area by providing baseflow to the San Pedro River and shallow groundwater to phreatic riparian vegetation. Before water managers can properly plan for sustenance of the riparian area, they require answers about the inputs of baseflow into the river. What is the temporal and spatial variability of recharge and discharge? What are the relative inputs of different sources (i.e. recharge of monsoon runoff and inflow of basin groundwater) into the riparian aquifer? We have used a suite of geochemical tracers to address these questions. Most precipitation in this region falls during the summer monsoons and winter frontal storms. Because these events have different source areas, their respective stable isotopic signatures differ. We use these isotopic compositions as end members in mixing equations in order to determine the dominant season for recharge. Groundwater in the basin has a narrow range of stable isotope compositions, varying from 62 to 72% winter precipitation. The basin isotopic composition is very similar to water in the mountain front and block, indicating that recharge from these areas is the dominant source for basin groundwater. Basin groundwater residence times, determined using the radioactive isotope carbon-14, are on the order of 10,000 years or more, indicating a low recharge rate. In contrast, riparian groundwater has a wide variation of isotopic values, indicating that this water is a mixture of basin groundwater and monsoon runoff, varying from 20 to 90% basin groundwater. The dominance of basin groundwater or monsoon runoff in different areas of the river correlates well with independent classification of

  15. [Ichthyofauna from wetlands of San Pedro, Balancán, Tabasco, México].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Domínguez, Alfonso; Barba Macías, Everardo; Navarrete, Alberto de Jesús; Rodiles-Hernández, Rocío; Jiménez Badillo, María de Lourdes

    2011-06-01

    San Pedro River's wetlands sustain trophic nets in the fluvial system, due to the high habitat availability, and space and temporal variations. In order to describe the relationship between environmental parameters and ichthyofauna, this study evaluated fish assemblages composition, distribution, abundance, density, biomass, richness species, diversity and equitability in the wetlands. Sampling considered three different sites and climatic seasons (dry, rainy and cold fronts). The physical and chemical parameters considered were dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, water transparency and the depth. Fishes were caught with a shrimp net, after six minutes towings and were identified afterwards. A total of 1 049 organisms of 25 fish species were caught, two of which were exotic species: Oreochromis niloticus and Parachromis managuense. A total of 23 species were found at site I (with the highest density 0.23 ind./m2), 17 at site II (0.23 ind./m2) and 14 at site III (0.12 ind./m2). The dry season had the highest species number with 21 species, followed by the rainy season with 17 species, and the cold season with five species. Similarly, the highest biomass (8.30 g/m2) was found in dry season, followed by the rainy (2.16 g/m2) and the cold seasons (0.03 g/m2). Considering seasons, highest density was found during the dry (0.436 ind./m2), followed by the rainy (0.213 ind./m2) and the cold (0.023 ind./m2) seasons. The dominant density species during the study period, according to the quadrants graphic of Olmstead-Tukey were: Petenia splendida, Vieja heterospila, Vieja synspila, Dorosoma petenense and Astyanax aeneus. There were significant differences in the species richness among sites. Temperature, depth and transparency showed differences among the seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis indicated that fish distribution was governed by environmental parameters during all seasons. In terms of fish abundance and composition, environmental parameters play an

  16. The Upper San Pedro Partnership: A Case Study of Successful Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Shuttleworth, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Upper San Pedro Partnership (USPP) (http://www.usppartnership.com/) has been in existence since 1998. Its purpose is to coordinate and cooperate in the implementation of comprehensive policies and projects to meet the long-term water needs of residents within the U.S. side of the basin and of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area. The Partnership consists of 21 local, state, and Federal agencies, NGO's and a private water company. In 2004 it was recognized by Congress in Section 321 of Public Law 108-136 and required to make annual reports to Congress on its progress in bringing the basin water budget into balance by 2011. The Partnership is dedicated to science-based decision making. This presentation will provide an overview of the evolution of natural resources research in the binational (U.S.-Mexico) San Pedro Basin into a mature example of integrated science and decision making embodied in the USPP. It will discuss the transition through science and research for understanding; to science for addressing a need; to integrated policy development and science. At each stage the research conducted becomes more interdisciplinary, first across abiotic disciplines (hydrology, remote sensing, atmospheric science), then a merging of abiotic and biotic disciplines (adding ecology and plant physiology), and finally a further merging with the social sciences and policy and decision making for resource management. Federal, university, and NSF SAHRA Science and Technology Center research has been planned and conducted directly with the USPP. Because of the success the San Pedro has been designated as an operational HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) demonstration basin—the most advanced category. Lessons learned from this experience will be reviewed with the intent providing guidance to ensure that hydrologic and watershed research is socially and scientifically relevant and will directly address the needs of policy makers and resource

  17. Fire-scar formation in Jeffrey pine - mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Scott L. Stephens; Danny L. Fry; Brandon M. Collins; Carl N. Skinner; Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino; Travis J. Freed

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the probability of fire-scar formation. In this study, we examined all mixed conifer trees for fire-scar formation in a 16 ha watershed that burned as part of a 2003 wildfire in Sierra San Pedro Ma´rtir National Park (SSPM), Mexico. In addition, we examine the probability of fire-scar formation in relation to the previous fire interval in forests...

  18. Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, A.; Goodrich, D.; Varady, R.; Richter, H.

    2007-12-01

    The San Pedro Basin sits within an intermountain ecotone with the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts to the west and east and the Rocky Mountain and Sierra Madre Mountain habitats to the north and south. The headwaters of the basin originate in northern Sonora and flow north into southeast Arizona. As the region's only remaining perennial stream, the San Pedro River serves as an international flyway for over 400 bird species. It is one of the western hemisphere's most ecologically diverse areas with some 20 different biotic communities, and "possesses one of the richest assemblages of land mammal species in the world." Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennial flow in the San Pedro. This presentation describes empirical evidence of the positive impacts on watershed management of scientists and policy researchers working closely with water managers and elected officials in a functioning HELP basin. We posit that when hydrologists help watershed groups understand the processes controlling water quality and quantity, and when managers and stakeholders connect these processes to social, economic and legal issues then transboundary cooperation in policymaking and water management is most effective. The distinctive physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the basin as well as differences in institutional regulations, water law issues, and their local implementations in Arizona and Sonora are discussed. We illustrate how stakeholders and scientific researchers in both countries strive to balance ecosystem needs with human demands to create new, integrated basin management. Finally, we describe how the accomplishments of the San Pedro collaborative process, including the use of environmental-conflict-resolution tools, have contributed to the UNESCO HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) agenda.

  19. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Cochise County, southeast Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Donald R.; Coes, Alissa L.

    1999-01-01

    The hydrogeologic system in the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona was investigated for the purpose of developing a better understanding of stream-aquifer interactions. The San Pedro River is an intermittent stream that supports a narrow corridor of riparian vegetation. Withdrawal of ground water will result in reduced discharge from the basin through reduced base flow and evapotranspiration; however, the rate and location of reduced discharge are uncertain. The investigation resulted in better definition of distributions of silt and clay in the regional aquifer; changes in seasonal precipitation, runoff, and base flow in the San Pedro River; sources of base flow; and regional water-level changes. Regional ground-water flow is separated into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems by silt and clay. Precipitation, runoff, and base flow declined at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station from 1936 through 1997 for the months of June through October. Base flow at the Charleston station during 1996 and 1997 was primarily supplied by ground water recharged near the San Pedro River during recent major runoff and by minor contributions from the regional aquifer. The decline in base flow, about 2 cubic feet per second, has several probable causes including declining runoff and recharge near the river during June through October and increased interception of ground-water flow to the river by wells and phreatophytes. Water levels in wells throughout the regional aquifer generally declined at rates of 0.2 to 0.5 feet per year between 1940 and the mid-1980's, which corresponded with a period of below-average winter precipitation. Water levels in wells in the Fort Huachuca and Sierra Vista areas declined at rates that were faster than regional rates of decline through 1998 and caused diversion of ground-water flow that would have discharged along perennial stream reaches.

  20. Native Trees and Salt Cedar: Quantifying Transpiration at Intermittent and Perennial Streamflows on the San Pedro River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, R. R.; Glenn, E. P.; Scott, R. L.; Moran, M. S.

    2007-12-01

    Native cottonwood-willow forests that historically dominated south-western riparian areas are being replaced by salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the majority of regulated western rivers. Some studies of salt cedar have indicated its water use is considerably greater than native trees and depletes alluvial aquifers of groundwater; however, other studies have shown low to moderate water use by salt cedar. Results have varied on temporal and spatial scales making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. We compared whole plant transpiration by native riparian cottonwood (Populus fremontii) trees and salt cedar in co-occurring communities at the upper and lower San Pedro River in Arizona during 2006 and 2007, respectively. Water use by both species was monitored and quantified using the heat balance sap flow technique at intermittent and perennial reaches during the pre- monsoon season, a period of high atmospheric water demand. Our 2006 measurements in a riparian transition zone at an intermittent reach of the San Pedro River appeared to differ with earlier studies that salt cedar has higher transpiration rates, as cottonwoods and salt cedar demonstrated similar, low transpiration rates. However transpiration results from a 2007 study on these same species at a perennial reach of the San Pedro River indicate significantly higher transpiration by salt cedar and moderate increases for cottonwoods compared to the intermittent site.

  1. Intercalibration of the San Pedro Mártir and CTIO DIMM units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, J. M.; Bohigas, J.; Lazo, F.; Hiriart, D.; Calvario, T.; Escoboza, O.; Guillén, F. P.

    2007-10-01

    We compare simultaneous seeing measurements produced by the differential image motion monitor (DIMM) units used at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir (SPD) and at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (RoD), for a total of 14 nights. For the data set, made of 1581 nearly-synchronous measurements, we find that the mean and median RoD-SPD seeing differences are +0.004+/-0.138'' and +0.010'' respectively. We also find that the median of the RoD-SPD seeing measurements is +0.041'' when seeing is less than 1'', -0.032'' when it is between 1'' and 1.5'', and -0.292'' when it is larger than 1.5''. Since seeing is usually smaller than 1'', we conclude that measurements obtained with SPD-like units should be increased by 0.01'' to 0.04'' when comparisons are made with sites using RoD-like units. This correction is much smaller than the natural dispersion of seeing measurements along any night, and it makes sense only when operational conditions in both sites are practically the same.

  2. Scenario analysis for the San Pedro River, analyzing hydrological consequences of a future environment.

    PubMed

    Kepner, William G; Semmens, Darius J; Bassett, Scott D; Mouat, David A; Goodrich, David C

    2004-06-01

    Studies of future management and policy options based on different assumptions provide a mechanism to examine possible outcomes and especially their likely benefits and consequences. The San Pedro River in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico is an area that has undergone rapid changes in land use and cover, and subsequently is facing keen environmental crises related to water resources. It is the location of a number of studies that have dealt with change analysis, watershed condition, and most recently, alternative futures analysis. The previous work has dealt primarily with resources of habitat, visual quality, and groundwater related to urban development patterns and preferences. In the present study, previously defined future scenarios, in the form of land-use/land-cover grids, were examined relative to their impact on surface-water conditions (e.g., surface runoff and sediment yield). These hydrological outputs were estimated for the baseline year of 2000 and predicted twenty years in the future as a demonstration of how new geographic information system-based hydrologic modeling tools can be used to evaluate the spatial impacts of urban growth patterns on surface-water hydrology.

  3. Cross-shelf subtidal variability in San Pedro Bay during summer, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, P.; Noble, M.A.; Largier, J.; Rosenfeld, L.K.; Robertson, G.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 16 moorings were deployed across the San Pedro shelf, one of the two wider embayments in the Southern California Bight, from near the surfzone to the upper-slope. On the middle and outer shelf in the summer of 2001, the currents flowed strongly equatorward at the surface and had large vertical shears through the well-stratified water column. This equatorward flow differs from predominantly poleward flow found in previous studies of the coastal margin further west. In deeper water, near the shelf break, the shears were such that near-bottom flows were poleward and incorporated into the upper parts of the Southern California Undercurrent over the slope. Mid-shelf current fluctuations, with periods of 10-25 days, along with upwelling over the shelf, were not related to local winds, but were significantly correlated with the large-scale alongshore pressure gradient. Shorter period (???7-10 days) inner shelf alongshore currents, however, were significantly correlated with the alongshore wind at the shelf break. A CEOF analysis gives two significant modes, with the first mode dominant over the outer and middle shelf. The wind-forced second mode connects the inner shelf to the poleward undercurrent over the slope such that increases in the poleward flow over the slope are correlated with increases in the equatorward current inshore of the 15 m isobath.

  4. Evaluation of NDVI to assess avian abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, T.M.; van Riper, Charles; Johnson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Remote-sensing models have become increasingly popular for identifying, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting avian habitat but have largely focused on single bird species. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been shown to positively correlate with avian abundance and richness and has been successfully applied to southwestern riparian systems which are uniquely composed of narrow bands of vegetation in an otherwise dry landscape. Desert riparian ecosystems are important breeding and stopover sites for many bird species but have been degraded due to altered hydrology and land management practices. Here we investigated the use of NDVI, coupled with vegetation, to model the avian community structure along the San Pedro River, Arizona. We also investigated how vegetation and physical features measured locally compared to those data that can be gathered through remote-sensing. We found that NDVI has statistically significant relationships with both avian abundance and species richness, although is better applied at the individual species level. However, the amount of variation explained by even our best models was quite low, suggesting that NDVI habitat models may not presently be an accurate tool for extensive modeling of avian communities. We suggest additional studies in other watersheds to increase our understanding of these bird/NDVI relationships.

  5. 33 CFR 334.940 - Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve, National Guard, and Coast Guard units. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.940 Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San...

  6. 33 CFR 334.940 - Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve, National Guard, and Coast Guard units. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.940 Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San...

  7. 33 CFR 334.940 - Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve, National Guard, and Coast Guard units. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.940 Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San...

  8. Past and Future Riparian Vegetation Change Along the Semiarid San Pedro River (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, J. C.; Dixon, M.

    2010-12-01

    The past: Understanding causes of forest change is essential for formulating conservation plans. The San Pedro River is one of the few undammed perennial rivers in the semiarid American Southwest. Over 100 years ago, intense floods initiated channel incision and substantially altered hydrogeomorphic conditions. Pioneer trees began to establish in the widening post-entrenchment zone as the surfaces began to stabilize. Analysis of a time-series of aerial photographs indicated that wooded area in the post-entrenchment zone nearly tripled from 1955 to 2003, while bare ground decreased and the active channel narrowed. This forest expansion represents a long-term response to river entrenchment, with the particular temporal pattern influenced by recent flood cycles and biogeomorphic feedbacks. Populus-Salix established episodically during the infrequent years with high winter flood runoff, sequentially filling available recruitment space. Old cohorts now cover wide swaths of the floodplain. Pioneer tree regeneration is shifting toward a fringe replacement mode, typified by narrow bands of seedlings along the channel margin. An additional factor that has shaped the spatial pattern of post-entrenchment forest expansion is water withdrawal. Populus-Salix forest increase has been greatest within a conservation area, where stream flows are largely perennial. In drier, agricultural sectors, Populus-Salix have declined while the more deeply-rooted introduced Tamarix has increased. The study reveals that long-term fluctuations in pioneer forest area and age structure are features of dryland rivers, and shows how past events such as extreme floods can interact with recent environmental practices such as freshwater withdrawal to influence riparian forest composition and structure. The future: Climate change will influence the riparian vegetation by influencing stream flow patterns. Increasing aridity is predicted to cause declines in stream base flows and water tables in the

  9. Emission changes resulting from the San Pedro Bay, California Ports Truck Retirement Program.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H; Lawson, Douglas R

    2012-01-03

    Recent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency emissions regulations have resulted in lower emissions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen from heavy-duty diesel trucks. To accelerate fleet turnover the State of California in 2008 along with the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach (San Pedro Bay Ports) in 2006 passed regulations establishing timelines forcing the retirement of older diesel trucks. On-road emissions measurements of heavy-duty diesel trucks were collected over a three-year period, beginning in 2008, at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station on the Riverside freeway (CA SR91). At the Port location the mean fleet age decreased from 12.7 years in April of 2008 to 2.5 years in May of 2010 with significant reductions in carbon monoxide (30%), oxides of nitrogen (48%) and infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter, 54%). We also observed a 20-fold increase in ammonia emissions as a result of new, stoichiometrically combusted, liquefied natural gas powered trucks. These results compare with changes at our inland site where the average ages were 7.9 years in April of 2008 and 8.3 years in April of 2010, with only small reductions in oxides of nitrogen (10%) being statistically significant. Both locations have experienced significant increases in nitrogen dioxide emissions from new trucks equipped with diesel particle filters; raising the mean nitrogen dioxide to oxides of nitrogen ratios from less than 10% to more than 30% at the Riverside freeway location.

  10. Emission Changes Resulting from the San Pedro Bay, California Ports Truck Retirement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, G. A.; Schuchmann, B. G.; Stedman, D. H.; Lawson, D. R.

    2012-01-03

    Recent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency emissions regulations have resulted in lower emissions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen from heavy-duty diesel trucks. To accelerate fleet turnover the State of California in 2008 along with the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach (San Pedro Bay Ports) in 2006 passed regulations establishing timelines forcing the retirement of older diesel trucks. On-road emissions measurements of heavy-duty diesel trucks were collected over a three-year period, beginning in 2008, at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station on the Riverside freeway (CA SR91). At the Port location the mean fleet age decreased from 12.7 years in April of 2008 to 2.5 years in May of 2010 with significant reductions in carbon monoxide (30%), oxides of nitrogen (48%) and infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter, 54%). We also observed a 20-fold increase in ammonia emissions as a result of new, stoichiometrically combusted, liquefied natural gas powered trucks. These results compare with changes at our inland site where the average ages were 7.9 years in April of 2008 and 8.3 years in April of 2010, with only small reductions in oxides of nitrogen (10%) being statistically significant. Both locations have experienced significant increases in nitrogen dioxide emissions from new trucks equipped with diesel particle filters; raising the mean nitrogen dioxide to oxides of nitrogen ratios from less than 10% to more than 30% at the Riverside freeway location.

  11. Assessing the state of our knowledge of continental arc volcanism: The Tatara-San Pedro Complex, 36°S, Andean Southern Volcanic Zone: Talca and Tatara-San Pedro, Chile 4-12 February 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaupart, Claude; Sisson, Thomas W.; Blundy, Jon; Arculus, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Tatara-San Pedro Volcanic Complex in Chile is one of the best studied continental arc volcanic centers in the world. In connection to this, a field forum was conducted to discuss the processes involved in the construction of such volcanoes and the origins of its magmas. With 40 international participants from diverse scientific backgrounds, the forum opened in the Talca municipal library with two days of presentation, fieldworks and a hike to the trailhead. The key issues that were tackled include information on the compositions, ages, and distributions of preserved eruptive products.

  12. Heavy metals in water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Roberto L; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Quintana, Ray; Ortega, Juan Angel; Gutierrez, Melida

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2005 to August 2006 in triplicate, totaling 165 water samples. The five sampling locations were: below the Francisco I. Madero dam (LP); between Rosales and Delicias (RD); Meoqui (M); El Torreon (ET), and Julimes (LJ). The levels of As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Ta, V and Zn were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) Perkin Elmer 2100. In addition, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total and fecal coliformes were determined. The statistical analysis considered a factorial treatment design; where factor A was the location point and factor B was sampling date. In addition, a multivariate technique looking for principal components was performed. The results indicated that some samples exceeded Mexican standards for As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn. The As level must be considered for a red flag to the communities along the Rio San Pedro because both the monthly average level (0.10 mg L-1) and location (0.10 mg L-1) exceeded the Mexican and International norms. The multivariate analysis showed a predominant aggregation at the LP location, meaning that there was a predominance of As, Sr, Fe and Li. At the rest of the locations the elements did not present a tendency for aggregation. Statistics applied to sampling month showed that December, January, March and April were aggregated in a negative quadrant of component 1 indicating a predominance of V, Ni, Be, Fe and As. Overall, the results confirmed that this stretch of the San Pedro River is contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem.

  13. Heavy metals in water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Roberto L.; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Quintana, Ray; Ortega, Juan Angel; Gutierrez, Melida

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal and downstream water quality variations of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2005 to August 2006 in triplicate, totaling 165 water samples. The five sampling locations were: below the Francisco I. Madero dam (LP); between Rosales and Delicias (RD); Meoqui (M); El Torreon (ET), and Julimes (LJ). The levels of As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Ta, V and Zn were measured using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) Perkin Elmer 2100. In addition, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total and fecal coliformes were determined. The statistical analysis considered a factorial treatment design; where factor A was the location point and factor B was sampling date. In addition, a multivariate technique looking for principal components was performed. The results indicated that some samples exceeded Mexican standards for As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn. The As level must be considered for a red flag to the communities along the Rio San Pedro because both the monthly average level (0.10 mg L−1) and location (0.10 mg L−1) exceeded the Mexican and International norms. The multivariate analysis showed a predominant aggregation at the LP location, meaning that there was a predominance of As, Sr, Fe and Li. At the rest of the locations the elements did not present a tendency for aggregation. Statistics applied to sampling month showed that December, January, March and April were aggregated in a negative quadrant of component 1 indicating a predominance of V, Ni, Be, Fe and As. Overall, the results confirmed that this stretch of the San Pedro River is contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that might affect human health as well as the health of the ecosystem. PMID:18678922

  14. Magnetic Fabric and Paleomagnetism of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, Sierra San Pedro M rtir, Baja California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, M.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Böhnel, H. N.

    2003-12-01

    We summarize results of recent paleomagnetic, structural, petrologic and magnetic fabric studies along an east-west (60 km long) transect across the Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) in north-central Baja California. The transect includes both magnetite rich plutons from the western sector of the PRB, and ilmenite rich plutons from the eastern sector, as well as plutons on the eastern and western side of major tectonic discontinuities. We include results for 8 plutons, included well-characterized bodies such as San Pedro M rtir (SP), San José (SJ) and La Zarza (LZ), and relatively little known plutons such as Potrero (PO), Aguaje del Burro (AB), El Milagro (MI), and San Telmo (ST). Plutons on the western sector of the PRB yield a paleomagnetic pole at 82° N-186.4° E (A95=4.8° ). When rotated into a pre- Gulf of California position, the pole (79.2° -188.2° ) is statistically undistinguishable from the North American reference pole. In contrast, SP, SJ and PO plutons, on either side of the NW trending Main Martir Thrust yield clearly discordant direction that can only be reconciled with results for the western plutons assuming southwestward tilt of ˜ 25° for SP and greater than 45° for SJ and PO. We find strong evidence in support of tilt of the plutons from thermochronological, structural, and geobarometric data. These data will be discussed elsewhere. Here we focus on magnetic fabric data. AMS for SJ is strongly developed with high values for degree of anisotropy (P= 1.14 a 1.40), but marked east-west asymmetry that contrasts with the general symmetry of the pluton along a north-south axis. Oblate fabrics (T ˜ +0.4) with dispersed lineation directions dominate the west side of the pluton and prolate fabrics (T ˜ -0.15) with steep to vertical lineations dominate on its eastern side. This fabric is interpreted to result from magma flow. SP, a much larger pluton and sensibly asymmetric, displays high degrees of anisotropy (P ˜1.2) on its western side but

  15. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  16. The San Pedro Basin: A Case Study of US and Mexican Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R. L.; Goodrich, D. C.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The San Pedro River originates in northern Sonora near the town of Cananea and spans the U.S. - Mexico border into southeastern Arizona. The San Pedro Basin and perennial portions of its river support one of the most ecological diverse regions in the world. The regional groundwater aquifer which largely supports perennial flow and the associated riparian ecosystem is the primary water source for a number of communities, and for the Cananea copper mine in Sonora, which produces roughly two to three percent of the world's copper, and Ft. Huachuca, a major military installation in Arizona and the largest employer of southern Arizona. This presentation will discuss strategies and efforts over the past decade on both sides of the border to link hydrological, ecological and social sciences to aid elected officials and decision-makers in managing the basin, its growing population, and the water it so vitally depends upon. The disparate legal, cultural, economic and scientific environments, as well as the unequal degrees of decentralization and regional autonomy on the two sides of the border have resulted in distinct concerns and approaches to water resource management and varying rates of success. In the Sonoran portion of the basin water quality is the primary concern and in Arizona, water quantity is the major concern. The paper will report on sustained binational efforts and constraints encountered by researchers at the University of Arizona's NSF-funded SAHRA project and several NOAA-supported efforts in the basin region.

  17. Inorganic pigment study of the San Pedro Gonzalez Telmo Sibyls using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Cristina; Custo, Graciela; Barrio, Néstor; Burucúa, José; Boeykens, Susana; Marte, Fernando

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the study carried out on a series of oil paintings on canvas from the eighteenth century that were restored at Centro de Producción e Investigación en Restauración y Conservación Artística y Bibliográfica - Tarea (CEIRCAB-Tarea), Buenos Aires, Argentina: the San Pedro González Telmo Sibyls. Experimental study was undertaken to identify inorganic pigments and the technique used in their confection; and, in this way, try to add information about their local origin. Therefore special emphasis was put to infer technologies used in the manufacturing of these paintings. Elemental analysis was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) and complemented by optical and polarized light microscopy. Microsampling was carefully done over areas of the paintings which were damaged and where a small additional loss will not be noticed. This investigation has shown that a variety of pigments were used, namely earth pigments (red and yellow ochres), white lead, vermilion, etc., and they were used either pure or in mixtures. This characterization helped conservators in their decisions regarding a better understanding of the deterioration processes. In addition, this research about the material composition allowed the art historians and restorers the possibility to obtain information about where, when or by whom The San Pedro González Telmo Sibyls may have been painted.

  18. Trends in streamflow of the San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona, and regional trends in precipitation and streamflow in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.; Pool, Don R.

    2006-01-01

    This study was done to improve the understanding of trends in streamflow of the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona. Annual streamflow of the river at Charleston, Arizona, has decreased by more than 50 percent during the 20th century. The San Pedro River is one of the few remaining free-flowing perennial streams in the arid Southwestern United States, and the riparian forest along the river supports several endangered species and is an important habitat for migratory birds. Trends in seasonal and annual precipitation and streamflow were evaluated for surrounding areas in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico to provide a regional perspective for the trends of the San Pedro River. Seasonal and annual streamflow trends and the relation between precipitation and streamflow in the San Pedro River Basin were evaluated to improve the understanding of the causes of trends. There were few significant trends in seasonal and annual precipitation or streamflow for the regional study area. Precipitation and streamflow records were analyzed for 11 time periods ranging from 1930 to 2002; no significant trends were found in 92 percent of the trend tests for precipitation, and no significant trends were found in 79 percent of the trend tests for streamflow. For the trends in precipitation that were significant, 90 percent were positive and most of those positive trends were in records of winter, spring, or annual precipitation that started during the mid-century drought in 1945-60. For the trends in streamflow that were significant, about half were positive and half were negative. Trends in precipitation in the San Pedro River Basin were similar to regional precipitation trends for spring and fall values and were different for summer and annual values. The largest difference was in annual precipitation, for which no trend tests were significant in the San Pedro River Basin, and 23 percent of the trend tests were significantly positive in the rest of the study area

  19. Minisparker seismic-reflection data of field activity S-5-09-SC: San Pedro Basin, offshore southern California from 2009-07-06 to 2009-07-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sliter, Ray W.; Conrad, James E.; Ryan, Holly F; Triezenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes raw and processed, high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected in 2009 to explore a possible connection between the San Diego Trough Fault and the San Pedro Basin Fault. The survey is in the San Pedro Basin between Santa Catalina Island and San Pedro, California. The data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey R/V Parke Snavely. The seismic-reflection data were acquired using a SIG 2mille minisparker. Subbottom acoustic penetration spanned tens to several hundreds of meters, variable by location.

  20. Chirp seismic-reflection data of field activity S-5-09-SC: San Pedro Basin, offshore southern California from 2009-07-06 to 2009-07-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sliter, Ray W.; Conrad, James E.; Ryan, Holly F.; Triezenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes raw and processed, high-resolution seismic-reflection data collected in 2009 to explore a possible connection between the San Diego Trough Fault and the San Pedro Basin Fault. The survey is in the San Pedro Basin between Catalina Island and San Pedro, California. The data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey R/V Parke Snavely. The seismic-reflection data were acquired using an Edgetech 512 Chirp subbottom profiling system. Subbottom acoustic penetration spanned tens to hundreds of meters, variable by location.

  1. Liver lesions in demersal fishes near a large ocean outfall on the San Pedro Shelf, California.

    PubMed

    Basmadjian, Edward; Perkins, Edwin M; Phillips, Charles R; Heilprin, Daniel J; Watts, Susan D; Diener, Douglas R; Myers, Mark S; Koerner, Kelly A; Mengel, Michael J; Robertson, George; Armstrong, Jeffrey L; Lissner, Andrew L; Frank, Victoria L

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of toxicopathic liver lesions in demersal fish on the San Pedro Shelf, California was determined for a 15-year period (1988-2003). Fish livers were sampled at fixed locations as part of the Orange County Sanitation Districts (OCSD) ocean monitoring program. Histopathological examination of selected fish liver tissues was studied to determine whether the wastewater discharge had affected fish health. The prevalence of toxicopathic lesion classes neoplasms (NEO), preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration (FCA), and hydropic vacuolation (HYDVAC) varied among species and locations. For all species sampled, severe lesions occurred in 6.2% of the fish examined (n=7,694). HYDVAC (4.1%) was the most common toxicopathic lesion type followed by FCA (1.4%) and NEO (0.7%). HYDVAC occurred only in white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), accounting for 84.8% of the toxicopathic lesions for this species. Prevalence of HYDVAC, NEO, and FCA in white croaker was 15.2, 2.0, and 0.7%, respectively. The prevalence of HYDVAC and NEO in white croaker increased with age and size but there was no sexual difference. A linear regression model was used for hypothesis testing to account for significant differences in fish size (and age for croakers) at the different sampling locations. This analysis showed that for HYDVAC there was no spatial or location effect for lesion rate or size/age of onset. For NEO, the model predicted that white croaker near the wastewater outfall may acquire these lesions at a smaller size/younger age, and at a higher rate, than at other sites. However, this result may be biased due to the unequal size frequency distributions and the low prevalence of NEO in white croaker at the different sampling sites. Bigmouth sole (Hippoglossina stomata) had a prevalence of FCA and NEO of 1.3 and 0.35%, respectively, but the prevalence and distribution of lesions was too few for statistical testing. There was no sexual difference for lesion prevalence in hornyhead

  2. Age and paleoenvironmental significance of mega-invertebrates from the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills, Fullerton and Buena Park, Orange County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stevens, Dave

    2000-01-01

    The "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills contains an invertebrate fossil as-semblage of 184 taxa from 158 localities. The fauna consists of two annelids, 174 mollusks (80 bivalves, 94 gastropods, and three scaphopods), five arthropods, and three echinoids, along with other minor constituents recognized by not specifically identified during the present study. These fossils are divided into three assemblages; 1) a lower, Pliocene assemblage (which may not differ ecologically from the middle fauna), 2) a middle, cool water assemblage, and 3) an upper, temperate to warm water. These fossils suggest a probably late Pliocene to early Pleistocene age for outcrops of the "San Pedro" Formation in the Coyote Hills. A fourth assemblage with a limited, restricted marine fauna occurs in the overlying Coyote Hills Formation. The occurrence of Solamen columbianum (Dall) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the "San Pedro" Formation of the Coyote Hills marks its first occurrence as a fossil. The oldest fossil occurrence of the gastropods Tegula pulligo (Gmelin), questionably Haliotis cracherodii Leach, and the crustacean Randallia ornata (Randell) occurs in the "San Pedroï" Formation in the Coyote Hills.

  3. A River Running in the Desert: Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border 1978

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowing from Mexico into the United States, the San Pedro Basin is the region’s only remaining perennial stream and one of the western hemisphere’s most ecologically diverse areas. Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennia...

  4. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

  5. 33 CFR 334.940 - Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve, National Guard, and Coast Guard units. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.940 Pacific Ocean in vicinity of...

  6. A Climate, water management, and policy in the San Pedro Basin: Results of a survey of Mexican stakeholders near the U.S.–Mexico border 1936

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reviews regional climate knowledge and vulnerability in the northern Mexico San Pedro River Basin, with a focus on water quality, quantity, and management issues on the Mexican side of the border. A discussion based on the available literature is supplemented by a survey assessing concern...

  7. 33 CFR 334.940 - Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in vicinity of San Pedro, Calif.; practice firing range for U.S. Army Reserve, National Guard, and Coast Guard units. 334.940 Section 334.940 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  8. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

  9. Interactions between western gall rust and its Pinus hosts, P. jeffreyi and P. contorta, in Sierra De San Pedro Martir National Park, Northern Baja California, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Detlev R. Vogler; Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    The Sierra de San Pedro Martir is a mountain range in north-central Baja that comprises the southern-most extension of the Californian coniferous flora, including Pinus jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, Abies concolor, and Calocedrus decurrens. These forests are similar...

  10. Coupling Between the Changes in CO2 Concentration and Sediment Biogeochemistry in the Salinas De San Pedro Mudflat, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie Boroon, M.; Diaz, S.; Torres, V.; Lazzaretto, T.; Dehyn, D.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] on biogeochemistry of marsh sediment including speciation of selected heavy metals in Salinas de San Pedro mudflat in California. The Salinas de San Pedro mudflat has higher carbon (C) content than the vast majority of fully-vegetated salt marshes even with the higher tidal action in the mudflat. Sources for CO2 were identified as atmospheric CO2 as well as due to local fault degassing process. We measured carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and heavy metal concentration in various salt marsh locations. Overall, our results showed that CO2 concentration ranging from 418.7 to 436.9 [ppm], which are slightly different in various chambers but are in good agreement with some heavy metal concentrations values in mudflat at or around the same location. The selected metal concentration values (ppm) ranging from 0.003 - 0.011(As); 0.001-0.005 (Cd); 0.04-0.02 (Cr); 0.13-0.38 (Cu); 0.11-0.38 (Pb); 0.0009-0.020 (Se); and 0.188-0.321 (Zn). The low dissolved O2 [ppm] in the pore water sediment indicates suboxic environment. Additionally, CO2 [ppm] and loss on ignition (LOI) [%] correlated inversely; the higher CO2 content, the lower was the LOI; that is to say the excess CO2 may caused higher rates of decomposition and therefore it leads to lower soil organic matter (LOI) [%] on the mudflat surface. It appears that the elevated CO2 makes changes in salt marsh pore water chemistry for instance the free ionic metal (Cu2+, Pb2+, etc.) speciation is one of the most reactive form because simply assimilated by the non-decayed or alive organisms in sediment of salt marsh and/or in water. This means that CO2 not only is a sign of improvement in plant productivity, but also activates microbial decomposition through increases in dissolved organic carbon availability. CO2 also increases acidification processes such as anaerobic degradation of microorganism and oxidation of

  11. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  12. Hydrological conditions and evaluation of sustainable groundwater use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gungle, Bruce; Callegary, James B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Eastoe, Christopher J.; Turner, Dale S.; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Levick, Lainie R.; Sugg, Zachary P.

    2016-08-18

    Looking at the subwatershed as a whole, base flow was in decline along the entire river reach, but determination of the specific cause of the decline was beyond the scope of this report. Conditions in the area from the municipal pumping center of Sierra Vista and Fort Huachuca northeast to the river (from about the Charleston to Tombstone gaging stations) were more commonly in decline than in regions further south. Both long-term indicators, such as regional aquifer groundwater levels and horizontal gradients, and the isotope analysis indicated that groundwater discharge to the river and thus base flow may continue to decline in that area. South of Charleston, indicators were more mixed. Some indicators in the Hereford reach suggest groundwater discharge to the San Pedro River may be increasing there, whereas some indicators in the Palominas reach suggest groundwater discharge to the river there may be declining.

  13. Assessment of goods and valuation of ecosystem services (AGAVES) San Pedro River Basin, United States and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semmens, Darius; Kepner, William; Goodrich, David

    2010-01-01

    A consortium of federal, academic, and nongovernment organization (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of ecosystem services research is that human condition is intrinsically linked to the environment. Human health and well-being (including economic prosperity) depend on important supporting, regulating, provisioning, and cultural services that we derive from our surrounding ecosystems. The AGAVES project is intended as a demonstration study for incorporating ecosystem services information into resource management policy and decisionmaking. Accordingly, a nested, multiscale project design has been adopted to address a range of stakeholder information requirements. This design will further facilitate an evaluation of how well methods developed in this project can be transferred to other areas.

  14. Use of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) habitat models to predict breeding birds on the San Pedro River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, Tiffany Marie; van Riper, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Successful management practices of avian populations depend on understanding relationships between birds and their habitat, especially in rare habitats, such as riparian areas of the desert Southwest. Remote-sensing technology has become popular in habitat modeling, but most of these models focus on single species, leaving their applicability to understanding broader community structure and function largely untested. We investigated the usefulness of two Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) habitat models to model avian abundance and species richness on the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona. Although NDVI was positively correlated with our bird metrics, the amount of explained variation was low. We then investigated the addition of vegetation metrics and other remote-sensing metrics to improve our models. Although both vegetation metrics and remotely sensed metrics increased the power of our models, the overall explained variation was still low, suggesting that general avian community structure may be too complex for NDVI models.

  15. Volcanism and erosion during the past 930 k.y. at the Tatara-San Pedro complex, Chilean Andes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, B.S.; Thompson, R.A.; Dungan, M.A.; Feeley, T.C.; Nelson, S.T.; Pickens, J.C.; Brown, L.L.; Wulff, A.W.; Davidson, J.P.; Metzger, J.

    1997-01-01

    Geologic mapping, together with 73 new K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of 45 samples from 17 different volcanic units, plus paleomagnetic orientations, geochemical compositions, and terrestrial photogrammetry are used to define the chronostratigraphy of the Tatara-San Pedro complex, an eruptive center at 36??S on the volcanic front of the Andean southern volcanic zone. The Tatara-San Pedro complex preserves ???55 km3 of lavas that erupted from at least three central vent regions. Remnant, unconformity-bound sequences of lavas are separated by lacunae that include significant periods of erosion. Quaternary volcanism commenced ca. 930 ka with eruption of voluminous dacitic magma, followed 100 k.y. later by the only major rhyolitic eruption. From 780 ka onward, more than 80% of the preserved volume is basaltic andesite (52%-57% SiO2), but petrographically and geochemically diverse dacitic magmas (63%-69% SiO2) erupted sporadically throughout this younger, dominantly mafic phase of activity. A few basaltic lavas (49%-52% SiO2) are present, mainly in portions of the complex older than 230 ka. The number of vents, the petrologic and geochemical diversity, and the temporal distribution of mafic and silicic lavas are consistent with emplacement of many separate batches of made magma into the shallow crust beneath the Tatara-San Pedro complex over the past million years. Nearly two-thirds of the preserved volume of the Tatara-San Pedro complex comprises the two youngest volcanoes, which were active between ca. 188-83 ka and 90-19 ka. Repeated advances of mountain glaciers punctuated growth of the complex with major erosional episodes that removed much of the pre-200 ka volcanic record, particularly on the south flank of the complex. Dating the inception of a glaciation on the basis of preserved material is difficult, but the age of the oldest lava above a lacuna may be used to estimate the timing of deglaciation. On this basis, the argon ages of basal lavas of

  16. Late quaternary depositional systems and sea level change-Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins, California continental borderland

    SciTech Connect

    Nardin, T.R.

    1983-07-01

    A suite of seismic reflection data that provides different degrees of resolution and penetration was used to map the depositional systems that have developed in Santa Monica and San Pedro basins during the late Quaternary. Submarine fan growth, particularly at the mouths of Hueneme and Redondo Canyons, has been the dominant mode of basin filling. Mass movement processes, ranging from creep to large-scale catastrophic slumping, have been important locally. In general, large-scale fan growth fits Normark's model in which the suprafan is the primary locus of coarse sediment deposition. Smaller scale morphologic and depositional patterns on the Hueneme and Redondo fans (e.g., distributary channels and coarse sediment concentrations basinward of the inner suprafan) suggest that a significant amount of coarse sediment presently bypasses the suprafans, however. Long-distance coarse sediment transport was particularly pronounced during late Wisconsinan lowstand of sea level and resulted in progradation of lower mid-fan and lower fan deposits.

  17. Estimation of potential pollution from mine tailings in the San Pedro River (1993-2005), Mexico-US border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Villalba-Atondo, Arturo I.; Valenzuela-García, Jesús Leobardo; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Almendariz-Tapia, Javier

    2009-06-01

    The San Pedro River (SPR) is located in northern Sonora (Mexico) and southeastern Arizona (USA). SPR is a transboundary river that develops along the Sonora (Mexico) and Arizona (USA) border, and is considered the main source of water for a variety of users (human settlements, agriculture, livestock, and industry). The SPR originates in the historic Cananea mining area, which hosts some of the most important copper mineralizations in Mexico. Acid mine drainage derived from mine tailings is currently reaching a tributary of the SPR near Cananea City, resulting in the contamination of the SPR with heavy metals and sulfates in water and sediments. This study documents the accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in surface water along a segment of the SPR from 1993 to 2005. Total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in surface waters are above maximum permissible levels in sampling sites near mine tailing deposits. Nevertheless, a significant decrease in the Fe and SO4 2- in surface water (SO4 2-: 7,180-460.39 mg/L; Fe: 1,600-9.51 mg/L) as well as a gradual decrease in the heavy and transition metal content were observed during the period from 1994 to 2005. Approximately 2.3 km downstream of the mine tailings, the heavy metal content of the water drops quickly following an increase in pH values due to the discharging of wastewater into the river. The attenuation of the heavy metal content in surface waters is related to stream sediment precipitation (accompanied by metal coprecipitation and sorption) and water dilution. Determining the heavy metal concentration led to the conclusion that the Cananea mining area and the San Pedro River are ecosystems that are impacted by the mining industry and by untreated wastewater discharges arising from the city of Cananea (Sonora, Mexico).

  18. Ephemeral-Stream Channel and Basin-Floor Infiltration and Recharge in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Santa Cruz River , Pima County , Arizona : U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2379, 40 p. Western...digital data, 1:100,000, 1982 Universal Transverse Mercator projection, Zone 12 PIMA COUNTY SANTA CRUZ COUNTY Figure 1. Sierra Vista subwatershed...Miller, S., 2004, Comparison of methods to estimate ephemeral channel recharge, Walnut Gulch, San Pedro River Basin, Arizona , in Hogan, J.F.,

  19. Hydrological Impacts of Mesquite Encroachment in the Upper San Pedro Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasion of mesquite into grassland occurs in water-limited ecosystems throughout the world. To assess hydrological consequences of mesquite invasion, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate idealized progressive mesquite encroachments in the upper San P...

  20. Hydrological Impacts of Mesquite Encroachment in the Upper San Pedro Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasion of mesquite into grassland occurs in water-limited ecosystems throughout the world. To assess hydrological consequences of mesquite invasion, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate idealized progressive mesquite encroachments in the upper San P...

  1. Development of a shared vision for groundwater management to protect and sustain baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Holly E.; Gungle, Bruce; Lacher, Laurel J.; Turner, Dale S.; Bushman, Brooke M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  2. Comparing approaches to spatially explicit ecosystem service modeling: a case study from the San Pedro River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius J.; Winthrop, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of ecosystem service modeling tools has grown in recent years, quantitative comparative studies of these tools have been lacking. In this study, we applied two leading open-source, spatially explicit ecosystem services modeling tools – Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) – to the San Pedro River watershed in southeast Arizona, USA, and northern Sonora, Mexico. We modeled locally important services that both modeling systems could address – carbon, water, and scenic viewsheds. We then applied managerially relevant scenarios for urban growth and mesquite management to quantify ecosystem service changes. InVEST and ARIES use different modeling approaches and ecosystem services metrics; for carbon, metrics were more similar and results were more easily comparable than for viewsheds or water. However, findings demonstrate similar gains and losses of ecosystem services and conclusions when comparing effects across our scenarios. Results were more closely aligned for landscape-scale urban-growth scenarios and more divergent for a site-scale mesquite-management scenario. Follow-up studies, including testing in different geographic contexts, can improve our understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these and other ecosystem services modeling tools as they move closer to readiness for supporting day-to-day resource management.

  3. Issues of affinity: exploring population structure in the Middle and Regional Developments Periods of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Hubbe, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The Middle Period (AD 400-1000) in northern Chile's Atacama oases is characterized by an increase in social complexity and regional interaction, much of which was organized around the power and impact of the Tiwanaku polity. Despite the strong cultural influence of Tiwanaku and numerous other groups evident in interactions with Atacameños, the role of immigration into the oases during this period is unclear. While archaeological and bioarchaeological research in the region has shown no evidence that clearly indicates large groups of foreign immigrants, the contemporary increase in interregional exchange networks connecting the oases to other parts of the Andes suggests residential mobility and the possibility that movement of people both into and out of the oases accompanied these foreign influences. Here, we analyze biodistance through cranial non-metric traits in a skeletal sample from prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama to elucidate the extent of foreign influence in the oases and discuss its implications. We analyzed 715 individuals from the Middle Period (AD 400-1000) and later Regional Developments Period (AD 1000-1450), and found greater phenotypic differences between Middle Period cemeteries than among cemeteries in the subsequent period. We argue that this greater diversity extends beyond the relationship between the oases and the renowned Tiwanaku polity and reflects the role of the oases and its different ayllus as a node and way station for the Middle Period's myriad interregional networks.

  4. Vegetation history along the eastern, desert escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate A.

    2011-01-01

    Plant macrofossils from 38 packrat middens spanning the last ~ 33,000 cal yr BP record vegetation between ~ 650 and 900 m elevation along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, northern Baja California. The middens span most of the Holocene, with a gap between ~ 4600 and 1800 cal yr BP, but coverage in the Pleistocene is uneven with a larger hiatus between 23,100 and 14,400 cal yr BP. The midden flora is relatively stable from the Pleistocene to Holocene. Exceptions include Pinus californiarum, Juniperus californica and other chaparral elements that were most abundant > 23,100 cal yr BP and declined after 14,400 cal yr BP. Despite being near the chaparral/woodland-desertscrub ecotone during glacial times, the midden assemblages reflect none of the climatic reversals evident in the glacial or marine record, and this is corroborated by a nearby semi-continuous pollen stratigraphy from lake sediments. Regular appearance of C4 grasses and summer-flowering annuals since 13,600 cal yr BP indicates occurrence of summer rainfall equivalent to modern (JAS average of ~ 80–90 mm). This casts doubt on the claim, based on temperature proxies from marine sediments in the Guaymas Basin, that monsoonal development in the northern Gulf and Arizona was delayed until after 6200 cal yr BP.

  5. Vegetation history along the eastern, desert escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate A.

    2011-05-01

    Plant macrofossils from 38 packrat middens spanning the last ~ 33,000 cal yr BP record vegetation between ~ 650 and 900 m elevation along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, northern Baja California. The middens span most of the Holocene, with a gap between ~ 4600 and 1800 cal yr BP, but coverage in the Pleistocene is uneven with a larger hiatus between 23,100 and 14,400 cal yr BP. The midden flora is relatively stable from the Pleistocene to Holocene. Exceptions include Pinus californiarum, Juniperus californica and other chaparral elements that were most abundant > 23,100 cal yr BP and declined after 14,400 cal yr BP. Despite being near the chaparral/woodland-desertscrub ecotone during glacial times, the midden assemblages reflect none of the climatic reversals evident in the glacial or marine record, and this is corroborated by a nearby semi-continuous pollen stratigraphy from lake sediments. Regular appearance of C 4 grasses and summer-flowering annuals since 13,600 cal yr BP indicates occurrence of summer rainfall equivalent to modern (JAS average of ~ 80-90 mm). This casts doubt on the claim, based on temperature proxies from marine sediments in the Guaymas Basin, that monsoonal development in the northern Gulf and Arizona was delayed until after 6200 cal yr BP.

  6. Assessing hydrologic impacts of future Land Change scenarios in the San Pedro River (U.S./Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepner, W. G.; Burns, S.; Sidman, G.; Levick, L.; Goodrich, D. C.; Guertin, P.; Yee, W.; Scianni, M.

    2012-12-01

    An approach was developed to characterize the hydrologic impacts of urban expansion through time for the San Pedro River, a watershed of immense international importance that straddles the U.S./Mexico border. Future urban growth is a key driving force altering local and regional hydrology and is represented by decadal changes in housing density maps from 2010 to 2100 derived from the Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) database. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize the hydrologic impacts of future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The presentation will report 1) the methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate basin-wide impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) initial results of the application of the methodology, and 3) discuss implications of the analysis.

  7. Hiding inequality beneath prosperity: patterns of cranial injury in middle period San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres-Rouff, Christina

    2011-09-01

    The Middle Period in San Pedro de Atacama (AD 400-1000) stands out as a time of great prosperity that was, in part, associated with high levels of interaction with foreign polities, including the highland state of Tiwanaku. Although previous studies have demonstrated an increase in rates of violence during the subsequent Regional Developments Period (AD 1000-1400), this does not mean that the Middle Period was a time of peace and tranquility. Here, the prevalence of violence in four contemporary cemeteries is analyzed, exploring potential sources of conflict, including social inequality. Cranial trauma was documented through the presence, location, size, and state of healing of all wounds and was found in 14.7% of the sample (61/415; including two cases of perimortem trauma). Skeletal remains were also analyzed for demographic data to investigate differences in patterns of violence related to sex and age. Notably, most of the trauma centered on the anterior portion of the skull, suggesting the prominence of face-to-face confrontations that involved both sexes. Correlations between trauma and items in the mortuary assemblage that may have been associated with prestige or an elevated social standing in two cemeteries from the Solcor ayllu indicate that individuals from the more elite cemetery were subjected to significantly less traumatic injury. These data suggest that people did not share equally in the benefits of this period's affluence and that there were tensions in Atacameño society despite seemingly widespread prosperity. 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Vegetation history along the eastern, desert escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Rylander, Kate A.

    2011-01-01

    Plant macrofossils from 38 packrat middens spanning the last ~ 33,000 cal yr BP record vegetation between ~ 650 and 900 m elevation along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, northern Baja California. The middens span most of the Holocene, with a gap between ~ 4600 and 1800 cal yr BP, but coverage in the Pleistocene is uneven with a larger hiatus between 23,100 and 14,400 cal yr BP. The midden flora is relatively stable from the Pleistocene to Holocene. Exceptions include Pinus californiarum, Juniperus californica and other chaparral elements that were most abundant > 23,100 cal yr BP and declined after 14,400 cal yr BP. Despite being near the chaparral/woodland-desertscrub ecotone during glacial times, the midden assemblages reflect none of the climatic reversals evident in the glacial or marine record, and this is corroborated by a nearby semi-continuous pollen stratigraphy from lake sediments. Regular appearance of C4 grasses and summer-flowering annuals since 13,600 cal yr BP indicates occurrence of summer rainfall equivalent to modern (JAS average of ~ 80–90 mm). This casts doubt on the claim, based on temperature proxies from marine sediments in the Guaymas Basin, that monsoonal development in the northern Gulf and Arizona was delayed until after 6200 cal yr BP.

  9. The trace metal stratigraphy and recent sedimentary history of anthrogenous particulates on the San Pedro Shelf, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettenring, K. N., Jr.

    The County of Los Angeles operates a sewage outfall on the western San Pedro Shelf, with the discharge at 60 meters depth and approximately 2.5 kilometers off White's Point. The outfall provides a point source of metal rich organic debris that is deposited on the shelf in an elongate field running northwest and southeast from the discharger. There are two conflicting hypotheses concerning the fate of outfall particulates and associated elements. The first hypothesis is that more than 60% of the particulates remain on the shelf, but that some of the metals are remobilized after deposition. The second hypothesis is that only a small fraction (less than 1% of the organic carbon) of the particulates is retained on the shelf, and that there is no remobilization. The present study strongly supports the first hypothesis. Sediment samples were collected along the 60 meter contour northwest of the outfall using a box-corer with 29.8 x 20.8 x 61 cm. boxes. Each box was subcored, and the subcores were frozen, cut into 1 cm. segments, and freeze-dried. Concentrations of carbon, copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc, and lead were measured.

  10. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation

  11. Quaternary uplift and subsidence of Catalina Ridge and San Pedro Basin, Inner California Continental Borderland, offshore southern California; results of high-resolution seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, R.; Legg, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection data collected by us, legacy seismic, and multibeam bathymetry show that the San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF) is a continuous fault zone from Santa Monica Basin to Crespi Knoll, and apparently joins with the San Diego Trough fault (SDTF). The SPBF and SDTF together form a more or less straight fault zone over 300 km in length, a major tectonic feature of the Inner Borderland. Catalina Ridge, a 100 km uplift feature including Santa Catalina Island, and adjacent San Pedro Basin, with up to 4-5 km structural relief between them, are closely associated with the SPBF, SDTF, and Catalina fault (CF). Santa Catalina Island has been shown previously to be an uplift associated with a restraining bend (CF linking the Santa Cruz Ridge and San Diego Trough fault zones; White et al., 2004). San Pedro Basin has two major sediment sequences west of the SPBF. The lower one dips away from Catalina Ridge and onlaps onto the basement as a thin sheet that extends beyond the upper sequence around the margins of the basin. This sequence is imaged as deep as 3.7 sec. two way travel time in the basin center. The much thinner upper sequence underlies the flat basin floor, onlaps onto the lower sequence, and is largely flat; any dips are parallel to the SPBF (not away from Catalina Ridge). Basal strata of the upper sequence are approximately 200-600 ka. Santa Catalina Island lacks well-defined marine terraces on land, in contrast to nearby uplifts such as Palos Verdes Peninsula, but submerged depositional terraces occur on the seafloor around the island. These aggradational benches formed on a sediment package that surrounds the island and is separated from the basin sequences. Some of these benches are up to 400 m below present sealevel, well below eustatic sealevel range. Our data suggest that the restraining bend structure formed by the CF was active during the time the lower sequence of San Pedro Basin was deposited. At approximately 200-600 ka, this

  12. Assessment of runoff response to landscape changes in the San Pedro subbasin (Nayarit, Mexico) using remote sensing data and GIS.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Rafael; Ruiz-Luna, Arturo; Berlanga-Robles, César Alejandro

    2008-10-01

    Results on runoff estimates as a response to land-use and land-cover changes are presented. We used remote sensing and GIS techniques with rainfall time-series data, spatial ancillary information, and the curve-number method (NRCS-CN) to assess the runoff response in the San Pedro subbasin. Thematic maps with eight land-cover classes derived from satellite imagery classification (1973, 1990, and 2000) and hydrologic soil-group maps were used as the input for the runoff calculation. About 20% to 25% of the subbasin landscape has changed since 1973, mainly as consequence of the growth of agriculture. Forest is the main cover, although further analyses indicate that forest is degrading from good to poor conditions when evaluated as a function of the spectral response. Soils with low infiltration rates, classified as the hydrological soil-group "C", were dominant in the area (52%). The overlaying of all the hydrological soil groups with the land-use map produced a total of 43 hydro-group and land-use categories for which runoff was calculated using the curve-number method. Estimates of total runoff volumes (26 x 10(6) m3) were similar for the three dates analyzed in spite of landscape changes, but there were temporal variations among the hydro-group and land-use categories as a consequence. Changes are causing the rise of covers with high runoff potential and the increase of runoff depth is expected, but it can be reversed by different management of subbasin hydro-groups and land-use units.

  13. Cross-shelf transport into nearshore waters due to shoaling internal tides in San Pedro Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.; Jones, B.; Hamilton, P.; Xu, Jie; Robertson, G.; Rosenfeld, L.; Largier, J.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, a coastal ocean measurement program in the southeastern portion of San Pedro Bay, CA, was designed and carried out. One aim of the program was to determine the strength and effectiveness of local cross-shelf transport processes. A particular objective was to assess the ability of semidiurnal internal tidal currents to move suspended material a net distance across the shelf. Hence, a dense array of moorings was deployed across the shelf to monitor the transport patterns associated with fluctuations in currents, temperature and salinity. An associated hydrographic program periodically monitored synoptic changes in the spatial patterns of temperature, salinity, nutrients and bacteria. This set of measurements show that a series of energetic internal tides can, but do not always, transport subthermocline water, dissolved and suspended material from the middle of the shelf into the surfzone. Effective cross-shelf transport occurs only when (1) internal tides at the shelf break are strong and (2) subtidal currents flow strongly downcoast. The subtidal downcoast flow causes isotherms to tilt upward toward the coast, which allows energetic, nonlinear internal tidal currents to carry subthermocline waters into the surfzone. During these events, which may last for several days, the transported water remains in the surfzone until the internal tidal current pulses and/or the downcoast subtidal currents disappear. This nonlinear internal tide cross-shelf transport process was capable of carrying water and the associated suspended or dissolved material from the mid-shelf into the surfzone, but there were no observation of transport from the shelf break into the surfzone. Dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates (such as phytoplankton) transported from the mid-shelf into the nearshore region by nonlinear internal tides may contribute to nearshore algal blooms, including harmful algal blooms that occur off local beaches.

  14. Recent deformation on the San Diego Trough and San Pedro Basin fault systems, offshore Southern California: Assessing evidence for fault system connectivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, J. M.; Kent, G. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The seismic hazard posed by offshore faults for coastal communities in Southern California is poorly understood and may be considerable, especially when these communities are located near long faults that have the ability to produce large earthquakes. The San Diego Trough fault (SDTF) and San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF) systems are active northwest striking, right-lateral faults in the Inner California Borderland that extend offshore between San Diego and Los Angeles. Recent work shows that the SDTF slip rate accounts for 25% of the 6-8 mm/yr of deformation accommodated by the offshore fault network, and seismic reflection data suggest that these two fault zones may be one continuous structure. Here, we use recently acquired CHIRP, high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection, and multibeam bathymetric data in combination with USGS and industry MCS profiles to characterize recent deformation on the SDTF and SPBF zones and to evaluate the potential for an end-to-end rupture that spans both fault systems. The SDTF offsets young sediments at the seafloor for 130 km between the US/Mexico border and Avalon Knoll. The northern SPBF has robust geomorphic expression and offsets the seafloor in the Santa Monica Basin. The southern SPBF lies within a 25-km gap between high-resolution MCS surveys. Although there does appear to be a through-going fault at depth in industry MCS profiles, the low vertical resolution of these data inhibits our ability to confirm recent slip on the southern SPBF. Empirical scaling relationships indicate that a 200-km-long rupture of the SDTF and its southern extension, the Bahia Soledad fault, could produce a M7.7 earthquake. If the SDTF and the SPBF are linked, the length of the combined fault increases to >270 km. This may allow ruptures initiating on the SDTF to propagate within 25 km of the Los Angeles Basin. At present, the paleoseismic histories of the faults are unknown. We present new observations from CHIRP and coring surveys at

  15. Low-pressure evolution of arc magmas in thickened crust: The San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain, Central Andes, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Kojima, Shoji; Aguilera, Felipe; Simon, Klaus; Hartmann, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Magmatism at Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), or Central Andes, is strongly influenced by differentiation and assimilation at high pressures that occurred at lower levels of the thick continental crust. This is typically shown by high light to heavy rare earth element ratios (LREE/HREE) of the erupted lavas at this volcanic zone. Increase of these ratios with time is interpreted as a change to magma evolution in the presence of garnet during evolution of Central Andes. Such geochemical signals could be introduced into the magmas be high-pressure fractionation with garnet on the liquidus and/or assimilation from crustal rocks with a garnet-bearing residue. However, lavas erupted at San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain show no evidence of garnet fractionation in their trace element patterns. This volcanic chain is located in the active volcanic arc, between 22°00‧S and 22°30‧S, over a continental crust ˜70 km thick. Sampled lavas show Sr/Y and Sm/Yb ratios <40 and <4.0, respectively, which is significantly lower than for most other lavas of recent volcanoes in the Central Andes. In addition, 87Sr/86Sr ratios from San Pedro-Linzor lava flows vary between 0.7063 and 0.7094. This is at the upper range, and even higher than those observed at other recent Central Andean volcanic rocks (<0.708). The area in which the San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain is located is constituted by a felsic, Proterozoic upper crust, and a thin mafic lower crustal section (<25 km). Also, the NW-SE orientation of the volcanic chain is distinctive with respect to the N-S orientation of Central Andean volcanic front in northern Chile. We relate our geochemical observations to shallow crustal evolution of primitive magmas involving a high degree of assimilation of upper continental crust. We emphasize that low pressure AFC- (Assimilation Fractional Crystallization) type evolution of the San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain reflects storage, fractionation, and contamination of mantle-derived magmas

  16. CO2 Respiration/O2 Consumption in Response to Supplemental Organic Carbon: Implications for Natural DOC Composition in San Pedro Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berelson, W.; Fleming, J. C.; Aluwihare, L.; Hammond, D. E.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial community respiration plays an integral role in oxygen and carbon cycling in the world's oceans, but it is poorly constrained in most marine settings, especially in the mesopelagic. We set out to define respiration rates in San Pedro Basin, within the Southern California Bight, with specific focus on the 100 m depth zone in order to determine both how community respiration is influenced by carbon supply perturbations, and the impact of DOC utilization on oxygen and CO2. Evoking Michaelis-Menten kinetics, it is apparent that observed community respiration rates are always well-below their maximum potential, Vmax. Furthermore, the assumption that respiration proceeds with a respiratory quotient (RQ) of 1, i.e., 1 molecule of TCO2 (aka DIC) produced per molecule of O2 consumed, is not correct for this setting. A carbon addition experiment with 13C labeled glucose suggests that RQ-values for respiration at 100 m in San Pedro Basin are close to 2, indicating that the substrates used for respiration are likely highly-oxidized carbon compounds. Thus, any potential increases in biological O2 uptake may lead to increases in CO2 production of even greater magnitude, resulting in changes in ocean chemistry through a pathway that has not been fully considered. We propose that as POC produced in the surface ocean sinks and is oxidized, small organic acids are progressively produced that, by 100 m, constitute a significant portion of the DOC pool.

  17. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  18. Emerging pollutants in the Esmeraldas watershed in Ecuador: discharge and attenuation of emerging organic pollutants along the San Pedro-Guayllabamba-Esmeraldas rivers.

    PubMed

    Voloshenko-Rossin, A; Gasser, G; Cohen, K; Gun, J; Cumbal-Flores, L; Parra-Morales, W; Sarabia, F; Ojeda, F; Lev, O

    2015-01-01

    Water quality characteristics and emerging organic pollutants were sampled along the San Pedro-Guayllabamba-Esmeraldas River and its main water pollution streams in the summer of 2013. The annual flow rate of the stream is 22 000 Mm(3) y(-1) and it collects the wastewater of Quito-Ecuador in the Andes and supplies drinking water to the city of Esmeraldas near the Pacific Ocean. The most persistent emerging pollutants were carbamazepine and acesulfame, which were found to be stable along the San Pedro-Guayllabamba-Esmeraldas River, whereas the concentration of most other organic emerging pollutants, such as caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, and steroidal estrogens, was degraded to a large extent along the 300 km flow. The mass rate of the sum of cocaine and benzoylecgonine, its metabolite, was increased along the stream, which may be attributed to coca plantations and wild coca trees. This raises the possibility of using river monitoring as an indirect way to learn about changes in coca plantations in their watersheds. Several organic emerging pollutants, such as venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulphamethoxazole, and benzoylecgonine, survived even the filtration treatment at the Esmeraldas drinking water system, though all except for benzoylecgonine are found below 20 ng L(-1), and are therefore not likely to cause adverse health effects. The research provides a way to compare drug consumption in a major Latin American city (Quito) and shows that the consumption of most sampled drugs (carbamazepine, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, sulphamethoxazole, ethinylestradiol) was below their average consumption level in Europe, Israel, and North America.

  19. A Geochemical Dataset for Improved Conceptual and Numerical Modeling of Mountain System Recharge in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeast Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahi, A. K.; Ekwurzel, B.; Hogan, J. F.; Eastoe, C. J.; Baillie, M. N.

    2005-12-01

    Research to date on water resources in the Upper San Pedro Basin has not taken full advantage of geochemical methods that constrain sources and rates of recharge plus groundwater flowpaths and residence times. A recent investigation gathered data from isotopic tracers, major anions, and noble gases in groundwater to enhance conceptual and quantitative understanding of recharge processes in a semi-arid region with growing demand on limited water resources. Chemical and isotopic species potentially address flow model non-uniqueness, because including additional species reduces degrees of freedom, and radionuclides yield groundwater residence times useful for calibration of local and average regional fluxes. But the utility of these tracers extended beyond model calibration to mechanistic insights. Noble gases and stable isotopes distinguished high-elevation mountain block recharge (fracture flow) from diffuse, low-elevation mountain front recharge. Given the large uncertainties involved, few other studies have attempted to use dissolved gases to determine unknown recharge elevations, but with high topographic relief, the errors were acceptable. Stable isotopic signatures also revealed that winter precipitation contributes 40% to 90% of mountain system recharge (even though more than 50% of annual precipitation occurs in the summer) and established transpiration as the heavily dominant component of basin evapotranspiration. Multiple radionuclides traced fast and slow components of groundwater flow and thus revealed residence times ranging from annual and decadal scales above the mountain front to greater than 10,000 years for groundwater entering the San Pedro River riparian area. An independent estimate of the mountain system recharge rate obtained from the radiocarbon dataset is less than previously suggested estimates from hydraulic-conductivity-based models.

  20. Sr- and Nd- isotope variations along the Pleistocene San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain, N. Chile: Tracking the influence of the upper crustal Altiplano-Puna Magma Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, Benigno; Wörner, Gerhard; Le Roux, Petrus; de Silva, Shanaka; Parada, Miguel Ángel; Kojima, Shoji; González-Maurel, Osvaldo; Morata, Diego; Polanco, Edmundo; Martínez, Paula

    2017-07-01

    Subduction-related magmas that erupted in the Central Andes during the past 10 Ma are strongly affected by crustal assimilation as revealed by an increase in 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios with time that in turn are correlated with increased crustal thickening during the Andean orogeny. However, contamination is not uniform and can be strongly influenced locally by crustal composition, structure and thermal condition. This appears to be the case along the NW-SE San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain (SPLVC) in northern Chile, which straddles the boundary of a major zone of partial melt, the Altiplano_Puna Magma Body (APMB). Herein we report 40Ar/39Ar ages, compositional and isotope data on lavas from the SPLVC that track the influence of this zone of partial melting on erupted lavas with geochronological and geochemical data. Ages reported here indicate that SPLVC has evolved in the last 2 M.y., similar to other volcanoes of the Western Cordillera (e.g. Lascar, Uturuncu, Putana). 87Sr/86Sr ratios increase systematically along the chain from a minimum value of 0.7057 in San Pedro dacites to a maximum of 0.7093-0.7095 for the Toconce and Cerro de Leon dacites in the SE. These changes are interpreted to reflect the increasing interaction of SPLVC parental magmas with partial melt within the APMB eastwards across the chain. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio and an antithetic trend in 143Nd/144Nd is therefore a proxy for the contribution of melt from the APMB beneath this volcanic chain. Similar 87Sr/86Sr increases and 143Nd/144Nd decreases are observed in other transects crossing the boundary of the APMB. Such trends can be recognized from NW to SE between Aucanquilcha, Ollagüe, and Uturuncu volcanoes, and from Lascar volcano to the N-S-trending Putana-Sairecabur-Licancabur volcanic chain to the north. We interpret these isotopic trends as reflecting different degrees of interaction of mafic parental melts with the APMB. High 87Sr/86Sr, and low 143Nd/144Nd reveal zones where the APMB is

  1. Use of Chemical and Isotopic Tracers for Estimating Ground-Water Recharge, Flow Paths, and Residence Times in the Middle San Pedro Basin, Southeast Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, C. B.; McIntosh, J.; Eastoe, C.; Dickinson, J.

    2008-12-01

    Ground water is often the primary source of water for rapidly growing populations in the semi-arid southwestern United States. In addition, ground-water discharge to streams sustains wildlife in riparian areas. Improved understanding of the sources of ground water, recharge areas, flow paths, and water quality of basin aquifer systems is needed to assess water availability and develop effective water management policies. This study analyzes variations of major ion (Ca, Na, K, Mg, Sr, Fe, Si, Zn, F, Cl, Br, NO3, SO4) and isotope (18O, 2H, 3H, 34S, 13C, 14C) chemistry of ground water, surface waters and precipitation with in conjunction with hydrogeologic data (e.g. hydraulic head, subsurface structure, and stratigraphy) to infer recharge areas, mixing of water sources, and residence times of ground water within the middle San Pedro watershed in southeastern Arizona. The San Pedro basin is bound by crystalline and carbonate rocks of the Whetstone and Rincon Mountains on the west and by crystalline rocks of the Dragoon Mountains to the east. Differences in mineral assemblages of these mountain blocks impart distinct chemical signatures in ground waters through mineral weathering. Potentially, these differences in water chemistry can serve as chemical tracers for identifying ground-water flow paths and mixing relations. Ground-water chemistry variations suggest compartmentalization of waters into an upper and lower alluvial aquifer system comprised of permeable sands and gravels ranging in depth from ten to over one thousand feet in the basin center; the units are separated by confining units of silt and clay in the basin center. Variations include higher fluoride (up to 8 ppm) near the Dragoon Mountains, higher chloride (up to 54 ppm) near the Whetstone Mountains, and higher sulfate (up to 750 ppm) concentrations in both upper and lower sands and gravels owing to interaction with thick Permian or Neocene evaporites. Chloride is generally lower (less than 8 ppm) in the

  2. Mapping Ground Water in Three Dimensions - An Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Surveys of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Cochise County, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of two airborne geophysical surveys conducted in the upper San Pedro Valley of southeastern Arizona in 1997 and 1999. The combined surveys cover about 1,000 square kilometers and extend from the Huachuca Mountains on the west to the Mule Mountains and Tombstone Hills on the east and from north of the Babocomari River to near the Mexican border on the south. The surveys included the acquisition of high-resolution magnetic data, which were used to map depth to the crystalline basement rocks underlying the sediments filling the basin. The magnetic inversion results show a complex basement morphology, with sediment thickness in the center of the valley ranging from ~237 meters beneath the city of Sierra Vista to ~1,500 meters beneath Huachuca City and the Palominas area near the Mexican border. The surveys also included acquisition of 60-channel time-domain electromagnetic (EM) data. Extensive quality analyses of these data, including inversion to conductivity vs. depth (conductivity-depth-transform or CDT) profiles and comparisons with electrical well logs, show that the electrical conductor mapped represents the subsurface water-bearing sediments throughout most of the basin. In a few places (notably the mouth of Huachuca Canyon), the reported water table lies above where the electrical conductor places it. These exceptions appear to be due to a combination of outdated water-table information, significant horizontal displacement between the wells and the CDT profiles, and a subtle calibration issue with the CDT algorithm apparent only in areas of highly resistive (very dry) overburden. These occasional disparities appear in less than 5 percent of the surveyed area. Observations show, however, that wells drilled in the thick unsaturated zone along the Huachuca Mountain front eventually intersect water, at which point the water rapidly rises high into the unsaturated zone within the wellbore. This rising of water in a wellbore implies

  3. Benthic community structure and biomarker responses of the clam Scrobicularia plana in a shallow tidal creek affected by fish farm effluents (Rio San Pedro, SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudio; Mattioli, Mattia; Fabbri, Elena; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Delvalls, T Angel; Martín-Díaz, M Laura

    2012-10-15

    The effects of solid organic wastes from a marine fish farm on sediments were tested using benthic community as ecological indicators and biomarkers in native clam (Scrobicularia plana) as biochemical indicators. The benthic fauna and clam samples were collected in the intertidal sediment in October 2010 from five sites of the Rio San Pedro (RSP) creek, following a gradient of contamination from the aquaculture effluent to the control site. Numbers of species, abundance, richness and Shannon diversity were the biodiversity indicators measured in benthic fauna. Morphological and reproduction status of clams were assessed using the condition factor and gonado-somatic index, respectively. Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymatic activities (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST)), antioxidant enzymatic activities (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR)) and oxidative stress parameters (Lipid Peroxidation (LPO) and DNA strand breaks) were measured in clams' digestive gland tissues. In parallel, temperature and salinity in the adjacent water, redox potential, pH and organic matter in sediment, and dissolved oxygen in the interstitial water were measured. The results suggested that RSP showed a spatial gradient characterised by hypoxia/anoxia, reduced potential, acidic conditions and high organic enrichment in sediments at the most contaminated sites. Significant (p<0.05) decrease of biodiversity indicators were observed in the areas impacted by the aquaculture discharges. Biomarkers did not show a clear pattern and of all biochemical responses tested, GPX, DNA damage and LPO were the most sensitive ones and showed significant (p<0.05) increase in the polluted sites. Benthic biodiversity indicators were significantly (p<0.05) positively correlated with pH, redox potential and dissolved oxygen and negatively correlated with organic matter. On the contrary, antioxidant enzymatic responses (GPX) and oxidative stress

  4. Presence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli in the San Pedro River located in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Castillo, Flor Y.; Avelar González, Francisco J.; Garneau, Philippe; Márquez Díaz, Francisco; Guerrero Barrera, Alma L.; Harel, Josée

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of surface waters in developing countries is a great concern. Treated and untreated wastewaters have been discharged into rivers and streams, leading to possible waterborne infection outbreaks and may represent a significant dissemination mechanism of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, the water quality of San Pedro River, the main river and pluvial collector of the Aguascalientes State, Mexico was assessed. Thirty sample locations were tested throughout the River. The main physicochemical parameters of water were evaluated. Results showed high levels of fecal pollution as well as inorganic and organic matter abundant enough to support the heterotrophic growth of microorganisms. These results indicate poor water quality in samples from different locations. One hundred and fifty Escherichia coli were collected and screened by PCR for several virulence genes. Isolates were classified as either pathogenic (n = 91) or commensal (n = 59). The disc diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to 13 antibiotics. Fifty-two percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent and 30.6% were multi-resistant. Eighteen E. coli strains were quinolone resistant of which 16 were multi-resistant. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were detected in 12 isolates. Mutations at the Ser-83→Leu and/or Asp-87→Asn in the gyrA gene were detected as well as mutations at the Ser-80→Ile in parC. An E. coli microarray (Maxivirulence V 3.1) was used to characterize the virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes profiles of the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. Antimicrobial resistance genes such as blaTEM, sulI, sulII, dhfrIX, aph3 (strA), and tet (B) as well as integrons were found in fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance E. coli strains. The presence of potential pathogenic E. coli and antibiotic resistance in San Pedro River such as FQ resistant E. coli could pose a potential threat to human and animal

  5. Hydrologic requirements of and consumptive ground-water use by riparian vegetation along the San Pedro River, Arizona. Chapters A-D.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenhouts, James M.; Stromberg, Juliet C.; Scott, Russell L.; authors include Leenhouts, James M.; Lite, Sharon J.; Dixon, Mark; Rychener, Tyler; Makings, Elizabeth; Williams, David G.; Goodrich, David C.; Cable, William L.; Levick, Lainie R.; McGuire, Roberta; Gazal, Rico M.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Ellsworth, Patrick; Huxman, Travis E.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a coordinated effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS), and Arizona State University, with assistance from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the University of Wyoming, and the University of Arizona. The specific objectives of the study were: to determine the water needs of riparian vegetation through the riparian growing season and throughout the SPRNCA to ensure its long-term ecological integrity; to quantify the total water use of riparian vegetation within the SPRNCA; and to determine the source of water used by key riparian plant species within the SPRNCA. To meet these objectives, the study was divided into three elements: (1) a characterization of the status and variability of hydrologic factors within the riparian system (USGS), (2) a riparian biohydrology study to relate spatial and temporal aspects of riparian changes and condition to the hydrologic variables (Arizona State University), and (3) a water-use evapotranspiration (ET) study to quantify annual consumptive ground-water use by riparian transpiration and direct evaporation from the stream channel (USDA ARS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the University of Wyoming, and the University of Arizona. Twenty-six sites within the SPRNCA were selected for collection of vegetation data from three primary streamflow regimes (perennial, intermittent-wet, intermittent-dry), which include the principal vegetation communities. Detailed hydrologic-condition data were collected at a subset of 16 of these sites, called the SPRNCA biohydrology sites. Water-use and water-source data were collected at a subset of 5 of the 16 biohydrology sites. Vegetation data also were collected at supplemental sites within the SPRNCA boundary in the Upper San Pedro Basin and in the Lower San Pedro Basin. In addition to information about vegetation and geomorphic conditions, hydrologic data collected at the 16

  6. A ground-water model of the upper San Pedro Basin from the Mexico-United States International Boundary to Fairbank, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freethey, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A definition of the hydrologic system of the upper San Pedro basin was obtained by developing a numerical ground-water model to evaluate a conceptual model of the system. Information on hydraulic properties of the basin fill, recharge from bordering mountain ranges, discharge by evapotranspiration, and exchange of water between aquifer and stream was available from previous measurements or estimates. The steady-state calibration procedure and subsequent transient simulations demonstrated that the original conceptualization can be reasonably simulated. An analysis of model sensitivity to increases and decreases in certain hydraulic properties indicated a low sensitivity to aquifer anisotropy and a low to moderate sensitivity to stream leakance and evapotranspiration rate. An analysis to investigate the effects of generalizing aquifer conductivity and recharge showed that flow components and water-level response to stress could be simulated adequately but that steady-state water-level conditions could not. During equilibrium conditions, recharge to and discharge from the basin was about 16,500 acre-feet per year. Modeling results indicated that by 1978 the storage depletion rate had reached 5,600 acre-feet per year resulting from a ground-water withdrawal rate of 10,500 acre-feet per year. (USGS)

  7. Evaluation of simulations to understand effects of groundwater development and artificial recharge on the surface water and riparian vegetation Sierra Vista subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Gungle, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey documented a five-layer groundwater flow model of the Sierra Vista and Sonoran subwatersheds of the Upper San Pedro Basin. The model has been applied by a private consultant to evaluate the effects of projected groundwater pumping through 2105 and effects of artificial recharge at three near-stream sites for 2012-2111. The main concern regarding simulations of long-term groundwater pumping is the effect of artificial model boundaries on modeled response, particularly for pumping near Cananea, Sonora, Mexico, which is adjacent to an artificial no-flow boundary. Concerns regarding the simulations of the effects of artificial recharge near streams include the resolution of the model and the representation of the model properties at the site scale; a possible limited ability of the model to correctly apportion recharge response between increased streamflow and increased evapotranspiration; a limited ability of the model to simulate detailed geometries of artificial recharge areas and evapotranspiration areas; and stream locations with the 820-foot grid spacing of the basin-scale model. In spite of these concerns, use of the U.S. Geological Survey five-layer groundwater flow model by the consultant are reasonable and valid.

  8. Contribution of the surface layer to the seeing at San Pedro Mártir: Si-mul-ta-neous microthermal and DIMM measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, L. J.; Cruz, D. X.; Avila, R.; Agabi, A.; Azouit, M.; Cuevas, S.; Garfias, F.; González, S. I.; Harris, O.; Masciadri, E.; Orlov, V. G.; Vernin, J.; Voitsekhovich, V. V.

    2003-09-01

    Results from experiments measuring the contribution of the surface layer to the optical seeing at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM) are reported. Microthermal sensors placed at 7 levels on a 15-m-high instrumented mast were used to measure the structure constant of the refractive index C[n]2. The integrated seeing parameter was measured with a Differential Image Motion Monitor during 23 nights. Log-normal statistics were found for the seeing with mean of 0.98 arcsec and median value 0.84 arcsec . The contribution of the surface layer (2.3 to 15 m) to the total optical turbulence has a mean value of 16%, which corresponds to a degradation of 10% of the total seeing. These values are similar to those found in other observatories around the world, suggesting that the presence of trees in the OAN-SPM does not have a significant effect on the surface layer seeing. Further studies should provide a confirmation of this tendency.

  9. Spatial digital database of the geologic map of Catalina Core Complex and San Pedro Trough, Pima, Pinal, Gila, Graham, and Cochise counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, William R.; digital database by Hirschberg, Douglas M.; Pitts, G. Stephen; Bolm, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map of Catalina Core Complex and San Pedro Trough by Dickinson (1992) was digitized for input into a geographic information system (GIS) by the U.S. Geological Survey staff and contractors in 2000-2001. This digital geospatial database is one of many being created by the U.S. Geological Survey as an ongoing effort to provide geologic information in a geographic information system (GIS) for use in spatial analysis. The resulting digital geologic map database data can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps and derivative products. Digital base map data (topography, roads, towns, rivers, lakes, and so forth) are not included; they may be obtained from a variety of commercial and government sources. This database is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale larger than 1:125,000 (for example, 1:100,000 or 1:24,000). The digital geologic map plot files that are provided herein are representations of the database. The map area is located in southern Arizona. This report lists the geologic map units, the methods used to convert the geologic map data into a digital format, the ArcInfo GIS file structures and relationships, and explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey public access World Wide Web site on the Internet. The manuscript and digital data review by Lorre Moyer (USGS) is greatly appreciated.

  10. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) and the San Pedro River Basin (U.S./Mexico).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, J. E.; Burns, I. S.; Guertin, D. P.; Kepner, W. G.; Goodrich, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time that was developed and applied on the San Pedro River Basin was expanded and utilized on the South Platte River Basin as well. Future urban growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and implement a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) present, evaluate, and compare results from scenarios for watersheds in two different geographic and climatic regions, 3) determine watershed specific implications of this type of future land cover change analysis.

  11. Timing and Duration of Flow in Ephemeral Streams of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Cochise County, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gungle, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Frequency, timing, and duration of streamflow were monitored in 20 ephemeral-stream channels across the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona, during an 18-month period. One channel (Walnut Gulch) had Agricultural Research Service streamflow-gaging stations in place. The sediments of the remaining 19 ephemeral-stream channels were instrumented with multiple temperature loggers along the channel lengths. A thermograph-interpretation technique was developed in order to determine frequency, timing, and duration of streamflow in these channels. Streamflow onset was characterized by exceedance of a critical minimum drop in temperature within the channel sediments during any 15-minute interval, whereas streamflow cessation was identified by the local temperature minimum that immediately followed the critical temperature drop. All data for the 18-month period from December 1, 2000, to May 31, 2002, were analyzed in terms of monsoon (June 1 to September 19) and nonmonsoon (September 20 to May 31) periods. Nonmonsoon precipitation during the 2000-2002 study period (excludes October and November 2000) was 82 percent and 39 percent of the 30-year average, respectively, whereas monsoon precipitation during 2001 was 99 percent of the 30-year average. Ephemeral streamflow was detected at least once during the monitoring period at 87 percent of the monitoring sites (45 of the 52 sites that returned useful data; includes 4 streamflow-gaging stations). The summer monsoon period accounted for 82 percent of all streamflow events by number and 71 percent of all events by total streamflow duration. Nonmonsoon streamflow events peaked in number, total streamflow duration, and mean streamflow duration midway between the Huachuca Mountains and the San Pedro River on the west side of the subwatershed. These three streamflow parameters dropped off sharply about 10 kilometers from the mountain front. The number and total duration of nonmonsoon

  12. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  13. Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, cool-season precipitation reconstructed from earlywood width of Abies concolor tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Díaz, J. Villanueva; Griffin, D.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Castro, C. L.; Carillo, C.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Tree ring data are analyzed for a multicentury record of drought history in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (SSPM) of Baja California, Mexico. Climatic variation in the study area is of particular interest because the SSPM is a rich biotic environment at the southern limit of the California floristic province and the southern limit of the planetary jet stream. Future shifts in the jet stream would be expected to have amplified effect on this marginal environment. The study applies linear regression to tree ring indices of earlywood-width of Abies concolor to estimate a 353 year (1658-2010 C.E.) record of cool-season (October-April) precipitation, P, in SSPM. Time-nested regression models account for more than half the variance of grid point P in calibration periods of length 50-65 years. Cross-spectral analysis indicates strong tracking of observed P by the reconstruction over a broad range of frequencies. Robustness of the reconstruction is supported by synchrony of reconstructed P with tree ring variations in other tree species from SSPM. The reconstruction emphasizes the severity of the 1950s drought in a long-term context and the single-year intensity of droughts in the last decade: 2007 stands out as the driest reconstructed year, with a high percentage of missing rings in A. concolor. The reconstruction identifies the early twentieth century pluvial as the wettest epoch in the last 353 years in the SSPM. High-elevation tree species in SSPM may be especially well-suited to sensing snowpack-related moisture variations associated with a southerly branched jet stream and the types of weather systems active in the pluvial.

  14. New Contributions to the Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale: Paleomagnetic study of Tequila and Ceboruco-San Pedro-Amado Nervo Volcanic Fields (Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ceja, M.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Rosas Elguera, J.; Calvo, M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the largest continental volcanic arcs of the North American plate. It spans about 1000 km from the Pacific to the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the abundance of thick lava sequences with quite high extrusion rates, the TMVB have been relatively little studied from a paleomagnetic point of view. Previous studies were aimed for tectonic evolution of the region rather than documenting fluctuations of Earth's magnetic field in terms of both directions and intensity. We report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study of Tequila and Ceboruco-San Pedro-Amado Nervo volcanic fields. 350 oriented samples belonging to 31 independent cooling units were collected. All these sites were previously dated by means of the state-of-the-art 40Ar-39Ar geochronological method and span from 1.1 Ma to 2 Ky. Rock-magnetic experiments which included continuous susceptibility, isothermal remanence acquisition and hysteresis measurements point to simple magnetic mineralogy. In most of cases, the remanence is carried by Ti-poor titanomagnetite of pseudo-single-domain magnetic structure. The paleodirections of the flow dated as 819±25 ka correspond to a VGP latitude of 18° N. This anomalous field behaviour apparently recorded prior to the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal may coincide with the geomagnetic event, defined as M-B precursor. Two independent lava flows, dated as 623±91 and 614±16 ka respectively, yield reverse paleodirections and one lava flow dated as 690±29 yields transitional paleodirections. It is possible that these lavas erupted during the worldwide observable Big Lost or Delta events.

  15. Long-term decrease in satellite vegetation indices in response to environmental variables in an iconic desert riparian ecosystem: the Upper San Pedro, Arizona, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River is one of the few remaining undammed rivers that maintain a vibrant riparian ecosystem in the southwest United States. However, its riparian forest is threatened by diminishing groundwater and surface water inputs, due to either changes in watershed characteristics such as changes in riparian and upland vegetation, or human activities such as regional groundwater pumping. We used satellite vegetation indices to quantify the green leaf density of the groundwater-dependent riparian forest from 1984 to 2012. The river was divided into a southern, upstream (mainly perennial flow) reach and a northern, downstream (mainly intermittent and ephemeral flow) reach. Pre-monsoon (June) Landsat normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed a 20% drop for the northern reach (P < 0·001) and no net change for the southern reach (P > 0·05). NDVI and enhanced vegetation index values were positively correlated (P < 0·05) with river flows, which decreased over the study period in the northern reach, and negatively correlated (P < 0·05) with air temperatures in both reaches, which have increased by 1·4 °C from 1932 to 2012. NDVI in the uplands around the river did not increase from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that increased evapotranspiration in the uplands was not a factor in reducing river flows. Climate change, regional groundwater pumping, changes in the intensity of monsoon rain events and lack of overbank flooding are feasible explanations for deterioration of the riparian forest in the northern reach.

  16. Eruptive stratigraphy of the Tatara-San Pedro complex, 36°S, sourthern volcanic zone, Chilean Andes: reconstruction method and implications for magma evolution at long-lived arc volcanic centers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dungan, M.A.; Wulff, A.; Thompson, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Quaternary Tatara-San Pedro volcanic complex (36°S, Chilean Andes) comprises eight or more unconformity-bound volcanic sequences, representing variably preserved erosional remnants of volcanic centers generated during 930 ky of activity. The internal eruptive histories of several dominantly mafic to intermediate sequences have been reconstructed, on the basis of correlations of whole-rock major and trace element chemistry of flows between multiple sampled sections, but with critical contributions from photogrammetric, geochronologic, and paleomagnetic data. Many groups of flows representing discrete eruptive events define internal variation trends that reflect extrusion of heterogeneous or rapidly evolving magna batches from conduit-reservoir systems in which open-system processes typically played a large role. Long-term progressive evolution trends are extremely rare and the magma compositions of successive eruptive events rarely lie on precisely the same differentiation trend, even where they have evolved from similar parent magmas by similar processes. These observations are not consistent with magma differentiation in large long-lived reservoirs, but they may be accommodated by diverse interactions between newly arrived magma inputs and multiple resident pockets of evolved magma and / or crystal mush residing in conduit-dominated subvolcanic reservoirs. Without constraints provided by the reconstructed stratigraphic relations, the framework for petrologic modeling would be far different. A well-established eruptive stratigraphy may provide independent constraints on the petrologic processes involved in magma evolution-simply on the basis of the specific order in which diverse, broadly cogenetic magmas have been erupted. The Tatara-San Pedro complex includes lavas ranging from primitive basalt to high-SiO2 rhyolite, and although the dominant erupted magma type was basaltic andesite ( 52-55 wt % SiO2) each sequence is characterized by unique proportions of

  17. Geochemical constraints on the origin of mafic and silicic magmas at Cordón El Guadal, Tatara-San Pedro Complex, central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Dungan, M. A.; Frey, F. A.

    The aim of this study is to quantify the crustal differentiation processes and sources responsible for the origin of basaltic to dacitic volcanic rocks present on Cordón El Guadal in the Tatara-San Pedro Complex (TSPC). This suite is important for understanding the origin of evolved magmas in the southern Andes because it exhibits the widest compositional range of any unconformity-bound sequence of lavas in the TSPC. Major element, trace element, and Sr-isotopic data for the Guadal volcanic rocks provide evidence for complex crustal magmatic histories involving up to six differentiation mechanisms. The petrogenetic processes for andesitic and dacitic lavas containing undercooled inclusions of basaltic andesitic and andesitic magma include: (1) assimilation of garnet-bearing, possibly mafic lower continental crust by primary mantle-derived basaltic magmas; (2) fractionation of olivine + clinopyroxene + Ca-rich plagioclase + Fe-oxides in present non-modal proportions from basaltic magmas at 4-8kbar to produce high-Al basalt and basaltic andesitic magmas; (3) vapor-undersaturated (i.e., PH2O

  18. High Performance Computing-based Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basin at Very High Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on large river basins in the southwestern United States is important given the natural water scarcity in the region. The bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on the hydrological consequences of climate change in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). These river systems support rich ecological communities along riparian corridors that provide habitat to migratory birds and support recreational and economic activities. Determining the climate impacts on riparian communities involves assessing how river flows and groundwater recharge will change with altered temperature and precipitation regimes. In this study, we use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios from WRF at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization using sub-basin partitioning with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely

  19. Neogene Tectonic History of the Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California Revealed by Careful Pairing of Cosmogenic Sampling with Topographic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M. W.; Quigley, M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Whipple, K. X.; Díaz-Torres, J. J.; Seiler, C.; Fifield, L. K.; Heimsath, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Sierra San Pedro Mártir (SSPM), MX defines a prominent section of the Main Gulf Escarpment that marks the breakaway fault of the Gulf of California rift. The SSPM is an uplifted rift shoulder that has the highest topography and relief in Baja California, with local elevations exceeding 3,000 m and range relief (summit to baselevel) ranging from ~500 to 2,500 m. Prior studies report Eocene apatite fission track ages from the base of the escarpment and indicate low total exhumation, thus limiting the use of low-temperature thermochronology to constrain the timing and pattern of Neogene faulting of this important structure. However, topography is expected to record tectonic, climatic, and rock strength controls on long-term denudation rates in active margins, and morphometric analysis offers an alternative approach, particularly when combined with cosmogenic 10Be-derived, catchment-averaged denudation rates. Denudation rates and topographic metrics in the SSPM record along-strike gradients in rock uplift that increase asymmetrically from fault tips to a maximum within the northern half of the range. Surface uplift of an Eocene paleo-erosion surface and slope-break knickpoints found at increasingly higher elevations in northern segments of the SSPM fault system suggest that range asymmetry is due to a recent northward acceleration in rock uplift rate. By characterizing the relationship between channel steepness and 10Be-derived denudation rates, we extrapolate millennial-scale denudation rates to million-year time-scales to estimate ages for the transient increase in rock uplift rates as well as the initial onset of faulting. From this, we predict that the SSPM fault system initiated during the Middle Miocene (~16-14 Ma) in the center of the range and ~11-8 Ma ago near the fault tips. These age estimates are consistent with independent, regional geologic constraints and show that careful pairing of cosmogenic denudation rates with topographic analysis can be used

  20. Geology and Geophysical Surveys to Infer the Structure of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Sonora, Mexico for Use in a Ground-Water-Flow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, D.; Gray, F.; Callegary, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    Data on geology and geophysics in the San Pedro River Basin in Sonora, Mexico were combined to develop a three-dimensional conceptual model of the alluvial-fill aquifer in the basin that is being used to construct a regional ground-water-flow model. In Mexico, the headwater region of the river encompasses approximately 1,800 square kilometers of an ungaged catchment system. This feeds a 58 kilometer-long series of intermittent and perennial stream reaches in the United States that extend from just north of the international border to the town of St. David, Arizona. The river forms part of a north-south riparian corridor that provides habitat for more than 100 resident and 250 migratory bird species. Ground water in the basin is used extensively on both sides of the border and information on basin structure and composition will help to address questions regarding ground- and surface-water sustainability and planning. Interpretations of bedrock and alluvial-fill geometry indicate that a significant portion of the catchment area in Mexico is underlain by bedrock composed of highly indurated (compacted) Cretaceous sedimentary, volcanic, volcano-sedimentary, and granitic intrusive rocks. Aeromagnetic surveys were used to estimate depth to bedrock underlying alluvial sediments. Satellite photographs, older geologic maps, and recent field observations were used to delineate the boundaries between bedrock and alluvium. About 655 square kilometers, or 36 percent, of the Mexican portion of the river basin is underlain by alluvial fill. In the southern part of the study area, detailed information on thickness and composition of subsurface layers to depths of 500 meters was derived from drill logs. An extensive network of vertical electrical soundings covering much of the central part of the basin allowed for estimates of the location and thickness of clay layers that are confining units within the aquifer system. Across much of the area, the thickness of the silt and

  1. Using High Resolution Satellite Precipitation fields to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrologic modeling using high spatiotemporal resolution satellite precipitation products in the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico is important given the sparse nature of available rain gauges. In addition, the bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on hydrological comparisons using rainfall forcing from a satellite-based product, downscaled GCM precipitation estimates and available ground observations. The simulations are being conducted in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). We use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. We compare the model outputs and rainfall fields of the WRF products against the forcing from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and available ground observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and Arizona Meteorological Network (AZMET). For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on

  2. Improving the Flash Flood Frequency Analysis using dendrogeomorphological evidences in the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Spanish Central System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Bodoque, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    The flash flood frequency analysis in mountainous catchments presents specific scientific challenges. One of the challenges is the relevant gradient in precipitation intensity with altitude. Another challenge is the lack of information from rainfall or discharge gauge stations or from documentary sources. Dendrogeomorphology studies the response in the wood growth pattern and the botanical signs on the trees affected by geomorphological processes. With regard to the flood frequency, the dendrogeomorphological evidences bring forward valuable infomation about single past events (with annual or even seasonal precision) and their occurrence periodicity. The main macro-evidence that we can find in the tree trunk is a stem scar originated by a wound in the bark of the tree. When the tree grows, this wound remains reflected in the tree ring sequence. The best way to analyze the tree ring sequence is by using a complete section of the trunk, this couldn't be possible unless the tree is cut down. Due to the unfeasibility of cutting down the trees, in Dendrogeomorphology is enough to obtain an increment core, using a Pressler borer. Nevertheless, this study has been based on complete stem sections analysis facilitated for the felling works in the riverine vegetation in the Arenal River, carried out by the Tagus River Water Authority. These felling works have allowed us to obtain sections and to analyze the stump of the tree in situ. On this way, 100 samples of Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus angustifolia located by the river along the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Ávila, northern slopes of the Gredos Mountain Range in the Spanish Central System) have been analyzed. This village is known for its historical problems of flood during extreme events. A meticulous fieldwork has been carried out. Every sample was analyzed locating its geomorphological position, the distance to the riverbed and the height of the stump in which the evidences were observed. Using a

  3. Evaluation of the importance of clay confining units on groundwaterflow in alluvial basins using solute and isotope tracers: the case of Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, Candice B.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Eastoe, Chris; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Meixner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As groundwater becomes an increasingly important water resource worldwide, it is essential to understand how local geology affects groundwater quality, flowpaths and residence times. This study utilized multiple tracers to improve conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA) by determining recharge areas, compartmentalization of water sources, flowpaths and residence times. Ninety-five groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for major ion chemistry (water type and Ca/Sr ratios) and stable (18O, 2H, 13C) and radiogenic (3H, 14C) isotopes, and resulting data were used in conjunction with hydrogeologic information (e.g. hydraulic head and hydrostratigraphy). Results show that recent recharge (<60 years) has occurred within mountain systems along the basin margins and in shallow floodplain aquifers adjacent to the San Pedro River. Groundwater in the lower basin fill aquifer (semi confined) was recharged at high elevation in the fractured bedrock and has been extensively modified by water-rock reactions (increasing F and Sr, decreasing 14C) over long timescales (up to 35,000 years BP). Distinct solute and isotope geochemistries between the lower and upper basin fill aquifers show the importance of a clay confining unit on groundwater flow in the basin, which minimizes vertical groundwater movement.

  4. Composición de especies y estructura del bosque kárstico de San Patricio, Guaynabo, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    A. Suárez; I. Vicéns; A.E. Lugo

    2005-01-01

    Five permanent plots were established along an elevational gradient in the San Patricio urban forest. At the time of the study (August, 2004) we found 29 forest species in a 0.19 ha area. Of these, seven were introduced and dominated the mogote valley where there had previously been a military base. The slopes and top of the mogote were dominated by native species,...

  5. Ephemeral-Stream Channel and Basin-Floor Infiltration and Recharge in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole. Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  6. Simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals and artificial recharge on discharge to streams, springs, and riparian vegetation in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.; Leenhouts, James M.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of ground-water resources, “capture” or “streamflow depletion” refers to withdrawal-induced changes in inflow to or outflow from an aquifer. These concepts are helpful in understanding the effects of long-term development of ground-water resources. For the Upper San Pedro Basin in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, a recently developed ground-water flow model is available to help quantify capture of water from the river and riparian system. A common method of analysis is to compute curves of capture and aquifer-storage change for a range of time at select points of interest. This study, however, presents results of a method to show spatial distributions of total change in inflow and outflow from withdrawal or injection for select times of interest. The mapped areal distributions show the effect of a single well in terms of the ratio of the change in boundary flow rate to rate of withdrawal or injection by the well. To the extent that the system responds linearly to ground-water withdrawal or injection, fractional responses in the mapped distributions can be used to quantify response for any withdrawal or injection rate. Capture distributions calculated using the Upper San Pedro model include response to (1) withdrawal in the lower basin-fill aquifer for times of 10 and 50 years following the initiation of pumping from predevelopment conditions and (2) artificial recharge to the water table in the area underlain by the lower basin-fill aquifer after 10 and 50 years. The mapped distributions show that response to withdrawals and injections is greatest near the river/riparian system. Presence of clay layers in the vertical interval between withdrawal locations and the river/riparian system, however, can delay the response.

  7. Petrography, geochemistry, and depositional setting of the San Pedro and Santo Tomas coal zones: anomalous algae-rich coals in the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Hook, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two coal zones, the San Pedro and the overlying Santo Tomas, are presented for nearly 35 km in outcrop, surface and underground mines, and shallow drill holes along the strike of the middle part of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) in Webb County, Texas. A sandstone-dominated interval of 25 to 35 m separates the two coal zones, which range up to 3 m in thickness. The coal-bearing portion of the middle Claiborne Group in the Rio Grande area represents a fining-upward transition from sandstone-dominated, marine-influenced, lower delta plain depositional environments to more inland, mudstone-rich, predominantly freshwater deltaic settings. The less variable nature of the Santo Tomas coal zone reflects its origin in the upper part of an interlobe basin that received only minor clastic influx. Petrographic attributes of the nonbanded coals indicate that they formed subaqueously in fresh to possibly brackish waters. Petrographic study of polished blocks indicates that approximately 10% of the nonbanded coal from both coal zones is composed of green algae fructifications. -from Authors

  8. Assessing a bioremediation strategy in a shallow coastal system affected by a fish farm culture--application of GIS and shellfish dynamic models in the Rio San Pedro, SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; DelValls, T A

    2012-04-01

    An integrated multi-trophic aquaculture assessment for Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture as a bioremediation strategy in areas impacted by fish farm effluents in Rio San Pedro was assessed by combining geographic information system with carrying capacity models. Sites of 0.44 km(2) were evaluated considering constraints; physical factors, growth and survival factors, environmental quality factors, water and sediment quality criteria, factor suitability ranges, and Multi-Criteria Evaluation. Isleta and Flamenco are promising sites for oyster production, and Dorada is of marginal interest. Carbon and nitrogen removal from the water by algae and through detritus filtration was estimated. The biodeposition of organic material from longline leases was found to have little negative impact on sediment. The eutrophication results indicate that phytoplankton removal had a positive impact on water quality at the Dorada. This case study quantified the direct profitability and bioremediative environmental service advantages that fish-shellfish farms can have relative to fish monocultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. San Pedro River Basin Data Browser Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acquisition of primary spatial data and database development are initial features of any type of landscape assessment project. They provide contemporary land cover and the ancillary datasets necessary to establish reference condition and develop alternative future scenarios that ...

  10. San Pedro River Basin Data Browser Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acquisition of primary spatial data and database development are initial features of any type of landscape assessment project. They provide contemporary land cover and the ancillary datasets necessary to establish reference condition and develop alternative future scenarios that ...

  11. Reconnaissance Report on San Pedro Ports, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    local flood- control program largely due to the economic depression of the 1930’s. Projects on major streams were placed under their direction, while...potential for increased erosion during the construction of new facilities. b. Waterways and Flood- control Channels This mode of transportation...TASK 9PERFORMING ORGANIZAiON 1101 NAME AND ADDRESS AREA & WORK UN IT NUMBERS VTN CONSOLIDATED, INC zIRVINE, CALIFORNIA.’ I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME

  12. San Pedro River Basin Data Browser (http://fws-case-12.nmsu.edu/SanPedro/)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acquisition of primary spatial data and database development are initial features of any type of landscape assessment project. They provide contemporary land cover and the ancillary datasets necessary to establish reference condition and develop alternative future scenarios that ...

  13. San Pedro River Basin Data Browser (http://fws-case-12.nmsu.edu/SanPedro/)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acquisition of primary spatial data and database development are initial features of any type of landscape assessment project. They provide contemporary land cover and the ancillary datasets necessary to establish reference condition and develop alternative future scenarios that ...

  14. Hydrology of the middle San Pedro area, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, Donald R.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2015-05-05

    Precipitation, surface-water, and groundwater chemistry and isotope data indicated the relative age and residence time of groundwater, the amount of interaction between geologic sources and groundwater, and how recharge elevation and season were related to the presence of modern water. The bedrock aquifer receives modern recharge (<50 years old) that is a mix of both summer and winter precipitation; water in the fractured system has very little time to interact with the surrounding rock matrix. The unconfined basin-fill aquifer shows evidence of some modern recharge from multiple recharge seasons and altitudes; water has a long residence time with potential for increased water-rock interaction. The confined basin-fill aquifer does not receive a significant amount of modern recharge, and water has a long residence time with potential for increased water-rock interaction. The alluvial aquifer primarily receives modern recharge during the summer monsoon season by floodwater in the river.

  15. Spectral Analysis of an AVIRIS Image of San Pedro Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Hamilton, Mike; Rhea, W. Joe; van den Bosch, Jeannette; Carder, Kendall; Steward, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Optical case-2 waters near an ocean outfall were examined, using a combination fo AVIRIS imagery and ship-based surface and profile bio-optical measurements. Bio-optical mooring data were useful in determining the hydrodynamics of the area.

  16. Climate mitigation potential of the San Pedro River riparian zone

    Treesearch

    Dean A. Martens; Jean E. T. McLain

    2005-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling within an open brush site, a sacaton (Sporobolus wrightii) grass and a mesquite (Prosopis velutina) grove, in the riparian zone was closely linked to the yearly litter N inputs. Yearly mesquite litter fall for 2 yr was remarkably similar and averaged 4.0 g N m-2 and 65 g C m...

  17. [Medical education in the Chilean colonial period during 18th century: Professor Domingo Nevin and his disciple Pedro Manuel Chaparro].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique; Duarte, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines the beginning of the medical studies at the Universidad de San Felipe de Santiago de Chile on the second half of the 18th century. Dr Domingo Nevin was the first professor of Prima Medicina and Proto-medico. Dr. Pedro Manuel Chaparro was the first Chilean student who complete his studies and got his degree at the same university. Both of them had remarkable achievements during the colonial Chilean Medicine.

  18. Astronaut Pedro Duque Watches A Water Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

  19. Astronaut Pedro Duque Watches A Water Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

  20. San Antonio River and Tributaries, Texas Foundation Report, San Pedro Creek Tunnel and Shafts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    lies between Santa Rosa Street on the west and Camaron Street on the east. It has a cast-in-place concrete liner with a I.D. of 24 feet 4 inches. An...consist of clay, lignite, sand, and sandstone of the Claiborne, Wilcox, and Midway Groups. Cretaceous formations are contained in the Navarro and Taylor...Pad Navarro formations. Both flanks of the anticline are terminated by faults of the Balcones system. 3-02. Geology of the Tunnel Alignment. a

  1. Expedition 8 Crew Interview: Pedro Duque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque is interviewed in preparation for his flight to and eight day stay on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Cervantes mission. Duque arrived on the ISS with the Expedition 8 crew onboard a Soyuz TMA-3, the seventh Soyuz flight to the station. He departed from the ISS on a Soyuz TMA-2 with the Expedition 7 crew of the ISS. In the video, Duque answers questions on: the goals of his flight; his life and career path; the Columbus Module, which ESA will contribute to the ISS, the ride onboard a Soyuz, and the importance of the ISS.

  2. Expedition 8 Crew Interview: Pedro Duque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque is interviewed in preparation for his flight to and eight day stay on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the Cervantes mission. Duque arrived on the ISS with the Expedition 8 crew onboard a Soyuz TMA-3, the seventh Soyuz flight to the station. He departed from the ISS on a Soyuz TMA-2 with the Expedition 7 crew of the ISS. In the video, Duque answers questions on: the goals of his flight; his life and career path; the Columbus Module, which ESA will contribute to the ISS, the ride onboard a Soyuz, and the importance of the ISS.

  3. [On an unknown edition of the Reprobación de supersticiones by the master Pedro Ciruelo].

    PubMed

    Mateo Ripoll, Verónica

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the article is the analysis and description of one of the editions of the well-known Reprobación de supersticiones by the master Pedro Ciruelo. To be exact, it is the first edition, as we will demonstrate through the text, which was undiscovered until now. We proceed to the description of a copy kept at the library of the Diocesan Seminary of San Miguel de Orihuela. In addition to the more formal aspects, the evolution and development of the author, printer and engraver are extremely important for dating this printed work.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the airport in San Jose, Costa Rica, the NASA hangar is dedicated. The speaker is Hermann Faith, executive director, Costa Rica-USA (CRUSA) Foundation. At the table are (from left) Dr. Jorge Andres Diaz, head scientiest CARTA mission; Gary Shelton, NASA deployment manager; Dr. Pedro Leon, general director, National Center for Advanced Technology (CENAT); Dr. Rogelio Pardo, minister of science and tchnology; John Danilovioch, U.S. ambassador to Costa Rica; and Lic. Vilma Lopez, subdirector, Civil Aviation (DGAC). NASA KSC has been testing its Aircraft-based Volcanic Emission Mass Spectrometer (AVEMS) in flights over the Turrialba volcano and in the crater, sampling and analyzing fresh volcanic gases in their natural chemical state. The AVEMS system has been developed for use in the Space Shuttle program, to detect toxic gas leaks and emissions in the Shuttle’s aft compartment and the crew compartment.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-31

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the airport in San Jose, Costa Rica, the NASA hangar is dedicated. The speaker is Hermann Faith, executive director, Costa Rica-USA (CRUSA) Foundation. At the table are (from left) Dr. Jorge Andres Diaz, head scientiest CARTA mission; Gary Shelton, NASA deployment manager; Dr. Pedro Leon, general director, National Center for Advanced Technology (CENAT); Dr. Rogelio Pardo, minister of science and tchnology; John Danilovioch, U.S. ambassador to Costa Rica; and Lic. Vilma Lopez, subdirector, Civil Aviation (DGAC). NASA KSC has been testing its Aircraft-based Volcanic Emission Mass Spectrometer (AVEMS) in flights over the Turrialba volcano and in the crater, sampling and analyzing fresh volcanic gases in their natural chemical state. The AVEMS system has been developed for use in the Space Shuttle program, to detect toxic gas leaks and emissions in the Shuttle’s aft compartment and the crew compartment.

  5. Use of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    TAKASAKI, Hiroshi; ELKINS, Mark R.; MOSELEY, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) may help users to overcome some obstacles to evidence-based physiotherapy. Understanding the extent to which Japanese physiotherapists access research evidence via the PEDro website may suggest strategies to enhance evidence-based physiotherapy in Japan. Objectives: To quantify usage of PEDro in Japan, to compare this to usage in other countries, and to examine variations in PEDro usage within Japan. Design: An observational study of PEDro usage with geographic analysis. Methods: Data about visits to the home-page and searches of the database were recorded for 4 years. These data were analysed by each region of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, each country in the Asia Western Pacific region, and each prefecture in Japan. Results: From 2010 to 2013, users of PEDro made 2.27 million visits to the home-page and ran 6.28 million searches. Usage (ie, number of searches normalised by population) was highest in Europe, followed by North America Carribean, South America, Asia Western Pacific, and Africa. Within the Asia Western Pacific region, population-normalised usage was highest in Australia, then New Zealand and Singapore. Japan ranked 10 among the 26 countries in the region. Within Japan, the highest population-normalised usage was in the Nagano, Kumamoto and Aomori prefectures, which was ten-fold higher usage than in some other prefectures. Conclusions: Although Japan has higher PEDro usage than many other countries in the Asia Western Pacific region, some prefectures had very low usage, suggesting that evidence-based practice may not be being adopted uniformly across Japan. PMID:28289582

  6. ["El Informe Médico-Moral de la Penosissima y Rigorosa Enfermedad de la Epilepsi" (1763) by the Spaniard Pedro de Horta, the 1st American treatise on epilepsy].

    PubMed

    García-Albea, E

    1998-06-01

    In 1763 Pedro de Horta was requested by the prioress of the convent of San Gerónimo in Puebla de los Angeles to draw up a report to establish whether the epidemic of queer turns, violent shaking or epilepsy which affected the novices was caused by the Devil or was due to natural causes. Pedro de Horta, a doctor qualified in Mexico, methodically and thoroughly prepared an extensive monographic treatise on the illness which included all that was known at the time. The report showed the fierce debates provoked by the subject of epilepsy in the eighteenth century regarding whether it was of natural or supernatural origin. It also contained detailed accounts of the episodes, their causes and treatment. The Spaniard Pedro de Horta should be justly recognized as the first American epileptologist.

  7. Une version franco-canadienne de la Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale : L'Échelle PEDro

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Chantal; Sutton, Anne; Guitard, Paulette; King, Judy; Poitras, Stéphane; Casimiro, Lynn; Tremblay, Manon; Cardinal, Dominique; Cavallo, Sabrina; Laferrière, Lucie; Grisé, Isabelle; Marshall, Lisa; Smith, Jacky R.; Lagacé, Josée; Pharand, Denyse; Galipeau, Roseline; Toupin-April, Karine; Loew, Laurianne; Demers, Catrine; Sauvé-Schenk, Katrine; Paquet, Nicole; Savard, Jacinthe; Tourigny, Jocelyne; Vaillancourt, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ But : Effectuer une traduction franco-canadienne de la PEDro scale sous l'appellation proposée d'Échelle PEDro et examiner la validité de son contenu. Méthodologie : Nous avons utilisé une approche modifiée de la méthodologie de validation transculturelle de Vallerand. Une traduction renversée parallèle de la PEDro scale a d'abord été effectuée à la fois par des traductrices professionnelles et des chercheurs cliniciens. Ensuite, un premier comité d'experts (P1) a examiné les versions traduites et a créé la première version expérimentale de l'Échelle PEDro. Cette version a été évaluée par un deuxième comité d'experts (P2). Finalement, 32 chercheurs cliniques ont évalué cette deuxième version expérimentale de l'Échelle PEDro à l'aide d'une échelle de clarté (étendue de 5 points) et ont proposé les modifications finales. Résultats : Pour les différents énoncés de la version finale de l'Échelle PEDro, les moyennes sur l'échelle de clarté montrent un niveau élevé puisqu'elles varient entre 4,0 et 4,7 sur un score maximal de 5 points. Conclusion : Les quatre étapes rigoureuses du processus ont permis de produire une version franco-canadienne valide de l'Échelle PEDro. PMID:26839449

  8. Sediment-quality and water-toxicity data from 10 sites on the Westside Creeks and San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment samples and samples for water-toxicity testing were collected during 2014 from several streams in San Antonio, Texas known locally as the Westside creeks (Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks) and from the San Antonio River. Samples were collected once during base-flow and again after periods of storm-water runoff (post-storm conditions) to determine baseline sediment- and water-quality conditions. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  9. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto..., 916-446-0100. c. FERC Contact: Stephen Bowler, Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project, Dispute Resolution...

  10. Pedro Gutierrez Bueno's Textbooks: Audiences, Teaching Practices and Chemical Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jose Ramon Bertomeu; Belmar, Antonio Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Pedro Gutierrez Bueno wrote two editions of a chemistry textbook between 1788 and 1802. The paper offers a comparative view of both editions taking into account Gutierrez Bueno's biography, his intended audience and the changes related to the so-called chemical revolution. Some conclusions are at odds with common images about scientific…

  11. Geologic Map of the San Luis Quadrangle, Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    The map area includes San Luis and the primarily rural surrounding area. San Luis, the county seat of Costilla County, is the oldest surviving settlement in Colorado (1851). West of the town are San Pedro and San Luis mesas (basalt-covered tablelands), which are horsts with the San Luis fault zone to the east and the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone to the west. The map also includes the Sanchez graben (part of the larger Culebra graben), a deep structural basin that lies between the San Luis fault zone (on the west) and the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone (on the east). The oldest rocks exposed in the map area are the Pliocene to upper Oligocene basin-fill sediments of the Santa Fe Group, and Pliocene Servilleta Basalt, a regional series of 3.7?4.8 Ma old flood basalts. Landslide deposits and colluvium that rest on sediments of the Santa Fe Group cover the steep margins of the mesas. Rare exposures of the sediment are comprised of siltstones, sandstones, and minor fluvial conglomerates. Most of the low ground surrounding the mesas and in the graben is covered by surficial deposits of Quaternary age. The alluvial deposits are subdivided into three Pleistocene-age units and three Holocene-age units. The oldest Pleistocene gravel (unit Qao) forms extensive coalesced alluvial fan and piedmont surfaces, the largest of which is known as the Costilla Plain. This surface extends west from San Pedro Mesa to the Rio Grande. The primary geologic hazards in the map area are from earthquakes, landslides, and localized flooding. There are three major fault zones in the area (as discussed above), and they all show evidence for late Pleistocene to possible Holocene movement. The landslides may have seismogenic origins; that is, they may be stimulated by strong ground shaking during large earthquakes. Machette and Thompson based this geologic map entirely on new mapping, whereas Drenth supplied geophysical data and interpretations.

  12. San Marino.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    San Marino, an independent republic located in north central Italy, in 1983 had a population of 22,206 growing at an annual rate of .9%. The literacy rate is 97% and the infant mortality rate is 9.6/1000. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is moderate. According to local tradition, San Marino was founded by a Christian stonecutter in the 4th century A.D. as a refuge against religious persecution. Its recorded history began in the 9th century, and it has survived assaults on its independence by the papacy, the Malatesta lords of Rimini, Cesare Borgia, Napoleon, and Mussolini. An 1862 treaty with the newly formed Kingdom of Italy has been periodically renewed and amended. The present government is an alliance between the socialists and communists. San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Legislative authority at present is vested in a 60-member unicameral parliament. Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State, the members of which head the various administrative departments of the goverment. The posts are divided among the parties which form the coalition government. Judicial authority is partly exercised by Italian magistrates in civil and criminal cases. San Marino's policies are tied to Italy's and political organizations and labor unions active in Italy are also active in San Marino. Since World War II, there has been intense rivalry between 2 political coalitions, the Popular Alliance composed of the Christian Democratic Party and the Independent Social Democratic Party, and the Liberty Committee, coalition of the Communist Party and the Socialist Party. San Marino's gross domestic product was $137 million and its per capita income was $6290 in 1980. The principal economic activities are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Foreign transactions are dominated by tourism. The government derives most of its revenue from the sale of postage stamps to

  13. A Pixelated Emission Detector for RadiOisotopes (PEDRO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, M. R.; Gillam, J. E.; Beveridge, T. E.; Brown, J. M. C.; Lewis, R. A.; Hall, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Pixelated Emission Detector for RadiOisotopes (PEDRO) is a hybrid imager designed for the measurement of single photon emission from small animals. The proof-of-principle device currently under development consists of a Compton-camera situated behind a mechanical modulator. The combination of mechanical and electronic (hybrid) collimation should provide optimal detection characteristics over a broad spectral range (30 keV≤Eγ≤511 keV), through a reduction in the sensitivity-resolution trade-off, inherent in conventional mechanically collimated configurations. This paper presents GEANT4 simulation results from the PEDRO geometry operated only as a Compton camera in order to gauge its advantage when used in concert with mechanical collimation—regardless of the collimation pattern. The optimization of multiple detector spacing and resolution parameters is performed utilizing the Median Distance of Closest Approach (MDCA) and has been shown to result in an optimum distance, beyond which only a loss in sensitivity occurs.

  14. Population status of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the San Pedro River Basin, Sonora

    Treesearch

    Efren Moreno-Arzate; Carlos A. Lopez Gonzalez; Gerardo Carreon Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    The black tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a species of conservation concern for Mexico, the United States and Canada. Populations in Mexico (including those in Sonora), which are considered endangered by the Mexican authority, require additional conservation efforts to maintain them on the long term. Our objective was to determine population size and...

  15. A 25-YEAR HISTORY OF LAND COVER CHANGE IN THE SAN PEDRO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory


    Vegetation change in the American West has been a subject of concern throughout the twentieth century. Although many of the changes have been recorded qualitatively through the use of comparative photography and historical reports, little quantitative information has been ava...

  16. Environmental Assessment for Slope Stabilization Projects at Fort MacArthur, San Pedro, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    growth and development in the vicinity of project would not result in any adverse cumulative impacts. Given the minor intensity of these impacts, the...south, with some scattered commercial development . The Port of Los Angeles and Cabrillo Marina are on its eastern border. The Proposed Action, which is...The Fort is surrounded primarily by residential areas to the north, west, and south, with some scattered commercial development . The Port of Los

  17. Gravity data from the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This report (1) summarizes changes to the Sierra Vista Subwatershed regional time-lapse gravity network with respect to station locations and (2) presents 2014 and 2015 gravity measurements and gravity values at each station. A prior gravity network, established between 2000 and 2005, was revised in 2014 to cover a larger number of stations over a smaller geographic area in order to decrease measurement and interpolation uncertainty. The network currently consists of 59 gravity stations, including 14 absolute-gravity stations. Following above-average rainfall during summer 2014, gravity increased at all but one of the absolute-gravity stations that were observed in both June 2014 and January 2015. This increase in gravity indicates increased groundwater storage in the aquifer and (or) unsaturated zone as a result of rainfall and infiltration.

  18. PREDICTING CHANGES USING MULTI-DATE SATELLITE IMAGERY: SAN PEDRO RIVER CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    .
    Vegetation change in the American West has been a subject of concern throughout the twentieth century. Although many of the changes have been recorded qualitatively through the use of comparative photography and historical reports, little quantitative information has been a...

  19. San Pedro meeting on Wide Field Variability Surveys: Some concluding comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feast, Michael W.

    2017-09-01

    This is a written version of the closing talk at the 22nd Los Alamos Stellar pulsation conference on wide field variability surveys. It comments on some of the issues which arise from the meeting. These include the need for attention to photometric standardization (especially in the infrared) and the somewhat controversial problem of statistical bias in the use of parallaxes (and other methods of distance determination). Some major advances in the use of pulsating variables to study Galactic structure are mentioned. The paper includes a clarification of apparently conflicting results from classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars in the inner Galaxy and bulge. The importance of understanding non-periodic phenomena in variable stars, particularly asymptotic giant branch variables and R Coronae Borealis stars, is stressed, especially for its relevance to mass-loss in which pulsation may only play a minor role.

  20. Site Testing at the Mexican National Astronomical Observatory in San Pedro Martir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costero, R.; Echevarria, J.; Tapia, M.

    1996-05-01

    Measurements on the local seeing have been carried out during two and a half yea rs (March 29, 1992 to October 7, 1994), over a total of 378 nights. The Site Tes ting Telescope (STT) from the Steward Observatory yields a median seeing of 0.61 arcsec and a first quartile of 0.50 arcsec. Additional measurements with the Carnegie Monitor (CM), many of them done simultaneously with the STT, yield almost identical results. The Micro--Thermal Array (MTA), also from Steward Observatory, show that the seeing size decreases about 0.1 arcsec at 15 meters above the ground. The seeing does not show any dependence on wind velocity or direction, at least for wind velocities smaller than 40 kilometers per hour. We will present the details of these results. The participation of several persons in this project is here acknowledge, especially that of R. Cromwell and N. Wolf, from Steward Observatory, and S.E. Persson and D.M. Carr, from The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Angeles or Port of Long Beach. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones: All navigable waters... Beach or designated anchorages within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Federal Breakwaters. (c... Port, Los Angeles—Long Beach (COTP) or a COTP designated representative. (1) Persons desiring to...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beach Breakwater East End Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Long Beach Channel Entrance Light 2 to Long Beach Light. (c) A line drawn from Los Angeles Main Entrance Channel Light 2 to Los Angeles Light. ...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Angeles or Port of Long Beach. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones: All navigable waters... Beach or designated anchorages within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Federal Breakwaters. (c... Port, Los Angeles—Long Beach (COTP) or a COTP designated representative. (1) Persons desiring to...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Beach Breakwater East End Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Long Beach Channel Entrance Light 2 to Long Beach Light. (c) A line drawn from Los Angeles Main Entrance Channel Light 2 to Los Angeles Light. ...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Beach Breakwater East End Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Long Beach Channel Entrance Light 2 to Long Beach Light. (c) A line drawn from Los Angeles Main Entrance Channel Light 2 to Los Angeles Light. ...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that is moored, or in the process of mooring, at any berth within the Los Angeles or Long Beach port... prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her... given permission from the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach to do otherwise. (d) Authority. In...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Angeles or Port of Long Beach. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones: (1) All waters... ship that is moored, or is in the process of mooring, at any berth within the Los Angeles or Long Beach... prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that is moored, or in the process of mooring, at any berth within the Los Angeles or Long Beach port... prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her... given permission from the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach to do otherwise. (d) Authority. In...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Angeles or Port of Long Beach. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones: All navigable waters... Beach or designated anchorages within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Federal Breakwaters. (c... Port, Los Angeles—Long Beach (COTP) or a COTP designated representative. (1) Persons desiring to...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that is moored, or in the process of mooring, at any berth within the Los Angeles or Long Beach port... prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her... given permission from the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach to do otherwise. (d) Authority. In...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beach Breakwater East End Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Long Beach Channel Entrance Light 2 to Long Beach Light. (c) A line drawn from Los Angeles Main Entrance Channel Light 2 to Los Angeles Light. ...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that is moored, or in the process of mooring, at any berth within the Los Angeles or Long Beach port... prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her... given permission from the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach to do otherwise. (d) Authority. In...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1114 - San Pedro Bay-Anaheim Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Beach Breakwater East End Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Long Beach Channel Entrance Light 2 to Long Beach Light. (c) A line drawn from Los Angeles Main Entrance Channel Light 2 to Los Angeles Light. ...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  19. PREDICTING CHANGES USING MULTI-DATE SATELLITE IMAGERY: SAN PEDRO RIVER CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    .
    Vegetation change in the American West has been a subject of concern throughout the twentieth century. Although many of the changes have been recorded qualitatively through the use of comparative photography and historical reports, little quantitative information has been a...

  20. A 25-YEAR HISTORY OF LAND COVER CHANGE IN THE SAN PEDRO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory


    Vegetation change in the American West has been a subject of concern throughout the twentieth century. Although many of the changes have been recorded qualitatively through the use of comparative photography and historical reports, little quantitative information has been ava...

  1. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment for Space Division Proposed Housing, White Point, San Pedro, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    Todd Shipyard Corporation 5,500 Shipbuilding and Repairs Star Kist Foods 3,500 Sea Foods Pan Pacific Fisheries 850 Fisheries Union Oil Company 609... Union 1972 supplement to f .t.e Chekkii:;t ),’ North AmrL-,,t Birdu, whULe ta;%t 0L’ amphibians and r Le.Lths t’l ,.:; S10’bbS I𔃺i 1 0 (Amphibiuru...old building site is marked by a row of olive trees (Olea europea ) atid scatter.-d tros of BraziiLari pepper tret:i (Schinus terebinthifolius

  2. THE CHANGING WATERSHED: A 25-YEAR HISTORY OF LAND COVER CHANGE IN THE SAN PEDRO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetation change in the American West has been a subject of concern throughout this century. Although many of the changes have been recorded qualitatively through the use of comparative photography and historical reports, little quantitative information has been available on the...

  3. A LANDSCAPE APPROACH TO MONITORING AND ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetation change in the American West has been the subject of much concern and controversy throughout the twentieth century. Over the years, a considerable number and variety of claims have been made regarding cause related to changes in land cover. The evidence for vegetation c...

  4. THE SAN PEDRO RIVER SPATIAL DATA ARCHIVE, A DATABASE BROWSER FOR COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is currently possible to measure landscape change over large areas and determine trends in ecological and hydrological condition using advanced space-based technologies accompanied by geospatial data. Specifically, this process is being tested in a community-based watershed in...

  5. RETROSPECTIVE LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS, AN APPROACH FOR EVALUATION LAND COVER CHANGE: SAN PEDRO RIVER CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Vegetation change in the American West has been the subject of much concern and controversy throughout the twentieth century. Over the years, a considerable number and variety of 'claims have been made regarding cause related to changes in land cover. The evidence for vegetat...

  6. THE SAN PEDRO SPATIAL DATA ARCHIVE, A DATABASE BROWSER FOR COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is currently possible to measure landscape change over large areas and determine trends in ecological and hydrological condition using advanced space-based technologies accompanied by geospatial data. Specifically, this process is being tested in a community-based watershed in...

  7. THE CHANGING WATERSHED: A 25-YEAR HISTORY OF LAND COVER CHANGE IN THE SAN PEDRO RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetation change in the American West has been a subject of concern throughout this century. Although many of the changes have been recorded qualitatively through the use of comparative photography and historical reports, little quantitative information has been available on the...

  8. THE SAN PEDRO RIVER SPATIAL DATA ARCHIVE, A DATABASE BROWSER FOR COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is currently possible to measure landscape change over large areas and determine trends in ecological and hydrological condition using advanced space-based technologies accompanied by geospatial data. Specifically, this process is being tested in a community-based watershed in...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED... used in this section means a passenger vessel, except for a ferry, over 100 feet in length, authorized...

  10. Nutritional status indicators and their interactions in rural Guatemalan elderly: a study in San Pedro Ayampuc.

    PubMed

    King, J E; Mazariegos, M; Valdez, C; Castañeda, C; Solomons, N W

    1997-10-01

    Anthropometry and body-composition measures, hematologic and biochemical measures of nutritional status, and helminthic infection were studied in the population of elderly persons (> or = 60 y of age) in a rural village in Guatemala that was 65% Mayan (indigenous) and 35% ladino (European). The population had low levels of literacy and formal education. The elderly persons were much shorter and lighter than reference populations. Anemia was present in 18% of the population, and riboflavin and vitamin B-12 deficiencies were detected in 70% and 38%, respectively. Both anthropometric and biochemical-hematologic variables were lower, on average, in the Mayan descendants than in the ladinos. When grouped by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), greater BMI signified higher values for almost all biochemical-hematologic measures. Sixty-five percent of the sampled population had mild-to-moderate Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. The lifestyle in rural Guatemala is evolving, and the present findings provide insights into the evolution of nutritional status in the growing number of elderly in the countryside.

  11. Assessing Impacts of Landuse Changes on Hydrology in the Upper San Pedro Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southwest Ecosystem Service Project (SwESP) is part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s new Ecosystem Services Research Program, undertaken to examine the variety of ways in which the landscapes including crop lands, conservation areas, wetlands, lakes, streams, an...

  12. Assessing Impacts of Landuse Changes on Hydrology for the Upper San Pedro Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment of landuse changes on hydrology is essential for the development of sustainable water resource strategies. Specifically, understanding how each land use influences hydrological processes will greatly improve predictability of hydrological consequences to landuse ch...

  13. THE SAN PEDRO SPATIAL DATA ARCHIVE, A DATABASE BROWSER FOR COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is currently possible to measure landscape change over large areas and determine trends in ecological and hydrological condition using advanced space-based technologies accompanied by geospatial data. Specifically, this process is being tested in a community-based watershed in...

  14. RETROSPECTIVE LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS, AN APPROACH FOR EVALUATION LAND COVER CHANGE: SAN PEDRO RIVER CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Vegetation change in the American West has been the subject of much concern and controversy throughout the twentieth century. Over the years, a considerable number and variety of 'claims have been made regarding cause related to changes in land cover. The evidence for vegetat...

  15. Assessing Impacts of Landuse Changes on Hydrology for the Upper San Pedro Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment of landuse changes on hydrology is essential for the development of sustainable water resource strategies. Specifically, understanding how each land use influences hydrological processes will greatly improve predictability of hydrological consequences to landuse ch...

  16. A LANDSCAPE APPROACH TO MONITORING AND ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetation change in the American West has been the subject of much concern and controversy throughout the twentieth century. Over the years, a considerable number and variety of claims have been made regarding cause related to changes in land cover. The evidence for vegetation c...

  17. [French lines in Recife architecture: Pedro II Hospital].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Geraldo

    2011-12-01

    Pedro II Hospital was inaugurated in Recife in 1861 and for several decades was the leading center of its kind in the state of Pernambuco and in Northeast Brazil. Its construction followed French design, as developed by physician Jacques-René Tenon, that is, the so-called pavilion style that was the norm in Pernambuco and in Brazil for many years. After being nearly abandoned in 1982, the hospital was reformed shortly thereafter and reopened its doors to offer a variety of services, thanks to negotiations between the Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira and the Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife.

  18. Usage evaluation of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) among Brazilian physical therapists

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Mark R.; Moseley, Anne M.; Pinto, Rafael Z.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) is widely and equally used by physical therapists in Brazil. As PEDro is considered a key resource to support evidence-based physical therapy, analyses of PEDro usage could reflect the extent of dissemination of evidence-based practice. OBJECTIVE: To describe the usage of PEDro among the five regions of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) and, in more detail, in the South American region and Brazil over a 5-year period. METHOD: PEDro home-page sessions and the number of searches performed were logged for a 5-year period (2010-2014). Absolute usage and relative usage were calculated for each region of the WCPT, each country in the South American region of WCPT, and each Regional Council (CREFITO) in Brazil. RESULTS: Europe had the highest absolute and relative usage among the five regions of the WCPT (971 searches per million-population per year), with the South American region ranked 4th in absolute terms and 3rd in relative terms (486). Within the South American region, Brazil accounted for nearly 60% of searches (755). Analysis at a national level revealed that usage per physical therapist in Brazil is very low across all CREFITOs. The highest usage occurred in CREFITO 6 with 1.3 searches per physical therapist per year. CONCLUSIONS: PEDro is not widely and equally used throughout Brazil. Strategies to promote PEDro and to make PEDro more accessible to physical therapists speaking Portuguese are needed. PMID:26443980

  19. Usage evaluation of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) among Brazilian physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Mark R; Moseley, Anne M; Pinto, Rafael Z

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) is widely and equally used by physical therapists in Brazil. As PEDro is considered a key resource to support evidence-based physical therapy, analyses of PEDro usage could reflect the extent of dissemination of evidence-based practice. To describe the usage of PEDro among the five regions of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) and, in more detail, in the South American region and Brazil over a 5-year period. PEDro home-page sessions and the number of searches performed were logged for a 5-year period (2010-2014). Absolute usage and relative usage were calculated for each region of the WCPT, each country in the South American region of WCPT, and each Regional Council (CREFITO) in Brazil. Europe had the highest absolute and relative usage among the five regions of the WCPT (971 searches per million-population per year), with the South American region ranked 4th in absolute terms and 3rd in relative terms (486). Within the South American region, Brazil accounted for nearly 60% of searches (755). Analysis at a national level revealed that usage per physical therapist in Brazil is very low across all CREFITOs. The highest usage occurred in CREFITO 6 with 1.3 searches per physical therapist per year. PEDro is not widely and equally used throughout Brazil. Strategies to promote PEDro and to make PEDro more accessible to physical therapists speaking Portuguese are needed.

  20. Quality, language, subdiscipline and promotion were associated with article accesses on Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro).

    PubMed

    Yamato, Tiê P; Arora, Mohit; Stevens, Matthew L; Elkins, Mark R; Moseley, Anne M

    2017-08-12

    To quantify the relationship between the number of times articles are accessed on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and the article characteristics. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between accesses and the number of citations of articles. The study was conducted to derive prediction models for the number of accesses of articles indexed on PEDro from factors that may influence an article's accesses. All articles available on PEDro from August 2014 to January 2015 were included. We extracted variables relating to the algorithm used to present PEDro search results (research design, year of publication, PEDro score, source of systematic review (Cochrane or non-Cochrane)) plus language, subdiscipline of physiotherapy, and whether articles were promoted to PEDro users. Three predictive models were examined using multiple regression analysis. Citation and journal impact factor were downloaded. There were 29,313 articles indexed in this period. We identified seven factors that predicted the number of accesses. More accesses were noted for factors related to the algorithm used to present PEDro search results (synthesis research (i.e., guidelines and reviews), recent articles, Cochrane reviews, and higher PEDro score) plus publication in English and being promoted to PEDro users. The musculoskeletal, neurology, orthopaedics, sports, and paediatrics subdisciplines were associated with more accesses. We also found that there was no association between number of accesses and citations. The number of times an article is accessed on PEDro is partly predicted by how condensed and high quality the evidence it contains is. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pedro Duque arrives at KSC for the STS-95 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), arrives at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet as part of final preparations for launch. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7. The other STS-95 crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).

  2. STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque suits up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency, is helped with his flight suit by suit tech Tommy McDonald in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  3. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  4. California: San Francisco Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Northern California and San Francisco Bay     ... 17, 2000 (MISR) and August 25, 1997 (AirMISR) - Northern California and the San Francisco Bay. project:  MISR ... date:  Aug 17, 2000 Images:  California San Francisco Bay location:  United States ...

  5. 78 FR 53243 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego... Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The limits of the safety zone...

  6. Letters from Dom Pedro II to professor Brown-Séquard: imperial correspondence and neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Germiniani, Francisco M B; Munhoz, Renato P; Lees, Andrew J

    2012-08-01

    The authors have analyzed the content of a selection of letters written by Dom Pedro II, the Emperor of Brazil, and sent to Doctor Charles Brown-Séquard, the famous neurologist, between 1876 and 1885. The content of those letters focuses mainly on his wife's, Princess Thereza Cristina, health issues and Dom Pedro's personal desire to foster the research into the physiological study of the nervous system.

  7. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San Francisco, California March 24, 1924 VIEW OF HIGH ALTAR - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  8. 28. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San Francisco, California, c. 1930 (?) EXTERIOR, DETAIL OF MISSION BELL IN FRONT OF CONVENTO, C. 1930 (?) - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  9. Late Quaternary Paleoclimate and Rainfall Regimes in the Sonora Desert: a Multi-proxy Study in the Sediments of Laguna Seca de San Felipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P.; Caballero, M.; Lozano, S.; Ortega, B.; Morton, O.

    2009-05-01

    We present the multi-proxy data from the sediments of the ephemeral Laguna Seca de San Felipe located at 31° N in the north-western Sonora Desert to infer the Late Quaternary paleoclimatic conditions and rainfall regimes. The laguna is present in a tectonic basin between San Pedro Martir (west) and San Felipe (east) Mountains. Although winter rainfall is dominant in the north-western Sonora, the north-south trending 2500 m high San Pedro Martir ranges and its western slope do not permit the north-western winter precipitation to bring inflow into the San Felipe basin. The laguna presently receives precipitation of 60 mm/yr during July-September from south-eastern winds bringing sediments from the 500 m high San Felipe Mountains. The special geographic condition of the laguna makes it an ideal site to see the influences of both winter and summer rainfall on its hydrological conditions. Transition from an aeolian to lacustrine regime occurred at ca.44.5 14C kyr BP. The lacustrine sediments during 44.5-12 14C kyr BP are characterized by lower erosion and sedimentation, lower magnetic susceptibility, presence of both Juniperus and Pinus pollens and sulphate mineral thenardite. The sediments of last 12 14C kyr BP are characterized by higher sedimentation and magnetic susceptibility and absence of pollens and thenardite and comprise intercalations of lacustrine and aeolian sediments. As the laguna is present in the rain shadow eastern flanks of the San Pedro Martir Mountains, we relate the lower sedimentation during 44.5-12 14C kyr BP to dominant winter storm tracks from the Pacific. During this period, Juniperus and Pinus pollens were transported to the basin from the higher elevations of San Pedro Mountains. The anoxic-humid conditions during 44.5-28.6 14C kyr BP is related to the mean position of winter storm track at 31° N. During this period, the lower temperature might have favoured the precipitation of sulphates. In the last 12 14C kyr BP, increasing erosion

  10. 77 FR 54811 - Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriRock San Diego, San Diego Bay, San Diego... Competitor Group is sponsoring the TriRock Triathlon, consisting of 2000 swimmers swimming a predetermined...: Sec. 165.T11-516 Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The...

  11. [Pedro Laín Entralgo, physician and humanist].

    PubMed

    Goic, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    This speech of the president of the Chilean Academy of Medicine, Dr Alejandro Goic, is a tribute to the memory of the Spanish physician, scholar, historian, writer and intellectual Dr. Pedro Laín Entralgo, who died in Madrid on June 4, 2001, at the age of 93. On that occasion, the Spanish newspaper "El Pais" defined him as the last humanist. The Spanish civil war started when Laín was 28 years old and he aligned with Franco's supporters. In 1940, when he founded the magazine "El Escorial", he was separated from the official party. He and other intellectuals declared themselves in an "interior exile". His autobiographical book, "Lightening the burden on the conscience" refers to his painful personal history. He obtained the History of Medicine chair, at the Complutense University, at the age of 34 and remained at that post until his retirement in 1978. His intellectual production is magnificent and calls to a mutual understanding, hope, friendship and love. Outstanding, among others, are his books "The wait and hope", "Theory and reality of the other", "Spain as a problem", "Medicine and history", "The clinical history", "Patient physician relationship", "Medical anthropology". He directed the collective work composed of seven volumes, called "Universal History of Medicine". He was a member of the Royal Academies for Language, History and Medicine. In Chile, he was named honorary member of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile and of the Academies of Language, History and Medicine. He dictated a course of Medical Anthropology that had a profound impact on the thought of Chilean physicians. In 1949 he wrote that Chile was the most solid state of Latin America and that "Chile needs to leave his traditional calm, through a historical gesture, and create the river beds required by his magnificent spiritual and geographical gifts. There is a lack of a beautiful craziness". It was an invocation for an understanding with our neighboring countries "for ever

  12. Role of the offshore Pedro Banks left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in the plate tectonic evolution of the northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.; Saunders, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous workers, mainly mapping onland active faults on Caribbean islands, defined the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone as a 200-km-wide bounded by two active and parallel strike-slip faults: the Oriente fault along the northern edge of the Cayman trough with a GPS rate of 14 mm/yr, and and the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) with a rate of 5-7 mm/yr. In this study we use 5,000 km of industry and academic data from the Nicaraguan Rise south and southwest of the EPGFZ in the maritime areas of Jamaica, Honduras, and Colombia to define an offshore, 700-km-long, active, left-lateral strike-slip fault in what has previously been considered the stable interior of the Caribbean plate as determined from plate-wide GPS studies. The fault was named by previous workers as the Pedro Banks fault zone because a 100-km-long segment of the fault forms an escarpment along the Pedro carbonate bank of the Nicaraguan Rise. Two fault segments of the PBFZ are defined: the 400-km-long eastern segment that exhibits large negative flower structures 10-50 km in width, with faults segments rupturing the sea floor as defined by high resolution 2D seismic data, and a 300-km-long western segment that is defined by a narrow zone of anomalous seismicity first observed by previous workers. The western end of the PBFZ terminates on a Quaternary rift structure, the San Andres rift, associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism and thickening trends indicating initial rifting in the Late Miocene. The southern end of the San Andreas rift terminates on the western Hess fault which also exhibits active strands consistent with left-lateral, strike-slip faults. The total length of the PBFZ-San Andres rift-Southern Hess escarpment fault is 1,200 km and traverses the entire western end of the Caribbean plate. Our interpretation is similar to previous models that have proposed the "stable" western Caribbean plate is broken by this fault whose rate of displacement is less than the threshold

  13. From Golden Age Mexican Cinema to Transnational Border Feminism: The Community of Spectators in "Loving Pedro Infante"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    The novel "Loving Pedro Infante" by Chicana writer Denise Chavez provides an insightful transcultural feminist critique of Golden Age Mexican cinema culture through a careful examination of gender roles. In the novel, the reception of Pedro Infante's films by spectators bridges generations and national spaces and leads to the formation…

  14. From Golden Age Mexican Cinema to Transnational Border Feminism: The Community of Spectators in "Loving Pedro Infante"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    The novel "Loving Pedro Infante" by Chicana writer Denise Chavez provides an insightful transcultural feminist critique of Golden Age Mexican cinema culture through a careful examination of gender roles. In the novel, the reception of Pedro Infante's films by spectators bridges generations and national spaces and leads to the formation…

  15. Detections, concentrations, and distributional patterns of compounds of emerging concern in the San Antonio River Basin, Texas, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Opsahl, Stephen P.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2013-01-01

    The distributional patterns of detections and concentrations of individual compounds and compound classes show the influence of wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) outfalls on the quality of water in the San Antonio River Basin. In the Medina River Subbasin, the minimal influence of wastewater is evident as far downstream as the Macdona site. Downstream from the Macdona site, the Medina River receives treated municipal wastewater from both the Medio Creek Water Recycling Center site from an unnamed tributary at the plant and the Leon Creek Water Recycling Center site from Comanche Creek at the plant, and corresponding increases in both the number of detections and the total concentrations of all measured compounds at all downstream sampling sites were evident. Similarly, the San Antonio River receives treated municipal wastewater as far upstream as the SAR Witte site (San Antonio River at Witte Museum, San Antonio, Tex.) and additional WWTP outfalls along the Medina River upstream from the confluence of the Medina and San Antonio Rivers. Consequently, all samples collected along the main stem of the San Antonio River had higher concentrations of CECs in comparison to sites without upstream WWTPs. Sites in urbanized areas without upstream WWTPs include the Leon 35 site (Leon Creek at Interstate Highway 35, San Antonio, Tex.), the Alazan site (Alazan Creek at Tampico Street, San Antonio, Tex.), and the San Pedro site (San Pedro Creek at Probandt Street, at San Antonio, Tex.). The large number of detections at sites with no upstream wastewater source demonstrated that CECs can be detected in streams flowing through urbanized areas without a large upstream source of treated municipal wastewater. A general lack of detection of pharmaceuticals in streams without upstream outfalls of treated wastewater appears to be typical for streams throughout the San Antonio River Basin and may be a useful indicator of point-source versus nonpoint-source contributions of these compounds

  16. Preliminary investigation of gold mineralization in the Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area, Fairbanks district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilkington, H.D.; Forbes, R.B.; Hawkins, D.B.; Chapman, R.M.; Swainbank, R.C.

    1969-01-01

    Anomalous gold values in mineralized veins and hydrothermally altered quartz-mica schist in the Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area of the Fairbanks district suggest the presence of numerous small low- to high-grade lodes. Anomalous concentrations of gold were found to exist in the wall rocks adjacent to mineralized veins. In general, the gold concentration gradients in these wall rocks are much too steep to increase appreciably the mineable width of the veins. Anomalous gold values were also detected in bedrock samples taken by means of a power auger on the Murphy Dome Road along the southwest extension of the Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit mineralized belt.

  17. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  18. The Educational Ideas of Pedro Arrupe, SJ: A Valuable Resource for All Catholic Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyo, Obwanda Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Pedro Arrupe was concerned about the growing attitude in which the vocation of humankind is understood as making oneself the centre of the universe, fearing that it has infiltrated into education and schools. Consequently, he set out to counteract this egoistic mindset by propounding an approach to education rooted in justice tempered with faith,…

  19. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  20. The Reliability of Methodological Ratings for speechBITE Using the PEDro-P Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Elizabeth; Power, Emma; Togher, Leanne; McCabe, Patricia; Munro, Natalie; Smith, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Background: speechBITE (http://www.speechbite.com) is an online database established in order to help speech and language therapists gain faster access to relevant research that can used in clinical decision-making. In addition to containing more than 3000 journal references, the database also provides methodological ratings on the PEDro-P (an…

  1. The Reliability of Methodological Ratings for speechBITE Using the PEDro-P Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Elizabeth; Power, Emma; Togher, Leanne; McCabe, Patricia; Munro, Natalie; Smith, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Background: speechBITE (http://www.speechbite.com) is an online database established in order to help speech and language therapists gain faster access to relevant research that can used in clinical decision-making. In addition to containing more than 3000 journal references, the database also provides methodological ratings on the PEDro-P (an…

  2. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest of...

  3. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest of...

  4. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest of...

  5. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest of...

  6. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest of...

  7. SAN JACINTO WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Brett F.; Conyac, Martin D.

    1984-01-01

    The San Jacinto Wilderness, located in the San Jacinto Mountains approximately 4 to 11 mi west of Palm Springs, California, was investigated by field and laboratory studies. The wilderness contains no known mineral deposits and no evidence of past mineral production. Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies indicate that the San Jacinto Wilderness has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. However, if future studies of plutonism and related processes of mineralization are conducted in the San Jacinto Mountains and vicinity, the metasedimentary rocks and bordering intrusive contacts in the south parcel of the wilderness might merit further examination. In particular, such future studies might further evaluate the origin and significance of minor stream-sediment geochemical anomalies for tungsten, cerium, and lanthanum detected in our panned-concentrate samples collected near the heads of Murray and Andreas Canyons.

  8. Characterization of Chemosynthetic Microbial Mats Associated with Intertidal Hydrothermal Sulfur Vents in White Point, San Pedro, CA, USA

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Priscilla J.; McLain, Nathan K.; Hatzenpichler, Roland; Orphan, Victoria J.; Dillon, Jesse G.

    2016-01-01

    The shallow-sea hydrothermal vents at White Point (WP) in Palos Verdes on the southern California coast support microbial mats and provide easily accessed settings in which to study chemolithoautotrophic sulfur cycling. Previous studies have cultured sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the WP mats; however, almost nothing is known about the in situ diversity and activity of the microorganisms in these habitats. We studied the diversity, micron-scale spatial associations and metabolic activity of the mat community via sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and aprA genes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) microscopy and sulfate reduction rate (SRR) measurements. Sequence analysis revealed a diverse group of bacteria, dominated by sulfur cycling gamma-, epsilon-, and deltaproteobacterial lineages such as Marithrix, Sulfurovum, and Desulfuromusa. FISH microscopy suggests a close physical association between sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing genotypes, while radiotracer studies showed low, but detectable, SRR. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate the WP sulfur vent microbial mat community is similar, but distinct from other hydrothermal vent communities representing a range of biotopes and lithologic settings. These findings suggest a complete biological sulfur cycle is operating in the WP mat ecosystem mediated by diverse bacterial lineages, with some similarity with deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. PMID:27512390

  9. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the San Pedro River (U.S./Mexico)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth throug...

  10. Modeling Landscape-scale Ecosystem Services Relative to Biodiversity in the Upper San Pedro River Basin (U.S. Mexico)

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely understood that human condition is tightly linked to environmental condition and the services it provides. Ecosystem services, i.e. "services provided to humans from natural systems" have become a paramount issue of this century in resource management, conservation, ...

  11. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the San Pedro River (U.S./Mexico)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth throug...

  12. LAND COVER CHANGE AND LARGE SCALE HYDROLOGIC MODELING OF THE SAN PEDRO RIVER AND CATSKILL/DELAWARE BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is based on the assumption that land cover change and rainfall spatial variability affect the r-ainfall-runoff relationships on the watershed. Hydrologic response is an integrated indicator of watershed condition, and changes in land cover may affect the overall health...

  13. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Air Force, Space Division Housing Project, San Pedro, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-24

    Occupational Health Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Installations, Environment and Safety) 1 Atch Final EIS, Vol. 2 COVER SHEET (a...Force is respornible for the health and welfare of its military personnel and their dependents, including provisions for adequate housing through either...narrowly focused in at least eight areas: 1. The final EIS should incorporate a more detailed assessment of the possible presence and health and safety

  14. Modeling Landscape-scale Ecosystem Services Relative to Biodiversity in the Upper San Pedro River Basin (U.S. Mexico)

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely understood that human condition is tightly linked to environmental condition and the services it provides. Ecosystem services, i.e. "services provided to humans from natural systems" have become a paramount issue of this century in resource management, conservation, ...

  15. Native Trees and Salt Cedar: Quantifying Transpiration at Intermittent and Perennial Streamflows on the San Pedro River 1933

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native cottonwood-willow forests that historically dominated south-western riparian areas are being replaced by salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the majority of regulated western rivers. Some studies of salt cedar have indicated its water use is considerably greater than native trees and depletes...

  16. LAND COVER CHANGE AND LARGE SCALE HYDROLOGIC MODELING OF THE SAN PEDRO RIVER AND CATSKILL/DELAWARE BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is based on the assumption that land cover change and rainfall spatial variability affect the r-ainfall-runoff relationships on the watershed. Hydrologic response is an integrated indicator of watershed condition, and changes in land cover may affect the overall health...

  17. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #10: MULTIAGENCY, MULTINATIONAL GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH EFFORT IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This edition reports on a multiagency, multinational global-change research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced changes in semi-arid environments. The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program ("SALSA") is focused on the environmentally sen...

  18. Characterization of Chemosynthetic Microbial Mats Associated with Intertidal Hydrothermal Sulfur Vents in White Point, San Pedro, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Priscilla J; McLain, Nathan K; Hatzenpichler, Roland; Orphan, Victoria J; Dillon, Jesse G

    2016-01-01

    The shallow-sea hydrothermal vents at White Point (WP) in Palos Verdes on the southern California coast support microbial mats and provide easily accessed settings in which to study chemolithoautotrophic sulfur cycling. Previous studies have cultured sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the WP mats; however, almost nothing is known about the in situ diversity and activity of the microorganisms in these habitats. We studied the diversity, micron-scale spatial associations and metabolic activity of the mat community via sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and aprA genes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) microscopy and sulfate reduction rate (SRR) measurements. Sequence analysis revealed a diverse group of bacteria, dominated by sulfur cycling gamma-, epsilon-, and deltaproteobacterial lineages such as Marithrix, Sulfurovum, and Desulfuromusa. FISH microscopy suggests a close physical association between sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing genotypes, while radiotracer studies showed low, but detectable, SRR. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate the WP sulfur vent microbial mat community is similar, but distinct from other hydrothermal vent communities representing a range of biotopes and lithologic settings. These findings suggest a complete biological sulfur cycle is operating in the WP mat ecosystem mediated by diverse bacterial lineages, with some similarity with deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities.

  19. THE SAN PEDRO RIVER, AN EXAMPLE OF AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR TRANSBORDER ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT USING GEOSPATIAL DATA AND PROCESS MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These technologies provide the basis for developing landscape compostion and pattern indicators as sensitive measures of large-scale environmental change and thus may provide an effective and economical method for evaluating watershed conition related to disturbance from human an...

  20. THE SAN PEDRO RIVER, AN EXAMPLE OF AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR TRANSBORDER ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT USING GEOSPATIAL DATA AND PROCESS MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These technologies provide the basis for developing landscape compostion and pattern indicators as sensitive measures of large-scale environmental change and thus may provide an effective and economical method for evaluating watershed conition related to disturbance from human an...

  1. New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp. (Cactaceae) ("San Pedro") and their relevance to shamanic practice.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, Olabode; McCombs, Douglas; Trout, Keeper; Daley, Paul; Terry, Martin

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the present study is to determine in a procedurally uniform manner the mescaline concentrations in stem tissue of 14 taxa/cultivars of the subgenus Trichocereus of the genus Echinopsis (Cactaceae) and to evaluate the relationship (if any) between mescaline concentration and actual shamanic use of these plants. Columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis, some of which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes by South American shamans in traditional medicine, were selected for analysis because they were vegetative clones of plants of documented geographic origin and/or because they were known to be used by practitioners of shamanism. Mescaline content of the cortical stem chlorenchyma of each cactus was determined by Soxhlet extraction with methanol, followed by acid-base extraction with water and dichloromethane, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). By virtue of the consistent analytical procedures used, comparable alkaloid concentrations were obtained that facilitated the ranking of the various selected species and cultivars of Echinopsis, all of which exhibited positive mescaline contents. The range of mescaline concentrations across the 14 taxa/cultivars spanned two orders of magnitude, from 0.053% to 4.7% by dry weight. The mescaline concentrations reported here largely support the hypothesis that plants with the highest mescaline concentrations - particularly E. pachanoi from Peru - are most associated with documented shamanic use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #10: MULTIAGENCY, MULTINATIONAL GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH EFFORT IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This edition reports on a multiagency, multinational global-change research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced changes in semi-arid environments. The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program ("SALSA") is focused on the environmentally sen...

  3. San Francisco, San Pablo Bay Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-244-022 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- (San Francisco, San Pablo Bay Area) Photographed through the Space Shuttle Endeavour's flight deck windows, the heavily populated bay area is featured in this 70mm frame. The relatively low altitude of Endeavour's orbit (115 nautical miles) and the use of a 250mm lens on the Hasselblad camera allowed for capturing detail in features such as the Berkeley Marina (frame center). The region's topography is well depicted with the lowland areas heavily populated and the hills much more sparsely covered. The Oakland Hills in the right lower center appear to be re-vegetated after a devastating fire. The Golden Gate Recreation Area in the upper left also shows heavy vegetation. The three bridges across the main part of the bay and their connecting roads are prominent. Cultural features such as Golden Gate Park and the Presidio contrast with the gray of the city.

  4. What Searches Do Users Run on PEDro? An Analysis of 893,971 Search Commands Over a 6-Month Period.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Matthew L; Moseley, Anne; Elkins, Mark R; Lin, Christine C-W; Maher, Chris G

    2016-08-05

    Clinicians must be able to search effectively for relevant research if they are to provide evidence-based healthcare. It is therefore relevant to consider how users search databases of evidence in healthcare, including what information users look for and what search strategies they employ. To date such analyses have been restricted to the PubMed database. Although the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) is searched millions of times each year, no studies have investigated how users search PEDro. To assess the content and quality of searches conducted on PEDro. Searches conducted on the PEDro website over 6 months were downloaded and the 'get' commands and page-views extracted. The following data were tabulated: the 25 most common searches; the number of search terms used; the frequency of use of simple and advanced searches, including the use of each advanced search field; and the frequency of use of various search strategies. Between August 2014 and January 2015, 893,971 search commands were entered on PEDro. Fewer than 18 % of these searches used the advanced search features of PEDro. 'Musculoskeletal' was the most common subdiscipline searched, while 'low back pain' was the most common individual search. Around 20 % of all searches contained errors. PEDro is a commonly used evidence resource, but searching appears to be sub-optimal in many cases. The effectiveness of searches conducted by users needs to improve, which could be facilitated by methods such as targeted training and amending the search interface.

  5. Identifying active interplate and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean plate from seismic reflection data and the significance of the Pedro Bank fault zone in the tectonic history of the Nicaraguan Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the western Caribbean Sea is an approximately 500,000 km2 area of Precambrian to Late Cretaceous tectonic terranes that have been assembled during the Late Cretaceous formation of the Caribbean plate and include: 1) the Chortis block, a continental fragment; 2) the Great Arc of the Caribbean, a deformed Cretaceous arc, and 3) the Caribbean large igneous province formed in late Cretaceous time. Middle Eocene to Recent eastward motion of the Caribbean plate has been largely controlled by strike-slip faulting along the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone that bounds the northern margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. These faults reactivate older rift structures near the island of Jamaica and form the transtensional basins of the Honduran Borderlands near Honduras. Recent GPS studies suggest that small amount of intraplate motion within the current margin of error of GPS measurements (1-3 mm/yr) may occur within the center of the western Caribbean plate at the Pedro Bank fault zone and Hess Escarpment. This study uses a database of over 54,000 km of modern and vintage 2D seismic data, combined with earthquake data and results from previous GPS studies to define the active areas of inter- and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean. Intraplate deformation occurs along the 700-km-long Pedro Bank fault zone that traverses the center of the Nicaraguan Rise and reactivates the paleo suture zone between the Great Arc of the Caribbean and the Caribbean large igneous province. The Pedro Bank fault zone also drives active extension at the 200-km-long San Andres rift along the southwest margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. Influence of the Cocos Ridge indentor may be contributing to reactivation of faulting along the southwesternmost, active segment of the Hess Escarpment.

  6. Selected streambed sediment compounds and water toxicity results for Westside Creeks, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-12-01

    IntroductionThe Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks in San Antonio, Texas, are part of a network of urban tributaries to the San Antonio River, known locally as the Westside Creeks. The Westside Creeks flow through some of the oldest neighborhoods in San Antonio. The disruption of streambed sediment is anticipated during a planned restoration to improve and restore the environmental condition of 14 miles of channelized sections of the Westside Creeks in San Antonio. These construction activities can create the potential to reintroduce chemicals found in the sediments into the ecosystem where, depending on hydrologic and environmental conditions, they could become bioavailable and toxic to aquatic life. Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants often are measured in urban areas such as San Antonio, Tex. Contaminants found in sediment can affect the health of aquatic organisms that ingest sediment. The gradual accumulation of trace elements and organic compounds in aquatic organisms can cause various physiological issues and can ultimately result in death of the aquatic organisms; in addition, subsequent ingestion of aquatic organisms can transfer the accumulated contaminants upward through the food chain (a process called biomagnification).The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, collected sediment samples and water samples for toxicity testing from sites on the Westside Creeks as part of an initial characterization of selected contaminants in the study area. Samples were collected in January 2014 during base-flow conditions and again in May 2104 after a period of stormwater runoff (poststorm conditions). Sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, as an indicator of ecological health (and

  7. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  8. Occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements, halogenated organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in streambed sediments and results of water-toxicity testing in Westside Creeks and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment samples and samples for water-toxicity testing were collected during 2014 from several streams in San Antonio, Texas, known locally as the Westside Creeks (Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks) and from the San Antonio River. Samples were collected during base flow and after periods of stormwater runoff (poststorm conditions) to determine baseline sediment- and water-quality conditions. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Potential risks of contaminants in sediment were evaluated by comparing concentrations of contaminants in sediment to two effects-based sediment-quality guidelines: (1) a lower level, called the threshold effect concentration, below which, harmful effects to benthic biota are not expected, and (2) a higher level, the probable effect concentration (PEC), above which harmful effects are expected to occur frequently. Samples for water-toxicity testing were collected from each stream to provide information about fish toxicity in the study area. The trace metal lead was detected at potentially toxic concentrations greater than the PEC in both the base-flow and poststorm samples collected at two sites sampled on San Pedro Creek. The PECs for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and chlordane were exceeded in some of the samples at the same two sites on San Pedro Creek. Brominated flame retardants and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) 85, 153, and 154 were found in all streambed-sediment samples. Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines established by Environment Canada for PBDE 99 and PBDE 100 were exceeded in all samples in which PBDE 99 was detected and in a majority of the samples in which PBDE 100 was detected; the greatest concentrations

  9. [Science, charity, and social networks: Hospício de Pedro II from different perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniele Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of an effort to compile the analyses made for my master's dissertation from 2012. It contains new perspectives on Hospício de Pedro II (Pedro II Hospice) between 1883 and 1889, drawing on research of admissions records and files of patients staying at the institution, founded in 1852 in Rio de Janeiro. The involvement of different players and the interplay of different interests and demands with regard to the hospice are highlighted. It is important to expand the debate concerning the institution beyond medical and scientific aspects, considering its importance both as a charity and for its key role in the political and social relations of the empire.

  10. Thermal investigation in S. Pedro do Sul low enthalpy geothermal field (Portugal)

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, A.; Ramalho, E.C.; Lourenco, M.C.; Cruz, J.F. ||

    1997-12-31

    The S. Pedro Sul thermal springs are one of the most important low enthalpy geothermal areas in mainland Portugal. The water temperature at emergence points can reach values as high as 67{degrees}C with water flows of 10 l/s. Based on silica geothermometry, the regional heat flow density is estimated as 170 m W/m{sup 2}, and the heat production of the S. Pedro do Sul granite, that crops out in the region where the thermal springs are located, is about 11 {mu}W/m{sup 3}. These values allow an estimate that the depth of the geothermal reservoir is about 2,000 metres. The geothermal reservoir is fed by meteoric water that is heated to temperatures of about 130{degrees}C at 2,000 metres depth. Then, the heated water flows to the surface through the Termas fault, mixing with colder water at shallow depths.

  11. Pedro Nuñez and the first printed treatise on twilight observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadsden, M.

    Pedro Nuñez (the name is also written variously as Nunes, Nonius, Nonnius, and Nunnius) was born at Alcacer do Sol, Portugal, in 1502, and died in 1578. In that period and in that country, it was inevitable that his interests were in cosmography and navigation. His principal claim to fame is as author of the major treatise De Arte Atque Ratione Navigandi, which was published in 1546.

  12. [Human and professional aspects of Mr. Pedro Cifuentes Díaz (1881-1960)].

    PubMed

    Angulo, D; Pérez-Albacete, M; Angulo, J C

    2012-05-01

    Reveal some outstanding aspects from the life of Pedro Cifuentes Díaz, remarkable personality of Spanish Urology, who served the "Asociación Española de Urología" for 31 years. His personal documental iconographic legacy allow us to better recompose his life and human size. Written material and a collection of 64 personal documents that belonged to Pedro Cifuentes Díaz obtained from bibliophiles, 5 of which were not accepted as his property due to the absence of a compatible context, are analyzed. The content of the main publications of the author is contrasted with his cultural environment, and the graphic documents are related with the historical happenings. Son of a forensic doctor, good student and opponent. Pedro Cifuentes spent his entire urologic career heading the service of Urology of the Hospital de la Princesa in Madrid from 1910 to 1950. He acquired a solid formation in France and developed a long professional life with important charges and distinctions. Besides, he underwent great clinic and scientific activity as publicist, academic, docent and manager. He was essential in Asociación Española de Urología since its foundation, and conducted its reorganization after Spanish Civil War. He built one of the main urologic schools of Spain, where his son Luis Cifuentes Delatte highlighted. Pedro Cifuentes Díaz was a Castilian man, inexhaustible worker, liberal academic, communicator and teacher outside the university environment. With excellent formation he acquired important international projection and professional acceptance; held many and important administrative charges, and received multiple awards. He was one of the most remarkable figures of Urology in Madrid and Spain during the first half of the 20(th) Century. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Dolomitization of the Pedro Castle Formation (Pliocene), Cayman Brac, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Alex; Jones, Brian

    2003-12-01

    The Pedro Castle Formation (Pliocene) on Cayman Brac is variably dolomitized by texture preserving but non-mimetic and texture destructive replacive dolomite. Mimetic replacement of skeletal grains is limited to echinoderm plates, and with few rare exceptions, there is no mimetic replacement of red algae, foraminifera, green algae, or any other type of skeletal grain. The lack of mimetic dolomite is atypical of "island dolostones" found in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Dolostones in the Pedro Castle Formation are formed entirely of high-Ca calcian dolomite (average of 57.4 mol% CaCO 3). Oxygen isotopes (mean 1.25‰ PDB) from the dolomite indicate that dolomitization was mediated by seawater or modified seawater. Carbon isotopes in the dolomite, which range from -1.81‰ to 1.42‰ PDB, were probably inherited from the precursor limestone. The average Sr content in the dolomite (360 ppm) is higher than that found in most other island dolomites. The sediments that now form the Pedro Castle Formation were deposited in shallow water on an open bank during the early Pliocene. Pre-dolomitization diagenesis of those sediments included syntaxial overgrowths around echinoderm fragments, dissolution of aragonitic bioclasts, stabilization to low-magnesium calcite, and local precipitation of vadose cements. Thus, the limestones had been extensively stabilized by the time that dolomitization took place during the late Pliocene. The general paucity of mimetic replacement in these dolostones can probably be attributed to the calcite stabilization that took place before dolomitization.

  14. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  15. San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  16. 78 FR 58878 - Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay... Diego Shark Fest Swim. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants, crew... this rule because the logistical details of the San Diego Shark Fest Swim were not finalized nor...

  17. San Antonio, Texas, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    This sharp, cloud free view of San Antonio, Texas (29.5N, 98.5W) illustrates the classic pattern of western cities. The city has a late nineteenth century Anglo grid pattern overlaid onto an earlier, less regular Hispanic settlement. A well marked central business district having streets laid out north/south and east/west is surrounded by blocks of suburban homes and small businesses set between the older colonial radial transportation routes.

  18. SAN GORGONIO WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Brett F.; Zilka, Nicholas T.

    1984-01-01

    The San Gorgonio Wilderness, located approximately 75 mi east of Los Angeles, California, was investigated using field and laboratory studies. Several abandoned prospect pits, within and immediately adjacent to the wilderness, mark minor occurences of metallic minerals, uranium, and marble, but little mineral production has come from the area. The studies suggest that any undiscovered mineral deposits that may be present in the wilderness probably are small and scattered.

  19. 75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego... Shark Fest Swim, consisting of 600 swimmers swimming a predetermined course. The sponsor will provide 26...; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a...

  20. Topographical map of San Bernadina and San Gabriel mountains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-04

    JSC2000E01554 (January 2000) --- This is a shaded relief depiction of the same data set found in JSC2000-E-01553. Radar imagery, such as that to be provided by SRTM, is instrumental in creating these types of topographic models. Both images depict the San Bernadino and San Gabriel Mountains in California, north of Los Angeles. Cajon Junction and Cajon Pass, as well as part of the San Andreas fault line, are clearly seen.

  1. The alleged contributions of Pedro E. Paulet to liquid-propellant rocketry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordway, F. I., III

    1977-01-01

    The first practical working liquid propellant rocket motor was claimed by Pedro E. Paulet, a South American engineer from Peru (1895). He operated a conical motor, 10 centimeters in diameter, using nitrogen peroxide and gasoline as propellants and measuring thrust up to 90 kilograms, and apparently used spark ignition and intermittent propellant injection. The test device which he used contained elements of later test stands, such as a spring thrust-measuring device. However, he did not publish his work until twenty-five years later. Evidence is examined concerning this only known claim to liquid propellant rocket engine experiments in the nineteenth century.

  2. Aerial photo of San Bernadina and San Gabriel mountains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-04

    JSC2000E01553 (January 2000) --- This USGS elevation model showing increasing elevation as increasing brightness is included here for comparison purposes with the high-resolution topographic elevation map image in E01554. Both images depict the San Bernadino and San Gabriel Mountains in California, north of Los Angeles.

  3. Coma blisters sans coma.

    PubMed

    Heinisch, Silke; Loosemore, Michael; Cusack, Carrie A; Allen, Herbert B

    2012-09-01

    Coma blisters (CBs) are self-limited lesions that occur in regions of pressure during unconscious states classically induced by barbiturates. We report a case of CBs sans coma that were histologically confirmed in a 41-year-old woman who developed multiple tense abdominal bullae with surrounding erythema following a transatlantic flight. Interestingly, the patient was fully conscious and denied medication use or history of medical conditions. A clinical diagnosis of CBs was confirmed by histopathologic findings of eccrine gland necrosis, a hallmark of these bulIous lesions.

  4. CENTRAL, PEDro, PubMed, and EMBASE are the most comprehensive databases indexing randomized controlled trials of physical therapy interventions.

    PubMed

    Michaleff, Zoe A; Costa, Leonardo O P; Moseley, Anne M; Maher, Christopher G; Elkins, Mark R; Herbert, Robert D; Sherrington, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    Many bibliographic databases index research studies evaluating the effects of health care interventions. One study has concluded that the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) has the most complete indexing of reports of randomized controlled trials of physical therapy interventions, but the design of that study may have exaggerated estimates of the completeness of indexing by PEDro. The purpose of this study was to compare the completeness of indexing of reports of randomized controlled trials of physical therapy interventions by 8 bibliographic databases. This study was an audit of bibliographic databases. Prespecified criteria were used to identify 400 reports of randomized controlled trials from the reference lists of systematic reviews published in 2008 that evaluated physical therapy interventions. Eight databases (AMED, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, Hooked on Evidence, PEDro, PsycINFO, and PubMed) were searched for each trial report. The proportion of the 400 trial reports indexed by each database was calculated. The proportions of the 400 trial reports indexed by the databases were as follows: CENTRAL, 95%; PEDro, 92%; PubMed, 89%; EMBASE, 88%; CINAHL, 53%; AMED, 50%; Hooked on Evidence, 45%; and PsycINFO, 6%. Almost all of the trial reports (99%) were found in at least 1 database, and 88% were indexed by 4 or more databases. Four trial reports were uniquely indexed by a single database only (2 in CENTRAL and 1 each in PEDro and PubMed). The results are only applicable to searching for English-language published reports of randomized controlled trials evaluating physical therapy interventions. The 4 most comprehensive databases of trial reports evaluating physical therapy interventions were CENTRAL, PEDro, PubMed, and EMBASE. Clinicians seeking quick answers to clinical questions could search any of these databases knowing that all are reasonably comprehensive. PEDro, unlike the other 3 most complete databases, is specific to physical therapy, so studies not

  5. California, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay area (37.5N, 122.0W) of California from the Santa Cruz in the south to Point Reyes in the north with the rich agriculture region of the central San Joaquin Valley in the foreground.

  6. SAN DIEGO ZOO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Dept. of Education, CA.

    A BROCHURE GEARED TO HELP TEACHERS AND STUDENTS IN THE SAN DIEGO AREA TAKE FULL ADVANTAGE OF THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES OF THE SAN DIEGO ZOO IS PRESENTED. THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF THE ZOO EMPLOYS TWO FULL-TIME TEACHERS AND A DRIVER-GUIDE. THE PROGRAM OFFERED IS BRIEFLY DESCRIBED--(1) IN "PRESCHOOL AND FIRST GRADE," INTRODUCTIONS ARE…

  7. Reactivity of San Andres dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S. )

    1991-05-01

    The San Andres formation is routinely stimulated with acid. Although numerous acidizing simulators are available to aid in treatment optimization, existing reactivity data were generated with quarried rock rather than formation samples. This paper presents reactivity data for five San Andres dolomite samples. These data can be used in most fracture-acidizing-design simulators to allow more accurate simulation of the acidizing process.

  8. San Diego's Capital Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytton, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article describes San Diego's capital planning process. As part of its capital planning process, the San Diego Unified School District has developed a systematic analysis of functional quality at each of its school sites. The advantage of this approach is that it seeks to develop and apply quantifiable metrics and standards for the more…

  9. The Mathematical Courses of Pedro Padilla and Etienne Bezout: Teaching Calculus in Eighteenth-Century Spain and France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a cross-national comparative analysis of the introduction of calculus in Spanish and French military educational institutions through the works of Pedro Padilla y Arcos (1724-1807?) and Etienne Bezout (1730-1783), respectively. Both authors developed their educational work in the context of military schools and…

  10. "Palabras de la Ciencia": Pedro Castera and Scientific Writing in Mexico's "Fin de Siècle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Pilar Blanco, María

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the career of the understudied writer Pedro Castera (1846-1906), who is regarded as one of the first practitioners of science fiction in Mexico. A man of many talents, Castera is one of the most eccentric and eclectic figures in the intellectual life of fin-de-siècle Mexico City. His career took many turns: While during…

  11. Northern Miwok at Big Bar: A Glimpse into the Lives of Pedro and Lily O'Connor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniery, James Gary; Dutschke, Dwight

    1989-01-01

    Describes the life of a Northern Miwok couple, Lily and Pedro O'Connor, reconstructed from interviews, historical accounts, and archeological examination of their cabin site. Relates their active interest in ceremonies, Indian dances, and traditional medicine to the early twentieth century Miwok way of life. Contains 43 references. (DHP)

  12. The Mathematical Courses of Pedro Padilla and Etienne Bezout: Teaching Calculus in Eighteenth-Century Spain and France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a cross-national comparative analysis of the introduction of calculus in Spanish and French military educational institutions through the works of Pedro Padilla y Arcos (1724-1807?) and Etienne Bezout (1730-1783), respectively. Both authors developed their educational work in the context of military schools and…

  13. "Palabras de la Ciencia": Pedro Castera and Scientific Writing in Mexico's "Fin de Siècle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Pilar Blanco, María

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the career of the understudied writer Pedro Castera (1846-1906), who is regarded as one of the first practitioners of science fiction in Mexico. A man of many talents, Castera is one of the most eccentric and eclectic figures in the intellectual life of fin-de-siècle Mexico City. His career took many turns: While during…

  14. Continuity of the San Andreas Fault at San Gorgonio Pass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carena, S.; Suppe, J.

    2002-12-01

    The San Andreas fault at San Gorgonio Pass does not have a clear surface trace and is considered aseismic. Our findings suggest in fact that the existence of a through-going vertical or near-vertical San Andreas fault between Yucaipa and North Palm Springs is highly unlikely. We mapped over 70 faults in the San Gorgonio Pass-San Bernardino Mountains region using the catalog of 43,500 relocated 1975-1998 earthquakes of Richards-Dinger and Shearer (2000). A clustering algorithm was applied to the relocated earthquakes in order to obtain tighter earthquake clouds and thus better-defined fault surfaces. The earthquakes were then imported into Gocad, a 3D modeling software that allowed us to separate earthquakes into coplanar clusters associated with different faults and fault strands and to fit optimized surfaces to them. We also used the catalog of 13,000 focal mechanisms of Hauksson (2000) to confirm the nature of the mapped faults. We were able to constrain the 3D geometry of the San Andreas fault near San Gorgonio Pass from the 3D geometry of the fault network surrounding it. None of these faults show any displacement due to an hypothetical sub-vertical San Andreas. The San Andreas fault must therefore rotate to much shallower dips, or lose its continuity at depths between 3 and 15 km The most likely configuration is the one where the San Andreas fault merges into the shallow-dipping San Gorgonio Pass thrust W of North Palm Springs. Strike-slip motion is taken up by both the thrust (the slip vector on the N. Palm Springs segment is reverse/right-lateral strike-slip) and by a series of NW striking faults in the footwall of the thrust. The W termination of the most active part of the San Gorgonio Pass thrust coincides with one of these footwall faults at depth, and with the south bend in the San Andreas fault strand N of Banning. This boundary also marks a change in the stress field, with a dominant strike-slip regime to the E (and localized thrusting between San

  15. The San Marco 5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broglio, L.; Ponzi, U.; Arduini, C.

    1993-01-01

    The satellite San Marco 5 was injected into a low equatorial orbit on March 25, 1988 from the Italian San Marco Range (Kenya) and reentered on December 6, 1988. It was the last and most complex spacecraft of the San Marco aeronomic satellites, developed under a cooperative research program between the University of Rome and NASA, with the participation of DFVLR (Germany). The paper describes the scientific mission and the spacecraft design, which accommodates an integrated set of instruments in a very dense assembly. Particular aspects related to the management of the spacecraft in orbit and to the strategy for the satellite interrogation are also described.

  16. 78 FR 53245 - Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Bayfair; Mission Bay, San Diego... temporary safety zone upon the navigable waters of Mission Bay in San Diego, CA for the annual San Diego... navigable waters of Mission Bay for the 2013 San Diego Bayfair power boat races. This event will occur...

  17. 78 FR 20792 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA... enforce the safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San... (NAD83) for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, Item number 1. Under...

  18. 77 FR 28771 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA... enforce the safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San... 46'39.9'' N, 122 23'06.78'' W (NAD83) for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in 33 CFR 165...

  19. 75 FR 38412 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA... zone on the ] navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks. This safety... San Diego POPS Fireworks, which will include fireworks presentations conducted from a barge in...

  20. Pepi, Luci, Bom, and dark habits: lesbian "families" in the films of Pedro Almodovar.

    PubMed

    DiFrancesco, María

    2009-01-01

    Film critics and scholars alike have accepted Pedro Almodovar's Pepi, Luci, Bom, and Dark Habits as highlighting the erotic fixations of a subculture that would have remained silent under Franco. Nonetheless, I see these films as important for their ability to shed light on the Spanish contemporary family. The power dynamics that evolve between female characters in these films illustrate how same-sex couples come together, expand, and re-create alternative family configurations in Spain. I make the case that although these alternative families may not prove to be any less functional than traditional patriarchal families, through them Almodovar compels viewers to reassess the purpose and crucial role that the family plays within Spanish society.

  1. Mission Specialist Pedro Duque smiles at camera while at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA), smiles for the camera from Launch Pad 39B. The STS-95 crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. Other crew members not shown are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinsion, and and Payload Specialists John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The STS-95 mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  2. Rio San Jose Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the II residential properties that compose the Rio San Jose Radiation Site located in Laguna, Mesita, Paraje, and Seama, Pueblo of Laguna located in Cibola County, New Mexico.

  3. Jean Parker School, San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Soren

    1999-01-01

    Describes the post-earthquake renovation of a San Francisco urban elementary school that preserved its historical detail within a modern replacement. Design features are detailed; photos and a floorplan are included. (GR)

  4. Northern California near San Francisco

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-01-01

    SL4-138-3843 (1 Jan. 1974) --- A part of northern California centered near San Francisco Bay photographed at 3 p.m. Jan. 2, 1974, from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This near vertical view encompasses the coastline from Monterey Bay (right) to about 50 miles north of Point Reyes (left) and includes, from bottom to top, San Francisco Bay (center), Sacramento Valley (left center), San Joaquin Valley (right center), and the snow-covered Sierra Nevada. Afternoon shadows sharply delineate a valley which parallels San Francisco Bay, crosses Point Reyes, and lies between the Bay and the Pacific coastline. This valley marks the location of the San Andreas Fault, a major break in the Earth's crust. Forces acting on the crust are causing the land west (bottom) of the fault line to move north relative to land on the east side. The Skylab 4 astronauts photographed major fault zones in South America, New Zealand, Japan and Africa for use in the study of worldwide tectonic system. Agricultural areas in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys are indicated by the tan areas which are easily discerned in contrast to the green-gray background. Photo credit: NASA

  5. 41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco CallBulletin Library San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Call-Bulletin Library San Francisco, California INTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH BEFORE RESTORATION - 1934 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  6. Solidarity According to the Thought of Fr. Pedro Arrupe and Its Application to Jesuit Higher Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menkhaus, James

    2013-01-01

    Fr. Pedro Arrupe, S.J. was elected the 28th superior general of the Society of Jesus in 1965 and served in that role until 1983. As superior general, Arrupe sought to shape the Jesuits in the spirit of the vision of Vatican II, as well as the original charism of the founder of the Jesuit, St. Ignatius. The questions this dissertation seeks to…

  7. Solidarity According to the Thought of Fr. Pedro Arrupe and Its Application to Jesuit Higher Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menkhaus, James

    2013-01-01

    Fr. Pedro Arrupe, S.J. was elected the 28th superior general of the Society of Jesus in 1965 and served in that role until 1983. As superior general, Arrupe sought to shape the Jesuits in the spirit of the vision of Vatican II, as well as the original charism of the founder of the Jesuit, St. Ignatius. The questions this dissertation seeks to…

  8. 22. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Collection) Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Collection) Photographer unknown, Date unknown SIDE VIEW OF CHURCH - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  9. 18. Photocopy of photograph (from De Young Museum, San Francisco, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph (from De Young Museum, San Francisco, CA. c. 1900) Photographer unknown, February 1940 EXTERIOR VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  10. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOODWATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  11. Overview of buildings with San Francisco skyline in background, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of buildings with San Francisco skyline in background, looking 84 degrees east - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. Primera aproximación a la estructura interna de Plutón

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steren, G. A.; Carranza, G. J.; Hubbard, W. B.

    En el presente trabajo se propuso estudiar la estructura interna actual del planeta Plutón. El modelo que se planteó es del tipo de estructura no-diferenciada. Se incluyó como fuente de calor interna la radioactividad y como único mecanismo de transporte de la energía a la conducción. Se encontró que el planeta estaría compuesto por una mezcla de roca (65% en masa) y hielo de agua (35%). Este simple modelo permite inferir que una estructura más realista para Plutón debería incluir también a la convección como mecanismo de transporte. Ello además permitiría avanzar de modo más firme en el estado de diferenciación del planeta, que casi seguramente sea más complejo que el adoptado.

  13. Program Updates - San Antonio River Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page will house updates for this urban waters partnership location. As projects progress, status updates can be posted here to reflect the ongoing work by partners in San Antonio working on the San Antonio River Basin.

  14. Chinatown Chinese: The San Francisco Dialect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Lorraine; Hom, Marlon K.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses factors that make the language spoken in San Francisco's Chinatown so dynamic and, at times, inconsistent. Provides a glossary that includes transliterated and partially transliterated terms, translated terms, new terms, and special San Francisco terms. (Author/GC)

  15. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  16. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  17. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Promotion, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  18. 75 FR 77756 - Safety Zone; San Diego Parade of Lights Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Parade of Lights Fireworks, San... San Diego Parade of Lights Fireworks Displays on December 12 and December 19, 2010. This safety zone... San Diego Parade of Lights Fireworks Displays, which will include two fireworks...

  19. 78 FR 18238 - Safety Zone; SFPD Training Safety Zone; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Hunters Point in San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Police Department's maritime... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register SFPD San Francisco Police Department NPRM Notice of Proposed....C sections 1221 et seq.). San Francisco Police Department will host the SFPD Training Safety Zone...

  20. 76 FR 45693 - Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego POPS Fireworks, San Diego, CA... temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of San Diego Bay in support of the San Diego POPS Fireworks..., participating vessels, and other vessels and users of the waterway during scheduled fireworks events....

  1. 407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET 12 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; SHEET 23 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET NO. 26 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Gold gradients and anomalies in the Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area, Fairbanks district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forbes, Robert B.; Pilkington, H.D.; Hawkins, D.B.

    1968-01-01

    Anomalous gold values have been discovered in hydrothermally altered quartz diorite, quartz monzonite, and quartz mica schist at the head of Fox Creek; and in similarly altered quartz diorite in the Granite Creek area. Channel samples across some of these altered zones have produced anomalous gold values over widths which merit further investigation as potential large tonnage low-grade gold deposits. Trace gold gradients have also been detected in the wall rocks adjacent to mineralized veins and in hydrothermal alteration zones in the Pedro Dome-Cleary Summit area. Although most of the gradients may not materially increase the mineable width of the deposit under current economic conditions, such gradients can be used to locate auriferous quartz veins and altered zones by geochemical methods. Gold enrichment is accompanied by anomalous concentrations of arsenic and antimony, and gold bearing quartz veins and altered zones are frequently signaled by peripheral haloes of these metals before trace gold is detectable. Hydrothermally altered and/or sheared zones in both granitic and metamorphic rocks should be carefully prospected, along the trend of the Cleary Antiform.

  5. Seeking Justice in San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life of Carlos A. Garcia, superintendent at the San Francisco Unified School District. Garcia was born in Chicago, but his parents shortly thereafter moved back to their homeland of Mexico for a few years. When Garcia was almost 5, his family moved to Los Angeles, where his parents worked in factories and Garcia was…

  6. SSC San Diego Brief 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    information dominance . We are at the cutting edge of the processes of transforming data into information, information into knowledge, and knowledge into...solutions for warrior information dominance . We intend to continue and expand SSC San Diego’s leadership in defining, developing, integrating, installing, and

  7. San Diego County Literacy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, June; And Others

    The Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) database for San Diego County reported in this document includes demographic and reading appraisal data collected during 15 months through April 1990 for more than 60,000 students in 6 diverse programs. Some of the findings resulting from analysis of the database include the following: (1)…

  8. California, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-04-14

    STS001-12-305 (12-14 April 1981) --- California, San Francisco Bay photographed by a crew member on the space shuttle Columbia (STS-1). The coast is seen from near Santa Cruz northward to Point Reyes. The great valley is in the foreground. Photo credit: NASA

  9. San Diego Rediscovers Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Harvey L.

    1985-01-01

    The new K-12 economics education program being implemented by the San Diego City (California) schools is described. A brief historical background, a rationale, what constitutes the program for grades 9-12, and how the program is being implemented are discussed. (RM)

  10. Seeking Justice in San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life of Carlos A. Garcia, superintendent at the San Francisco Unified School District. Garcia was born in Chicago, but his parents shortly thereafter moved back to their homeland of Mexico for a few years. When Garcia was almost 5, his family moved to Los Angeles, where his parents worked in factories and Garcia was…

  11. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  12. Observations of plan-view sand ripple behavior and spectral wave climate on the inner shelf of San Pedro Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Concurrent video images of sand ripples and current meter measurements of directional wave spectra are analyzed to study the relations between waves and wave-generated sand ripples. The data were collected on the inner shelf off Huntington Beach, California, at 15 m water depth, where the sea floor is comprised of well-sorted very fine sands (D50=92 ??m), during the winter of 2002. The wave climate, which was controlled by southerly swells (12-18 s period) and westerly wind waves (5-10 s period), included three wave types: (A) uni-modal, swells only; (B) bi-modal, swells dominant; and (C) bi-modal, wind-wave dominant. Each wave type has distinct relations with the plan-view shapes of ripples that are classified into five types: (1) sharp-crested, two-dimensional (2-D) ripples; (2) sharp-crested, brick-pattern, 3-D ripples; (3) bifurcated, 3-D ripples; (4) round-crested, shallow, 3-D ripples; and (5) flat bed. The ripple spacing is very small and varies between 4.5 and 7.5 cm. These ripples are anorbital as ripples in many field studies. Ripple orientation is only correlated with wave directions during strong storms (wave type C). In a poly-modal, multi-directional spectral wave environment, the use of the peak parameters (frequency, direction), a common practice when spectral wave measurements are unavailable, may lead to significant errors in boundary layer and sediment transport calculations. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating hydrological response of future land cover change scenarios in the San Pedro River (U.S./Mexico) with the automated geospatial watershed assessment (AGWA) tool

    Treesearch

    William G. Kepner; I. Shea Burns; David C. Goodrich; D. Phillip Guertin; Gabriel S. Sidman; Lainie R. Levick; Wison W.S. Yee; Melissa M.A. Scianni; Clifton S. Meek; Jared B. Vollmer

    2016-01-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize potential hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time. Future growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal...

  14. Evaluating Hydrological Response of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the San Pedro River (U.S./Mexico) with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Tool.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize potential hydrologic impacts from future urban gro...

  15. Discrimination of seven Anopheles species from San Pedro de Uraba, Antioquia, Colombia, by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of its sequences.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Mario A; Cienfuegos, Astrid V; Quirós, Oscar I; Quiñones, Martha L; Luckhart, Shirley; Correa, Margarita M

    2007-07-01

    Accurate identification of anopheline species is essential for vector incrimination and implementation of appropriate control strategies. Several anopheline species are considered important malaria vectors in Colombia; however, species determination is complicated by cryptic morphology and intra-individual variation. We describe polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences for differentiation of seven Anopheles species collected in a locality in Antioquia, Colombia, with high levels of malaria transmission. Each of these seven species can be identified by unique AluI PCR-RFLP restriction patterns. Comparisons of morphologic identification with molecular identification of voucher specimens confirmed species designation for 886 wild-caught anophelines. This new method can be used as a diagnostic tool for discrimination of anopheline species of medical importance in this region, some of which have overlapping morphologic characters and for conducting complementary studies where rapid and accurate identification of large numbers of specimens is needed.

  16. Scenario Analysis: Evaluating Biodiversity Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change in the San Pedro River Basin (U.S.-Mexico)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Envisioning and evaluating future scenarios has emerged as a critical component of both science and social decision-making. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is absolutely critical to our capacity to make informed decisions...

  17. DETECTING CHANGES IN RIPARIAN HABITAT CONDITIONS BASED ON PATTERNS OF GREENNESS CHANGE: A CASE STUDY FROM THE UPPER SAN PEDRO RIVER BASIN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy riparian ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions exhibit shifting patterns of vegetation in response to periodic flooding. Their conditions also depend upon the amount of grazing and other human uses. Taking advantage of these system properties, we developed and tested a...

  18. Evaluating hydrological response of future land cover change scenarios in the San Pedro river (U.S./Mexico) with the Automated Geospatial Watershed (AGWA) tool

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize potential hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time. Fu...

  19. The Rancho Period (Rancho San Pedro). Grade 3 Model Lesson for Unit 4, Standard 3. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Mark; Porter, Priscilla; Grenier, Judd

    Prior to the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810, California was under Spanish rule. Mexico controlled California in 1822, beginning the Rancho period. The Mexican governors distributed large tracts of land to people of influence. Ranching conditions were almost perfect because the climate was mild enough to allow animals to live…

  20. Tiwanaku influence and social inequality: A bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and contextual analysis of the Larache cemetery, San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Pestle, William J; Stovel, Emily M

    2015-12-01

    To assess the relationship between the Tiwanaku polity and the individuals buried at the Middle Horizon (∼AD500-1000) cemetery of Larache in northern Chile, a site that has been singled out as a potential elite foreign enclave. We explore this association through the skeletal remains of 48 individuals interred at the cemetery of Larache using bioarchaeological, biogeochemical, and artifactual evidence. Data from cranial modification practices, violent injury, and the mortuary assemblage are used to explore culturally constructed elements of status and identity, radiogenic strontium isotope analyses provide us with a perspective on the geographic origins of these individuals, and stable carbon and nitrogen analyses allow discussion of paleodiet and access to resources. Radiogenic strontium isotope values show the presence of multiple first generation migrants at Larache. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data reveal significant differences among individuals. The mortuary context reveals a standard pattern for the oases but also includes a series of unusual burials with abundant gold and few other objects. Interestingly, both local and nonlocal individuals with different head shapes had access to the differentiated burial context; however nonlocal individuals appear to be the only ones with a heavily maize-based diet. Our evidence shows that Larache served as a burial place for a diverse, yet culturally integrated and potentially elite segment of the Atacameño population, but not a foreign enclave as had been postulated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1992 LANDSAT-MSS DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) in assessing the classification accuracy of land cover derived from Landsat MSS data was investigated. Initially, the suitability of DOQs in distinguishing between different land cover classes was assessed using high-resolution airbo...

  2. Spatial Digital Database for the Geology of the San Pedro River Basin in Cochise, Gila, Graham, Pima, and Pinal Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolm, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    The map area is located in southeastern Arizona. This report describes the map units, the methods used to convert the geologic map data into a digital format, and the ArcInfo GIS file structures and relationships; and it explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey public access World Wide Web site on the Internet. See figures 2 and 3 for page-size versions of the map compilation.

  3. The Rancho Period (Rancho San Pedro). Grade 3 Model Lesson for Unit 4, Standard 3. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Mark; Porter, Priscilla; Grenier, Judd

    Prior to the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810, California was under Spanish rule. Mexico controlled California in 1822, beginning the Rancho period. The Mexican governors distributed large tracts of land to people of influence. Ranching conditions were almost perfect because the climate was mild enough to allow animals to live…

  4. Financial impact of disease-related malnutrition at the San Pedro de Alcántara hospital. Estimated cost savings associated to a specialized nutritional survey.

    PubMed

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Enciso Izquierdo, Fidel Jesús; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Beneítez Moralejo, Belén; Piedra León, María; de Luis, Daniel A; Amado Señaris, José Antonio

    2017-10-01

    DRM is a highly prevalent condition in Spanish hospitals and is associated to increased healthcare costs. Costs associated to DRM were calculated using the methods of the PREDyCES study. The potential savings derived from specialized nutritional treatment were calculated by extrapolating the results of the SNAQ strategy. Median cost per procedure in patients with DRM was €9,679.85, with a final cost of €28,700,775.2. The cost of each patient with DRM was 2.63 times higher than the cost of patients with no DRM. The potential cost saving associated to specialized nutritional treatment was estimated at €1,682,317.28 (5.86% of total cost associated to DRM). Patients with DRM showed a higher consumption of financial resources as compared to well-nourished patients. Specialized nutritional treatment is a potential cost-saving procedure. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. THE SAN PEDRO RIVER: A CASE STUDY FOR EXAMINING PAST LANDSCAPE CHANGE AND FORECASTING HYDROLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO URBAN GROWTH AND LAND USE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is currently possible to measure landscape change over large areas and determine trends in

    environmental condition using advanced space-based technologies accompanied by geospatial data.

    During the past two decades, important advances in the integration of remote...

  6. THE SAN PEDRO RIVER: A CASE STUDY FOR EXAMINING PAST LANDSCAPE CHANGE AND FORECASTING HYDROLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO URBAN GROWTH AND LAND USE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is currently possible to measure landscape change over large areas and determine trends in

    environmental condition using advanced space-based technologies accompanied by geospatial data.

    During the past two decades, important advances in the integration of remote...

  7. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1992 LANDSAT-MSS DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) in assessing the classification accuracy of land cover derived from Landsat MSS data was investigated. Initially, the suitability of DOQs in distinguishing between different land cover classes was assessed using high-resolution airbo...

  8. DETECTING CHANGES IN RIPARIAN HABITAT CONDITIONS BASED ON PATTERNS OF GREENNESS CHANGE: A CASE STUDY FROM THE UPPER SAN PEDRO RIVER BASIN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy riparian ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions exhibit shifting patterns of vegetation in response to periodic flooding. Their conditions also depend upon the amount of grazing and other human uses. Taking advantage of these system properties, we developed and tested a...

  9. Native versus non-native tree competition for water resources along an intermittent reach of the San Pedro River, Arizona 1935

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many transpiration studies on salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) have indicated that its water use is considerably greater than native trees; however these results have varied on temporal and spatial scales making it difficult to draw firm conclusions, especially in co-occurring communities. Using sap...

  10. Scenario Analysis: Evaluating Biodiversity Response to Forecasted Land-Use Change in the San Pedro River Basin (U.S.-Mexico)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Envisioning and evaluating future scenarios has emerged as a critical component of both science and social decision-making. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is absolutely critical to our capacity to make informed decisions...

  11. Evaluating Hydrological Response of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the San Pedro River (U.S./Mexico) with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Tool.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize potential hydrologic impacts from future urban gro...

  12. Detecting changes in riparian habitat conditions based on patterns of greenness change: a case study from the upper San Pedro River Basin, USA

    Treesearch

    K. Bruce Jones; Curtis E. Edmonds; E. Terrance Slonecker; James D. Wickham; Anne C. Neale; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters; William G. Kepner

    2008-01-01

    Healthy riparian ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions exhibit shifting patterns of vegetation in response to periodic flooding. Their conditions also depend upon the amount of grazing and other human uses. Taking advantage of these system properties, we developed and tested an approach that utilizes historical Landsat data to track changes in the patterns...

  13. Indexing of randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy interventions: a comparison of AMED, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, hooked on evidence, PEDro, PsycINFO and PubMed.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Anne M; Sherrington, Catherine; Elkins, Mark R; Herbert, Robert D; Maher, Christopher G

    2009-09-01

    To compare the comprehensiveness of indexing the reports of randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy interventions by eight bibliographic databases (AMED, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, Hooked on Evidence, PEDro, PsycINFO and PubMed). Audit of bibliographic databases. Two hundred and eighty-one reports of randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy interventions were identified by screening the reference lists of 30 relevant systematic reviews published in four consecutive issues of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Issue 3, 2007 to Issue 2, 2008). AMED, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, Hooked on Evidence, PEDro, PsycINFO and PubMed were used to search for the trial reports. The number of trial reports indexed in each database was calculated. PEDro indexed 99% of the trial reports, CENTRAL indexed 98%, PubMed indexed 91%, EMBASE indexed 82%, CINAHL indexed 61%, Hooked on Evidence indexed 40%, AMED indexed 36% and PsycINFO indexed 17%. Most trial reports (92%) were indexed on four or more of the databases. One trial report was indexed on a single database (PEDro). Of the eight bibliographic databases examined, PEDro and CENTRAL provide the most comprehensive indexing of reports of randomised trials of physiotherapy interventions.

  14. [Divine cadavers: gender, medical discourse, and anatomical collections in the legend of Pedro González de Velasco].

    PubMed

    del Pozo, Alba

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the public image of Pedro Gonzólez de Velasco (1815-1882), famous for his anatomical collections and his Anthropological Museum, founded in 1875 in Madrid, and the popular legend related to the death, embalming and exhumation of his daughter Concepción. The doctor who is committed to the nation becomes a mad scientist, and his official biography is transformed into an urban legend. Beyond the merely anecdotal, I show how the aesthetics associated with female corpses and artificial women organize cultural imaginaries, bringing together medical discourses and literary and artistic representations.

  15. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  16. The hydrology of San Bernardino Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter C.

    1905-01-01

    The San Bernardino basin lies near the eastern end of the valley of southern California.  Under the latter term is included that general lowland area which is definitely limited on the north by the San Gabriel and San Bernardino ranges and on the east by the latter range and the San Jacinto group, but whose southern boundary is irregular and difficult to define.  In this direction there is an interdigitation of ridges and valleys as the Sierra Madre Range of San Diego County dies out toward the north.  The more or less indefinite heights that represent its extension in this direction are separated by lowlands, which in turn are to be regarded as southwest lobes of the well-defined east-west valley that lies along the base of the San Gabriel Range.

  17. Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shelving plans, elevations, and sections. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 9, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South entrance, plan, section, & detail. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Detailed drawings of tile work, wrought iron, and art stone, Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 6, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 112. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT (RIGHT), UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP (LEFT), AND LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 111. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT WITH BUS RAMP TO TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP IN FOREGROUND, NEAR SECOND STREET, FACING SOUTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 10. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. Location of Water Lines, Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 30. November 1943. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF CRISSY FIELD AND AREA A. - Presidio of San Francisco, Storehouse & Administration, Crissy Field North cantonment, Allen Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 9. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. Location of Water Lines, Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 29. June 1944. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF CRISSY FIELD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Storehouse & Administration, Crissy Field North cantonment, Allen Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation and main floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes chemistry and botany departments. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 2, job no. 311. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 109. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT UPPER DECK AND 1950'S LOWER DECK MODIFICATION WITH CLOCK TOWER IN BACKGROUND, BETWEEN THIRD AND SECOND STREETS, FACING NORTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, Letterman Army Hospital, San Francisco, Calif. 1958. SHOWING LOCATION OF BUILDINGS 1006 AND 1049 IN LETTERMAN HOSPITAL COMPLEX IN 1958. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  7. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  8. Slip rate on the San Diego trough fault zone, inner California Borderland, and the 1986 Oceanside earthquake swarm revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Holly F.; Conrad, James E.; Paull, C.K.; McGann, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The San Diego trough fault zone (SDTFZ) is part of a 90-km-wide zone of faults within the inner California Borderland that accommodates motion between the Pacific and North American plates. Along with most faults offshore southern California, the slip rate and paleoseismic history of the SDTFZ are unknown. We present new seismic reflection data that show that the fault zone steps across a 5-km-wide stepover to continue for an additional 60 km north of its previously mapped extent. The 1986 Oceanside earthquake swarm is located within the 20-km-long restraining stepover. Farther north, at the latitude of Santa Catalina Island, the SDTFZ bends 20° to the west and may be linked via a complex zone of folds with the San Pedro basin fault zone (SPBFZ). In a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), we measure and date the coseismic offset of a submarine channel that intersects the fault zone near the SDTFZ–SPBFZ junction. We estimate a horizontal slip rate of about 1:5 0:3 mm=yr over the past 12,270 yr.

  9. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... and San Joaquin Rivers.\\1\\ The Bay Delta Estuary is the hub of California's water distribution system... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I RIN-2009-ZA00 Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San... water quality conditions affecting aquatic resources in the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin...

  10. 78 FR 77597 - Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Giacomo Terrizzi, Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone 619-278...

  11. 77 FR 42647 - Safety Zone: San Diego Symphony POPS Fireworks; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: San Diego Symphony POPS Fireworks; San... Fireworks. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the participants, crew, spectators... Hall are sponsoring the San Diego POPS Fireworks, which will include a fireworks presentation...

  12. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National...

  13. 77 FR 15260 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area... position 37 46'39.9'' N, 122 23'06.78'' W (NAD83) for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in 33 CFR...

  14. 76 FR 14051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... inventory of human remains in the control of San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA. The human... American human remains. The National Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by San Francisco State University...

  15. 78 FR 38584 - Safety Zone; San Diego Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks 2013 Season, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks... Symphony Summer POPS Fireworks 2013 season. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the... San Diego Symphony Summer POPS, which will include a fireworks presentation from a barge in San Diego...

  16. Metamorphism of San Antonio Terrane metapelites, San Gabriel Mountains, California

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, L.; Ishimatsu, J.; Schneiderman, J.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Pelitic schists and gneisses from the San Antonio terrane in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains consist of garnet, biotite, plagioclase, quartz, sillimanite, cordierite, hercynite [+-] alkali feldspar. Large garnet porphyroblasts contain quartz, plagioclase and sillimanite inclusions. Cordierite occurs as haloes around garnet porphyroblasts and as small subgrains always associated with hercynite and together replacing sillimanite blades. Hercynite additionally appears to have nucleated on the edges of sillimanite blades. Contrary to previous investigations, hercynite appears to be a late mineral phase. Reaction textures described above have been used to calculate a set of net-transfer reactions that can be used (1) to characterize all possible exchanges of matter between minerals in the system and (2) to construct a reaction space for the system. Fourteen thin sections with large garnet porphyroblasts and abundant biotite were used for microprobe analysis. Detailed probe analyses show well-developed zoning in the plagioclase and alkali feldspar whose character varies depending on location in the thin section relative to neighboring minerals. Generally, large plagioclase porphyroblasts display normal zoning and are not as calcium-rich as plagioclase inclusions in the garnet. Garnet porphyroblasts have flat zoning profiles due to high temperatures of metamorphism. Pressures and temperatures of metamorphism have been calculated from these assemblages using garnet-biotite geothermometry and quartz-garnet-aluminosilicate-plagioclase geobarometry.

  17. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX (drawing from History of San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX (drawing from History of San Diego County, California, published 1883. Photocopy 1975 by Bert Shankland, San Diego). - Johnson-Taylor Ranch House, Black Mountain Road vicinity, Rancho Penasquitos, San Diego County, CA

  18. 4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH NEWER CHECK AND TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  19. 2. COURTYARD, 1890 (photograph from Title Insurance Collection, San Diego ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURTYARD, 1890 (photograph from Title Insurance Collection, San Diego Historical Society. Photocopy 1975 by Bert Shankland, San Diego). - Johnson-Taylor Ranch House, Black Mountain Road vicinity, Rancho Penasquitos, San Diego County, CA

  20. 8. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST (Title Insurance Co. collection, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST (Title Insurance Co. collection, San Diego Historical Society). Historical view, no date, photocopied for HABS, 1975 - Long-Waterman House, 2408 First Avenue, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Photo by Muybridge, Gleason Collection San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Photo by Muybridge, Gleason Collection San Francisco College for Women Ca. 1870 CONSTRUCTION VIEW FROM SOUTH - U. S. Branch Mint, Mission & Fifth Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, NORTH ABUTMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, NORTH ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - North San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of San Gabriel River at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  3. DETAIL OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, CANTILEVER SPAN CONNECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, CANTILEVER SPAN CONNECTION, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, RIVER SPAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, RIVER SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH APPROACH, LOOKING NORTH. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  6. DETAIL OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, PICKET HAND RAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, PICKET HAND RAIL, LOOKING WEST. - North San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of San Gabriel River at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  7. VIEW OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, FLOOR SYSTEM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, FLOOR SYSTEM AND LATERAL BRACING, LOOKING SOUTH. - North San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of San Gabriel River at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  8. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, EAST SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, EAST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - North San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of San Gabriel River at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  9. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH ABUTMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH ABUTMENT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  10. DETAIL OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, PICKET HAND RAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, PICKET HAND RAIL, LOOKING WEST. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  11. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, WEST SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, WEST SIDE, LOOKING EAST. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  12. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, NORTH APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, NORTH APPROACH, LOOKING SOUTH. - North San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of San Gabriel River at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  13. VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, FLOOR SYSTEM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, FLOOR SYSTEM AND LATERAL BRACING, LOOKING NORTH. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  14. DETAIL OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, CANTILEVER SPAN CONNECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF NORTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, CANTILEVER SPAN CONNECTION, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - North San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of San Gabriel River at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  15. Evaluation of the San Dieguito, San Elijo, and San Pasqual hydrologic subareas for reclaimed water use, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made to determine the suitability of three small hydrologic subareas in San Diego County, California, for reuse of municipal wastewater. Ground-water quality has been impacted by agricultural water use, imported water use, changes in natural recharge patterns, seawater intrusion, and intrusion of ground water from surrounding marine sediments; therefore, ground water is of limited value as a water-supply source. Reclaimed water use is feasible and expected to improve ground-water quality, creating a new source of water for agricultural use. (USGS)

  16. San Francisco floating STOLport study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The operational, economic, environmental, social and engineering feasibility of utilizing deactivated maritime vessels as a waterfront quiet short takeoff and landing facility to be located near the central business district of San Francisco was investigated. Criteria were developed to evaluate each site, and minimum standards were established for each criterion. Predicted conditions at the two sites were compared to the requirements for each of the 11 criteria as a means of evaluating site performance. Criteria include land use, community structure, economic impact, access, visual character, noise, air pollution, natural environment, weather, air traffic, and terminal design.

  17. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This image of San Francisco, California shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market, called the SOMA district in San Francisco, appear bright red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. Various bridges in the area are also visible including the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) at the opening of San Francisco Bay, the Bay Bridge (right center) connecting San Francisco and Oakland, and the San Mateo Bridge (bottom center). All the dark areas on the image are relatively smooth water: the Pacific Ocean to the left, San Francisco Bay in the center, and various reservoirs. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen in the lower left of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east. The image is about 42 kilometers by 58 kilometers (26 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. This area is centered at 37.83 degrees north latitude, 122.38 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01791

  18. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image of San Francisco, California shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market, called the SOMA district in San Francisco, appear bright red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. Various bridges in the area are also visible including the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) at the opening of San Francisco Bay, the Bay Bridge (right center) connecting San Francisco and Oakland, and the San Mateo Bridge (bottom center). All the dark areas on the image are relatively smooth water: the Pacific Ocean to the left, San Francisco Bay in the center, and various reservoirs. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen in the lower left of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east. The image is about 42 kilometers by 58 kilometers (26 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. This area is centered at 37.83 degrees north latitude, 122.38 degrees east longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  19. Public Library Service for San Benito County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Gail

    A sparsely populated, agricultural area, San Benito County (California) provides library services in conjunction with the Hollister city library and in cooperation with the San Juan Bautista city library. Financing comes from the county general fund. There are no written goals or policy statements and no professionally trained librarians. As…

  20. Jack London and the San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sachs, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    After it was over, it seemed to many, and especially to eyewitnesses like Jack London, that the earthquake and fire had devastated San Francisco. However people were confident that, like the phoeniz, San Francisco would rise from the ashes and regain her palce as the "Imperial City of the West." 

  1. San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James C.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

  2. 27 CFR 9.56 - San Lucas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false San Lucas. 9.56 Section 9.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.56 San Lucas....

  3. 27 CFR 9.56 - San Lucas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false San Lucas. 9.56 Section 9.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.56 San Lucas....

  4. San Diego's High School Dropout Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James C.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights San Diego's dropout problem and how much it's costing the city and the state. Most San Diegans do not realize the enormous impact high school dropouts on their city. The California Dropout Research Project, located at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has estimated the lifetime cost of one class or cohort of…

  5. Trouble Brewing in San Francisco. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of San Francisco will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that San Francisco faces an aggregate $22.4 billion liability for pensions and retiree health benefits that are underfunded--including $14.1 billion for the city…

  6. MAPP in action in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    Shields, Kathleen M; Pruski, Charles E

    2005-01-01

    San Antonio was selected as an official Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) demonstration site by National Association of County and City Officials in 2000. The San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, under the leadership of Dr Fernando A. Guerra, agreed to facilitate the process. The MAPP process provided the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, the local public health authority, a defined process for community health improvement, as well as a mechanism to help bridge the gap between public health and the community. The San Antonio Metropolitan Health District organized a Core Planning Team to lead the MAPP process in April 2001. By October 2002, the Core Planning Team was expanded to a full community working group named the Alliance for Community Health in San Antonio and Bexar County (Alliance). The Alliance identified six strategic issues, which eventually became the basis of the San Antonio Community Health Improvement Plan. The strategic issues are Public Policy, Data Tracking, Healthy Lifestyles, Promoting a Sense of Community, Access to Care, and Safe Environment. San Antonio's MAPP experience has been successful in bringing together the public health system partners, and establishing public health priorities collectively. The MAPP process has resulted in the development of many new initiatives, and, most important, has opened the door to many partnership opportunities in the future. The work of the Alliance, through the MAPP process, has helped to leverage resources for public health improvement in San Antonio, and has the potential to effect positive change in public health in the future.

  7. SAN JOAQUIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Capstick, Donald O.

    1984-01-01

    The San Joaquin Roadless Area is composed of three noncontiguous areas on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada in Madera County, California. The results of geologic, geochemical, and mining-activity and production surveys in the central part of the area indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral or energy resources in the area. Sand, gravel, and pumice exist in the area but occurrences are small and isolated and farther from major markets than similar deposits outside the roadless area. Rocks in the area are exhibited in exposures of unaltered and nonmineralized granitic and metavolcanic rock along the steep western wall of the glacially carved valley of the Middle Fork of the San Joaquin River. Drainage in the area consists of seeps along fractures in the cliff or small cascading streams, a hydraulic setting not favorable for the development of placer deposits. No mines or prospect workings were found in the roadless area. Alteration zones within the granitic and metamorphic rock that crop out within the area are small, isolated, and consist only of limonitic staining and bleached quartzose rock.

  8. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-89-053 (28 April-6 May 1991) --- A 70mm, infrared frame of the city of San Francisco, taken on a clear day. The gray areas represent urban regions, and the red areas are vegetated. Within the city of San Francisco, parks like Golden Gate park and the Presidio at the base of the Golden Gate Bridge easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city. Major thoroughfares and bridges (Golden Gate and Bay Bridges) are seen as are other landmarks such as Candlestick Park and Alcatraz. The trace of the San Andreas faults show as a straight valley running northerly along the San Francisco peninsula. Good detail is visible in the turbid waters of San Francisco Bay.

  9. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-26

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco. Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02606

  10. The morphodynamic significance of rapid shoreline progradation followed by vertical foredune building at Pedro Beach, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Thomas; Tamura, Toru; Short, Andrew; Woodroffe, Colin

    2017-04-01

    Prograded coastal barriers are accumulations of marine and aeolian sands configured into shore-parallel ridges. A variety of ridge morphologies described around the world reflect differences in origin as a consequence of differing prevailing coastal morphodynamics. The 'morphodynamic approach' described by Wright and Thom (1977) expounds the coastal environmental conditions, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes and inheritance of evolutionary sequences over varying temporal scales which interdependently operate to produce an assemblage of coastal landforms adjusted, or adjusting to, a dynamic equilibrium. At Pedro Beach on the southeastern coast of Australia a large sandy deposit of foredune ridges provides an opportunity to explore the morphodynamic paradigm as it applies to coastal barrier systems using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and airborne LiDAR topography. The prograded barrier at Pedro Beach has formed following the stabilisation of the sea level at its present height on the southeast Australian coastline. A series of dune-capped ridges, increasing in height seawards, formed from 6000 years ago to 4000 years ago. During this time the shoreline straightened as bedrock accommodation space for Holocene sediments diminished. Calculation of Holocene sediment volumes utilising airborne LiDAR topography shows a decline in sediment volume over this time period coupled with a decrease in shoreline progradation rate from 0.75 m/yr to 0.49 m/yr. The average ridge 'lifetime' during this period increases resulting in higher ridges as dune-forming processes have longer to operate. Greater exposure to wave and wind energy also appears to have resulted in higher ridges as the sheltering effect of marginal headlands has diminished. A high outer foredune has formed through vertical accretion in the past 700 years, evidenced by GPR subsurface structures and upward younging of OSL ages, with a sample from 1 m deep within

  11. EDXRF analysis of the Pentecost Triptych from the "São Pedro de Miragaia" church (Porto, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Ferrero, José; Juanes, David; Carballo, Jorgelina; Calvo, Ana; Aguiar, Maria

    2013-01-01

    EDXRF spectrometry was used to determine the pigment composition of the Pentecost Triptych, a Flemish masterpiece located at the Church of São Pedro de Miragaia (Porto, Portugal). The triptych was restored at the beginning of the 20th century and presents a great number of zones with repaints and colour alterations that can be observed on the whole of their surface. The identification of the original pigments and restoration pigments was based on their characteristic colour and the correlation between the detected elements and the named "key elements" of ancient pigments (Ca, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb,…) and modern pigments (Ti, Ba, Cr, Zn, Co, Cd,…). The analysis of the triptych has been carried out in situ by means of portable instrumentation.

  12. Leeward vs windward effects on glacial/interglacial periplatform aragonite cycles off Pedro Bank and Jamaica (northern Nicaragua rise)

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, K.S.; Droxler, A.W.; Haddad, G.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Fine (< 62 {mu}m) aragonite content in periplatform sediment from the northern (leeward) and southern (windward) slopes of Pedro Bank shows late Quaternary climate-induced cyclic downcore variations. Intervals characterized by high aragonite content correspond to interglacial stages. The aragonite cycles are clearly developed despite significant windward/leeward differences in sediment sources and composition, pelagic productivity( ), and current regime. Interglacial sedimentation rates on the leeward slope (LS) are nearly twice as high as those on the windward slope (WS), and twice as high as LS glacial sedimentation rates. Carbonate values (75-85%) in sediments deposited on the northern slope of Pedro Bank are higher than those (50-70%) on its southern slope. On both slopes, high carbonate values correspond to interglacial intervals. The lowest carbonate values occur during glacial intervals on the southern slope and are explained by an increase of siliciclastic input from Jamaica during sea level lowstands. This siliciclastic increase could compensate for the drop of bank-derived fine aragonite, and thus, could explain the constant glacial/interglacial sedimentation rates found on the southern slope. In addition, high pteropod abundance during glacial stages along the southern slope may also indicate higher glacial pelagic productivity. Winnowing effects are rather conspicuous in one core from the northern slope within Walton basin (600 m water depth) during glacial intervals, when values of the coarse (> 62 {mu}m) fraction are the highest (the opposite is observed in the other cores). In this relatively shallow core, partial cementation during glacial intervals is also observed.

  13. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  14. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  15. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This cloud free color infrared view of San Francisco and Bay Area, CA (38.0N, 122.5W) is unusual because the city is normally concealed from view by clouds and fog. Gray tones represent urban areas and the red toned areas are vegetated. Within the city, parks easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city as enclaves of color. The trace of the San Andreas fault shows as a straight valley running across the San Francisco peninsula.

  16. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  17. SANS studies of micellar and magnetic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B,

    1985-08-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proved to be an excellent technique for the study of complex fluids. This article introduces SANS from the viewpoint of such studies. The use of SANS to determine the structures of concentrated micellar fluids is then discussed within the framework of current one-component macrofluid (OCM) models, and experimental examples are taken from several contemporary studies. Finally, the discussion is extended to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) in which the neutron magnetic interaction plays an important experimental role. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, X-Ray Department and Second Floor Plan, X-Ray Department Plan, Building 1006. no date. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital. EKG Cardiology Clinic, Building 1049. December 1955. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # 1049 Letterman General Hospital. Alterations to EKG Cardiology Clinic. November 1963. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 11. Photocopy of Painting (Original in De Young Museum, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of Painting (Original in De Young Museum, San Francisco, Oriana Day Paintings 1861-1865) Photographer unknown, February 1940 PAINTING OF MISSION COMPLEX SHOWING EXTERIOR PRIOR TO 1835 - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  2. 19. REGIONAL MAP, SALINAS RIVER PROJECT, CAMP SAN LUIS OBISPO, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REGIONAL MAP, SALINAS RIVER PROJECT, CAMP SAN LUIS OBISPO, IN CENTRAL PORTION OF SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA. Leeds Hill Barnard & Jewett - Consulting Engineers, February 1942. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  3. Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 27. June 1945. SHOWING EASTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 27. June 1945. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF AREA B, BUILDINGS 901-919 AND WESTERN PORTION OF CRISSY FIELD - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 26. March 1943. SHOWING AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 26. March 1943. SHOWING AREA B, BUILDINGS 901-919; PART OF BUILDINGS 949 AND 950 ARE SHOWN IN UPPER LIFT CORNER OF DRAWING - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  6. 41. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, First Floor Plan, Main Laboratory Section and Plan, Building 1006. no date BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 34. Fort Winfield Scott and Presidio of San Francisco. August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Fort Winfield Scott and Presidio of San Francisco. August 1918. SHOWING THE LETTERMAN HOSPITAL COMPLEX, FOLLOWING CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING 1006 AND 1049, IN CONTEXT WITH ENTIRE PRESIDIO IN 1918. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS and V-SANS) study of asphaltene aggregates in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Headen, Thomas F; Boek, Edo S; Stellbrink, Jörg; Scheven, Ulrich M

    2009-01-06

    We report small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on two crude oils. Analysis of the high-Q SANS region has probed the asphaltene aggregates in the nanometer length scale. We find that the radius of gyration decreases with increasing temperature. We show that SANS measurements on crude oils give similar aggregate sizes to those found from SANS measurements of asphaltenes redispersed in deuterated toluene. The combined use of SANS and V-SANS on crude oil samples has allowed the determination of the radius of gyration of large scale asphaltene aggregates of approximately 0.45 microm. This has been achieved by the fitting of Beaucage functions over two size regimes. Analysis of the fitted Beaucage functions at very low-Q has shown that the large scale aggregates are not simply made by aggregation of all the smaller nanoaggregates. Instead, they are two different aggregates coexisting.

  9. SanG, a transcriptional activator, controls nikkomycin biosynthesis through binding to the sanN-sanO intergenic region in Streptomyces ansochromogenes.

    PubMed

    He, Xihong; Li, Rui; Pan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

    2010-03-01

    Streptomyces ansochromogenes SanG is a pathway-specific regulator that mainly controls the transcription of two transcriptional units involved in nikkomycin biosynthesis. SanG consists of three major functional domains: an N-terminal Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) domain, a central ATPase domain, and a C-terminal half homologous to guanylate cyclases belonging to the LuxR family. SanG was expressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminally His(6)-tagged protein. The purified SanG-His( 6) was shown to be a dimer in solution by dynamic light scattering. An electrophoretic mobility-shift assay showed that the purified SanG protein could bind to the DNA fragment containing the bidirectional sanN-sanO promoter region. The SanG-binding sites within the bidirectional sanN-sanO promoter region were determined by footprinting analysis and identified a consensus-directed repeat sequence 5'-CGGCAAG-3'. SanG showed significant ATPase/GTPase activity in vitro, and addition of ATP/GTP enhanced the affinity of SanG for target DNA, but ATP/GTP hydrolysis was not essential for SanG binding to the target DNA. However, real-time reverse transcription PCR showed that mutation of the ATPase/GTPase domain of SanG significantly decreased the transcriptional level of sanN-I and sanO-V. These results indicated that the ATPase/GTPase activity of SanG modulated the transcriptional activation of SanG target genes during nikkomycin biosynthesis.

  10. Vertical tectonic deformation associated with the San Andreas fault zone offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Parsons, T.; Sliter, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    A new fault map of the shelf offshore of San Francisco, California shows that faulting occurs as a distributed shear zone that involves many fault strands with the principal displacement taken up by the San Andreas fault and the eastern strand of the San Gregorio fault zone. Structures associated with the offshore faulting show compressive deformation near where the San Andreas fault goes offshore, but deformation becomes extensional several km to the north off of the Golden Gate. Our new fault map serves as the basis for a 3-D finite element model that shows that the block between the San Andreas and San Gregorio fault zone is subsiding at a long-term rate of about 0.2-0.3??mm/yr, with the maximum subsidence occurring northwest of the Golden Gate in the area of a mapped transtensional basin. Although the long-term rates of vertical displacement primarily show subsidence, the model of coseismic deformation associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake indicates that uplift on the order of 10-15??cm occurred in the block northeast of the San Andreas fault. Since 1906, 5-6??cm of regional subsidence has occurred in that block. One implication of our model is that the transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault to a fault 5??km to the east, the Golden Gate fault, is not required for the area offshore of San Francisco to be in extension. This has implications for both the deposition of thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments (the Merced Formation) observed east of the San Andreas fault, and the age of the Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault.

  11. Vertical tectonic deformation associated with the San Andreas fault zone offshore of San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, H. F.; Parsons, T.; Sliter, R. W.

    2008-10-01

    A new fault map of the shelf offshore of San Francisco, California shows that faulting occurs as a distributed shear zone that involves many fault strands with the principal displacement taken up by the San Andreas fault and the eastern strand of the San Gregorio fault zone. Structures associated with the offshore faulting show compressive deformation near where the San Andreas fault goes offshore, but deformation becomes extensional several km to the north off of the Golden Gate. Our new fault map serves as the basis for a 3-D finite element model that shows that the block between the San Andreas and San Gregorio fault zone is subsiding at a long-term rate of about 0.2-0.3 mm/yr, with the maximum subsidence occurring northwest of the Golden Gate in the area of a mapped transtensional basin. Although the long-term rates of vertical displacement primarily show subsidence, the model of coseismic deformation associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake indicates that uplift on the order of 10-15 cm occurred in the block northeast of the San Andreas fault. Since 1906, 5-6 cm of regional subsidence has occurred in that block. One implication of our model is that the transfer of slip from the San Andreas fault to a fault 5 km to the east, the Golden Gate fault, is not required for the area offshore of San Francisco to be in extension. This has implications for both the deposition of thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments (the Merced Formation) observed east of the San Andreas fault, and the age of the Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault.

  12. 76 FR 10945 - San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, CA; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, CA; Notice of Appointment of... Corporation as sole Receiver for San Luis Trust Bank, FSB, San Luis Obispo, California, (OTS No. 15051)...

  13. 75 FR 17329 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Fourth of July Fireworks, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Fourth of July Fireworks, San Diego... support of the Big Bay July Fourth Show to Benefit the San Diego Armed Services YMCA. This temporary...; Big Bay Fourth of July Fireworks, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The limits of the safety...

  14. 33 CFR 165.T11-534 - Safety zone; Bay Bridge construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety zone; Bay Bridge construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA. 165.T11-534 Section 165.T11-534 Navigation and Navigable... Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.T11-534 Safety zone; Bay Bridge construction, San Francisco Bay, San...

  15. Sediment conditions in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, 2000-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Banta, J. Ryan; Crow, Cassi L.; Opsahl, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment plays an important role in the ecological health of rivers and estuaries and consequently is an important issue for water-resource managers. To better understand sediment characteristics in the San Antonio River Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, completed a two-part study in the San Antonio River Basin downstream from San Antonio, Texas, to (1) collect and analyze sediment data to characterize sediment conditions and (2) develop and calibrate a watershed model to simulate hydrologic conditions and suspended-sediment loads during 2000–12.

  16. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  17. Suicide Among Chinese in San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Peter G.

    1973-01-01

    Reports on a study which investigated suicide among Chinese in San Francisco, its relationship to age and sex distribution, place of birth, marital status, occupation, and methods and causes of suicide. (SF)

  18. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-152-100 (5-14 June 1991) --- Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of San Francisco Bay, development and physiographic features in the immediate vicinity of the bay are well displayed. The photograph clearly shows the eastern part of the city, including the Embarcadero, the Bay Bridge, which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, and Candlestick Park, San Mateo, and Dumbarton Bridges, cross the southern portion of the bay. Vari-colored salt ponds also rim the southern Bay near Moffett Field. Highway 280 runs along the San Andreas fault south of the city. On the eastern margin of the bay are Berkeley the Sacramento River and the Haywood and Calaveras faults.

  19. A Community Stormwater Investigation, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chio, J.; Garcia, E.; Hernandez, M.; Devine, M.; Isip, N.; Jiang, J.; Li, A.; Li, D.; Lopez, J.; Mark, J.; McGuire, S.; Navarro, K.; Negrete, R.; Orellana, S.; Yun, C.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay watershed covers 40% of the State of California. Nonpoint source pollutants from cars, lawns, houses, parks and people residing within the watershed contribute contamination into San Francisco Bay. To measure the contribution from our neighborhoods we collected runoff from storm-drains at 10 different sites around San Francisco and tested them for heavy metals, Total Organic Carbons (TOC), and Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) during a six-month period. Each sample site location is situated within one block of each participant's home. The goal of this study was to determine the contaminants contributed as nonpoint source pollution into San Francisco Bay. Our results show that a variety of contaminants are entering the Bay's ecosystem via sources in our residential settings. While this contribution may be thought of as unsubstantial, our results show that our neighborhoods are significant sources of watershed pollution.

  20. San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine Project project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  1. 27 CFR 9.171 - San Bernabe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... San Bernabe viticultural area is located in central Monterey County, south of King City, California... benchmark 304, located one-half mile southwest of King City, along the Salinas River, in Township 20...

  2. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-03-118 (June 1973) --- An infrared photograph of the San Francisco Bay, California area, taken from the Skylab 1/2 space station in Earth orbit. THE PICTURE SHOULD BE HELD WITH THE CLOUDS AND PACIFIC OCEAN ON THE LEFT. This photograph was taken by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter of the space station. Type 2443 film was used. Note the thickly populated and highly developed area around the bay. Among the cities visible in this photograph are San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley and San Jose. This view extends eastward to show a portion of the San Joaquin Valley. The S190-A experiment is part of the Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). Photo credit: NASA

  3. Details of main entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Details of main entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Half elevation of exterior iron gates, half plan of interior with tiling, and section AA. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 5, job no. 312. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West elevation. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plan of entrance, section EE showing tiling and typical transom design, and a full size detail of a door jamb for inside concrete walls. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 311. Scale 1.2 inch to the foot. February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Section AA through main entrance gates & west stairs. San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section AA through main entrance gates & west stairs. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plans and sections of boys' and girls' toilets. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 5, job no. 311. Scales 1/4 inch to the foot (section AA) and 1/2 inch to the foot (toilet rooms). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 2. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, showing street profiles of two San Francisco cable railroads. Figure 10 illustrates the mainline of the Sutter Street Railroad on Sutter Street, while Figure 11 shows the route of the Presidio & Ferries Railroad along Union Street. Note the lack of significant grades along the Sutter Street route. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 1. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, showing street profiles of three San Francisco cable lines. Figure 7, at bottom of engraving, is the profile of Hallidie's Clay Street Hill Railroad. Figures 8 and 9 show the grades for the California Street Cable Railroad and the Geary Street Park & Ocean Railroad respectively. Note the lack of significant grades along Geary Street. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. North elevation and second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation and second floor plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Includes physics, geology, and zoology departments shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch to the foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation and plan of east side entrance. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections II and SS of entrance hall; and a stress diagram of steel truss. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 7, job no. 315. Scale 1/2 inch to the foot. No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes elevations and sections of chemistry department shelving. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 311. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations) and 1/2 inch t other foot (shelving). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes sections A through MM. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 1, job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan) and 1/2 inch to the foot (sections). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and west elevations. San Berardino Valley Union Junior College, Library Building. Also includes miscellaneous full size details. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 4, Job no. 315. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (elevations). No date given on sheet (probably March or April, 1927). - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Foundation plan. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Also includes sections AA-KK (except DD). Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 1, job no. 312. Scales 1/8 inch to the foot (plan) and 1/2 inch to the foot (sections). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Includes map drawers, surveying equipment lockers, counters, platforms, etc. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 8, job no. 312. Scales 1/2 inch to the foot (details) and 1/64 inch to the foot (plot plan). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  16. Gila San Francisco Decision Support Tool - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Klisa, Geoff; Poplionski, Will

    2014-12-01

    The Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool analyzes the water demand and supply for the Gila San Francisco region spanning four counties in southwestern New Mexico (Catron, Hidalgo, Luna and Grant). Catalyzed by the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act and prompted by a keen awareness for the unique ecology in the region, the model was developed by Sandia with a collaborative modeling team from federal, state, local, and public stakeholders

  17. Trouble Brewing in San Diego. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of San Diego will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that San Diego faces total of $45.4 billion, including $7.95 billion for the county pension system, $5.4 billion for the city pension system, and an estimated $30.7…

  18. Children and the San Fernando earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    Before dawn, on February 9, 1971, a magnitude 6.4 earthquake occurred in the San Fernando Valley of California. On the following day, theSan Fernando Valley Child Guidance Clinic, through radio and newspapers, offered mental health crises services to children frightened by the earthquake. Response to this invitation was immediate and almost overwhelming. During the first 2 weeks, the Clinic's staff counseled hundreds of children who were experiencing various degrees of anxiety. 

  19. Tracer study of San Vicente reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    The City of San Diego remains on the cutting edge of water conservation. With an unwavering commitment to maintain an adequate water supply for the future, water repurification is now being considered. The City of San Diego and San Diego Water Authority (CWA) have proposed to recycle repurified water through San Vicente Reservoir. A key component of assessing the feasibility of such a project is to calculate the retention time of repurified water in the reservoir. Working with engineering consultant team (Montgomery-Watson Engineers and Flow Science, Incorporated) two tracer studies were conducted to model the circulation and mixing of repurified water introduced into the reservoir. The goal was to determine whether repurified water recycled through San Vicente will meet the retention time criteria established by the Department of Health Services. This presentation however, will not attempt to interpret the results of the study, that aspect will be evaluated by the Flow Scientist. The objective here is to explain how the project was carried out and to focus mostly on the analytical work performed on the samples by the chemist in the City of San Diego Water Quality Laboratory.

  20. Abrupt along-strike change in tectonic style: San Andreas fault zone, San Francisco Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.L.; Jachens, R.C.; Olson, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Seismicity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to define an abrupt change from compressional to extensional tectonism within a 10- to 15-km-wide zone along the San Andreas fault on the San Francisco Peninsula and offshore from the Golden Gate. This 100-km-long section of the San Andreas fault includes the hypocenter of the Mw = 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as the highest level of persistent microseismicity along that ???470-km-long rupture. We define two distinct zones of deformation along this stretch of the fault using well-constrained relocations of all post-1969 earthquakes based a joint one-dimensional velocity/hypocenter inversion and a redetermination of focal mechanisms. The southern zone is characterized by thrust- and reverse-faulting focal mechanisms with NE trending P axes that indicate "fault-normal" compression in 7- to 10-km-wide zones of deformation on both sides of the San Andreas fault. A 1- to 2-km-wide vertical zone beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas is characterized by its almost complete lack of seismicity. The compressional deformation is consistent with the young, high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains/Coast Ranges as the San Andreas fault makes a broad restraining left bend (???10??) through the southernmost peninsula. A zone of seismic quiescence ???15 km long separates this compressional zone to the south from a zone of combined normal-faulting and strike-slip-faulting focal mechanisms (including a ML = 5.3 earthquake in 1957) on the northernmost peninsula and offshore on the Golden Gate platform. Both linear pseudo-gravity gradients, calculated from the aeromagnetic data, and seismic reflection data indicate that the San Andreas fault makes an abrupt ???3-km right step less than 5 km offshore in this northern zone. A similar right-stepping (dilatational) geometry is also observed for the subparallel San Gregorio fault offshore. Persistent seismicity and extensional tectonism occur within the San

  1. 77 FR 10771 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ..., 12000091 Iglesia de San Pedro y San Pablo, (Culebra River Villages of Costilla County MPS) 11423 Cty. Rd. 21, San Pedro, 12000090 Iglesia de la Inmaculada Concepcion, (Culebra River Villages of Costilla...

  2. Oxidative status assessment of the endemic bivalve Pinna nobilis affected by the oil spill from the sinking of the Don Pedro.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Tejada, Silvia; Box, Antonio; Deudero, Salud; Sureda, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Several biomarkers were determined to evaluate the effects of the Don Pedro spillage on the digestive gland of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758). Two areas in the southeast of Ibiza Island (Western Mediterranean) were selected; one affected by the oil spill (Talamanca) and one did not affected (Espardell). Mussels were sampled one, six and twelve months after the accident. PAH levels were elevated in P. nobilis from the affected area one month after the accident and, although they were decreasing gradually, they were always higher than in the control area. An increase in enzyme activities, reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation were evidenced one month after the spillage, with no changes in acetylcholinesterase. All biomarkers progressively returned to basal levels one year after the oil spill. In conclusion, the Don Pedro oil spill induced an acute situation of oxidative stress on P. nobilis that were recovered twelve months later.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels and measures of oxidative stress in the Mediterranean endemic bivalve Pinna nobilis exposed to the Don Pedro oil spill.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Tejada, Silvia; Box, Antonio; Deudero, Salud

    2013-06-15

    The fan mussel (Pinna nobilis Linné, 1758) is the largest endemic Mediterranean bivalve subject to strict protection as an endangered species. Antioxidant biomarkers in P. nobilis gills for biomonitoring marine pollution were researched after the Don Pedro oil spill. Two sampling locations on the east and southeast of the island of Ibiza (Western Mediterranean, Spain) were selected, one extensively affected by the oil spill and the other unaffected (control area). Mussels were sampled 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after the accident. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels and antioxidant enzymes significantly increased as result of the oil spill in all sampling periods (p<0.05). Oxidative damage in lipids significantly increased in the mussels collected in the affected area (p<0.05), though such damage was back to normal after 1 year. In conclusion, the Don Pedro oil spill induced a situation of oxidative stress on P. nobilis that continued a year later.

  4. Marine terrace deformation, san diego county, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, P.A.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The NW-SE trending southern California coastline between the Palos Verdes Peninsula and San Diego roughly parallels the southern part and off-shore extension of the dominantly right-lateral, strike-slip, Newport-Inglewood fault zone. Emergent marine terraces between Newport Bay and San Diego record general uplift and gentle warping on the northeast side of the fault zone throughout Pleistocene time. Marine terraces on Soledad Mt. and Point Loma record local differential uplift (maximum 0.17 m/ka) during middle to late Pleistocene time on the southwest side of the fault (Rose Canyon fault) near San Diego. The broad Linda Vista Mesa (elev. 70-120 m) in the central part of coastal San Diego County, previously thought to be a single, relatively undeformed marine terrace of Plio-Pleistocene age, is a series of marine terraces and associated beach ridges most likely formed during sea-level highstands throughout Pleistocene time. The elevations of the terraces in this sequence gradually increase northwestward to the vicinity of San Onofre, indicating minor differential uplift along the central and northern San Diego coast during Pleistocene time. The highest, oldest terraces in the sequence are obliterated by erosional dissection to the northwest where uplift is greatest. Broad, closely spaced (vertically) terraces with extensive beach ridges were the dominant Pleistocene coastal landforms in central San Diego County where the coastal slope is less than 1% and uplift is lowest. The beach ridges die out to the northwest as the broad low terraces grade laterally into narrower, higher, and more widely spaced (vertically) terraces on the high bluffs above San Onofre where the coastal slope is 20-30% and uplift is greatest. At San Onofre the terraces slope progressively more steeply toward the ocean with increasing elevation, indicating continuous southwest tilt accompanying uplift from middle to late Pleistocene time. This southwest tilt is also recorded in the asymmetrical

  5. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, City of San Francisco, San... Guard will enforce the safety zone for the City of Sausalito's Fourth of July Fireworks in the Captain... Sausalito's Fourth of July Fireworks Display in 33 CFR 165.1191. This safety zone will be in effect from 9 a...

  6. Una Visita al Viejo San Juan (A Visit to Old San Juan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabello, Victor; And Others

    Written in Spanish, this black and white illustrated booklet provides a tour of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico's oldest and most historic city. Brief historical information is provided on the Perro de San Jeronimo, a statue of a barking dog found in front of the Castillo; Plaza de Colon, a small plaza dedicated to Christopher Columbus; the Catedral de…

  7. San Francisco, Sacramento and San Jose lead nation on EPAs Energy Star Top Cities list

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released its seventh-annual list of the top 25 U.S. metropolitan areas with the most Energy Star certified buildings in 2014. This year, San Francisco ranks fifth with Sacramento coming

  8. 77 FR 42638 - Safety Zone: Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San Diego..., since immediate action is needed to ensure the public's safety. B. Basis and Purpose Sea World is...

  9. 77 FR 60899 - Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San Diego... establish safety zones (33 U.S.C 1221 et seq.). Sea World is sponsoring the Sea World Fireworks, which will...

  10. 77 FR 42649 - Safety Zone: Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Sea World San Diego Fireworks, Mission Bay; San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  11. 78 FR 29025 - Sea World San Diego Fireworks 2013 Season; Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Sea World San Diego Fireworks 2013 Season; Mission Bay... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World San Diego... Guard to establish safety zones (33 U.S.C 1221 et seq.). Sea World is sponsoring the Sea World Fireworks...

  12. Una Visita al Viejo San Juan (A Visit to Old San Juan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabello, Victor; And Others

    Written in Spanish, this black and white illustrated booklet provides a tour of Old San Juan, Puerto Rico's oldest and most historic city. Brief historical information is provided on the Perro de San Jeronimo, a statue of a barking dog found in front of the Castillo; Plaza de Colon, a small plaza dedicated to Christopher Columbus; the Catedral de…

  13. 76 FR 55796 - Safety Zone; TriRock Triathlon, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... of a bay swim in San Diego Harbor. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of the... logistical details of the San Diego Bay swim were not finalized or presented to the Coast Guard in enough... swimming a predetermined course. The sponsor will provide three safety vessels for this event. This...

  14. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area one... referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships departing San Juan Harbor... Petroleum Gas vessels via a marine broadcast Notice to Mariners. (5) Should the actual time of entry of the...

  15. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area one... referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships departing San Juan Harbor... Petroleum Gas vessels via a marine broadcast Notice to Mariners. (5) Should the actual time of entry of the...

  16. 33 CFR 165.754 - Safety Zone: San Juan Harbor, San Juan, PR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following area: (1) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships entering San Juan Harbor in an area one... referenced use datum: NAD 83. (2) The waters around Liquefied Petroleum Gas ships departing San Juan Harbor... Petroleum Gas vessels via a marine broadcast Notice to Mariners. (5) Should the actual time of entry of the...

  17. The San Andreas Fault 'Supersite' (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    An expanded and permanent Supersite has been proposed to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) for the San Andreas Fault system, based upon the successful initial Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Geohazard Supersite for the Los Angeles region from 2009-2013. As justification for the comprehensive San Andreas Supersite, consider the earthquake history of California, in particular the devastating M 7.8 San Francisco earthquake of 1906, which occurred along the San Andreas Fault, as did an earthquake of similar magnitude in 1857 in southern California. Los Angeles was only a small town then, but now the risk exposure has increased for both of California's megacities. Between the San Francisco and Los Angeles urban areas lies a section of the San Andreas Fault known to creep continually, so it has relatively less earthquake hazard. It used to be thought of as capable of stopping earthquakes entering it from either direction. Transitional behavior at either end of the creeping section is known to display a full range of seismic to aseismic slip events and accompanying seismicity and strain transient events. Because the occurrence of creep events is well documented by instrumental networks such as CISN and PBO, the San Andreas Supersite can be expected to be especially effective. A good baseline level of geodetic data regarding past events and strain accumulation and release exists. Many prior publications regarding the occurrence of geophysical phenomena along the San Andreas Fault system mean that in order to make novel contributions, state-of-the-art science will be required within this Supersite region. In more recent years, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake struck adjacent to the San Andreas Fault and caused the most damage along the western side of the San Francisco Bay Area. More recently, the concern has focused on the potential for future events along the Hayward Fault along the eastern side of San Francisco Bay. In Southern California, earthquakes

  18. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El.... Add Sec. 165.T07-0166 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T07-0166 Safety Zone, Spanish Navy School Ship San.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary moving safety zone on the waters of Bahia de San Juan...

  19. California coastal processes study: Skylab. [San Pablo and San Francisco Bays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In San Pablo Bay, the patterns of dredged sediment discharges were plotted over a three month period. It was found that lithogenous particles, kept in suspension by the fresh water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin, were transported downstream to the estuarine area at varying rates depending on the river discharge level. Skylab collected California coastal imagery at limited times and not at constant intervals. Resolution, however, helped compensate for lack of coverage. Increased spatial and spectral resolution provided details not possible utilizing Landsat imagery. The S-192 data was reformatted; band by band image density stretching was utilized to enhance sediment discharge patterns entrainment, boundaries, and eddys. The 26 January 1974 Skylab 4 imagery of San Francisco Bay was taken during an exceptionally high fresh water and suspended sediment discharge period. A three pronged surface sediment pattern was visible where the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers entered San Pablo Bay through Carquinez Strait.

  20. The physician, the Emperor and the fibromyalgia: Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) and Dom Pedro II (1825-1891) of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kurizky, Patricia Shu; Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique; Diniz, Leonardo Rios; Dos Santos Neto, Leopoldo Luiz

    2016-02-01

    The physician Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard was a neurologist of considerable importance. In 1846 his thesis 'Researches and Experiments on the Physiology of the Spinal Cord' brought out knowledge about the sensory pathways which remains until today. The Emperor, Dom Pedro II was the second and last Emperor of Brazil, reigning for 49 years and remembered for defending the nation's integrity, the end of slavery, support for education and culture, diplomacy and relations with international personalities. He married Dona Teresa Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1822-1889) by proxy in 1843, the fourth and last Empress consort of Brazil. This paper reports the exchange of letters between these personalities of the XIX century. Although they lived far from each other and worked in areas so different, they discussed the health of the Empress in letters. Dom Pedro II made contact with Brown-Séquard hoping that ' … your knowledge shall help heal my wife of nervous disease … . ' According to Dom Pedro the Empress suffered ' … for a long time with more or less long interruptions of horrible neuralgic pains in the legs, head and the scalp. Two points on the dorsal spine feel the effects more or less with pressure applied … . ' In addition to describing and documenting the exchange of letters, this paper raises the possibility that the Empress suffered from the fibromyalgia syndrome.