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Sample records for estuarine sediment communities

  1. Evaluation of estuarine sediment communities exposed to pentachlorophenol on the basis of microbial community parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.C.; Barkay, T.; Devereux, R.; Jonas, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of pentachlorophenol (PCP), a widely-used wood preserving agent, on natural sediment microbial communities was examined to determine if methods for assessing changes in microbial community structure and function were useful for studies of environmental impact. Current impact assessments predict the potential for environmental impact from data on contaminant bioavailability (partitioning to interstitial water), or on toxicity to benthic infauna, epibenthic species or species that obtain nutrients from the sediment or water column. Since sediment microorganisms are important as terminal oxidizers of organic compounds, providing essential nutrients for support of higher trophic levels, study of the impact of contaminants on microbial communities may add an important dimension to assessments. Estuarine sediment slurries in field-validated microcosms were exposed to PCP at environmentally relevant concentrations (1.0 and 5.0 ug{center_dot}ml{sup {minus}1}). Results indicated that microcosm-contained communities were metabolically impacted by PCP treatment (reduction of sulfate reduction rates to 17.6% of untreated controls, reduction of dark CO{sub 2} fixation rates less pronounced). The structure of sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) communities changed in response to PCP exposure as revealed by specific 16S ribosomal RNA probes, although direct counts of epifluorescent-stained bacteria remained stable. When compared to untreated microcosms, SRB groups capable of incomplete oxidation of substrates increased in relative abundance when exposed to 5 ug{center_dot}ml{sup {minus}1} PCP, while groups capable of complete oxidation declined in relative abundance. Impacts on the microbial community were produced by PCP exposure and could be detected by the methods employed; therefore, this approach may provide a means for detecting adverse impacts on sediment communities where many recalcitrant pollutants persist.

  2. Organic Matter Loading Modifies the Microbial Community Responsible for Nitrogen Loss in Estuarine Sediments.

    PubMed

    Babbin, Andrew R; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine sediments, as locations of substantial fixed nitrogen loss, are very important to the nitrogen budget and to the primary productivity of the oceans. Coastal sediment systems are also highly dynamic and subject to periodic natural and anthropogenic organic substrate additions. The response to organic matter by the microbial community involved in nitrogen loss processes was evaluated using mesocosms of Chesapeake Bay sediments. Over the course of a 50-day incubation, rates of anammox and denitrification were measured weekly using (15)N tracer incubations, and samples were collected for genetic analysis. Rates of both nitrogen loss processes and gene abundances associated with them corresponded loosely, probably because heterogeneities in sediments obscured a clear relationship. The rates of denitrification were stimulated more, and the fraction of nitrogen loss attributed to anammox slightly reduced, by the higher organic matter addition. Furthermore, the large organic matter pulse drove a significant and rapid shift in the denitrifier community composition as determined using a nirS microarray, indicating that the diversity of these organisms plays an essential role in responding to anthropogenic inputs. We also suggest that the proportion of nitrogen loss due to anammox in these coastal estuarine sediments may be underestimated due to temporal dynamics as well as from methodological artifacts related to conventional sediment slurry incubation approaches. PMID:26520832

  3. PHYTOASSESSMENT OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most sediment quality assessments and quality guidelines are based on the laboratory response of single animal species and benthic animal community composition. The role of plants in this hazard assessment process is poorly understood despite the fact that plant-dominated habitat...

  4. Archaeal community diversity and abundance changes along a natural salinity gradient in estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Gordon; O'Sullivan, Louise A.; Meng, Yiyu; Williams, Angharad S.; Sass, Andrea M.; Watkins, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John; Weightman, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Archaea are widespread in marine sediments, but their occurrence and relationship with natural salinity gradients in estuarine sediments is not well understood. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of Archaea in sediments at three sites [Brightlingsea (BR), Alresford (AR) and Hythe (HY)] along the Colne Estuary, using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes, DNA hybridization, Archaea 16S rRNA and mcrA gene phylogenetic analyses. Total archaeal 16S rRNA abundance in sediments were higher in the low-salinity brackish sediments from HY (2–8 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies cm−3) than the high-salinity marine sites from BR and AR (2 × 104–2 × 107 and 4 × 106–2 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies cm−3, respectively), although as a proportion of the total prokaryotes Archaea were higher at BR than at AR or HY. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the ‘Bathyarchaeota’ (MCG), Thaumarchaeota and methanogenic Euryarchaeota were the dominant groups of Archaea. The composition of Thaumarchaeota varied with salinity, as only ‘marine’ group I.1a was present in marine sediments (BR). Methanogen 16S rRNA genes from low-salinity sediments at HY were dominated by acetotrophic Methanosaeta and putatively hydrogentrophic Methanomicrobiales, whereas the marine site (BR) was dominated by mcrA genes belonging to methylotrophic Methanococcoides, versatile Methanosarcina and methanotrophic ANME-2a. Overall, the results indicate that salinity and associated factors play a role in controlling diversity and distribution of Archaea in estuarine sediments. PMID:25764553

  5. Archaeal community diversity and abundance changes along a natural salinity gradient in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Webster, Gordon; O'Sullivan, Louise A; Meng, Yiyu; Williams, Angharad S; Sass, Andrea M; Watkins, Andrew J; Parkes, R John; Weightman, Andrew J

    2015-02-01

    Archaea are widespread in marine sediments, but their occurrence and relationship with natural salinity gradients in estuarine sediments is not well understood. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of Archaea in sediments at three sites [Brightlingsea (BR), Alresford (AR) and Hythe (HY)] along the Colne Estuary, using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes, DNA hybridization, Archaea 16S rRNA and mcrA gene phylogenetic analyses. Total archaeal 16S rRNA abundance in sediments were higher in the low-salinity brackish sediments from HY (2-8 × 10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies cm(-3)) than the high-salinity marine sites from BR and AR (2 × 10(4)-2 × 10(7) and 4 × 10(6)-2 × 10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies cm(-3), respectively), although as a proportion of the total prokaryotes Archaea were higher at BR than at AR or HY. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the 'Bathyarchaeota' (MCG), Thaumarchaeota and methanogenic Euryarchaeota were the dominant groups of Archaea. The composition of Thaumarchaeota varied with salinity, as only 'marine' group I.1a was present in marine sediments (BR). Methanogen 16S rRNA genes from low-salinity sediments at HY were dominated by acetotrophic Methanosaeta and putatively hydrogentrophic Methanomicrobiales, whereas the marine site (BR) was dominated by mcrA genes belonging to methylotrophic Methanococcoides, versatile Methanosarcina and methanotrophic ANME-2a. Overall, the results indicate that salinity and associated factors play a role in controlling diversity and distribution of Archaea in estuarine sediments.

  6. Response of estuarine benthic communities to zinc contamination: Tests using formulated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Watzin, M.C.; Roscigno, P.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of historic industrial sources, zinc contamination in Mobile Bay is of widespread concern. Using formulated sediment and a newly developed field technique, the authors examined the effects of a series of concentrations of zinc on the benthic invertebrate community at two sites. A formulated sediment that matches field sediment in grain size distribution and organic matter content was mixed from 11 components and used as the test substrate. Clean sediments and sediments dosed with zinc at concentrations from 250--5,000 mg/kg were exposed in the field on holding racks anchored on the bottom of the bay. The abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrate recruits were used as indicators of sediment quality. The authors found significant differences in both the abundances and species composition of recruits between clean controls and the zinc contaminated sediments. All taxa did not respond similarly to changing zinc concentrations, and effects on some groups were more apparent at lower concentrations. Several families of polychaete worms, harpacticoid copepods, and ostracods appeared to be most sensitive to the zinc. Under certain conditions, some taxa were attracted to zinc contaminated sediments. Taken together, the results suggest that zinc contamination can profoundly affect the nature of the benthic community recruiting into such sediments.

  7. Use of a novel sediment exposure to determine the effects of triclosan on estuarine benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kay T; Chariton, Anthony A; Portis, Lisa M; Proestou, Dina; Cantwell, Mark G; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Burgess, Robert M; Simpson, Stuart; Pelletier, Marguerite C; Perron, Monique M; Gunsch, Claudia K; Bik, Holly M; Katz, David; Kamikawa, Anthony

    2013-02-01

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]phenol) is a relatively new, commonly used antimicrobial compound found in many personal care products. Triclosan is toxic to marine organisms at the micrograms per liter level, can photodegrade to a dioxin, can accumulate in humans, and has been found to be stable in marine sediments for over 30 years. To determine the effects of triclosan on marine benthic communities, intact sediment cores were brought into the laboratory and held under flowing seawater conditions. A 2-cm layer of triclosan-spiked sediment was applied to the surface, and after a two-week exposure the meio- and macrofaunal communities were assessed for differences in composition relative to nonspiked cores. A high triclosan treatment (180 mg/kg dry wt) affected both the meio- and the macrobenthic communities. There were no discernible differences with a low-triclosan treatment (14 mg/kg dry wt). This exposure method is effective for testing the benthic community response to sediment contaminants, but improvements should be made with regard to the amount and method of applying the overlying sediment to prevent smothering of fragile benthic organisms.

  8. Effects of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene on estuarine macrobenthic communities exposed via water and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Tagatz, M.E.; Plaia, G.R.; Deans, C.H.

    1985-12-01

    Macrobenthic animal communities that colonized sand-filled aquaria were exposed to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), a recent replacement for polycholorinated biphenyls in the electrical industry. In one test, communities established by planktonic larvae entrained in continuously supplied unfiltered seawater for 50 days were exposed to waterborne TCB for 6 days; in the second test, the toxicant was added to the sediment before 8 weeks of colonization. Concentrations that affected community structure were usually two orders of magnitude lower for waterborne TCB than for sediment-bound TCB, but the same types of organisms were affected by each route of exposure. The lowest TCB concentrations (measured) that affected average numbers of individuals exposed via the water were 0.04 mg/liter for mollusks, 0.4 mg/liter for arthropods, and 4 mg/liter for annelids. Average number of species was significantly lower than the control at 4 mg/liter. For TCB exposures via the sediment, the lowest concentrations (nominal) that affected average numbers of individuals were 100 micrograms/g for mollusks and echinoderms, and 1000 micrograms/g for arthropods and annelids. Average number of species in experimental aquaria was significantly lower than the control at greater than or equal to 100 micrograms/g. TCB persisted in sediments, but some leached into water throughout the 8-week exposure via sediment.

  9. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Swartz, R.C.; Lanberson, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    Estuarine sediments frequently are repositories and sources of anthropogenic contaminants. Toxicity is one method of assessing the environmental quality of sediments, yet because of the extreme range of salinities that characterize estuaries few infaunal organisms have both the physiological tolerance and sensitivity to chemical contaminants to serve in estuarine sediment toxicity tests. The study describes research on the estuarine burrowing amphipod, Eohaustorius estuarius Bosworth, 1973, whose survival was >95% in control sediments across a 2 to 28% salinity range over 10-d periods. E. estuarius also was acutely sensitive to low sediment concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (LC50 approximately = 10.6 mg/kg), and its sensitivity to fluoranthene was not affected by salinity. E. estuarius was almost as sensitive as Rhepoxynius abronius to fluoranthene and to field-collected sediments from Puget Sound urban and industrial bays. E. estuarius was also more tolerant of very fine, uncontaminated sediments than R. abronius. Furthermore, E. estuarius was more sensitive to sediments spiked with fluoranthene than the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. E. estuarius, and possibly other estuarine haustoriid species, appears to be an excellent candidate for testing the acute toxicity if estuarine and marine sediments.

  10. Sediment diatom species and community response to nitrogen addition in Oregon (USA) estuarine tidal wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment microalgae play an important role in nutrient cycling and are important primary producers in the food web in Pacific Northwest estuaries. This study examines the effects of nitrogen addition to benthic microalgae in tidal wetlands of Yaquina Bay estuary on the Oregon c...

  11. Quantitative determination of microbial activity and community nutritional status in estuarine sediments: evidence for a disturbance artifact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, R. H.; Pollard, P. C.; Moriarty, D. J.; White, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    In estuarine sediments with a high degree of vertical heterogeneity in reduced substrate and terminal electron acceptor concentrations, the method of exposure of the microbiota to labeled substrates can introduce a "disturbance artifact" into measures of metabolic activity. The detection of this artifact is based on quantitative measurement of the relative rates of incorporation of [14C]acetate into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and endogenous storage lipid, poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Previous studies have shown that PLFA synthesis measures cellular growth and that PHA synthesis measures carbon accumulation (unbalanced growth). The "disturbance artifact" of exposure to [14C]acetate was demonstrated by comparing injection of a core with the usual or pore-water replacement or slurry techniques. Only injection of labeled substrate allowed detection of preassay disturbance of the sediment with a garden rake. The raking increased PLFA synthesis with little effect to differences in concentration or distribution of [14C]acetate in the 10-min incubation. Bioturbation induced by sand dollar feeding in estuarine sediment could be detected in an increased PLFA/PHA ratio which was due to decreased PHA synthesis if the addition of labeled substrate was by the injection technique. Addition of labeled precursors to sediment by slurry or pore-water replacement induces greater disturbance artifacts than injection techniques.

  12. Sediment measurement in estuarine and coastal areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of uses of estuarine and coastal areas is given. Problems associated with these uses are discussed, and data needs for intelligent management of these valuable areas are outlined. Suspended sediment measurements are seen to be one of the greatest needs. To help understand the complexity of the problem, a brief discussion of sediment mechanics is given, including sediment sources, characteristics, and transport. The impact of sediment mechanics on its direct measurement (sampling and analysis) is indicated, along with recommendations for directly obtaining representative data. Indirect measurement of suspended sediment by remote sensors is discussed both theoretically and in the light of some recent experiences. The need for an integrated, multidisciplinary program to solve the problem of quantitatively measuring suspended sediment with remote sensors is stressed, and several important considerations of such a program and benefits to be derived therefrom are briefly addressed.

  13. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments: metal influence.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Raquel; Mucha, Ana P; Teixeira, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the potential effect of metals, such as Cd, Cu and Pb, on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments was investigated under laboratory conditions. Sandy and muddy non-vegetated sediments were collected in the Lima River estuary (NW Portugal) and spiked with crude oil and each of the metals. Spiked sediments were left in the dark under constant shaking for 15 days, after which crude oil biodegradation was evaluated. To estimate microbial abundance, total cell counts were obtained by DAPI staining and microbial community structure was characterized by ARISA. Culturable hydrocarbon degraders were determined using a modified most probable number protocol. Total petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations were analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy after their extraction by sonication, and metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained showed that microbial communities had the potential to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons, with a maximum of 32 % degradation obtained for sandy sediments. Both crude oil and metals changed the microbial community structure, being the higher effect observed for Cu. Also, among the studied metals, only Cu displayed measurable deleterious effect on the hydrocarbons degradation process, as shown by a decrease in the hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms abundance and in the hydrocarbon degradation rates. Both degradation potential and metal influence varied with sediment characteristics probably due to differences in contaminant bioavailability, a feature that should be taken into account in developing bioremediation strategies for co-contaminated estuarine sites.

  14. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the communities of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in estuarine marsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Zeleke, Jemaneh; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Jian-Gong; Huang, Ming-Yao; Xia, Fei; Wu, Ji-Hua; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2013-01-01

    The effect of plant invasion on the microorganisms of soil sediments is very important for estuary ecology. The community structures of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as a function of Spartina alterniflora invasion in Phragmites australis-vegetated sediments of the Dongtan wetland in the Yangtze River estuary, China, were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) and dissimilatory sulfite-reductase (dsrB) genes. Sediment samples were collected from two replicate locations, and each location included three sampling stands each covered by monocultures of P. australis, S. alterniflora and both plants (transition stands), respectively. qPCR analysis revealed higher copy numbers of mcrA genes in sediments from S. alterniflora stands than P. australis stands (5- and 7.5-fold more in the spring and summer, respectively), which is consistent with the higher methane flux rates measured in the S. alterniflora stands (up to 8.01 ± 5.61 mg m(-2) h(-1)). Similar trends were observed for SRB, and they were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the methanogens. Diversity indices indicated a lower diversity of methanogens in the S. alterniflora stands than the P. australis stands. In contrast, insignificant variations were observed in the diversity of SRB with the invasion. Although Methanomicrobiales and Methanococcales, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, dominated in the salt marsh, Methanomicrobiales displayed a slight increase with the invasion and growth of S. alterniflora, whereas the later responded differently. Methanosarcina, the metabolically diverse methanogens, did not vary with the invasion of, but Methanosaeta, the exclusive acetate utilizers, appeared to increase with S. alterniflora invasion. In SRB, sequences closely related to the families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae dominated in the salt marsh, although they displayed minimal changes with the S

  15. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the communities of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in estuarine marsh sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zeleke, Jemaneh; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Jian-Gong; Huang, Ming-Yao; Xia, Fei; Wu, Ji-Hua; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2013-01-01

    The effect of plant invasion on the microorganisms of soil sediments is very important for estuary ecology. The community structures of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as a function of Spartina alterniflora invasion in Phragmites australis-vegetated sediments of the Dongtan wetland in the Yangtze River estuary, China, were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) and dissimilatory sulfite-reductase (dsrB) genes. Sediment samples were collected from two replicate locations, and each location included three sampling stands each covered by monocultures of P. australis, S. alterniflora and both plants (transition stands), respectively. qPCR analysis revealed higher copy numbers of mcrA genes in sediments from S. alterniflora stands than P. australis stands (5- and 7.5-fold more in the spring and summer, respectively), which is consistent with the higher methane flux rates measured in the S. alterniflora stands (up to 8.01 ± 5.61 mg m−2 h−1). Similar trends were observed for SRB, and they were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the methanogens. Diversity indices indicated a lower diversity of methanogens in the S. alterniflora stands than the P. australis stands. In contrast, insignificant variations were observed in the diversity of SRB with the invasion. Although Methanomicrobiales and Methanococcales, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, dominated in the salt marsh, Methanomicrobiales displayed a slight increase with the invasion and growth of S. alterniflora, whereas the later responded differently. Methanosarcina, the metabolically diverse methanogens, did not vary with the invasion of, but Methanosaeta, the exclusive acetate utilizers, appeared to increase with S. alterniflora invasion. In SRB, sequences closely related to the families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae dominated in the salt marsh, although they displayed minimal changes with the S

  16. Transformation of benzothiazole in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Catallo, W James; Junk, T

    2005-01-01

    Benzothiazole (BT) is a natural and synthetic compound occurring in aquatic sediments and wastewater. The purpose of this work was to investigate BT biogeochemistry in controlled Eh/pH microcosms (CEPMs) containing estuarine sediments of different particle sizes (coarse, intermediate, fine) under oxidized and reduced conditions vs. killed controls, and tide simulation mesocosms (TSMs) containing plants and meiofauna under well-drained (oxidized), consistently saturated/flooded (reduced), and tidal (alternating oxidized/reduced) conditions. Benzothiazole was transformed into complex product mixtures under all conditions. Benzothiazole transformation rates in CEPMs were slower under reduced conditions vs. oxidized conditions in the fine- and intermediate-grain sediments, but the same in the coarse sediment. Quiescent (unstirred) CEPMs showed greatly reduced BT transformation rates in all sediments, with half-lives on the order of 2200 to >4000 h (unstirred) vs. 640 to 1000 h in the continuously stirred systems. The TSM data showed that tidal and drained systems processed BT at identical rates, far exceeding those observed in statically flooded (reduced) TSMs. Mixing was found to be a more significant variable in BT transformation rate than either Eh or sediment particle size breakdown, with constant stirring increasing observed degradation appreciably. Otherwise, BT was transformed more readily on sediments of high surface area under oxidized conditions vs. coarser sediments and those under reducing electrochemical conditions. PMID:16151226

  17. Benthic infaunal community structuring in an acidified tropical estuarine system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that increasing ocean acidification (OA) should have strong direct and indirect influences on marine invertebrates. While most theory and application for OA is based on relatively physically-stable oceanic ecological systems, less is known about the effects of acidification on nearshore and estuarine systems. Here, we investigated the structuring of a benthic infaunal community in a tropical estuarine system, along a steep salinity and pH gradient, arising largely from acid-sulphate groundwater inflows (Sungai Brunei Estuary, Borneo, July 2011- June 2012). Results Preliminary data indicate that sediment pore-water salinity (range: 8.07 - 29.6 psu) declined towards the mainland in correspondence with the above-sediment estuarine water salinity (range: 3.58 – 31.2 psu), whereas the pore-water pH (range: 6.47- 7.72) was generally lower and less variable than the estuarine water pH (range: 5.78- 8.3), along the estuary. Of the thirty six species (taxa) recorded, the polychaetes Neanthes sp., Onuphis conchylega, Nereididae sp. and the amphipod Corophiidae sp., were numerically dominant. Calcified microcrustaceans (e.g., Cyclopoida sp. and Corophiidae sp.) were abundant at all stations and there was no clear distinction in distribution pattern along the estuarine between calcified and non-calcified groups. Species richness increased seawards, though abundance (density) showed no distinct directional trend. Diversity indices were generally positively correlated (Spearman’s rank correlation) with salinity and pH (p <0.05) and negatively with clay and organic matter, except for evenness values (p >0.05). Three faunistic assemblages were distinguished: (1) nereid-cyclopoid-sabellid, (2) corophiid-capitellid and (3) onuphid- nereid-capitellid. These respectively associated with lower salinity/pH and a muddy bottom, low salinity/pH and a sandy bottom, and high salinity/pH and a sandy bottom. However, CCA suggested that species distribution

  18. Copper effects on bacterial activity of estuarine silty sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Fernandes, Sandra; Sobral, Paula; Alcântara, Fernanda

    2007-07-01

    , mainly, by the great intensification of bacterial biomass production and leucine turnover rate. We conclude that the bacterial community of silty estuarine sediments seems to withstand considerable concentrations of copper at the cost of reduced bacterial organic matter degradation and of the almost halting of bacterial production. The toxic effects elicited by copper on protein and carbohydrate degradation were not rapidly repaired by erosion and oxygenation of the sediment cells but, in contrast, bacterial biomass production and leucine turnover were rapidly and efficiently reactivated.

  19. Impact of silver nanoparticles on benthic prokaryotes in heavy metal-contaminated estuarine sediments in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Antizar-Ladislao, B; Bhattacharya, B D; Ray Chaudhuri, S; Sarkar, S K

    2015-10-15

    Little knowledge is available about the potential impact of commercial silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on estuarine microbial communities. The Hugli river estuary, India, is susceptible to heavy metals pollution through boat traffic, and there is the potential for Ag-NP exposure via effluent discharged from ongoing municipal and industrial activities located in close proximity. This study investigated the effects of commercial Ag-NPs on native microbial communities in estuarine sediments collected from five stations, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique. An increase in the number of bacteria in consortium in sediments was observed following exposure to Ag-NPs. In general microbial communities may be resistant in estuarine systems to the antimicrobial effects of commercial Ag-NPs, but key microorganisms, such as Pelobacter propionicus, disappeared following exposure to Ag-NPs. In conclusion, the T-RFLP analysis indicated that Ag-NPs have the potential to shape estuarine sediment bacterial community structure. PMID:26231062

  20. Impact of silver nanoparticles on benthic prokaryotes in heavy metal-contaminated estuarine sediments in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Antizar-Ladislao, B; Bhattacharya, B D; Ray Chaudhuri, S; Sarkar, S K

    2015-10-15

    Little knowledge is available about the potential impact of commercial silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on estuarine microbial communities. The Hugli river estuary, India, is susceptible to heavy metals pollution through boat traffic, and there is the potential for Ag-NP exposure via effluent discharged from ongoing municipal and industrial activities located in close proximity. This study investigated the effects of commercial Ag-NPs on native microbial communities in estuarine sediments collected from five stations, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique. An increase in the number of bacteria in consortium in sediments was observed following exposure to Ag-NPs. In general microbial communities may be resistant in estuarine systems to the antimicrobial effects of commercial Ag-NPs, but key microorganisms, such as Pelobacter propionicus, disappeared following exposure to Ag-NPs. In conclusion, the T-RFLP analysis indicated that Ag-NPs have the potential to shape estuarine sediment bacterial community structure.

  1. Integrated sediment quality assessment in Paranaguá Estuarine System, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Choueri, R B; Cesar, A; Torres, R J; Abessa, D M S; Morais, R D; Pereira, C D S; Nascimento, M R L; Mozeto, A A; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2009-10-01

    Sediment quality from Paranaguá Estuarine System (PES), a highly important port and ecological zone, was evaluated by assessing three lines of evidence: (1) sediment physical-chemical characteristics; (2) sediment toxicity (elutriates, sediment-water interface, and whole sediment); and (3) benthic community structure. Results revealed a gradient of increasing degradation of sediments (i.e. higher concentrations of trace metals, higher toxicity, and impoverishment of benthic community structure) towards inner PES. Data integration by principal component analysis (PCA) showed positive correlation between some contaminants (mainly As, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and toxicity in samples collected from stations located in upper estuary and one station placed away from contamination sources. Benthic community structure seems to be affected by both pollution and natural fine characteristics of the sediments, which reinforces the importance of a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate sediments of PES. PMID:19616298

  2. Generation of an estuarine sediment plume by a tropical storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Li, Ming; Li, Yun

    2013-02-01

    Tropical Storm Lee (2011) caused a record flood in the Susquehanna River which discharged about 6.7 million tons of suspended sediments into the Bay, an amount equal to the input of 6 average years. The flood-carried sediment produced a large sediment plume that covered one half of Chesapeake Bay with the maximum suspended sediment concentration exceeding 2500 mg L-1. Three stages were identified in the development of the sediment plume, corresponding to three dominant forcing mechanisms, i.e., river flow, estuarine circulation, and sediment settling. Most of the flood-carried sediments were deposited in the Bay within 20 days. Sands were dumped in the Susquehanna Flats with a maximum thickness of 10 cm, while fine-grained sediments were dusted over a wide area in the upper Bay with a maximum thickness of 4 cm. Long-term simulation of the post-storm period showed that a majority of the flood sediments were redistributed to accumulate in the estuarine turbidity maximum region due to flood-ebb asymmetry in tidal suspension and advection by estuarine circulation and tidal flows while the rest were transported seaward and deposited in the mid-Bay. It is estimated that the flood delivered 9 months of particulate nitrogen and over 1 year of particulate phosphorus supplies to the estuary. This catastrophic event may change the geological history and exacerbate water-quality decline in the American largest estuary.

  3. Role of Phragmites australis (common reed) for heavy metals phytoremediation of estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Cicero-Fernández, Diego; Peña-Fernández, Manuel; Expósito-Camargo, Jose A; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Phragmites australis to take up heavy metals (Co, Ni, Mo, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Hg) and other trace elements (As, Se, Ba), from estuarine sediments was investigated using a pilot plant experimental approach. Bioaccumulation (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) were calculated in vegetative and senescence periods for two populations of P. australis, from contaminated (MIC) and non-contaminated (GAL) estuarine sediments, respectively, both growing in estuarine contaminated sediment (RIA) from ría del Carmen y Boo, Santander Bay, Spain. The highest BCF values were obtained for Ni (0.43), Ba (0.43) Mo (0.36), Cr (0.35), and Cd (0.31) for plants collected from site GAL following the senescence period. The highest BCF values recorded for plants collected from MIC following the senescence period were for Mo (0.22) and Cu (0.22). Following senescence, plants collected from GAL and MIC presented TF>1 for Ni, Mo, Se, and Zn, and in addition plants collected from MIC presented TF>1 for Ba, Cr, and Mn. A substantial increase of Micedo's rhizosphere, six times higher than Galizano's rhizosphere, suggested adaptation to contaminated sediment. The evaluated communities of P. australis demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated estuarine sediments. PMID:26375048

  4. Role of Phragmites australis (common reed) for heavy metals phytoremediation of estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Cicero-Fernández, Diego; Peña-Fernández, Manuel; Expósito-Camargo, Jose A; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Phragmites australis to take up heavy metals (Co, Ni, Mo, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Hg) and other trace elements (As, Se, Ba), from estuarine sediments was investigated using a pilot plant experimental approach. Bioaccumulation (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) were calculated in vegetative and senescence periods for two populations of P. australis, from contaminated (MIC) and non-contaminated (GAL) estuarine sediments, respectively, both growing in estuarine contaminated sediment (RIA) from ría del Carmen y Boo, Santander Bay, Spain. The highest BCF values were obtained for Ni (0.43), Ba (0.43) Mo (0.36), Cr (0.35), and Cd (0.31) for plants collected from site GAL following the senescence period. The highest BCF values recorded for plants collected from MIC following the senescence period were for Mo (0.22) and Cu (0.22). Following senescence, plants collected from GAL and MIC presented TF>1 for Ni, Mo, Se, and Zn, and in addition plants collected from MIC presented TF>1 for Ba, Cr, and Mn. A substantial increase of Micedo's rhizosphere, six times higher than Galizano's rhizosphere, suggested adaptation to contaminated sediment. The evaluated communities of P. australis demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated estuarine sediments.

  5. The Distribution of Thermophilic Sulfate-reducing Bacteria Along an Estuarine Gradient Reveals Multiple Origins of Endospores in Estuarine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    Cold marine sediments harbour inactive spores of thermophilic bacteria. These misplaced thermophiles are genetically similar to microorganisms detected in deep biosphere environments, leading to the hypothesis that seabed fluid flow transports thermophiles out of warm subsurface environments and into the ocean. Estuaries form the transition between the marine and the terrestrial biosphere and are influenced by tidal currents, surface run-off and groundwater seepage. Endospores from thermophilic bacteria present in estuarine sediments could therefore originate from a number of sources that may influence the estuary differently. We have therefore tested the hypothesis that this will lead to a gradient in the composition of thermophilic endospore populations in estuarine sediments. The distribution of thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria along an estuarine gradient from freshwater (River Tyne, UK) to marine (North Sea) was investigated. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed changes in the thermophilic population enriched at different locations within the estuary. Certain species were only detected at the marine end, highlighting possible links to deep marine biosphere habitats such as oil reservoirs that harbour closely related Desulfotomaculum spp. Conversely, other taxa were predominantly observed in the freshwater reaches of the estuary indicating dispersal from an upstream or terrestrial source. Different endospore populations were enriched dependent on incubation temperature and spore heat-resistance. Microcosms incubated at 50, 60 or 70°C showed a shift in the dominant species of Desulfotomaculum enriched as the temperature increased. Microcosms triple-autoclaved at 121°C prior to incubation still showed rapid and reproducible sulfate-reduction and some Desulfotomaculum spp. remained active after autoclaving at 130°C. These results show that temperature physiology and biogeographic patterns can be used to

  6. A manipulative field experiment to evaluate an integrative methodology for assessing sediment pollution in estuarine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Marín, Arnaldo

    2009-05-15

    The assessment of sediment contamination is of crucial importance for the management of estuarine ecosystems. Environmental risk assessment of oil pollution must be specific to these ecosystems because of their unique toxicant bioavailability dynamics, which is not comparable with that of other ecosystems where the environmental parameters are less variable. The goal of this work was to test in two European estuarine areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal; La Manga, Spain) whether the common methodology used to evaluate sediment pollution in marine sediment (amphipod toxicity tests and community structure analysis) is suited to these physico-chemically unique systems. Manipulative field experiments were conducted at three oil concentration levels, to compare resulting changes in community structure with laboratory and in situ amphipod toxicity tests carried out with native amphipod species Corophium multisetosum (Atlantic area) and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (Mediterranean area). The impact of the toxicant was reflected in the community structure and toxicity tests, both of which were correlated with oil concentration. These results point to this methodology being a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring pollution in estuarine areas.

  7. Impact of frontal systems on estuarine sediment and pollutant dynamics.

    PubMed

    Duck, R W; Wewetzer, S F

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, a brief description of frontal systems, their modes of occurrence and impact on the estuarine environment, is presented. Previous studies of estuarine fronts have largely focused on the water surface and within the water column. New observations in the Tay Estuary, Scotland have shown that the presence of fronts within the water column may be marked, not only by surface foam bands, but also by abrupt (i.e. non-gradational) changes in the underlying bedform morphology and/or sediment facies, as detected using side-scan sonar. This preliminary evidence suggests that fronts may exert a control, not only on the surface and intra-water column sediment and pollutant partitioning, but also on the distribution and persistence of bedload transport pathways.

  8. Lead distribution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sucharita; Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Nath, B Nagender

    2015-08-15

    This study describes the geochemical distribution of lead (Pb) and identifies the critical factors that significantly control Pb distribution and speciation in coastal and estuarine sediments around India by using published data from the literature. Crustal sources influence the abundance of Pb in coastal sediment from the south-east and central-west coast of India. Parts of north-east, north-west, and south-west coast of India were polluted by Pb. Distribution of Pb in sediments, from the north-east and north-west coasts of India, were controlled by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide mineral phases of the sediments. However, organic carbon (OC) seemed to be a dominant factor in controlling the distribution of Pb in sediments from the central-east and south-west coasts of India. The outcome of this study may help in decision-making to predict the levels of Pb from natural and anthropogenic sources and to control Pb pollution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India.

  9. Metal contamination of estuarine intertidal sediments of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Guia; Gasparon, Massimo

    2014-12-15

    Trace element concentrations in surface intertidal sediments were analyzed to assess the level of contamination along the western side of Moreton Bay (Australia). The environmental risks posed by metals were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines, the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) and enrichment relative to background levels. Chromium, Ni, and Cu are the main contributors to sediment pollution. Sediments are also enriched in Zn, Cd and Pb by 1.5-3 times the regional background. Zinc, Cd and Co may pose high to very high risk to the aquatic biota due to their potential bioavailability, while Ni, As, Cu, Pb and Cr may pose medium risk at some of the investigated sites. Results emphasize the importance of using different methods for the assessment of sediment pollution at an estuarine site.

  10. VARIATIONS IN THE SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF FRESHWATER AND ESTUARINE CDOM CAUSED BY PARTITIONING ONTO RIVER AND ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The optical properties and geochemical cycling of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are altered by its sorption to freshwater and estuarine sediments. Measured partition coefficients (Kp) of Satilla River (Georgia) and Cape Fear River estuary (North Carolina) CDOM ran...

  11. Microbial formation of ethane in anoxic estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.

    1981-01-01

    Estuarine sediment slurries produced methane and traces of ethane when incubated under hydrogen. Formation of methane occurred over a broad temperature range with an optimum above 65°C. Ethane formation had a temperature optimum at 40°C. Formation of these two gases was inhibited by air, autoclaving, incubation at 4 and 80°C, and by the methanogenic inhibitor, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Ethane production was stimulated by addition of ethylthioethanesulfonic acid, and production from ethylthioethanesulfonic acid was blocked by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. A highly purified enrichment culture of a methanogenic bacterium obtained from sediments produced traces of ethane from ethylthioethanesulfonic acid. These results indicate that the small quantities of ethane found in anaerobic sediments can be formed by certain methanogenic bacteria.

  12. Anaerobic oxidation of acetylene by estuarine sediments and enrichment cultures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    1981-01-01

    Acetylene disappeared from the gas phase of anaerobically incubated estuarine sediment slurries, and loss was accompanied by increased levels of carbon dioxide. Acetylene loss was inhibited by chloramphenicol, air, and autoclaving. Addition of 14C2H2 to slurries resulted in the formation of 14CO2 and the transient appearance of 14C-soluble intermediates, of which acetate was a major component. Acetylene oxidation stimulated sulfate reduction; however, sulfate reduction was not required for the loss of C2H2 to occur. Enrichment cultures were obtained which grew anaerobically at the expense of C2H2.

  13. RELEVANCE OF ROOTED VASCULAR PLANTS AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENT QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity assessments and numerical quality assessment guidelines for estuarine sediments are rarely based on information for aquatic plants. The effect of this lack of information on contaminated sediment evaluations is largely unknown. For this reason, the toxicities of whole se...

  14. Turing Patterns in Estuarine Sediments by Microbiological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The use of Turing mechanisms and lattice Lotka-Volterra model (LLV), also by means of the non-extensive statistical mechanics, can mathematically describe well the phenomena of clustering and their associated boundaries with fractal dimensionality, which occurs in various natural situations, among them, biogeochemical processes via microorganisms in estuarine and marine sediments on the planet Earth. The author did an experimental analysis in field work which took into account the spatial and temporal behavior of Turing patterns, in the form of microbial activity within estuarine subsurface sediments. We show we can find the characteristics of clustering and fractallity which are present in the dynamical LLV model and Turing patterns mechanisms, and the non-extensive statistical mechanics could be used to find the q-entropy (Sq), and other non-equilibrium statistical parameters of the studied estuarine (Caraís lagoon) subsurface biogeochemical system. In this paper, the author suggests that such kinds of subsurface ecological systems are of interest to Astrobiology because if we find Turing-type clustered geomorphological patterns, below meter scale, on the near subsurface and inside rocks at the surface of planet Mars, and also find non-equilibrium statistical parameters (temperature, [F], [C], [S], etc.), displaying Turing-type mechanism, in the aquatic environments of the internal seas of planets Jupiter's moon Europa and the internal global ocean of Saturn's moon Enceladus, that could mean that possible hypothetical biogeochemical activities are present in such places. This could be a bio-indicator tool. And with further studies we could find the q-entropy Sq to establish better defined statistical mechanical parameters for such environments and to refine models for their evolution, as we do on planet Earth.

  15. Assessment of factors influencing direct enumeration of viruses within estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Helton, Rebekah R; Liu, Ling; Wommack, K Eric

    2006-07-01

    Accurate enumeration of viruses within environmental samples is critical for investigations of the ecological role of viruses and viral infection within microbial communities. This report evaluates differences in viral and bacterial direct counts between estuarine sediment samples which were either immediately processed onboard ship or frozen at -20 degrees C and later processed. Viral and bacterial abundances were recorded at three stations spanning the length of the Chesapeake Bay in April and June 2003 within three sediment fractions: pore water (PW), whole sediment (WS), and sediment after pore water removal (AP). No significant difference in viral abundance was apparent between extracts from fresh or frozen sediments. In contrast, bacterial abundance was significantly lower in the samples subjected to freezing. Both bacterial and viral abundance showed significant differences between sediment fractions (PW, WS, or AP) regardless of the fresh or frozen status. Although pore water viral abundance has been used in the past as a measurement of viral abundance in sediments, this fraction accounted for only ca. 5% of the total sediment viral abundance across all samples. The effect of refrigerated storage of sediment viral extracts was also examined and showed that, within the first 2 h, viral abundance decreased ca. 30% in formalin-fixed extracts and 66% in unfixed extracts. Finally, the reliability of direct viral enumeration via epifluorescence microscopy was tested by using DNase treatment of WS extractions. These tests indicated that a large fraction (>86%) of the small SYBR gold fluorescing particles are likely viruses.

  16. Rate of mercury loss from contaminated estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Jahnke, R.A.; Peterson, M.L.; Carpenter, R.

    1980-01-01

    The concentration of mercury in contaminated estuarine sediments of Bellingham Bay, Washington was found to decrease with a half-time of about 1.3 yr after the primary anthropogenic source of mercury was removed. In situ measurements of the mercury flux from sediments, in both dissolved and volatile forms, could not account for this decrease. This result suggests that the removal of mercury is associated with sediment particles transported out of the study area. This decrease was modeled using a steady-state mixing model. Mercury concentrations in anoxic interstitial waters reached 3.5 ??g/l, 126 times higher than observed in the overlying seawater. Mercury fluxes from these sediments ranged from 1.2 to 2.8 ?? 10-5 ng/cm2/sec, all in a soluble form. In general, higher Hg fluxes were associated with low oxygen or reducing conditions in the overlying seawater. In contrast, no flux was measurable from oxidizing interstitial water having mercury concentrations of 0.01-0.06 ??/l. ?? 1980.

  17. Removal of hexavalent chromium from estuarine waters by model substrates and natural sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, L.M.; Schick, L.L.

    1981-12-01

    Chromate removal from waters with a range of salinities (0-32%) was studied by using both model substrates, alumina and kaolinite, and natural estuarine sediments in order to determine possible effects of sediment on dissolved chromate in estuarine systems. The dependence of chromate removal on sediment concentrations (<1 g L/sup -1/) will be ineffective in removing dissolved chromate from the water column, though the reaction will be important in deposited sediments. Chromate removal is more effective in low- than high-salinity regimes. Removal by model substrates decreases monotonically with increasing salinity but shows a peak in the 0.1-1.0% range with estuarine sediments. This latter behavior shows similarity with the salinity dependence of chromate reduction by gallic acid, suggesting reductive adsorption by the estuarine sediments. Naturally occurring levels of phosphate ansilicate show negligible effect on chromate removal.

  18. Development of formulated reference sediments for freshwater and estuarine sediment testing

    SciTech Connect

    Suedel, B.C.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr. . Dept. of Biology)

    1994-07-01

    Sediments collected at various field locations may have chemical and physical constituents that influence test results and may contain organisms that cannot be readily removed. Thus, reference sediments are needed that can be formulated to match diverse freshwater and estuarine sediments encountered in comprehensive testing programs. This research evaluated formulated reference sediments in terms of (a) their ability to match field-collected sediments both chemically and physically; (b) their suitability as habitant (survival and reproduction) for typical invertebrate toxicity testing species (Hyalella azteca Saussure, Chironomus tentans Fabricius, and Daphnia magna Straus) during chronic exposures; and (c) their suitability as a substrate for Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard, and Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in 14-d whole-sediment exposures. Formulated reference sediments were prepared to match naturally occurring sediments with respect to particle-size distribution, organic matter, organic carbon, pH, solids, CEC, but not redox potential. After preparation, a conditioning period of at least 7 d was required for pH stabilization of formulated reference sediments. In culture experiments, formulated reference sediments was suitable for Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Daphnia magna survival and reproduction for 56,40, and 28 d, respectively. Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas survival was [>=] 88% in 14-d exposures to formulated reference sediment. Formulated reference sediments may reduce some unexplained physical, chemical, or biological toxicity'' of field-collected sediments (e.g., organic matter) that may influence toxicity testing results.

  19. Kinetics of microbial sulfate reduction in estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallud, Céline; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    Kinetic parameters of microbial sulfate reduction in intertidal sediments from a freshwater, brackish and marine site of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium, the Netherlands) were determined. Sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were measured at 10, 21, and 30 °C, using both flow-through reactors containing intact sediment slices and conventional sediment slurries. At the three sites, and for all depth intervals studied (0-2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 cm), the dependence of potential SRR on the sulfate concentration followed the Michaelis-Menten rate equation. Apparent sulfate half-saturation concentrations, Km, measured in the flow-through reactor experiments were comparable at the freshwater and marine sites (0.1-0.3 mM), but somewhat higher at the brackish site (0.4-0.9 mM). Maximum potential SRR, Rmax, in the 0-4 cm depth interval of the freshwater sediments were similar to those in the 0-6 cm interval of the marine sediments (10-46 nmol cm -3 h -1 at 21 °C), despite much lower in situ sulfate availability and order-of-magnitude lower densities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), at the freshwater site. Values of Rmax in the brackish sediments were lower (3.7-7.6 nmol cm -3 h -1 at 21 °C), probably due to less labile organic matter, as inferred from higher C org/N ratios. Inflow solutions supplemented with lactate enhanced potential SRR at all three sites. Slurry incubations systematically yielded higher Rmax values than flow-through reactor experiments for the freshwater and brackish sediments, but similar values for the marine sediments. Transport limitation of potential SRR at the freshwater and brackish sites may be related to the lower sediment porosities and SRB densities compared to the marine site. Multiple rate controls, including sulfate availability, organic matter quality, temperature, and SRB abundance, modulate in situ sulfate-reducing activity along the estuarine salinity gradient.

  20. Linking DNRA community structure and activity in a shallow lagoonal estuarine system

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bongkeun; Lisa, Jessica A.; Tobias, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and denitrification are two nitrate respiration pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle. Diversity and abundance of denitrifying bacteria have been extensively examined in various ecosystems. However, studies on DNRA bacterial diversity are limited, and the linkage between the structure and activity of DNRA communities has yet to be discovered. We examined the composition, diversity, abundance, and activities of DNRA communities at five sites along a salinity gradient in the New River Estuary, North Carolina, USA, a shallow temporal/lagoonal estuarine system. Sediment slurry incubation experiments with 15N-nitrate were conducted to measure potential DNRA rates, while the abundance of DNRA communities was calculated using quantitative PCR of nrfA genes encoding cytochrome C nitrite reductase, commonly found in DNRA bacteria. A pyrosequencing method targeting nrfA genes was developed using an Ion Torrent sequencer to examine the diversity and composition of DNRA communities within the estuarine sediment community. We found higher levels of nrfA gene abundance and DNRA activities in sediments with higher percent organic content. Pyrosequencing analysis of nrfA genes revealed spatial variation of DNRA communities along the salinity gradient of the New River Estuary. Percent abundance of dominant populations was found to have significant influence on overall activities of DNRA communities. Abundance of dominant DNRA bacteria and organic carbon availability are important regulators of DNRA activities in the eutrophic New River Estuary. PMID:25232351

  1. AN EVALUATION OF ELECTRODE INSERTION TECHNIQUES FOR MEASUREMENT OF REDOX POTENTIAL IN ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eh measurements by electrodes are commonly used to characterize redox status of sediments in freshwater, marine and estuarine studies, due to the relative ease and rapidity of data collection. In our studies of fine-grained estuarine seabeds, we observed that Eh values measured i...

  2. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  3. RESPONSES OF ESTUARINE BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES TO SEDIMENT BURIAL: THE IMPORTANCE OF MOBILITY AND ADAPTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine benthic organisms are frequently subjected to disturbance events caused by hydrodynamic processes that disrupt and move the sediment in which the animals reside, however the mechanisms by which physical disturbance processes affect infaunal and epifaunal populations and...

  4. PREDICTING ESTUARINE SEDIMENT METAL CONCENTRATIONS AND INFERRED ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS: AN INFORMATION THEORETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Empirically derived values associating sediment metal concentrations with degraded ecological conditions provide important information to assess estuarine condition. However, resources limit the number, magnitude, and frequency of monitoring programs to gather these data. As su...

  5. Influence of sediment organic carbon on estuarine benthic species of the US West Coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) is often used as an indicator of nutrient enrichment in estuarine environments. However, the determination of biologically relevant TOC criteria to indicate sediment quality is complicated by the relationship between TOC and grain size. Both variables...

  6. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  7. Harmonised framework for ecological risk assessment of sediments from ports and estuarine zones of North and South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Choueri, R B; Cesar, A; Abessa, D M S; Torres, R J; Riba, I; Pereira, C D S; Nascimento, M R L; Morais, R D; Mozeto, A A; DelValls, T A

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a harmonised framework of sediment quality assessment and dredging material characterisation for estuaries and port zones of North and South Atlantic. This framework, based on the weight-of-evidence approach, provides a structure and a process for conducting sediment/dredging material assessment that leads to a decision. The main structure consists of "step 1" (examination of available data); "step 2" (chemical characterisation and toxicity assessment); "decision 1" (any chemical level higher than reference values? are sediments toxic?); "step 3" (assessment of benthic community structure); "step 4" (integration of the results); "decision 2" (are sediments toxic or benthic community impaired?); "step 5" (construction of the decision matrix) and "decision 3" (is there environmental risk?). The sequence of assessments may be interrupted when the information obtained is judged to be sufficient for a correct characterisation of the risk posed by the sediments/dredging material. This framework brought novel features compared to other sediment/dredging material risk assessment frameworks: data integration through multivariate analysis allows the identification of which samples are toxic and/or related to impaired benthic communities; it also discriminates the chemicals responsible for negative biological effects; and the framework dispenses the use of a reference area. We demonstrated the successful application of this framework in different port and estuarine zones of the North (Gulf of Cádiz) and South Atlantic (Santos and Paranaguá Estuarine Systems).

  8. Impact of boat-generated waves on intertidal estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpain, O.; Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Gomit, G.; Calluaud, D.; David, L.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrodynamics in the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) are controlled by the semi-diurnal tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on sediment transport (through wind waves and swell) is observed at the mouth of the estuary. Over the last century, authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity. These developments led to allow and secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary (from its mouth to the port of Rouen, 125 km upstream) but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. A riversides restoration policy has been recently started by port authorities. In this context, the objective of the field-based study presented is to connect vessel characteristics (i.e. speed, draft...), boat-generated waves and their sedimentary impacts. Such information will be used by stakeholders to manage riverside. The natural intertidal site of interest is located in the fluvial freshwater part of the Seine estuary characterized by a 4.5 m maximum tidal range. The foreshore slope is gently decreasing and surface sediments are composed of fine to coarse sand with occasional mud drapes. In order to decipher boat-generated events, the sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV measurements coupled with a turbidimeter and an altimeter to study sediment dynamics. These instruments are settled in the lower part of the foreshore (i) to obtain a significant dataset (i.e. oceanic instruments are not measuring in air) on a zone statically affected by boat waves and (ii) because most of boat traffic occurs during early flood or late ebb period. Spatial variations are assessed along a cross-section through grain-size analysis of surface sediments and topography measurements using pole technique. Results enhance hydrodynamic and sedimentary impacts of boat-generated waves compared respectively to tidal and wind effects. Long

  9. Fate of Triclosan and Evidence for Reductive Dechlorination of Triclocarban in Estuarine Sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biocides triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are wastewater contaminants whose occurrence and fate in estuarine sediments remain unexplored. We examined contaminant profiles in 137Cs/7Be-dated sediment cores taken near wastewater treatment plants in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CB), Maryland...

  10. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS: A COMPARISON OF TWO ESTUARINE CONTINUUMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial diversity in estuarine sediments of the Altamaha and Savannah Rivers in Georgia were compared temporally and spatially using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Surface sediment samples collected along a salinity gradient were also analyzed for ATP, TOC, and C ...

  11. Macro and micro scale interactions between cohesive sediment tracers and natural estuarine mud.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, K. L.; Manning, A. J.; Droppo, I. G.; Leppard, G. G.; Benson, T.

    2009-04-01

    Improving the understanding of dispersion patterns of the fine sediment fraction (< 63 micron) and associated contaminants is fundamental to the sustainable management of estuarine and marine environments. In order to develop sediment transport models and predict sediment dispersion, accurate and reliable field techniques for the measurement of sediment transport are required. Although this is relatively simple for the sand sized fraction, measuring transport pathways for the < 63 micron sediment fraction has been more problematic. There has been considerable effort within the scientific community to develop a tracer for the fine/cohesive sediment fraction. This has included the use of synthetic tracer particles and the labelling of natural clays (e.g. Mahler et al. 1998, Yin et al. 1999, Krezoski 1985; Spencer et al. 2007). Synthetic tracers have included polymer-based fluorescent tracers, with the same size, density and surface charge characteristics as the flocculated clay and silt fraction. A fundamental assumption of tracer technology is that the tracer has the same physical properties as the natural sediment it is intended to mimic. For sand-sized material matching particle size, shape and density has been easy to achieve. However, the < 63 micron sediment fraction is cohesive and in order to satisfy this assumption cohesive sediment tracers must be incorporated into and transported via floc aggregates (Black et al. 2006). This work focuses on the use of a labelled natural clay; a Ho-montmorillonite (see Spencer et al. 2007). The aim of the research was to determine whether this tracer interacted with and was transported via floc aggregates in saline environments and would therefore be a suitable cohesive sediment tracer in estuaries. Our objectives were to examine the physical characteristics, internal structure and settling dynamics of flocculated tracer and to determine the extent to which the tracer interacted with natural estuarine muds under laboratory

  12. Significance of antifouling paint flakes to the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in estuarine sediment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-03-01

    Recently published literature indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paint flakes were heterogeneously distributed within estuarine sediments. However, the significance of antifouling paint flakes in the fate and transport of DDT compounds and other organic pollutants in estuarine sediment is yet to be adequately addressed. To fill this knowledge gap, estuarine sediment and paint flakes from cabin and boat surfaces were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for DDT compounds. Coarse fractioned samples collected from the vicinity of boat maintenance facilities contained appreciable amounts of colorful particles, which were identified as paint flakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest concentrations of DDXs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites) occurred in the heavy-density (>1.7 g cm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000 μm) sediments from near the boat maintenance facilities, suggesting the importance of paint flakes in the distribution pattern of "hot spots" in estuarine sediment. Moreover, the desorption rates of DDT compounds from paint flakes and the heavy-density fraction of coarse-size sediment were both extremely slow. Apparently, unevenly distributed paint flakes in sediment can artificially inflate the sorption capacity of heavy-density sediment for DDT compounds, and therefore can substantially change the environmental fate and behavior of hydrophobic organic chemicals in estuarine sediment. Finally, commonly used source diagnostic indices of DDT compounds were mostly grain-size and density dependent in sediment, as a result of the occurrence of paint flakes, which may strongly compromise the outcome of any source diagnostics efforts.

  13. Dynamics of the Methanogenic Archaea in Tropical Estuarine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Alvarado, María del Rocío; Fernández, Francisco José; Ramírez Vives, Florina; Varona-Cordero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Methanogenesis may represent a key process in the terminal phases of anaerobic organic matter mineralization in sediments of coastal lagoons. The aim of the present work was to study the temporal and spatial dynamics of methanogenic archaea in sediments of tropical coastal lagoons and their relationship with environmental changes in order to determine how these influence methanogenic community. Sediment samples were collected during the dry (February, May, and early June) and rainy seasons (July, October, and November). Microbiological analysis included the quantification of viable methanogenic archaea (MA) with three substrates and the evaluation of kinetic activity from acetate in the presence and absence of sulfate. The environmental variables assessed were temperature, pH, Eh, salinity, sulfate, solids content, organic carbon, and carbohydrates. MA abundance was significantly higher in the rainy season (106–107 cells/g) compared with the dry season (104–106 cells/g), with methanol as an important substrate. At spatial level, MA were detected in the two layers analyzed, and no important variations were observed either in MA abundance or activity. Salinity, sulfate, solids, organic carbon, and Eh were the environmental variables related to methanogenic community. A conceptual model is proposed to explain the dynamics of the MA. PMID:23401664

  14. Dynamics of the methanogenic archaea in tropical estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Torres-Alvarado, María del Rocío; Fernández, Francisco José; Ramírez Vives, Florina; Varona-Cordero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Methanogenesis may represent a key process in the terminal phases of anaerobic organic matter mineralization in sediments of coastal lagoons. The aim of the present work was to study the temporal and spatial dynamics of methanogenic archaea in sediments of tropical coastal lagoons and their relationship with environmental changes in order to determine how these influence methanogenic community. Sediment samples were collected during the dry (February, May, and early June) and rainy seasons (July, October, and November). Microbiological analysis included the quantification of viable methanogenic archaea (MA) with three substrates and the evaluation of kinetic activity from acetate in the presence and absence of sulfate. The environmental variables assessed were temperature, pH, Eh, salinity, sulfate, solids content, organic carbon, and carbohydrates. MA abundance was significantly higher in the rainy season (10(6)-10(7) cells/g) compared with the dry season (10(4)-10(6) cells/g), with methanol as an important substrate. At spatial level, MA were detected in the two layers analyzed, and no important variations were observed either in MA abundance or activity. Salinity, sulfate, solids, organic carbon, and Eh were the environmental variables related to methanogenic community. A conceptual model is proposed to explain the dynamics of the MA.

  15. Stability and Change in Estuarine Biofilm Bacterial Community Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Joseph A.; Nocker, Andreas; Lepo, Joe E.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Biofouling communities contribute significantly to aquatic ecosystem productivity and biogeochemical cycling. Our knowledge of the distribution, composition, and activities of these microbially dominated communities is limited compared to other components of estuarine ecosystems. This study investigated the temporal stability and change of the dominant phylogenetic groups of the domain Bacteria in estuarine biofilm communities. Glass slides were deployed monthly over 1 year for 7-day incubations during peak tidal periods in East Sabine Bay, Fla. Community profiling was achieved by using 16S rRNA genes and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes in combination with ribotyping, cloning, and sequencing to evaluate diversity and to identify dominant microorganisms. Bacterial community profiles from biofilms grown near the benthos showed distinct periods of constancy within winter and summer sampling periods. Similar periods of stability were also seen in T-RFLP patterns from floating biofilms. Alternating dominance of phylogenetic groups between seasons appeared to be associated with seasonal changes in temperature, nutrient availability, and light. The community structure appeared to be stable during these periods despite changes in salinity and in dissolved oxygen. PMID:16957182

  16. Effects of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) on an estuarine microbial community.

    PubMed

    Novais, Adriana; Souza, Allan T; Ilarri, Martina; Pascoal, Cláudia; Sousa, Ronaldo

    2016-10-01

    The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) is well recognized for its invasive behavior and high ecological and economic impacts, being classified as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species (IAS) in Europe. In this study, we performed a manipulative experiment under natural conditions to assess the effects of C. fluminea on sediments biochemistry and on the structure of an estuarine microbial (fungi and bacteria) community. We placed 5 treatments (control, rock, closed, live and open) for 2months in the Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula). No differences were detected between treatments regarding the values of carbon (C), nitrite (NO2(-)), ammonium (NH4(+)), phosphate (PO4(3-)) and calcium (Ca) in the sediments; however, potassium (K) had higher values in the open treatment. Furthermore, we found that the presence of live C. fluminea stimulated fungal biomass (but not diversity) and bacterial diversity. Bioturbation activities by C. fluminea are possibly the main mechanism explaining these results; however, other factors such as the presence of other macroinvertebrate species and/or production of feces and pseudofeces by C. fluminea cannot be excluded. To our knowledge, this is the first manipulative experiment under natural conditions that clearly shows the effects of C. fluminea on an estuarine microbial community. Given the widespread distribution of this IAS and the paucity of quantitative assessments of invasive bivalves' effects on microbial communities, it will be important that future studies further investigate these processes. PMID:27265734

  17. The Abundance and Activity of Nitrate-Reducing Microbial Populations in Estuarine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, E.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Estuaries are productive ecosystems that ameliorate nutrient and metal contaminants from surficial water supplies. At the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic environments, estuarine sediments host major microbially-mediated geochemical transformations. These include denitrification (the conversion of nitrate to nitrous oxide and/or dinitrogen) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Denitrification has historically been seen as the predominant nitrate attenuation process and functions as an effective sink for nitrate. DNRA has previously been believed to be a minor nitrate reduction process and transforms nitrate within the ecosystem to ammonium, a more biologically available N species. Recent studies have compared the two processes in coastal environments and determined fluctuating environmental conditions may suppress denitrification, supporting an increased role for DNRA in the N cycle. Nitrate availability and salinity are factors thought to influence the membership of the microbial communities present, and the nitrate reduction process that predominates. The aim of this study is to investigate how nitrate concentration and salinity alter the transcript abundances of N cycling functional gene markers for denitrification (nirK, nirS) and DNRA (nrfA) in estuarine sediments at the mouth of the hypernutrified Old Salinas River, CA. Short-term whole core incubations amended with artificial freshwater/artificial seawater (2 psu, 35 psu) and with varying NO3- concentrations (200mM, 2000mM) were conducted to assess the activity as well as the abundance of the nitrate-reducing microbial populations present. Gene expression of nirK, nirS, and nrfA at the conclusion of the incubations was quantified using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). High abundances of nirK, nirS, and nrfA under particular conditions coupled with the resulting geochemical data ultimately provides insight onto how the aforementioned factors

  18. BENTHIC COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO SEDIMENT AMENDMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amendments apatite, organoclay, acetate, chitin, and geotextile reactive mats containing apatite and apatite + organoclay are currently under examination for remediation of contaminated sediments. The objective of this research is to evaluate toxicity to several estuarine an...

  19. Benthic ciliate and meiofaunal communities in two contrasting habitats of an intertidal estuarine wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yongfen; Xu, Kuidong; Warren, Alan; Lei, Yanli; Dai, Renhai

    2012-05-01

    Annual variations in benthic meiofaunal and ciliated protozoan communities were investigated using monthly samplings from June 2006 to May 2007 in two habitats characterized by different vegetal coverage in an estuarine intertidal wetland of Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay, China. The sediment composition was stable at each site: sediments densely covered with seagrass (Suaeda glauca) in the lower estuarine site (Station S) were finer, with higher content of organic matter, phaeopigments and water than sediments at the upper estuarine site (Station S-P) which was unvegetated other than for patches of S. glauca and common reed (Phragmites australis). Chlorophyll a exhibited a similar distribution in the two habitats. A total of 14 meiofaunal groups, and 249 species of ciliates belonging to 37 genera, 28 families and 16 orders, were isolated from the two sites. Univariate and multivariate measures of the communities were significantly different between the two habitats. There were higher abundances of ciliates and meiofauna, and a greater diversity of ciliates, at Station S than Station S-P (223 vs. 61 species). Herbivorous ciliates were numerically predominant in ciliate communities at both sites. The representative ciliates at Station S-P belonged to the Cyrtophorida and appeared to be a reduced subset of the assemblage at Station S, which was characterized by members of the Prostomatida, Cyrtophorida, Hypotrichida and Scuticociliatida. More than 96% of the total meiofauna were nematodes, accounting for 93% of the differences in the abundance compositions of the meiofaunal communities between habitats. The average individual weights of nematodes were nearly 3 times greater at Station S than Station S-P, indicating a distinctive species composition at each site. Temperature, salinity and food availability were key factors that regulated the ciliate and meiofaunal community structure. Nematodes were the dominant group in terms of the combined abundance, biomass and benthic

  20. The macrobenthic community along a mercury contamination in a temperate estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Nunes, M; Coelho, J P; Cardoso, P G; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2008-11-01

    Mercury is a widely distributed environmental pollutant and a toxic element to all living organisms. This study represents an attempt to evaluate its correlation with the macrobenthic community structure in a temperate estuarine system, the Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The macrobenthic community structure showed significant differences along the mercury gradient. Overall, the increase of mercury contamination was associated with reduced total abundance, lower species richness, and dominance of tolerant taxa. The polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Alkmaria romijni, and the isopod Cyathura carinata were associated with high levels of mercury in sediment, while the bivalves Scrobicularia plana, Cerastoderma edule and Abra alba showed higher density in lesser contaminated sites. Furthermore, highly contaminated sites showed substantially lower abundances of surface-deposit feeders and herbivores, and higher abundances of subsurface-deposit feeders and omnivores. Salinity was also a significant factor affecting the community, being responsible for seasonal variations in the macrobenthic assemblages.

  1. Comparison of four chronic sediment toxicity tests using selected marine/estuarine tests species

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, I.; Fleming, R.

    1995-12-31

    Several draft standard guidelines exist for acute marine/estuarine sediment bioassays which measure lethality over a 4 to 14 day exposure period. Although these are very useful tools for certain applications, such tests may not be useful for discriminating between sediments with the low levels of contaminants most likely to be found in UK estuaries. For this application, chronic sediment bioassays are required which allow the measurement of both lethal and sublethal effects (growth, development and reproduction). Some chronic bioassays are currently being developed for estuarine sediments by workers in Europe, America and Canada. The objectives of the study presented here were to compare four bioassays, currently in development, in terms of their sensitivity to sediment-bound lindane and to differences in particle size. The test species selected for the study were Corophium volutator, Arenicola marina, Macoma Balthica and Neanthes arenaceodentata. Three sediment types were used: high, medium and low percentage of fine material, These were achieved using mixtures of silica sand and a fine, natural, estuarine sediment, and spiked with lindane using a spiking protocol developed at WRc. The results of the study will be presented.

  2. A Preliminary Evaluation of ohe Sediment Dynamics in the Albemarle Estuarine System, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, D. R.; Mallinson, D.; Letrick, E.; Vance, D.

    2002-12-01

    The Albemarle estuarine system (AES) drainage basin covers an area of approximately 45,500 km2 within Virginia and North Carolina, and is comprised of the Roanoke River Basin, Chowan River Basin, and Albemarle Sound Basin. The AES, a product of rising sea level (eg. drowned-river estuarine system), covers approximately 2,340 km2 and includes several major and minor embayed (lateral) tributaries. As earlier studies have pointed out, the estuarine system is the settling basin for sediments, organic matter, and anthropogenic waste from these three major drainage basins. The most abundant sediment within the AES, forming the benthic habitat for nearly 70% of the estuarine system, is a chemically active organic-rich mud (ORM). This sediment type has been shown to be important to the water quality, contaminant characteristics, and potentially the ecosystem dynamics. During the summer of 2001, several short cores (~ 50 cm) were collected in the AES, and downcore measurements for radiochemical tracers (210Pb, 137Cs) and organic matter signatures (13C, 15N, C:N, LOI) were conducted. These organic matter signatures have been used to elucidate potential temporal changes in fluxes and cycles of organic matter in the AES. Pb-210 analyses indicate temporal and spatial variations in sediment deposition rates (0.05 - 0.50 cm/yr). Sedimentation rate variations are potentially associated with dam construction on the Roanoke River and increased estuarine shoreline erosion along many banks of the Albemarle Sound. Sediment deposition varies spatially in the AES and is highest near its western limit relative to the rest of the estuary. δ13C and δ 15N concentrations from cores collected in the AES range from -21.7 to -28.3 \\permil and 0.4 to 4.6 \\permil, respectively. The variation signatures indicate typical mixing between terrestrial and marine end members, as well as potential influences associated with increased agriculture over the last century.

  3. Development of a chronic sublethal sediment bioassay using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus (Shoemaker)

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, V.L. Jr.; Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Gray, B.R.; Duke, B.M.; Wright, R.B.; Farrar, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    Based on the need for a test to evaluate chronic sublethal toxicity in estuarine sediments, a 28-d sediment bioassay with the estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus (Shoemaker) was developed. The test was initiated with animals less than 2 weeks old. Test endpoints included survival, growth, and reproduction. Factors with the potential to influence test animal performance such as artificial sea salts, salinity, food ration, size at test initiation, intraspecific density, sediment grain size, and diet were evaluated. For example, intraspecific densities between 10 and 60 animals/beaker did not affect survival, growth, or reproduction. Similarly, L. plumulosus were tolerant of a wide range of sediment grain sizes with only extremely fine grained or coarse grained material significantly affecting survival, growth, and reproduction. Test performance criteria included control survival (> 80%) and reproduction and response to a reference toxicant test with cadmium chloride in a control chart format.

  4. Seasonal variations in suspended-sediment dynamics in the tidal reach of an estuarine tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downing-Kunz, Maureen A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying sediment supply from estuarine tributaries is an important component of developing a sediment budget, and common techniques for estimating supply are based on gages located above tidal influence. However, tidal interactions near tributary mouths can affect the magnitude and direction of sediment supply to the open waters of the estuary. We investigated suspended-sediment dynamics in the tidal reach of Corte Madera Creek, an estuarine tributary of San Francisco Bay, using moored acoustic and optical instruments. Flux of both water and suspended-sediment were calculated from observed water velocity and turbidity for two periods in each of wet and dry seasons during 2010. During wet periods, net suspended-sediment flux was seaward; tidally filtered flux was dominated by the advective component. In contrast, during dry periods, net flux was landward; tidally filtered flux was dominated by the dispersive component. The mechanisms generating this landward flux varied; during summer we attributed wind–wave resuspension in the estuary and subsequent transport on flood tides, whereas during autumn we attributed increased spring tide flood velocity magnitude leading to local resuspension. A quadrant analysis similar to that employed in turbulence studies was developed to summarize flux time series by quantifying the relative importance of sediment transport events. These events are categorized by the direction of velocity (flood vs. ebb) and the magnitude of concentration relative to tidally averaged conditions (relatively turbid vs. relatively clear). During wet periods, suspended-sediment flux was greatest in magnitude during relatively turbid ebbs, whereas during dry periods it was greatest in magnitude during relatively turbid floods. A conceptual model was developed to generalize seasonal differences in suspended-sediment dynamics; model application to this study demonstrated the importance of few, relatively large events on net suspended-sediment flux

  5. Multi-level assessment of chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments with the amphipod Gammarus locusta: I. Biochemical endpoints.

    PubMed

    Neuparth, Teresa; Correia, Ana D; Costa, Filipe O; Lima, Gláucia; Costa, Maria Helena

    2005-07-01

    We report on biomarker responses conducted as part of a multi-level assessment of the chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments to the amphipod Gammarus locusta. A companion article accounts for organism and population-level effects. Five moderately contaminated sediments from two Portuguese estuaries, Sado and Tagus, were assessed. Three of them were muddy and two were sandy sediments. The objective was to assess sediments that were not acutely toxic. Three of the sediments met this criterion, the other two were diluted (50% and 75%) with clean sediment until acute toxicity was absent. Following 28-d exposures, the amphipods were analysed for whole-body metal bioaccumulation, metallothionein induction (MT), DNA strand breakage (SB) and lipid peroxidation (LP). Two of the muddy sediments did not cause chronic toxicity. These findings were consistent with responses at organism and population levels that showed higher growth rates and improvement of reproductive traits for amphipods exposed to these two sediments. Two other sediments, one muddy and one sandy, exhibited pronounced chronic toxicity, affecting SB, MT induction (in muddy sediment), survival and reproduction. Potential toxicants involved in these effects were identified. The last sandy sediment exhibited some loss of DNA integrity, however growth was also enhanced. Present results, together with the organism/population-level data, and also benthic communities information, were analysed under a weight-of-evidence approach. By providing evidence of exposure (or lack of it) to contaminants in sediments, the biomarkers here applied assisted in distinguishing toxicants' impacts in test organisms from the confounding influence of other geochemical features of the sediments. PMID:15649528

  6. Fish community responses to green tides in shallow estuarine and coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Luherne, E.; Réveillac, E.; Ponsero, A.; Sturbois, A.; Ballu, S.; Perdriau, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2016-06-01

    All over the world, numerous bays and estuarine systems that are known to shelter essential fish habitats are experiencing proliferations of green macroalgae known as green tides. Although the processes that enhance green tides in response to nutrient enrichment are well known, their consequences for ecological communities -especially for ichthyofauna- remain poorly studied. To estimate these consequences, this analysis focused on the two types of shallow systems that are experiencing green tides: sandy beaches and estuarine mudflats. In these two systems, macroalgae proliferation and fish community were surveyed along seasonal cycles at control and impacted sites that shared similar physico-chemical parameters and sediment structure. To analyse the consequences of green tides on the fish community, a Before-After Control-Impact approach was used. This approach reveals no difference between fish communities at the control and impacted sites before the macroalgal bloom. Then, it underlines an influence of green tides on the fish community, and this influence varies according to the composition, density and duration of the macroalgal bloom. Indeed, when intertidal systems experienced short proliferation and/or weak density, green tides did not seem to impact the fish community. However, when green macroalgae proliferated in large quantities and/or when the proliferation lasted for long periods, the fish community was significantly affected. These modifications in the fish community led to a significant decrease in fish species diversity and density until fish disappeared from impacted sites at high proliferations. Furthermore, the response of fish species to green tides differed according to their functional guilds. Negative consequences for benthic and marine juvenile fish species were beginning at low proliferations, whereas for pelagic fish species they occurred only at high proliferations. Thus, green tides significantly affect fish habitat suitability because

  7. Mercury concentrations in estuarine sediments, Lavaca and Matagorda bays, Texas, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, David S.; Snyder, Grant L.; Taylor, R. Lynn

    1998-01-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 7471 (Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption) was an acceptable analytical method for determining the total mercury concentrations in the Lavaca-Matagorda Bays estuarine sediment samples. Measurement of additional trace metals would aid in the characterization of total mercury concentrations and in the identification of concentrator/collector relations that are principally responsible for the adsorption of mercurous compounds to particulates in the bottom sediments.

  8. Trace element release from estuarine sediments of South Mosquito Lagoon near Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, M. P.; Ghuman, G. S.; Emeh, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical partitioning of four trace metals in estuarine sediments collected from eight sites in South Mosquito Lagoon near Kennedy Space Center, in terms of four different categories was accomplished using four different extraction techniques. The concentrations of the four trace metals, Zn, Mn, Cd, and Cu, released in interstitial water extract, 1 N ammonium acetate extract, conc. HCl extract and fusion extract of sediments as well as their concentrations in water samples collected from the same location were determined using flame atomic absorption technique. From the analytical results the percentages of total amount of each metal distributed among four different categories, interstitial water phase, acetate extractable, acid extractable and detrital crystalline material, were determined. Our results suggest that analytical partitioning of trace metals in estuarine sediments may be used to study the mechanism of incorporation of trace metals with sediments from natural waters. A correlation between the seasonal variation in the concentration of acetate extractable trace metals in the sediment and similar variation in their concentration in water was observed. A mechanism for the release of trace metals from estuarine sediments to natural water is also suggested.

  9. Shifts in the community structure and activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria along an estuarine salinity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanling; Jiang, Xiaofen; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Gao, Juan; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a major microbial pathway for nitrogen (N) removal in estuarine and coastal environments. However, understanding of anammox bacterial dynamics and associations with anammox activity remains scarce along estuarine salinity gradient. In this study, the diversity, abundance, and activity of anammox bacteria, and their potential contributions to total N2 production in the sediments along the salinity gradient (0.1-33.8) of the Yangtze estuarine and coastal zone, were studied using 16S rRNA gene clone library, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, and isotope-tracing technique. Phylogenetic analysis showed a significant change in anammox bacterial community structure along the salinity gradient (P < 0.01), with the dominant genus shifting from Brocadia in the freshwater region to Scalindua in the open ocean. Anammox bacterial abundance ranged from 3.67 × 105 to 8.22 × 107 copies 16S rRNA gene g-1 and related significantly with salinity (P < 0.05). The anammox activity varied between 0.08 and 6.46 nmol N g-1 h-1 and related closely with anammox bacterial abundance (P < 0.01). Contributions of anammox activity to total N loss were highly variable along the salinity gradient, ranging from 5 to 77% and were significantly negatively correlated with salinity (P < 0.01). Sediment organic matter was also recognized as an important factor in controlling the relative role of anammox to total N2 production in the Yangtze estuarine and coastal zone. Overall, our data demonstrated a biogeographical distribution of anammox bacterial diversity, abundance, and activity along the estuarine salinity gradient and suggested that salinity is a major environmental control on anammox process in the estuarine and coastal ecosystems.

  10. The role of "pump action" in coastal and estuarine sediment resuspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the sediment into sea carried by rivers deposited near the estuary,forming the subaqueous delta. However,previous researches has shown that sediment into sea carried by many rivers all over the world always forms a large scale of distribution along the estuarine coastal areas that thousands of kilometers away from the estuary. Resuspension of estuarine and coastal sediment plays an important role in the sediment long distance transport into sea. At present, it is widely recognized that sediment resuspension is caused by the wave and current scouring action on the surface of the seabed. This paper explored the process and mechanism of seabed sediment resuspension through flume simulation experiments; developed a conclusion that sediment resuspension is not only from the seabed surface, there is still a considerable part of sediments coming from the internal seabed through seepage "pump action";The proportion of the latter part in sediment resuspension is related to wave height, this experiment concluded that 5、10、15cm wave heights respectively accounted for 30.5%,43.8%,47.9%;The "pump action" is induced by the accumulation of excess pore water pressure inside the soil bed under the action of wave loading.

  11. Seawater-induced mobilization of trace metals from mackinawite-rich estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vanessa N L; Johnston, Scott G; Burton, Edward D; Bush, Richard T; Sullivan, Leigh A; Slavich, Peter G

    2013-02-01

    Benthic sediments in coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) drains can contain high concentrations (~1-5%) of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) as nano-particulate mackinawite. These sediments can sequester substantial quantities of trace metals. Because of their low elevation and the connectivity of drains to estuarine channels, these benthic sediments are vulnerable to rapid increases in ionic strength from seawater incursion by floodgate opening, floodgate failure, storm surge and seasonal migration of the estuarine salt wedge. This study examines the effect of increasing seawater concentration on trace metal mobilization from mackinawite-rich drain sediments (210-550 μmol g⁻¹ AVS) collected along an estuarine salinity gradient. Linear combination fitting of S K-edge XANES indicated mackinawite comprised 88-96% of sediment-bound S. Anoxic sediment suspensions were conducted with seawater concentrations ranging from 0% to 100%. We found that mobilization of some metals increased markedly with increasing ionic strength (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni) whereas Al mobilization decreased. The largest proportion of metals mobilized from the labile metal pool, operationally defined as Σexchangeable + acid-extractable + organically-bound metals, occurred in sediments from relatively fresh upstream sites (up to 39% mobilized) compared to sediments sourced from brackish downstream sites (0-11% mobilized). The extent of relative trace metal desorption generally followed the sequence Mn > Ni ≈ Cu > Zn > Fe > Al. Trace metal mobilization from these mackinawite-rich sediments was attributed primarily to desorption of weakly-bound metals via competitive exchange with marine-derived cations and enhanced complexation with Cl⁻ and dissolved organic ligands. These results have important implications for trace metal mobilization from these sediments at near-neutral pH under current predicted sea-level rise and climate change scenarios.

  12. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioavailability in estuarine sediments using thin-film extraction.

    PubMed

    Golding, Christopher J; Gobas, Frank A P C; Birch, Gavin E

    2007-05-01

    It is well documented that the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) can vary substantially among sediments. This makes risk assessments based on total sediment concentrations problematic. The present study investigates the application of thin-film solid-phase extraction to measure bioavailable concentrations of phenanthrene in estuarine sediment by comparing concentrations of phenanthrene in the amphipod Corophium colo and in thin ethylene/vinyl acetate films at different concentrations in three geochemically different sediments. For all sediment types, concentrations of phenanthrene in sediments and thin films followed linear relationships, indicating first-order exchange kinetics. Organism/thin-film concentration ratios did not vary systematically among sediment types but dropped significantly with increasing phenanthrene concentration in the sediments. While at low phenanthrene concentrations in the sediment fugacities of phenanthrene in the amphipods approached the fugacities in the thin films, they were significantly lower than those in the sediments at higher concentrations. While phenanthrene concentrations in the three sediment types were identical, biota sediment accumulation factors and concentrations in amphipods and thin films were consistently lower in sediments enriched with black carbon than in sediments with sedimentary organic matter bearing a more diagenetic organic signature. It is concluded that, for the range of concentrations tested, thin-film solid-phase extraction can be a useful tool in the characterization of differences in bioavailability of HOCs among sediment types.

  13. Salinity tolerance of Daphnia magna and potential use for estuarine sediment toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Schuytema, G S; Nebeker, A V; Stutzman, T W

    1997-08-01

    Daphnia magna Straus, a common organism used for freshwater sediment toxicity tests, was evaluated to determine its tolerance to salinity and suitability for tests with estuarine water and sediments. Daphnids were exposed for 2 to 21 days to salinity in a variety of water-only tests, in tests with freshwater sediment overlain by salt water, and in tests with estuarine sediments overlain by freshwater. Daphnid age, test length, and temperature seemed to have little effect upon the range of LC50, NOAEL, and LOAEL values. LC50s for all tests ranged from 5.10 to 7.81 g/L, with a mean of 6.6 g/L salinity (measured conductivity 10.0 mS/cm) [corrected]. The mean NOAEL and LOAEL values based on production of young were 4.6 and 6.9 g/L salinity (measured conductivity 7.1 and 10.5 mS/cm) [corrected], respectively. The results indicate that D. magna will survive and reproduce well in water with salinities below 4 g/L and demonstrate the potential usefulness of this organism in monitoring sediment toxicity from both freshwater and estuarine wetland sites. PMID:9294248

  14. Exposure-dose-response of Tellina deltoidalis to metal contaminated estuarine sediments 2. Lead spiked sediments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne M; Maher, William A

    2014-01-01

    Lead accumulation in estuarine sediments, as a result of activities such as mining and ore smelting, and through urban runoff is a continuing problem in the increasingly developed world. Marine organisms accumulate lead, which is known to be highly toxic to biological processes and to degrade organism and ecosystem health. Here the relationship between lead exposure, dose and response was investigated in the sediment dwelling, deposit feeding, marine bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. Bivalves were exposed in the laboratory to individual lead spiked sediments at < 0.01, 100 and 300 μg/g dry mass, for 28 days and accumulated total tissue lead concentrations of 4, 96 and 430 μg/g, respectively. Subcellular fractionation indicated that around 70% of the total accumulated tissue lead was detoxified, three quarters of the detoxified lead fraction was converted into metal rich granules, with the remainder in the metallothionein like protein fraction. The majority of biologically active lead was associated with the mitochondrial fraction with up to a 128 fold increase in lead burden in exposed organisms compared to controls. This indicates lead detoxification was occurring but the organism was unable to prevent lead interacting with sensitive organelles. With increased lead exposure T. deltoidalis showed a suppression in glutathione peroxidase activity, total glutathione concentration and reduced GSH:GSSG ratios, however, these differences were not significant. Lead exposed T. deltoidalis had a significantly reduced total antioxidant capacity which corresponded with increased lipid peroxidation, lysosomal destabilisation and micronuclei frequency. The exposure-dose-response relationships demonstrated for lead exposed T. deltoidalis supports its potential for the development of sublethal endpoints in lead toxicity assessment. PMID:24100051

  15. Decadal-timescale estuarine geomorphic change under future scenarios of climate and sediment supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Future estuarine geomorphic change, in response to climate change, sea-level rise, and watershed sediment supply, may govern ecological function, navigation, and water quality. We estimated geomorphic changes in Suisun Bay, CA, under four scenarios using a tidal-timescale hydrodynamic/sediment transport model. Computational expense and data needs were reduced using the morphological hydrograph concept and the morphological acceleration factor. The four scenarios included (1) present-day conditions; (2) sea-level rise and freshwater flow changes of 2030; (3) sea-level rise and decreased watershed sediment supply of 2030; and (4) sea-level rise, freshwater flow changes, and decreased watershed sediment supply of 2030. Sea-level rise increased water levels thereby reducing wave-induced bottom shear stress and sediment redistribution during the wind-wave season. Decreased watershed sediment supply reduced net deposition within the estuary, while minor changes in freshwater flow timing and magnitude induced the smallest overall effect. In all future scenarios, net deposition in the entire estuary and in the shallowest areas did not keep pace with sea-level rise, suggesting that intertidal and wetland areas may struggle to maintain elevation. Tidal-timescale simulations using future conditions were also used to infer changes in optical depth: though sea-level rise acts to decrease mean light irradiance, decreased suspended-sediment concentrations increase irradiance, yielding small changes in optical depth. The modeling results also assisted with the development of a dimensionless estuarine geomorphic number representing the ratio of potential sediment import forces to sediment export forces; we found the number to be linearly related to relative geomorphic change in Suisun Bay. The methods implemented here are widely applicable to evaluating future scenarios of estuarine change over decadal timescales. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  16. Modelling of cohesive sediment dynamics in tidal estuarine systems: Case study of Tagus estuary, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, G.; Pinto, L.; Ascione, I.; Mateus, M.; Fernandes, R.; Leitão, P.; Neves, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cohesive sediment dynamics in estuarine systems is a major issue in water quality and engineering problems. Numerical models can help to assess the complex dynamics of cohesive sediments, integrating the information collected in monitoring studies. Following a numerical approach we investigated the main factors that influence the cohesive sediment dynamics in an estuarine system composed of large mudflats (Tagus estuary, Portugal). After a spin up period of the bottom layer and considering the combined effect of waves and currents on the bottom shear stress, the dynamics of cohesive sediment during the fortnightly and daily erosion-sedimentation cycle was properly reproduced by the model. The results of cohesive suspended sediments were validated with data from sixteen monitoring stations located along the estuary and turbidity data measured by two multiparametric probes. The hydrodynamics were previously validated by harmonic analysis and with ADCP data. Although tidal currents are the major cause of cohesive sediment erosion, the results suggest that wind waves also play an important role. The simulated sediment mass involved in the fortnightly tidal cycle was in the same order of magnitude of the annual load from the rivers, as observed in previous studies based on field data.

  17. Chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riverine and estuarine sediments from Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mai, Bi-Xian; Fu, Jia-Mo; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Kang, Yue-Hui; Lin, Zheng; Zhang, Gan; Min, Yu-Shuan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2002-01-01

    Spatial distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbons [chlorinated pesticides (CPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured in riverine and estuarine sediment samples from Pearl River Delta, China, collected in 1997. Concentrations of CPs of the riverine sediment samples range from 12 to 158 ng/g, dry weight, while those of PCBs range from 11 to 486 ng/g. The CPs concentrations of the estuarine sediment samples are in the range 6-1658 ng/g, while concentrations of PCBs are in the range 10-339 ng/g. Total PAH concentration ranges from 1168 to 21,329 ng/g in the riverine sediment samples, whereas the PAH concentration ranges from 323 to 14,812 ng/g in the sediment samples of the Estuary. Sediment samples of the Zhujiang River and Macao harbor around the Estuary show the highest concentrations of CPs, PCBs, and PAHs. Possible factors affecting the distribution patterns are also discussed based on the usage history of the chemicals, hydrologic condition, and land erosion due to urbanization processes. The composition of PAHs is investigated and used to assess petrogenic, combustion and naturally derived PAHs of the sediment samples of the Pearl River Delta. In addition, the concentrations of a number of organic compounds of the Pearl River Delta samples indicate that sediments of the Zhujiang river and Macao harbor are most likely to pose biological impairment.

  18. Method 440.0 Determination of Carbon and Nitrogen in Sediments and Particulatesof Estuarine/Coastal Waters Using Elemental Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elemental analysis is used to determine particulate carbon (PC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) in estuarine and coastal waters and sediment. The method measures the total carbon and nitrogen irrespective of source (inorganic or organic).

  19. Microbial composition affects the functioning of estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Heather E; Martiny, Jennifer BH

    2013-01-01

    Although microorganisms largely drive many ecosystem processes, the relationship between microbial composition and their functioning remains unclear. To tease apart the effects of composition and the environment directly, microbial composition must be manipulated and maintained, ideally in a natural ecosystem. In this study, we aimed to test whether variability in microbial composition affects functional processes in a field setting, by reciprocally transplanting riverbed sediments between low- and high-salinity locations along the Nonesuch River (Maine, USA). We placed the sediments into microbial ‘cages' to prevent the migration of microorganisms, while allowing the sediments to experience the abiotic conditions of the surroundings. We performed two experiments, short- (1 week) and long-term (7 weeks) reciprocal transplants, after which we assayed a variety of functional processes in the cages. In both experiments, we examined the composition of bacteria generally (targeting the 16S rDNA gene) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) specifically (targeting the dsrAB gene) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In the short-term experiment, sediment processes (CO2 production, CH4 flux, nitrification and enzyme activities) depended on both the sediment's origin (reflecting differences in microbial composition between salt and freshwater sediments) and the surrounding environment. In the long-term experiment, general bacterial composition (but not SRB composition) shifted in response to their new environment, and this composition was significantly correlated with sediment functioning. Further, sediment origin had a diminished effect, relative to the short-term experiment, on sediment processes. Overall, this study provides direct evidence that microbial composition directly affects functional processes in these sediments. PMID:23235294

  20. Iron monosulfide accumulation and pyrite formation in eutrophic estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraal, Peter; Burton, Edward D.; Bush, Richard T.

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) cycling in sediments from the eutrophic Peel-Harvey Estuary in Western Australia, which is subject to localized accumulation of strongly reducing, organic- and sulfide-rich sediments. Sedimentary iron was mostly present in highly reactive form (on average 73% of total Fe) and showed extensive sulfidization even in surface sediments, despite being overlain by a well-mixed oxygenated water column. This indicates that, under eutrophic marine conditions, Fe sulfidization may be driven by reductive processes in the sediment without requiring oxygen depletion in the overlying waters. Strong enrichments in iron monosulfide (FeS > 300 μmol g-1) were observed in fine-grained sediment intervals up to 45 cm depth. This metastable Fe sulfide is commonly restricted to thin subsurface sediment intervals, below which pyrite (FeS2) dominates. Our findings suggest inhibition of the dissolution-precipitation processes that replace FeS with FeS2 in sediments. Rates of pyrite formation based on the FeS2 profiles were much lower than those predicted by applying commonly used kinetic equations for pyrite formation. Dissolved H2S was present at millimolar levels throughout the investigated sediment profiles. This may indicate that (i) pyrite formation via reaction between dissolved Fe (including Fe clusters) and H2S was limited by low availability of dissolved Fe or (ii) reaction kinetics of pyrite formation via the H2S pathway may be relatively slow in natural reducing sediments. We propose that rapid burial of the FeS under anoxic conditions in these organic-rich reducing sediments minimizes the potential for pyrite formation, possibly by preventing dissolution of FeS or by limiting the availability of oxidized sulfur species that are required for pyrite formation via the polysulfide pathway.

  1. Suspended sediment transport under estuarine tidal channel conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, R.W.; Kranck, K.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A modified version of the GEOPROBE tripod has been used to monitor flow conditions and suspended sediment distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a tidal channel within San Francisco Bay, California. Measurements were made every 15 minutes over three successive tidal cycles. They included mean velocity profiles from four electromagnetic current meters within 1 m of the seabed; mean suspended sediment concentration profiles from seven miniature nephelometers operated within 1 m of the seabed; near-bottom pressure fluctuations; vertical temperature gradient; and bottom photographs. Additionally, suspended sediment was sampled from four levels within 1 m of the seabed three times during each successive flood and ebb cycle. While the instrument was deployed, STD-nephelometer measurements were made throughout the water column, water samples were collected each 1-2 hours, and bottom sediment was sampled at the deployment site. From these measurements, estimates were made of particle settling velocity (ws) from size distributions of the suspended sediment, friction velocity (U*) from the velocity profiles, and reference concentration (Ca) was measured at z = 20 cm. These parameters were used in the suspended sediment distribution equations to evaluate their ability to predict the observed suspended sediment profiles. Three suspended sediment particle conditions were evaluated: (1) individual particle size in the 4-11 ?? (62.5-0.5 ??m) range with the reference concentration Ca at z = 20 cm (C??), (2) individual particle size in the 4-6 ?? size range, flocs representing the 7-11 ?? size range with the reference concentration Ca at z = 20 cm (Cf), and (3) individual particle size in the 4-6 ?? size range, flocs representing the 7-11 ?? size range with the reference concentration predicted as a function of the bed sediment size distribution and the square of the excess shear stress. In addition, computations of particle flux were made in order to show vertical variations

  2. The impact of channel deepening and dredging on estuarine sediment concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Maren, D. S.; van Kessel, T.; Cronin, K.; Sittoni, L.

    2015-03-01

    Many estuaries worldwide are becoming more urbanised with heavier traffic in the waterways, requiring continuous channel deepening and larger ports, and increasing suspended sediment concentration (SSC). An example of a heavily impacted estuary where SSC levels are rising is the Ems Estuary, located between the Netherlands and Germany. In order to provide larger and larger ships access to three ports and a shipyard, the tidal channels in the Ems Estuary have been substantially deepened by dredging over the past decades. This has led to tidal amplification and hyper concentrated sediment conditions in the upstream tidal river. In the middle and outer reaches of the Ems Estuary, the tidal amplification is limited, and mechanisms responsible for increasing SSC are poorly understood. Most likely, channel and port deepening lead to larger SSC levels because of resulting enhanced siltation rates and therefore an increase in maintenance dredging. Additionally, channel deepening may increase up-estuary suspended sediment transport due to enhanced salinity-induced estuarine circulation. The effect of channel deepening and port construction on SSC levels is investigated using a numerical model of suspended sediment transport forced by tides, waves and salinity. The model satisfactorily reproduces observed water levels, velocity, sediment concentration and port deposition in the estuary, and therefore is subsequently applied to test the impact of channel deepening, historical dredging strategy and port construction on SSCs in the Estuary. These model scenarios suggest that: (1) channel deepening appears to be a main factor for enhancing the transport of sediments up-estuary, due to increased salinity-driven estuarine circulation; (2) sediment extraction strategies from the ports have a large impact on estuarine SSC; and (3) maintenance dredging and disposal influences the spatial distribution of SSC but has a limited effect on average SSC levels.

  3. Requirements for modeling trace metal partitioning in oxidized estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, S.N.; Davis, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The fate of particulate-bound metals is of particular importance in estuaries because major biological energy flows involve consumption of detrital particles. The biological impact of particulate-bound metals is strongly influenced by the partitioning of metals among sediment components at the oxidized sediment-water interface. Adequate methods for directly measuring this partitioning are not available, thus a modeling approach may be most useful. Important requirements for such a model include: (1) determinations of metal binding intensities which are comparable among sediment components important in oxidized sediments; (2) comparable determinations of the binding capacities of the several forms of each component; (3) operational determinations of the abundance in natural sediments of components of defined binding capacity; (4) assessments of the influence of particle coatings and multicomponent aggregation on the available binding capacity of each substrate; (5) consideration of the effect of Ca and Mg competition on binding to different components; and (6) determinations of the kinetics of metal redistribution among components in oxidized sediments. ?? 1983.

  4. Lipid biomarkers and organic matter carbon isotopes in estuarine sediments as proxies for evaluating seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Weiming; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-01

    Coastal wetlands and estuarine sediments are characteristics of tide-dominated environments and retain a record of seawater intrusion and possibly sea-level changes. A variety of methods including the C/N ratio and δ13C of bulk organic matter in the sediment have been employed in estuarine studies, but they are generally non-specific indicators. Here we report using lipid biomarkers to evaluate the extent of seawater intrusion based on an estuary in eastern China, Xinyanggang. Along the river from the estuary mouth upstream to the freshwater head, the vegetation shifts quickly from salt-tolerant Spartina (C4) to the less tolerant reed Phragmites (C3), both of which have distinguished δ13C values and biomarker distribution. The δ13C values of particulate organic matter (POM) and surface sediment decreased from the estuary mouth upstream, indicating the reduced contributions from Spartina and marine phytoplankton to the POM and surface sediment and increased inputs from Phragmites. The C32/C30 alkanol and cholesterol/sitosterol ratio decreased in the surface sediments, faithfully recording the variations in the contributions from Spartina and Phragmites. The combination of biomarker distribution and organic matter δ13C in the sediments can be used as indicators for sea water intrusion into the estuary/river.

  5. Core sediment biogeochemistry in specific zones of Cochin Estuarine System (CES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhil, P. S.; Nair, Manju P.; Sujatha, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical composition is a set of data for predicting the climatic condition existing in an ecosystem. Both the surficial and core sediment geochemistry are helpful in monitoring, assessing and evaluating the marine environment. The aim of the research work is to assess the relationship between the biogeochemical constituents in the Cochin Estuarine System (CES), their modifications after a long period of anoxia and also to identify the various processes which control the sediment composition in this region, through a multivariate statistical approach. Therefore the study of present core sediment geochemistry has a critical role in unraveling the benchmark of their characterization. Sediment cores from four prominent zones of CES were examined for various biogeochemical aspects. The results have served as rejuvenating records for the prediction of core sediment status prevailing in the CES.

  6. Biogeochemistry of nonylphenol ethoxylates in urban estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, P Lee; Bopp, Richard F; Chillrud, Steven N; Aller, Robert C; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2003-08-15

    We have examined the concentrations and distributions of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) surfactants and their primary neutral metabolites in two dated sediment cores collected in 1988 and 1996 from a depositional area proximal to a wastewater treatment plant within Jamaica Bay, NY. Total NPEO concentrations ranged from >50 microg/g near the surface (4-6 cm, deposited ca. 1990) to below detection limits (<0.1 microg/g) at 50 cm depth (deposited ca. 1940). The general decrease in NPEO concentrations with increasing depth in sediment reflected increased commercial use of these compounds over the last 50 yr. NPEO ethoxymer distributions in recent sediments were dominated by NP(0-3)EO, consistent with the increased relative input of these particular ethoxymers to the estuary following the upgrade of local biological sewage treatment processes to full activated sludge in the late 1970s. NPEO ethoxymer profiles in deeper sediments were characterized by relatively higher proportions of unmetabolized, highly ethoxylated NPEOs. Depth profiles of NP1EO and NP in the upper portion of the sediment core showed evidence for in situ diagenetic conversion of NP1EO to NP. However, comparison of NPEO concentrations in selected strata from the core collected in 1996 with those in matched strata from a core collected from the same location in 1988 provided no evidence for in situ degradation of total NPEOs during the elapsed 8 yr between collection dates. PMID:12953858

  7. Ecological periodic tables for nekton and benthic macrofaunal community usage of estuarine habitats Slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables for nekton and benthic macrofaunal community usage of estuarine habitats Steven P. Ferraro, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR Background/Questions/Methods The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification, and the Her...

  8. Methanogenesis and sulfate reduction: Competitive and noncompetitive substrates in estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Polcin, Sandra

    1982-01-01

    Sulfate ions did not inhibit methanogenesis in estuarine sediments supplemented with methanol, trimethylamine, or methionine. However, sulfate greatly retarded methanogenesis when hydrogen or acetate was the substrate. Sulfate reduction was stimulated by acetate, hydrogen, and acetate plus hydrogen, but not by methanol or trimethylamine. These results indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria will outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, acetate, or both, but will not compete with methanogens for compounds like methanol, trimethylamine, or methionine, thereby allowing methanogenesis and sulfate reduction to operate simultaneously within anoxic, sulfate-containing sediments.

  9. Enhancing the intrinsic bioremediation of PAH-contaminated anoxic estuarine sediments with biostimulating agents.

    PubMed

    Bach, Quang-Dung; Kim, Sang-Jin; Choi, Sung-Chan; Oh, Young-Sook

    2005-08-01

    Estuarine sediments are frequently polluted with hydrocarbons from fuel spills and industrial wastes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are components of these contaminants that tend to accumulate in the sediment due to their low aqueous solubility, low volatility, and high affinity for particulate matter. The toxic, recalcitrant, mutagenic, and carcinogenic nature of these compounds may require aggressive treatment to remediate polluted sites effectively. In petroleum-contaminated sediments near a petrochemical industry in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, in situ PAH concentrations ranged from 10 to 2,900 microg/kg dry sediment. To enhance the biodegradation rate of PAHs under anaerobic conditions, sediment samples were amended with biostimulating agents alone or in combination: nitrogen and phosphorus in the form of slow-release fertilizer (SRF), lactate, yeast extract (YE), and Tween 80. When added to the sediment individually, all tested agents enhanced the degradation of PAHs, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Moreover, the combination of SRF, Tween 80, and lactate increased the PAH degradation rate 1.2-8.2 times above that of untreated sediment (0.01-10 microg PAH/kg dry sediment/day). Our results indicated that in situ contaminant PAHs in anoxic sediment, including high molecular weight PAHs, were degraded biologically and that the addition of stimulators increased the biodegradation potential of the intrinsic microbial populations. Our results will contribute to the development of new strategies for in situ treatment of PAH-contaminated anoxic sediments.

  10. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations.

  11. Sediment toxicity and benthic communities in mildly contaminated mudflats

    SciTech Connect

    Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.; Williams, E.K.; Martin, M.L.; Van Dam, L.F.; Mills, G.N.

    1998-03-01

    Sediment physicochemical characteristics, benthic community structure, and toxicity were measured at reference and contaminated intertidal mudflats around the North Island of New Zealand. Chronic whole-sediment toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine amphipod, Chaetocorophium lucasi and the marine bivalve, Macomona lilana, and pore-water toxicity tests were conducted with embryos of the echinoid, Fellaster zelandiae. Although concentrations of organic chemicals and heavy metals were up to several orders of magnitude higher at the sites considered to be contaminated, levels of contamination were relatively low compared to internationally based sediment quality guidelines. Although no pronounced difference was found in benthic community structure between reference and contaminated sites, multivariate analysis indicated that natural sediment characteristics and factors related to contamination may have been affecting community structure. Although benthic effects caused by present levels of contamination are not yet dramatic, subtle changes in community structure related to pollution may be occurring. The two whole-sediment and the pore-water toxicity tests presented different response patterns. Growth of C. lucasi and M. liliana was a less sensitive endpoint than survival. None of the three toxicity tests responded more strongly to the contaminated than to the reference sites, that is, neither natural-sediment and pore-water characteristics nor unmeasured contaminants affected the test organisms. It is possible that sediment collection and handling may have induced chemical changes, confounding interpretation of toxicity tests.

  12. Toxicity of estuarine sediments using a full life-cycle bioassay with the marine copepod Robertsonia propinqua.

    PubMed

    Hack, Lisa A; Tremblay, Louis A; Wratten, Steve D; Forrester, Guy; Keesing, Vaughan

    2008-07-01

    Estuarine sediment contamination is a growing significant ecological issue in New Zealand. Methods of assessing toxicity and ecological impacts in a cost effective way are currently limited. Further to that is a need to develop bioassays that generate data quickly and cost effectively and have ecological relevance to the wider community. A chronic full life-cycle bioassay to assess the toxicity of New Zealand estuarine sediments using the marine harpacticoid copepod Robertsonia propinqua has been investigated. Sediment samples were collected from the Bay of Plenty region and included two polluted and one reference site. Sources of pollutants in the contaminated field sites originated from a variety of sources and generally include nutrients, pesticides and herbicides and the pollutants zinc, copper, lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Conversely, the reference site was exposed to low levels of contaminants due to the relatively undeveloped catchment. Adult male and female copepods were exposed to field collected sediments for 24 days under flow-through conditions at 21 degrees C and 12h L:D cycles. Five endpoints were recorded: male and female survival, fecundity (number of gravid females per replicate at the end of the test), clutch size per female, number of eggs per sample and juvenile survival (number of nauplii and copepodites per replicate at the end of the test). Adult mortality was observed in all sediment samples but the number of males, gravid females, clutch size per female and number of eggs produced were not affected by either the contaminated or reference sediment samples. However, the contaminated sediments did reduce reproductive output (i.e. nauplii and copepodite production). Therefore, we conclude that reproductive endpoints provide a good measure of sediment-associated contaminant effects compared with adult R. propinqua survivorship. It may be that a change in focus from chemical thresholds without ecological relevance or lethal

  13. Iron ore pollution in Mandovi and Zuari estuarine sediments and its fate after mining ban.

    PubMed

    Kessarkar, Pratima M; Suja, S; Sudheesh, V; Srivastava, Shubh; Rao, V Purnachandra

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore was mined from the banded iron formations of Goa, India, and transported through the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries for six decades until the ban on mining from September 2012. Here we focus on the environmental magnetic properties of sediments from the catchment area, upstream and downstream of these estuaries, and adjacent shelf during peak mining time. Magnetic susceptibility (χ lf) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) values of sediments were highest in upstream (catchment area and estuaries), decreased gradually towards downstream (catchment area and estuaries), and were lowest on the adjacent shelf. The χ lf values of the Mandovi estuary were two to fourfold higher than those in the Zuari. The sediments of these two estuaries after the mining ban showed enrichment of older magnetite and sharp decrease in the SIRM values. Although the input of ore material has been reduced after mining ban, more flushing of estuarine sediments is required for healthier environment.

  14. Relationships Between Environmental Factors, Bacterial Indicators, and the Occurrence of Enteric Viruses in Estuarine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, Raymond L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Melnick, Joseph L.; Cech, Irina; Bogdan, Gregory F.

    1980-01-01

    Current standards for evaluation of the public health safety of recreational and shellfish-harvesting waters are based upon bacteriological analysis, but do not include an evaluation of the number of viruses. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of enteric viruses in estuarine sediments and to find a relationship, if any, between the presence of viruses in seawater or sediment or both and various biological and physicochemical characteristics of the environment. Viruses were found in greater numbers in sediment than in overlying seawater on a volume basis. Several types of enteroviruses were isolated: coxsackievirus types A16, B1, and B5, echovirus type 1, and poliovirus type 2. On several occasions, viruses were isolated from sediments when overlying seawaters met bacteriological water quality standards for recreational use. Statistical analysis of the relationship between viruses in seawater or in sediment and other variables measured yielded only one significant association: the number of viruses in sediment was found to be positively correlated with the number of fecal coliforms in sediment. No other physical, chemical, or biological characteristic of seawater or sediment that was measured showed statistically significant association with viral numbers. No correlation was found between bacterial indicators and virus in the overlying waters. The data indicated that evaluation of the presence of bacteria and viruses in sediment may provide additional insight into long-term water quality conditions and that indicator bacteria in water are not reflective of the concentration of enteric viruses in marine waters. PMID:6247974

  15. Sensitivity of estuarine turbidity maximum to settling velocity, tidal mixing, and sediment supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Geyer, W.R.; ,

    2007-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maximum, numerical modeling, settling velocity, stratification The spatial and temporal distribution of suspended material in an Estuarine Turbidity Maxima (ETM) is primarily controlled by particle settling velocity, tidal mixing, shear-stress thresholds for resuspension, and sediment supply. We vary these parameters in numerical experiments of an idealized two-dimensional (x-z) estuary to demonstrate their affects on the development and retention of particles in an ETM. Parameters varied are the settling velocity (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mm/s), tidal amplitude (0.4 m 12 hour tide and 0.3 to 0.6 m 14 day spring neap cycle), and sediment availability (spatial supply limited or unlimited; and temporal supply as a riverine pulse during spring vs. neap tide). Results identify that particles with a low settling velocity are advected out of the estuary and particles with a high settling velocity provide little material transport to an ETM. Particles with an intermediate settling velocity develop an ETM with the greatest amount of material retained. For an unlimited supply of sediment the ETM and limit of salt intrusion co-vary during the spring neap cycle. The ETM migrates landward of the salt intrusion during spring tides and seaward during neap tides. For limited sediment supply the ETM does not respond as an erodible pool of sediment that advects landward and seaward with the salt front. The ETM is maintained seaward of the salt intrusion and controlled by the locus of sediment convergence in the bed. For temporal variability of sediment supplied from a riverine pulse, the ETM traps more sediment if the pulse encounters the salt intrusion at neap tides than during spring tides. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impacts of Silver Nanoparticles on a Natural Estuarine Plankton Community.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Mafalda S; Miller, Robert J; Halewood, Elisa R; Hanna, Shannon K; Almeida, C Marisa R; Vasconcelos, Vitor M; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2015-11-01

    Potential effects of metal nanoparticles on aquatic organisms and food webs are hard to predict from the results of single-species tests under controlled laboratory conditions, and more realistic exposure experiments are rarely conducted. We tested whether silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) had an impact on zooplankton grazing on their prey, specifically phytoplankton and bacterioplankton populations. If Ag NPs directly reduced the abundance of prey, thereby causing the overall rate of grazing by their predators to decrease, a cascading effect on a planktonic estuarine food web would be seen. Our results show that the growth rates of both phytoplankton and bacterioplankton populations were significantly reduced by Ag NPs at concentrations of ≥500 μg L(-1). At the same time, grazing rates on these populations tended to decline with exposure to Ag NPs. Therefore, Ag NPs did not cause a cascade of effects through the food web but impacted a specific trophic level. Photosynthetic efficiency of the phytoplankton was significantly reduced at Ag NPs concentrations of ≥500 μg L(-1). These effects did not occur at relatively low concentrations of Ag that are often toxic to single species of bacteria and other organisms, suggesting that the impacts of Ag NP exposure may not be apparent at environmentally relevant concentrations due to compensatory processes at the community level. PMID:26444256

  17. Differentiated availability of geochemical mercury pools controls methylmercury levels in estuarine sediment and biota.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Sofi; Skyllberg, Ulf; Nilsson, Mats B; Lundberg, Erik; Andersson, Agneta; Björn, Erik

    2014-08-20

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) formed from inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) accumulates in aquatic biota and remains at high levels worldwide. It is poorly understood to what extent different geochemical Hg pools contribute to these levels. Here we report quantitative data on MeHg formation and bioaccumulation, in mesocosm water-sediment model ecosystems, using five Hg(II) and MeHg isotope tracers simulating recent Hg inputs to the water phase and Hg stored in sediment as bound to natural organic matter or as metacinnabar. Calculations for an estuarine ecosystem suggest that the chemical speciation of Hg(II) solid/adsorbed phases control the sediment Hg pool's contribution to MeHg, but that input of MeHg from terrestrial and atmospheric sources bioaccumulates to a substantially greater extent than MeHg formed in situ in sediment. Our findings emphasize the importance of MeHg loadings from catchment runoff to MeHg content in estuarine biota and we suggest that this contribution has been underestimated.

  18. Geochemical Screening of Contaminated Marine and Estuarine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruge, M. A.

    2004-05-01

    Waterways near urban centers have been subject to pollution by human activities for centuries. This process greatly intensified with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the attendant exponential population increase in coastal areas. The co-occurrence of port facilities for ocean-going vessels, large factories, major power generating stations, dense automotive transportation networks, and massive wastewater outfalls, all in compact geographical areas, has produced severe environmental stress. In recent decades, the growing awareness of the seriousness of coastal urban environmental degradation has inspired intensive efforts at pollution prevention and remediation. To better understand pollution dynamics over time in an aquatic urban setting, a program of intensive sampling and analysis leading to the creation of geographic information systems (GIS) would be desirable. Chemical evaluation of sediments for pollution remains a costly and time-consuming procedure, particularly for organic analysis. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) offers a practical alternative for rapid, inexpensive molecular organic analysis, simply employing milligram quantities of dry, whole sediment. The compounds detected comprise an information-rich mixture of thermally extractable components and the products of the thermal decomposition of (bio)polymers present in the sample. These include PAHs, petroleum-derived hopanes, organonitrogen compounds, and linear alkylbenzenes, as illustrated with examples from Long Island Sound and the Passaic River (USA) and Barcelona harbor (Spain).

  19. Trace element contamination in the estuarine sediments along Tuticorin coast--Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Magesh, N S; Chandrasekar, N; Krishna Kumar, S; Glory, M

    2013-08-15

    Sediment samples were collected from Kallar, Korampallam creek and Punnakayal estuaries of Tuticorin coast for assessing the level of contamination by trace elements in these estuarine sediments. The trace element concentration, calcium carbonate, organic carbon and mercury level were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer, Titrimetric method and SnCl2 reduction method. The results reveals that the enrichment factor, metal pollution index and geo-accumulation index of these estuarine sediments were predominantly polluted by Cd, As, Zn, Hg and Pb. The factor analysis revealed the source of trace element accumulation in the estuarine sediments particularly Mn and Fe are from riverine inputs and As and Hg from untreated industrial effluents. Among the selected estuaries, Korampallam creek was found to be highly contaminated by trace elements due to the discharge of effluents from thermal power plant, Tuticorin alkali chemicals, copper smelting, Petrochemical industries and shipping activities.

  20. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of cadmium in sediment to the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Swartz, R.C.; Hansen, D.J.; McGovern, D.; Berry, W.J.

    1996-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interstitial water metal concentrations and simultaneously extracted metals/acid-volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios in explaining the acute toxicity of sediment-associated metals to benthic organisms. However, no full life-cycle chronic marine or estuarine tests have been conducted for this purpose. In this study, cohorts of newborn amphipods, Leptocheirus plumulosus, were exposed to cadmium-spiked estuarine sediment for 28 d to determine effects on mortality, growth, and reproduction relative to interstitial water and SEM/AVS normalization. Seven treatments of cadmium were tested: 0 (control), 0.34, 0.74, 1.31, 1.55, 2.23, and 4.82 M SEM{sub Cd}/AVS ratios (measured concentrations). Interstitial water cadmium (IW{sub Cd}) and sediment concentrations of SEM{sub Cd} and AVS were monitored periodically and by depth during the exposure. When sediment SEM{sub Cd}/AVS ratios were {le} 1.55, mean IW{sub Cd} concentrations were less than the 96-h water-only cadmium LC50 for juvenile and subadult L. plumulosus, and mortality, growth, and reproduction were not affected. When SEM{sub Cd}/AVD ratios were {ge} 2.23, IW{sub Cd} concentrations were more than 100 times greater than the 96-h water-only cadmium LC50, and all amphipods died. These results are consistent with predictions of metal bioavailability from acute tests with metal-spiked sediments, i.e., that sediments with SEM{sub Cd}/AVS ratios < 1 are not toxic, while sediments with SEM{sub Cd}/AVS ratios > 1 may be toxic.

  2. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (<1.7gcm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000μm) sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of

  3. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (<1.7gcm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000μm) sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of

  4. Calibration of an estuarine sediment transport model to sediment fluxes as an intermediate step for simulation of geomorphic evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling geomorphic evolution in estuaries is necessary to model the fate of legacy contaminants in the bed sediment and the effect of climate change, watershed alterations, sea level rise, construction projects, and restoration efforts. Coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models used for this purpose typically are calibrated to water level, currents, and/or suspended-sediment concentrations. However, small errors in these tidal-timescale models can accumulate to cause major errors in geomorphic evolution, which may not be obvious. Here we present an intermediate step towards simulating decadal-timescale geomorphic change: calibration to estimated sediment fluxes (mass/time) at two cross-sections within an estuary. Accurate representation of sediment fluxes gives confidence in representation of sediment supply to and from the estuary during those periods. Several years of sediment flux data are available for the landward and seaward boundaries of Suisun Bay, California, the landward-most embayment of San Francisco Bay. Sediment flux observations suggest that episodic freshwater flows export sediment from Suisun Bay, while gravitational circulation during the dry season imports sediment from seaward sources. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS), a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic/sediment transport model, was adapted for Suisun Bay, for the purposes of hindcasting 19th and 20th century bathymetric change, and simulating geomorphic response to sea level rise and climatic variability in the 21st century. The sediment transport parameters were calibrated using the sediment flux data from 1997 (a relatively wet year) and 2004 (a relatively dry year). The remaining years of data (1998, 2002, 2003) were used for validation. The model represents the inter-annual and annual sediment flux variability, while net sediment import/export is accurately modeled for three of the five years. The use of sediment flux data for calibrating an estuarine geomorphic

  5. Anthropogenic Influences on Estuarine Sedimentation in Salem Sound, MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, E. R.; Hubeny, J. B.; Zhu, J.; Olsen, C. R.; Warren, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Salem Sound watershed (MA) historically has been a region of significant industrial activity. Two specific point sources for pollution in the region are the South Essex Sewerage District (SESD) wastewater treatment facility, and the Salem Harbor Power Station, a coal-burning power plant. This study tests the hypothesis that human impact on Salem Sound is preserved in the sediment record. A sediment core was taken near the location of the SESD outfall. This core was analyzed for content of organic matter via loss on ignition (LOI), as well as magnetic susceptibility. An age model was constructed using 137Cs and 210Pb. Below 31 cm (mid-nineteenth century), the core contains mean background values of 2.7% LOI and values increase above this depth. At 21cm, a rapid increase in organic matter concentration from 6.6% to 11.8% is observed. This depth corresponds to ~1905 which is contemporaneous with construction of the outfall pipe discharging raw wastewater. At a depth of 7 cm (mid 1970s), LOI values decrease from 11.7% to 9.3%. This shift is likely attributed to SESD beginning primary treatment in 1977. LOI values continue to drop at 2cm (late 1990s), from 7.8% to 6.3%, and remain at 6.1% to the modern surface, likely a result of SESD upgrading to secondary treatment in 1998. Magnetic susceptibility also shows variability down core that is likely attributed to human impact. At a depth of approximately 20cm susceptibility values start increasing from 4.2 SI units until they reach a peak at 15cm (8.8 SI units). This increase can be attributed to the industrial revolution and increased industrial activity in the area. A decrease in susceptibility is observed at 15cm to 11cm (5.6 SI units) that may be attributed to the Great Depression and less fossil fuels being burned due to the economic situation. At approximately 10cm and 8.0 SI units, an increasing trend is first observed. This trend continues up to the modern surface where it eventually reaches 19.9 SI units. This

  6. Mercury Stable Isotopic Composition of Monomethylmercury in Estuarine Sediments and Pure Cultures of Mercury Methylating Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, S.; Johnson, M. W.; Barkay, T.; Blum, J. D.; Reinfelder, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking monomethylmercury (MeHg) from its source in soils and sediments through various environmental compartments and transformations is critical to understanding its accumulation in aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Advances in the field of mercury (Hg) stable isotopes have allowed for the tracking of discrete Hg sources and the examination of photochemical and bacterial transformations. Despite analytical advances, measuring the Hg stable isotopic signature of MeHg in environmental samples or laboratory experiments remains challenging due to difficulties in the quantitative separation of MeHg from complex matrices with high concentrations of inorganic Hg. To address these challenges, we have developed a MeHg isolation method for sediments and bacterial cultures which involves separation by gas chromatography. The MeHg eluting from the GC is passed through a pyrolysis column and purged onto a gold amalgam trap which is then desorbed into a final oxidizing solution. A MeHg reference standard carried through our separation process retained its isotopic composition within 0.02 ‰ for δ202Hg, and for native estuarine sediments, MeHg recoveries were 80% to 100%. For sediment samples from the Hackensack and Passaic Rivers (New Jersey, USA), δ202Hg values for MeHg varied from -1.2 to +0.58 ‰ (relative to SRM 3133) and for individual samples were significantly different from that of total Hg (-0.38 ± 0.06 ‰). No mass independent fractionation was observed in MeHg or total Hg from these sediments. Pure cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens, grown under fermentative conditions showed preferential enrichment of lighter isotopes (lower δ202Hg) during Hg methylation. The Hg stable isotope signatures of MeHg in sediments and laboratory methylation experiments will be discussed in the context of the formation and degradation of MeHg in the environment and the bioaccumulation of MeHg in estuarine food webs.

  7. Evaluation of ADCP backscatter inversion to suspended sediment concentration in estuarine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyo-Bong; Lee, Guan-hong

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP), designed for measuring velocity profiles, are widely used for the estimation of suspended sediment concentration from acoustic backscatter strength, but its application to estuarine environments requires further refinement. In this study, we examined the inversion capability of two ADCPs with 600 and 1200 kHz in three Korean estuaries: the supra-macrotidal Han River Estuary (HRE), microtidal Nakdong River Estuary (NRE), and anthropogenically altered macrotidal Yeongsan River Estuary (YRE). In particular, we examined the relative importance of the sound attenuations due to water (αw) and sediment (αs) in response to sediment characteristics (size and concentration) as well as changing salinity and temperature. The inverted concentration was compared with reference concentrations obtained either from water samples or Optical Backscatter Sensors. In NRE and YRE, where suspended sediment concentrations were less than 0.2 g/l, the acoustic inversion performed poorly only with αs (r = 0.20 and 0.38 for NRE and YRE, respectively), but well with αw (r = 0.66 and 0.42 for NRE and YRE, respectively). Thus, it is important to accurately constrain αw in low-concentration estuarine environments. However, we did not find that the varying αw performed considerably better than the constant αw. On the other hand, the acoustic inversion was poorest at HRE regardless of αw and αs (r = 0.71 and mean relative error = 45%). The large discrepancy appears to result from the poorly constrained, spatially and temporally varying sediment characteristics (grain size, density and concentration) due to non-local sediment transport in the macrotidal HRE.

  8. A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, Parley V.; Lasier, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments was developed and constructed from a fused-glass air stone attached with aquarium airline tubing to a 30 or 60 cc polypropylene syringe. Pore water is extracted by inserting the air stone into the sediment and creating a vacuum by retracting and bracing the syringe plunger. A hand-operated vacuum pump attached to a filtration flask was also evaluated as an alternative vacuum source. The volume and time to extract pore water varies with the number of devices and the sediment particle size. Extraction time is longer for fine sediments than for sandy sediments. Four liters of sediment generally yield between 500 and 1,500 mL of pore water. The sediment that surrounds and accumulates on the air stone acts as a filter, and, except for the first few milliliters, the collected pore water is clear. Because there is no exposure to air or avenue for escape, volatile compounds andin situ characteristics are retained in the extracted pore water.

  9. Large-scale spatial patterns in estuaries: estuarine macrobenthic communities in the Schelde estuary, NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P. M. J.; Meire, P.; Craeymeersch, J.; Verbeek, H.; Heip, C. H. R.

    2003-05-01

    Few macrobenthic studies have dealt simultaneously with the two major gradients in estuarine benthic habitats: the salinity gradient along the estuary (longitudinal) and the gradients from high intertidal to deep subtidal sites (vertical gradient). In this broad-scale study, a large data set (3112 samples) of the Schelde estuary allowed a thorough analysis of these gradients, and to relate macrobenthic species distributions and community structure to salinity, depth, current velocities and sediment characteristics. Univariate analyses clearly revealed distinct gradients in diversity, abundance, and biomass along the vertical and longitudinal gradients. In general, highest diversity and biomass were observed in the intertidal, polyhaline zone and decreased with decreasing salinity. Abundance did not show clear trends and varied between spring and autumn. In all regions, very low values for all measures were observed in the subtidal depth strata. Abundance in all regions was dominated by both surface deposit feeders and sub-surface deposit feeders. In contrast, the biomass of the different feeding guilds showed clear gradients in the intertidal zone. Suspension feeders dominated in the polyhaline zone and showed a significant decrease with decreasing salinity. Surface deposit feeders and sub-surface deposit feeders showed significantly higher biomass values in the polyhaline zone as compared with the mesohaline zone. Omnivores showed an opposite trend. Multivariate analyses showed a strong relationship between the macrobenthic assemblages and the predominant environmental gradients in the Schelde estuary. The most important environmental factor was depth, which reflected also the hydrodynamic conditions (current velocities). A second gradient was related to salinity and confirms the observations from the univariate analyses. Additionally, sediment characteristics (mud content) explained a significant part of the macrobenthic community structure not yet explained by

  10. Maps showing textural characteristics of benthic sediments in the Corpus Christi Bay estuarine system, south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.; Stelting, Charles E.; McGowen, Joseph H.

    1981-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay is a heavily used estuary on the south Texas coast in the northwest Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1).  The Bay is stressed by diverse activities which could substantially affect its ecosystem.  Such activities include shipping, resource production (oil, gas, and construction aggregate), commercial and sport fishing, and recreation.  Shipping activities alone have had a substantial impact on the bay.  For example, the past maintenance of navigation channels has required extensive dredging and spoil disposal within the estuarine system.  Numerous subaqueous spoil disposal sites and subaerial spoil banks are present throughout the bay (fig. 1), and the selection of future spoil disposal sites is becoming a critical local problem.  As activities in the bay increase, the need for effective environmental management becomes increasingly important, and effective management necessitates a good understanding of the bay's physical characteristics.  The objective of this study is to provide detailed information about the textural composition of bottom sediments within the estuarine system, information which could be used in making environmental-management decisions.  Visual descriptions of bottom sediments in Corpus Christi Bay and adjacent areas have been presented by McGowen and Morton (1979).  Additionally, a study of the textures of sediments on the Inner Continental Shelf adjacent to the bay has been presented by Shideler and Berryhill (1977).

  11. Bioaccessibility and mobilisation of copper and zinc in estuarine sediment contaminated by antifouling paint particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, David E.; Turner, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Clean estuarine sediment amended with antifouling paint particles has been digested in biologically relevant reagents in order to evaluate the bioaccessibilities of Cu and Zn to deposit feeders in coastal environments where boat maintenance is important. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in the estuarine sediment of about 20 and 70 μg g -1, respectively, increased to about 930 and 330 μg g -1, respectively, on addition of 1.3% of a composite of fractionated paint particles collected from a boat repair facility. Seawater containing the vertebrate bile salt, sodium taurocholate, representative of surfactants in the digestive environment of deposit feeders, mobilised significantly greater quantities of metal (up to about 2 μg g -1 of both Cu and Zn) than seawater alone, presumably through complexation and exchange reactions. Seawater solutions of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), a surrogate for proteinaceous material and amino acids encountered in the digestive tract, mobilised even greater quantities of metal (up to about 80 and 40 μg g -1 of Cu and Zn, respectively) via strong complexation, although addition of taurocholate reduced this capacity through interactions between the two reagents. Overall, and through feeding, burrowing and bioirrigation, infaunal invertebrates are predicted to greatly accelerate the rate of mobilisation and local dispersal of metals in sediment contaminated by antifouling paint particles.

  12. Sediment composition influences spatial variation in the abundance of human pathogen indicator bacteria within an estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Tracy L; Clements, Katie; Baas, Jaco H; Jago, Colin F; Jones, Davey L; Malham, Shelagh K; McDonald, James E

    2014-01-01

    Faecal contamination of estuarine and coastal waters can pose a risk to human health, particularly in areas used for shellfish production or recreation. Routine microbiological water quality testing highlights areas of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) contamination within the water column, but fails to consider the abundance of FIB in sediments, which under certain hydrodynamic conditions can become resuspended. Sediments can enhance the survival of FIB in estuarine environments, but the influence of sediment composition on the ecology and abundance of FIB is poorly understood. To determine the relationship between sediment composition (grain size and organic matter) and the abundance of pathogen indicator bacteria (PIB), sediments were collected from four transverse transects of the Conwy estuary, UK. The abundance of culturable Escherichia coli, total coliforms, enterococci, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Vibrio spp. in sediments was determined in relation to sediment grain size, organic matter content, salinity, depth and temperature. Sediments that contained higher proportions of silt and/or clay and associated organic matter content showed significant positive correlations with the abundance of PIB. Furthermore, the abundance of each bacterial group was positively correlated with the presence of all other groups enumerated. Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from estuarine sediments. Comparisons of the number of culturable E. coli, total coliforms and Vibrio spp. in sediments and the water column revealed that their abundance was 281, 433 and 58-fold greater in sediments (colony forming units (CFU)/100g) when compared with the water column (CFU/100ml), respectively. These data provide important insights into sediment compositions that promote the abundance of PIB in estuarine environments, with important implications for the modelling and prediction of public health risk based on sediment resuspension and transport. PMID:25397595

  13. Sediment Composition Influences Spatial Variation in the Abundance of Human Pathogen Indicator Bacteria within an Estuarine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Tracy L.; Clements, Katie; Baas, Jaco H.; Jago, Colin F.; Jones, Davey L.; Malham, Shelagh K.; McDonald, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Faecal contamination of estuarine and coastal waters can pose a risk to human health, particularly in areas used for shellfish production or recreation. Routine microbiological water quality testing highlights areas of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) contamination within the water column, but fails to consider the abundance of FIB in sediments, which under certain hydrodynamic conditions can become resuspended. Sediments can enhance the survival of FIB in estuarine environments, but the influence of sediment composition on the ecology and abundance of FIB is poorly understood. To determine the relationship between sediment composition (grain size and organic matter) and the abundance of pathogen indicator bacteria (PIB), sediments were collected from four transverse transects of the Conwy estuary, UK. The abundance of culturable Escherichia coli, total coliforms, enterococci, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Vibrio spp. in sediments was determined in relation to sediment grain size, organic matter content, salinity, depth and temperature. Sediments that contained higher proportions of silt and/or clay and associated organic matter content showed significant positive correlations with the abundance of PIB. Furthermore, the abundance of each bacterial group was positively correlated with the presence of all other groups enumerated. Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from estuarine sediments. Comparisons of the number of culturable E. coli, total coliforms and Vibrio spp. in sediments and the water column revealed that their abundance was 281, 433 and 58-fold greater in sediments (colony forming units (CFU)/100g) when compared with the water column (CFU/100ml), respectively. These data provide important insights into sediment compositions that promote the abundance of PIB in estuarine environments, with important implications for the modelling and prediction of public health risk based on sediment resuspension and transport. PMID:25397595

  14. Sediment composition influences spatial variation in the abundance of human pathogen indicator bacteria within an estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Tracy L; Clements, Katie; Baas, Jaco H; Jago, Colin F; Jones, Davey L; Malham, Shelagh K; McDonald, James E

    2014-01-01

    Faecal contamination of estuarine and coastal waters can pose a risk to human health, particularly in areas used for shellfish production or recreation. Routine microbiological water quality testing highlights areas of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) contamination within the water column, but fails to consider the abundance of FIB in sediments, which under certain hydrodynamic conditions can become resuspended. Sediments can enhance the survival of FIB in estuarine environments, but the influence of sediment composition on the ecology and abundance of FIB is poorly understood. To determine the relationship between sediment composition (grain size and organic matter) and the abundance of pathogen indicator bacteria (PIB), sediments were collected from four transverse transects of the Conwy estuary, UK. The abundance of culturable Escherichia coli, total coliforms, enterococci, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Vibrio spp. in sediments was determined in relation to sediment grain size, organic matter content, salinity, depth and temperature. Sediments that contained higher proportions of silt and/or clay and associated organic matter content showed significant positive correlations with the abundance of PIB. Furthermore, the abundance of each bacterial group was positively correlated with the presence of all other groups enumerated. Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from estuarine sediments. Comparisons of the number of culturable E. coli, total coliforms and Vibrio spp. in sediments and the water column revealed that their abundance was 281, 433 and 58-fold greater in sediments (colony forming units (CFU)/100g) when compared with the water column (CFU/100ml), respectively. These data provide important insights into sediment compositions that promote the abundance of PIB in estuarine environments, with important implications for the modelling and prediction of public health risk based on sediment resuspension and transport.

  15. Correlation of coprostanol to organic contaminants in coastal and estuarine sediments of the U. S

    SciTech Connect

    Shigenaka, G.; Price, J.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Results from the National Status and Trends Program, a nationwide effort to evaluate U.S. coastal and estuarine environmental quality, are analyzed to provide information about regional sources of organic contaminants in the benthic environment. Spearman's rank correlation procedure is applied to measurements of coprostanol, a chemical tracer of sewage, and three classes of organic compounds in sediments including selected major and trace elements, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results suggest that discharges from publicly owned treatment works are responsible for concentrations of the organic compounds encountered in the northeastern coastal region, while other sources may predominate in the other regions of the country.

  16. Long-Term Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Estuarine Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, A. S.; Layton, A.; Culligan, P. J.; Kenna, T. C.; Mailloux, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of marine and freshwater environments can negatively impact water quality, leading to contaminated drinking water as well as the closure of recreational beaches and waterways. Fecal contamination is routinely assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and even though the potential for their long-term survival or proliferation in sediments exist, information linking deposition of FIB with sediment age is scarce. We evaluate sediments as a reservoir for culturable FIB, by examining dated sediments from the lower Hudson River estuary for Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococcus, and Bacteroides. Sediment cores were collected from in the vicinity of the George Washington (GWB) and Tappan Zee (TZB) Bridges NY. Sediment deposition ages were constrained using gamma emitting radionuclides and pollution chronology. Culturable E. coli and enterococcus were quantified using a culture-based most probable number method (ColilertTM, Idexx Laboratories). Molecular based methods were used to quantify E. coli and Bacteroides. In the GWB core, viable enterococcus or E. coli were consistently detected in sediment younger than the 1960s with maximum concentrations of 39 and 171 cells/g, respectively. In the TZB core, only enterococcus was sporadically detected in sediment younger than 1950 with a maximum concentration of 79 cells/g. Molecular Bacteroides and E. coli were detected in all core samples with a geometric mean of 4.2x104 and 1.2x105 copies/g, respectively. Results indicate that fecal bacteria can survive within estuarine sediments for decades, suggesting that sediments could be a significant and persistent source of bacterial pollution.

  17. A microcosm approach to evaluate the degradation of tributyltin (TBT) by Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andreia; Henriques, Isabel; Sousa, Ana C A; Baptista, Inês; Almeida, Adelaide; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Anselmo, Ana Maria; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a biocide extremely toxic to a wide range of organisms, which has been used for decades in antifouling paints. Despite its global ban in 2008, TBT is still a problem of great concern due to the high levels trapped in sediments. Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a TBT degrading bacterium that was isolated from an estuarine system. We investigated the ability and the role of this bacterium on TBT degradation in this estuarine system, using a microcosm approach in order to mimic environmental conditions. The experiment was established and followed for 150 days. Simultaneously, changes in the indigenous bacterial community structure were also investigated. The results revealed a maximum TBT degradation rate of 28% accompanied by the detection of the degradation products over time. Additionally, it was observed that TBT degradation was significantly enhanced by the presence of Av27. In addition a significantly higher TBT degradation occurred when the concentration of Av27 was higher. TBT degradation affected the bacterial community composition as revealed by the changes in the prevalence of Proteobacteria subdivisions, namely the increase of Deltaproteobacteria and the onset of Epsilonproteobacteria. However, the addition of Av27 strain did not affect the dominant phylotypes. Total bacterial number, bacterial biomass productivity, 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses also indicated alterations on the bacterial community structure over time, with bacteria non-tolerant to pollutants increasing their representativeness, as, for instance, the increase of the number of Alphaproteobacteria clones from 6% in the beginning to 12% at the end of the experiment. The work herein presented confirms the potential of Av27 strain to be used in the decontamination of TBT-polluted environments.

  18. Estuarine circulation versus tidal pumping: Sediment transport in a well-mixed tidal inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherer, Johannes; Flöser, Götz; Umlauf, Lars; Burchard, Hans

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution water column observations have been carried out in the Wadden Sea to understand suspended particulate matter (SPM) transport in well-mixed tidal channels. These observations include more than 4000 consecutive CTD, microstructure shear and turbidity profiles from a free-falling microstructure probe, as well as velocity data from an ADCP and SPM samples for calibration. A horizontal density gradient was established by a landward temperature gradient built up during an extraordinarily warm and calm spring season. Tidal averaging along σ-layers (relative depth) provides the first direct observations of along-channel estuarine circulation in the Wadden Sea, with net inflow near the bottom and outflow near the surface. Increased westerly (up-estuary) winds during the second part of the campaign weakened and eventually even reversed estuarine circulation and yielded a net barotropic eastward transport. SPM concentrations showed a strong quarter-diurnal signal with maxima near full flood and full ebb and were generally lower during the calm period and increased during the windy period, mainly due to wave-related resuspension over nearby intertidal flats. The sediment flux analysis was based on a decomposition of the vertically integrated SPM flux into a barotropic advective component, an estuarine circulation component and a tidal pumping component. As a result, tidal pumping (due to ebb-dominance weakly seaward) dominated the SPM flux during calm conditions, whereas barotropic advection dominated the strong landward SPM flux during the windy period. Along-channel estuarine circulation is found to be of minor importance for the net SPM transport in such well-mixed systems.

  19. Sorption of cadmium to bacterial extracellular polymeric sediment coatings under estuarine conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlekat, C.E.; Decho, A.W.; Chandler, G.T.

    1998-09-01

    Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are ubiquitous features in aquatic environments. Produced by surface-adherent bacteria and microalgae, EPS are often present as coatings on surfaces of sediment particles and exhibit high affinities for divalent cationic metals. Thus, EPS sediment coatings may participate in the fate of potentially toxic metals. The authors coated particulate silica with EPS produced by NISC1, a bacterium isolated from estuarine sediments, in order to measure the metal binding characteristics of these coatings. They used the radioisotope {sup 109}Cd to measure effects of salinity, Cd concentration, and pH on Cd sorption to EPS-coated (EPS-silica) silica and to noncoated silica (NC-silica). Also, Cd sorption by NISC1 EPS coatings was compared to coatings of polymers formed by the bacterium, Alteromonas atlantica and the alga, Macrocystis porifera. Under all circumstances, EPS coatings increased the affinity of silica for Cd. Extracellular polymeric substance-particulate aggregates rapidly sorbed up to 90% of Cd from aqueous solution. Extracellular polymeric substance sediment coatings exhibited a maximum log distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of 6.5 at 2.5%. Sorption of Cd to NC-silica was affected by salinity and metal concentration, whereas sorption of Cd to EPS-silica was only affected by salinity under high metal concentrations. Changes in pH had a dramatic effect on Cd sorption, with the proportion of free Cd to sorbed Cd changing from approximately 90% at pH 5 to 5% at pH 9. Desorption of Cd from EPS-silica was enhanced with increasing salinity. These experiments suggest that EPS coatings actively participate in binding dissolved overlying and pore-water metals in estuarine sediments.

  20. Processing of the chemical components of estuarine sediment by the lugworm, Arenicola marina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Andrew; Bishop, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    The ability of the deposit feeder, Arenicola marina, to process components of oxic estuarine sediment has been examined by comparing the chemical composition of freshly-voided faecal casts and surficial ambient sediment. Analysis of C, H and N, and major metals (Al and Fe) and trace metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb) was undertaken on the <63 μm fraction of cast-sediment pairs in order to minimise potential effects of grain size variation among samples. In all cases, C, H and N concentrations were lower in biodeposits than in local sediment, and averaged results suggested digestion of between about 15 and 30% of these elements. Nitric acid-extractable metal concentrations in casts and corresponding sediment samples were, in general, analytically indistinguishable. However, after further data normalisation with respect to Al or Fe, casts exhibited slight metal enrichment, presumably because of the weight loss incurred by digestion of (non-metal-bearing) organic matter and the egestion of metals derived from other sources. A protein known to mimic the digestive fluids of A. marina, bovine serum albumin, released between <0.5% (Al, Fe, Mn and Pb) and 15-25% (Cu, Zn and Cd) of acid-soluble metal from both sediment and cast samples. This suggests that, although A. marina is capable of mobilising certain metals in its gut, they tend to re-combine with particles during the formation or egestion of the cast.

  1. Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Chiou, C.T.; Brinton, T.I.; Barber, L.B.; Demcheck, D.K.; Demas, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

  2. Partitioning of metals in different binding phases of tropical estuarine sediments: importance of metal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Chakraborty, Sucharita; Vudamala, Krushna; Sarkar, Arindam; Nath, B Nagender

    2016-02-01

    Distribution of metals in different binding phases of estuarine sediments provides chemically significant description of metal-sediment interactions. This study describes the influences of ligand field stabilization energy (LFSE), Jahn-Teller effect, and water exchange rate (k-w) on metal distribution in different binding phases of estuarine sediments. It was found that Cu had highest affinity for organic binding phases in the studied sediments followed by Ni and Pb. However, Pb showed strong association with Fe/Mn oxide phases followed by Ni and Cu. Faster k-w of Cu (II) (1 × 10(9) s(-1)) increased the rate of complex formation of Cu(2+) ion with ligand in the organic phases. The Cu-ligand (from organic phase) complexes gained extra stability by the Jahn-Teller effect. The combined effects of these two phenomena and high ionic potential increased the association of Cu with the organic phases of the sediments than Ni and Pb. The smaller ionic radii of Ni(2+) (0.72 Å) than Pb(2+) (1.20 Å) increase the stability of Ni-ligand complexes in the organic phase of the sediments. High LFSE of Ni(II) (compared with Pb(2+) ions) also make Ni-organic complexes increasingly stable than Pb. High k-w (7 × 10(9) s(-1)) of Pb did not help it to associate with organic phases in the sediments. The high concentration of Pb in the Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide binding phase was probably due to co-precipitation of Pb(2+) and Fe(3+). High surface area or site availability for Pb(2+) ion on Fe oxyhydroxide phase was probably responsible for the high concentration of Pb in Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide phase. Increasing concentrations of Cu in organic phases with the increasing Cu loading suggest that enough binding sites were available for Cu in the organic binding phases of the sediments. This study also describes the influence of nature of sedimentary organic carbon (terrestrial and marine derived OC) in controlling these metal distribution and speciation in marine sediment.

  3. Comparisons of 210Pb and pollen methods for determining rates of estuarine sediment accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brush, G.S.; Martin, E.A.; DeFries, R.S.; Rice, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons of sedimentation rates obtained by 210Pb and pollen analyses of 1-m cores collected throughout the Potomac Estuary show good agreement in the majority of cores that can be analyzed by both methods. Most of the discrepancy between the methods can be explained by the analytical precision of the 210Pb method and by the exactness with which time horizons can be identified and dated for the pollen method. X-radiographs of the cores and the distinctness of the pollen horizons preclude significant displacement by reworking and/or mixing of sediments. Differences between the methods are greatest where uncertainties exist in assigning a rate by one or both methods (i.e., 210Pb trends and/or "possible" horizon assignments). Both methods show the same relative rates, with greater sediment accumulation more common in the upper and middle estuary and less toward the mouth. The results indicate that geochronologic studies of estuarine sediments should be preceded by careful observation of sedimentary structures, preferably by X-radiography, to evaluate the extent of mixing of the sediments. Time horizons, whether paleontologic or isotopic, are generally blurred where mixing has occurred, precluding precise identification. Whenever possible, two methods should be used for dating sediments because a rate, albeit erroneous, can be obtained isotopically in sediments that are mixed; accurate sedimentation rates are also difficult to determine where the time boundary is a zone rather than a horizon, where the historical record does not provide a precise date for the pollen horizon, or where scouring has removed some of the sediment above a dated pollen horizon. ?? 1982.

  4. Arsenic fractionation in estuarine sediments: Does coastal eutrophication influence As behavior?

    PubMed

    Sá, Fabian; Sanders, Christian J; Patchineelam, Sambasiva Rao; Machado, Eunice da Costa; Lombardi, Ana Teresa

    2015-07-15

    The Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) includes the naturally oligotrophic (NO) Mel Island which is surrounded by sea grasses, a naturally eutrophic (NE) Benito Inlet adjacent to mangrove wetlands and the highly impacted eutrophic (IE) Paranaguá Bay, home of one of Brazil's largest ports. The results from this study indicate that reactive As and pyrite increase with sediment depth near Paranaguá port in the IE region. At the NE region, near a mangrove fringe, the reactive As, Fe, Mn and pyrite remained relatively high along the sediment column while near the sea grasses at NO the As contents were low. The degree of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) and the degree of pyritization (DOP) was highest at the IE site, slightly increasing with depth. These baseline results indicate that influence of trophic conditions and presence of marine vegetation may be directly related to As behavior in coastal systems.

  5. Recovery and validation of historical sediment quality data from coastal and estuarine areas: An integrated approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Buchholtz ten Brink, M. R.; Mecray, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive database of sediment chemistry and environmental parameters has been compiled for Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay. This work illustrates methodologies for rescuing and validating sediment data from heterogeneous historical sources. It greatly expands spatial and temporal data coverage of estuarine and coastal sediments. The database contains about 3500 samples containing inorganic chemical, organic, texture and other environmental data dating from 1955 to 1994. Cooperation with local and federal agencies as well as universities was essential in locating and screening documents for the database. More than 80% of references utilized came from sources with limited distribution (gray literature). Task sharing was facilitated by a comprehensive and clearly defined data dictionary for sediments. It also served as a data entry template and flat file format for data processing and as a basis for interpretation and graphical illustration. Standard QA/QC protocols are usually inapplicable to historical sediment data. In this work outliers and data quality problems were identified by batch screening techniques that also provide visualizations of data relationships and geochemical affinities. No data were excluded, but qualifying comments warn users of problem data. For Boston Harbor, the proportion of irreparable or seriously questioned data was remarkably small (<5%), although concentration values for metals and organic contaminants spanned 3 orders of magnitude for many elements or compounds. Data from the historical database provide alternatives to dated cores for measuring changes in surficial sediment contamination level with time. The data indicate that spatial inhomogeneity in harbor environments can be large with respect to sediment-hosted contaminants. Boston Inner Harbor surficial sediments showed decreases in concentrations of Cu, Hg, and Zn of 40 to 60% over a 17-year period.A comprehensive database of sediment chemistry and environmental

  6. Relationships between lines of evidence of pollution in estuarine areas: Linking contaminant levels with biomarker responses in mussels and with structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities.

    PubMed

    De Los Ríos, A; Echavarri-Erasun, B; Lacorte, S; Sánchez-Ávila, J; De Jonge, M; Blust, R; Orbea, A; Juanes, J A; Cajaraville, M P

    2016-10-01

    Data obtained in a pollution survey performed in estuarine areas were integrated using multivariate statistics. The sites selected for the study were areas affected by treated and untreated urban discharges, harbours or industrial activities as well as reference sites. Mussels were transplanted to each site and after different times of exposure, samples of water, sediments and mussels were collected. Biomarkers were analysed on mussels after 3 and 21 days of transplant whereas concentrations of contaminants were measured in water, sediments and mussels after 21 days of transplant. The structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities was studied in sediment samples. Studied variables were organised into 5 datasets, each one constituting a line of evidence (LOE): contaminants in water, contaminants in sediments, contaminants accumulated by transplanted mussels, biomarkers in transplanted mussels and changes in the structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities of each sampling site. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) identified the variables of each LOE best explaining variability among sites. In order to know how LOEs relate to each other, Pearson's correlations were performed. Contaminants in sediments were not correlated with the rest of LOEs. Contaminants in water were significantly correlated with contaminants and biomarkers in mussels and with structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities. Similarly, significant correlations were found between contaminants and biomarkers in mussels and between biomarkers in mussels and structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities. In conclusion, biomarker responses give relevant information on pollution in estuarine areas and provide a link between chemical and ecological statuses of water bodies in the context of the Water Framework Directive.

  7. Relationships between lines of evidence of pollution in estuarine areas: Linking contaminant levels with biomarker responses in mussels and with structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities.

    PubMed

    De Los Ríos, A; Echavarri-Erasun, B; Lacorte, S; Sánchez-Ávila, J; De Jonge, M; Blust, R; Orbea, A; Juanes, J A; Cajaraville, M P

    2016-10-01

    Data obtained in a pollution survey performed in estuarine areas were integrated using multivariate statistics. The sites selected for the study were areas affected by treated and untreated urban discharges, harbours or industrial activities as well as reference sites. Mussels were transplanted to each site and after different times of exposure, samples of water, sediments and mussels were collected. Biomarkers were analysed on mussels after 3 and 21 days of transplant whereas concentrations of contaminants were measured in water, sediments and mussels after 21 days of transplant. The structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities was studied in sediment samples. Studied variables were organised into 5 datasets, each one constituting a line of evidence (LOE): contaminants in water, contaminants in sediments, contaminants accumulated by transplanted mussels, biomarkers in transplanted mussels and changes in the structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities of each sampling site. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) identified the variables of each LOE best explaining variability among sites. In order to know how LOEs relate to each other, Pearson's correlations were performed. Contaminants in sediments were not correlated with the rest of LOEs. Contaminants in water were significantly correlated with contaminants and biomarkers in mussels and with structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities. Similarly, significant correlations were found between contaminants and biomarkers in mussels and between biomarkers in mussels and structure of macroinvertebrate benthic communities. In conclusion, biomarker responses give relevant information on pollution in estuarine areas and provide a link between chemical and ecological statuses of water bodies in the context of the Water Framework Directive. PMID:27017466

  8. Foraminiferal Distributions, Sedimentation Rates and Patterns in the Albemarle Estuarine System, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, D. J.; Corbett, D. R.; Culver, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    The modern distribution of benthic foraminifera of the Albemarle Estuarine System (AES) has been characterized by studying 50 strategically chosen sites to provide a model for paleoenvironmental interpretations of short sediment cores (15-75 cm). Water bodies studied within the AES include Albemarle Sound, Currituck Sound, Roanoke Sound, Croatan Sound, northern Pamlico Sound, North River, Pasquotank River, Alligator River, as well as Oregon Inlet and the adjacent foreshore and shoreface of the Atlantic Ocean. Sedimentation rates in the study area have been addressed using 210Pb and 137Cs dating methods. Five foraminiferal assemblages are present: an inner estuary biofacies characterized by two dominant genera, Ammobaculites and Ammotium, with moderate percentages of Miliammina fusca and minor percentages of Ammoastuta salsa; an outer estuary biofacies characterized again by Ammobaculites and Ammotium, but with lower percentages of Miliammina fusca; a marsh shoreline biofacies characterized by a mixed assemblage dominated by Ammobaculites and Ammotium with minor to moderate percentages of adjacent marsh foraminifera; a marsh biofacies characterized by varying abundances of Ammoastuta inepta, Arenoparella mexicana, Haplophragmoides wilberti, Jadammina macrescens, Miliammina earlandi, Miliammina fusca, Tiphotrocha comprimata, Trochammina inflata, as well as the genera Ammobaculites and Ammotium; and a marine (normal salinity) biofacies characterized mainly by Elphidium excavatum and minor percentages of other elphidiids. Sedimentation rates were studied from 28 short cores taken along transects in all the major water bodies. Rates were as high as 0.45 cm/yr at the head of Albemarle Sound and as little as 0.05 cm/yr 60 km away in the eastern part of the Albemarle. The embayed tributaries exhibited sedimentation rates on the order of 0.25 cm/yr. Limited information on sedimentation rates was provided by cores in eastern sounds, which had only a few centimeters of recent

  9. Assessment of tin and butyltin species in estuarine superficial sediments from Gipuzkoa, Spain.

    PubMed

    Arambarri, I; Garcia, R; Millán, E

    2003-06-01

    Ten superficial sediments from river estuaries of Gipuzkoa (North Spain) were collected and analyzed for nine metals (including tin, Sn) and butyltin compounds (monobutyltin, MBT; dibutyltin, DBT; tributyltin, TBT). Total metal concentration in the fine fraction (<63 micrometer) of the sediment was determined in aqua regia--hydrofluoric acid extracts by atomic absorption spectrometry. The butyltin species (BTs) were firstly extracted from the sediments with hydrochloric acid-methanol mixture. After derivatization with sodium tetraethyl borate, the organotin compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode. A fiber coated with 100 micrometer poly(dimethylsiloxane) was used for SPME. The organotin species were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Analysis of the certified reference sediment (PACS-2) shown the suitability of the procedures for determination of metal contents and DBT-TBT species in contaminated sediments. Factorial analysis was used to examine the main sources of metals. Three factors represented more than 89% of the total variance of the metal system, and the Sn was related with Cu-Zn-Pb suggesting the same pollution source. The BTs concentrations in the area were high (TBT ranged from 0.05 to 5.48 mg Sn kg(-1)). The percentage of total butyltin species ( summation operator BTs) respect to the total Sn amount was higher than 4% in all the sediments, showing in the Bidasoa river estuary a remarkable value higher than 20%. Hence, the studied estuarine sediments reflect a pollution that is related with historical industrial and fishing activities of the area. PMID:12668022

  10. On the Stability and Significance of Microflocs in Estuarine Sediment Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T. J.; Markussen, T. N.; Merino, M.

    2015-12-01

    Fine-grained suspended sediment in estuarine, coastal and deep-water environments is almost always aggregated and often a distinction is made between smaller and relatively stable microflocs and larger and more fragile macro-flocs. The grain size distribution (GSD) of microflocs tend to be independent on the local hydrodynamic forcing whereas macroflocs typically show strong dependence. Resuspension of the deposited material is an important process in coastal and estuarine settings and the material may be eroded as individual particles or as aggregates of particles. The relative occurrence of these two types of particles in the erosion of undisturbed, natural sediments has only rarely been studied. In order to examine the contribution of aggregates and single particles to the resuspended material, erosion and settling experiments have been carried out and the GSD of the resuspended particles have been measured. The studies have been carried out in both temperate and tropical estuaries and on inter-tidal and sub-tidal sediments and the results compared to what was found in suspension in those settings. The erosion experiments were carried out with an EROMES erosion chamber and grain size analysis performed with a laboratory set-up of a LISST 100C. The mean grain size of the eroded particles were up to about an order of magnitude larger than the mean grain size of the primary (individual) particles and the GSD of the resuspended material generally showed no dependence on the applied bed stress in the studied range from 0 to 0.5 N m-2. The GSD of the eroded aggregates were generally also very similar to the GSD of the material found in suspension at the sites. Our interpretation is that the GSD of the microflocs in suspension is to a large degree controlled by the aggregation taking place at the bed. This aggregation appears to be dominated by biological processes with fecal pellets being a very prominent component in some environments.

  11. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary T; Selck, Henriette; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the toxicities of sediment-associated silver added to sediment as commercially available silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 20 and 80 nm) and aqueous Ag (AgNO3) to the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor, were investigated for both individual and subcellular endpoints after 10 d of exposure. Both Ag NP types were characterized in parallel to the toxicity studies and found to be polydispersed and overlapping in size. Burrowing activity decreased (marginally) with increasing Ag concentration and depended on the form of Ag added to sediment. All worms accumulated Ag regardless of the form in which it was added to the sediment, and worm size (expressed as dry weight) was found to significantly affect bioaccumulation such that smaller worms accumulated more Ag per body weight than larger worms. Lysosomal membrane permeability (neutral red retention time, NRRT) and DNA damage (comet assay tail moment and tail DNA intensity %) of Nereis coelomocytes increased in a concentration-dependent manner in all three Ag treatments. Ag NP treatments were more toxic than aqueous Ag for all toxicity endpoints, even though bioaccumulation did not differ significantly among Ag forms. No significant difference in toxicity was observed between the two Ag NP treatments which was attributed to their overlap in particle size.

  12. Occurrence of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and their application as a tracer for sewage derived pollution in urban estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Liu, Jingqin; Chen, Li; Lin, Shanshan

    2014-02-01

    Particle reactive organic contaminants in estuarine sediments can lead to various environmental problems affecting ecosystem and public health. In this study, the occurrence and homologous distribution pattern of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in the surficial sediments collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China were examined along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). The composition pattern of the QACs was found to be uniform in most of the sediments analyzed throughout the PRE, and the average composition pattern was identical to that determined in the sewage sludge from Guangzhou, the biggest city in the PRE. Dialkyldimethylammonium compounds, the most abundant type of QACs, positively correlated to the total concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in most of the sediments with similar composition patterns. Therefore, the QACs are proposed as potential tracers to evaluate the transport of sewage-derived pollution in estuarine environments.

  13. Trophic structure of macrobenthic communities on the Portuguese coast. A review of lagoonal, estuarine and rocky littoral habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaventura, Diana; Cancela da Fonseca, Luís; Teles-Ferreira, Carla

    1999-07-01

    This work is based on a compilation and treatment of data obtained on several studies regarding the macrobenthos trophic structure, carried out in different habitats of the Portuguese coast: a lagoon, rocky subtidal shores and estuarine eelgrass beds. Macrobenthic organisms were assigned to four distinct trophic groups (filter feeders, detritivores, herbivores and carnivores). Detritivores were the dominant trophic group in soft-bottom communities. Filter feeders dominated in subtidal rocky shores while eelgrass communities were equally represented by detritivores and herbivores. Current intensity and sediment deposition are discussed as factors affecting the observed distribution. Nevertheless, different sampling methods used in these studies and the lack of information on feeding habits of some species can also influence the results obtained.

  14. Microbial communities within saltmarsh sediments: Composition, abundance and pollution constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Ana; Magalhães, Catarina; Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2012-03-01

    The influence of the saltmarsh plant Halimione portucaloides and the level of sediment metal contamination on the distribution of microbial communities were investigated in two Portuguese estuarine systems with different degrees of metal contamination: the Cavado (41.5 N; 8.7 W) and Sado estuaries. In the Sado, two saltmarshes were studied: Lisnave (38.4 N; 8.7 W) and Comporta (38.4 N; 8.8 W). A PCR rDNA-DGGE approach and direct microscopic counts of DAPI-stained cells were applied to study the biodiversity and abundance of prokaryotic communities. Sediment characteristics and metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) were also evaluated to identify possible environmental pollution constraints on spatial and temporal microbial dynamics. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the Lisnave saltmarsh microbial community was usually associated with a higher degree of metal contamination, especially the metal Pb. In clear contrast, the Cavado estuary microbial assemblage composition was associated with low metal concentrations but higher organic matter content. The Comporta saltmarsh bacterial community clustered in a separate branch, and was associated with higher levels of different metals, such as Ni, Cr and Zn. Additionally, the microbial community structure of the Lisnave and Cavado showed a seasonal pattern. Moreover, microbial abundance correlated negatively with metal concentrations, being higher at the Cavado estuarine site and with general higher counts in the rhizosediment. These findings suggest that increased metal concentrations negatively affect the abundance of prokaryotic cells and that saltmarsh plants may have a pivotal role in shaping the microbial community structure.

  15. Fate of triclosan and evidence for reductive dechlorination of triclocarban in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Miller, Todd R; Heidler, Jochen; Chillrud, Steven N; DeLaquil, Amelia; Ritchie, Jerry C; Mihalic, Jana N; Bopp, Richard; Halden, Rolf U

    2008-06-15

    The biocides triclosan and triclocarban are wastewater contaminants whose occurrence and fate in estuarine sediments remain unexplored. We examined contaminant profiles in 137Cs/7Be-dated sediment cores taken near wastewater treatment plants in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CB), Maryland and Jamaica Bay(JB), New York. In JB, biocide occurrences tracked the time course of biocide usage and wastewater treatment strategies employed, first appearing in the 1950s (triclocarban) and 1960s (triclosan), and peaking in the late 1960s and 1970s (24 +/- 0.54 and 0.8 +/- 0.4 mg/kg dry weight, respectively). In CB, where the time of sediment accumulation was not as well constrained by 137Cs depth profiles, triclocarban was only measurable in 137Cs-bearing sediments, peaking at 3.6 +/- 0.6 mg/ kg midway through the core and exceeding 1 mg/kg in recent deposits. In contrast, triclosan concentrations were low or not detectable in the CB core. Analysis of CB sediment by tandem mass spectrometry produced the first evidence for complete sequential dechlorination of triclocarban to the transformation products dichloro-, monochloro-, and unsubstituted carbanilide, which were detected at maxima of 15.5 +/- 1.8, 4.1 +/- 2.4, and 0.5 +/- 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of all carbanilide congeners combined were correlated with heavy metals (R2 > 0.64, P < 0.01), thereby identifying wastewater as the principal pathway of contamination. Environmental persistence over the past 40 years was observed for triclosan and triclocarban in JB, and for triclocarban's diphenylurea backbone in CB sediments. PMID:18605588

  16. Fate of Triclosan and Evidence for Reductive Dechlorination of Triclocarban in Estuarine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Todd R.; Heidler, Jochen; Chillrud, Steven N.; DeLaquil, Amelia; Ritchie, Jerry C.; Mihalic, Jana N.; Bopp, Richard; Halden, Rolf U.

    2008-01-01

    The biocides triclosan and triclocarban are wastewater contaminants whose occurrence and fate in estuarine sediments remain unexplored. We examined contaminant profiles in 137Cs/7Be-dated sediment cores taken near wastewater treatment plants in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CB), Maryland and Jamaica Bay (JB), New York. In JB, biocide occurrences tracked the time course of biocide usage and wastewater treatment strategies employed, first appearing in the 1950s (triclocarban) and 1960s (triclosan), and peaking in the late 1960s and 1970s (24 ± 0.54 and 0.8 ± 0.4 29 mg/kg dry weight, respectively). In CB, where time of sediment accumulation was not as well constrained by 137Cs depth profiles, triclocarban was only measurable in 137Cs bearing sediments, peaking at 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/kg midway through the core and exceeding 1 mg/kg in recent deposits. In contrast, triclosan concentrations were low or not detectable in the CB core. Analysis of CB sediment by tandem mass spectrometry produced the first evidence for complete sequential dechlorination of triclocarban to the transformation products dichloro-, monochloro-, and unsubstituted carbanilide which were detected at maxima of 15.5 ± 1.8, 4.1 ± 2.4, and 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of all carbanilide congeners combined were correlated with heavy metals (R2 > 0.64, P<0.01), thereby identifying wastewater as the principal pathway of contamination. Environmental persistence over the past 40 years was observed for triclosan and triclocarban in JB, and for triclocarban and its diphenylurea backbone in CB sediments. PMID:18605588

  17. Metal partitioning and availability in estuarine surface sediments: Changes promoted by feeding activity of Scrobicularia plana and Liza ramada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Duarte, Bernardo; Reis, Givaldo; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Costa, José Lino; Caçador, Isabel; Almeida, Pedro Raposo de

    2015-12-01

    Several works have evidenced in the past the importance and influence of plants and terrestrial invertebrates in metal availability in soils and sediments through changes in metal speciation. In contrast, the impact of estuarine invertebrates and fishes in this process has been poorly explored. The partition of metals in estuarine surface sediments was studied in a controlled environment according to four operationally defined fractions. Sediments were analyzed before and after the passage through the gut of two detritivorous species. Scrobicularia plana feeds on the bottom and suspended sediment particles through the inhalant siphon. Liza ramada is an interface feeder, filtering the superficial layer of the sediment and suspended particles in the water column. Cd, Cu and Ni bound to carbonates increased in the pellets of S. plana, compared with the ingested sediment, as did exchangeable Zn. Similarly, Cd and Zn bound to carbonates have also increased in the pellets of L. ramada; on the contrary, a decrease of Ni was observable in the pellets of this fish. The outcome of the controlled experiments pointed to a potential increase in some metals' availability in the estuarine environment, as a result of the more mobile metal forms in the excreted fecal pellets. This draws the attention to a relevant impact of the trophic activity of both species, alongside with the potential enhancement brought to it by the bioturbation promoted by them, in the role that the estuary itself has as a contaminants' buffer.

  18. Fish community-based measures of estuarine ecological quality and pressure-impact relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Vanessa F.; Vasconcelos, Rita P.; Gamito, Rita; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Gonçalves, Catarina I.; Costa, José L.; Costa, Maria J.; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2013-12-01

    Community-based responses of fish fauna to anthropogenic pressures have been extensively used to assess the ecological quality of estuarine ecosystems. Several methodologies have been developed recently combining metrics reflecting community structure and function. A fish community facing significant environmental disturbances will be characterized by a simplified structure, with lower diversity and complexity. However, estuaries are naturally dynamic ecosystems exposed to numerous human pressures, making it difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic-induced changes to the biological community. In the present work, the variability of several fish metrics was assessed in relation to different pressures in estuarine sites. The response of a multimetric index (Estuarine Fish Assessment Index) was also analysed. Overall, fish metrics and the multimetric index signalled anthropogenic stress, particularly environmental chemical pollution. The fish assemblage associated with this type of pressure was characterized by lower species diversity, lower number of functional guilds, lower abundance of marine migrants and of piscivorous individuals, and higher abundance of estuarine resident species. A decreased ecological quality status, based on the EFAI, was also determined for sites associated with this pressure group. Ultimately, the definition of each pressure groups favoured a stressor-specific analysis, evidencing pressure patterns and accounting for multiple factors in a highly dynamic environment.

  19. Shifts in the metabolic function of a benthic estuarine microbial community following a single pulse exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Echavarri-Bravo, Virginia; Paterson, Lynn; Aspray, Thomas J; Porter, Joanne S; Winson, Michael K; Thornton, Barry; Hartl, Mark G J

    2015-06-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a biocidal agent and their potential accumulation in sediments may threaten non-target natural environmental bacterial communities. In this study a microcosm approach was established to investigate the effects of well characterized OECD AgNPs (NM-300) on the function of the bacterial community inhabiting marine estuarine sediments (salinity 31‰). The results showed that a single pulse of NM-300 AgNPs (1 mg L(-1)) that led to sediment concentrations below 6 mg Ag kg(-1) dry weight inhibited the bacterial utilization of environmentally relevant carbon substrates. As a result, the functional diversity changed, but recovered after 120 h under the experimental conditions. This microcosm study suggests that AgNPs under environmentally relevant experimental conditions can negatively affect bacterial function and provides an insight into the understanding of the bacterial community response and resilience to AgNPs exposure, important for informing relevant regulatory measures. PMID:25779207

  20. Control of soil acidification by fluvial sedimentation in an estuarine floodplain, eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Melville, M. D.

    1993-05-01

    A shallow stratigraphic sequence with associated pyrite-induced soil acidification was investigated along a transect from the levee to the backswamp in an estuarine floodplain of eastern Australia. Three sedimentary layers were identified and interpreted to correspond with three depositional stages. Firstly, a layer of humic, pyrite-rich, silty mud was deposited under a saline, mangrove-inhabited, intertidal environment during the present high sea level episode. This pyritic layer is buried by the second sedimentary layer of grey brown mud with limited pyrite content, that was deposited in a brackish lagoonal environment. This material now represents much of the contemporary backswamp surface. The third sedimentary layer is a sandy mud without pyrite, that has been deposited by freshwater overbank floods. It is concluded that fluvial sedimentation has been increasingly important in the development of the stratigraphic sequence, controlling the pyrite content, thickness and occurrence depth of the pyritic layer. The present drainage conditions have allowed oxidation of pyrite in the soils of the backswamp and the resulting acidification has caused elevated concentrations of toxic aluminium that threaten the local environment. However, in the levee, the pyritic layer is covered by thick non-pyritic freshwater sediments and low-pyritic lagoonal sediments, and the soil profiles are unlikely to contribute to any acidification hazard.

  1. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in estuarine sediments of Charleston, SC.

    PubMed

    White, Natasha D; Balthis, Len; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; De Silva, Amila O; Wu, Qian; French, Katherine M; Daugomah, James; Spencer, Christine; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-07-15

    Urban areas are sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment, although little is known about specific point sources and distribution of PFASs. Sentinel species, like bottlenose dolphins, are important indicators of environmental perturbations. The high PFAS levels found in dolphins inhabiting Charleston, South Carolina prompted investigation of these chemicals in this area. This study provides further evidence on the extent of contamination and potential sources of PFASs. In this study, concentrations of 11 PFASs measured in estuarine sediments collected in 2012 from the Charleston Harbor and the Ashley and Cooper Rivers (n=36) in South Carolina revealed higher levels than those reported in any other U.S. urban areas. Detectable levels were found in all sample locations with mean total PFAS concentrations of 3.79ngg(-1) (range 0.22 to 19.2ngg(-1) d.w.). Dominant compounds were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (mean 1.52ngg(-1); range 0.09-7.37ngg(-1) d.w.), followed by perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) (mean 0.83ngg(-1); range 0.06-4.76ngg(-1) d.w.) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (mean 0.42ngg(-1); range 0.02-2.52ngg(-1) d.w.). PFOS levels in sediments at 19 of 36 sites (representing 52% of the study area) exceeded the published global median PFOS sediment concentration of 0.54ngg(-1).

  2. Restoring sediment to compensate for human-induced erosion of an estuarine shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.; Farrell, Eugene J.; Rafferty, Patricia; Tengwall, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Shoreline erosion is often exacerbated by reduction of sediment inputs because of interference with sediment transport by human structures. We evaluate use of sediment dredged from a navigation channel to establish a feeder beach adjacent to a bulkhead as a solution for addressing erosion of landforms and habitats on sandy estuarine shores. The objectives are to determine how beach volume, position and shape within and downdrift of the fill area change and whether the volumes supplied by dredging match sediment losses caused by human actions. The fill was placed along a 75 m length of shoreline adjacent to a marina in Great South Bay at Fire Island, New York, USA. Changes in beach shape and volume were determined from topographic surveys conducted before and after fill and at half year intervals for 18 months. The quantity of fill was 1747 m3. Maximum shoreline advance due to fill emplacement was 20.7 m. The maximum volume placed at any transect was 28.6 m3 m- 1 of shoreline length. Erosion of the fill occurred rapidly, with landward migration of a conspicuous scarp. The edge of the upland 18 months after the fill was placed was up to 4.6 m farther landward than prior to the fill. Movement of sediment alongshore downdrift of the fill occurred as wave-like pulses, extending the active foreshore bayward, causing accretion of the inner low tide terrace, burying saltmarsh peat outcrops on the foreshore and creating a higher and wider overwash platform over portions of the saltmarshes. Landforms downdrift of the fill area underwent successive stages including erosion (pre-nourishment), accretion, stability (with throughput of sediment) and then erosion. Beach nourishment compensates for human-induced sediment losses. The volume of sediment added from maintenance dredging can slow the rate of erosion but may not prevent long-term shoreline retreat. Restoration and maintenance of coastal landforms and habitats to specific target states at a given location is difficult

  3. Effect of Salinity on Mercury-Methylating Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Estuarine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Compeau, Geoffrey C.; Bartha, Richard

    1987-01-01

    The biomethylation of mercury was measured in anoxic estuarine sediments that ranged in salinity from 0.03 to 2.4% with or without added molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reducers. Mercury methylation was inhibited by molybdate by more than 95%, regardless of sediment salinity. In the absence of inhibitor, high-salinity sediments methylated mercury at only 40% of the level observed in low-salinity sediments. In response to molybdate inhibition of sulfate reducers, methanogenesis increased up to 258% in high-salinity sediments but only up to 25% in low-salinity sediments. In contrast to an earlier low-salinity isolate, a Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain from high-salinity sediment required 0.5 M sodium for optimal growth and mercury methylation activity. The formation of negatively charged mercuric chloride complexes at high salinity did not noticeably interfere with the methylation process. Results of these studies demonstrate that sulfate reducers are responsible for mercury methylation in anoxic estuarine sediments, regardless of the prevailing salinity. PMID:16347274

  4. Effects of Bottom-up and Top-down Controls and Climate Change on Estuarine Macrophyte Communities and the Ecosystem Services they Provide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrophytes provide important estuarine benthic habitats and support a significant portion of estuarine productivity. The composition and characteristics of these benthic communities are regulated bottom-up by resource availability and from the top-down by herbivory and predation...

  5. Prokaryotic Community in Lacustrine Sediments of Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Gugliandolo, Concetta; Michaud, Luigi; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Lentini, Valeria; Rochera, Carlos; Camacho, Antonio; Maugeri, Teresa Luciana

    2016-02-01

    . Ilumatobacter (Actinobacteria), Gp16 (Acidobacteria), and Gemmatimonas (Gemmatimonadetes) were recovered as dominant genera in both inland and coastal lakes, but not in the estuarine sample, indicating that they may be useful markers of Antarctic lakes. The proximity to the sea, the different lake depths and the external or internal origin of the nutrient sources shape the bacterial communities composition in lacustrine sediments of Byers Peninsula.

  6. The utility of acid volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals concentrations as an indicator of metal bioavailability and toxicity in estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, K.; Windom, H.; Weisberg, S.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, surficial sediment samples (upper 2 cm) were collected from over 1,000 estuarine sites along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastlines from 1990--1994. In addition, sediment samples from approximately 30 sites within the New York/New Jersey Harbor complex were collected in 1993. Acid volatile sulfide concentrations (AVS), simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), sediment toxicity bioassays, and benthic community compositions were determined for each of these sites. The present effort examined the hypotheses that: (1) the ratio of AVS to SEM is an indicator of metal availability and sediment toxicity and (2) that correction of other sources of mortality (organic contamination, narcosis, hypoxia, etc.) further strengthens this ratio relationship. Examination of highly metal contaminated sites in the New York/New Jersey harbor area, selected metal contaminated regions in the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf estuaries, as well as reference regions (uncontaminated zones) did not support these hypotheses. In fact, significant/or benthic community composition shifts that could not be attributed to other sources were observed in regions characterized by the alternate hypothesis. Normalized metal concentrations based on available aluminum appeared to be more closely related indicator of observed toxicity of benthic community attributes than AVS ratios.

  7. Tidal sedimentation from a fluvial to estuarine transition, Douglas Group, Missourian -- Virgilian, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Lanier, W.P. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Feldman, H.R. . Kansas Geological Survey); Archer, A.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-09-01

    The Tonganoxie Sandstone Member of the Stranger Formation (Douglas Group, Upper Pennsylvanian, Kansas) was deposited in a funnel-shaped, northeast-southwest-trending paleovalley that was incised during the uppermost Missourian sealevel lowstand and backfilled during the subsequent transgression. Quarry exposures of the Tonganoxie near Ottawa, Kansas, include [approximately] 5 m of sheetlike, vertically accreted siltstones and sandy siltstones, bounded above and below by thin coals with upright plant fossils and paleosols. Strata range from submillimeter-thick, normally graded rhythmites to graded bedsets up to 12.5 cm thick with a vertical sedimentary structure sequence (VSS) consisting of the following intervals: (A) a basal massive to normally graded interval; (B) a parallel-laminated interval; (C) a ripple-cross-laminated interval; and (D) an interval of draped lamination. The Tonganoxie succession has many similarities to fluvial overbank/floodplain deposits: sheetlike geometry, upright plant fossils, lack of bioturbation and body fossils, dominance of silt, and a punctuated style of rapid sedimentation from suspension-laden waning currents. Analysis of stratum-thickness variations through the succession suggests that tides significantly influenced sediment deposition. A fluvial-to-estuarine transitional depositional setting is interpreted for the Tonganoxie by analogy with modern depositional settings that show similar physical and biogenic sedimentary structures, vertical sequences of sedimentary structures, and aggradation rates.

  8. Recent advances in the use of estuarine meiobenthos to assess contaminated sediment effects in multi-species whole sediment microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, G.T.; Coull, B.C.; Schizas, N.V.; Donelan, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Many marine meiobenthic taxa (i.e. invertebrates passing a 1-mm sieve but retaining on a 0.063 mm sieve) are ideal for ``whole-sediment`` and porewater bioassay of sedimented pollutants. Annual production of meiobenthos is 5--10 times that of the more commonly studied macrobenthos, and > 95% of all meiobenthos live in the oxic zone of muddy sediments at densities of 4--12 million per M{sup 2}. Most spend their entire lifecycles, burrowing freely and feeding on/within the sediment:porewater matrix, many taxa undergo 10--14 generations per year, most larval/juvenile stages are benthic, and many have easily quantifiable reproductive output. Furthermore, many meiobenthic taxa can be cultured indefinitely over multiple life-cycles within simple sediment microcosms consisting of sealed whole-sediment cores collected intact from intertidal mudflats. The authors describe several recent technical developments exploiting meiofaunal sediment culture for rapid contaminated sediment bioassays of toxicant effects on survival, reproduction and population growth of meiobenthic taxa in whole-sediment microcosms. Currently meiobenthic copepods, nematodes, foraminifers and polychaetes are being continuously cultured to study these parameters under exposure to model sediment-associated toxicants (e.g. cadmium). Bioassays are run for 21-d under flowing seawater. With this approach, fertile benthic copepods (e.g. Amphiascus tenuiremis) can be added to core microcosms to assess survival and growth of a fixed population cohort. All other meiobenthic taxa are enumerated relative to controls and evaluated for toxicant effects on higher order community-level endpoints. This approach exploits meiobenthos` high abundance and rapid reproductive rates to yield on a micro scale better endpoints than much larger sediment mesocosms targeted at macrofaunal endpoints.

  9. Primary effects of extracellular enzyme activity and microbial community on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in estuarine and tidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Li, Ye; Li, Shuwen

    2015-03-01

    Estuarine and tidal wetlands with high primary productivity and biological activity play a crucial role in coastal nutrient dynamics. Here, to better reveal the effects of extracellular enzymes and microbial community on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization, the incubation experiments with different C and N addition patterns to the tidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary (China) were conducted. The results suggested a significant increase in cumulative CO2 effluxes in the C and CN treatment experiments, while no significant difference in cumulative CO2 effluxes between the N treatment and control (CK) experiments was observed. In addition, the nutrient addition patterns had a great influence on dissolve organic C and N levels, but a small effect on microbial biomass C and N. Microbial community composition and microbial activity were found to be positively correlated with organic C (OC) and the molar ratio of C to N (C/N). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for C/N, supported direct effects of OC on the activity of carbon-cycling extracellular enzymes (cellulase and polyphenol oxidase), while C/N exhibited negatively correlations with urease and Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacteria (G+/G-). Strong relationships were found between CO2 efflux and mineral nitrogen with the activity of specific enzymes (sucrase, cellulase, and polyphenol oxidase) and abundances of Gram-negative bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fungi, suggesting the significant influences of microbial community and enzyme activity on C and N mineralization in the estuarine and tidal wetlands. Furthermore, this study could highlight the need to explore effects of nutrient supply on microbial communities and enzyme activity changes associated with the C and N mineralization in these wetlands induced by the climate change. PMID:25381491

  10. Reactive iron and manganese in estuarine sediments of the Baltic Sea: Impacts of flocculation and redox shuttling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilbert, Tom; Tiihonen, Rosa; Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Asmala, Eero; Hietanen, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) play important roles in sedimentary carbon cycling in both freshwater and marine systems. Dissimilatory reduction of Fe and Mn oxides is known to be a major pathway of suboxic organic matter remineralization in surface sediments, while recent studies have shown that Fe and Mn oxides may be involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane deeper in the sediment column (e.g., Egger et al., 2015). Estuaries are transitional environments, characterized by gradients of salinity and redox conditions which impact on the mobility of Fe and Mn. In turn, the distribution of Fe and Mn in estuarine sediments, and the role of the two metals in carbon cycling, is expected to be spatially heterogeneous. However, few studies have attempted to describe the sedimentary distribution of Fe and Mn in the context of processes occurring in the estuarine water column. In particular, salinity-driven flocculation and redox shuttling are two key processes whose relative impacts on sedimentary Fe and Mn have not been clearly demonstrated. In this study we investigated the coupled water column and sedimentary cycling of Fe and Mn along a 60km non-tidal estuarine transect in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. We show that riverine Fe entering the estuary as colloidal oxides associated with dissolved organic matter (DOM) is quickly flocculated and sedimented within 5 km of the river mouth, despite the shallow lateral salinity gradient. Sediments within this range are enriched in Fe (up to twice the regional average), principally in the form of crystalline Fe oxides as determined by sequential extractions. The high crystallinity implies relative maturity of the oxide mineralogy, likely due to sustained oxic conditions and long residence time in the river catchment. Despite the reducing conditions below the sediment-water interface, Fe is largely retained in the sediments close to the river mouth. In contrast, sedimentary Mn concentrations are highest in a deep silled

  11. Seagrass sediments reveal the long-term deterioration of an estuarine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul; Masque, Pere; Inostroza, Karina; Bongiovanni, James; Duarte, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The study of a Posidonia australis sediment archive has provided a record of ecosystem dynamics and processes over the last 600 years in Oyster Harbour (SW Australia). Ecosystem shifts are a widespread phenomenon in coastal areas, and this study identifies baseline conditions and the time-course of ecological change (cycles, trends, resilience and thresholds of ecosystem change) under environmental stress in seagrass-dominated ecosystem. The shifts in the concentrations of chemical elements, carbonates, sediments <0.125 mm and stable carbon isotope signatures (δ(13) C) of the organic matter were detected between 1850s and 1920s, whereas the shift detected in P concentration occurred several decades later (1960s). The first degradation phase (1850s-1950s) follows the onset of European settlement in Australia and was characterized by a strong increase in sediment accumulation rates and fine-grained particles, driven primarily by enhanced run-off due to land clearance and agriculture in the catchment. About 80% of total seagrass area at Oyster Harbour was lost during the second phase of environmental degradation (1960s until present). The sharp increase in P concentration and the increasing contribution of algae and terrestrial inputs into the sedimentary organic matter pool around 1960s provides compelling evidence of the documented eutrophication of the estuary and the subsequent loss of seagrass meadows. The results presented demonstrate the power of seagrass sedimentary archives to reconstruct the trajectories of anthropogenic pressures on estuarine ecosystem and the associated regime shifts, which can be used to improve the capacity of scientists and environmental managers to understand, predict and better manage ecological change in these ecosystems. PMID:26818637

  12. Seagrass sediments reveal the long-term deterioration of an estuarine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul; Masque, Pere; Inostroza, Karina; Bongiovanni, James; Duarte, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The study of a Posidonia australis sediment archive has provided a record of ecosystem dynamics and processes over the last 600 years in Oyster Harbour (SW Australia). Ecosystem shifts are a widespread phenomenon in coastal areas, and this study identifies baseline conditions and the time-course of ecological change (cycles, trends, resilience and thresholds of ecosystem change) under environmental stress in seagrass-dominated ecosystem. The shifts in the concentrations of chemical elements, carbonates, sediments <0.125 mm and stable carbon isotope signatures (δ(13) C) of the organic matter were detected between 1850s and 1920s, whereas the shift detected in P concentration occurred several decades later (1960s). The first degradation phase (1850s-1950s) follows the onset of European settlement in Australia and was characterized by a strong increase in sediment accumulation rates and fine-grained particles, driven primarily by enhanced run-off due to land clearance and agriculture in the catchment. About 80% of total seagrass area at Oyster Harbour was lost during the second phase of environmental degradation (1960s until present). The sharp increase in P concentration and the increasing contribution of algae and terrestrial inputs into the sedimentary organic matter pool around 1960s provides compelling evidence of the documented eutrophication of the estuary and the subsequent loss of seagrass meadows. The results presented demonstrate the power of seagrass sedimentary archives to reconstruct the trajectories of anthropogenic pressures on estuarine ecosystem and the associated regime shifts, which can be used to improve the capacity of scientists and environmental managers to understand, predict and better manage ecological change in these ecosystems.

  13. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Central San Francisco Bay is the deepest subembayment in the San Francisco Bay estuary and hence has the largest water volume of any of the subembayments. It also has the strongest tidal currents and the coarsest sediment within the estuary. Tidal currents are strongest over the west-central part of central bay and, correspondingly, this area is dominated by sand-size sediment. Much of the area east of a line from Angel Island to Alcatraz Island is characterized by muddy sand to sandy mud, and the area to the west of this line is sandy. The sand-size sediment over west-central bay furthermore is molded by the energetic tidal currents into bedforms of varying sizes and wavelengths. Bedforms typically occur in water depths of 15-25 m. High resolution bathymetry (multibeam) from 1997 and 2008 allow for subdivision of the west-central bayfloor into four basic types based on morphologic expression: featureless, sand waves, disrupted/man-altered, and bedrock knobs. Featureless and sand-wave morphologies dominate the bayfloor of west-central bay. Disrupted bayfloor has a direct association with areas that are undergoing alteration due to human activities, such as sand-mining lease areas, dredging, and disposal of dredge spoils. Change detection analysis, comparing the 1997 and 2008 multibeam data sets, shows that significant change has occurred in west-central bay during the roughly 10 years between surveys. The surveyed area lost about 5.45 million m3 of sediment during the decade. Sand-mining lease areas within west-central bay lost 6.77 million m3 as the bayfloor deepened. Nonlease areas gained 1.32 million m3 of sediment as the bayfloor shallowed slightly outside of sand-mining lease areas. Furthermore, bedform asymmetry did not change significantly, but some bedforms did migrate some tens of meters. Gravity cores show that the area east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands is floored by clayey silts or silty sand whereas the area to the west of the islands is floored

  14. Trace element reactivity in FeS-rich estuarine sediments: influence of formation environment and acid sulfate soil drainage.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bree; Rate, Andrew W; Burton, Edward D

    2012-11-01

    Iron monosulfides (FeS) precipitate during benthic mineralisation of organic C and are well known to have a strong influence on trace element bioavailability in sediments. In this study we investigate the reactivity of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn) in sediments containing abundant and persistent FeS stores, collected from a south-western Australian estuarine system. Our objective was to explore the influence of sediment formation conditions on trace element reactivity by investigating sediments collected from different environments, including estuarine, riverine and acid sulfate soil influenced sites, within a single estuarine system. In general, we found a higher degree of reactivity (defined by 1 mol/L HCl extractions) for Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn, compared with a lower reactivity of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo and Ni. Moderate to strong correlations (R(2)>0.4, P<0.05) were observed between AVS and reactive Cd, Co, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn within many of the formation environments. In contrast, correlations between AVS and As, Cr and Cu were generally poor (not significant, R(2)<0.4, P>0.05). Based on their reactivity and correlations with AVS, it appears that interactions (sorption, co-precipitation) between FeS and Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in many of the sediments from this study are probable. Our data also demonstrate that drainage from acid sulfate soils (ASS) can be a source of trace elements at specific sites. A principal components analysis of our reactive (1 mol/L HCl extractable) trace element data clearly distinguished sites receiving ASS drainage from the other non-impacted sites, by a high contribution from Fe-Co-Mn-Ni along the first principal axis, and contributions from higher S-As/lower reactive Pb along the second axis. This demonstrates that trace element reactivity in sediments may provide a geochemical signature for sites receiving ASS drainage.

  15. Optimization of sample pretreatment for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments by gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Xianguo; Peng, Xuewei; Tang, Xuli; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2012-06-01

    This study examined levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in estuarine sediments in Licun (Qingdao, China) by gas chromatography under optimized conditions for sample pretreatment via ultrasonic extraction, column chromatography, and thin layer chromatography. Methanol and dichloromethane (DCM)/methanol (2:1, v/v) were used in ultrasonic extraction, and DCM was used as eluate for column chromatography. The developing system consisted of n-hexane and DCM at a ratio of 9:1 (v/v), with DCM as the extraction solvent for PAHs-containing silica gel scraped off the plate. When the spiking level is 100 ng, total recoveries of spiked matrices for four target PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene and chrysene) were 83.7%, 76.4%, 85.8%, and 88.7%, respectively, with relative standard deviation (RSD) between 5.0% and 6.5% ( n = 4). When the spiking level is 1000 ng, associated total recoveries were 78.6%, 72.7%, 82.7% and 85.3%, respectively, with RSD between 4.4% and 5.3% ( n = 4). The optimized method was advantageous for determination of PAHs in complex matrix due to its effective sample purification.

  16. Radioactive impact in sediments from an estuarine system affected by industrial wastes releases.

    PubMed

    Bolívar, Juan Pedro; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Mas, José Luis; Vaca, Federico

    2002-03-01

    A big fertilizer industrial complex and a vast extension of phosphogypsum piles (12 km2), sited in the estuary formed by the Odiel and Tinto river mouths (southwest of Spain), are producing an unambiguous radioactive impact in their surrounding aquatic environment through radionuclides from the U-series. The levels and distribution of radionuclides in sediments from this estuarine system have been determined. The analyses of radionuclide concentrations and activity ratios have provided us with an interesting information to evaluate the extension, degree and routes of the radioactive impact, as well as for the knowledge of the different pathways followed for the radioactive contamination to disturb this natural system. The obtained results indicate that the main pathway of radioactive contamination of the estuary is through the dissolution in its waters of the radionuclides released by the industrial activities and their later fixation on the particulate materials. Tidal activity also plays an important role in the transport and homogenization along the estuary of the radioactivity released from the fertilizer plants.

  17. Influence of pH, salinity, and organic matter on the adsorption of enteric viruses to estuarine sediment.

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, R L; Gerba, C P

    1979-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the degree of adsorption of enteric viruses to marine sediment and factors controlling this association. Adsorption and elution characteristics of several enteroviruses and one rotavirus to estuarine sediments were studied under varying conditions of pH, salinity, and presence of soluble organics. Greater than 99% of the added poliovirus type 1 (LSc), coxsackievirus type B3 (Nancy), echovirus type 7 (Wallace), and rotavirus (SA-11) adsorbed to sediment. Echovirus 1 (Farouk) and a recent isolate typed as coxsackievirus B4 adsorbed significantly less than poliovirus 1 under similar conditions of varying salinity and pH. The presence of soluble organic matter, in the form of secondary sewage effluent or humic acid, did not affect these patterns of adsorption. Only echovirus 1 (Farouk) desorbed when the pH or salinity was altered and then only to a small extent. Three recent isolates of echovirus 1 and echovirus 29 (strain JV-10) also demonstrated varying amounts of adsorption to sediment. These data indicate that enteric viruses can become readily associated with sediment in the estuarine environment and that this association may play a major role in their hydrotransportation and survival. PMID:39508

  18. Trace metal behaviour in estuarine and riverine floodplain soils and sediments: a review.

    PubMed

    Du Laing, G; Rinklebe, J; Vandecasteele, B; Meers, E; Tack, F M G

    2009-06-15

    This paper reviews the factors affecting trace metal behaviour in estuarine and riverine floodplain soils and sediments. Spatial occurrence of processes affecting metal mobility and availability in floodplains are largely determined by the topography. At the oxic-anoxic interface and in the anoxic layers of floodplain soils, especially redox-sensitive processes occur, which mainly result in the inclusion of metals in precipitates or the dissolution of metal-containing precipitates. Kinetics of these processes are of great importance for these soils as the location of the oxic-anoxic interface is subject to change due to fluctuating water table levels. Other important processes and factors affecting metal mobility in floodplain soils are adsorption/desorption processes, salinity, the presence of organic matter, sulphur and carbonates, pH and plant growth. Many authors report highly significant correlations between cation exchange capacity, clay or organic matter contents and metal contents in floodplain soils. Iron and manganese (hydr)oxides were found to be the main carriers for Cd, Zn and Ni under oxic conditions, whereas the organic fraction was most important for Cu. The mobility and availability of metals in a floodplain soil can be significantly reduced by the formation of metal sulphide precipitates under anoxic conditions. Ascending salinity in the flood water promotes metal desorption from the floodplain soil in the absence of sulphides, hence increases total metal concentrations in the water column. The net effect of the presence of organic matter can either be a decrease or an increase in metal mobility, whereas the presence of carbonates in calcareous floodplain soils or sediments constitutes an effective buffer against a pH decrease. Moreover, carbonates may also directly precipitate metals. Plants can affect the metal mobility in floodplain soils by oxidising their rhizosphere, taking up metals, excreting exudates and stimulating the activity of

  19. Use of porewater extracts to identify the cause of toxicity in marine and estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.

    1994-12-31

    Amphipod toxicity tests in the evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal has come under increased scrutiny by the regulated community in the Port of NY/NJ. In recent large-scale assessments of sediment quality in the harbor, the vast majority of locations were deemed highly contaminated when tested with Ampelisca abdita. Toxicity tests, by themselves, do not provide data regarding the cause of toxicity of these sediments. The enormous potential costs associated with most proposed alternatives to ocean disposal of dredged sediments has prompted the investigation of the causative agents of toxicity in sediments of the NY/NJ Harbor. Sediment from five locations in the harbor, selected in consultation with local regulatory agencies to represent diverse potential contamination scenarios, was collected and tested for toxicity to the amphipods Ampelisca abdita, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Eohaustorius estuadus, Rhepoxynius abronius, and the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, using 10-day static bioassays. Porewater from each of the five sediments was extracted under centrifugation and used in water-only toxicity tests with A. abdita, L. plumulosus, R. abronius, E. estuadus, M. bahia, M. beryllina, and Microtox. A Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation of the three most toxic porewater samples was conducted using several of the species tested. Results from the preliminary investigations and the ongoing TIE`s will be presented. Species selection, porewater toxicity test procedures, and Phase 1, 2, and 3 paradigms will be discussed.

  20. Cumulative influences of a small city and former mining activities on the sediment quality of a subtropical estuarine protected area.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Araujo, Giuliana Seraphim; Buruaem, Lucas M; Santaella, Sandra Tédde; de Morais, Rodofley Davino; Abessa, Denis M S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sediment quality in the estuarine protected area known as Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (CIP-PA), located on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The study was designed considering possible negative effects induced by the city of Cananéia on the sediment quality of surrounding areas. This evaluation was performed using chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. Sediments were predominantly sandy, with low CaCO3 contents. Amounts of organic matter varied, but higher contents occurred closer to the city, as well as did Fe and Total Recoverable Oils and Greases (TROGs) concentrations. Contamination by Cd and Cu was revealed in some samples, while concentrations of Zn were considered low. Chronic toxicity was detected in all tested sediments and acute toxicity occurred only in sediments collected near the city. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed an association among Cd, Cu, Fe, TROG, fines, organic matter, CaCO3, and chronic toxicity, whereas acute toxicity was found to be associated with Zn and mud. However, because Zn levels were low, acute toxicity was likely due to a contaminant that was not measured. Results show that there is a broad area within the CIP-PA that is under the influence of mining activities (chronic toxicity, moderate contamination by metals), whereas poorer conditions occur closer to Cananéia (acute toxicity); thus, the urban area seems to constitute a relevant source of contaminants for the estuarine complex. These results show that contamination is already capable of producing risks for the local aquatic biota, which suggests that the CIP-PA effectiveness in protecting estuarine biota may be threatened.

  1. Influence of a burrowing, metal-tolerant polychaete on benthic metabolism, denitrification and nitrogen regeneration in contaminated estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Banks, Joanne L; Ross, D Jeff; Keough, Michael J; Macleod, Catriona K; Keane, John; Eyre, Bradley D

    2013-03-15

    We investigated the effects of the burrowing cirratulid polychaete Cirriformia filigera (Delle Chiaje, 1828) on benthic respiration and nitrogen regeneration in metal-contaminated estuarine sediments using laboratory mesocosms. C. filigera is a dominant component of assemblages in the most severely contaminated sediments within the Derwent estuary, southern Australia. In the presence of C. filigera sediment O2 consumption doubled, with approximately 55% of this increase due to their respiration and the remaining 45% attributable to oxidation reactions and increased microbial respiration associated with burrow walls. Combined NO3 and NO2 fluxes were unaffected. The addition of labile organic matter did not affect benthic fluxes, in the presence or absence of C. filigera, presumably due to the short timeframe of the experiment and naturally enriched test sediments. The results suggest that a combination of tolerance and burrowing activity enables this species to provide an ecosystem service in the removal of N from contaminated sites. PMID:23398743

  2. Tropical Estuarine Macrobenthic Communities Are Structured by Turnover Rather than Nestedness.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Carlinda Raílly; Hepp, Luiz Ubiratan; Patrício, Joana; Molozzi, Joseline

    2016-01-01

    Turnover (i.e., species substitution) and nestedness (i.e., subsets of species from more diverse locations), the two main mechanisms used to explain the beta diversity of biological communities, have different implications for biodiversity conservation. To better understand how these mechanisms contribute to beta diversity, we tested the following hypotheses: (i) greater dissimilarity in community composition occurs between estuarine zones than other hierarchical level studied; (ii) beta diversity in these communities develops by turnover in estuaries with a lower degree of anthropogenic impact, but by nestedness in estuaries with a greater degree of anthropogenic impact; and (iii) the structuring mechanism is independent of season. We studied two tropical estuaries (dry and wet seasons) that vary in terms of land-use of the drainage basins. Subtidal benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled along the estuarine gradient in each of the two estuaries. The additive partitioning approach to species diversity was used to determine the hierarchical scale with the greatest dissimilarity in community composition. General beta diversity was measured using the Sorensen dissimilarity index, partitioning the turnover and nestedness components. The greatest dissimilarity in the composition of the communities occurred between the zones along the estuarine gradient in both seasons (dry = 58.6%; wet = 46.3%). In the estuary with a lower degree of anthropogenic influence, benthic macroinvertebrate diversity was generated by turnover regardless of the season. In the estuary with a greater degree of anthropogenic impact, beta diversity was structured by turnover during the dry season and a combination of both mechanisms during the wet season. We conclude that turnover is the principal mechanism responsible for beta diversity in benthic macroinvertebrate communities in tropical estuaries. PMID:27584726

  3. Tropical Estuarine Macrobenthic Communities Are Structured by Turnover Rather than Nestedness

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Carlinda Raílly; Hepp, Luiz Ubiratan; Patrício, Joana; Molozzi, Joseline

    2016-01-01

    Turnover (i.e., species substitution) and nestedness (i.e., subsets of species from more diverse locations), the two main mechanisms used to explain the beta diversity of biological communities, have different implications for biodiversity conservation. To better understand how these mechanisms contribute to beta diversity, we tested the following hypotheses: (i) greater dissimilarity in community composition occurs between estuarine zones than other hierarchical level studied; (ii) beta diversity in these communities develops by turnover in estuaries with a lower degree of anthropogenic impact, but by nestedness in estuaries with a greater degree of anthropogenic impact; and (iii) the structuring mechanism is independent of season. We studied two tropical estuaries (dry and wet seasons) that vary in terms of land-use of the drainage basins. Subtidal benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled along the estuarine gradient in each of the two estuaries. The additive partitioning approach to species diversity was used to determine the hierarchical scale with the greatest dissimilarity in community composition. General beta diversity was measured using the Sorensen dissimilarity index, partitioning the turnover and nestedness components. The greatest dissimilarity in the composition of the communities occurred between the zones along the estuarine gradient in both seasons (dry = 58.6%; wet = 46.3%). In the estuary with a lower degree of anthropogenic influence, benthic macroinvertebrate diversity was generated by turnover regardless of the season. In the estuary with a greater degree of anthropogenic impact, beta diversity was structured by turnover during the dry season and a combination of both mechanisms during the wet season. We conclude that turnover is the principal mechanism responsible for beta diversity in benthic macroinvertebrate communities in tropical estuaries. PMID:27584726

  4. Assessing environmental drivers of microbial communities in estuarine soils of the Aconcagua River in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Ding, Guo-Chun; Cárdenas, Franco; Smalla, Kornelia; Seeger, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Aconcagua River basin (Central Chile) harbors diverse economic activities such as agriculture, mining and a crude oil refinery. The aim of this study was to assess environmental drivers of microbial communities in Aconcagua River estuarine soils, which may be influenced by anthropogenic activities taking place upstream and by natural processes such as tides and flood runoffs. Physicochemical parameters were measured in floodplain soils along the estuary. Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Fungi were studied by DGGE fingerprinting of 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal ITS-1 amplified from community DNA. Correlations between environment and communities were assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. Mainly hydrocarbons, pH and the composed variable copper/arsenic/calcium but in less extent nitrogen and organic matter/phosphorous/magnesium correlated with community structures at different taxonomic levels. Aromatic hydrocarbons degradation potential by bacterial community was studied. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases genes were detected only at upstream sites. Naphthalene dioxygenase ndo genes were heterogeneously distributed along estuary, and related to Pseudomonas, Delftia, Comamonas and Ralstonia. IncP-1 plasmids were mainly present at downstream sites, whereas IncP-7 and IncP-9 plasmids showed a heterogeneous distribution. This study strongly suggests that pH, copper, arsenic and hydrocarbons are main drivers of microbial communities in Aconcagua River estuarine soils.

  5. Assessing environmental drivers of microbial communities in estuarine soils of the Aconcagua River in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Ding, Guo-Chun; Cárdenas, Franco; Smalla, Kornelia; Seeger, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Aconcagua River basin (Central Chile) harbors diverse economic activities such as agriculture, mining and a crude oil refinery. The aim of this study was to assess environmental drivers of microbial communities in Aconcagua River estuarine soils, which may be influenced by anthropogenic activities taking place upstream and by natural processes such as tides and flood runoffs. Physicochemical parameters were measured in floodplain soils along the estuary. Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Fungi were studied by DGGE fingerprinting of 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal ITS-1 amplified from community DNA. Correlations between environment and communities were assessed by distance-based redundancy analysis. Mainly hydrocarbons, pH and the composed variable copper/arsenic/calcium but in less extent nitrogen and organic matter/phosphorous/magnesium correlated with community structures at different taxonomic levels. Aromatic hydrocarbons degradation potential by bacterial community was studied. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases genes were detected only at upstream sites. Naphthalene dioxygenase ndo genes were heterogeneously distributed along estuary, and related to Pseudomonas, Delftia, Comamonas and Ralstonia. IncP-1 plasmids were mainly present at downstream sites, whereas IncP-7 and IncP-9 plasmids showed a heterogeneous distribution. This study strongly suggests that pH, copper, arsenic and hydrocarbons are main drivers of microbial communities in Aconcagua River estuarine soils. PMID:26362923

  6. Water chemistry and nutrient release during the resuspension of FeS-rich sediments in a eutrophic estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bree; Rate, Andrew W; Burton, Edward D

    2012-08-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of resuspending FeS-rich benthic sediment on estuarine water chemistry. To address this objective, we conducted (1) a series of laboratory-based sediment resuspension experiments and (2) also monitored changes in surface water composition during field-based sediment resuspension events that were caused by dredging activities in the Peel-Harvey Estuary, Western Australia. Our laboratory resuspension experiments showed that the resuspension of FeS-rich sediments rapidly deoxygenated estuarine water. In contrast, dredging activities in the field did not noticeably lower O(2) concentrations in adjacent surface water. Additionally, while FeS oxidation in the laboratory resuspensions caused measurable decreases in pH, the field pH was unaffected by the dredging event and dissolved trace metal concentrations remained very low throughout the monitoring period. Dissolved ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and inorganic phosphorus (PO(4)-P) were released into the water column during the resuspension of sediments in both the field and laboratory. Following its initial release, PO(4)-P was rapidly removed from solution in the laboratory-based (<1h) and field-based (<100 m from sediment disposal point) investigations. In comparison to PO(4)-P, NH(4)(+) release was observed to be more prolonged over the 2-week period of the laboratory resuspension experiments. However, our field-based observations revealed that elevated NH(4)(+) concentrations were localised to <100 m from the sediment disposal point. This study demonstrates that alongside the emphasis on acidification, deoxygenation and metal release during FeS resuspension, it is important to consider the possibility of nutrient release from disturbed sediments in eutrophic estuaries.

  7. Multi-element study of sediments from the river Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukina, Sofia; Lobus, Nikolai; Peresypkin, Valery; Baturin, Gleb; Smurov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Major (Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K), minor (Mn) and trace (Cr, Ni, Cd, V, Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Bi, Sn, Ag, Li, Co, As, Zr, Mo, Hg) elements along with nutrients (TOC, TS, TP) and TIC were first determined in ten surface sediment samples from the Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea. According to the sediment quality guidelines and reference background values, most of the element contents that were studied were below the threshold levels, while the content of Ag exceeded significantly the hazardous levels in the most of the samples along the river - sea transect. The local anthropogenic and/or environmental sources of Ag within the region need special study. Aluminum and lithium normalization indicated some specific features in the abundance and distribution of the elements along the salinity gradient. The mean grain size of the sediments decreased from the river part to the bay part of the transect. Sedimentary TOC was relatively low (1-2 %) and showed independent distribution along the river - sea transect in relation to the other elements that were studied. Ca, Ba and Sr distribution showed some sporadic enrichment and were largely controlled by the TIC content in sediments. Sedimentary TP, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Na, K, Li, Co, Cs, Zn and V varied within the narrow range and tended to increase seaward. These elements are most likely controlled by the accumulation of their fine grained aluminosilicate host minerals and materials at sites determined by hydrodynamic conditions, i. e., in the sea floor depression. TS, As, Sn, Bi, U, Cd and Mo were relatively low in the sediments studied and tended to decrease seaward with the slight elevation in the intermediate part of the transect. These elements can be scavenged by and/or co-precipitated with the dissolved and particulate materials of the river discharge and further deposited on the river - sea geochemical barrier in the course of estuarine sedimentation. The distribution of Ni, Cr, Zr Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg and

  8. Spatial distribution of phosphorus speciation in marsh sediments along a hydrologic gradient in a subtropical estuarine wetland, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Long; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Tong, Chuan; Zhai, Shui-Jing; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Deng-Zhou

    2015-03-01

    In May and August 2013, a 360-m long transect (from a high to a middle tidal flat) was laid out in the Min River estuarine marsh to study the distribution of total phosphorus (TP) and its fractions (i.e., organic P (Org P), inorganic P (IP), aluminum-bound P (Al-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), occluded P (O-P), and calcium-bound P (Ca-P)). The results showed that TP concentrations of the sediments ranged from 338 to 846 mg kg-1 (average 664 mg kg-1) in May and from 353 to 932 mg kg-1 (average 657 mg kg-1) in August. IP dominated the P fractions (accounting for 57-81% of TP) and was mainly composed of Fe-P (38%), O-P (30%), and Ca-P (25%). The TP, IP and Fe-P concentrations fluctuated along the hydrologic gradient during both measurement periods (except for the upper 10-cm sediments in August). Meanwhile, their concentrations decreased with depth (0-50 cm), but vertical variation declined in the middle tidal flat. A higher concentration of Org P was observed in the upper 20-cm sediments of the high tidal flat. The concentrations of Ca-P and Al-P increased from the high tidal flat to the middle tidal flat, but there was no significant difference between sediment layers (P > 0.05). The O-P concentration was significantly higher in Phragmites australis sediments compared with Cyperus malaccensis sediments (P < 0.05). Based on the space-for-time substitution rule, we predict that sea-level change will likely alter the composition and vertical distribution of TP in the Min River estuarine sediments.

  9. Anthropogenic Influences on Estuarine Sedimentation and Ecology: Examples from Varved Sediments of the Pettaquamscutt River Estuary, Rhode Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries and lakes are undergoing anthropogenic alterations as development and industry intensify in the modern world. Assessing the ecological health of such water bodies is difficult because accurate accounts of pre-anthropogenic estuarine/lacustrine conditions do not exist. ...

  10. Multiproxy evidence of Holocene climate variability from estuarine sediments, eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Thunell, R.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Mann, M.E.; Vann, C.; Seal, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    We reconstructed paleoclimate patterns from oxygen and carbon isotope records from the fossil estuarine benthic foraminifera Elphidium and Mg/ Ca ratios from the ostracode Loxoconcha from sediment cores from Chesapeake Bay to examine the Holocene evolution of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-type climate variability. Precipitation-driven river discharge and regional temperature variability are the primary influences on Chesapeake Bay salinity and water temperature, respectively. We first calibrated modern ??18 Owater to salinity and applied this relationship to calculate trends in paleosalinity from the ??18 Oforam, correcting for changes in water temperature estimated from ostracode Mg /Ca ratios. The results indicate a much drier early Holocene in which mean paleosalinity was ???28 ppt in the northern bay, falling ???25% to ???20 ppt during the late Holocene. Early Holocene Mg/Ca-derived temperatures varied in a relatively narrow range of 13?? to 16??C with a mean temperature of 14.2??C and excursions above 16??C; the late Holocene was on average cooler (mean temperature of 12.8??C). In addition to the large contrast between early and late Holocene regional climate conditions, multidecadal (20-40 years) salinity and temperature variability is an inherent part of the region's climate during both the early and late Holocene, including the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age. These patterns are similar to those observed during the twentieth century caused by NAO-related processes. Comparison of the midlatitude Chesapeake Bay salinity record with tropical climate records of Intertropical Convergence Zone fluctuations inferred from the Cariaco Basin titanium record suggests an anticorrelation between precipitation in the two regions at both millennial and centennial timescales. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Isotopic distribution of carbon from sewage sludge and eutrophication in the sediments and food web of estuarine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Gearing, P.J.; Gearing, J.N.; Maughan, J.T.; Oviatt, C.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C) from samples of water, sediments, and biota traced the behavior of organic carbon for 3 summer months in estuarine mesocosms (three controls, three with added sewage sludge, three with added inorganic nutrients). Isotope ratios proved to be a useful quantitative tracer for sewage carbon as well as for the fresh phytoplanktonic carbon produced during nutrient fertilization. Sewage sludge sedimented within hours of its addition, and approximately 50% remained in sediments after 99 days. The sludge was not inert, but was biologically oxidized at rates similar to those of phytoplankton carbon. Its residence time in the water column was too short for uptake by zooplankton, but it was readily assimilated by some benthic organisms. Fresh phytoplanktonic carbon from nutrient-induced blooms was isotopically heavy and thus distinguishable from old primary production (fixed before the experiment). It flowed through the pelagic and benthic food webs more extensively and more uniformly than did sludge carbon.

  12. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  13. Survival of Desulfotomaculum spores from estuarine sediments after serial autoclaving and high-temperature exposure

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Louise A; Roussel, Erwan G; Weightman, Andrew J; Webster, Gordon; Hubert, Casey RJ; Bell, Emma; Head, Ian; Sass, Henrik; Parkes, R John

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial spores are widespread in marine sediments, including those of thermophilic, sulphate-reducing bacteria, which have a high minimum growth temperature making it unlikely that they grow in situ. These Desulfotomaculum spp. are thought to be from hot environments and are distributed by ocean currents. Their cells and spores upper temperature limit for survival is unknown, as is whether they can survive repeated high-temperature exposure that might occur in hydrothermal systems. This was investigated by incubating estuarine sediments significantly above (40–80 °C) maximum in situ temperatures (∼23 °C), and with and without prior triple autoclaving. Sulphate reduction occurred at 40–60 °C and at 60 °C was unaffected by autoclaving. Desulfotomaculum sp. C1A60 was isolated and was most closely related to the thermophilic D. kuznetsoviiT (∼96% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). Cultures of Desulfotomaculum sp. C1A60, D. kuznetsoviiTand D. geothermicum B2T survived triple autoclaving while other related Desulfotomaculum spp. did not, although they did survive pasteurisation. Desulfotomaculum sp. C1A60 and D. kuznetsovii cultures also survived more extreme autoclaving (C1A60, 130 °C for 15 min; D. kuznetsovii, 135 °C for 15 min, maximum of 154 °C reached) and high-temperature conditions in an oil bath (C1A60, 130° for 30 min, D. kuznetsovii 140 °C for 15 min). Desulfotomaculum sp. C1A60 with either spores or predominantly vegetative cells demonstrated that surviving triple autoclaving was due to spores. Spores also had very high culturability compared with vegetative cells (∼30 × higher). Combined extreme temperature survival and high culturability of some thermophilic Desulfotomaculum spp. make them very effective colonisers of hot environments, which is consistent with their presence in subsurface geothermal waters and petroleum reservoirs. PMID:25325382

  14. Responses of macrobenthos colonizing estuarine sediments contaminated with drilling mud containing diesel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Tagatz, M.E.; Plaia, G.R.; Deans, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Boxes filled with clean sand or clean sand with a 2-cm overlay of mixtures of sand with barite or drilling mud were placed in Santa Rosa Sound, Florida to determine the effects of a used lime drilling-mud on field-colonized macrobenthic communities. Effect of the drilling mud on community structure was greater than that of its barite component after colonization for 8 weeks. Barite causes changes in texture of the sediment and thereby recruitment. The average numbers of animals and species in boxes containing 1:10 and 1:3 mixtures of mud to sand were significantly less than those in control boxes and most of the barite/sand mixtures. The Shannon-Weaver index of diversity, Simpson's index of dominance, and the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index differed only for 1:3 mud/sand communities. Toxic effects of the lime drilling mud were attributed to a diesel fuel oil component.

  15. Estuarine bed-sediment-quality data collected in New Jersey and New York after Hurricane Sandy, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Focazio, Michael J.; Loftin, Keith A.; Benzel, William M.; Jones, Daniel K.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene J.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Jenkins, Darkus E.; Bowers, Luke; Boehlke, Adam; Foreman, William T.; Deetz, Anna C.; Carper, Lisa G.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    Bed-sediment samples were collected from June to October 2013 from 167 estuarine sites extending from Cape May, New Jersey, to the New York Harbor and the eastern end of Long Island. Each sampling location and study region was characterized by using geographic information to identify potential contaminant sources. Characterizations included land cover, locations and types of businesses (industrial, financial, and others), spills (sewage, chemical, and others), bulk storage facilities, effluent discharges within 2 kilometers of the sampling point, and discharges within inundated and non-inundated regions near the sampling location. Samples were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon, metals and trace elements, semivolatile organic compounds, wastewater compounds, hormones, and sediment toxicity. Samples were also screened using x-ray fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. In addition, bioassays for endocrine disruptors and protein phosphatase 2A inhibition were conducted. The study was designed to provide the data needed to understand the extent and sources of contamination resulting from Hurricane Sandy, to compare the chemistry and toxicity of estuarine bed sediments before and after the storm, and to evaluate the usefulness of rapid screening and bioassay approaches in disaster settings.

  16. Vertical geochemical distribution of some contaminants in estuarine sediments from the Jaboatão River, Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marta; Neumann, Virgínio; Castro, Maria Teresa; Lima, Enjôlras; Lima, Edmilson; Silva, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Sediment core samples with length ranging from 50 cm was collected in the Jaboatão river estuary and analyzed to ( As, Cr, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn) level concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studied area is located in the northeastern coast of Pernambuco State and is comprised of a densely urbanized region, the largest industrial complex of the state, with a predominance of fertilizer plants. These elements have a consistent vertical evolution compatible with the increase of the pelitic-organic material. There is an increase from bottom to top of the core but this may not represent a real increase in the input, but rather a concentration associated to the fine particle fraction and organic matter that increases to the top of the core profile. These conditions of clay predominance in estuarine sediments on the top indicate a decrease of the energy condition in the system and not necessarily an increase in the supply of contaminating metals. The majority of the chemical species, the concentration did not reach toxicity levels, when considering the values (ERL and ERM) established by USEPA (1998). The only exception is Cr, which has already surpassed the ERM value, and suggests that this increase is related to industrial contribution. Chromium concentration reached preliminary alert levels according to international environmental agencies, whereas the other species analyzed do not show toxicity. Key-words: environmental geochemistry, estuarine sediments

  17. Sudden Clearing of Estuarine Waters upon Crossing the Threshold from Transport to Supply Regulation of Sediment Transport as an Erodible Sediment Pool is Depleted: San Francisco Bay, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity of suspended sediment in an estuary is regulated either by transport, where energy or time needed to suspend sediment is limiting, or by supply, where the quantity of erodible sediment is limiting. This paper presents a hypothesis that suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in estuaries can suddenly decrease when the threshold from transport to supply regulation is crossed as an erodible sediment pool is depleted. This study was motivated by a statistically significant 36% step decrease in SSC in San Francisco Bay from water years 1991-1998 to 1999-2007. A quantitative conceptual model of an estuary with an erodible sediment pool and transport or supply regulation of sediment transport is developed. Model results confirm that, if the regulation threshold was crossed in 1999, SSC would decrease rapidly after water year 1999 as observed. Estuaries with a similar history of a depositional sediment pulse followed by erosion may experience sudden clearing. ?? 2011 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (outside the USA).

  18. Effects of sulfamethazine on denitrification and the associated N2O release in estuarine and coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lijun; Yin, Guoyu; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junliang; Zheng, Yanling; Gao, Juan; Zong, Haibo; Yang, Yi; Gao, Lei; Tong, Chunfu

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification is an important pathway of nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) production in estuarine and coastal ecosystems, and plays a significant role in counteracting aquatic eutrophication induced by excessive nitrogen loads. Estuarine and coastal environments also suffer from increasing antibiotic contamination because of the growing production and usage of antibiotics. In this study, sediment slurry incubation experiments were conducted to determine the influence of sulfamethazine (SMT, a sulphonamide antibiotic) on denitrification and the associated N2O production. Genes important for denitrification and antibiotic resistance were quantified to investigate the microbial physiological mechanisms underlying SMT's effects on denitrification. SMT was observed to significantly inhibit denitrification rates, but increasing concentrations of SMT enhanced N2O release rates. The negative exponential relationships between denitrifying gene abundances and SMT concentrations showed that SMT reduced denitrification rates by restricting the growth of denitrifying bacteria, although the presence of the antibiotic resistance gene was detected during the incubation period. These results imply that the wide occurrence of residual antibiotics in estuarine and coastal ecosystems may influence eutrophication control, greenhouse effects, and atmospheric ozone depletion by inhibiting denitrification and stimulating the release of N2O.

  19. Effects of sulfamethazine on denitrification and the associated N2O release in estuarine and coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lijun; Yin, Guoyu; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junliang; Zheng, Yanling; Gao, Juan; Zong, Haibo; Yang, Yi; Gao, Lei; Tong, Chunfu

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification is an important pathway of nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) production in estuarine and coastal ecosystems, and plays a significant role in counteracting aquatic eutrophication induced by excessive nitrogen loads. Estuarine and coastal environments also suffer from increasing antibiotic contamination because of the growing production and usage of antibiotics. In this study, sediment slurry incubation experiments were conducted to determine the influence of sulfamethazine (SMT, a sulphonamide antibiotic) on denitrification and the associated N2O production. Genes important for denitrification and antibiotic resistance were quantified to investigate the microbial physiological mechanisms underlying SMT's effects on denitrification. SMT was observed to significantly inhibit denitrification rates, but increasing concentrations of SMT enhanced N2O release rates. The negative exponential relationships between denitrifying gene abundances and SMT concentrations showed that SMT reduced denitrification rates by restricting the growth of denitrifying bacteria, although the presence of the antibiotic resistance gene was detected during the incubation period. These results imply that the wide occurrence of residual antibiotics in estuarine and coastal ecosystems may influence eutrophication control, greenhouse effects, and atmospheric ozone depletion by inhibiting denitrification and stimulating the release of N2O. PMID:25525860

  20. Metabolism of reduced methylated sulfur compounds in anaerobic sediments and by a pure culture of an estuarine methanogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiene, R.P.; Oremland, Ronald S.; Catena, Anthony; Miller, Laurence G.; Capone, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), or methane thiol (MSH) to a diversity of anoxic aquatic sediments (e.g., fresh water, estuarine, alkaline/hypersaline) stimulated methane production. The yield of methane recovered from DMS was often 52 to 63%, although high concentrations of DMS (as well as MSH and DMDS) inhibited methanogenesis in some types of sediments. Production of methane from these reduced methylated sulfur compounds was blocked by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Sulfate did not influence the metabolism of millimolar levels of DMS, DMDS, or MSH added to sediments. However, when DMS was added at ∼2-μM levels as [14C]DMS, metabolism by sediments resulted in a 14CH4/14CO2 ratio of only 0.06. Addition of molybdate increased the ratio to 1.8, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid decreased it to 0, but did not block 14CO2 production. These results indicate the methanogens and sulfate reducers compete for DMS when it is present at low concentrations; however, at high concentrations, DMS is a “noncompetitive” substrate for methanogens. Metabolism of DMS by sediments resulted in the appearance of MSH as a transient intermediate. A pure culture of an obligately methylotrophic estuarine methanogen was isolated which was capable of growth on DMS. Metabolism of DMS by the culture also resulted in the transient appearance of MSH, but the organism could grow on neither MSH nor DMDS. The culture metabolized [14C]-DMS to yield a 14CH4/14CO2 ratio of ∼2.8. Reduced methylated sulfur compounds represent a new class of substrates for methanogens and may be potential precursors of methane in a variety of aquatic habitats.

  1. Pore water distributions of dissolved copper and copper-complexing ligands in estuarine and coastal marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Skrabal, S.A.; Donat, J.R.; Burdige, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    The distributions and seasonal variability of total dissolved Cu (TDCu) and Cu-complexing ligands in sediment pore waters have been investigated at two contrasting sites in the Chesapeake Bay. Two ligand classes, which differ on the basis of the conditional stability constants (K{prime}{sub cond}) of their Cu complexes, were detected at all depths at both sites. For comparison, one pore water profile from a slope station off of the Chesapeake Bay also showed the presence of two ligand classes. Virtually all TDCu fluxing from these sediments is complexed during sediment-water exchange. A relatively small fraction of the TDCu is exchanged as inorganic species, which are widely regarded as the most bioavailable form of Cu. Total ligand concentrations are 15 to >100 times higher in the upper intervals of the pore waters relative to ligand concentrations in the bottom waters of the Chesapeake Bay (30--60 nM), consistent with previous observations of fluxes of these ligands from the sediments to overlying waters. These results suggest that sediments are potentially significant sources of Cu-complexing ligands to the overlying waters of the Chesapeake Bay, and perhaps, other shallow water estuarine and coastal environments. Copper-complexing ligands released from sediment pore waters may play an important role in influencing Cu speciation in overlying waters.

  2. Size-selective toxicity effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on estuarine phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Kline, Allison; Pinckney, James L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on natural estuarine phytoplankton communities. Bioassays were used in experimental treatments with final concentrations of 5 to 1000 μg tylosin l(-1). Maximum percent inhibition ranged from 57 to 85% at concentrations of 200-400 μg tylosin l(-1). Half maximum inhibition concentrations of tylosin were ca. 5x lower for small phytoplankton (<20 μm) relative to larger phytoplankton (>20 μm) and suggests that small phytoplankton are more sensitive to tylosin exposure. Sublethal effects occurred at concentrations as low as 5 μg tylosin l(-1). Environmental concentrations of tylosin (e.g., 0.2-3 μg l(-1)) may have a significant sublethal effect that alters the size structure and composition of phytoplankton communities. The results of this study highlight the potential importance of cell size on toxicity responses of estuarine phytoplankton.

  3. Size-selective toxicity effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on estuarine phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Kline, Allison; Pinckney, James L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on natural estuarine phytoplankton communities. Bioassays were used in experimental treatments with final concentrations of 5 to 1000 μg tylosin l(-1). Maximum percent inhibition ranged from 57 to 85% at concentrations of 200-400 μg tylosin l(-1). Half maximum inhibition concentrations of tylosin were ca. 5x lower for small phytoplankton (<20 μm) relative to larger phytoplankton (>20 μm) and suggests that small phytoplankton are more sensitive to tylosin exposure. Sublethal effects occurred at concentrations as low as 5 μg tylosin l(-1). Environmental concentrations of tylosin (e.g., 0.2-3 μg l(-1)) may have a significant sublethal effect that alters the size structure and composition of phytoplankton communities. The results of this study highlight the potential importance of cell size on toxicity responses of estuarine phytoplankton. PMID:27376985

  4. Respiratory Succession and Community Succession of Bacterioplankton in Seasonally Anoxic Estuarine Waters▿

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Byron C.; Peranteau, Cherie; Beckingham, Barbara; Cornwell, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Anoxia occurs in bottom waters of stratified estuaries when respiratory consumption of oxygen, primarily by bacteria, outpaces atmospheric and photosynthetic reoxygenation. Once water becomes anoxic, bacterioplankton must change their metabolism to some form of anaerobic respiration. Analysis of redox chemistry in water samples spanning the oxycline of Chesapeake Bay during the summer of 2004 suggested that there was a succession of respiratory metabolism following the loss of oxygen. Bacterial community doubling time, calculated from bacterial abundance (direct counts) and production (anaerobic leucine incorporation), ranged from 0.36 to 0.75 day and was always much shorter than estimates of the time that the bottom water was anoxic (18 to 44 days), indicating that there was adequate time for bacterial community composition to shift in response to changing redox conditions. However, community composition (as determined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA genes) in anoxic waters was very similar to that in surface waters in June when nitrate respiration was apparent in the water column and only partially shifted away from the composition of the surface community after nitrate was depleted. Anoxic water communities did not change dramatically until August, when sulfate respiration appeared to dominate. Surface water populations that remained dominant in anoxic waters were Synechococcus sp., Gammaproteobacteria in the SAR86 clade, and Alphaproteobacteria relatives of Pelagibacter ubique, including a putative estuarine-specific Pelagibacter cluster. Populations that developed in anoxic water were most similar (<92% similarity) to uncultivated Firmicutes, uncultivated Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria in the genus Thioalcalovibrio, and the uncultivated SAR406 cluster. These results indicate that typical estuarine bacterioplankton switch to anaerobic metabolism under anoxic conditions but are ultimately replaced by different organisms

  5. Low functional β-diversity despite high taxonomic β-diversity among tropical estuarine fish communities.

    PubMed

    Villéger, Sébastien; Ramos Miranda, Julia; Flores Hernandez, Domingo; Mouillot, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of β-diversity, defined as dissimilarity among communities, has been widely used to investigate biodiversity patterns and community assembly rules. However, in ecosystems with high taxonomic β-diversity, due to marked environmental gradients, the level of functional β-diversity among communities is largely overlooked while it may reveal processes shaping community structure. Here, decomposing biodiversity indices into α (local) and γ (regional) components, we estimated taxonomic and functional β-diversity among tropical estuarine fish communities, through space and time. We found extremely low functional β-diversity values among fish communities (<1.5%) despite high dissimilarity in species composition and species dominance. Additionally, in contrast to the high α and γ taxonomic diversities, α and γ functional diversities were very close to the minimal value. These patterns were caused by two dominant functional groups which maintained a similar functional structure over space and time, despite the strong dissimilarity in taxonomic structure along environmental gradients. Our findings suggest that taxonomic and functional β-diversity deserve to be quantified simultaneously since these two facets can show contrasting patterns and the differences can in turn shed light on community assembly rules.

  6. Speciation and Fate of Trace Metals in Estuarine Sediments Under Reduced and Oxidized Conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Day, P A; Esser, B; Randall, S

    2002-10-18

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60-year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60-year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were

  7. Trace element concentrations in surface estuarine and marine sediments along the Mississippi Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Warren, Crystal; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Weston, James; Willett, Kristine L

    2012-01-01

    Hurricanes are relatively frequent ecological disturbances that may cause potentially long-term impacts to the coastal environment. Hurricane Katrina hit the Mississippi Gulf Coast in August 2005, and caused a storm surge with the potential to change the trace element content of coastal surface sediments. In this study, surface estuarine and marine sediments were collected monthly following the storm from ten sites along the Mississippi Gulf Coast (Mobile Bay, Grand Bay Bayous Heron and Cumbest, Pascagoula, Ocean Springs, Biloxi Gulf, Back Biloxi Bay, Gulfport Gulf, Gulfport Courthouse Rd, and Gulfport Marina). Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to evaluate their temporal and spatial variations in the year following Hurricane Katrina. Sediments were characterized by pH, particle size distribution and total carbon and nitrogen content. Trace element contents of the sediments were determined in both <2 mm and <63 μm grain size fractions. Results revealed no significant temporal and spatial variability in trace element concentrations, in either size fraction. Potential ecological risk of the sediments was assessed by using NOAA SQuiRTs' guideline values; most concentrations remained below probable adverse effects guidelines to marine organisms suggesting that trace elements redistributed by Hurricane Katrina would not cause an adverse impact on resident organisms. Instead, the concentrations of trace elements were site-dependent, with specific contaminants relating to the use of the area prior to Hurricane Katrina.

  8. Exudation of organic acids by a marsh plant and implications on trace metal availability in the rhizosphere of estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this work was to identify a variety of low molecular weight organic acids exuded by the sea rush Juncus maritimus collected at two locations with different sediment characteristics (sandy and muddy) and to examine whether specific differences in physico-chemical sediment characteristics influenced plant exudation. Just after collection, plant roots were rinsed and put in contact with deionised water for 2 h. In the obtained solution the organic acids, exuded by the plants, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Juncus maritimus was shown to be capable of releasing malonate and oxalate. Sediments and rhizosediments (sediment in contact with the plant roots and rhizomes, corresponding to the area of higher belowground biomass) from the areas where the plants had been collected were characterised in terms of physical and chemical composition, including acid volatile sulphide and total-recoverable metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd). It was found that the extent of exudation varied markedly between sites. The identified organic acids were used as extractants of metals from sediments and rhizosediments and the results were compared with those provided by a very commonly used sequential extraction approach, which was carried out in parallel. This work demonstrates that J. maritimus can release organic compounds that can act as complexing agents of trace metal and therefore organic exudates should be accounted for when dealing with estuarine environment quality.

  9. Anthropogenic Influences on Estuarine Sedimentation and Ecology: Examples from Varved Sediments of the Pettaquanscutt River Estuary, Rhode Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries and lakes are undergoing anthropogenic alterations as development and industry intensify in the modern world. Assessing the ecological health of such water bodies is difficult because accurate accounts of pre-anthropogenic estuarine/lacustrine conditions do not exist. S...

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residues in estuarine and coastal North Sea sediments: Sources and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Evers, E.H.G.; Klamer, H.J.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M. . Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management); Govers, H.A.J. . Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry)

    1993-09-01

    Sediments from two depositional zones of the North Sea (the Wadden Sea and Oyster Grounds) and from the estuaries of the rivers Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Ems, and Humber were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) using a congener-specific procedure. A simple grain-size correction procedure was utilized for the comparison of PCDF and PCDD concentrations in sediments from different origin. PCDFs were more widely encountered than PCDDs in all sediments, except for the Ems-Dollard and the Humber estuary. The highest concentrations were found in the outflow sediments of the rivers Rhine and Humber. Concentrations up to 2,980 ng/kg PCDFs, principally 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF, and up to 1,760 ng/kg PCDDs, principally OCDD, were determined in the River Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of PCDD and PCDF profiles in the sediments. Two-dimensional projections based on sample scores from the principal component models showed a marked influence of the River Rhine on the presence of these compounds in the western Wadden Sea and the Oyster Grounds. Based on a chemometric evaluation of chromatographic profiles of these coastal, estuarine and related freshwater sediments, the authors have deduced that these compounds originate from industrial operation discharges, related to the production of chloroaliphatic compounds and the chloralkali compounds and the chloralkali industry along the River Rhine. The atmospheric deposition of combustion-generated PCDDs and PCDFs appeared significant only for remote marine environments.

  11. Assessment of the genotoxic potential of contaminated estuarine sediments in fish peripheral blood: Laboratory versus in situ studies

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Pedro M.; Neuparth, Teresa S.; Caeiro, Sandra; Lobo, Jorge; Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M.; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; Angel DelValls, T.

    2011-01-15

    Juvenile Senegalese soles (Solea senegalensis) were exposed to estuarine sediments through 28-day laboratory and in situ (field) bioassays. The sediments, collected from three distinct sites (a reference plus two contaminated) of the Sado Estuary (W Portugal) were characterized for total organic matter, redox potential, fine fraction and for the levels of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichloro diphenyl tricholoethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs). Genotoxicity was determined in whole peripheral blood by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or 'comet') assay and by scoring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA). Analysis was complemented with the determination of lipid peroxidation in blood plasma by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) protocol and cell type sorting. The results showed that exposure to contaminated sediments induced DNA fragmentation and clastogenesis. Still, laboratory exposure to the most contaminated sediment revealed a possible antagonistic effect between metallic and organic contaminants that might have been enhanced by increased bioavailability. The laboratory assay caused a more pronounced increase in ENA whereas a very significant increase in DNA fragmentation was observed in field-tested fish exposed to the reference sediment, which is likely linked to increased lipid peroxidation that probably occurred due to impaired access to food. Influence of natural pathogens was ruled out by unaltered leukocyte counts. The statistical integration of data correlated lipid peroxidation with biological variables such as fish length and weight, whereas the genotoxicity biomarkers were more correlated to sediment contamination. It was demonstrated that laboratory and field bioassays for the risk assessment of sediment contamination may yield different genotoxicity profiles although both provided results that are in overall accordance with sediment

  12. Nematode communities in contaminated river sediments.

    PubMed

    Heininger, Peter; Höss, Sebastian; Claus, Evelyn; Pelzer, Jürgen; Traunspurger, Walter

    2007-03-01

    Nematode communities of eight sites from three river catchments were investigated in terms of the genera composition, feeding types, and life-history strategists. The sampling sites showed a gradient of anthropogenic contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants being important factors in differentiating the sites. Nematode community structure was related to sediment pollution and the hydro-morphological structure of the sampling sites. Heavily contaminated sites were characterized by communities with high relative abundances of omnivorous and predacious nematodes (Tobrilus, c-p 3; Mononchus, c-p 4), while sites with low to medium contamination were dominated by bacterivorous nematodes (Monhystera, Daptonema; c-p 2) or suction feeders (Dorylaimus, c-p 4). The relatively high Maturity Index values in the heavily polluted sites were surprising. Nematodes turned out to be a suitable organism group for monitoring sediment quality, with generic composition being the most accurate indicator for assessing differences in nematode community structure. PMID:16905227

  13. N 2O accumulation in estuarine and coastal sediments: The influence of H 2S on dissimilatory nitrate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senga, Yukiko; Mochida, Kazuo; Fukumori, Ryouko; Okamoto, Norihisa; Seike, Yasushi

    2006-03-01

    The effects of H 2S on the production and accumulation of N 2O in surface sediments of the coastal lagoons of Lakes Shinji and Nakaumi were studied using sediment suspensions and isolated strains of halophilic N 2O producers. Denitrification and N 2O accumulation were determined by anaerobic incubations with and without C 2H 2, respectively. Denitrifying activities in the sediment suspensions of both lakes decreased markedly at an H 2S concentration of 3 mg S l -1, whereas N 2O accumulations in the sediment suspensions of Lakes Shinji and Nakaumi were highest at 75-100 mg S l -1 and 15-50 mg S l -1 H 2S, respectively. In addition, H 2S had marked inhibiting (about 30 h) and retarding effects on N 2O reduction in the suspensions of both lakes. Two strains of halophilic N 2O producers were isolated from the sediment of Lake Shinji ( Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio sp.). N 2O accumulation rates by Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. were accelerated at 1-5 mg S l -1 and 1-10 mg S l -1 H 2S, respectively. Patterns of inorganic nitrogen compounds after the incubations revealed the accumulation of NH 4+ and NO 2-, with concomitant N 2O, were accelerated by H 2S. These results indicate that H 2S plays a key role in regulation of N 2O accumulation in the eutrophic estuarine or coastal sediments. Furthermore, the accumulation of N 2O in the sediments of Lakes Shinji and Nakaumi is predicted to derive through dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) not only denitrification in the presence of H 2S.

  14. Behavior of osmium at the freshwater-saltwater interface based on Ganga derived sediments from the estuarine zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, M.; Reisberg, L.; Vigier, N.; France-Lanord, C.

    2011-12-01

    Leaching experiments performed on several sediments of the Ganga river suggest that between 10 and 20% of the osmium is in an easily exchangeable position. Analyses of sediments from two estuarine rivers (the Pussur and the lower Meghna) reveal no enrichment of Os in the saltwater-freshwater mixing zone relative to Ganga sediments of similar Al2O3/SiO2 ratio, suggesting that osmium is not significantly trapped in this estuary. However, a significant decrease of the 187Os/188Os ratio is observed in the Pussur sediments relative to the Ganga composition. These latter are derived entirely from the Ganga or from erosion of the Ganga paleodelta, and thus would be expected to have similar Os isotopic compositions. Nd isotopic results from the Pussur are indistinguishable from those of the Ganga, while the Sr isotopic results are at the lower end of the Ganga range, confirming the absence of a major source difference between Ganga and Pussur sediments. It thus seems unlikely that the difference in Os isotopic signature can be entirely explained by a change in provenance, suggesting instead that the Os compositions have been modified. Our results show that the less radiogenic Os compositions of the Pussur sediments cannot result simply from desorption of radiogenic Os or from scavenging of river or seawater Os. Instead, the decrease of the 187Os/188Os ratio could imply a complex exchange between dissolved Os, derived partly from seawater, and Os in the leachable fraction of sediments. This mechanism could therefore constitute both a source and a sink for seawater osmium and may significantly influence the osmium marine budget.

  15. An integrative assessment to determine the genotoxic hazard of estuarine sediments: combining cell and whole-organism responses

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Pedro M.; Pinto, Miguel; Vicente, Ana M.; Gonçalves, Cátia; Rodrigo, Ana P.; Louro, Henriqueta; Costa, Maria H.; Caeiro, Sandra; Silva, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    The application of the Comet assay in environmental monitoring remains challenging in face of the complexity of environmental stressors, e.g., when dealing with estuarine sediments, that hampers the drawing of cause-effect relationships. Although the in vitro Comet assay may circumvent confounding factors, its application in environmental risk assessment (ERA) still needs validation. As such, the present work aims at integrating genotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage induced by sediment-bound toxicants in HepG2 cells with oxidative stress-related effects observed in three species collected from an impacted estuary. Distinct patterns were observed in cells exposed to crude mixtures of sediment contaminants from the urban/industrial area comparatively to the ones from the rural/riverine area of the estuary, with respect to oxidative DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage. The extracts obtained with the most polar solvent and the crude extracts caused the most significant oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells, as measured by the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG)-modified Comet assay. This observation suggests that metals and unknown toxicants more hydrophilic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be important causative agents, especially in samples from the rural part of the estuary, where oxidative DNA damage was the most significant. Clams, sole, and cuttlefish responded differentially to environmental agents triggering oxidative stress, albeit yielding results accordant with the oxidative DNA damage observed in HepG2 cells. Overall, the integration of in vivo biomarker responses and Comet assay data in HepG2 cells yielded a comparable pattern, indicating that the in vitro FPG-modified Comet assay may be an effective and complementary line-of-evidence in ERA even in particularly challenging, natural, scenarios such as estuarine environments. PMID:25540652

  16. Evaluation of Reduced Sediment Volume Procedures for Acute Toxicity Tests Using the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost due to sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs assoc...

  17. Assessment of benthic flux of dissolved organic carbon in wetland and estuarine sediments using the eddy-correlation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swett, M. P.; Amirbahman, A.; Boss, E.

    2009-12-01

    Wetland and estuarine sediments release significant amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) due to high levels of microbial activity, particularly sulfate reduction. Changes in climate and hydrologic conditions have a potential to alter DOC release from these systems as well. This is a concern, as high levels of DOC can lead to mobilization of toxic metals and organics in natural waters. In addition, source waters high in DOC produce undesirable disinfection byproducts in water treatment. Various in situ methods, such as peepers and sediment core centrifugation, exist to quantify vertical benthic fluxes of DOC and other dissolved species from the sediment-water interface (SWI). These techniques, however, are intrusive and involve disturbance of the sediment environment. Eddy-correlation allows for real-time, non-intrusive, in situ flux measurement of important analytes, such as O2 and DOC. An Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is used to obtain three-dimensional fluid velocity measurements. The eddy-correlation technique employs the mathematical separation of fluid velocity into mean velocity and fluctuating velocity components, with the latter representing turbulent eddy velocity. DOC concentrations are measured using a colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorometer, and instantaneous vertical flux is determined from the correlated data. This study assesses DOC flux at three project sites: a beaver pond in the Lower Penobscot Watershed, Maine; a mudflat in Penobscot River, Maine; and a mudflat in Great Bay, New Hampshire. Eddy flux values are compared with results obtained using peepers and centrifugation, as well as vertical profiling.

  18. Incremental ecological exposure risks from contaminated sediments in an urban estuarine river.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David F; Iannuzzi, Timothy J

    2005-11-01

    Estuaries in urban regions present unique environmental management challenges. Ecosystems in urban estuaries are typically impacted by habitat loss and degradation, watershed modification, and nonpoint and point sources of many chemicals. Restoring such systems requires an understanding of the relative contribution of various stressors to overall ecological conditions and an understanding of shifting patterns of stress over time. In this article, we present the results of a multiparameter environmental assessment of a quintessential urbanized waterway: the lower Passaic River in the vicinity of Newark, New Jersey, USA. To provide the foundation for effective management decision making, we quantified baseline conditions (habitat losses and degradation), chemical concentrations in sediment and biota relative to published toxic effect levels, direct toxicity of sediments to benthic organisms, and food-web mediated risks to fish-eating birds. Habitat losses have been severe (greater than 85% of wetlands, nearly 100% of the total length of tidal and nontidal tributaries, and 100% of natural shoreline habitat have been lost), resulting in substantial habitat constraints on biota. Despite this, biological communities are present in the lower Passaic. In general, concentrations of toxic chemicals in surface sediments have fallen with time, and natural recovery processes are proceeding. Chemical concentrations remain high enough to impair survival of amphipods, but not amphipod growth or polychaete growth or survival as measured in laboratory bioassays using field-collected sediment. Fish and blue crab body burdens of some metals, PCBs, and the pesticide, DDT, are at concentrations sufficiently high to exceed toxicity thresholds. The resident fish-eating bird--the belted kingfisher--is at exposure risk from some metals, PCBs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo furans (PCDD/Fs). Migratory waders--the herons and egrets--are not at risk from chemical exposure

  19. Multi Length Scale Imaging of Flocculated Estuarine Sediments; Insights into their Complex 3D Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatland, Jonathan; Bushby, Andy; Droppo, Ian; Carr, Simon; Spencer, Kate

    2015-04-01

    Suspended estuarine sediments form flocs that are compositionally complex, fragile and irregularly shaped. The fate and transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is determined by the size, shape, density, porosity and stability of these flocs and prediction of SPM transport requires accurate measurements of these three-dimensional (3D) physical properties. However, the multi-scaled nature of flocs in addition to their fragility makes their characterisation in 3D problematic. Correlative microscopy is a strategy involving the spatial registration of information collected at different scales using several imaging modalities. Previously, conventional optical microscopy (COM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have enabled 2-dimensional (2D) floc characterisation at the gross (> 1 µm) and sub-micron scales respectively. Whilst this has proven insightful there remains a critical spatial and dimensional gap preventing the accurate measurement of geometric properties and an understanding of how structures at different scales are related. Within life sciences volumetric imaging techniques such as 3D micro-computed tomography (3D µCT) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy [FIB-SEM (or FIB-tomography)] have been combined to characterise materials at the centimetre to micron scale. Combining these techniques with TEM enables an advanced correlative study, allowing material properties across multiple spatial and dimensional scales to be visualised. The aims of this study are; 1) to formulate an advanced correlative imaging strategy combining 3D µCT, FIB-tomography and TEM; 2) to acquire 3D datasets; 3) to produce a model allowing their co-visualisation; 4) to interpret 3D floc structure. To reduce the chance of structural alterations during analysis samples were first 'fixed' in 2.5% glutaraldehyde/2% formaldehyde before being embedding in Durcupan resin. Intermediate steps were implemented to improve contrast and remove pore water, achieved by the

  20. Can Human-made Saltpans Represent an Alternative Habitat for Shorebirds? Implications for a Predictable Loss of Estuarine Sediment Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Maria P.; Lecoq, Miguel; Moniz, Filipe; Rabaça, João E.

    2014-01-01

    Estuarine areas worldwide are under intense pressure due to human activities such as upstream dam building. Shorebirds strongly depend on estuarine intertidal flats during migration and wintering periods and so are particularly vulnerable to such impacts, whose magnitude will depend on the availability of alternative feeding habitats. In this study we analyze if man-made saltpans can represent an alternative habitat for wintering and migrating shorebirds in the Guadiana estuary, a wetland that is already experiencing environmental changes due to the building of the Alqueva reservoir, the largest in Western Europe. We compared the use of mudflats and saltpans as feeding areas by several shorebird species before the construction of the dam. A dataset with 26 years of counts data was also analyzed in order to detect any long-term trend in shorebirds abundance. We concluded that saltpans, in particular the fully mechanized, can be used as an alternative habitat by larger species during winter and southward migration, thus playing a major role in minimizing the possible effects of sediment loss due to dam building. In contrast, smaller species were particularly dependent on mudflats to feed. A significant change in population trends, from positive to negative, was detected for two species. Although we still have no evidence that this is directly linked to dam building, this result and documented changes that limit primary productivity justifies the implementation of a long-term monitoring scheme of shorebird populations in this estuary. We also reinforce the need to manage the saltpans as key habitats for shorebirds.

  1. Effects of thiamphenicol on nitrate reduction and N2O release in estuarine and coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoyu; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-07-01

    Nitrate overload is an important driver of water pollution in most estuarine and coastal ecosystems, and thus nitrate reduction processes have attracted considerable attention. Antibiotics contamination is also an emerging environmental problem in estuarine and coastal regions as a result of growing production and usage of antibiotics. However, the effects of antibiotics on nitrate reduction remain unclear in these aquatic ecosystems. In this study, continuous-flow experiments were conducted to examine the effects of thiamphenicol (TAP, a common chloramphenicol antibiotic) on nitrate reduction and greenhouse gas N2O release. Functional genes involved in nitrogen transformation were also quantified to explore the microbial mechanisms of the TAP influence. Production of N2 were observed to be inhibited by TAP treatment, which implied the inhibition effect of TAP on nitrate reduction processes. As intermediate products of nitrogen transformation processes, nitrite and N2O were observed to accumulate during the incubation. Different TAP inhibition effects on related functional genes may be the microbial mechanism for the changes of nutrient fluxes, N2 fluxes and N2O release rates. These results indicate that the antibiotics residues in estuarine and coastal ecosystems may contribute to nitrate retention and N2O release, which could be a major factor responsible for eutrophication and greenhouse effects. PMID:27105162

  2. Development and validation of an experimental life support system for assessing the effects of global climate change and environmental contamination on estuarine and coastal marine benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Rocha, Rui J M; Pires, Ana C C; Ladeiro, Bruno; Castanheira, José M; Costa, Rodrigo; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Ribeiro, Rui; Pereira, Ruth; Lopes, Isabel; Marques, Catarina; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Calado, Ricardo; Cleary, Daniel F R; Gomes, Newton C M

    2013-08-01

    An experimental life support system (ELSS) was constructed to study the interactive effects of multiple stressors on coastal and estuarine benthic communities, specifically perturbations driven by global climate change and anthropogenic environmental contamination. The ELSS allows researchers to control salinity, pH, temperature, ultraviolet radiation (UVR), tidal rhythms and exposure to selected contaminants. Unlike most microcosms previously described, our system enables true independent replication (including randomization). In addition to this, it can be assembled using commercially available materials and equipment, thereby facilitating the replication of identical experimental setups in different geographical locations. Here, we validate the reproducibility and environmental quality of the system by comparing chemical and biological parameters recorded in our ELSS with those prevalent in the natural environment. Water, sediment microbial community and ragworm (the polychaete Hediste diversicolor) samples were obtained from four microcosms after 57 days of operation. In general, average concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO3 (-) ; NH4 (+) and PO4 (-3) ) in the water column of the ELSS experimental control units were within the range of concentrations recorded in the natural environment. While some shifts in bacterial community composition were observed between in situ and ELSS sediment samples, the relative abundance of most metabolically active bacterial taxa appeared to be stable. In addition, ELSS operation did not significantly affect survival, oxidative stress and neurological biomarkers of the model organism Hediste diversicolor. The validation data indicate that this system can be used to assess independent or interactive effects of climate change and environmental contamination on benthic communities. Researchers will be able to simulate the effects of these stressors on processes driven by microbial communities, sediment and seawater

  3. Estuarine microbial community characteristics as indicators of human-induced changes (Senegal River, West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvy, M.; Arfi, R.; Bernard, C.; Carré, C.; Got, P.; Pagano, M.; Troussellier, M.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding how human-induced management interacts with and affects the structure and functioning of large estuarine ecosystems is a major research challenge. In West Africa, human intervention on the Senegal River Estuary was intended to reduce the impact of major flooding by opening a new mouth in October 2003, 25 km to the north of the existing mouth. This study describes the effects of the new environmental conditions on the physical and biochemical characteristics of the water column and on microbial communities (bacteria, phytoplankton by size class and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF)) in comparison with the situation in 2002. In 2006, seventeen stations were sampled, during both neap and spring tides, at a depth of 0.5 m along a salinity gradient from freshwater to marine conditions. Inorganic nutrient levels were often low but there were high levels of chlorophyll a in the estuarine area (mean of 13.7-20.7 μg L -1 in spring and neap tide conditions, respectively) producing a eutrophic status in this estuary. Average HNF abundances were lower (mean of 108 and 174 cells l -1 during neap and spring tides, respectively) compared to the situation in 2002 (mean between 2.5 and 6.7 × 10 4 cells l -1). Three biological indicators for assessing environmental changes are discussed: ratio of bacteria to heterotrophic flagellate abundances, ratio of picophytoplankton to nanophytoplankton, and the density of thermo-tolerant coliforms (TTC) and faecal streptococci. It is demonstrated that man-made alteration of the hydrologic regime can modify the microbial community structure and cause the health status of the estuary to deteriorate.

  4. Cadmium dynamics in estuarine sediments: Effects of salinity and lugworm bioturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, A.D.; Banta, G.T.; Andersen, O.

    2000-02-01

    The authors investigated the effects of lugworm bioturbation on the fate of Cd added either to a thin layer at the sediment surface or homogeneously mixed throughout the sediment. In both situations, the Cd release to the overlying water was highest when lugworms were not present, most likely because bioturbation transported Cd-contaminated sediment away from the sediment surface. Also, irrigation transported water-borne Cd back into the sediment. When Cd was added to the sediment surface, a Cd peak emerged at the feeding depth of the worm within 1 d because of the transport of water-borne Cd down into the sediment by lugworm irrigation. In addition, the conveyor-belt feeding mode of the worm caused both burial of Cd by fecal casts and a gradual spreading of the Cd distribution within the sediment column. When Cd was added to the entire sediment column, bioturbation caused a net transport of Cd upwards, resulting in the surface layers having higher Cd concentrations than the deeper layers, indicating a net release of Cd from deeper sediments. The distribution of Cd in lugworms depended on the Cd exposure situation and suggested that worms were exposed mainly to water-borne Cd when Cd was added to the top of the sediment, whereas worms were exposed mainly by ingesting Cd-labeled sediment when Cd was mixed homogeneously throughout the sediment.

  5. An in situ postexposure feeding assay with Carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Susana M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Ribeiro, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references. PMID:16002194

  6. Heavy metals in estuarine surface sediments of the Hai River Basin, variation characteristics, chemical speciation and ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pei; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Lv, Shucong; Tang, Wenzhong

    2016-04-01

    The Hai River Basin (HRB) is considered to be one of the most polluted areas in China due to the high regional population density and rapid economic development. The estuaries of the HRB, which receive pollutants from terrestrial rivers, may subsequently suffer potential pollution and result in ecological risk of heavy metals. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were measured in estuarine surface sediments from 10 estuaries of the HRB to investigate their variation characteristics and ecological risks. The spatial difference of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in sediments was higher than that of the rest two elements. The Yongdingxin Estuary (YDX) and Ziyaxin Estuary (ZYX) in the Northern Hai River System (NHRS) were the most severe in terms of heavy metal contamination. According to the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) classification, Cd associated with the exchangeable and carbonate fraction (the average of 21.3 %) indicated medium risk to high risk. More than 50 % of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn on average were associated with the residual fraction. Based on the sum of the first three fractions (exchangeable and carbonate + reducible + oxidizable), the mobility order of these heavy metals was Cd >Pb > Zn ≈ Cu > Ni > Cr. Compared to the background values of cinnamon soil, the potential ecological risk index (RI) values ranged from 25.6 to 168, with an average of 91.2, indicating a low ecological risk in estuarine sites of the HRB. Cd and Pb were the dominant contributors to the toxic-response factor (45.8 and 25.5 %, respectively). The results give insight into the different control measures pertaining to heavy metal pollution and risk for both relatively clean estuaries and urban seriously polluted areas, respectively, for the formation of protect strategies of aquatic environment in the HRB. PMID:26758307

  7. Distribution and effects of shallow gas on bulk estuarine sediment properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, J.M.; Halka, J.P.; Conkwright, R.; Koczot, K.; Coleman, S.

    1992-01-01

    Gas bubble are present in sediments covering approximately 30% of the main stem of Chesapeake Bay, with bubbles occurring at the sediment-water interface in 18% of the main stem sediments. This biogenic gas is found either in the sediments in the lower salinity reaches of the Bay, or confined to sediments which overline infilled palaeodrainage channels formed during the Wisconsinan low sea level stand (approximately 18 ka). Gas associated with the old drainage network does not correlate with present bathymetry or sedimentological patterns. Some differences between the gas-charged and gas-free sediments are: (1) gas-charged sediments have water contents 10-20% higher than comparable gas-free cores; (2) organic matter is better presented with depth in the gas-charged sediments (upwards of 60% more at one depth); (3 monosulphides are dominant sulphide mineral phase within the gas-charged sediments, comprising over 40% of the total sulphur. Within the gas-free sediments monosulphides are significant only near the sediment-water interface and rapidly become negligible with depth, and; (4) cores of gas-charged sediments are highly colour-banded due to preservation of sulphide mineral variations, while gas-free cores are diagenetically altered to pyrite. ?? 1992.

  8. Comparison of the basin-scale effect of dredging operations and natural estuarine processes on suspended sediment concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data from San Pablo Bay, California, were analyzed to compare the basin-scale effect of dredging and disposal of dredged material (dredging operations) and natural estuarine processes. The analysis used twelve 3-wk to 5-wk periods of mid-depth and near-bottom SSC data collected at Point San Pablo every 15 min from 1993-1998. Point San Pablo is within a tidal excursion of a dredged-material disposal site. The SSC data were compared to dredging volume, Julian day, and hydrodynamic and meteorological variables that could affect SSC. Kendall's ??, Spearman's ??, and weighted (by the fraction of valid data in each period) Spearman's ??w correlation coefficients of the variables indicated which variables were significantly correlated with SSC. Wind-wave resuspension had the greatest effect on SSC. Median water-surface elevation was the primary factor affecting mid-depth SSC. Greater depths inhibit wind-wave resuspension of bottom sediment and indicate greater influence of less turbid water from down estuary. Seasonal variability in the supply of erodible sediment is the primary factor affecting near-bottom SSC. Natural physical processes in San Pablo Bay are more areally extensive, of equal or longer duration, and as frequent as dredging operations (when occurring), and they affect SSC at the tidal time scale. Natural processes control SSC at Point San Pablo even when dredging operations are occurring.

  9. Major factors influencing the elemental composition of surface estuarine sediments: the case of 15 estuaries in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, M; Vale, C; Raimundo, J; Pereira, P; Brito, P; Caetano, M

    2014-07-15

    Upper sediments (0-5 cm) were sampled in 94 sites of water bodies of the fifteen Portuguese estuaries characterized by distinct settings of climate, topography and lithology, and marked by diverse anthropogenic pressures. Confined areas recognized as highly anthropogenic impacted, as well as areas dominated by erosion or frequently dredged were not sampled. Grain size, organic carbon (Corg), Al and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. Normalisation of trace element concentrations to Al and Corg, correlations between elements and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed identifying elemental associations and the relevance of grain-size, lithology and anthropogenic inputs on sediment chemical composition. Whereas grain-size is the dominant effect for the majority of the studied estuaries, the southern estuaries Mira, Arade and Guadiana are dominated by specific lithologies of their river basins, and anthropogenic effects are identified in Ave, Leça, Tagus and Sado. This study emphasizes how baseline values of trace elements in sediments may vary within and among estuarine systems. PMID:24933166

  10. Major factors influencing the elemental composition of surface estuarine sediments: the case of 15 estuaries in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, M; Vale, C; Raimundo, J; Pereira, P; Brito, P; Caetano, M

    2014-07-15

    Upper sediments (0-5 cm) were sampled in 94 sites of water bodies of the fifteen Portuguese estuaries characterized by distinct settings of climate, topography and lithology, and marked by diverse anthropogenic pressures. Confined areas recognized as highly anthropogenic impacted, as well as areas dominated by erosion or frequently dredged were not sampled. Grain size, organic carbon (Corg), Al and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. Normalisation of trace element concentrations to Al and Corg, correlations between elements and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed identifying elemental associations and the relevance of grain-size, lithology and anthropogenic inputs on sediment chemical composition. Whereas grain-size is the dominant effect for the majority of the studied estuaries, the southern estuaries Mira, Arade and Guadiana are dominated by specific lithologies of their river basins, and anthropogenic effects are identified in Ave, Leça, Tagus and Sado. This study emphasizes how baseline values of trace elements in sediments may vary within and among estuarine systems.

  11. Extractable organohalogens (EOX) in sediment and biota collected at an estuarine marsh near a former chloralkali facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, K.; Giesy, J.P.; Kawano, Masahide; Kashima, Yuji; Matsui, Mitsuaki

    1999-04-01

    Extractable, organically bound chlorine (EOCl), which is determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA), has been used as a measure of pollution by chlorinated organics. In this study, the concentrations and distribution of extractable organohalogens (EOX = EOCl + EOBr + EOl) were measured in sediment, blue crab, fishes, birds, and terrapin collected at an estuarine marsh and a nearby creek contaminated by the disposal of wastes from a former chloralkali facility. The concentrations of the organohalogens were in the order of EOCl {much_gt} EOBr > EOl. The sediment EOCl concentration was comparable to those reported for sediments at sites that have been contaminated by the disposal of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents. The concentrations of EOCl measured in the tissues of blue crab, fishes, and birds were higher than any values previously reported. The absolute concentrations of EOCl coupled with its elevated proportions relative to the concentrations of EOBr or EOl in biota suggest that wastes from the chloralkali processes are a potential source of chlorinated organics present in the environment.

  12. Estuarine fish communities respond to climate variability over both river and ocean basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feyrer, Frederick V.; Cloern, James E.; Brown, Larry R.; Fish, Maxfield; Hieb, Kathryn; Baxter, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries are dynamic environments at the land–sea interface that are strongly affected by interannual climate variability. Ocean–atmosphere processes propagate into estuaries from the sea, and atmospheric processes over land propagate into estuaries from watersheds. We examined the effects of these two separate climate-driven processes on pelagic and demersal fish community structure along the salinity gradient in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. A 33-year data set (1980–2012) on pelagic and demersal fishes spanning the freshwater to marine regions of the estuary suggested the existence of five estuarine salinity fish guilds: limnetic (salinity = 0–1), oligohaline (salinity = 1–12), mesohaline (salinity = 6–19), polyhaline (salinity = 19–28), and euhaline (salinity = 29–32). Climatic effects propagating from the adjacent Pacific Ocean, indexed by the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), affected demersal and pelagic fish community structure in the euhaline and polyhaline guilds. Climatic effects propagating over land, indexed as freshwater outflow from the watershed (OUT), affected demersal and pelagic fish community structure in the oligohaline, mesohaline, polyhaline, and euhaline guilds. The effects of OUT propagated further down the estuary salinity gradient than the effects of NPGO that propagated up the estuary salinity gradient, exemplifying the role of variable freshwater outflow as an important driver of biotic communities in river-dominated estuaries. These results illustrate how unique sources of climate variability interact to drive biotic communities and, therefore, that climate change is likely to be an important driver in shaping the future trajectory of biotic communities in estuaries and other transitional habitats.

  13. Estuarine fish communities respond to climate variability over both river and ocean basins.

    PubMed

    Feyrer, Frederick; Cloern, James E; Brown, Larry R; Fish, Maxfield A; Hieb, Kathryn A; Baxter, Randall D

    2015-10-01

    Estuaries are dynamic environments at the land-sea interface that are strongly affected by interannual climate variability. Ocean-atmosphere processes propagate into estuaries from the sea, and atmospheric processes over land propagate into estuaries from watersheds. We examined the effects of these two separate climate-driven processes on pelagic and demersal fish community structure along the salinity gradient in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. A 33-year data set (1980-2012) on pelagic and demersal fishes spanning the freshwater to marine regions of the estuary suggested the existence of five estuarine salinity fish guilds: limnetic (salinity = 0-1), oligohaline (salinity = 1-12), mesohaline (salinity = 6-19), polyhaline (salinity = 19-28), and euhaline (salinity = 29-32). Climatic effects propagating from the adjacent Pacific Ocean, indexed by the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), affected demersal and pelagic fish community structure in the euhaline and polyhaline guilds. Climatic effects propagating over land, indexed as freshwater outflow from the watershed (OUT), affected demersal and pelagic fish community structure in the oligohaline, mesohaline, polyhaline, and euhaline guilds. The effects of OUT propagated further down the estuary salinity gradient than the effects of NPGO that propagated up the estuary salinity gradient, exemplifying the role of variable freshwater outflow as an important driver of biotic communities in river-dominated estuaries. These results illustrate how unique sources of climate variability interact to drive biotic communities and, therefore, that climate change is likely to be an important driver in shaping the future trajectory of biotic communities in estuaries and other transitional habitats. PMID:25966973

  14. Estuarine fish communities respond to climate variability over both river and ocean basins.

    PubMed

    Feyrer, Frederick; Cloern, James E; Brown, Larry R; Fish, Maxfield A; Hieb, Kathryn A; Baxter, Randall D

    2015-10-01

    Estuaries are dynamic environments at the land-sea interface that are strongly affected by interannual climate variability. Ocean-atmosphere processes propagate into estuaries from the sea, and atmospheric processes over land propagate into estuaries from watersheds. We examined the effects of these two separate climate-driven processes on pelagic and demersal fish community structure along the salinity gradient in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. A 33-year data set (1980-2012) on pelagic and demersal fishes spanning the freshwater to marine regions of the estuary suggested the existence of five estuarine salinity fish guilds: limnetic (salinity = 0-1), oligohaline (salinity = 1-12), mesohaline (salinity = 6-19), polyhaline (salinity = 19-28), and euhaline (salinity = 29-32). Climatic effects propagating from the adjacent Pacific Ocean, indexed by the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), affected demersal and pelagic fish community structure in the euhaline and polyhaline guilds. Climatic effects propagating over land, indexed as freshwater outflow from the watershed (OUT), affected demersal and pelagic fish community structure in the oligohaline, mesohaline, polyhaline, and euhaline guilds. The effects of OUT propagated further down the estuary salinity gradient than the effects of NPGO that propagated up the estuary salinity gradient, exemplifying the role of variable freshwater outflow as an important driver of biotic communities in river-dominated estuaries. These results illustrate how unique sources of climate variability interact to drive biotic communities and, therefore, that climate change is likely to be an important driver in shaping the future trajectory of biotic communities in estuaries and other transitional habitats.

  15. Development of a hybrid pollution index for heavy metals in marine and estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal pollution of sediments is a growing concern in most parts of the world, and numerous studies focussed on identifying contaminated sediments by using a range of digestion methods and pollution indices to estimate sediment contamination have been described in the literature. The current work provides a critical review of the more commonly used sediment digestion methods and identifies that weak acid digestion is more likely to provide guidance on elements that are likely to be bioavailable than other traditional methods of digestion. This work also reviews common pollution indices and identifies the Nemerow Pollution Index as the most appropriate method for establishing overall sediment quality. Consequently, a modified Pollution Index that can lead to a more reliable understanding of whole sediment quality is proposed. This modified pollution index is then tested against a number of existing studies and demonstrated to give a reliable and rapid estimate of sediment contamination and quality.

  16. Influence of paleotopography, base level and sedimentation rate on estuarine system response to the Holocene sea-level rise: The example of the Marais Vernier, Seine estuary, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Millena; Sebag, David; Durand, Alain; Laignel, Benoit; Saliege, Jean-François; Mahler, Barbara J.; Fauchard, Cyrille

    2007-08-01

    The response of coastal systems to allogenic forcing factors is of interest to diverse research communities, including those interested in global change, sequence stratigraphy and modelling. Quaternary systems are of particular interest because they provide analogues for ancient rock records. To understand the processes responsible for the sedimentary evolution of estuarine systems, it is necessary to study as many fluvial systems as possible. The objective of this review of the sedimentary evolution of a coastal marsh is to describe the influence of glacial paleotopography on the record of climatic and sea-level changes. The Marais Vernier, located at the interface between the marine and fluvial parts of the estuary, is a part of the Lower Seine Valley wetland network, which formed after the Last Glacial Maximum. Previous studies have described the Holocene filling, which is composed of peat and detrital material deposited following climatic and sea-level changes. To understand the sedimentary evolution, a paleotopographical (based on drillings and electromagnetic surveys) and a chronological framework (based on radiocarbon dates) for the southern peat marsh were defined. The peat marsh paleotopography has three erosional surfaces. The S1 surface is the oldest and also the highest, topographically; the S2 surface is younger, wider, and incised below the S1 surface; the S3 surface, the youngest of the three, is narrow and deeply incised. Radiometric ages were considered on the basis of their geographical position in relation to the S3 surface. Prior to 7.5 ka cal BP, sediments accumulated only above the narrow area described by the S3 surface, at a rate of 5.5 mm yr - 1 . After 7.5 ka cal BP, shortly after the flooding of the Seine estuary, sediments accumulated as peat deposits over the entire peat marsh at a rate of 3 mm yr - 1 in response to the sea-level rise. The paleotopography delimits the area of deposition during the Holocene, and thus plays a critical

  17. Evaluation of reduced sediment volume procedures for acute toxicity tests using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Farrar, J Daniel; Mount, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2010-12-01

    The volume of sediment required to perform a sediment toxicity bioassay is a major driver of the overall cost associated with that bioassay. Sediment volume affects bioassay cost because of sediment collection, transportation, storage, and disposal costs as well as labor costs associated with organism recovery at the conclusion of the exposure. The objective of the current study was to evaluate reduced sediment volume versions of the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 10-d acute Leptocheirus plumulosus method that uses a beaker size of 1,000 ml and 20 organisms. The test design used evaluated the effects of beaker size (250 and 100 ml) and associated sediment volume (75 and 30 ml, respectively) as well as organism loading density (10 and 20 organisms) on test endpoint responsiveness relative to the standard 10-d test method. These comparisons were completed with three different types of contaminated sediments: a field-collected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment, a lead-spiked control sediment, and a control sediment spiked with mineral oil. Assessment criteria included test endpoint sensitivity, endpoint consistency, statistical power, water quality, and logistical assessments. Results indicate that the current U.S. EPA method is preferable to the reduced sediment volume methods we assessed, but that a 250-ml beaker/10 organism experimental design is of comparable utility and may be advantageous when reduced sediment volumes are desirable because of high contaminant (spiking studies) or sediment disposal costs. In addition, the results of the current study provide toxicity reference values for PAHs, lead, and an oil surrogate for petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:20890914

  18. Multi-level assessment of chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments with the amphipod Gammarus locusta: II. Organism and population-level endpoints.

    PubMed

    Costa, Filipe O; Neuparth, Teresa; Correia, Ana D; Costa, Maria Helena

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to test the performance of the amphipod Gammarus locusta (L.) in chronic sediment toxicity tests. It constitutes part of a multi-level assessment of chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments, integrating organism and population-level endpoints with biochemical markers responses. Here we account for organism and population-level effects, while biomarker responses were reported in a companion article. Five moderately contaminated sediments from Sado and Tagus estuaries were tested, comprising 3 muddy and 2 sandy sediments. These sediments either did not show acute toxicity or were diluted with control sediment as much as required to remove acute toxicity. Subsequent chronic tests consisted of 28-day exposures with survival, individual growth and reproductive traits as endpoints. Two of the muddy sediments induced higher growth rates in the amphipods, and improved reproductive traits. This was understood to be a consequence of the amount of organic matter in the sediment, which was nutritionally beneficial to the amphipods, while concurrently decreasing contaminant bioavailability. Biomarker responses did not reveal toxicant-induced stress in amphipods exposed to these sediments. One of the sandy sediments was acutely toxic at 50% dilution, but in contrast stimulated amphipod growth when diluted 75%. This was presumed to be an indication of a hormetic response. Finally the two remaining contaminated sediments showed pronounced chronic toxicity, affecting survival and reproduction. The sex ratio of survivors was highly biased towards females, and offspring production was severely impaired. The particulars of the responses of this amphipod were examined, as well as strengths versus limitations of the sediment test. This study illustrates the utility of this chronic test for toxicity assessment of contaminated estuarine sediments, with potential application all along Atlantic Europe. PMID:15649529

  19. Geochemical characterization of mangrove sediments of the Zuari estuarine system, West coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noronha-D'Mello, Cheryl A.; Nayak, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    The grain size, clay mineralogy and geochemistry were studied in the sediment cores collected from the mangrove environments of the Zuari estuary to understand sources and factors affecting accumulation, mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of metals. Finer sediments, organic matter and metals were higher in the middle estuary and canal sediments while coarser sediments with fewer metal concentrations were seen in the lower estuary. Kaolinite, smectite, illite and traces of chlorite constituted the clay mineral assemblage and had a minor influence on metal distributions. In the study area, the hydrodynamic conditions changed from lower estuary towards the upstream regions owing to mixing of riverine and sea water that led to finer sediment deposition in the middle estuary. The variations in metal abundance were attributed to a difference in hydrodynamic conditions regulated by the tide, freshwater flow and geomorphology of the Zuari estuary. The results revealed that the estuary received material from natural weathering of rocks as well as from anthropogenic sources such as mining and industrial/domestic discharges. Enrichment factor and Geo-accumulation index showed that Fe, Mn and Cr were enriched in the mangrove sediments whereas fractionation of metals revealed that concentrations of bioavailable Mn pose a considerable risk to biota. Increased accumulation of Fe and Mn in the upper middle estuary and canal sediments, trap trace metals that may considerably affect sediment quality and dredging of these sediments can cause re-suspension and mobilize metals from loosely bound sedimentary forms to the water column.

  20. Perylene in surface sediments from the estuarine-inner shelf of the East China Sea: A potential indicator to assess the sediment footprint of large river influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa; Lin, Tian; Guo, Zhigang; Ma, Deyi; Yang, Zuosheng

    2014-11-01

    The large-scale occurrence of perylene in the surface sediment samples from the estuarine-inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) were examined, and for the first time by employing the multiproxies of organic geochemistry to explore the possible sources of perylene and its biogeochemical implication in this river-dominated area. The concentrations of perylene in this area ranged from 7.4 to 141.1 ng g-1, displaying an apparent decreased trend in an offshore direction and increased alongshore to the south. In addition to the fluvial input, the hydrodynamic sorted fine sediments and associated organic components could also act on the spatial variability of perylene and its varied relationships with the total organic carbon based proxies and PAHs. Higher proportions of perylene towards the 5-ring PAHs indicated a natural diagenetic input. Together with the reported high perylene abundance outside the sediment compartments, the significant relationships between perylene and the terrigenous organic matter (OM) proxies could suggest a combination of the predepositional fluvial input of perylene and in situ formation from its precursors with land-derived OM origins for its appearance in the coastal ECS. The deposition flux of perylene could be likely served as a geochemical imprint to assess the river input influence on the sedimentary environment of the coastal ECS.

  1. Ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community composition in estuarine and oceanic environments assessed using a functional gene microarray.

    PubMed

    Ward, Bess B; Eveillard, Damien; Kirshtein, Julie D; Nelson, Joshua D; Voytek, Mary A; Jackson, George A

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and functional gene diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated across a transect from the freshwater portions of the Chesapeake Bay and Choptank River out into the Sargasso Sea. Oligonucleotide probes (70-bp) designed to represent the diversity of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes from Chesapeake Bay clone libraries and cultivated AOB were used to construct a glass slide microarray. Hybridization patterns among the probes in 14 samples along the transect showed clear variations in amoA community composition. Probes representing uncultivated members of the Nitrosospira-like AOB dominated the probe signal, especially in the more marine samples. Of the cultivated species, only Nitrosospira briensis was detected at appreciable levels. Discrimination analysis of hybridization signals detected two guilds. Guild 1 was dominated by the marine Nitrosospira-like probe signal, and Guild 2's largest contribution was from upper bay (freshwater) sediment probes. Principal components analysis showed that Guild 1 was positively correlated with salinity, temperature and chlorophyll a concentration, while Guild 2 was positively correlated with concentrations of oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate nitrogen and carbon, suggesting that different amoA sequences represent organisms that occupy different ecological niches within the estuarine/marine environment. The trend from most diversity of AOB in the upper estuary towards dominance of a single type in the polyhaline region of the Bay is consistent with the declining importance of AOB with increasing salinity, and with the idea that AO-Archaea are the more important ammonia oxidizers in the ocean. PMID:17803777

  2. Ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community composition in estuarine and oceanic environments assessed using a functional gene microarray

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, B.B.; Eveillard, D.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Nelson, J.D.; Voytek, M.A.; Jackson, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and functional gene diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated across a transect from the freshwater portions of the Chesapeake Bay and Choptank River out into the Sargasso Sea. Oligonucleotide probes (70-bp) designed to represent the diversity of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes from Chesapeake Bay clone libraries and cultivated AOB were used to construct a glass slide microarray. Hybridization patterns among the probes in 14 samples along the transect showed clear variations in amoA community composition. Probes representing uncultivated members of the Nitrosospira-like AOB dominated the probe signal, especially in the more marine samples. Of the cultivated species, only Nitrosospira briensis was detected at appreciable levels. Discrimination analysis of hybridization signals detected two guilds. Guild 1 was dominated by the marine Nitrosospira-like probe signal, and Guild 2???s largest contribution was from upper bay (freshwater) sediment probes. Principal components analysis showed that Guild 1 was positively correlated with salinity, temperature and chlorophyll a concentration, while Guild 2 was positively correlated with concentrations of oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate nitrogen and carbon, suggesting that different amoA sequences represent organisms that occupy different ecological niches within the estuarine/marine environment. The trend from most diversity of AOB in the upper estuary towards dominance of a single type in the polyhaline region of the Bay is consistent with the declining importance of AOB with increasing salinity, and with the idea that AO-Archaea are the more important ammonia oxidizers in the ocean. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  3. Development of whole sediment bioassay using the marine/estuarine polychaetes Polydora cornuta Bosc 1802 and Boccardia proboscidea Hartman 1940

    SciTech Connect

    Pocklington, P.; Doe, K.; Huybers, A.; Wade, S.; Lee, D.

    1995-12-31

    The growing need by Environment Canada for a battery of marine toxicity tests has prompted the development of chronic, sublethal, sediment bioassay tests using marine or estuarine annelids (polychaetes). Initially several species of polychaetes found in the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic waters were assessed and a few of these were selected for testing survival and sensitivity under laboratory conditions and sensitivity to reference toxicants using field collected specimens. From these experiments, the authors identified several promising species and attempts were made to culture them. To date they have been successful in culturing one species from the Atlantic coast--Polydora cornuta and one species from the Pacific Coast--Boccardia proboscidea. They have been able to generate sufficient numbers of same-age larvae, raise them under controlled conditions to juveniles/young adults, and, subject them to a variety of Non-Contaminant Effects Trials (NCETs) and Contaminant Effects Trials (CETs). In the NCETs the authors determined the effect of food type and food ration, temperature, salinity, grain size, length of test condition. They found them to be moderately robust in terms of variable environmental parameters. In the CETs they found this species to be sensitive to sediments considered by Environment Canada to be toxic. They also determined the animal`s sensitivity to a reference toxicant CdCl{sub 2} (96 hr LC50).

  4. Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Washed cell suspension of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ???0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace qunatitites of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed

  5. Chemical versus Enzymatic Digestion of Contaminated Estuarine Sediment: Relative Importance of Iron and Manganese Oxides in Controlling Trace Metal Bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A.; Olsen, Y. S.

    2000-12-01

    Chemical and enzymatic reagents have been employed to determine available concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in contaminated estuarine sediment. Gastric and intestinal enzymes (pepsin, pH 2, and trypsin, pH 7·6, respectively) removed significantly more metal than was water-soluble or exchangeable (by seawater or ammonium acetate), while gastro-intestinal fluid of the demersal teleost, Pleuronectes platessa L. (plaice), employed to operationally define a bioavailable fraction of contaminants, generally solubilized more metal than the model enzymes. Manganese was considerably more available than Fe under these conditions and it is suggested that the principal mechanism of contaminant release is via surface complexation and reductive solubilization of Mn oxides, a process which is enhanced under conditions of low pH. Of the chemical reagents tested, acetic acid best represents the fraction of Mn (as well as Cu and Zn) which is available under gastro-intestinal conditions, suggesting that the reducing tendency of acetate is similar to that of the ligands encountered in the natural digestive environment. Although the precise enzymatic and non-enzymatic composition of plaice gastro-intestinal fluid may be different to that encountered in more representative, filter-feeding or burrowing organisms, a general implication of this study is that contaminants associated with Mn oxides are significantly more bioavailable than those associated with Fe oxides, and that contaminant bioavailability may be largely dictated by the oxidic composition of contaminated sediment.

  6. Associations between degraded benthic communities and contaminated sediments: Sabine Lake, Lake Pontchartrain, and Choctawhatchee Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, V.D.; Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) in the Gulf of Mexico supplements its base sampling effort each year with localized, intensive spatial sampling in selected large estuarine systems. By selecting random locations within 70 km{sup 2} hexagonal areas, individual estuaries were sampled using EMAP methods but at four times the density as base sampling. In 1992, 19 sites were sampled in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. In 1 993, 18 sites were sampled in Sabine Lake, Texas and 12 sites were sampled in Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida. At all sites, sediment grabs were taken and analyzed for benthic species composition and abundance, for toxicity to Ampelisca, and for organic and inorganic sediment contaminants. An indicator of biotic integrity, the benthic index, was calculated to represent the status of benthic communities. A series of statistical techniques, such as stepwise regression analysis, were employed to determine whether the variation in the benthic index could be associated with variation in sediment contaminants, sediment toxicity, or levels of dissolved oxygen. Spatial distributions of these parameters were examined to determine the geographical co-occurrence of degraded benthic communities and environmental stressors. In Lake Pontchartrain, for example, 85% of the variation in the benthic index was associated with decreased levels of dissolved oxygen, and increased concentrations of PCBs, alkanes, copper, tin, and zinc in the sediments.

  7. Estuarine and coastal water dynamics controlling sediment movement and plume development in Long Island Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggles, F. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. As the Connecticut River flows into Long Island Sound, large plumes develop during the mixing of ocean and estuarine waters. Plumes were delineated for July 28, October 8, October 27, and December 2, 1972, by analyzing ERTS-1 imagery with the SRI Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC). Because the chemical and physical composition of the plume and ocean water were not too different, the ESIAC was utilized to expand the scenes and subject the transparencies to varying combinations of viewing techniques to identify and delineate the plumes. Best results were obtained when band 5 transparencies were used. Indications are, when the scene being analyzed is predominantly in the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the negative transparencies. When the analysis is being done above the first two steps of the gray scale, it is best to use the positive transparencies.

  8. Response of anaerobic ammonium oxidation to inorganic nitrogen fluctuations in temperate estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Catarina; Magalhães, Catarina; Joye, Samantha B.; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) highlighted the importance of alternative metabolic pathways to inorganic nitrogen removal in natural environments, particularly in those subjected to increased nitrate inputs, such as estuaries. Laboratory enrichment experiments were used to test the effect of increasing loads of nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), and ammonium (NH4+) on the anammox process. Three Atlantic temperate estuaries (NW Portugal) were investigated along a salinity gradient, and anammox activity was measured under different NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ treatments, using the isotope pairing technique. Obtained results showed that NO3- stimulated denitrification but not anammox, whereas NO2- additions had a positive effect on anammox activity, confirming its role as a key environmental control. On the other hand, increasing NH4+ concentrations seemed to inhibit anammox for low salinity sites. Our findings suggested an important role of the natural availability of nitrogen compounds in regulating anammox and the magnitude of anammox versus denitrification in estuarine environments.

  9. Sensitivity of the sediment trapping capacity of an estuarine mangrove forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemsen, P. W. J. M.; Horstman, E. M.; Borsje, B. W.; Friess, D. A.; Dohmen-Janssen, C. M.

    2016-11-01

    Intertidal mangrove forests exist in a dynamic coastal environment that is increasingly impacted by human interference, leading to habitat fragmentation, reduced habitat quality and changing hydrodynamic and geomorphological conditions. Biophysical feedback mechanisms are essential to maintain mangrove ecosystems under such changing conditions, for example by facilitating sediment deposition during periods of tidal flooding to allow for long-term coastal accretion. However, human interferences affect these biophysical interactions. This study investigated the consequences of two widespread anthropogenic intervention scenarios on biophysical interactions in mangroves: sediment starvation (reduced sediment supply) and coastal squeeze (limited landward accommodation space). Field observations of hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics were conducted in Mandai mangrove fringing the sheltered northern shore of Singapore. A process-based numerical model (Delft3D) of this field site was set-up, providing accurate approximations of the observed flow velocities and deposition rates. This model was used for a scenario analysis of the initial response of the sediment trapping capacity in the mangrove system to instantaneous changes related to anthropogenic interventions. This analysis showed increased deposition rates in major parts of the mangrove when sediment supplies increased (up to three times more deposition after 1 tide) or when the landward accommodation space of the mangrove was extended (+ 17% deposition). A comparison of the outcomes of these scenarios with the current state of the mangrove underlined a lack of short-term sediment trapping capacity, affecting the (longer-term) adaptive capacity of the system. Thus, at present Mandai mangrove is potentially affected by reduced sediment supply and limited landward accommodation space. Importantly, actions to reduce this anthropogenic influence could enhance mangroves' sediment trapping capacity, facilitating increased

  10. Radiocarbon dating, chronologic framework, and changes in accumulation rates of holocene estuarine sediments from Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Baucom, P.C.; Bratton, J.F.; Cronin, T. M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Willard, D.; Zimmerman, A.R.; Vogt, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Rapidly accumulating Holocene sediments in estuaries commonly are difficult to sample and date. In Chesapeake Bay, we obtained sediment cores as much as 20 m in length and used numerous radiocarbon ages measured by accelarator mass spectrometry methods to provide the first detailed chronologies of Holocene sediment accumulation in the bay. Carbon in these sediments is a complex mixture of materials from a variety of sources. Analyses of different components of the sediments show that total organic carbon ages are largely unreliable, because much of the carbon (including coal) has been transported to the bay from upstream sources and is older than sediments in which it was deposited. Mollusk shells (clams, oysters) and foraminifera appear to give reliable results, although reworking and burrowing are potential problems. Analyses of museum specimens collected alive before atmospheric nuclear testing suggest that the standard reservoir correction for marine samples is appropriate for middle to lower Chesapeake Bay. The biogenic carbonate radiocarbon ages are compatible with 210 Pb and 137 Cs data and pollen stratigraphy from the same sites. Post-settlement changes in sediment transport and accumulation is an important environmental issue in many estuaries, including the Chesapeake. Our data show that large variations in sediment mass accumulation rates occur among sites. At shallow water sites, local factors seem to control changes in accumulation rates with time. Our two relatively deep-water sites in the axial channel of the bay have different long-term average accumulation rates, but the history of sediment accumulation at these sites appears to reflect overall conditions in the bay. Mass accumulation rates at the two deep-water sites rapidly increased by about fourfold coincident with widespread land clearance for agriculture in the Chesapeake watershed.

  11. Influence of the submersed plant, Potamogeton perfoliatus, on nitrogen cycling in estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caffrey, J.M.; Kemp, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    Using 15N isotope techniques P. perfoliatus is shown to have a significant influence on sediment N cycling by direct uptake of NH4+ and NO3- and by indirect mechanisms leading to enhanced nitrification and denitrification. -from Authors

  12. Development of Reduced Sediment Volume Test Procedures for the Estuarine Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sediment volume requirements of toxicity and bioaccumulation bioassays affect the cost of the assessment related to field collection, transportation, storage, disposal, and labor associated with organism recovery at bioassay termination. Our objective was to assess four redu...

  13. Sediment quality assessment and Toxicity Identification Evaluation studies in Lavaca Bay, Texas -- An estuarine Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.; Hooten, R.; May, L.; Teas, T.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment quality assessment survey was conducted in the Lavaca Bay system which has been designated a Superfund site because of elevated concentrations of mercury and other contaminants (e.g., PAHs) in the sediments. Twenty-four stations were sampled in the initial survey. Sediment pore water was extracted pneumatically and the toxicity of the pore water determined using the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. Based on the results of the toxicity tests, aliquots of the toxic sediments were analyzed for metals, PAHs, and pesticides. Based on these results, several of the most toxic sites were resampled and a preliminary Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed with the pore water using the sea urchin fertilization test. Preliminary results indicated that the toxic components were removed by adsorption on a C-18 column but were not affected by EDTA additions and, therefore, the primary toxicants are hydrophobic in nature.

  14. A comparison of two nitrification inhibitors used to measure nitrification rates in estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caffrey, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    Nitrification rates were measured using intact sediment cores from South San Francisco Bay and two different nitrification inhibitors: acetylene and methyl fluoride. Sediment oxygen consumption and ammonium and nitrate fluxes were also measured in these cores. Four experiments were conducted in the spring, and one in the fall of 1993. There was no significant difference in nitrification rates measured using the two inhibitors, which suggests that methyl fluoride can be used as an effective inhibitor of nitrification. Nitrification was positively correlated with sediment oxygen consumption and numbers of macrofauna. This suggests that bioturbation by macrofauna is an important control of nitrification rates. Irrigation by the tube-dwelling polychaete, Asychis elongata, which dominates the benthic biomass at this location, appears particularly important. Ammonium fluxes out of the sediment were greatest about one week after the spring bloom, while nitrification peaked about one month later.

  15. Variation in numbers and behaviour of waders during the tidal cycle: implications for the use of estuarine sediment flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granadeiro, José P.; Dias, Maria P.; Martins, Ricardo C.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2006-05-01

    Estuarine sediment flats are essential feeding areas for waders, but their exploitation is constrained by the movements of tides. In this cyclic environment the exposure period of sediment flats decreases several fold from upper to lower flats, and the moving tidal waterline briefly creates particular conditions for waders and their prey. This study attempts to determine how the exposure period and the movement of the tide line influence the use of space and food resources by waders across the sediment flats. Wader counts and observations of feeding behaviour were carried out in all phases of the tidal cycle, in plots forming a transect from upper to lower flats, thus representing a gradient of exposure periods. Pecking, prey intake, and success rates varied little along the gradient. Some species actively followed the tide line while foraging, whereas others are evenly spread over the exposed flats. Black-tailed Godwit, Dunlin and Avocet were 'tide followers', whereas Grey Plover, Redshank and Bar-tailed Godwit were 'non-followers'. Densities of 'followers' near the tide line were up to five times higher than elsewhere. Species differed markedly in the way they used space on the flats, but in general the rate of biomass acquisition (in grams of ash-free dry weight per time exposed) was much higher in lower flats. However, this preference was insufficient to counter the much longer exposure of the upper flats, so the total amount of biomass consumed on the latter was greater. Therefore, it was in these upper flats that waders fulfilled most of their energetic needs. Consequently, upper flats are of particular importance for the conservation of wader assemblages, but because they are usually closer to shore they tend to suffer the highest pressure from disturbance and land reclamation.

  16. Deposition of zinc and cadmium by marine bacteria in estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLerran, C.J.; Holmes, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    Mixed cultures of marine bacteria isolated from the sediments of Corpus Christi Harbor were examined for their ability to assimilate or precipitate radioactive zinc and cadmium from solution. Test data indicate that during summer, when bacterial activity is at a maximum, the bacteria and their metabolic byproducts play a significant role in the removal of zinc and cadmium from seawater and their subsequent deposition in marine sediments.

  17. Impacts of runoff from sulfuric soils on sediment chemistry in an estuarine lake.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Bennett C T; Smith, Jodie; Keene, Annabelle F; Tunks, Mark; Kinsela, Andrew; White, Ian

    2004-08-15

    The impact of runoff from sulfuric soils in the heavily drained Cudgen Lake floodplain, eastern Australia on water quality and downstream coastal lake sediments has been examined. The oxidation of sulfidic soils and the transformation into sulfuric soils leads to changes not only in the upper soil profile but also affects drainage water quality and the chemistry of bottom sediments in receiving waters. Oxidation transforms the soil from a sink for sulfur and metals to a significant source for downstream environments. Sulfuric soils within the Cudgen Lake catchment contain 9.18 x 10(5) mol H+ per hectare as well as elevated concentration of metals (e.g. Al, Fe, Mn) and sulfate. These products of sulfidic soil oxidation are transported efficiently from the soil profile by the constructed drainage network and into the downstream lake system. The acid volatile sulfur (AVS), chromium reducible sulfur (CRS), total sulfur, organic carbon, and reactive iron contents present in the solid phase of the lake sediments are reported. The AVS/CRS, DOP and DOS values observed in the lake sediments show that natural monosulfide formation in the near surface sediments has been enhanced due to increased inputs of organic matter, sulfate, ferrous iron and other metals following development of the catchment. There are elevated concentrations of metals (e.g. As, Al, Cd, Cr, Hg, Zn and Pb) in the upper layer of monosulfidic lake sediments compared with the underlying pyritic sediments some of which exceed sediment quality guidelines. These metals could be released by dredging or through re-suspension during high flow conditions or enter the food chain.

  18. Nitrate Reduction Functional Genes and Nitrate Reduction Potentials Persist in Deeper Estuarine Sediments. Why?

    PubMed Central

    Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J.; Dong, Liang F.; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Nedwell, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This

  19. Vertical Distribution of Denitrification in an Estuarine Sediment: Integrating Sediment Flowthrough Reactor Experiments and Microprofiling via Reactive Transport Modeling▿

    PubMed Central

    Laverman, Anniet M.; Meile, Christof; Van Cappellen, Philippe; Wieringa, Elze B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Denitrifying activity in a sediment from the freshwater part of a polluted estuary in northwest Europe was quantified using two independent approaches. High-resolution N2O microprofiles were recorded in sediment cores to which acetylene was added to the overlying water and injected laterally into the sediment. The vertical distribution of the rate of denitrification supported by nitrate uptake from the overlying water was then derived from the time series N2O concentration profiles. The rates obtained for the core incubations were compared to the rates predicted by a forward reactive transport model, which included rate expression for denitrification calibrated with potential rate measurements obtained in flowthrough reactors containing undisturbed, 1-cm-thick sediment slices. The two approaches yielded comparable rate profiles, with a near-surface, 2- to 3-mm narrow zone of denitrification and maximum in situ rates on the order of 200 to 300 nmol cm−3 h−1. The maximum in situ rates were about twofold lower than the maximum potential rate for the 0- to 1-cm depth interval of the sediment, indicating that in situ denitrification was nitrate limited. The experimentally and model-derived rates of denitrification implied that there was nitrate uptake by the sediment at a rate that was on the order of 50 (± 10) nmol cm−2 h−1, which agreed well with direct nitrate flux measurements for core incubations. Reactive transport model calculations showed that benthic uptake of nitrate at the site is particularly sensitive to the nitrate concentration in the overlying water and the maximum potential rate of denitrification in the sediment. PMID:17071796

  20. Patchy sediment contamination scenario and the habitat selection by an estuarine mudsnail.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Martinez-Haro, Mónica; Pais-Costa, Antónia J; Marques, João C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2016-03-01

    Since mudsnails are able to avoid contaminated sediment and that the contaminants in sediment are not uniformly distributed, the mudsnail Peringia ulvae was exposed to cadmium (Cd) spiked sediment and assessed for avoidance response in a heterogeneous contamination scenario. Four Cd concentrations were prepared and disposed in patches on dishes, which were divided in 25 fields (six fields for each sediment concentration); 24 organisms were deployed in the central field, with no sediment. Observations were made at 2, 4 and 6 h (corresponding to immediate response), 8, 10 and 12 h (very short term), and 24 h (short term). A trend to avoid contaminated patches was observed in the immediate and very short term. After 24 h exposure, the organisms exposed to the highest level of contamination seemed to have lost the ability to move and avoid contaminated patches. In a contamination scenario in which non- and contaminated sediment patches are heterogeneously distributed, local mudsnail populations can simply rearrange their locality without needing to move to a different habitat. Such less contaminated patches can become donor areas in a future recolonization scenario.

  1. Suspended sediment transport in an estuarine tidal channel within San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, R.W.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Kranck, K.

    1986-01-01

    Size distributions of the suspended sediment samples, estimates of particle settling velocity (??s), friction velocity (U*), and reference concentration (Ca) at z = 20 cm were used in the suspended sediment distribution equations to evaluate their ability to predict the observed suspended sediment profiles. Three suspended sediment particle conditions were evaluated: (1) individual particle sizes in the 4-11 ?? (62.5-0.5 ??m) size range with the reference concentration Ca at z = 20 cm (C??); (2) individual particle sizes in the 4-6 ?? size range, flocs representing the 7-11 ?? size range with the reference concentration Ca at z = 20 cm (Cf); and (3) individual particle sizes in the 4-6 ?? size range, flocs representing the 7-11 ?? size range with the reference concentration predicted as a function of the bed sediment size distribution and the square of the excess shear stress. An analysis was also carried out on the sensitivity of the suspended sediment distribution equation to deviations in the primary variables ??s, U*, and Ca. In addition, computations of mass flux were made in order to show vertical variations in mass flux for varying flow conditions. ?? 1986.

  2. Estuarine Sediment Deposition during Wetland Restoration: A GIS and Remote Sensing Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Michelle; Kuss, Amber; Kentron, Tyler; Remar, Alex; Choksi, Vivek; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of the industrial salt flats in the San Francisco Bay, California is an ongoing wetland rehabilitation project. Remote sensing maps of suspended sediment concentration, and other GIS predictor variables were used to model sediment deposition within these recently restored ponds. Suspended sediment concentrations were calibrated to reflectance values from Landsat TM 5 and ASTER using three statistical techniques -- linear regression, multivariate regression, and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to map suspended sediment concentrations. Multivariate and ANN regressions using ASTER proved to be the most accurate methods, yielding r2 values of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Predictor variables such as sediment grain size and tidal frequency were used in the Marsh Sedimentation (MARSED) model for predicting deposition rates for three years. MARSED results for a fully restored pond show a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 66.8 mm (<1) between modeled and field observations. This model was further applied to a pond breached in November 2010 and indicated that the recently breached pond will reach equilibrium levels after 60 months of tidal inundation.

  3. Effect of Light on Biomass and Community Structure of Estuarine Detrital Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bobbie, R. J.; Nickels, J. S.; Smith, G. A.; Fazio, S. D.; Findlay, R. H.; Davis, W. M.; White, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of estuarine detrital microbiota grown with and without light in the absence of macroscopic grazing showed shifts in the community structure that enabled correlation between various biochemical measures. Analysis of these biochemical measures showed that growth in light induces the smallest increases in procaryotic attributes such as muramic acid; wall glucosamine; lipid phosphate; total extractable adenosine nucleotides; short-branched, cyclopropane, and cis-vaccenic fatty acids; lipid glucose and mannose; the incorporation of acetate into lipid; and the formation of deoxyribonucleic acid from thymidine. Measures of the microfauna such as lipid inositol and the γ-linolenic series of polyenoic fatty acids also increased minimally in the light-grown microbiota. Measures of sulfo-lipid synthesis, lipid glycerol, total extractable palmitate, 18-carbon polyenoic fatty acids, and total polyenoic fatty acids longer than 20 carbons increased 10- to 15-fold in algae and fungi. Chlorophyll a, lipid galactose, and the 16- and 20- carbon polyenoic fatty acids characteristic of diatoms increased maximally in the light. This increase of diatom measure correlated with the sheets of diatoms detected by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:16345808

  4. SPECIES-ABUNDANCE-BIOMASS RESPONSES BY ESTUARINE MACROBENTHOS TO SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic community responses can be measured through concerted changes in univariate metrics, including species richness, total abundance, and total biomass. The classic model of pollution effects on marine macroinvertebrate communities recognizes that species/abundance/bioma...

  5. Estuarine sediment transport by gravity-driven movement of the nepheloid layer, Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Williams, S.J.; Crocker, J.M.; Doran, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of sidescan-sonar imagery provides evidence that down-slope gravity-driven movement of the nepheloid layer constitutes an important mode of transporting sediment into the basins of north-central Long Island Sound, a major US East Coast estuary. In the Western Basin, this transport mechanism has formed dendritic drainage systems characterized by branching patterns of low backscatter on the seafloor that exceed 7.4 km in length and progressively widen down-slope, reaching widths of over 0.6 km at their southern distal ends. Although much smaller, dendritic patterns of similar morphology are also present in the northwestern part of the Central Basin. Because many contaminants display affinities for adsorption onto fine-grained sediments, and because the Sound is affected by seasonal hypoxia, mechanisms and dispersal pathways by which inorganic and organic sediments are remobilized and transported impact the eventual fate of the contaminants and environmental health of the estuary. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  6. Distribution and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine, estuarine, and marine sediments in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige

    2006-08-01

    To assess the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in coastal and riverine environments in Thailand, we collected 42 surface sediment samples from canals, a river, an estuary, and coastal areas in Thailand in 2003 and analyzed them for PAHs with 3-7 benzene rings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 6 to 8399 ng/g dry weight. The average total PAH concentrations were 2290+/-2556 ng/g dry weight (n=8) in canals, 263+/-174 (n=11) in the river, 179+/-222 (n=9) in the estuary, and 50+/-56 (n=14) in coastal areas. Comparison of the concentration range with a worldwide survey of sedimentary PAH concentrations ranked PAH contamination in Thai sediments as low to moderate. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P ratio) allows discrimination of PAH sources between petrogenic (>2) and pyrogenic (<0.5) origins. Sediments from urban canals in Bangkok showed the highest PAH concentrations and petrogenic signatures (MP/P=1.84+/-0.98 [n=6] in canal sediments) with abundant alkylated PAHs, indicating major sources of petrogenic PAHs in the city. To identify the sources of the petrogenic inputs in Thailand, we analyzed triterpanes, biomarkers of petroleum pollution, in the sediment samples and in potential source materials. Hopane profiles were remarkably uniform throughout the nation, suggesting a diffuse single source (e.g. automobiles). Molecular profiles of hopanes and PAHs in sediments from the urban canals were similar to those in street dust, indicating that street dust is one of the major sources of petrogenic PAHs in the urban area. On the other hand, low levels of PAHs (approximately 50 ng/g) with a pyrogenic signature (MP/P ratio approximately 0.5) were widely recorded in remote areas of the coast and the Chao Phraya River. These pyrogenic PAHs may be atmospherically transported throughout the nation. Middle and lower reaches of the Chao Phraya River, the river

  7. Interactions between waves, sediment, and turbulence on a shallow estuarine mudflat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacVean, Lissa J.; Lacy, Jessica R.

    2014-01-01

    stress, which diffused sediment upward and limited stratification. Our findings highlight a pathway for waves to supply energy to both the production and destruction of turbulence, and demonstrate that in such shallow depths, TKE and SSC can be elevated over more of the water column than predicted by traditional models.

  8. Distribution and estrogenic potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in estuarine sediments from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, M; Sahu, S K; Pandit, G G

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are responsible for inappropriate development and they alter the hormonal and homeostatic systems of organism. Phthalates (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA) and other EDCs were monitored in surface sediments at different stations across Thane Creek, India. Analysis of PAEs was carried out using GC-MS technique, while BPA and other EDCs were analyzing on UPLC-PDA instrument. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) had the highest concentration among all fourteen analyzed phthalates ranges between 0.13 and 0.4 mg kg(-1); and was detectable in all sediment samples. Strong correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.01) was observed between total organic carbon (TOC, %) and total PAEs. BPA was also detected in all samples; average BPA concentration varies from 16.3 to 35.79 μg kg(-1) with mean value 25.15 μg kg(-1) dry weight of sediment. Synthetic EDCs such as 4-para-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) were also analyzed; and their average concentrations were founds to be 356.5 and 176 μg kg(-1), respectively. Estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were the main contributors to the overall estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQs) in sediment, their average total percentage contributions is more than 90 %. PMID:27316650

  9. MOBILIZATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF METALS FROM ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS DURING PERIODS OF SIMULATED RESUSPENSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades, heavy metals have been deposited into marine sediments as a result of anthropogenic activities. Depending on their bioavailability, they may represent a risk to aquatic organisms contributing to the overall degraded conditions present in many estuaries. Over time, ma...

  10. Occurrence of alkyltrimethylammonium compounds in urban estuarine sediments: behentrimonium as a new emerging contaminant.

    PubMed

    Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Li, Xiaolin; Bopp, Richard F; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2010-10-01

    The distribution of alkyltrimethylammonium compounds (ATMAC), cationic surfactants used in a wide variety of applications, has been determined in sediments from Jamaica Bay (NY). Total concentrations in surficial sediments collected between 1998 and 2008 ranged from 361 to 6750 ng/g. The highest values were found in samples from a deeper basin directly affected by treated wastewater discharges. Behentrimonium, a mixture dominated by a homologue having 22 carbon atoms in its alkyl chain (ATMAC 22), was identified for the first time using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and accounted for approximately 80% of the total ATMAC in recent sediment samples. Analyses of a dated sediment core and subsequent surface grab samples revealed an exponential increase in concentration over the last three decades with a doubling time of 3.9 years. Similar temporal trends were seen in surface samples from other sites in Jamaica Bay and Newton Creek (NY), another site greatly influenced by wastewater discharges. This dramatic increase in ATMAC 22 reflects greater use of behentrimonium and likely replacement of other products containing other ATMAC homologues in personal care products. Further monitoring is recommended to assess the environmental risk and fate of this persistent emerging contaminant. PMID:20804122

  11. Comparative genome analyses of novel Mangrovimonas-like strains isolated from estuarine mangrove sediments reveal xylan and arabinan utilization genes.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Balachandra; Lau, Nyok-Sean; Furusawa, Go; Kim, Seok-Won; Taylor, Todd D; Foong, Swee Yeok; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2016-02-01

    To date, the genus Mangrovimonas consists of only one species, Mangrovimonas yunxiaonensis strain LY01 that is known to have algicidal effects against harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Alexandrium tamarense. In this study, the whole genome sequence of three Mangrovimonas-like strains, TPBH4(T)(=LMG 28913(T),=JCM 30882(T)), ST2L12(T)(=LMG 28914(T),=JCM 30880(T)) and ST2L15(T)(=LMG 28915(T),=JCM 30881(T)) isolated from estuarine mangrove sediments in Perak, Malaysia were described. The sequenced genomes had a range of assembly size ranging from 3.56 Mb to 4.15 Mb which are significantly larger than that of M. yunxiaonensis LY01 (2.67 Mb). Xylan, xylose, L-arabinan and L-arabinose utilization genes were found in the genome sequences of the three Mangrovimonas-like strains described in this study. In contrast, these carbohydrate metabolism genes were not found in the genome sequence of LY01. In addition, TPBH4(T) and ST2L12(T) show capability to degrade xylan using qualitative plate assay method. PMID:26795059

  12. Quantification of Sterol and Triterpenol Biomarkers in Sediments of the Cananéia-Iguape Estuarine-Lagoonal System (Brazil) by UHPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Weber, Rolf Roland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Sterols and triterpenols present in sedimentary cores from 12 stations along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Ten sterols and three triterpenols were identified and quantified, indicating both natural and anthropogenic sources. The relative distributions of sterol and triterpenol showed that the study area is submitted to organic matter (OM) from the Ribeira de Iguape River, seawater, surrounding vegetation, and plankton production. The contribution of these sources depends on the region of the estuarine-lagoonal system and the depth of sediment. Regarding anthropogenic sources, only the samples submitted to freshwater flow from the Ribeira de Iguape River presented concentration of coprostanol higher than the threshold value and diagnostic ratios, coprostanol/(coprostanol + cholestanol) and coprostanol/cholesterol, that indicate moderate contamination by domestic sewage in that area of the estuarine-lagoonal system. Therefore, the approach used herein identified the OM sources and its transport along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system (Brazil), which is a complex of lagoonal channels located in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Biosphere Reserve. PMID:27087811

  13. Model-based interpretation of sediment concentration and vertical flux measurements in a shallow estuarine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Andreas; Lacy, Jessica R.; Gladding, Steve; Holleman, Rusty; Stacey, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model describing tidally varying vertical mixing and settling was used to interpret sediment concentrations and vertical fluxes observed in the shoals of South San Francisco Bay by two acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) at elevations of 0.36 m and 0.72 m above bed. Measured sediment concentrations changed by up to 100 g m−3 over the semidiurnal tidal cycle. These dynamics were dominated by local resuspension and settling. Multiple particle class models suggested the existence of a class with fast settling velocities (ws of 9.0 × 10−4 m s−1 in spring and 5.8 × 10−4 m s−1 in fall) and a slowly settling particle fraction (ws of <1 × 10−7 m s−1 in spring and 1.4 × 10−5 m s−1 in fall). Modeled concentrations of slowly settling particles at 0.36 m were as high as 20 g m−3 during fall and varied with the spring-neap cycle while fine sediment concentrations in spring were constant around 5 g m−3. Analysis of in situ water column floc size distributions suggested that floc properties in the lower part of the water column were most likely governed by particle-size distribution on the bed and not by coagulation, validating our multiple particle size approach. A comparison of different sediment bed models with respect to model performance, sensitivity, and identifiability suggested that the use of a sediment erosion model linear in bottom shear stress τb (E = M (τb − τc)) was the most appropriate choice to describe the field observations when the critical shear stress τc and the proportionality factor M were kept constant.

  14. Rapid toxicity assessment of sediments from estuarine ecosystems: A new tandem in vitro testing approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.T.; Long, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Microtox?? and Mutatox?? were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of organic sediment extracts from Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay, two estuaries that cover about 273 and 127 km2, respectively, along the Gulf coast of Florida, USA. The sensitivity and selectivity of these two bioluminescent toxicity assays were demonstrated in validation studies with over 50 pesticides, genotoxins, and industrial pollutants, both as single compounds and in complex mixtures. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of insecticides, petroleum products, and polychlorinated biphenyls determined by Microtox all tended to group around the mean EC50 value of 1.2 (0.8) mg/L. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sensitivity of Mutatox was in general similar to that reported in the Ames test. Surficial sediment samples were collected, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated and concentrated under nitrogen, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity, and compared with reference sediments. Samples with low EC50 values, and determined to be genotoxic, were detected in Massalina Bayou, Watson Bayou, East Bay, and St. Andrew Bay-East in St. Andrew Bay as well as Bayou Grande, Bayou Chico, and Bayou Texar in Pensacola Bay. An overview of these data sets analyzed by Spearman rank correlation showed a significant correlation between acute toxicity and genotoxicity (p < 0.05). Microtox and Mutatox in tandem was a sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid (<24 h) screening tool that identified troublesome areas of pollution and assessed the potential sediment toxicity of lipophilic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Nitrogen reduction pathways in estuarine sediments: Influences of organic carbon and sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, Patrick; Tobias, Craig; Cady, David

    2015-10-01

    Potential rates of sediment denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were mapped across the entire Niantic River Estuary, CT, USA, at 100-200 m scale resolution consisting of 60 stations. On the estuary scale, denitrification accounted for ~ 90% of the nitrogen reduction, followed by DNRA and anammox. However, the relative importance of these reactions to each other was not evenly distributed through the estuary. A Nitrogen Retention Index (NIRI) was calculated from the rate data (DNRA/(denitrification + anammox)) as a metric to assess the relative amounts of reactive nitrogen being recycled versus retained in the sediments following reduction. The distribution of rates and accompanying sediment geochemical analytes suggested variable controls on specific reactions, and on the NIRI, depending on position in the estuary and that these controls were linked to organic carbon abundance, organic carbon source, and pore water sulfide concentration. The relationship between NIRI and organic carbon abundance was dependent on organic carbon source. Sulfide proved the single best predictor of NIRI, accounting for 44% of its observed variance throughout the whole estuary. We suggest that as a single metric, sulfide may have utility as a proxy for gauging the distribution of denitrification, anammox, and DNRA.

  16. Transfer of chemical elements from a contaminated estuarine sediment to river water. A leaching assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Manuela; Peres, Sara; Magalhães, M. Clara F.

    2014-05-01

    Wastes of a former Portuguese steel industry were deposited during 40 years on the left bank of the Coina River, which flows into the estuary of the Tagus River near Lisbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of the chemical elements from the contaminated sediment to the river water. A leaching experiment (four replicates) was performed using 1.6 kg/replicate of sediment from a landfill located in the Coina River bank, forming a lagoon subject to tidal influence. River water coming from this lagoon was collected during low tide. This water (200 mL) was added to the moist sediment, contained in cylindrical reactors, and was collected after 24 h of percolation. The leaching experiments were conducted for 77 days being leachates collected at time zero, after 28, 49 and 77 days with the sediment always moist. The sediment was characterized for: pH, electric conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), extractable phosphorus and potassium, mineral nitrogen, iron from iron oxides (crystalline and non-crystalline) and manganese oxides. Multi-elemental analysis was also made by ICP-INAA. Leachates and river water were analysed for pH, EC, hydrogencarbonate and sulfatetot by titrations, chloride by potentiometry, and multi-elemental composition by ICP-MS. The sediment presented pH=7.2, EC=18.5 dS/m, TOC=147.8 g/kg, high concentrations of extractable phosphorous (62.8 mg/kg) and potassium (1236.8 mg/kg), mineral nitrogen=11.3 mg/kg. The non-crystalline fraction of iron oxides corresponds to 99% (167.5 g Fe/kg) of the total iron oxides, and manganese from manganese oxides was low (52.7 mg/kg). Sediment is considered contaminated. It contained high concentrations (g/kg) of Zn (2.9), Pb (0.9), Cr (0.59), Cu (0.16), As (0.07), Cd (0.005), and Hg (0.001), which are above Canadian values for marine sediments quality guidelines for protection of aquatic life. River water had: pH=8.2, EC=28.6 dS/m, csulfate=1.23 g/L, and [Cl-]=251.6 mg/L. The concentrations of Cd (0

  17. Environmental availability of potentially toxic elements in estuarine sediments of the Cananéia-Iguape coastal system, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tramonte, Keila Modesto; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; de Lima Ferreira, Paulo Alves; Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Batista, Miriam Fernanda; de Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch

    2016-02-15

    The Cananéia-Iguape system is located in a Southeastern Brazilian coastal region, acknowledged by UNESCO as Biosphere Reserve of the Atlantic Rainforest. This system underwent important environmental changes due to the opening of the artificial channel of Valo Grande and by past intensive Pb ore mining activities. In view of this scenario, this study evaluated Cu, Pb and Zn availability in sediments from Cananéia-Iguape system, based on the content associated with the main components of the sediments. Moreover, in order to assess local contamination, the metals' contents were compared to Canadian quality guidelines, the past levels of metals preceding the mining activities and background sediment values. Concerning Cu and Zn in a state of chemical remobilization, both elements would possibly present no harm to the local communities. However, Pb available content exceeded the comparison values in various sampling sites, suggesting the need of monitoring regarding its bioavailability. PMID:26707887

  18. 13C-DEPLETED MICROBIAL LIPIDS INDICATE SEASONAL METHANOTROPHIC ACTIVITY IN SHALLOW ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compound specific isotope analysis was combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to identify methanotrophic activity in members of the sedimentary microbial community in the Altamaha and Savannah River estuaries in Georgia. 13C-depleted PLFAs indicate methane utilizat...

  19. Mangrove succession enriches the sediment microbial community in South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Zhao, Qian; Li, Jing; Jian, Shuguang; Ren, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Sediment microorganisms help create and maintain mangrove ecosystems. Although the changes in vegetation during mangrove forest succession have been well studied, the changes in the sediment microbial community during mangrove succession are poorly understood. To investigate the changes in the sediment microbial community during succession of mangroves at Zhanjiang, South China, we used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and the following chronosequence from primary to climax community: unvegetated shoal; Avicennia marina community; Aegiceras corniculatum community; and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza + Rhizophora stylosa community. The PLFA concentrations of all sediment microbial groups (total microorganisms, fungi, gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes) increased significantly with each stage of mangrove succession. Microbial PLFA concentrations in the sediment were significantly lower in the wet season than in the dry season. Regression and ordination analyses indicated that the changes in the microbial community with mangrove succession were mainly associated with properties of the aboveground vegetation (mainly plant height) and the sediment (mainly sediment organic matter and total nitrogen). The changes in the sediment microbial community can probably be explained by increases in nutrients and microhabitat heterogeneity during mangrove succession. PMID:27265262

  20. Mangrove succession enriches the sediment microbial community in South China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Quan; Zhao, Qian; Li, Jing; Jian, Shuguang; Ren, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Sediment microorganisms help create and maintain mangrove ecosystems. Although the changes in vegetation during mangrove forest succession have been well studied, the changes in the sediment microbial community during mangrove succession are poorly understood. To investigate the changes in the sediment microbial community during succession of mangroves at Zhanjiang, South China, we used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and the following chronosequence from primary to climax community: unvegetated shoal; Avicennia marina community; Aegiceras corniculatum community; and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza + Rhizophora stylosa community. The PLFA concentrations of all sediment microbial groups (total microorganisms, fungi, gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes) increased significantly with each stage of mangrove succession. Microbial PLFA concentrations in the sediment were significantly lower in the wet season than in the dry season. Regression and ordination analyses indicated that the changes in the microbial community with mangrove succession were mainly associated with properties of the aboveground vegetation (mainly plant height) and the sediment (mainly sediment organic matter and total nitrogen). The changes in the sediment microbial community can probably be explained by increases in nutrients and microhabitat heterogeneity during mangrove succession. PMID:27265262

  1. Mangrove succession enriches the sediment microbial community in South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Zhao, Qian; Li, Jing; Jian, Shuguang; Ren, Hai

    2016-06-06

    Sediment microorganisms help create and maintain mangrove ecosystems. Although the changes in vegetation during mangrove forest succession have been well studied, the changes in the sediment microbial community during mangrove succession are poorly understood. To investigate the changes in the sediment microbial community during succession of mangroves at Zhanjiang, South China, we used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and the following chronosequence from primary to climax community: unvegetated shoal; Avicennia marina community; Aegiceras corniculatum community; and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza + Rhizophora stylosa community. The PLFA concentrations of all sediment microbial groups (total microorganisms, fungi, gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes) increased significantly with each stage of mangrove succession. Microbial PLFA concentrations in the sediment were significantly lower in the wet season than in the dry season. Regression and ordination analyses indicated that the changes in the microbial community with mangrove succession were mainly associated with properties of the aboveground vegetation (mainly plant height) and the sediment (mainly sediment organic matter and total nitrogen). The changes in the sediment microbial community can probably be explained by increases in nutrients and microhabitat heterogeneity during mangrove succession.

  2. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team.

    PubMed

    Deusdado, Pedro; Guedes, Magno; Silva, André; Marques, Francisco; Pinto, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Lourenço, André; Mendonça, Ricardo; Santana, Pedro; Corisco, José; Almeida, Susana Marta; Portugal, Luís; Caldeira, Raquel; Barata, José; Flores, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus' estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional) human-based sampling. PMID:27618060

  3. Enrichment Factors (EF) on Superficial Sediments of Santos Estuarine System, Southeasthern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. S. M.; Salaroli, A. B.; Mahiques, M.; Figueira, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Baixada Santista, located at southeastern Brazilian coast, hosts the largest harbor of South America, it is also the third most heavily populated region in São Paulo state. Many industries and domestic sewage have been contaminating the environment with heavy metals and arsenic since industrial revolution. This has been a major concern worldwide due to its toxicity and persistence. Levels of metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sc, V) and As were determinated on 180 samples of surface sediments, by acid digestion and quantified by ICP-OES to assess enrichment factors in order to know the anthropogenic contribution of the investigated elements. The levels of metals indicated absence of contamination, but a higher enrichment of As (approximately 9.5) near Bertioga city. Ni and Cr had values between 0.5 - 2.0, Cu and Zn between 0.6 - 4.0 and 0.9 - 7.5 for Pb. Despite As, all others metals showed higher enrichment in Santos - São Vicente Estuary, especially near Cubatão. The analysis of the enrichment factor of As indicate that these values could be due to natural processes of weathering and sedimentation, meanwhile the other metals could be from antropogenic sources, since thoses values were found near industrial area.

  4. An association of benthic foraminifera and gypsum in Holocene sediments of estuarine Chesapeake Bay, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cann, J.; Cronin, T.

    2004-01-01

    Two cores of Holocene sediments recovered from the Cape Charles Channel of Chesapeake Bay yielded radiocarbon ages of about 6.8 to 5.8 ka for the lower intervals. Fossil foraminifera preserved in these lower sediments are dominated by species of Elphidium, which make up about 90% of the assemblage throughout, and probably signify deposition in hypersaline waters. Buccella frigida and Ammonia beccarii are the only other species commonly present. Hypersalinity of bottom waters seems to have been maintained by water-density stratification in a basin-like section of the channel. In core PTXT-4-P-1 transition to modern Chesapeake conditions, in which numbers of Ammonia beccarii exceed those of Elphidium, commenced about 400 years ago. In core PTXT-3-P-2 hypersalinity is further signified by the presence of abundant euhedral crystals of gypsum in association with the fossil Elphidium. This occurrence of gypsum is not attributed to palaeoclimatic aridity, but rather to inflow of groundwater from adjacent gypsiferous Miocene strata. The study shows that in palaeoclimatic investigations the significance of the presence of gypsum should be evaluated with caution - it does not necessarily signify an evaporative regime.

  5. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team

    PubMed Central

    Deusdado, Pedro; Guedes, Magno; Silva, André; Marques, Francisco; Pinto, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Lourenço, André; Mendonça, Ricardo; Santana, Pedro; Corisco, José; Almeida, Susana Marta; Portugal, Luís; Caldeira, Raquel; Barata, José; Flores, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus’ estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional) human-based sampling. PMID:27618060

  6. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team.

    PubMed

    Deusdado, Pedro; Guedes, Magno; Silva, André; Marques, Francisco; Pinto, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Lourenço, André; Mendonça, Ricardo; Santana, Pedro; Corisco, José; Almeida, Susana Marta; Portugal, Luís; Caldeira, Raquel; Barata, José; Flores, Luis

    2016-09-09

    This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus' estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional) human-based sampling.

  7. Diversity and Abundance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeal Nitrite Reductase (nirK) Genes in Estuarine Sediments of San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reji, L.; Lee, J. A.; Damashek, J.; Francis, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrification, the microbially-mediated aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is an integral component of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The first and rate-limiting step of nitrification, ammonia oxidation, is carried out by two distinct microbial groups: ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Molecular ecological studies targeting the amoA gene have revealed the abundance and ubiquity of AOA in terrestrial as well as aquatic environments. In addition to the ammonia oxidation machinery that includes the amoA gene, AOA also encode a gene for copper-containing nitrite reductase (nirK). The distribution patterns and functional role of nirK in AOA remain mostly unknown; proposed functions include the indirect involvement in ammonia oxidation through the production of nitric oxide during nitrite reduction, and (2) nitrite detoxification. In the present study, the diversity and abundance of archaeal nirK genes in estuarine sediments were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing approaches. In sediment samples collected from the San Francisco Bay estuary, two archaeal nirK variants (AnirKa and AnirKb) were amplified using specific primer sets. Overall, AnirKa was observed to be significantly more abundant than AnirKb in the sediment samples, with variation in relative abundance spanning two to three orders of magnitude between sampling sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a number of unique archaeal nirK sequence types, as well as many that clustered with sequences from previous estuarine studies and cultured AOA isolates, such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus. This study yielded new insights into the diversity and abundance of archaeal nirK genes in estuarine sediments, and highlights the importance of further investigating the physiological role of this gene in AOA, as well as its suitability as a marker gene for studying AOA in the environment.

  8. Estuarine water-quality and sediment data, and surface-water and ground-water-quality data, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia, January 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Holloway, Owen G.

    2000-01-01

    In January 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey collected estuarine-water, estuarine-sediment, surface-water, and ground-water quality samples in the vicinity of Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia. Data from these samples are used by the U.S. Navy to monitor the impact of submarine base activities on local water resources. Estuarine water and sediment data were collected from five sites on the Crooked River, Kings Bay, and Cumberland Sound. Surface-water data were collected from seven streams that discharge from Naval Submarine Base, Kings Bay. Ground-water data were collected from six ground-water monitoring wells completed in the water-table zone of the surficial aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, total and dissolved trace metals, total and dissolved organic carbon, oil and grease, total organic halogens, biological and chemical oxygen demand, and total and fecal coliform. Trace metals in ground and surface waters did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Standards; and trace metals in surface water also did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Surface Water Standards. These trace metals included arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, tin, and zinc. Barium was detected in relatively high concentrations in ground water (concentrations ranged from 18 to 264 micrograms per liter). Two estuarine water samples exceeded the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division standards for copper (concentrations of 6.2 and 3.0 micrograms per liter).

  9. [Effect of dissolved oxygen on diversity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in enrichment culture from estuarine wetland surface sediments and ammonia-oxidizing rate].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhao-Zheng; Luo, Zhuan-Xi; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Yan, Chang-Zhou

    2013-02-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the important environmental factors influencing the ammonia oxidation process. In order to examine the effects of DO on ammonia oxidation process and its potential mechanisms, surface sediments from Jiulong River Estuarine Wetland were collected and cultured to obtain enrichment cultures. Then the enrichment cultures were inoculated under different levels of DO, and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms was analyzed using PCR-DGGE technique to determine the effect of DO on the ammonia oxidation rate and the ammonia-oxidizing microorganism diversity. Results showed that the Shannon index was 2. 00 and 2.05 for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) under saturated and aerobic conditions, respectively, and the values were 2.49 (saturated) and 2.03 (aerobic) for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). However, this index was 1.76 and 1.80 for AOB under hypoxia and anaerobic condition, and 1.27 and 2. 21 for AOA. Under saturated and aerobic conditions ( higher DO level), the ammonia-oxidizing rates were 14.20 mg.(L.d)-1 and 13.36 mg.(L.d)-1 and the related conversation rates of NH+4 -N were 93.8% and 88. 2% , respectively. In comparison, under hypoxia and anaerobic conditions (lower DO level), the ammonia-oxidizing rates were 7.82 mg.(L.d) -1 and 5.66 mg.(L.d)-1 and the related conversation rates of NH+4 -N were 51.7% and 37.4% , respectively. The correlation analysis showed that DO concentration was highly significantly positively correlated with the ammonia oxidation rate, and was significantly positively correlated with the AOB diversity index; DO and ammonia oxidation rate had no correlation with indices of AOA community.

  10. Meiobenthic communities of seagrass beds ( Zostera capricorni) and unvegetated sediments along the coast of New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Gustavo; Hutchings, Pat; Gallucci, Fabiane

    2011-01-01

    Seagrass beds have higher biomass, abundance, diversity and productivity of benthic organisms than unvegetated sediments. However, to date most studies have analysed only the macrofaunal component and ignored the abundant meiofauna present in seagrass meadows. This study was designed to test if meiobenthic communities, especially the free-living nematodes, differed between seagrass beds and unvegetated sediments. Sediment samples from beds of the eelgrass Zostera capricorni and nearby unvegetated sediments were collected in three estuaries along the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that sediments below the seagrass were finer, with a higher content of organic material and were less oxygenated than sediments without seagrass. Univariate measures of the fauna (i.e. abundance, diversity and taxa richness of total meiofauna and nematode assemblages) did not differ between vegetated and unvegetated sediments. However multivariate analysis of meiofaunal higher taxa showed significant differences between the two habitats, largely due to the presence and absence of certain taxa. Amphipods, tanaidacea, ostracods, hydrozoans and isopods occurred mainly in unvegetated sediments, while kinorhyncs, polychaetes, gastrotrichs and turbellarians were more abundant in vegetated sediments. Regarding the nematode assemblages, 32.4% of the species were restricted to Z. capricorni and 25% only occurred in unvegetated sediments, this suggests that each habitat is characterized by a particular suite of species. Epistrate feeding nematodes were more abundant in seagrass beds, and it is suggested that they graze on the microphytobenthos which accumulates underneath the seagrass. Most of the genera that characterized these estuarine unvegetated sediments are also commonly found on exposed sandy beaches. This may be explained by the fact that Australian estuaries have very little input of freshwater and experience marine conditions for most of the year. This study

  11. Sediment Microbial Community Composition and Mercury Methylation at Four California Mercury Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, K. M.

    2001-12-01

    Mercury contamination is a globally significant problem. An important transformation in the mercury cycle is the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin and bioaccumulant. This transformation is primarily bacterially-mediated, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been specifically implicated as key mercury methylators in lake and estuarine sediments. This study used Phospholipid Fatty Acid (PLFA) analysis to investigate sediment microbial community structure at four abandoned mercury mine sites in the California Coast Range: the Abbott, Reed, Sulphur Bank, and Mt. Diablo mines. Differences in watershed and hydrology among these sites appear to strongly impact microbial community composition. The Abbott and Sulphur Bank mines were determined to have the highest levels of methylmercury. Floc and sediment samples revealed different environments for microbial growth but did not have statistically different methylmercury concentrations. Two PLFA biomarkers for SRB were examined: 10Me16:0 (Desulfobacter) and i17:1 (Desulfovibrio). Results indicate that Desulfobacter and Desulfovibrio organisms are important contributors to methylmercury production in the Abbott, Reed, and Sulphur Bank mines but are not important in the Mt. Diablo Mine where methylmercury production may be abiotic in origin.

  12. Microbial Communities in Sediments of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria: Elucidation of Community Structure and Potential Impacts of Contamination by Municipal and Industrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Chioma C.; Adebusoye, Sunday A.; Ugoji, Esther O.; Ilori, Mathew O.; Amund, Olukayode O.; Hickey, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Estuarine sediments are significant repositories of anthropogenic contaminants, and thus knowledge of the impacts of pollution upon microbial communities in these environments is important to understand potential effects on estuaries as a whole. The Lagos lagoon (Nigeria) is one of Africa’s largest estuarine ecosystems, and is impacted by hydrocarbon pollutants and other industrial and municipal wastes. The goal of this study was to elucidate microbial community structure in Lagos lagoon sediments to identify groups that may be adversely affected by pollution, and those that may serve as degraders of environmental contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Sediment samples were collected from sites that ranged in types and levels of anthropogenic impacts. The sediments were characterized for a range of physicochemical properties, and microbial community structure was determined by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Microbial diversity (species richness and evenness) in the Apapa and Eledu sediments was reduced compared to that of the Ofin site, and communities of both of the former two were dominated by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) assigned to the family Helicobacteraceae (Epsilonproteobacteria). In the Ofin community, Epsilonproteobacteria were minor constituents, while the major groups were Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, which were all minor in the Apapa and Eledu sediments. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD), a broad indicator of contamination, was identified by multivariate analyses as strongly correlated with variation in alpha diversity. Environmental variables that explained beta diversity patterns included SOD, as well as levels of naphthalene, acenaphthylene, cobalt, cadmium, total organic matter, or nitrate. Of 582 OTU identified, abundance of 167 was significantly correlated (false discovery rate q≤ 0.05) to environmental variables. The largest group of OTU correlated with PAH levels were PAH

  13. Microbial Communities in Sediments of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria: Elucidation of Community Structure and Potential Impacts of Contamination by Municipal and Industrial Wastes.

    PubMed

    Obi, Chioma C; Adebusoye, Sunday A; Ugoji, Esther O; Ilori, Mathew O; Amund, Olukayode O; Hickey, William J

    2016-01-01

    Estuarine sediments are significant repositories of anthropogenic contaminants, and thus knowledge of the impacts of pollution upon microbial communities in these environments is important to understand potential effects on estuaries as a whole. The Lagos lagoon (Nigeria) is one of Africa's largest estuarine ecosystems, and is impacted by hydrocarbon pollutants and other industrial and municipal wastes. The goal of this study was to elucidate microbial community structure in Lagos lagoon sediments to identify groups that may be adversely affected by pollution, and those that may serve as degraders of environmental contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Sediment samples were collected from sites that ranged in types and levels of anthropogenic impacts. The sediments were characterized for a range of physicochemical properties, and microbial community structure was determined by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Microbial diversity (species richness and evenness) in the Apapa and Eledu sediments was reduced compared to that of the Ofin site, and communities of both of the former two were dominated by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) assigned to the family Helicobacteraceae (Epsilonproteobacteria). In the Ofin community, Epsilonproteobacteria were minor constituents, while the major groups were Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, which were all minor in the Apapa and Eledu sediments. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD), a broad indicator of contamination, was identified by multivariate analyses as strongly correlated with variation in alpha diversity. Environmental variables that explained beta diversity patterns included SOD, as well as levels of naphthalene, acenaphthylene, cobalt, cadmium, total organic matter, or nitrate. Of 582 OTU identified, abundance of 167 was significantly correlated (false discovery rate q≤ 0.05) to environmental variables. The largest group of OTU correlated with PAH levels were PAH

  14. The Impact of Salinity on the Diversity of Microbial Sediment Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, C.; Cardarelli, E.; Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The nitrogen cycle is a global process, largely mediated by microorganisms, that exchanges nitrogen between its biologically available forms (NH4+, NO3-) and its inert (N2) form. This cycle enables the biological uptake of nitrogen for the formation of DNA, amino acids, and other biological compounds critical to life. Several processes are responsible for facilitating the cycling of nitrogen through eight different oxidation states. Two nitrogen removal processes include anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), in which N2 is produced directly from ammonia and nitrite, and denitrification, the sequential oxidation of NO3 to N2. Together, these two processes play a large role in determining the biological availability of nitrogen in estuarine ecosystems. To better understand how microbial communities conducting these processes change under varying environmental conditions, a manipulation experiment was developed to simulate an environmental site salinity shift. Sediment cores were collected from north San Francisco Bay in the Carquinez Strait, a site of seasonally varying salinity. These cores from the Carquinez Strait were incubated in two treatments: one with local brackish water and one with freshwater from Suisun Bay. Using Sanger sequencing, we examined shifts in the microbial communities containing the functional genes hzsA (anammox) and nirS (denitrification). Geochemical characteristics such as NO3- and NH4+ concentrations in the water and the C:N ratio of the sediment were measured to determine subsequent changes these communities had on the sediment chemistry. This study provides insight into how changes in salinity affect microbial sediment community composition in San Francisco Bay.

  15. Environmental Conditions Outweigh Geographical Contiguity in Determining the Similarity of nifH-Harboring Microbial Communities in Sediments of Two Disconnected Marginal Seas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haixia; Dang, Hongyue; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    Ecological evidence suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs fueled by organic carbon respiration in sediments play an important role in marine nitrogen fixation. However, fundamental knowledge about the identities, abundance, diversity, biogeography, and controlling environmental factors of nitrogen-fixing communities in open ocean sediments is still elusive. Surprisingly, little is known also about nitrogen-fixing communities in sediments of the more research-accessible marginal seas. Here we report on an investigation of the environmental geochemistry and putative diazotrophic microbiota in the sediments of Bohai Sea, an eutrophic marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. Diverse and abundant nifH gene sequences were identified and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found to be the dominant putative nitrogen-fixing microbes. Community statistical analyses suggested bottom water temperature, bottom water chlorophyll a content (or the covarying turbidity) and sediment porewater Eh (or the covarying pH) as the most significant environmental factors controlling the structure and spatial distribution of the putative diazotrophic communities, while sediment Hg content, sulfide content, and porewater [Formula: see text]-Si content were identified as the key environmental factors correlated positively with the nifH gene abundance in Bohai Sea sediments. Comparative analyses between the Bohai Sea and the northern South China Sea (nSCS) identified a significant composition difference of the putative diazotrophic communities in sediments between the shallow-water (estuarine and nearshore) and deep-water (offshore and deep-sea) environments, and sediment porewater dissolved oxygen content, water depth and in situ temperature as the key environmental factors tentatively controlling the species composition, community structure, and spatial distribution of the marginal sea sediment nifH-harboring microbiota. This confirms the ecophysiological specialization and niche

  16. Environmental Conditions Outweigh Geographical Contiguity in Determining the Similarity of nifH-Harboring Microbial Communities in Sediments of Two Disconnected Marginal Seas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haixia; Dang, Hongyue; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    Ecological evidence suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs fueled by organic carbon respiration in sediments play an important role in marine nitrogen fixation. However, fundamental knowledge about the identities, abundance, diversity, biogeography, and controlling environmental factors of nitrogen-fixing communities in open ocean sediments is still elusive. Surprisingly, little is known also about nitrogen-fixing communities in sediments of the more research-accessible marginal seas. Here we report on an investigation of the environmental geochemistry and putative diazotrophic microbiota in the sediments of Bohai Sea, an eutrophic marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. Diverse and abundant nifH gene sequences were identified and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found to be the dominant putative nitrogen-fixing microbes. Community statistical analyses suggested bottom water temperature, bottom water chlorophyll a content (or the covarying turbidity) and sediment porewater Eh (or the covarying pH) as the most significant environmental factors controlling the structure and spatial distribution of the putative diazotrophic communities, while sediment Hg content, sulfide content, and porewater [Formula: see text]-Si content were identified as the key environmental factors correlated positively with the nifH gene abundance in Bohai Sea sediments. Comparative analyses between the Bohai Sea and the northern South China Sea (nSCS) identified a significant composition difference of the putative diazotrophic communities in sediments between the shallow-water (estuarine and nearshore) and deep-water (offshore and deep-sea) environments, and sediment porewater dissolved oxygen content, water depth and in situ temperature as the key environmental factors tentatively controlling the species composition, community structure, and spatial distribution of the marginal sea sediment nifH-harboring microbiota. This confirms the ecophysiological specialization and niche

  17. Sediment Bacterial Communities Reflect the History of a Sea Basin

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Christina; Sinkko, Hanna; Rantanen, Matias; Paulin, Lars; Kotilainen, Aarno

    2013-01-01

    How entire microbial communities are structured across stratified sediments from the historical standpoint is unknown. The Baltic Sea is an ideal research object for historical reconstruction, since it has experienced many fresh- and brackish water periods and is depleted of dissolved oxygen, which increases the sediment's preservation potential. We investigated the bacterial communities, chemical elements (e.g. Cr, Pb Na, P, Sr and U) and sediment composition in a stratified sediment core dated by radiocarbon and spanning 8000 years of Baltic Sea history, using up-to-date multivariate statistics. The communities were analysed by 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The communities of the deep Early Litorina and surface Late Litorina Sea laminae were separated from the communities of the middle Litorina Sea laminae, which were associated with elevated concentrations of U and Sr trace elements, palaeo-oxygen and palaeosalinity proxies. Thus, the Litorina Sea laminae were characterized by past oxygen deficiency and salinity increase. The communities of the laminae, bioturbated and homogeneous sediments were differentiated, based on the same historical sea phases, with correct classifications of 90%. Palaeosalinity was one of the major parameters that separated the bacterial communities of the stratified sediments. A discontinuous spatial structure with a surprising increase in community heterogeneity was detected in Litorina Sea sediments from 388 to 422 cm deep, which suggests that a salinity maximum occurred in the central Gulf of Finland app. 6200–6600 years ago. The community heterogeneity decreased from the surface down to 306 cm, which reflected downcore mineralization. The plateau of the decrease was in the app. 2000-year-old sediment layers. Bacterial community data may be used as an additional tool in ocean-drilling projects, in which it is important to detect mineralization plateaus both to determine historically comparable

  18. Sediment bacterial communities reflect the history of a sea basin.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Christina; Sinkko, Hanna; Rantanen, Matias; Paulin, Lars; Kotilainen, Aarno

    2013-01-01

    How entire microbial communities are structured across stratified sediments from the historical standpoint is unknown. The Baltic Sea is an ideal research object for historical reconstruction, since it has experienced many fresh- and brackish water periods and is depleted of dissolved oxygen, which increases the sediment's preservation potential. We investigated the bacterial communities, chemical elements (e.g. Cr, Pb Na, P, Sr and U) and sediment composition in a stratified sediment core dated by radiocarbon and spanning 8000 years of Baltic Sea history, using up-to-date multivariate statistics. The communities were analysed by 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The communities of the deep Early Litorina and surface Late Litorina Sea laminae were separated from the communities of the middle Litorina Sea laminae, which were associated with elevated concentrations of U and Sr trace elements, palaeo-oxygen and palaeosalinity proxies. Thus, the Litorina Sea laminae were characterized by past oxygen deficiency and salinity increase. The communities of the laminae, bioturbated and homogeneous sediments were differentiated, based on the same historical sea phases, with correct classifications of 90%. Palaeosalinity was one of the major parameters that separated the bacterial communities of the stratified sediments. A discontinuous spatial structure with a surprising increase in community heterogeneity was detected in Litorina Sea sediments from 388 to 422 cm deep, which suggests that a salinity maximum occurred in the central Gulf of Finland app. 6200-6600 years ago. The community heterogeneity decreased from the surface down to 306 cm, which reflected downcore mineralization. The plateau of the decrease was in the app. 2000-year-old sediment layers. Bacterial community data may be used as an additional tool in ocean-drilling projects, in which it is important to detect mineralization plateaus both to determine historically comparable

  19. Trace metals in the coastal soils developed from estuarine floodplain sediments in the Croatian Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Romic, D; Romic, M; Zovko, M; Bakic, H; Ondrasek, G

    2012-08-01

    Fertile soils in the River Neretva estuary were developed by fluvial sedimentation and deposition of the eroded soil material from the karst hills within the catchment. After extensive reclamation, two reclaimed land zones (fluvial terraces and lower-laying terraces) have been delineated, both used for agriculture. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate soil chemical and geochemical properties in reclaimed zones that differ mainly in topography, soil types and agricultural land use. The origin of the trace metals in the arable soils was studied using multivariate statistics, and interpolation maps of trace metals were produced using GIS and geostatistics. Soil trace metal concentrations do not exceed a threshold value established by the Croatian Government regulation, with exception of copper. Comparative analysis of the main soil properties and trace metal concentrations in the study area showed a pronounced spatial variation and differences between two reclaimed zones in soil organic matter content, bioavailable P and total concentrations of Cd and Cu. Factor analysis in the area of the lower-laying terraces showed grouping of bioavailable P and K, organic matter content and pH (negative loading) in the component associated mostly with the land use. In the area of the fluvial terraces, bioavailable P and total Cd were grouped in the same component that may be explained by the traditional small farm agriculture and overuse of mineral fertilizers. In the whole study area, processes of secondary salinization were determined, accompanied by the raised chloride and sodium concentration measured in the saturation soil extract.

  20. Streptomyces chitinivorans sp. nov., a chitinolytic strain isolated from estuarine lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Ray, Lopamudra; Mishra, Samir Ranjan; Panda, Ananta Narayan; Das, Surajit; Rastogi, Gurdeep; Pattanaik, Ajit Kumar; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Raina, Vishakha

    2016-09-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain RC1832T was isolated from the sediment of a fish dumping yard at Balugaon near Chilika Lake. The strain is halotolerant (15 % NaCl, w/v), alkali-tolerant (pH 7-10) and hydrolyzes chitin, starch, gelatin, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, Tween 80, tributyrin, lecithin and casein. Apart from showing typical genus-specific morphological and chemotaxonomic features, the comparision and analysis of the near complete 16S rRNA gene sequence clearly revealed that the strain RC1832T represented a member of the genus Streptomyces. It exhibited the highest sequence similarities with the strains Streptomyces fenghuangensis GIMN4.003T (99.78 %), Streptomyces nanhaiensis DSM 41926T (99.07 %), Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T(98.71 %), Streptomyces atacamensis DSM 42065T (98.65 %) and Streptomyces barkulensis DSM 42082T (98.25 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain RC 1832T with the closest phylogenetic neighbours S. fenghuangensis GIMN4.003T and S. nanhaiensis DSM 41926T were 20±2 % and 21±2 %, respectively. Thus, based on a range of phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain RC1832T was suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces chitinivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RC1832T (=JCM 30611=KCTC 29696). PMID:27220564

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of contaminants within estuarine sediments and native Olympia oysters: A contrast between a developed and an undeveloped estuary.

    PubMed

    Granek, Elise F; Conn, Kathleen E; Nilsen, Elena B; Pillsbury, Lori; Strecker, Angela L; Rumrill, Steve S; Fish, William

    2016-07-01

    Chemical contaminants can be introduced into estuarine and marine ecosystems from a variety of sources including wastewater, agriculture and forestry practices, point and non-point discharges, runoff from industrial, municipal, and urban lands, accidental spills, and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of potential sources contributes to the likelihood of contaminated marine waters and sediments and increases the probability of uptake by marine organisms. Despite widespread recognition of direct and indirect pathways for contaminant deposition and organismal exposure in coastal systems, spatial and temporal variability in contaminant composition, deposition, and uptake patterns are still poorly known. We investigated these patterns for a suite of persistent legacy contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chemicals of emerging concern including pharmaceuticals within two Oregon coastal estuaries (Coos and Netarts Bays). In the more urbanized Coos Bay, native Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) tissue had approximately twice the number of PCB congeners at over seven times the total concentration, yet fewer PBDEs at one-tenth the concentration as compared to the more rural Netarts Bay. Different pharmaceutical suites were detected during each sampling season. Variability in contaminant types and concentrations across seasons and between species and media (organisms versus sediment) indicates the limitation of using indicator species and/or sampling annually to determine contaminant loads at a site or for specific species. The results indicate the prevalence of legacy contaminants and CECs in relatively undeveloped coastal environments highlighting the need to improve policy and management actions to reduce contaminant releases into estuarine and marine waters and to deal with legacy compounds that remain long after prohibition of use. Our results point to the need for better understanding of the ecological and

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of contaminants within estuarine sediments and native Olympia oysters: A contrast between a developed and an undeveloped estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granek, Elise F.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Pillsbury, Lori; Strecker, Angela; Rumrill, Steve; Fish, William

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants can be introduced into estuarine and marine ecosystems from a variety of sources including wastewater, agriculture and forestry practices, point and non-point discharges, runoff from industrial, municipal, and urban lands, accidental spills, and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of potential sources contributes to the likelihood of contaminated marine waters and sediments and increases the probability of uptake by marine organisms. Despite widespread recognition of direct and indirect pathways for contaminant deposition and organismal exposure in coastal systems, spatial and temporal variability in contaminant composition, deposition, and uptake patterns are still poorly known. We investigated these patterns for a suite of persistent legacy contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chemicals of emerging concern including pharmaceuticals within two Oregon coastal estuaries (Coos and Netarts Bays). In the more urbanized Coos Bay, native Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) tissue had approximately twice the number of PCB congeners at over seven times the total concentration, yet fewer PBDEs at one-tenth the concentration as compared to the more rural Netarts Bay. Different pharmaceutical suites were detected during each sampling season. Variability in contaminant types and concentrations across seasons and between species and media (organisms versus sediment) indicates the limitation of using indicator species and/or sampling annually to determine contaminant loads at a site or for specific species. The results indicate the prevalence of legacy contaminants and CECs in relatively undeveloped coastal environments highlighting the need to improve policy and management actions to reduce contaminant releases into estuarine and marine waters and to deal with legacy compounds that remain long after prohibition of use. Our results point to the need for better understanding of the ecological and

  3. Fitting response models of benthic community structure to abiotic variables in a polluted estuarine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Oreja, José Antonio; Saiz-Salinas, José Ignacio

    1999-07-01

    Models of the macrozoobenthic community responses to abiotic variables measured in the polluted Bilbao estuary were obtained by multiple linear regression analyses. Total, Oligochaeta and Nematoda abundance and biomass were considered as dependent variables. Intertidal level, dissolved oxygen at the bottom of the water column (DOXB) and organic content of the sediment were selected by the analyses as the three principal explanatory variables. Goodness-of-fit of the models was high ( overlinex=71.3% ). Total abundance and biomass increased as a linear function of DOXB. The principal outcome of the vast sewage scheme currently in progress in the study area is an important contributor of increasing DOXB levels. The models exposed in this paper will serve as a tool to evaluate the expected changes in the near future.

  4. Trace metals in the coastal soils developed from estuarine floodplain sediments in the Croatian Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Romic, D; Romic, M; Zovko, M; Bakic, H; Ondrasek, G

    2012-08-01

    Fertile soils in the River Neretva estuary were developed by fluvial sedimentation and deposition of the eroded soil material from the karst hills within the catchment. After extensive reclamation, two reclaimed land zones (fluvial terraces and lower-laying terraces) have been delineated, both used for agriculture. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate soil chemical and geochemical properties in reclaimed zones that differ mainly in topography, soil types and agricultural land use. The origin of the trace metals in the arable soils was studied using multivariate statistics, and interpolation maps of trace metals were produced using GIS and geostatistics. Soil trace metal concentrations do not exceed a threshold value established by the Croatian Government regulation, with exception of copper. Comparative analysis of the main soil properties and trace metal concentrations in the study area showed a pronounced spatial variation and differences between two reclaimed zones in soil organic matter content, bioavailable P and total concentrations of Cd and Cu. Factor analysis in the area of the lower-laying terraces showed grouping of bioavailable P and K, organic matter content and pH (negative loading) in the component associated mostly with the land use. In the area of the fluvial terraces, bioavailable P and total Cd were grouped in the same component that may be explained by the traditional small farm agriculture and overuse of mineral fertilizers. In the whole study area, processes of secondary salinization were determined, accompanied by the raised chloride and sodium concentration measured in the saturation soil extract. PMID:22270492

  5. Abundance and composition of denitrifiers in response to Spartina alterniflora invasion in estuarine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiufang; Peng, Jingjing; Chen, Qian; Yang, Xiaoru; Hong, Youwei; Su, Jianqiang

    2013-12-01

    Nitrite reduction is regulated by nitrite reductase encoded by nirK and nirS genes. This study aimed to investigate the abundance and composition of nirK- and nirS-containing denitrifiers in response to Spartina alterniflora invasion at the Jiulong River estuary, China. The sediment samples (depth: 0-5.0 and 5.1-20 cm) were collected from 3 vegetation zones, 1 dominated by the exotic plant S. alterniflora, 1 dominated by the native plant Kandelia candel, and 1 dominated by the native plant Cyperus malaccensis, and from an unvegetated flat zone. nirK- and nirS-containing denitrifier population sizes were lower in the invaded and nonvegetated zones than in those dominated by native K. candel and C. malaccensis, which were impacted by depth - vegetation species interaction. The ratios of nirS to nirK abundance ranged from 42.10 to 677.27, with the lowest ratio found for the upper layer in the invaded zone. The nirK-containing denitrifier compositions showed a 35% similarity between invaded zone and others. Most of the sequences of nirK genes recovered from the S. alterniflora zone were specific and distinct from those of nirK genes recovered from other vegetation types; nirS genes in the invaded zone were highly divergent. These results reveal that S. alterniflora invasion has a significant effect on the abundance and composition of both nirK- and nirS-containing denitrifiers, and nirS-containing denitrifiers were less responsive to invasion than nirK-containing denitrifiers. PMID:24313455

  6. A molecular-based approach for examining responses of eukaryotes in microcosms to contaminant-spiked estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Chariton, Anthony A; Ho, Kay T; Proestou, Dina; Bik, Holly; Simpson, Stuart L; Portis, Lisa M; Cantwell, Mark G; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite M; Perron, Monique; Gunsch, Claudia; Matthews, Robin A

    2014-02-01

    Ecotoxicological information for most contaminants is limited to a small number of taxa, and these are generally restricted to comparatively hardy organisms that are readily extractable from test media and easily identifiable. Advances in DNA sequencing can now provide a comprehensive view of benthic invertebrate diversity. The authors applied 454 pyrosequencing to examine the responses of benthic communities in microcosms exposed to sediments with elevated concentrations of triclosan, the endpoint being eukaryl communities that have successfully vertically migrated through the manipulated sediments. The biological communities associated with the 3 treatments (control triclosan, low triclosan [14 mg/kg], and high triclosan [180 mg/kg]) clustered into 3 groups: control/low (n = 6 controls and 4 low), moderate (n = 2 low), and high (n = 5 high). One sample was discarded as an outlier. The most pronounced change as a response to triclosan was the loss of number of metazoan operational taxonomic units (OTUs), indicative of the control/low and moderate groups, with this being most evident in the range of taxa associated with the classes Chromadorea and Bivalvia and the phylum Kinorhyncha. The authors also describe a range of other taxa that aided discrimination between the groups; compare findings with traditionally obtained meio- and macrofaunal communities obtained from the same experiment; and illustrate some of the advantages and limitations associated with both the molecular and traditional approaches. The described approach illustrates the capacity for amplicon sequencing to provide ecologically relevant information that can be used to strengthen an understanding of how sedimentary communities respond to a range of environmental stressors.

  7. A molecular-based approach for examining responses of eukaryotes in microcosms to contaminant-spiked estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Chariton, Anthony A; Ho, Kay T; Proestou, Dina; Bik, Holly; Simpson, Stuart L; Portis, Lisa M; Cantwell, Mark G; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite M; Perron, Monique; Gunsch, Claudia; Matthews, Robin A

    2014-02-01

    Ecotoxicological information for most contaminants is limited to a small number of taxa, and these are generally restricted to comparatively hardy organisms that are readily extractable from test media and easily identifiable. Advances in DNA sequencing can now provide a comprehensive view of benthic invertebrate diversity. The authors applied 454 pyrosequencing to examine the responses of benthic communities in microcosms exposed to sediments with elevated concentrations of triclosan, the endpoint being eukaryl communities that have successfully vertically migrated through the manipulated sediments. The biological communities associated with the 3 treatments (control triclosan, low triclosan [14 mg/kg], and high triclosan [180 mg/kg]) clustered into 3 groups: control/low (n = 6 controls and 4 low), moderate (n = 2 low), and high (n = 5 high). One sample was discarded as an outlier. The most pronounced change as a response to triclosan was the loss of number of metazoan operational taxonomic units (OTUs), indicative of the control/low and moderate groups, with this being most evident in the range of taxa associated with the classes Chromadorea and Bivalvia and the phylum Kinorhyncha. The authors also describe a range of other taxa that aided discrimination between the groups; compare findings with traditionally obtained meio- and macrofaunal communities obtained from the same experiment; and illustrate some of the advantages and limitations associated with both the molecular and traditional approaches. The described approach illustrates the capacity for amplicon sequencing to provide ecologically relevant information that can be used to strengthen an understanding of how sedimentary communities respond to a range of environmental stressors. PMID:24399368

  8. Microbial community transitions across the deep sediment-basement interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labonté, J.; Lever, M. A.; Orcutt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies of microbial abundance and geochemistry in deep marine sediments indicate a stimulation of microbial activity near the sediment-basement interface; yet, the extent to which microbial communities in bottom sediments and underlying crustal habitats interact is unclear. We conducted tag pyrosequencing on DNA extracted from a spectrum of deep sediment-basement samples to try to identify patterns in microbial community shifts across sediment-basement interfaces, focusing on samples from the subsurface of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank (IODP Expedition 327). Our results demonstrate that sediment and the basaltic crust harbor microbial communities that are phylogenetically connected, but the eveness is characteristic of the environment. We will discuss the microbial community transitions that occur horizontally along fluid flow pathways and vertically across the sediment basement interface, as well as the possible implications regarding the controls of microbial community composition along deep sediment-basement interfaces in hydrothermal systems. We will also highlight efforts to overcome sample contamination in crustal subsurface samples.

  9. Hydrodynamic and suspended sediment patterns in the estuarine turbidity zone of a mesotidal estuary from cross-sectional ADCP measurements and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorndt, Anna Christina; Grünler, Steffen; Schiller, Ulrike; Kösters, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Carefully assessing impacts of human interventions on hydrodynamics, salinity and sediment transport in estuaries has become increasingly important due to the high ecological importance of these systems. Quantifying these changes is commonly done by numerical modeling. However, model results highly rely on the applied model formulations and model parameters. Therefore, validation of the results with measurements is necessary. In case of suspended particulate matter, the use of stationary point measurements is limited due to the high spatial variability of sediments in the water column. This study focusses on modeling the estuarine turbidity maximum of the Weser estuary (Germany), which is a mesotidal and well- to partially mixed estuary. The estuarine turbidity maximum evolves due to known physical effects such as the gravitational circulation, tidal velocity and tidal mixing asymmetries as well as vertical and lateral advection. Those effects also contribute to high lateral and vertical variations which may in nature superposed with secondary currents by local bathymetric features. To increase the understanding of the high spatial and temporal variability of the suspended particulate matter and to validate numerical simulations, 13-hour measurements of three cross-profiles within the estuarine turbidity maximum were carried out in three consecutive years (2009 - 2011). Those consisted of continuous measurements of two vessel-mounted acoustic doppler current profiler, one of which was tilted by 20°. Also, a movable unit (with conductivity, temperature and depth probes, a laser in-situ scattering transmitter and an optical backscatter sensor) was used, also taking a water sample for calibration every 30 minutes. The employed hydrodynamical modeling tool based on the 3D shallow water equations is UnTRIM, described by Casulli and Zanolli (2002), together with the SediMorph module for calculation of transport of suspended and bed load. The model domain has a size of

  10. Seasonal sediment dynamics shape temperate bedrock reef communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figurski, Jared D.; Freiwald, Jan; Lonhart, Steve I.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Mobilized seafloor sediment can impact benthic reef communities through burial, scour, and turbidity. These processes are ubiquitous in coastal oceans and, through their influence on the survival, fitness, and interactions of species, can alter the structure and function of benthic communities. In northern Monterey Bay, California, USA, as much as 30% of the seafloor is buried or exposed seasonally, making this an ideal location to test how subtidal temperate rocky reef communities vary in the presence and absence of chronic sediment-based disturbances. Designated dynamic plots were naturally inundated by sediment in summer (50 to 100% cover) and swept clean in winter, whereas designated stable plots remained free of sediment during our study. Multivariate analyses indicated significant differences in the structure of sessile and mobile communities between dynamic and stable reef habitats. For sessile species, community structure in disturbed plots was less variable in space and time than in stable plots due to the maintenance of an early successional state. In contrast, community structure of mobile species varied more in disturbed plots than in stable plots, reflecting how mobile species distribute in response to sediment dynamics. Some species were found only in these disturbed areas, suggesting that the spatial mosaic of disturbance could increase regional diversity. We discuss how the relative ability of species to tolerate disturbance at different life history stages and their ability to colonize habitat translate into community-level differences among habitats, and how this response varies between mobile and sessile communities.

  11. Evaluation of the organic matter sources using the δ13C composition of individual n-alkanes in sediments from Brazilian estuarine systems by GC/C/IRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maioli, Otávio Luiz Gusso; de Oliveira, Cristiane Rossi; Dal Sasso, Marco Aurélio; Madureira, Luiz Augusto dos Santos; Azevedo, Débora de Almeida; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2012-12-01

    The δ13C composition of individual n-alkanes (from C16 to C34) was measured from surface sediments of five Brazilian estuarine systems affected by different organic matter sources, such as harbor area, industries, urban centers and sugar cane crops, in order to determine the origins of the organic matter. The aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). The levels of n-alkanes in the studied areas ranged from 0.34 to 18.14 μg kg-1, being relatively low in comparison to high polluted environments. The Carbon Preference Index (CPI) calculated in the C23-C34 range indicates that n-alkanes are mainly inherited from cuticular waxes of higher plants. The δ13C composition of all n-alkanes detected in the sediment samples ranged from -39.6 to -18.3‰ showing different sources for the studied estuarine systems. Through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it was possible to verify the petrogenic influence in the n-alkane sources, especially in the Paraíba do Sul sediment samples. Differences up to 15‰ of the δ13C values between n-alkanes of odd and even carbon number (C26 and C27) also indicated mixture of petrogenic and biogenic sources in Paraíba do Sul River. High (less negative) δ13C n-alkane values of odd carbon number were obtained from two sampling sites located close to an ethanol plant, indicating residues discharge of sugar cane (C4 plant). Influence of C3 plants that are the main components of dense ombrophile forest was observed in the Itajaí-Açu sediments by the decrease of δ13C (about 10‰ compared to the Paraíba do Sul River δ13C).

  12. Speciation and fate of trace metals in estuarine sediments under reduced and oxidized conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Susan; O'Day, Peggy A; Esser, Brad; Randall, Simon

    2002-01-01

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60 year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60 year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were

  13. Spatio-temporal distribution of major and trace metals in estuarine sediments of Dhamra, Bay of Bengal, India--its environmental significance.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, D R; Panda, C R

    2015-01-01

    The research depicts the spatial and temporal variation of major and trace metals in marine sediments at various monitoring stations of Dhamra estuary, Bay of Bengal, Odisha. The concentration and distribution of selected metals in surface sediments of the estuary were studied in order to assess the spatial extent of anthropogenic inputs viz., mining activities and to estimate the effects of seasonal variations on geochemical processes in this particular tropical estuarine system. Surface sediments reflect the presence of trace and major metals in parts per million, and the concentrations vary in the range of Cu (0.083 to 127.2), Ni (17.35 to 122.8), Co (1.2 to 31.58), Pb (0.8 to 95.86), Zn (12.1 to 415), Cd (0 to 11) and Cr (35.21 to 5,890), Fe (7,490 and 169,100), Mn (20 to 69,188), Ca (10 to 10,520), Mg (990 to 28,750), Na (300 to 51,700), and K (1,100 to 30,010). The comparison of spatial distribution of metal contents using GIS in marine sediments indicates that there is a substantial anthropogenic input in the Dhamra estuary. The enrichment of Cr is ascribed to the sedimentation of Brahmani River, passing through the mining region and discharging Cr pollutant to the sea. Similarly, the sources of Cd are attributable to corrosion-resistant paints used by a large number of trawlers. Contamination factor has been calculated for various metals to assess the degree of pollution. As per Hakanson's classification, Cr indicates very high contamination with considerable contamination of Cd, whereas moderate contamination of Pb, Zn, and Mn are observed in marine sediments. Pollution load index also indicate that there is deterioration of site quality in premonsoon season, which almost attains the baseline level in post monsoon and perfection in monsoon season (Tomlinson et al. (Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 33, 566-572, 1980)). The geoaccumulation index shows that the metal concentrations in sediments can be considered as background levels except

  14. Spatio-temporal distribution of major and trace metals in estuarine sediments of Dhamra, Bay of Bengal, India--its environmental significance.

    PubMed

    Satapathy, D R; Panda, C R

    2015-01-01

    The research depicts the spatial and temporal variation of major and trace metals in marine sediments at various monitoring stations of Dhamra estuary, Bay of Bengal, Odisha. The concentration and distribution of selected metals in surface sediments of the estuary were studied in order to assess the spatial extent of anthropogenic inputs viz., mining activities and to estimate the effects of seasonal variations on geochemical processes in this particular tropical estuarine system. Surface sediments reflect the presence of trace and major metals in parts per million, and the concentrations vary in the range of Cu (0.083 to 127.2), Ni (17.35 to 122.8), Co (1.2 to 31.58), Pb (0.8 to 95.86), Zn (12.1 to 415), Cd (0 to 11) and Cr (35.21 to 5,890), Fe (7,490 and 169,100), Mn (20 to 69,188), Ca (10 to 10,520), Mg (990 to 28,750), Na (300 to 51,700), and K (1,100 to 30,010). The comparison of spatial distribution of metal contents using GIS in marine sediments indicates that there is a substantial anthropogenic input in the Dhamra estuary. The enrichment of Cr is ascribed to the sedimentation of Brahmani River, passing through the mining region and discharging Cr pollutant to the sea. Similarly, the sources of Cd are attributable to corrosion-resistant paints used by a large number of trawlers. Contamination factor has been calculated for various metals to assess the degree of pollution. As per Hakanson's classification, Cr indicates very high contamination with considerable contamination of Cd, whereas moderate contamination of Pb, Zn, and Mn are observed in marine sediments. Pollution load index also indicate that there is deterioration of site quality in premonsoon season, which almost attains the baseline level in post monsoon and perfection in monsoon season (Tomlinson et al. (Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 33, 566-572, 1980)). The geoaccumulation index shows that the metal concentrations in sediments can be considered as background levels except

  15. Elemental composition, distribution and control of biogenic silica in the anthropogenically disturbed and pristine zone inter-tidal sediments of Indian Sundarbans mangrove-estuarine complex.

    PubMed

    Dhame, Shreya; Kumar, Alok; Ramanathan, Al; Chaudhari, Punarbasu

    2016-10-15

    Spatial distribution and interrelationship among organic nutrients - silica and carbon - and various lithogenic elements were investigated in the surficial sediments of Matla estuary and Core Zone of Indian Sundarbans Reserve Forest using spatial analysis and multivariate statistics. Biogenic silica (BSi), an important parameter for coastal biogeochemisry, was measured using Si-time alkaline leaching method. BSi concentration ranged from 0.01% to 0.85% with higher concentrations in upstream region of Matla estuary and attenuated values towards the bay, seemingly due to changes in hydrodynamics and land use conditions. Spatial distribution of BSi did not exhibit significant correlation with sediment parameters of organic carbon (OC), elemental composition and clay content. However, it showed significant contrasting trends with total phosphorus (TP) and total silica of human influenced Matla estuary sediments as well as the dissolved silica (DSi) of its surface waters. Anthropogenic influence on sediment geochemistry is discernable with the presence of higher concentrations of organic and inorganic elements in Matla estuary than in Core Zone sediments. Spatial variation trends are often challenging to interpret due to multiple sources of input, varying energy and salinity conditions and constant physical, chemical and biological alterations occurring in the environment. Nonetheless, it is certain that anthropogenic activities have a substantial influence on biogeochemical processes of Sundarbans mangrove-estuarine complex and potentially the coastal ocean. PMID:27480337

  16. 137Cs and excess 210Pb deposition patterns in estuarine and marine sediment in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon, north-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, John; Brunskill, Gregg; Zagorskis, Irena

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the distribution of 137Cs and 210Pb(xs) in 51 estuarine and marine sediment cores collected between the Upstart Bay and Rockingham Bay in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon, north-eastern Australia. Historical records of 210Pb(xs) and 137Cs atmospheric deposition and present day terrestrial inventories in north-eastern Australia are presented. 210Pb(xs) and 137Cs fluxes measured on suspended sediments in the Burdekin River are considered to be a source of recent inputs of these nuclides to the nearshore region of this part of the Great Barrier Reef. Direct correlations between sediment nuclide inventories, maximum detectable depths, and sediment mass accumulation rates (MARs), calculated using both 137Cs and 210Pb(xs), are explored. In relation to inventories of 210Pb(xs), 60% of atmospheric fallout 137Cs appears to be missing from the sediments. The reasons for these differences in two tracers, primarily of atmospheric origin, are discussed in terms of the geochemical properties of these two nuclides. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that the 137Cs distribution in these cores can be a useful independent tracer which provides confirmation of MARs calculated from the decay of 210Pb(xs). PMID:15245842

  17. Resilience and adjustments of surface sediment bacterial communities in an enclosed shallow coastal lagoon, Magdalen Islands, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mohit, Vani; Archambault, Philippe; Lovejoy, Connie

    2015-05-01

    Bacteria regulate global biogeochemical cycles and much of this activity occurs in shallow coastal sediments; however, little is known of the seasonality or how changes in environmental conditions influence the active sediment bacterial communities. Havre-aux-Maisons (Magdalen Islands, Canada), a relatively pristine enclosed shallow coastal lagoon, is of particular biological interest since it has no inflowing rivers and provides an opportunity to investigate non-estuarine shallow marine sediments. Potentially active taxa in surface sediments were identified over a 15-month period using high-throughput rRNA amplicon sequencing. Sediment bacterial communities were diverse at the species level, with high Beta diversity. Throughout most of the sampling period, communities consisted of taxa that were closely related to each other, suggesting that specific environmental conditions at a given time point favored taxa with similar ecological traits. However, bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes were remarkably similar over time with a predominantly sulfur cycling community composed of sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria persisting over much of the sampling period, despite the oxygenated water column. This community was disrupted after a storm and less common phyla became relatively more abundant. Following this disruption, a high proportion of benthic Cyanobacteria colonized the sediment before the reestablishment of the sulfur-cycle-dominated community.

  18. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-03-15

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments. PMID:26849913

  19. Comparison of methods for the removal of organic carbon and extraction of chromium, iron and manganese from an estuarine sediment standard and sediment from the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Hatcher, S.A.; Demas, C.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) estuarine sediment 1646 from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, and surface sediment collected at two sites in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, were used to evaluate the dilute hydrochloric acid extraction of Cr, Fe and Mn from air-dried and freeze-dried samples that had been treated by one of three methods to remove organic carbon. The three methods for the oxidation and removal of organic carbon were: (1) 30% hydrogen peroxide; (2) 30% hydrogen peroxide plus 0.25 mM pyrophosphate; and (3) plasma oxidation (low-temperature ashing). There was no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between air- and freeze-dried samples with respect to the percent of organic carbon removed by the three methods. Generally, there was no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between air- and freeze-dried samples with respect to the concentration of Cr, Fe and Mn that was extracted, regardless of the extraction technique that was used. Hydrogen peroxide plus pyrophosphate removed the most organic carbon from sediment collected at the site in the Calcasieu River that was upstream from industrial outfalls. Plasma oxidation removed the most organic carbon from the sediment collected at a site in the Calcasieu River close to industrial outfalls and from the NBS estuarine sediment sample. Plasma oxidation merits further study as a treatment for removal of organic carbon. Operational parameters can be chosen to limit the plasma oxidation of pyrite which, unlike other Fe species, will not be dissolved by dilute hydrochloric acid. Preservation of pyrite allows the positive identification of Fe present as pyrite in sediments. ?? 1992.

  20. Composition and abundance of zooplankton community of an impacted estuarine lagoon in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L R; Costa, I S; Eskinazi-Sant'anna, E M

    2012-02-01

    Guaraíras Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon subject to intense human impacts, including shrimp aquaculture, urban expansion and agricultural activities, and is therefore vulnerable to eutrophication. With the aim of detecting the effects of human-mediated disturbance and environmental change in the lagoon, a spatial-temporal study was conducted in order to assess the actual ecological status of the lagoon and the species composition and density of the mesozooplankton, highlighting copepod assemblages. Algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) and total phosphorus concentration indicated that the lagoon is a meso-eutrophic coastal system in the inner part, and is oligotrophic in the areas influenced by the marine waters. High salinities were recorded in the lagoon, characterizing the lagoon as a coastal-marine ecosystem, rather than true estuarine. Mesozooplankton abundance fluctuated widely and showed marked spatial heterogeneity. The copepod assemblage was characterized by a coastal/estuarine group dominated by Oithona spp., Acartia lilljeborgi and Parvocalanus crassirostris in the inner areas of the lagoon, and a marine group characterized by the copepods Paracalanus quasimodo, Calanopia americana, Corycaeus (C.) speciosus and Monstrilloida in the area of marine influence. Thus, the spatial variability in the distribution of mesozooplankton species can be ascribed to the presence of a horizontal gradient of salinity and trophic conditions. Overall, the results showed that spatial variation in the water physicochemical characteristics of Guarairas Lagoon have significant effects on the structure and repartition of the mesozooplankton assemblages, which may potentially affect the functioning and biodiversity of this coastal ecosystem.

  1. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-09-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation. PMID:21412346

  2. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-01-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation. PMID:21412346

  3. Disturbance of intertidal soft-sediment benthic communities by cockle hand raking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M. J.; Broad, G.; Hall, S. J.

    2001-05-01

    Recent awareness of the ecosystem effects of fishing activities on the marine environment means that there is a pressing need to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of those activities that may have negative effects on non-target species and habitats. The cockle, Cerastoderma edule (L.) is the target of a commercial and artisanal fishery that occurs in intertidal and estuarine habitats across Northern Europe. Cockles are harvested either mechanically using tractor dredges or suction dredges or by large numbers of individual fishers using hand rakes. This study examined the effects of hand raking on the non-target species and under-sized cockles associated with intertidal cockle beds and the effects of size of the patch of sediment disturbed on subsequent recolonisation. Hand raking led to an initial three-fold increase in the damage rate of under-sized cockles compared with control plots. The communities in both small and large raked plots showed community changes relative to control plots 14 days after the initial disturbance. The small raked plots had recovered 56 days after the initial disturbance whereas the large raked plots remained in an altered state. Samples collected over a year later indicated that small-scale variations in habitat heterogeneity had been altered and suggest that while effects of hand raking may be significant within a year, they are unlikely to persist beyond this time-scale unless there are larger long-lived species present within the community.

  4. Methodology to assess the mobility of trace elements between water and contaminated estuarine sediments as a function of the site physico-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; de Diego, Alberto; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents an innovative methodology to have a rapid diagnosis about the mobility of selected trace elements of known toxicity and biological risk (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn) present in contaminated sediments. The novel strategy presented in this work uses, therefore, the own estuarine water in contact with sediments as the extracting agent to perform the mobility tests, simulating the real situation of the estuary. This water suffers from different physico-chemical conditions (low and high tides) and gives consequently, rather better information than the one obtained by the routine sequential extraction procedures. The final step of this methodology was the use of spatial modelling by kriging method and multivariate chemometric analysis, both for a better interpretation of the results. To achieve this goal, sediment and water samples were strategically collected at eight different points (four in tributary rivers, one in a closed dock, two in the main channel and another one in the mouth) along the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal River estuary (Metropolitan Bilbao, Basque Country) approximately every three months (summer, autumn, winter and spring) during a whole year. Physico-chemical changes, such as pH, carbonate content and organic matter of the sediments, together with variations in water salinity appear to be responsible for metal mobility from the sediment to the water layer. The influence of these variables was higher in the sites located close to the sea. Moreover, the mobility of trace elements was even higher at high tide in sediments with lower metal content.

  5. Phytoplankton diversity and community composition along the estuarine gradient of a temperate macrotidal ecosystem: combined morphological and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Pauline; Jouenne, Fabien; Friedl, Thomas; Deton-Cabanillas, Anne-Flore; Le Roy, Bertrand; Véron, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Microscopical and molecular analyses were used to investigate the diversity and spatial community structure of spring phytoplankton all along the estuarine gradient in a macrotidal ecosystem, the Baie des Veys (eastern English Channel). Taxa distribution at high tide in the water column appeared to be mainly driven by the tidal force which superimposed on the natural salinity gradient, resulting in a two-layer flow within the channel. Lowest taxa richness and abundance were found in the bay where Teleaulax-like cryptophytes dominated. A shift in species composition occurred towards the mouth of the river, with the diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis dramatically accumulating in the bottom waters of the upstream brackish reach. Small thalassiosiroid diatoms dominated the upper layer river community, where taxa richness was higher. Through the construction of partial 18S rDNA clone libraries, the microeukaryotic diversity was further explored for three samples selected along the surface salinity gradient (freshwater - brackish - marine). Clone libraries revealed a high diversity among heterotrophic and/or small-sized protists which were undetected by microscopy. Among them, a rich variety of Chrysophyceae and other lineages (e.g. novel marine stramenopiles) are reported here for the first time in this transition area. However, conventional microscopy remains more efficient in revealing the high diversity of phototrophic taxa, low in abundances but morphologically distinct, that is overlooked by the molecular approach. The differences between microscopical and molecular analyses and their limitations are discussed here, pointing out the complementarities of both approaches, for a thorough phytoplankton community description.

  6. Composition and abundance of zooplankton community of an impacted estuarine lagoon in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L R; Costa, I S; Eskinazi-Sant'anna, E M

    2012-02-01

    Guaraíras Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon subject to intense human impacts, including shrimp aquaculture, urban expansion and agricultural activities, and is therefore vulnerable to eutrophication. With the aim of detecting the effects of human-mediated disturbance and environmental change in the lagoon, a spatial-temporal study was conducted in order to assess the actual ecological status of the lagoon and the species composition and density of the mesozooplankton, highlighting copepod assemblages. Algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) and total phosphorus concentration indicated that the lagoon is a meso-eutrophic coastal system in the inner part, and is oligotrophic in the areas influenced by the marine waters. High salinities were recorded in the lagoon, characterizing the lagoon as a coastal-marine ecosystem, rather than true estuarine. Mesozooplankton abundance fluctuated widely and showed marked spatial heterogeneity. The copepod assemblage was characterized by a coastal/estuarine group dominated by Oithona spp., Acartia lilljeborgi and Parvocalanus crassirostris in the inner areas of the lagoon, and a marine group characterized by the copepods Paracalanus quasimodo, Calanopia americana, Corycaeus (C.) speciosus and Monstrilloida in the area of marine influence. Thus, the spatial variability in the distribution of mesozooplankton species can be ascribed to the presence of a horizontal gradient of salinity and trophic conditions. Overall, the results showed that spatial variation in the water physicochemical characteristics of Guarairas Lagoon have significant effects on the structure and repartition of the mesozooplankton assemblages, which may potentially affect the functioning and biodiversity of this coastal ecosystem. PMID:22437380

  7. Persistence and growth of the fecal indicator bacteria enterococci in detritus and natural estuarine plankton communities.

    PubMed

    Mote, Beth L; Turner, Jeffrey W; Lipp, Erin K

    2012-04-01

    Enterococci are used to evaluate recreational-water quality and health risks in marine environments. In addition to their occurrence in feces of warm blooded animals, they are also common epiphytes. We investigated the contribution of plankton- or particle-associated enterococci in estuarine and coastal water. Seven water and size-fractionated plankton samples were collected monthly between April 2008 and January 2009 in the tidal reaches of the Skidaway River (Georgia, USA). Each size fraction, along with filtered (<30 μm) and bulk estuarine water, was processed according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1600. Presumptive enterococci were selected and species were identified using carbon substrate utilization patterns. The highest average densities occurred within the 30-, 63-, 105-, and 150-μm size fractions, which also represented the majority (>99%) of the particles within the sampled water. Particle-associated enterococci accounted for as little as 1% of enterococci in bulk water in April to as much as 95% in July. Enterococcus faecalis was the most commonly isolated species from both water and plankton and represented 31% (16/51) and 35% (6/17) of the identified Enterococcus species from water and plankton, respectively. Enterococcus casseliflavus represented 29% of the selected isolates from plankton and 16% from water. Both E. faecalis and E. casseliflavus were able to survive and grow in plankton suspensions significantly longer than in artificial seawater. Enterococcus spp. may be highly concentrated in plankton and associated particles, especially during summer and fall months. These findings could have implications for the effectiveness of enterococci as an indicator of coastal water quality, especially in particle-rich environments.

  8. Sediment bacterial communities associated with anaerobic biodegradation of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Wang, Zhao; He, Tao; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals that are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Biodegradation is a major way to clean up the BPA pollution in sediments. However, information on the effective BPA biodegradation in anaerobic sediments is still lacking. The present study investigated the biodegradation potential of BPA in river sediment under nitrate- or sulfate-reducing conditions. After 120-day incubation, a high removal of BPA (93 or 89%) was found in sediment microcosms (amended with 50 mg kg(-1) BPA) under these two anaerobic conditions. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis indicated that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Actinobacteria were the major bacterial groups in BPA-degrading sediments. The shift in bacterial community structure could occur with BPA biodegradation.

  9. CAN LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERSHEDS HELP FIND IMPAIRED ESTUARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human alteration of watersheds and their landscapes often leads to undesirable effects in estuaries, such as excess nutrients, organic matter, and sediments, as well as increased levels of contaminants and pathogens. We hypothesized that alterations in watersheds associated wit...

  10. Avoidance response of the estuarine amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated, field-collected sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, M.J. . Office of Water); Lamberson, J.O.; Ferraro, S.P.; Swartz, R.C.; Boese, B.L.; Specht, D.T. )

    1999-06-01

    Amphipods (Eohaustorius estuarius) were placed in two-chamber containers with different combinations of three contaminated sediments and a control sediment, and their distribution was determined after 2 or 3 d. Amphipods avoided the sediment with the highest PAH contamination and one of two sediments with moderate PAH concentrations. In the moderately contaminated sediment avoided by amphipods, the (avoidance) response was more sensitive than mortality as a biological indicator of unacceptable sediment contamination. The avoidance response in this case likely represents an early indication of potential mortality from sediment exposure. Population levels of amphipods in moderately to heavily PAH-contaminated sediments may be influenced by a combination of avoidance behavior and toxicity/lethality.

  11. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria community in surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; He, Hui; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which obtain energy from dissimilatory sulfate reduction, play a vital role in the carbon and sulfur cycles. The dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), catalyzing the last step in the sulfate reduction pathway, has been found in all known SRB that have been tested so far. In this study, the diversity of SRB was investigated in the surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit gene ( dsrB). Based on dsrB clone libraries constructed in this study, diversified SRB were found, represented by 173 unique OTUs. Certain cloned sequences were associated with Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and a large fraction (60%) of novel sequences that have deeply branched groups in the dsrB tree, indicating that novel SRB inhabit the surface sediments. In addition, correlations of the SRB assemblages with environmental factors were analyzed by the linear model-based redundancy analysis (RDA). The result revealed that temperature, salinity and the content of TOC were most closely correlated with the SRB communities. More information on SRB community was obtained by applying the utility of UniFrac to published dsrB gene sequences from this study and other 9 different kinds of marine environments. The results demonstrated that there were highly similar SRB genotypes in the marine and estuarine sediments, and that geographic positions and environmental factors influenced the SRB community distribution.

  12. STORAGE DURATION AND TEMPERATURE AND THE ACUTE TOXICITIES OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS TO MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA AND LEPTOCHEIRUS PLUMULOSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many statutory needs for sediment quality assessment exist (U.S. EPA 1996). A variety of sediment toxicity tests have been used to support the development of sediment quality guidelines and to determine the benthic impacts of dredging activities and point and non-point source tox...

  13. Short-term enhancement and long-term suppression of denitrification in estuarine sediments receiving primary- and secondary-treated paper and pulp mill discharge.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Joanne M; Eyre, Bradley D; Ross, Donald J

    2011-04-15

    To determine the role of sediment denitrification in removing inputs of primary- (PE) and secondary-treated effluent (SE) from a pulp and paper mill (PPM), organic matter (OM) associated with PE (residual wood fiber) and SE (activated sludge biomass and phytoplankton) was added to estuarine intertidal sediments and denitrification rates were measured over 27 days. Labile sludge biomass and phytoplankton initially stimulated denitrification, including for pre-existing sediment N. After 2.5 d, however, denitrification was suppressed apparently due to microbial competition for N to process the refractory (high C:N) material remaining. Wood fiber suppressed denitrification throughout the experiment due to competition for N to process the refractory OM. Ultimate long-term denitrification suppression by phytoplankton is offset by initial enhanced denitrification rates. Although nutrient release during degradation of sludge biomass and wood fiber may stimulate phytoplankton production, N equivalent to 127% of the expected daily phytoplankton load was denitrified within 24 h, allowing for permanent removal of PPM-derived N. Compared to primary treatment, secondary treatment of PPM effluent has greater potential for N removal. PMID:21438600

  14. Metaproteomic analysis of bacterial communities in marine mudflat aquaculture sediment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rui; Lin, Xiangmin; Guo, Tingting; Wu, Linkun; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria living in marine sediment play crucial roles in the benthic-pelagic interface coupling process. However, the complexity of the marine environment and the abundance of interfering materials hamper metaproteomic research of the marine mudflat environment. In this study, a modified sequential protein extraction method was used for marine mudflat sediment metaproteomic investigation. For marine sediment samples in cultured clam mudflat, more than 1000 protein spots were visualized in a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis map and 78 % of 194 randomly selected spots were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. We further applied this method to compare long-term clam aquaculture and natural mudflat sediment and identified 53 altered proteins from different microbe resources, which belonged to different functional categories or metabolic pathways. We found that proteins involved in stress/defense response process, ATP regeneration and protein folding more inclined to increase abundance while arginine biosynthesis and signal transduction process related proteins preferred to decrease in clam cultured mudflat sediment. Meanwhile, proteins were abundant in pathogens of bivalves, such as Vibrio and Photobacterium, and decreased in Acinetobacter, after about 8 months clam cultured. Furthermore, the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was performed to compare microbial community composition between sediments mentioned above. Results showed that the top three enrich genera in natural sediment were Cytophaga, Butyrivibrio and Spirochaeta, while Cytophaga, Spirochaeta and Azoarcus were found enrichment in long-term mudflat aquaculture sediment.

  15. An Evaluation of Partial Digestion Protocols for the Extraction and Measurement of Trace Metals of Environmental Concern in Marine and Estuarine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, S. J.; Krahforst, C.; Sherman, L.; Kehm, K.

    2013-12-01

    As part of a broad study of the fate and transport of trace metals in estuarine sediments (Krahforst et al., 2013), the efficacy of commonly-used partial digestion protocols, including ISO 11466 (treatment with aqua regia), EPA 3050B (nitric acid followed by H2O2) and a modified rock digestion method ('RD' method- H2O2 followed by nitric), were evaluated for two NIST SRM materials, marine sediment 2702 and estuarine sediment 1646a. Unlike so-called total sediment digestions, the methods studied in this work do not employ hydrofluoric acid and are thought to leave silicates substantially or wholly intact. These methods can in principle compliment studies based on total digestions by providing information about trace metals in phases that are potentially more labile in the marine environment. Samples were digested in ~150 mg aliquots. Application of ISO 11466 and EPA 3050B followed published protocols except that digestions were carried out in trace-metal clean 15 mL capped Teflon vessels in an Al block digester and, at the end of the procedure, the supernatant was decanted from undigested material following repeated centrifugation in 2% nitric acid. Digested solutions were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn and Pb content by ICPMS. All elements were analyzed in collision reaction cell mode to minimize isobaric interferences, except Cd and Ag, which were analyzed in standard mode. Instrument performance was monitored in-run by analyzing the SRM 1643e and several quality-check standards. Two repeated digestions of SRM 2702 and SRM 1646a using EPA 3050B produced identical yields, within the standard deviation of repeated analyses (0 - 5%), for all analyzed elements except Cu, which varied by 30% for SRM 2702. The same was true for ISO 11466, although the standard deviation of repeated analyses for this digestion series tended to be larger (< ~15%). The RD method, which consists of pre-treatment with H2O2 followed by repeated treatments with

  16. Interactions of Cd and Cu in anaerobic estuarine sediments. 2: Bioavailability, body burdens and respiration effects as related to geochemical partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, J.H.; Alden, R.W. III

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between Cd and Cu distribution in sediment geochemical fractions and their bioavailability was studied. A fine-sandy textured estuarine sediment was treated with all combinations of 0, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg Cd and 0, 12, and 25 mg/kg Cu using the chloride salts of each metal. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) were exposed to the treated sediments in aquaria with 20 ppt artificial seawater for 14 d. Sediments were sequentially extracted before and after organism exposure to determine the exchangeable, easily reducible, organic-sulfide, moderately reducible, and acid extractable phases. Low mortalities were observed for all organism types and none were attributable to any of the treatments. The Cd and Cu concentrations in the easily reducible and organic-sulfide phases were found to be significantly related to the bioavailability of these metals. The most highly significant relationship was established between Cd in the easily reducible phase and body burden of Cd in the blue mussel. Notable interactions were found between Cd and Cu in some of the geochemical phases, body burdens, and respiration rates. Metal uptake, respiration, and interactions were highly dependent on the test species. A significant correlation was found between increased body burden and depressed respiration for Cd but not for Cu. Multiple regression models are used to describe these relationships. It appears that the interactive responses in the organisms are driven primarily by the sediment geochemical effects and mediated by individual organism processes. These results underscore the necessity of multicomponent (multielement) studies in assessing the fate and effects of toxic elements in the environment.

  17. Ban on commercial fishing in the estuarine waters of New South Wales, Australia: Community consultation and social impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Momtaz, Salim Gladstone, William

    2008-02-15

    In its effort to resolve the conflict between commercial and recreational fishers the New South Wales (NSW) government (NSW Fisheries) banned commercial fishing in the estuarine waters. The NSW Fisheries conducted a number of studies and held meetings with the affected communities including commercial fishers prior to the implementation of the ban. To investigate how community consultation played a role in the decision-making process especially as perceived by the commercial fishers and to determine actual social impacts of the ban on commercial fishers, in-depth interviews were conducted with the commercial fishers. This research reveals that despite the NSW Fisheries' consultations with commercial fishers prior to the closure, the latter were confused about various vital aspects of the decision. It further reveals that, the commercial fishers faced a number of significant changes as a result of this decision. We argue that a better decision-making process and outcome would have been possible through a meaningful consultation with the commercial fishers and a social impact assessment.

  18. [Aerobic methanotrophic communities in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Gaĭnutdinova, E A; Eshinimaev, B Ts; Tsyrenzhapova, I S; Dagurova, O P; Suzina, N E; Khmelenina, V N; Namsaraev, B B; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2005-01-01

    The results of the first methodical investigation into the aerobic methanotrophic communities inhabiting the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal are reported. Use of the radioisotopic method revealed methane consumption in 12 10- to 50-cm-long sediment cores. The maximum methane consumption rates (495-737 microl/(dm3 day) were recorded in sediments in the regions of hydrothermal vents and oil and gas occurrence. Methane consumption was most active in the surface layers of the sediments (0-4 cm); it decreased with the sediment depth and became negligible or absent at depths below 20 cm. The number of methanotrophic bacteria usually ranged from 100 to 1000 cells/cm3 of sediment and reached 1 million cells/cm3 in the regions of oil and gas occurrence. The 17 enrichment cultures obtained were represented mainly by morphotype II methanotrophs. Phylogenetic analysis of the enrichment cultures in terms of the amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit of the membrane-bound methane monooxygenase revealed the predominance of methanotrophs of the genus Methylocystis. The results obtained suggest the presence of an active aerobic methanotrophic community in Lake Baikal. PMID:16211862

  19. Pond sediment magnetite grains show a distinctive microbial community.

    PubMed

    Song, H-K; Sonkaria, S; Khare, V; Dong, K; Lee, H-T; Ahn, S-H; Kim, H-K; Kang, H-J; Lee, S-H; Jung, S P; Adams, J M

    2015-07-01

    Formation of magnetite in anaerobic sediments is thought to be enhanced by the activities of iron-reducing bacteria. Geobacter has been implicated as playing a major role, as in culture its cells are often associated with extracellular magnetite grains. We studied the bacterial community associated with magnetite grains in sediment of a freshwater pond in South Korea. Magnetite was isolated from the sediment using a magnet. The magnetite-depleted fraction of sediment was also taken for comparison. DNA was extracted from each set of samples, followed by PCR for 16S bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and HiSeq sequencing. The bacterial communities of the magnetite-enriched and magnetite-depleted fractions were significantly different. The enrichment of three abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) suggests that they may either be dependent upon the magnetite grain environment or may be playing a role in magnetite formation. The most abundant OTU in magnetite-enriched fractions was Geobacter, bolstering the case that this genus is important in magnetite formation in natural systems. Other major OTUs strongly associated with the magnetite-enriched fraction, rather than the magnetite-depleted fraction, include a Sulfuricella and a novel member of the Betaproteobacteria. The existence of distinct bacterial communities associated with particular mineral grain types may also be an example of niche separation and coexistence in sediments and soils, which cannot usually be detected due to difficulties in separating and concentrating minerals. PMID:25592636

  20. Pond sediment magnetite grains show a distinctive microbial community.

    PubMed

    Song, H-K; Sonkaria, S; Khare, V; Dong, K; Lee, H-T; Ahn, S-H; Kim, H-K; Kang, H-J; Lee, S-H; Jung, S P; Adams, J M

    2015-07-01

    Formation of magnetite in anaerobic sediments is thought to be enhanced by the activities of iron-reducing bacteria. Geobacter has been implicated as playing a major role, as in culture its cells are often associated with extracellular magnetite grains. We studied the bacterial community associated with magnetite grains in sediment of a freshwater pond in South Korea. Magnetite was isolated from the sediment using a magnet. The magnetite-depleted fraction of sediment was also taken for comparison. DNA was extracted from each set of samples, followed by PCR for 16S bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and HiSeq sequencing. The bacterial communities of the magnetite-enriched and magnetite-depleted fractions were significantly different. The enrichment of three abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) suggests that they may either be dependent upon the magnetite grain environment or may be playing a role in magnetite formation. The most abundant OTU in magnetite-enriched fractions was Geobacter, bolstering the case that this genus is important in magnetite formation in natural systems. Other major OTUs strongly associated with the magnetite-enriched fraction, rather than the magnetite-depleted fraction, include a Sulfuricella and a novel member of the Betaproteobacteria. The existence of distinct bacterial communities associated with particular mineral grain types may also be an example of niche separation and coexistence in sediments and soils, which cannot usually be detected due to difficulties in separating and concentrating minerals.

  1. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  2. Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

  3. Sudden clearing of estuarine waters upon crossing the threshold from transport to supply regulation of sediment transport as an erodible sediment pool is depleted: San Francisco Bay, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity of suspended sediment in an estuary is regulated either by transport, where energy or time needed to suspend sediment is limiting, or by supply, where the quantity of erodible sediment is limiting. This paper presents a hypothesis that suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in estuaries can suddenly decrease when the threshold from transport to supply regulation is crossed as an erodible sediment pool is depleted. This study was motivated by a statistically significant 36% step decrease in SSC in San Francisco Bay from water years 1991–1998 to 1999–2007. A quantitative conceptual model of an estuary with an erodible sediment pool and transport or supply regulation of sediment transport is developed. Model results confirm that, if the regulation threshold was crossed in 1999, SSC would decrease rapidly after water year 1999 as observed. Estuaries with a similar history of a depositional sediment pulse followed by erosion may experience sudden clearing.

  4. Fish community structure of the St Lucia Estuarine System under prolonged drought conditions and its potential for recovery after mouth breaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivier, Leon; Cyrus, Digby P.; Jerling, Hendrik L.

    2010-03-01

    The St Lucia Estuarine System, South Africa, has been under pressure due to recent drought conditions, which have led to closure of the mouth, extremely low lake levels and hypersaline conditions. The estuary mouth closed in June 2002 and remained so for almost 5 years before being breached by Cyclone Gamede in May 2007. After mouth closure in August 2007, salinities in South and North Lake gradually increased to reach highs of 68 at the end of 2008, while salinities in the Narrows gradually declined during the study. Fish were sampled biannually during 2006-2008 with seine and gill-nets at six sites throughout the system. A total of 20,422 fish from 72 species were recorded, with the number of species and CPUE gradually decreasing from the Narrows throughout the system to Hells Gate in the upper parts of the system. The fish community was dominated by the freshwater species Oreochromis mossambicus, and two estuarine species, Ambassis ambassis and Hyporamphus capensis. The fish community was dominated in terms of species numbers by marine spawning species, but in terms of fish abundance by freshwater and estuarine breeding species. Recruitment of post-larvae of 20 marine species into the system occurred following opening of the mouth in March 2007, highlighting the importance of the system as a nursery area for marine species. The fish community was structured by spatial differences between sampling areas and between the three main compartments of the system, and not by temporal changes during the study period.

  5. Estuarine Food for Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M�ller-Solger, A. B.; M�ller-Navarra, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    Recent research in animal and human nutrition has shown the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as the n-3 LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These LC-PUFA are needed for healthy development and functioning of the nervous and vascular systems. De novo synthesis or elongation to LC-PUFA in animals is inefficient at best; thus sufficient amounts of these PUFA must be supplied by food sources. Algae, especially diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes, are the quantitatively most important producers of EPA and DHA. These types of algae often dominate estuarine producer communities. The upper San Francisco Estuary is no exception, and we found its LC-PUFA-rich phytoplankton biomass, but not the quantitatively prevalent terrestrial plant detritus, to be highly predictive of zooplankton (Daphnia) growth. In contrast, in freshwater lakes dominated by relatively LC-PUFA-poor phytoplankton, EPA, not total phytoplankton biomass, best predicted Daphnia growth. The commonly high abundance of LC-PUFA-rich algae in estuaries may help explain the high trophic efficiencies in these systems and resulting high consumer production. Moreover, LC-PUFA-rich estuarine food resources may also provide essential nutrition and associated health and evolutionary benefits to land-dwelling consumers of such foods, including humans. Ensuring LC-PUFA-rich, uncontaminated estuarine production is thus an important goal for estuarine restoration and a convincing argument for estuarine conservation.

  6. The Role of Heterotrophic Microbial Communities in Estuarine C Budgets and the Biogeochemical C Cycle with Implications for Global Warming: Research Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Anderson, O Roger

    2016-05-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and economically important marine ecosystems at the land-ocean interface and contribute significantly to exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Estuarine microbial communities are major links in the biogeochemical C cycle and flow of C in food webs from primary producers to higher consumers. Considerable attention has been given to bacteria and autotrophic eukaryotes in estuarine ecosystems, but less research has been devoted to the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes. Current research is reviewed here on the role of heterotrophic eukaryotic microbes in C biogeochemistry and ecology of estuaries, with particular attention to C budgets, trophodynamics, and the metabolic fate of C in microbial communities. Some attention is given to the importance of these processes in climate change and global warming, especially in relation to sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 , while also documenting the current paucity of research on the role of eukaryotic microbes that contribute to this larger question of C biogeochemistry and the environment. Some recommendations are made for future directions of research and opportunities of applying newer technologies and analytical approaches to a more refined analysis of the role of C in estuarine microbial community processes and the biogeochemical C cycle.

  7. Phytoplankton Diversity and Community Composition along the Estuarine Gradient of a Temperate Macrotidal Ecosystem: Combined Morphological and Molecular Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bazin, Pauline; Jouenne, Fabien; Friedl, Thomas; Deton-Cabanillas, Anne-Flore; Le Roy, Bertrand; Véron, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Microscopical and molecular analyses were used to investigate the diversity and spatial community structure of spring phytoplankton all along the estuarine gradient in a macrotidal ecosystem, the Baie des Veys (eastern English Channel). Taxa distribution at high tide in the water column appeared to be mainly driven by the tidal force which superimposed on the natural salinity gradient, resulting in a two-layer flow within the channel. Lowest taxa richness and abundance were found in the bay where Teleaulax-like cryptophytes dominated. A shift in species composition occurred towards the mouth of the river, with the diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis dramatically accumulating in the bottom waters of the upstream brackish reach. Small thalassiosiroid diatoms dominated the upper layer river community, where taxa richness was higher. Through the construction of partial 18S rDNA clone libraries, the microeukaryotic diversity was further explored for three samples selected along the surface salinity gradient (freshwater - brackish - marine). Clone libraries revealed a high diversity among heterotrophic and/or small-sized protists which were undetected by microscopy. Among them, a rich variety of Chrysophyceae and other lineages (e.g. novel marine stramenopiles) are reported here for the first time in this transition area. However, conventional microscopy remains more efficient in revealing the high diversity of phototrophic taxa, low in abundances but morphologically distinct, that is overlooked by the molecular approach. The differences between microscopical and molecular analyses and their limitations are discussed here, pointing out the complementarities of both approaches, for a thorough phytoplankton community description. PMID:24718653

  8. Stable isotopes and mercury in a model estuarine fish: multibasin comparisons with water quality, community structure, and available prey base.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Paperno, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Stable-isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and mercury in a model predator, and associated prey community assessments were used to make inferences regarding food web relationships and how these relationships are influenced by habitat variability and anthropogenic factors. Although interconnected, the three major basins of the Indian River Lagoon system on the Atlantic coast of Florida comprise noticeably different available habitat types with spatially distinct faunal communities and available prey for spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, a model predatory fish species. Water quality, degree of urbanization, human population density, and levels of nitrogen enrichment clearly differ between these representative estuarine basins. The differences can influence feeding ecology and therefore result in different mercury concentrations and different stable-isotope signatures of spotted seatrout between basins. Mercury concentrations in spotted seatrout were greatest in Mosquito Lagoon (ML) and least in the Indian River Lagoon proper (IRL), although concentrations were low for all basins. Spotted seatrout from IRL were carbon-depleted and nitrogen-enriched compared with those from the other basins; this suggests either that the fish's primary source of carbon in IRL is an algae- or phytoplankton-based food web or that the pathway through the food web is shorter there. The δ(15)N values of IRL spotted seatrout were greater than those in the Banana River Lagoon or ML, suggesting slightly different trophic positioning of fish in these basins. The greater δ(15)N values in IRL spotted seatrout may also reflect the greater human population density and resultant anthropogenic inputs (e.g., observed higher total nitrogen levels) in IRL compared with the other more pristine basins examined. Understanding species' responses to broad-scale habitat heterogeneity in estuaries and knowing basin-specific differences in stable isotopes, mercury, prey communities, and comprehensive

  9. Zooplankton community structure during a transition from dry to wet state in a shallow, subtropical estuarine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Nicola K.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2015-12-01

    Lake St Lucia is among the most important shallow ecosystems globally and Africa's largest estuarine lake. It has long been regarded as a resilient system, oscillating through periods of hypersalinity and freshwater conditions, depending on the prevailing climate. The alteration of the system's catchment involving the diversion of the Mfolozi River away from Lake St Lucia, however, challenged the resilience of the system, particularly during the most recent drought (2002-2011), sacrificing much of its biodiversity. This study reports on the transition of the St Lucia zooplankton community from a dry hypersaline state to a new wet phase. Sampling was undertaken during routine quarterly surveys at five representative stations along the lake system from February 2011 to November 2013. A total of 54 taxa were recorded during the study period. The zooplankton community was numerically dominated by the calanoid copepods Acartiella natalensis and Pseudodiaptomus stuhlmanni and the cyclopoid copepod Oithona brevicornis. While the mysid Mesopodopsis africana was still present in the system during the wet phase, it was not found in the swarming densities that were recorded during the previous dry phase, possibly due to increased predation pressure, competition with other taxa and or the reconnection with the Mfolozi River via a beach spillway. The increase in zooplankton species richness recorded during the present study shows that the system has undergone a transition to wet state, with the zooplankton community structure reflecting that recorded during the past. It is likely, though, that only a full restoration of natural mouth functioning will result in further diversity increases.

  10. Comparison of sediment grain size characteristics on nourished and un-nourished estuarine beaches and impacts on horseshoe crab habitat, Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, N.L.; Smith, D.R.; Nordstrom, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether nourished and un-nourished estuarine beaches have conspicuous differences in sediment size and sorting that could affect their value as habitat for horseshoe crabs. Comparisons are made of beach profiles and sediment samples gathered at 0.15 m and 0.30 m depths on the backshore, at spring tide elevation, neap tide elevation, and the lower foreshore on 5 un-nourished and 3 nourished beaches in Delaware Bay, where tidal range is <2.0 m. The backshore is at least 0.5 m higher on the recently nourished beaches than on a nearby un-nourished beach reworked by storm waves. Nourishing these beaches to elevations higher than natural overwash heights will restrict natural evolution of the upper beach. Sediments at spring tide elevation on un-nourished sites average 0.72 mm in diameter at 0.15 m depth and 0.67 mm at 0.30 m depth.The similarity in size implies a relatively deep active layer in the zone of maximum cut and fill associated with cyclic profile change during low frequency, high magnitude storms. Sedimentary changes at neap tide elevation may be influenced more by depth of activation by waves than by cycles of deposition and erosion. Sediment at 0.15 m depth at spring and neap locations on the foreshore of nourished beaches is finer (0.51 mm) and better sorted (0.82 phi) than at 0.30 m depth (0.91 mm, 1.38 phi), implying that waves have not reworked the deeper sediments. Differences in sediment characteristics at depth may persist on eroding nourished beaches, where unreworked fill is close to the surface. Sediment texture influences horseshoe crab egg viability and development. Lower rates of water movement through the foreshore and greater thickness of the capillary fringe on nourished sites suggests that greater moisture retention will occur where horseshoe crabs bury eggs and may provide more favorable conditions for egg development, but the depth of these conditions will not be great on a recently nourished beach

  11. Changes in northern Gulf of Mexico sediment bacterial and archaeal communities exposed to hypoxia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogeochemical changes in marine sediments during coastal water hypoxia are well described, but less is known about underlying changes in microbial communities. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) hypoxic zone sediments were characterized by py...

  12. Patterns of Distribution of Macro-fauna in Different Types of Estuarine, Soft Sediment Habitats Adjacent to Urban and Non-urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegarth, M.; Hoskin, M.

    2001-02-01

    Urban development typically creates a large number of potentially interacting disturbances that may cause impacts on assemblages of animals and plans in estuarine habitats. We tested predictions from the general model that intertidal areas exposed to different types of disturbances have different types of assemblages of benthic macrofauna. Different parts of the Port Hacking Estuary (New South Wales, Australia) are exposed to varying degrees of disturbance by human activities. We predicted that the average structure of assemblages of intertidal animals, and patterns of variability would differ between urban and non-urban areas of Port Hacking. Consistent with previous observations from the literature, there were differences in average structure between urban and non-urban sandy areas. Qualitative differences between abundances of individual taxa in urban and non-urban areas were generally not consistent with previous observations. Differences between assemblages in urban and non-urban areas were not observed in muddy sediments, nor in sediments among mangroves and seagrass. No significant differences in variability was observed between urban and non-urban areas. Two general models may be proposed to explain the observed differences in response to urbanization in different habitats: (1) animals are exposed to different levels or combinations of disturbances in different habitats; or (2) assemblages of animals differ in sensitivity to disturbances among habitats.

  13. Research of the diurnal soil respiration dynamic in two typical vegetation communities in Tianjin estuarine wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Meng, W. Q.; Li, H. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the differences and diurnal variations of soil respiration in different vegetation communities in coastal wetland is to provide basic reliable scientific evidence for the carbon "source" function of wetland ecosystems in Tianjin.Measured soil respiration rate which changed during a day between two typical vegetation communities (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa) in coastal wetland in October, 2015. Soil temperature and moisture were measured at the same time. Each of the diurnal curves of soil temperature in two communities had a single peak value, and the diurnal variations of soil moisture showed a "two peak-one valley" trend. The diurnal dynamic of soil respiration under the two communities had obvious volatility which showed a single peak form with its maximum between 12:00-14:00 and minimum during 18:00. The diurnal average of soil respiration rate in Phragmites australis communities was 3.37 times of that in Suaeda salsa communities. Significant relationships were found by regression analysis among soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration rate in Suaeda salsa communities. There could be well described by exponential models which was y = -0.245e0.105t between soil respiration rate and soil temperature, by quadratic models which was y = -0.276×2 + 15.277× - 209.566 between soil respiration rate and soil moisture. But the results of this study showed that there were no significant correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature and soil moisture in Phragmites australis communities (P > 0.05). Therefore, under the specific wetland environment conditions in Tianjin, soil temperature and moisture were not main factors influencing the diurnal variations of soil respiration rate in Phragmites australis communities.

  14. Sediment microbial communities in Great Boiling Spring are controlled by temperature and distinct from water communities.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jessica K; Peacock, Joseph P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Williams, Amanda J; Thompson, Daniel B; Dong, Hailiang; Wu, Geng; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-04-01

    Great Boiling Spring is a large, circumneutral, geothermal spring in the US Great Basin. Twelve samples were collected from water and four different sediment sites on four different dates. Microbial community composition and diversity were assessed by PCR amplification of a portion of the small subunit rRNA gene using a universal primer set followed by pyrosequencing of the V8 region. Analysis of 164 178 quality-filtered pyrotags clearly distinguished sediment and water microbial communities. Water communities were extremely uneven and dominated by the bacterium Thermocrinis. Sediment microbial communities grouped according to temperature and sampling location, with a strong, negative, linear relationship between temperature and richness at all taxonomic levels. Two sediment locations, Site A (87-80 °C) and Site B (79 °C), were predominantly composed of single phylotypes of the bacterial lineage GAL35 (\\[pmacr]=36.1%), Aeropyrum (\\[pmacr]=16.6%), the archaeal lineage pSL4 (\\[pmacr]=15.9%), the archaeal lineage NAG1 (\\[pmacr]=10.6%) and Thermocrinis (\\[pmacr]=7.6%). The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus' was relatively abundant in all sediment samples <82 °C (\\[pmacr]=9.51%), delineating the upper temperature limit for chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation in this spring. This study underscores the distinctness of water and sediment communities in GBS and the importance of temperature in driving microbial diversity, composition and, ultimately, the functioning of biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Sediment nickel bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine crustaceans of contrasting bioturbative behaviors--an evaluation of the SEM-AVS paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chandler, G Thomas; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; He, Lijian; Washburn, Katherine M; Stewart, Emily R; Ferry, John L

    2014-11-01

    Robust sediment quality criteria require chemistry and toxicity data predictive of concentrations where population/community response should occur under known geochemical conditions. Understanding kinetic and geochemical effects on toxicant bioavailability is key, and these are influenced by infaunal sediment bioturbation. This study used fine-scale sediment and porewater measurement of contrasting infaunal effects on carbon-normalized SEM-AVS to evaluate safe or potentially toxic nickel concentrations in a high-binding Spartina saltmarsh sediment (4%TOC; 35-45 μmol-S2-·g(-1)). Two crustaceans producing sharply contrasting bioturbation--the copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis and amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus--were cultured in oxic to anoxic sediments with SEM[Ni]-AVS, TOC, porewater [Ni], and porewater DOC measured weekly. From 180 to 750 μg-Ni·g(-1) sediment, amphipod bioturbation reduced [AVS] and enhanced porewater [Ni]. Significant amphipod uptake, mortality, and growth-depression occurred at the higher sediment [Ni] even when [SEM-AVS]/foc suggested acceptable risk. Less bioturbative copepods produced higher AVS and porewater DOC but exhibited net population growth despite porewater [Ni] 1.3-1.7× their aqueous [Ni] LOEC. Copepod aqueous tests with/without dissolved organic matter showed significant aqueous DOC protection, which suggests porewater DOC attenuates sediment Ni toxicity. The SEM[Ni]-AVS relationship was predictive of acceptable risk for copepods at the important population-growth level.

  16. Stream invertebrate community functional responses to deposited sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabeni, C.F.; Doisy, K.E.; Zweig, L.D.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated functional responses of benthic invertebrates to deposited sediment in four Missouri USA streams. In each stream, invertebrates were sampled along continuums of deposited sediment (particles <2 mm in size) from 0 to 100% surface cover in reaches of fairly homogeneous substrate composition, current velocity, and water depths. Correlations, graphical representations, and the cumulative response curves of feeding and habit groups provided strong empirical support for distinct community functional changes due to deposited sediment. Feeding groups were more sensitive to deposited sediment than habit groups. Densities of all the feeding groups decreased significantly with increasing deposited sediment, while relative densities of gatherers increased significantly. Taxa richness also decreased significantly for all the feeding groups except for the shredders. Increases in deposited sediment were related to significant density decreases for only the clingers and sprawlers in the habit group, resulting in significant increases in the relative densities of both burrowers and climbers. Clingers, sprawlers, and swimmers also showed significant decreases in taxa richness. ?? Eawag, 2005.

  17. Qualitative community stability determines parasite establishment and richness in estuarine marshes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tavis K; Sukhdeo, Michael V K

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of parasites with complex life cycles is generally thought to be regulated by free-living species richness and the stability of local ecological interactions. In this study, we test the prediction that stable host communities are prerequisite for the establishment of complex multi-host parasite life cycles. The colonization of naïve killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, by parasites was investigated in 4 salt marsh sites that differed in time since major ecological restoration, and which provided a gradient in free-living species richness. The richness of the parasite community, and the rate at which parasite species accumulated in the killifish, were similar between the low diversity unrestored site and the two high diversity (10- and 20-year) restored marsh sites. The parasite community in the newly restored marsh (0 year) included only directly-transmitted parasite species. To explain the paradox of a low diversity, highly invaded salt marsh (unrestored) having the same parasite community as highly diverse restored marsh sites (10 and 20 yrs) we assessed qualitative community stability. We find a significant correlation between system stability and parasite species richness. These data suggest a role for local stability in parasite community assembly, and support the idea that stable trophic relationships are required for the persistence of complex parasite life cycles.

  18. Environmental Conditions Outweigh Geographical Contiguity in Determining the Similarity of nifH-Harboring Microbial Communities in Sediments of Two Disconnected Marginal Seas

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haixia; Dang, Hongyue; Klotz, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological evidence suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophs fueled by organic carbon respiration in sediments play an important role in marine nitrogen fixation. However, fundamental knowledge about the identities, abundance, diversity, biogeography, and controlling environmental factors of nitrogen-fixing communities in open ocean sediments is still elusive. Surprisingly, little is known also about nitrogen-fixing communities in sediments of the more research-accessible marginal seas. Here we report on an investigation of the environmental geochemistry and putative diazotrophic microbiota in the sediments of Bohai Sea, an eutrophic marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. Diverse and abundant nifH gene sequences were identified and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found to be the dominant putative nitrogen-fixing microbes. Community statistical analyses suggested bottom water temperature, bottom water chlorophyll a content (or the covarying turbidity) and sediment porewater Eh (or the covarying pH) as the most significant environmental factors controlling the structure and spatial distribution of the putative diazotrophic communities, while sediment Hg content, sulfide content, and porewater SiO32−-Si content were identified as the key environmental factors correlated positively with the nifH gene abundance in Bohai Sea sediments. Comparative analyses between the Bohai Sea and the northern South China Sea (nSCS) identified a significant composition difference of the putative diazotrophic communities in sediments between the shallow-water (estuarine and nearshore) and deep-water (offshore and deep-sea) environments, and sediment porewater dissolved oxygen content, water depth and in situ temperature as the key environmental factors tentatively controlling the species composition, community structure, and spatial distribution of the marginal sea sediment nifH-harboring microbiota. This confirms the ecophysiological specialization and niche differentiation

  19. An assessment of mercury in estuarine sediment and tissue in Southern New Jersey using public domain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Kara; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.; Barringer, Julia; Smalling, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered a contaminant of global concern for coastal environments due to its toxicity, widespread occurrence in sediment, and bioaccumulation in tissue. Coastal New Jersey, USA, is characterized by shallow bays and wetlands that provide critical habitat for wildlife but share space with expanding urban landscapes. This study was designed as an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Hg in coastal New Jersey sediments and critical species using publicly available data to highlight potential data gaps. Mercury concentrations in estuary sediments can exceed 2 μg/g and correlate with concentrations of other metals. Based on existing data, the concentrations of Hg in mussels in southern New Jersey are comparable to those observed in other urbanized Atlantic Coast estuaries. Lack of methylmercury data for sediments, other media, and tissues are data gaps needing to be filled for a clearer understanding of the impacts of Hg inputs to the ecosystem.

  20. An assessment of mercury in estuarine sediment and tissue in Southern New Jersey using public domain data.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kara; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A; Barringer, Julia L; Smalling, Kelly L

    2016-06-15

    Mercury (Hg) is considered a contaminant of global concern for coastal environments due to its toxicity, widespread occurrence in sediment, and bioaccumulation in tissue. Coastal New Jersey, USA, is characterized by shallow bays and wetlands that provide critical habitat for wildlife but share space with expanding urban landscapes. This study was designed as an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Hg in coastal New Jersey sediments and critical species using publicly available data to highlight potential data gaps. Mercury concentrations in estuary sediments can exceed 2μg/g and correlate with concentrations of other metals. Based on existing data, the concentrations of Hg in mussels in southern New Jersey are comparable to those observed in other urbanized Atlantic Coast estuaries. Lack of methylmercury data for sediments, other media, and tissues are data gaps needing to be filled for a clearer understanding of the impacts of Hg inputs to the ecosystem. PMID:27158049

  1. Dietary assimilation of cadmium associated with bacterial exopolymer sediment coatings by the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus: Effects of Cd concentration and salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlekat, C.E.; Decho, Alan W.; Chandler, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial extracellular substances (also known as exopolysaccharides, or EPS) may serve as vectors for trophic transfer of metals in benthic systems because these ubiquitous sediment coatings can sorb high concentrations of toxic metals, and because many benthic invertebrates assimilate EPS sediment coatings upon ingestion. We conducted 3 sets of experiments to determine the assimilative bioavailability of EPS-associated Cd to the benthic amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus as a function of Cd concentration and salinity. Bioavailability was measured as L. plumulosus Cd assimilation efficiency (AE) from EPS-coated silica (EPS-Si) and from uncoated silica (NC-Si) using modified pulse-chase methods with the gamma-emitting radioisotope 109Cd. Cd AE was significantly greater from NC-Si than from EPS-Si at 7.5???, but not at 2.5 or 25???. Overall, Cd AE from EPS-Si was between 15.1 and 21.5%. Because EPS-Si sorbed more Cd than NC-Si, EPS coatings magnified the amount of Cd amphipods accumulated at each salinity by up to a factor of 10. Salinity did not directly affect Cd AE from EPS-Si, but because Cd-EPS partitioning increased with decreasing salinity, amphipods accumulated more Cd from EPS at the lowest Cd-EPS incubation salinity (2.5 ???) than at higher salinities (7.5 and 25 ???). Finally, Cd concentration in EPS exhibited an inverse relationship with Cd AE at 2.5 ???, but not at 25 ???. Specifically, Cd AE was 12 times greater at 1 compared with 10 ??g Cd ??g-1 EPS. Together, these results show that estuarine benthos can accumulate Cd from EPS sediment coatings, but that the degree to which this phenomenon occurs is dependent upon seawater salinity and Cd concentration in EPS.

  2. Influence of waves and horseshoe crab spawning on beach morphology and sediment grain-size characteristics on a sandy estuarine beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, N.L.; Nordstrom, K.F.; Smith, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of wave action and horseshoe crab spawning on the topography and grain-size characteristics on the foreshore of an estuarine sand beach in Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA were evaluated using data collected over six consecutive high tides. Data were gathered inside and outside a 25 m long exclosure constructed to create a control area free of disturbance by crabs. The density of crabs in the swash zone outside the exclosure was 8??1 organisms m-2. The maximum depth of sediment activation on the upper foreshore where spawning occurred was 0??103 m during periods characterized by low significant wave heights: < 0??08 m. This depth is greater than the depth of activation by waves alone during moderate significant wave heights of 0??16 - 0??18 m but less than the maximum depth (0??127 m) recorded when spawning occurred during periods of moderate wave heights. Spawning, combined with moderate wave heights, creates a concave upper foreshore that is similar to the type of profile change that occurs during storms, thus lowering the wave-energy threshold for morphological response. Spawning during low wave heights increases the mean grain size and sorting of surface sediments caused by the addition of gravel to the swash. Sedimentological differences are most pronounced on the upper foreshore, and data from this location may be most useful when using grain-size characteristics to interpret the effect of spawning in the sedimentary record. Depths of sediment reworking by horseshoe crabs can be greater than those by subsequent storm waves, so evidence of spawning can be preserved on non-eroding beaches. Greater depth of activation by horseshoe crab spawning than by waves alone, even during moderate-energy conditions, reveals the importance of crab burrowing in releasing eggs to the water column and making them available for shore birds. ?? 2005 International Association of Sedimentologists.

  3. Unraveling the interactive effects of climate change and oil contamination on laboratory-simulated estuarine benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Rocha, Rui J M; Calado, Ricardo; Castanheira, José M; Rocha, Sílvia M; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Oliveira, Vanessa; Lillebø, Ana I; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Lopes, Isabel; Ribeiro, Rui; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Marques, Catarina R; Costa, Rodrigo; Pereira, Ruth; Gomes, Newton C M

    2015-05-01

    There is growing concern that modifications to the global environment such as ocean acidification and increased ultraviolet radiation may interact with anthropogenic pollutants to adversely affect the future marine environment. Despite this, little is known about the nature of the potential risks posed by such interactions. Here, we performed a multifactorial microcosm experiment to assess the impact of ocean acidification, ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation and oil hydrocarbon contamination on sediment chemistry, the microbial community (composition and function) and biochemical marker response of selected indicator species. We found that increased ocean acidification and oil contamination in the absence of UV-B will significantly alter bacterial composition by, among other things, greatly reducing the relative abundance of Desulfobacterales, known to be important oil hydrocarbon degraders. Along with changes in bacterial composition, we identified concomitant shifts in the composition of oil hydrocarbons in the sediment and an increase in oxidative stress effects on our indicator species. Interestingly, our study identifies UV-B as a critical component in the interaction between these factors, as its presence alleviates harmful effects caused by the combination of reduced pH and oil pollution. The model system used here shows that the interactive effect of reduced pH and oil contamination can adversely affect the structure and functioning of sediment benthic communities, with the potential to exacerbate the toxicity of oil hydrocarbons in marine ecosystems.

  4. Effect of physical sediments reworking on hydrocarbon degradation and bacterial community structure in marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Duran, Robert; Bonin, Patricia; Jezequel, Ronan; Dubosc, Karine; Gassie, Claire; Terrisse, Fanny; Abella, Justine; Cagnon, Christine; Militon, Cecile; Michotey, Valérie; Gilbert, Franck; Cuny, Philippe; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether the physical reworking of sediments by harrowing would be suitable for favouring the hydrocarbon degradation in coastal marine sediments. Mudflat sediments were maintained in mesocosms under conditions as closer as possible to those prevailing in natural environments with tidal cycles. Sediments were contaminated with Ural blend crude oil, and in half of them, harrowing treatment was applied in order to mimic physical reworking of surface sediments. Hydrocarbon distribution within the sediment and its removal was followed during 286 days. The harrowing treatment allowed hydrocarbon compounds to penetrate the first 6 cm of the sediments, and biodegradation indexes (such as n-C18/phytane) indicated that biodegradation started 90 days before that observed in untreated control mesocosms. However, the harrowing treatment had a severe impact on benthic organisms reducing drastically the macrofaunal abundance and diversity. In the harrowing-treated mesocosms, the bacterial abundance, determined by 16S rRNA gene Q-PCR, was slightly increased; and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct and specific bacterial community structure. Co-occurrence network and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) based on T-RFLP data indicated the main correlations between bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as well as the associations between OTUs and hydrocarbon compound contents further supported by clustered correlation (ClusCor) analysis. The analyses highlighted the OTUs constituting the network structural bases involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Negative correlations indicated the possible shifts in bacterial communities that occurred during the ecological succession.

  5. Effect of physical sediments reworking on hydrocarbon degradation and bacterial community structure in marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Duran, Robert; Bonin, Patricia; Jezequel, Ronan; Dubosc, Karine; Gassie, Claire; Terrisse, Fanny; Abella, Justine; Cagnon, Christine; Militon, Cecile; Michotey, Valérie; Gilbert, Franck; Cuny, Philippe; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether the physical reworking of sediments by harrowing would be suitable for favouring the hydrocarbon degradation in coastal marine sediments. Mudflat sediments were maintained in mesocosms under conditions as closer as possible to those prevailing in natural environments with tidal cycles. Sediments were contaminated with Ural blend crude oil, and in half of them, harrowing treatment was applied in order to mimic physical reworking of surface sediments. Hydrocarbon distribution within the sediment and its removal was followed during 286 days. The harrowing treatment allowed hydrocarbon compounds to penetrate the first 6 cm of the sediments, and biodegradation indexes (such as n-C18/phytane) indicated that biodegradation started 90 days before that observed in untreated control mesocosms. However, the harrowing treatment had a severe impact on benthic organisms reducing drastically the macrofaunal abundance and diversity. In the harrowing-treated mesocosms, the bacterial abundance, determined by 16S rRNA gene Q-PCR, was slightly increased; and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct and specific bacterial community structure. Co-occurrence network and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) based on T-RFLP data indicated the main correlations between bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as well as the associations between OTUs and hydrocarbon compound contents further supported by clustered correlation (ClusCor) analysis. The analyses highlighted the OTUs constituting the network structural bases involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Negative correlations indicated the possible shifts in bacterial communities that occurred during the ecological succession. PMID:25847440

  6. Use of a Novel Sediment Exposure to Determine the Effects of Triclosan on Estuarine Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is a relatively new, commonly used antimicrobial compound found in many personal care products. Triclosan is toxic to marine organisms at the ug/l level, can photo-degrade to a dioxin, accumulate in humans, and has been found t...

  7. Residues in fish, wildlife, and estuaries. Indicator species near top of food chain chosen for assessment of pesticide base levels in fish and wildlife--clams, oysters, and sediment in estuarine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.E.; Carver, T.C.; Dustman, E.H.

    1967-01-01

    Federal efforts to determine pesticide levels in fish and wildlife are being carried out by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U. S. Department of the Interior. Monitoring estuarine pesticide levels in clams, oysters, and sediments is a joint endeavor of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Department of the Interior, and the Water Supply and Sea Resources Program of the National Center for Urban and Industrial Health, Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

  8. The effect of nitrogen loading on a brackish estuarine faunal community: A stable isotope approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keats, R.A.; Osher, L.J.; Neckles, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems worldwide face increased nutrient enrichment from shoreline and watershed development and atmospheric pollution. We investigated the response of the faunal community of a small microtidal estuary dominated by Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass) in Maine, United States, to increased nitrogen loading using an in situ mesocosm enrichment experiment. Community response was characterized by assessing quantitative shifts in macroin-vertebrate community composition and identifying changes in food web structure using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of producers and consumers. The community was dominated by brackish water invertebrates including midge larvae, oligochaetes, damselfly larvae, amphipods, and ostracods. Experimental nutrient additions resulted in significantly lower densities of herbivorous chironomids and predatory damselflies and greater densities of deposit feeding oligochaetes. Grazing midge larvae (Chironomidae: Dicrotendipes, Cricotopus) consumed epiphytic algae under both natural and enriched conditions. Deposit feeding Chironomus was dependent on allochthonous sources of detritus under natural conditions and exhibited a shift to autochthonous sources of detritus under enriched conditions. Predatory Enallagma primarily consumed grazing chironomids under all but the highest loading conditions. Experimental nutrient loading resulted in an increase in generalist deposit feeders dependent on autochthonous sources of detritus.

  9. Relationship between N : P : Si ratio and phytoplankton community composition in a tropical estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, A. K.; Bhadury, P.

    2015-02-01

    The present work aims at understanding the importance of Brzezinski-Redfield ratio (modified Redfield ratio) as a determinant of natural phytoplankton community composition in a mangrove ecosystem. Even though this ecoregion has been reported to be mostly eutrophic, localised and anthropogenic influences often result in habitat variability especially with regard to nutrient concentrations at different parts of this ecosystem. Phytoplankton, an important sentinel in aquatic ecosystems may respond differently to such alterations in habitat thereby bringing about significant changes in the community composition. Results show that even though habitat variability does exist at our study area and varied on a spatial and temporal scale, the nutrient concentrations were intricately balanced that never became limited and complemented well with the concept of modified Redfield ratio. However, an integrative approach to study phytoplankton community involving microscopy and rbcL clone library and sequencing approach revealed that it was the functional traits of individual phytoplankton taxa that determined the phytoplankton community composition rather than the nutrient concentrations of the study area. Hence we conclude that the recent concept of functional traits and elemental stoichiometry does not remain restricted to controlled environment of experimental studies only but occur in natural mangrove habitat.

  10. PCO2 effects on species composition and growth of an estuarine phytoplankton community

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ocean and coastal waters are undergoing changes in carbonate chemistry, including pH, in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and the microbial degradation of organic matter associated with nutrient enrichment. The effects of this change on plankton communities ha...

  11. Quantifying seawater recirculation through subtidal estuarine sediments in Elkhorn Slough, California: coupling Ra isotope geochemistry with hydrodynamic modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, J. A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Monismith, S. G.; Paytan, A.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of short lived ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra in concert with hydrodynamic modelling were used to determine the magnitude and spatial extent of sediment/water exchange within Elkhorn Slough a tidally dominated estuary in Monterey Bay, California. Samples for dissolved Ra activity, Ba, U, silicate, nitrate, ammonium, and ortho-phosphate were collected from the estuary and potential endmember streams, sediment porewaters, and groundwater. Hourly precipitation, evaporation, and stream gauge data were used to develop a spatially explicit estimate of stream flow and runoff from the watershed to the estuary and salinity and water depth time series from an in-situ sensor network were used to determine tidal exchange. The sample chemistry indicates the mixing of at least three endmembers within the estuary: streams, seawater from the tidal inlet, and higher Ra activity sediment porewaters. In the case of ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra, the most important flux to the estuary is sediment porewater, an input two orders of magnitude greater than any other, which balances the decay of these isotopes in the water column. This large sedimentary source makes ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra excellent tracers of sediment/water exchange and differential decay in the water column makes their activity ratio an excellent indicator of water transport within the estuary. The chemical measurements were used in concert with the hydrologic data to develop Ra flux boundary conditions for a coupled three dimensional hydrodynamic and chemical transport model of the estuary which was used as a framework for interpreting the Ra activities and gradients and further refining our estimates of the magnitude and spatial variation in the sediment/water exchange. The results indicate that tidal pumping of intertidal sediments is the principal process by which ^{224}Ra and ^{223}Ra are supplied to Elkhorn Slough.

  12. Microbial community composition and diversity in Caspian Sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Robeson, Michael S.; Castro, Hector F.; Fortney, Julian L.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Paradis, Charles J.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is heavily polluted due to industrial and agricultural effluents as well as extraction of oil and gas reserves. Microbial communities can influence the fate of contaminants and nutrients. However, insight into the microbial ecology of the Caspian Sea significantly lags behind other marine systems. Here we describe microbial biomass, diversity and composition in sediments collected from three sampling stations in the Caspian Sea. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of a number of known bacterial and archaeal heterotrophs suggesting that organic carbon is a primary factor shaping microbial communities. Surface sediments collected from bottom waters with low oxygen levels were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria while surface sediments collected from bottom waters under hypoxic conditions were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, specifically sulfate-reducing bacteria. Thaumarchaeota was dominant across all surface sediments indicating that nitrogen cycling in this system is strongly influenced by ammonia-oxidizing archaea. This study provides a baseline assessment that may serve as a point of reference as this system changes or as the efficacy of new remediation efforts are implemented. PMID:25764536

  13. Microbial community composition and diversity in Caspian Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Robeson, Michael S; Castro, Hector F; Fortney, Julian L; Techtmann, Stephen M; Joyner, Dominique C; Paradis, Charles J; Pfiffner, Susan M; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is heavily polluted due to industrial and agricultural effluents as well as extraction of oil and gas reserves. Microbial communities can influence the fate of contaminants and nutrients. However, insight into the microbial ecology of the Caspian Sea significantly lags behind other marine systems. Here we describe microbial biomass, diversity and composition in sediments collected from three sampling stations in the Caspian Sea. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of a number of known bacterial and archaeal heterotrophs suggesting that organic carbon is a primary factor shaping microbial communities. Surface sediments collected from bottom waters with low oxygen levels were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria while surface sediments collected from bottom waters under hypoxic conditions were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, specifically sulfate-reducing bacteria. Thaumarchaeota was dominant across all surface sediments indicating that nitrogen cycling in this system is strongly influenced by ammonia-oxidizing archaea. This study provides a baseline assessment that may serve as a point of reference as this system changes or as the efficacy of new remediation efforts are implemented. PMID:25764536

  14. Usefulness of sediment toxicity tests with estuarine plants and animals to indicate municipal and industrial effluent impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of municipal and industrial effluents has been predicted from results from single species toxicity tests. The goal of these tests is to ensure that water quality criteria and the designated use of the waterbody is not impacted. Recently, the focus of some effluent toxicity evaluation has centered on determining the effluent impact on the sediment in the receiving water. This study evaluated the toxicities of several sediment samples collected above and below six outfalls to the Pensacola Bay system. Toxicities were determined using three macrophytic plants and four animal species. The sediments, with few exceptions, exhibited a low level of toxicity. The mysid shrimp was more sensitive than Ampelisca, Leptocheirus and the sheepshead minnow. The sensitivities of the plants, Echinochloa crusgalli, Scirpus robustus and Sesbania macrocarpa, were comparable to those of the animal species. The toxicity of time sediment, when compared to that of the effluent, determined using standard single species of plants and animals was less. Overall, the sediment toxicity tests were useful in providing insight on the impact of effluents. However, the application and usefulness of this assessment tool is highly dependent upon a variety of factors, including the geomorphological characteristics of the receiving waters.

  15. Spatial patterns of fish communities along two estuarine gradients in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.P.J.; Trexler, J.C.; Lorenz, J.J.; McIvor, C.C.; Philippi, T.

    2006-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical estuaries, gradients of primary productivity and salinity are generally invoked to explain patterns in community structure and standing crops of fishes. We documented spatial and temporal patterns in fish community structure and standing crops along salinity and nutrient gradients in two subtropical drainages of Everglades National Park, USA. The Shark River drains into the Gulf of Mexico and experiences diurnal tides carrying relatively nutrient enriched waters, while Taylor River is more hydrologically isolated by the oligohaline Florida Bay and experiences no discernable lunar tides. We hypothesized that the more nutrient enriched system would support higher standing crops of fishes in its mangrove zone. We collected 50 species of fish from January 2000 to April 2004 at six sampling sites spanning fresh to brackish salinities in both the Shark and Taylor River drainages. Contrary to expectations, we observed lower standing crops and density of fishes in the more nutrient rich tidal mangrove forest of the Shark River than in the less nutrient rich mangrove habitats bordering the Taylor River. Tidal mangrove habitats in the Shark River were dominated by salt-tolerant fish and displayed lower species richness than mangrove communities in the Taylor River, which included more freshwater taxa and yielded relatively higher richness. These differences were maintained even after controlling for salinity at the time of sampling. Small-scale topographic relief differs between these two systems, possibly created by tidal action in the Shark River. We propose that this difference in topography limits movement of fishes from upstream marshes into the fringing mangrove forest in the Shark River system, but not the Taylor River system. Understanding the influence of habitat structure, including connectivity, on aquatic communities is important to anticipate effects of construction and operational alternatives associated with restoration of the

  16. An assessment of human influences on sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the estuarine and coastal sediments of China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoyong; Liu, Jinqing; Zhang, Daolai; Yin, Ping; Li, Yanxia; Li, Xianguo

    2015-08-15

    Sediments collected from the coastal area of China, embracing west coast of Bohai Sea, south coast of Shandong Peninsula, and the Changjiang estuary (listed in order of decreasing north latitude), were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). ∑PAH (Sixteen US EPA priority PAHs) were 2.7-350.9ng/g. Petroleum residue was the major contributor of PAHs in the coastal sediments of China due to oil leakage from ships and offshore oil fields. The contribution of vehicular emissions in coast of North China was significantly lower than that in the Changjiang Estuary, and the reverse was true for coal combustion. PAH concentrations in the sediment core of the Changjiang estuary steadily increased upward and the variation was primarily due to economic development and severe floods. The impact on PAHs by vehicular emissions (37.2%) and petrogenic sources (45.8%) overwhelmed combustion sources (17.0%).

  17. Comparison of methods for conducting marine and estuarine sediment porewater toxicity tests—extraction, storage, and handling techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to compare different porewater extraction techniques and to evaluate the effects of sediment and porewater storage conditions on the toxicity of pore water, using assays with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. If care is taken in the selection of materials, several different porewater extraction techniques (pressurized squeezing, centrifugation, vacuum) yield samples with similar toxicity. Where the primary contaminants of concern are highly hydrophobic organic compounds, centrifugation is the method of choice for minimizing the loss of contaminants during the extraction procedure. No difference was found in the toxicity of pore water obtained with the Teflon® and polyvinyl chloride pressurized extraction devices. Different types of filters in the squeeze extraction devices apparently adsorbed soluble contaminants to varying degrees. The amount of fine suspended particulate material remaining in the pore water after the initial extraction varied among the methods. For most of the sediments tested, freezing and thawing did not affect the toxicity of porewater samples obtained by the pressurized squeeze extraction method. Pore water obtained by other methods (centrifugation, vacuum) and frozen without additional removal of suspended particulates by centrifugation may exhibit increased toxicity compared with the unfrozen sample.The toxicity of pore water extracted from refrigerated (4°C) sediments exhibited substantial short-term (days, weeks) changes. Similarly, sediment pore water extracted over time from a simulated amphipod solid-phase toxicity test changed substantially in toxicity. For the sediments tested, the direction and magnitude of change in toxicity of pore water extracted from both refrigerated and solid-phase test sediments was unpredictable.

  18. The dynamics of the yeast community of the Tagus river estuary: testing the hypothesis of the multiple origins of estuarine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marco A; Almeida, João M F; Martins, Inês M; da Silva, A Jorge; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2010-10-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of different types of aquatic habitats, including marine and estuarine waters and rivers. Although numerous studies have surveyed yeast occurrence in these habitats, the identification of autochthonous populations has been problematic because several yeast species seem to be very versatile and therefore mere presence is not sufficient to establish an ecological association. In the present study we investigated the dynamics of the yeast community in the Tagus river estuary (Portugal) by combining a microbiological study involving isolation, quantification, and molecular identification of dominant yeast populations with the analysis of hydrological and hydrographical data. We set out to test the hypothesis of the multiple origins of estuarine yeast populations in a transect of the Tagus estuary and we postulate four possible sources: open sea, terrestrial, gastrointestinal and the estuary itself in the case of populations that have become resident. Candida parapsilosis and Pichia guilliermondii were correlated with Escherichia coli, which indicated an intestinal origin. Other cream-colored yeasts like Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida zeylanoides had similar dynamics, but no association with E. coli and quite distinct ecological preferences. They might represent a group of resident estuarine populations whose primary origin is diverse and can include marine, terrestrial, and gastrointestinal habitats. Another major yeast population was represented by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The cosmopolitan nature of that species and its moderate association with E. coli point to terrestrial sources as primary habitats. PMID:20422287

  19. The dynamics of the yeast community of the Tagus river estuary: testing the hypothesis of the multiple origins of estuarine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marco A; Almeida, João M F; Martins, Inês M; da Silva, A Jorge; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2010-10-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of different types of aquatic habitats, including marine and estuarine waters and rivers. Although numerous studies have surveyed yeast occurrence in these habitats, the identification of autochthonous populations has been problematic because several yeast species seem to be very versatile and therefore mere presence is not sufficient to establish an ecological association. In the present study we investigated the dynamics of the yeast community in the Tagus river estuary (Portugal) by combining a microbiological study involving isolation, quantification, and molecular identification of dominant yeast populations with the analysis of hydrological and hydrographical data. We set out to test the hypothesis of the multiple origins of estuarine yeast populations in a transect of the Tagus estuary and we postulate four possible sources: open sea, terrestrial, gastrointestinal and the estuary itself in the case of populations that have become resident. Candida parapsilosis and Pichia guilliermondii were correlated with Escherichia coli, which indicated an intestinal origin. Other cream-colored yeasts like Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida zeylanoides had similar dynamics, but no association with E. coli and quite distinct ecological preferences. They might represent a group of resident estuarine populations whose primary origin is diverse and can include marine, terrestrial, and gastrointestinal habitats. Another major yeast population was represented by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The cosmopolitan nature of that species and its moderate association with E. coli point to terrestrial sources as primary habitats.

  20. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN SEDIMENT, WATER AND BIOTA COLLECTED FROM NEAR-COASTAL AREAS IMPACTED BY COMMON ESTUARINE STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury concentrations in non-commercial organisms indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico are not well characterized particularly when compared to potential sources. In response to this need, mercury levels were determined in sediment, water and various biota in reference and non-refer...

  1. Trace metal fractionation in the Pichavaram mangrove-estuarine sediments in southeast India after the tsunami of 2004.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Gurmeet; Routh, Joyanto; Ramanathan, Al

    2013-10-01

    The geochemistry of coastal sediments of southern India was altered after the tsunami in 2004. A five-step sequential extraction procedure was applied to assess the effects of tsunami on mobility and redistribution of selected elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Ten surface sediments and three cores were analyzed for different metal fractions (exchangeable, carbonate, reduced, oxidized, and residual). Total metal concentrations increased in mangrove sediments after the tsunami, but their spatial distribution did not show significant variation (except Mn). The sediments were mixed by the tsunami, and there was lack of variation in metal concentrations in different fractions with depth (except Pb and Mn). High concentrations of Pb and Zn occurred in the oxide fractions, whereas Cu, Cr, Cd, and Ni were high in the organic and sulfide-rich fractions. Metals in the residual fraction (lattice bound) had the highest concentration suggesting their non-availability and limited biological uptake in the system. Most of the metals (except Mn) do not constitute a risk based on the different geochemical indices.

  2. The influence of salinity on the abundance, transcriptional activity, and diversity of AOA and AOB in an estuarine sediment: a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Wen, Donghui

    2015-11-01

    Estuarine sediment-seawater microcosms were established to evaluate the influence of salinity on the population, transcriptional activity, and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). AOA was found to show the most abundant and the highest transcriptional activity under moderate salinity; on the other hand, AOB abundance was not sensitive to salinity variation but showed the highest transcriptional activity in the low-salinity microcosms. AOA exhibited more advantages than AOB on growth and ammonia-oxidizing activity under moderate- and high-salinity environments. The highest richness and diversity of active AOA were found under salinity of 15 psu. All the active AOA detected under the salinities studied were clustered into Nitrosopumilus maritimus linage, with the composition shifted from N. maritimus C12 cluster, N. maritimus like 1.1 cluster, N. maritimus SCM1 cluster, and N. maritimus like 1.2 cluster to N. maritimus C12 and N. maritimus A10 clusters when salinity was increased from 5 to 30 psu.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

    1996-01-01

    For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments. PMID:8899989

  4. Persistent organochlorine residues in estuarine and marine sediments from Ha Long Bay, Hai Phong Bay, and Ba Lat Estuary, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hong, S H; Yim, U H; Shim, W J; Oh, J R; Viet, P H; Park, P S

    2008-07-01

    To assess the organochlorine contamination in the northeast coastal environment of Vietnam, a total of 41 surface sediments were collected from Ha Long Bay, Hai Phong Bay, and Ba Lat estuary, and analyzed for their organochlorine content. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were widely distributed in the Vietnamese coastal environment. Among the OCs measured, DDT compounds predominated with concentrations ranging from 0.31 to 274 ng g(-1). The overall contamination level of DDTs in coastal sediments from northern Vietnam is comparable with those from other Asian countries. However, concentrations exceeding 100 ng g(-1) are comparable with high concentrations reported from India and China, the largest DDT consumers in the world. The overall concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, and chlordanes in surface sediments were in the ranges of 0.04-18.71 ng g(-1), not detected (n.d.) - 1.00 ng g(-1), and n.d. - 0.75 ng g(-1), respectively. Ha Long Bay and Hai Phong Bay were relatively more contaminated with DDTs and PCBs than other regions, respectively. In contrast, the distribution of HCHs was relatively homogeneous. OCs contamination in the coastal environment of Vietnam is closely related to shipping and industrial activities. The levels of DDT compounds in harbors and industrial areas exceeded their sediment quality guideline values suggested by Environment Canada [CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment), 2002. Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. In: Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, MB] and Australian and New Zealand [ANZECC and ARMCANZ, 2000. National water quality management strategy. Paper No. 4, Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality, vol. 1, The Guidelines. Australia. Document: http://www.deh.gov.au/water/quality/nwqms/volume1.html], indicating that adverse effects may occur to marine species in that areas.

  5. Influence of Trypaea australiensis population density on benthic metabolism and nitrogen dynamics in sandy estuarine sediment: A mesocosm simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Mark A.; Welsh, David T.; Dunn, Ryan J. K.; Teasdale, Peter R.

    2009-02-01

    Laboratory mesocosm incubations were undertaken to investigate the influence of natural densities of the thalassinidean shrimp, Trypaea australiensis (marine yabby) on sediment oxygen demand (SOD), inorganic nutrient fluxes, and the N-cycle processes of nitrification, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Mesocosms (~ 0.1 m 2 × 55 cm deep) of sieved, natural T. australiensis inhabited sands were continually flushed with fresh seawater and pre-incubated for two weeks prior to being assigned to one of three treatments; control (no additions), low yabby density (40 T. australiensis m - 2 ) or high yabby density (80 T. australiensis m - 2 ). Thereafter, SOD and sediment-water column inorganic nutrient fluxes were determined periodically over a 38 day period. On the final day rates of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were also determined using the 15N-isotope pairing technique. Yabbies consistently and significantly ( p < 0.001) stimulated SOD over the entire 38 day incubation period (mean values: 4.92, 9.21 and 14.9 mmol m - 2 day - 1 for control, low and high density treatments, respectively). The increased organic matter mineralisation rates greatly enhanced nitrogen regeneration rates in the sediment and fuelled significantly higher effluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen with NH 4+ and total DIN effluxes in the low and high density treatments respectively, being 617 and 1534%, and 269 and 565% higher than those in the controls, despite sediment bioavailable (porewater + exchangeable) NH 4+ pools being approximately 2 and 4-fold lower in the low and high density yabby treatment sediments compared to the controls, measured at the end of the 37 day experiment. Mass balance calculations based on the final day nutrient flux and nitrate reduction rate data demonstrated that yabbies stimulated benthic nitrification rates by 31 and 46% in the low and high density treatments. However, somewhat

  6. Urban rivers as conveyors of hydrocarbons to sediments of estuarine areas: source characterization, flow rates and mass accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mauad, Cristiane R; Wagener, Angela de L R; Massone, Carlos G; Aniceto, Mayara da S; Lazzari, Letícia; Carreira, Renato S; Farias, Cássia de O

    2015-02-15

    Aliphatic (n-C12-n-C40, unresolved complex mixture, resolved peaks) and aromatic hydrocarbons (46 PAH) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampled over eleven months in six of the major rivers and two channels of the Guanabara Bay Basin. PAH flow rates of the most contaminated rivers, the contribution to the PAH sediment load of the receiving bay, and the main sources of hydrocarbons were determined. PAH (38) ranged from 28 ng L(-1) to 11,514 ng L(-1). Hydrocarbon typology and statistical evaluation demonstrated contribution of distinct sources in different regions and allowed quantification of these contributions. Total flow rate for the five major rivers amounts to 3 t year(-1) and responds for 30% of the total PAH annual input into the northern area of the Guanabara Bay. For the first time PAH mass deposited in the bay sediments has been estimated and shall serve as base for decision making and source abatement.

  7. Influence of benthic macroinvertebrates on the erodability of estuarine cohesive sediments: Density- and biomass-specific responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Erik; Neto, João Magalhães; Lundkvist, Morten; Frederiksen, Lars; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Flindt, Mogens Rene

    2013-12-01

    The impact of three dominating benthic invertebrates on sediment stability and erosion conditions of cohesive sediments in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal, was examined in laboratory annular flume experiments. The purpose was to test how the life habits and body size of the three involved species (Hydrobia ulvae, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) in terms of density or biomass influence sediment erosion. All three species decreased the free-stream erosion threshold (uc) and increased erosion rate (E), since their feeding activities diminished the surface stabilizing effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microphytobenthos. S. plana had the highest and H. ulvae the lowest impact when related to density (factor of 29 for uc and factor of 19 for E), while H. ulvae was more important than S. plana when related to biomass (factor of 4 for uc and factor of 6 for E). N. diversicolor had intermediate density-specific (4-6 times higher than H. ulvae) and lowest biomass-specific (2-3 times lower than S. plana) effects on erosion. It appears that faunal erosion impacts preferably should be reported in biomass units for comparative purposes because individual behavioural effects of a small-bodied species like H. ulvae functionally can be relatively more important than those of a 100 times heavier S. plana individual. This is clearly evidenced from the strongly diminished response in suspended Chlorophyll-a content in the presence of the former than the latter species, which is caused by an efficient microphytobenthos grazing by H. ulvae. It is also important to emphasize that the total faunal impact on erosion threshold in a certain area is dictated by combination of contributions from individual species. The total outcome is unpredictable and controlled by synergistic and antagonistic species-specific effects, species interactions as well as environmental and sediment conditions.

  8. Identifying the sources and processes of mercury in subtropical estuarine and ocean sediments using Hg isotopic composition.

    PubMed

    Yin, Runsheng; Feng, Xinbin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Junjun; Wang, Wenxiong; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations and isotopic compositions of mercury (Hg) in surface sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed. The data revealed significant differences between the total Hg (THg) in fine-grained sediments collected from the PRE (8-251 μg kg(-1)) and those collected from the SCS (12-83 μg kg(-1)). Large spatial variations in Hg isotopic compositions were observed in the SCS (δ(202)Hg, from -2.82 to -2.10‰; Δ(199)Hg, from +0.21 to +0.45‰) and PRE (δ(202)Hg, from -2.80 to -0.68‰; Δ(199)Hg, from -0.15 to +0.16‰). The large positive Δ(199)Hg in the SCS indicated that a fraction of Hg has undergone Hg(2+) photoreduction processes prior to incorporation into the sediments. The relatively negative Δ(199)Hg values in the PRE indicated that photoreduction of Hg is not the primary route for the removal of Hg from the water column. The riverine input of fine particles played an important role in transporting Hg to the PRE sediments. In the deep ocean bed of the SCS, source-related signatures of Hg isotopes may have been altered by natural geochemical processes (e.g., Hg(2+) photoreduction and preferential adsorption processes). Using Hg isotope compositions, we estimate that river deliveries of Hg from industrial and urban sources and natural soils could be the main inputs of Hg to the PRE. However, the use of Hg isotopes as tracers in source attribution could be limited because of the isotope fractionation by natural processes in the SCS.

  9. Geostatistical assessment and validation of uncertainty for three-dimensional dioxin data from sediments in an estuarine river.

    PubMed

    Barabás, N; Goovaerts, P; Adriaens, P

    2001-08-15

    Contaminated sediment management is an urgent environmental and regulatory issue worldwide. Because remediation is expensive, sound quantitative assessments of uncertainty aboutthe spatial distribution of contaminants are critical, butthey are hampered bythe physical complexity of sediment environments. This paper describes the use of geostatistical modeling approaches to quantify uncertainty of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin concentrations in Passaic River (New Jersey) sediments and to incorporate this information in decision-making processes, such as delineation of contaminated areas and additional sampling needs. First, coordinate transformation and analysis of three-dimensional semivariograms were used to describe and modelthe directional variability accounting forthe meandering course of the river. Then, indicator kriging was employed to provide models of local uncertainty at unsampled locations without requiring a prior transform (e.g. log-normal) of concentrations. Cross-validation results show that the use of probability thresholds leads to more efficient delineation of contaminated areas than a classification based on the exceedence of regulatory thresholds by concentration estimates. Depending on whether additional sampling aims at reducing prediction errors or misclassification rates, the variance of local probability distributions or a measure of the expected closeness to the regulatory threshold can be used to locate candidate locations. PMID:11529567

  10. Accumulation and partitioning of seven trace metals in mangroves and sediment cores from three estuarine wetlands of Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Yu, Ke-Fu; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-06-15

    Trace metals in mangrove tissues (leaf, branch, root and fruit) of nine species and sediments of ten cores collected in 2008 from Dongzhai Harbor, Sanya Bay and Yalong Bay, Hainan Island, were analyzed. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As in surface sediments were 14.8, 24.1, 57.9, 0.17, 29.6, 0.08 and 9.7 μg g(-1), whereas those in mangrove tissues were 2.8, 1.4, 8.7, 0.03, 1.1, 0.03, and 0.2 μg g(-1), respectively. Compared to those from other typical mangrove wetlands of the world, the metal levels in Hainan were at low- to median-levels, which is consistent with the fact that Hainan Island is still in low exploitation and its mangroves suffer little impact from human activities. Metal concentrations among different tissues of mangroves were different. In general, Zn and Cu were enriched in fruit, Hg was enriched in leaf, Pb, Cd and Cr were enriched in branch, and As was enriched in root. The cycle of trace metals in mangrove species were estimated. The biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) followed the sequence of Hg (0.43)>Cu (0.27)>Cd (0.22)>Zn (0.17)>Pb (0.07)>Cr (0.06)>As (0.02).

  11. Sediment microbial communities in Great Boiling Spring are controlled by temperature and distinct from water communities

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jessica K; Peacock, Joseph P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Williams, Amanda J; Thompson, Daniel B; Dong, Hailiang; Wu, Geng; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Great Boiling Spring is a large, circumneutral, geothermal spring in the US Great Basin. Twelve samples were collected from water and four different sediment sites on four different dates. Microbial community composition and diversity were assessed by PCR amplification of a portion of the small subunit rRNA gene using a universal primer set followed by pyrosequencing of the V8 region. Analysis of 164 178 quality-filtered pyrotags clearly distinguished sediment and water microbial communities. Water communities were extremely uneven and dominated by the bacterium Thermocrinis. Sediment microbial communities grouped according to temperature and sampling location, with a strong, negative, linear relationship between temperature and richness at all taxonomic levels. Two sediment locations, Site A (87–80 °C) and Site B (79 °C), were predominantly composed of single phylotypes of the bacterial lineage GAL35 (p̂=36.1%), Aeropyrum (p̂=16.6%), the archaeal lineage pSL4 (p̂=15.9%), the archaeal lineage NAG1 (p̂=10.6%) and Thermocrinis (p̂=7.6%). The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon ‘Candidatus Nitrosocaldus' was relatively abundant in all sediment samples <82 °C (p̂=9.51%), delineating the upper temperature limit for chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation in this spring. This study underscores the distinctness of water and sediment communities in GBS and the importance of temperature in driving microbial diversity, composition and, ultimately, the functioning of biogeochemical cycles. PMID:23235293

  12. Molecular Detection of Candidatus Scalindua pacifica and Environmental Responses of Sediment Anammox Bacterial Community in the Bohai Sea, China

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hongyue; Zhou, Haixia; Zhang, Zhinan; Yu, Zishan; Hua, Er; Liu, Xiaoshou; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2013-01-01

    The Bohai Sea is a large semi-enclosed shallow water basin, which receives extensive river discharges of various terrestrial and anthropogenic materials such as sediments, nutrients and contaminants. How these terrigenous inputs may influence the diversity, community structure, biogeographical distribution, abundance and ecophysiology of the sediment anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria was unknown. To answer this question, an investigation employing both 16S rRNA and hzo gene biomarkers was carried out. Ca. Scalindua bacteria were predominant in the surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, while non-Scalindua anammox bacteria were also detected in the Yellow River estuary and inner part of Liaodong Bay that received strong riverine and anthropogenic impacts. A novel 16S rRNA gene sequence clade was identified, putatively representing an anammox bacterial new candidate species tentatively named “Ca. Scalindua pacifica”. Several groups of environmental factors, usually with distinct physicochemical or biogeochemical natures, including general marine and estuarine physicochemical properties, availability of anammox substrates (inorganic N compounds), alternative reductants and oxidants, environmental variations caused by river discharges and associated contaminants such as heavy metals, were identified to likely play important roles in influencing the ecology and biogeochemical functioning of the sediment anammox bacteria. In addition to inorganic N compounds that might play a key role in shaping the anammox microbiota, organic carbon, organic nitrogen, sulfate, sulfide and metals all showed the potentials to participate in the anammox process, releasing the strict dependence of the anammox bacteria upon the direct availability of inorganic N nutrients that might be limiting in certain areas of the Bohai Sea. The importance of inorganic N nutrients and certain other environmental factors to the sediment anammox microbiota suggests that these bacteria were

  13. Recent changes in estuarine benthic and suprabenthic communities resulting from the development of harbour infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, J C; Desroy, N; Janson, A L; Vallet, C; Duhamel, S

    2006-01-01

    Using a Before/During/After sampling protocol, the effects of the Le Havre harbour extension, which was started at the end of 2001, on the macrobenthic and suprabenthic communities in the eastern Bay of Seine (English Channel) were examined. As the construction phase has not yet been completed, the results presented here reflect only the data collected before and during the operations (September 2000 and 2002 for benthos sampling and March 2001, September 2001, October 2002 and March 2003 for suprabenthos sampling). Although bio-sedimentary changes did occur at the mouth of the Seine river, an analysis of benthic assemblages reveals that the dredging and construction operations do not seem to have influenced assemblage structure or the spatial distribution of organisms. Comparisons of the suprabenthic assemblages at each sampling date indicate that seasonal dynamics was mainly responsible for determining species distribution. We conclude that, 1 year into the harbour management plan, the observed changes in benthic and suprabenthic assemblage abundance do not exceed the range of spatial variability that exists naturally in the Seine estuary. Despite this compensatory actions designed to protect the aquatic habitats and to preserve a sustainable and healthy ecosystem have been added to the infrastructure development plan.

  14. Impact of Oil on Bacterial Community Structure in Bioturbated Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Stauffert, Magalie; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Jézéquel, Ronan; Barantal, Sandra; Cuny, Philippe; Gilbert, Franck; Cagnon, Christine; Militon, Cécile; Amouroux, David; Mahdaoui, Fatima; Bouyssiere, Brice; Stora, Georges; Merlin, François-Xavier; Duran, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Oil spills threaten coastlines where biological processes supply essential ecosystem services. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how oil influences the microbial communities in sediments that play key roles in ecosystem functioning. Ecosystems such as sediments are characterized by intensive bioturbation due to burrowing macrofauna that may modify the microbial metabolisms. It is thus essential to consider the bioturbation when determining the impact of oil on microbial communities. In this study, an experimental laboratory device maintaining pristine collected mudflat sediments in microcosms closer to true environmental conditions – with tidal cycles and natural seawater – was used to simulate an oil spill under bioturbation conditions. Different conditions were applied to the microcosms including an addition of: standardized oil (Blend Arabian Light crude oil, 25.6 mg.g−1 wet sediment), the common burrowing organism Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor and both the oil and H. diversicolor. The addition of H. diversicolor and its associated bioturbation did not affect the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons. After 270 days, 60% of hydrocarbons had been removed in all microcosms irrespective of the H. diversicolor addition. However, 16S-rRNA gene and 16S-cDNA T-RFLP and RT-PCR-amplicon libraries analysis showed an effect of the condition on the bacterial community structure, composition, and dynamics, supported by PerMANOVA analysis. The 16S-cDNA libraries from microcosms where H. diversicolor was added (oiled and un-oiled) showed a marked dominance of sequences related to Gammaproteobacteria. However, in the oiled-library sequences associated to Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were also highly represented. The 16S-cDNA libraries from oiled-microcosms (with and without H. diversicolor addition) revealed two distinct microbial communities characterized by different phylotypes associated to known hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and dominated by

  15. An experimental study on dredge spoil of estuarine sediments in the bay of seine (France): A morphosedimentary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmin, Stella; Lesueur, Patrick; Dauvin, Jean Claude; Samson, Sandrine; Tournier, Patrice; Gallicher Lavanne, Albert; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole; Thouroude, Coralie

    2016-03-01

    Studies on the consequences of dredging on estuarine morphology and its sedimentary dynamics are common, but the impacts of dumping dredge spoil in coastal open settings are rarely found in scientific literature. An experimental study was conducted over the period 2012-2013 to monitor the physical impacts of dredged material dumped at two adjacent sites (one million cubic metres at each) on the inner shelf of the Bay of Seine in France (eastern part of the English Channel, La Manche). As recently reinforced in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), knowledge on the location and intensity of human impacts (e.g. on marine ecosystems) is critical for effective marine management and conservation. So, two methods of disposition were tested to evaluate the impacts of dumping on the environment and thus propose recommendations for future dumping. The strategy is based on a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach, in which the spatio-temporal variability was studied by analysing the morphological and sedimentological characteristics over a period of 28 months, from November 2011 to April 2014, also including recovery of the seafloor after cessation of the dumping activities. The first experimental dumping operation (MASED) was carried out regularly for 8 months at a single point and generating a conical deposit of 5 m in height, while the second dumping (MABIO) lasted for 12 months involving four steps in the dumping process. In the second case, a wider area was covered, leading to the formation of a smaller deposit of 2 m in height. The dumped deposits consisted of muddy fine sand, whereas the inner shelf seafloor in this area is covered with fine to medium sand. As a result, muddy fine sand accumulated at or near the two dumping sites, with a maximum mud (i.e. particles<63 μm or>4 Φ) content of 50% compared to<5% before dumping operations. Videos obtained from a LVB200 Seabotix ROV, highlighted the heterogeneity of the sea floor around the dumping areas

  16. Indices of benthic community tolerance in contaminated Great Lakes sediments: Relations with sediment contaminant concentrations, sediment toxicity, and the sediment quality triad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Schmitt, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the toxic-units model developed by Wildhaber and Schmitt (1996) as a predictor of indices of mean tolerance to pollution (i.e., Lenat, 1993; Hilsenhoff, 1987) and other benthic community indices from Great Lakes sediments containing complex mixtures of environmental contaminants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs, pesticides, chlorinated dioxins, and metals). Sediment toxic units were defined as the ratio of the estimated pore-water concentration of a contaminant to its chronic toxicity as estimated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) or other applicable standard. The total hazard of a sediment to aquatic life was assessed by summing toxic units for all contaminants quantified. Among the benthic community metrics evaluated, total toxic units were most closely correlated with Lenat's (1993) and Hilsenhoff's (1987) indices of community tolerance (T(L), and T(H), respectively); toxic units accounted for 42% (T(L)) and 53% (T(H)) of variability in community tolerance as measured by Ponar grabs. In contrast, taxonomic richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity were not correlated (P > 0.05) with toxic units. Substitution of order- or family-level identifications for lowest possible (mostly genus- or species-) level identifications in the calculation of T(L) and T(H) indices weakened the relationships with toxic units. Tolerance values based on order- and family-level identifications of benthos for artificial substrate samples were more strongly correlated with toxic units than tolerance values for benthos from Ponar grabs. The ability of the toxic-units model to predict the other two components (i.e., laboratory-measured sediment toxicity and benthic community composition) of the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) may obviate the need for the SQT in some situations.

  17. Urban rivers as conveyors of hydrocarbons to sediments of estuarine areas: source characterization, flow rates and mass accumulation.

    PubMed

    Mauad, Cristiane R; Wagener, Angela de L R; Massone, Carlos G; Aniceto, Mayara da S; Lazzari, Letícia; Carreira, Renato S; Farias, Cássia de O

    2015-02-15

    Aliphatic (n-C12-n-C40, unresolved complex mixture, resolved peaks) and aromatic hydrocarbons (46 PAH) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampled over eleven months in six of the major rivers and two channels of the Guanabara Bay Basin. PAH flow rates of the most contaminated rivers, the contribution to the PAH sediment load of the receiving bay, and the main sources of hydrocarbons were determined. PAH (38) ranged from 28 ng L(-1) to 11,514 ng L(-1). Hydrocarbon typology and statistical evaluation demonstrated contribution of distinct sources in different regions and allowed quantification of these contributions. Total flow rate for the five major rivers amounts to 3 t year(-1) and responds for 30% of the total PAH annual input into the northern area of the Guanabara Bay. For the first time PAH mass deposited in the bay sediments has been estimated and shall serve as base for decision making and source abatement. PMID:25434473

  18. Production and dechlorination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in historically-contaminated estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, I.D.; Barkovskii, A.L.; Adriaens, P.

    1999-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) are ubiquitous and considered to be unreactive to biotic and abiotic transformation processes. Here the authors demonstrate that sediment-associated 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxin residues in general, and 2,3,7,8-TCDD in particular, are in a state of flux, as they are produced from peri-dechlorination of octaCDD, and further laterally dechlorinated in 2-MCDD. This reaction can be stimulated in the presence of organic acids, 2-monobromodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-MBDD) and hydrogen, which result in the production of HpCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and 2-MCDD, respectively. The results indicate that dechlorination of 2,3,7,8-TCDD is not likely a rate-limiting step in the hydrogen-stimulated reaction, which presents a potential strategy to decontaminate dioxin-contaminated environments.

  19. Two-dimensional distribution of living benthic foraminifera in anoxic sediment layers of an estuarine mudflat (Loire estuary, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault de Chanvalon, A.; Metzger, E.; Mouret, A.; Cesbron, F.; Knoery, J.; Rozuel, E.; Launeau, P.; Nardelli, M. P.; Jorissen, F. J.; Geslin, E.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new rapid and accurate protocol to simultaneously sample benthic living foraminifera in two dimensions in a centimetre-scale vertical grid and dissolved iron and phosphorus in two dimensions at high resolution (200 μm). Such an approach appears crucial for the study of foraminiferal ecology in highly dynamic and heterogeneous sedimentary systems, where dissolved iron shows a strong variability at the centimetre scale. On the studied intertidal mudflat of the Loire estuary, foraminiferal faunas are dominated by Ammonia tepida, which accounts for 92 % of the living (CellTracker Green(CTG)-labelled) assemblage. The vertical distribution shows a maximum density in the oxygenated 0-0.4 cm surface layer. A sharp decrease is observed in the next 2 cm, followed by a second, well-defined maximum in the suboxic sediment layer (3-8 cm depth). The presented method yields new information concerning the 2-D distribution of living A. tepida in suboxic layers. First, the identification of recent burrows by visual observation of the sediment cross section and the burrowing activity as deduced from the dissolved iron spatial distribution show no direct relation to the distribution of A. tepida at the centimetre scale. This lack of relation appears contradictory to previous studies (Aller and Aller, 1986; Berkeley et al., 2007). Next, the heterogeneity of A. tepida in the 3-8 cm depth layer was quantified by means of Moran's index to identify the scale of parameters controlling the A. tepida distribution. The results reveal horizontal patches with a characteristic length of 1-2 cm. These patches correspond to areas enriched in dissolved iron likely generated by anaerobic degradation of labile organic matter. These results suggest that the routine application of our new sampling strategy could yield important new insights about foraminiferal life strategies, improving our understanding of the role of these organisms in coastal marine ecosystems.

  20. Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, A.W.; Phelps, C.D.; Young, L.Y.

    1999-03-01

    Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 40bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration.

  1. Influence of organic carbon on estuarine benthic infauna of the US west coast - March 3, 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) is often used as an indicator of eutrophication in estuarine environments. However, the determination of biologically relevant sediment TOC criteria to indicate estuarine condition is complicated by the relationship between TOC and grain size. Both va...

  2. Influence of organic carbon on estuarine benthic infauna of the US west coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) is often used as an indicator of eutrophication in estuarine environments. However, the determination of biologically relevant sediment TOC criteria to indicate estuarine condition is complicated by the relationship between TOC and grain size. Both va...

  3. Marine Oxygen-Deficient Zones Harbor Depauperate Denitrifying Communities Compared to Novel Genetic Diversity in Coastal Sediments.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Weisman, David; Yasuda, Michie; Jayakumar, Amal; Morrison, Hilary G; Ward, Bess B

    2015-08-01

    Denitrification is a critically important biogeochemical pathway that removes fixed nitrogen from ecosystems and thus ultimately controls the rate of primary production in nitrogen-limited systems. We examined the community structure of bacteria containing the nirS gene, a signature gene in the denitrification pathway, from estuarine and salt marsh sediments and from the water column of two of the world's largest marine oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs). We generated over 125,000 nirS gene sequences, revealing a large degree of genetic diversity including 1,815 unique taxa, the vast majority of which formed clades that contain no cultured representatives. These results underscore how little we know about the genetic diversity of metabolisms underlying this critical biogeochemical pathway. Marine sediments yielded 1,776 unique taxa when clustered at 95 % sequence identity, and there was no single nirS denitrifier that was a competitive dominant; different samples had different highly abundant taxa. By contrast, there were only 39 unique taxa identified in samples from the two ODZs, and 99 % of the sequences belonged to 5 or fewer taxa. The ODZ samples were often dominated by nirS sequences that shared a 92 % sequence identity to a nirS found in the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) genus Scalindua. This sequence was abundant in both ODZs, accounting for 38 and 59 % of all sequences, but it was virtually absent in marine sediments. Our data indicate that ODZs are remarkably depauperate in nirS genes compared to the remarkable genetic richness found in coastal sediments.

  4. Variations of summer phytoplankton community related to environmental factors in a macro-tidal estuarine embayment, Hangzhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuexia; Yu, Jun; Jiang, Zhibing; Wang, Qin; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    To explore the distribution and composition of phytoplankton community and their responses to environmental changes, summer net-collected phytoplankton and physicochemical parameters in the Hangzhou Bay during 2004-2010 were investigated. A total of four phyla and 84 species were identified, including 67 diatom and 12 dinoflagellate species. The dominant species constantly consisted of the diatoms, although the dominance of dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria increased recently. Due to great spatio-temporal variations in environmental factors (salinity, suspended solids, and nutrient concentration), significant heterogeneities in community compositions among different years and subregions (inner and middle sections, and bay mouth) were found based on the analyses of multidimensional scaling and similarity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that salinity and Si/N were the main variables associated with algal assemblage. Compared with the historical data since the 1980s, eutrophication (N, P, and N/P increased with decreasing Si/N) was exacerbated drastically. Moreover, climatic forcing and human activities resulted in a series of physical alterations, including sediment retention, temperature increase, and salinity decrease as well as reduction in water exchanges. All these changes induced obvious increases in cell density and Chl- a while decreases in species diversity and diatom-dinoflagellate ratio as well as the shifting of dominant species. Therefore, the long-term phytoplankton variations were closely related to anthropogenic and climatic perturbations in the Hangzhou Bay.

  5. Biochemical, physiological and behavioural markers in the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana as tools for the assessment of estuarine sediment quality.

    PubMed

    Boldina-Cosqueric, Inna; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Métais, Isabelle; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Moutel, Benjamin; Berthet, Brigitte

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to link the responses at different levels of biological organisation of the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana differentially exposed to anthropogenic pressure. Clams were collected in April 2008 from three estuaries along a pollution gradient (Goyen < Loire < Seine). Biomarkers of defence (metallothionein concentration and glutathione-S-transferase activity) were activated in the Loire and the Seine. Biomarkers of damage revealed neurotoxicity (decreased AChE activity) and impairment of digestive enzyme activities (cellulase or amylase) in these estuaries. The highest lactate dehydrogenase activity was registered in the Loire estuary, in parallel with enhanced levels of vanadium (a metal present in petroleum), likely as a consequence of a small oil spill that occurred one month before the sampling collection. Physiological biomarkers (energy reserves as glycogen, lipids and proteins, condition and gonado-somatic indices) showed a few intersite differences. However, the median size was significantly lower in clams exposed to direct (chemicals) or indirect (available food) effects in the most contaminated site. Burrowing behaviour was disturbed in clams from both of the Loire and Seine estuaries, a response probably due to physiological impairment rather than to avoidance of contaminated sediment. The activation of defence mechanisms towards metals (metallothionein) and other classes of contaminants (the biotransformation enzyme glutathione-S-transferase) do not ensure a total protection since a number of impairments were observed at the infra-organismal (AChE and digestive enzyme activities) and individual (burrowing behaviour) levels in relation to the degree of anthropogenic pressure. However, even in the most contaminated estuary (Seine), historical records do not show a consistent decrease of S. plana populations. PMID:20797788

  6. Factors regulating community composition of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in brackish marsh sediments in the Min River estuary, southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, C. X.; Zhang, Z. C.; Cadillo-Quiroz, H.; Tong, C.

    2016-11-01

    Assessing the diverse communities of methanogenic Archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is important to understand methane (CH4) production in wetland ecosystems. However, the vertical distribution of composition and diversity, and the effects of environmental factors on the methanogen and SRB communities in the sediments of subtropical estuarine brackish marshes have been poorly characterized. To assess the effects of variable environmental conditions on methanogenic and SRB communities in marshes, we studied three brackish marsh zones dominated by Phragmites australis, Cyperus malaccensis and Spartina alterniflora, respectively, in the Min River estuary, southeastern China. Methanogens of the Methanomicrobiales order was the dominant group at sediment depths of 0-30 cm, which indicated that the main pathway of methane production was H2/CO2 in this zone. In general, methanogens of the genus Methanoregula were dominant in the three marsh zones. For SRB, Desulfobacterales was the dominant group, and Desulfobacterium and Desulfosarcina were the predominant genera at the depth of 0-30 cm. The community composition of methanogens and SRB changed with vegetation type and soil depth. Compared with SRB, vegetation type demonstrated a stronger influence on the community composition of methanogens. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis further revealed that the main factors affecting the methanogens community composition were EC (electric conductivity) and pH, and the main factors affecting SRB community composition were pH, SOC and TN, suggesting that pH is a common factor influencing the community compositions of both methanogen and SRB in the sediments of brackish marshes.

  7. Sediment enzyme activities and microbial community diversity in an oligotrophic drinking water reservoir, eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin; Liu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water reservoir plays a vital role in the security of urban water supply, yet little is known about microbial community diversity harbored in the sediment of this oligotrophic freshwater environmental ecosystem. In the present study, integrating community level physiological profiles (CLPPs), nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone sequence technologies, we examined the sediment urease and protease activities, bacterial community functional diversity, genetic diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in sediments from six sampling sites of Zhou cun drinking water reservoir, eastern China. The results showed that sediment urease activity was markedly distinct along the sites, ranged from 2.48 to 11.81 mg NH₃-N/(g·24 h). The highest average well color development (AWCD) was found in site C, indicating the highest metabolic activity of heterotrophic bacterial community. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed tremendous differences in the functional (metabolic) diversity patterns of the sediment bacterial communities from different sites. Meanwhile, DGGE fingerprints also indicated spatial changes of genetic diversity of sediment bacterial and fungal communities. The sequence BLAST analysis of all the sediment samples found that Comamonas sp. was the dominant bacterial species harbored in site A. Alternaria alternate, Allomyces macrogynus and Rhizophydium sp. were most commonly detected fungal species in sediments of the Zhou cun drinking water reservoir. The results from this work provide new insights about the heterogeneity of sediment microbial community metabolic activity and genetic diversity in the oligotrophic drinking water reservoir.

  8. Effect of biostimulation on the microbial community in PCB-contaminated sediments through periodic amendment of sediment with iron.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Varadhan, A; Khodadoust, Amid P; Brenner, Richard C

    2011-10-01

    Reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by indigenous dehalorespiring microorganisms in contaminated sediments may be enhanced via biostimulation by supplying hydrogen generated through the anaerobic corrosion of elemental iron added to the sediment. In this study, the effect of periodic amendment of sediment with various dosages of iron on the microbial community present in sediment was investigated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) over a period of 18 months. Three PCB-contaminated sediments (two freshwater lake sediments and one marine sediment) were used. Signature biomarker analysis of the microbial community present in all three sediments revealed the enrichment of Dehalococcoides species, the population of which was sustained for a longer period of time when the sediment microcosms were amended with the lower dosage of iron (0.01 g iron per g dry sediment) every 6 months as compared to the blank system (without iron). Lower microbial stress levels were reported for the system periodically amended with 0.01 g of iron per g dry sediment every 6 months, thus reducing the competition from other hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms like methanogens, iron reducers, and sulfate reducers. The concentration of hydrogen in the system was found to be an important factor influencing the shift in microbial communities in all sediments with time. Periodic amendment of sediment with larger dosages of iron every 3 months resulted in the early prevalence of Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing bacteria followed by methanogens. An average pH of 8.4 (range of 8.2-8.6) and an average hydrogen concentration of 0.75% (range of 0.3-1.2%) observed between 6 and 15 months of the study were found to be conducive to sustaining the population of Dehalococcoides species in the three sediments amended with 0.01 g iron per g dry sediment. Biostimulation of indigenous PCB dechlorinators by the periodic amendment of contaminated sediments with low dosages of

  9. Nitrous oxide production by estuarine epiphyton

    SciTech Connect

    Law, C.S.; Rees, A.P.; Owens, N.J.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Nitrous oxide was produced by denitrifying bacteria in epiphytic communities on the surface of the macroalgae Enteromorpha sp. and Fucus sp. during spring-summer in the Tamar estuary, SW England. Denitrification and N[sub 2]O production exhibited diel variability, in response to photosynthetic oxygen production. Temporal variability in the rate of N[sub 2]O production was observed in Enteromorpha incubations; the variability reflected the heterogeneity of the epiphytic microbial population density. N[sub 2]O production by epiphyton associated with Enteromorpha would enhance the sediment N[sub 2]O flux by 150-500% at maximal algal densities and so increase estuarine N[sub 2]O flux to the atmosphere. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Microbial diversity and community respiration in freshwater sediments influenced by artificial light at night

    PubMed Central

    Hölker, Franz; Wurzbacher, Christian; Weißenborn, Carsten; Monaghan, Michael T.; Holzhauer, Stephanie I. J.; Premke, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    An increasing proportion of the Earth's surface is illuminated at night. In aquatic ecosystems, artificial light at night (ALAN) may influence microbial communities living in the sediments. These communities are highly diverse and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. We combined field and laboratory experiments using sediments from an agricultural drainage system to examine how ALAN affects communities and alters carbon mineralization. Two identical light infrastructures were installed parallel to a drainage ditch before the start of the experiment. DNA metabarcoding indicated that both sediment communities were similar. After one was lit for five months (July–December 2012) we observed an increase in photoautotroph abundance (diatoms, Cyanobacteria) in ALAN-exposed sediments. In laboratory incubations mimicking summer and winter (six weeks each), communities in sediments that were exposed to ALAN for 1 year (July 2012–June 2013) showed less overall seasonal change compared with ALAN-naive sediments. Nocturnal community respiration was reduced in ALAN-exposed sediments. In long-term exposed summer-sediments, we observed a shift from negative to positive net ecosystem production. Our results indicate ALAN may alter sediment microbial communities over time, with implications for ecosystem-level functions. It may thus have the potential to transform inland waters to nocturnal carbon sinks. PMID:25780242

  11. Linking Geology and Microbiology: Inactive Pockmarks Affect Sediment Microbial Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Haverkamp, Thomas H. A.; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment. PMID:24475066

  12. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  13. Effects of pesticides on community composition and activity of sediment microbes--responses at various levels of microbial community organization.

    PubMed

    Widenfalk, Anneli; Bertilsson, Stefan; Sundh, Ingvar; Goedkoop, Willem

    2008-04-01

    A freshwater sediment was exposed to the pesticides captan, glyphosate, isoproturon, and pirimicarb at environmentally relevant and high concentrations. Effects on sediment microorganisms were studied by measuring bacterial activity, fungal and total microbial biomass as community-level endpoints. At the sub-community level, microbial community structure was analysed (PLFA composition and bacterial 16S rRNA genotyping, T-RFLP). Community-level endpoints were not affected by pesticide exposure. At lower levels of microbial community organization, however, molecular methods revealed treatment-induced changes in community composition. Captan and glyphosate exposure caused significant shifts in bacterial community composition (as T-RFLP) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, differences in microbial community composition among pesticide treatments were found, indicating that test compounds and exposure concentrations induced multidirectional shifts. Our study showed that community-level end points failed to detect these changes, underpinning the need for application of molecular techniques in aquatic ecotoxicology.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Anaerobic Bacterial Communities Associated with Roots of Submerged Macrophytes Growing in Marine or Brackish Water Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment microbial communities are important for seagrass growth and carbon cycling, however relatively few studies have addressed the composition of prokaryotic communities in seagrass bed sediments. Selective media were used enumerate culturable anaerobic bacteria associated ...

  15. Assessing sediments from Upper Mississippi River navigational pools using a benthic invertebrate community evaluation and the sediment quality triad approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canfield, T.J.; Brunson, E.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate samples were collected from 23 pools in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and from one station in the Saint Croix River (SCR) as part of a study to assess the effects of the extensive flooding of 1993 on sediment contamination in the UMR system. Sediment contaminants of concern included both organic and inorganic compounds. Oligochaetes and chironomids constituted over 80% of the total abundance in samples from 14 of 23 pools in the UMR and SCR samples. Fingernail clams comprised a large portion of the community in three of 23 UMR pools and exceeded abundances of 1,000/m2 in five of 23 pools. Total abundance ranged from 250/m2 in samples from pool 1 to 22,389/m2 in samples from pool 19. Abundance values are comparable with levels previously reported in the literature for the UMR. Overall frequency of chironomid mouthpart deformities was 3% (range 0-13%), which is comparable to reported incidence of deformities in uncontaminated sediments previously evaluated. Sediment contamination was generally low in the UMR pools and the SCR site. Correlations between benthic measures and sediment chemistry and other abiotic parameters exhibited few significant or strong correlations. The sediment quality triad (Triad) approach was used to evaluate data from laboratory toxicity tests, sediment chemistry, and benthic community analyses; it showed that 88% of the samples were not scored as impacted based on sediment toxicity, chemistry, and benthic measures. Benthic invertebrate distributions and community structure within the UMR in the samples evaluated in the present study were most likely controlled by factors independent of contaminant concentrations in the sediments.

  16. Assessing estuarine quality: A cost-effective in situ assay with amphipods.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Acevedo, Pelayo; Pais-Costa, Antónia Juliana; Taggart, Mark A; Martins, Irene; Ribeiro, Rui; Marques, João Carlos

    2016-05-01

    In situ assays based on feeding depression can be powerful ecotoxicological tools that can link physiological organism-level responses to population and/or community-level effects. Amphipods are traditional target species for toxicity tests due to their high sensitivity to contaminants, availability in the field and ease of handling. However, cost-effective in situ assays based on feeding depression are not yet available for amphipods that inhabit estuarine ecosystems. The aim of this work was to assess a short-term in situ assay based on postexposure feeding rates on easily quantifiable food items with an estuarine amphipod. Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Echinogammarus marinus as the target individual. When 60 Artemia franciscana nauplii (as prey) were provided per individual for a period of 30 min in dark conditions, feeding rates could be easily quantified. As an endpoint, postexposure feeding inhibition in E. marinus was more sensitive to cadmium contamination than mortality. Assay calibration under field conditions demonstrated the relevance of sediment particle size in explaining individual feeding rates in uncontaminated water bodies. An evaluation of the 48-h in situ bioassay based on postexposure feeding rates indicated that it is able to discriminate between unpolluted and polluted estuarine sites. Using the harmonized protocol described here, the in situ postexposure feeding assay with E. marinus was found to be a potentially useful, cost-effective tool for assessing estuarine sediment and water quality.

  17. Assessing estuarine quality: A cost-effective in situ assay with amphipods.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Acevedo, Pelayo; Pais-Costa, Antónia Juliana; Taggart, Mark A; Martins, Irene; Ribeiro, Rui; Marques, João Carlos

    2016-05-01

    In situ assays based on feeding depression can be powerful ecotoxicological tools that can link physiological organism-level responses to population and/or community-level effects. Amphipods are traditional target species for toxicity tests due to their high sensitivity to contaminants, availability in the field and ease of handling. However, cost-effective in situ assays based on feeding depression are not yet available for amphipods that inhabit estuarine ecosystems. The aim of this work was to assess a short-term in situ assay based on postexposure feeding rates on easily quantifiable food items with an estuarine amphipod. Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Echinogammarus marinus as the target individual. When 60 Artemia franciscana nauplii (as prey) were provided per individual for a period of 30 min in dark conditions, feeding rates could be easily quantified. As an endpoint, postexposure feeding inhibition in E. marinus was more sensitive to cadmium contamination than mortality. Assay calibration under field conditions demonstrated the relevance of sediment particle size in explaining individual feeding rates in uncontaminated water bodies. An evaluation of the 48-h in situ bioassay based on postexposure feeding rates indicated that it is able to discriminate between unpolluted and polluted estuarine sites. Using the harmonized protocol described here, the in situ postexposure feeding assay with E. marinus was found to be a potentially useful, cost-effective tool for assessing estuarine sediment and water quality. PMID:26874320

  18. VARIABILITY IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF LIPID BIOMARKERS AND THEIR MOLECULAR ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION IN ALTAMAHA ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC MATTER FROM VARIOUS SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estuarine mixing zone is an effective trap for particulate and dissolved organic matter From many sources, and thus greatly affects transport and deposition of organic matter between the land and ocean. This study examined sedimentary distributions of various fatty acids and ...

  19. Temporal dynamics of sediment bacterial communities in monospecific stands of Juncus maritimus and Spartina maritima.

    PubMed

    Cleary, D F R; Polónia, A R M; Sousa, A I; Lillebø, A I; Queiroga, H; Gomes, N C M

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we used 16S rRNA barcoded pyrosequencing to investigate to what extent monospecific stands of different salt marsh plant species (Juncus maritimus and Spartina maritima), sampling site and temporal variation affect sediment bacterial communities. We also used a bioinformatics tool, PICRUSt, to predict metagenome gene functional content. Our results showed that bacterial community composition from monospecific stands of both plant species varied temporally, but both host plant species maintained compositionally distinct communities of bacteria. Juncus sediment was characterised by higher abundances of Alphaproteobacteria, Myxococcales, Rhodospirillales, NB1-j and Ignavibacteriales, while Spartina sediment was characterised by higher abundances of Anaerolineae, Synechococcophycidae, Desulfobacterales, SHA-20 and Rhodobacterales. The differences in composition and higher taxon abundance between the sediment bacterial communities of stands of both plant species may be expected to affect overall metabolic diversity. In line with this expectation, there were also differences in the predicted enrichment of selected metabolic pathways. In particular, bacterial communities of Juncus sediment were predicted to be enriched for pathways related to the degradation of various (xenobiotic) compounds. Bacterial communities of Spartina sediment in turn were predicted to be enriched for pathways related to the biosynthesis of various bioactive compounds. Our study highlights the differences in composition and predicted functions of sediment-associated bacterial communities from two different salt marsh plant species. Loss of salt marsh habitat may thus be expected to both adversely affect microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning and have consequences for environmental processes such as nutrient cycling and pollutant remediation.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE PESTICIDE RUNOFF IN ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) runoff may result in significant discharges of pesticides, suspended sediments, and fertilizers into estuarine habitats adjacent to agricultural areas or downstream from agricultural watersheds. Exposure of estuarine fin fish and shellfish to to...

  1. Polychaete burrows harbour distinct microbial communities in oil-contaminated coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joe D; Cunliffe, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the bioturbating polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor can affect the composition of bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments, but have not considered diversity specifically within bioturbator burrows or the impact on microbial eukaryotes. We tested the hypothesis that H. diversicolor burrows harbour different eukaryotic and bacterial communities compared with un-bioturbated sediment, and that bioturbation stimulates oil degradation. Oil-contaminated sediment was incubated with or without H. diversicolor for 30 days, after which sediment un-affected by H. diversicolor and burrow DNA/RNA samples were analysed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and high-throughput sequencing. Fungi dominated both burrow and un-bioturbated sediment sequence libraries; however, there was significant enrichment of bacterivorous protists and nematodes in the burrows. There were also significant differences between the bacterial communities in burrows compared with un-bioturbated sediment. Increased activity and relative abundance of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the burrows coincided with the significant reduction in hydrocarbon concentration in the bioturbated sediment. This study represents the first detailed assessment of the effect of bioturbation on total microbial communities in oil-contaminated sediments. In addition, it further shows that bioturbation is a significant factor in determining microbial diversity within polluted sediments and plays an important role in stimulating bioremediation.

  2. The contribution of chemical fluxes across the sediment-water interface to carbon cycling in estuarine regions: A case study at the Rhône River mouth (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassmann, Jens; Eitel, Eryn; Bombled, Bruno; Lansard, Bruno; Taillefert, Martial; Rabouille, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Despite their small surface compared to the global oceans, continental shelf regions play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Whereas shelf regions are seen as a sink for atmospheric CO2, estuarine regions are seen as a source. These regions are caracterized by the export of allochthonous terrigenous organic matter (OM) and the production of autochthonous marine organic carbon. An important fraction of this OM is mineralized in the sediments close to the river mouth. As a result, high exchange fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), oxygen and nutriments cross the sediment-water interface (SWI) and cause acidification of the bottom waters. Potentially, primary production in the water column is enhanced by these fluxes. Therefore, OM mineralisation in estuarine regions plays a key role in the carbon cycle as a direct producer of DIC and as a potential control factor for primary production. This work aims to quantify chemical fluxes through the SWI at the prodelta of the Rhone River (Mediterranen). In September 2015, a benthic chamber has been deployed at several stations in the prodelta to measure directly (in situ) fluxes of DIC, TA, ammonium and dissolved calcium at the SWI. At the same stations, in situ microprofiles of oxygen and pH have been recorded and sediment cores were taken for pore water extraction and analysis (DIC, TA, NH4+ and Ca2+). The results show a strong decrease of the fluxes in offshore direction indicating a strong variation of respiration rates in this direction. From pore water profiles, diffusive fluxes have been calculated and compared with the fluxes measured by the benthic chamber. This comparison enables us to include pore water profiles from previous investigations to calculate a carbon mass budget of this region.

  3. Presence of oxygen and aerobic communities from sea floor to basement in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, Steven; Inagaki, Fumio; Zarikian, Carlos Alvarez; Abrams, Lewis J.; Dubois, Nathalie; Engelhardt, Tim; Evans, Helen; Ferdelman, Timothy; Gribsholt, Britta; Harris, Robert N.; Hoppie, Bryce W.; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kim, Jinwook; Lynch, Jill E.; McKinley, Claire C.; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Morono, Yuki; Murray, Richard W.; Pockalny, Robert; Sauvage, Justine; Shimono, Takaya; Shiraishi, Fumito; Smith, David C.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Steinsbu, Bjorn Olav; Suzuki, Yohey; Szpak, Michal; Toffin, Laurent; Uramoto, Goichiro; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T.; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Ziebis, Wiebke

    2015-04-01

    The depth of oxygen penetration into marine sediments differs considerably from one region to another. In areas with high rates of microbial respiration, O2 penetrates only millimetres to centimetres into the sediments, but active anaerobic microbial communities are present in sediments hundreds of metres or more below the sea floor. In areas with low sedimentary respiration, O2 penetrates much deeper but the depth to which microbial communities persist was previously unknown. The sediments underlying the South Pacific Gyre exhibit extremely low areal rates of respiration. Here we show that, in this region, microbial cells and aerobic respiration persist through the entire sediment sequence to depths of at least 75 metres below sea floor. Based on the Redfield stoichiometry of dissolved O2 and nitrate, we suggest that net aerobic respiration in these sediments is coupled to oxidation of marine organic matter. We identify a relationship of O2 penetration depth to sedimentation rate and sediment thickness. Extrapolating this relationship, we suggest that oxygen and aerobic communities may occur throughout the entire sediment sequence in 15-44% of the Pacific and 9-37% of the global sea floor. Subduction of the sediment and basalt from these regions is a source of oxidized material to the mantle.

  4. Effect of Elodea nuttallii Roots on Bacterial Communities and MMHg Proportion in a Hg Polluted Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Nicole; Frey, Beat; Converse, Brandon; Roden, Eric; Grosse-Honebrink, Alexander; Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Cosio, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a rooted macrophyte Elodea nuttallii on rhizosphere bacterial communities in Hg contaminated sediments. Specimens of E. nuttallii were exposed to sediments from the Hg contaminated Babeni reservoir (Olt River, Romania) in our microcosm. Plants were allowed to grow for two months until they occupied the entirety of the sediments. Total Hg and MMHg were analysed in sediments where an increased MMHg percentage of the total Hg in pore water of rhizosphere sediments was found. E. nuttallii roots also significantly changed the bacterial community structure in rhizosphere sediments compared to bulk sediments. Deltaproteobacteria dominated the rhizosphere bacterial community where members of Geobacteraceae within the Desulfuromonadales and Desulfobacteraceae were identified. Two bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which were phylogenetically related to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) became abundant in the rhizosphere. We suggest that these phylotypes could be potentially methylating bacteria and might be responsible for the higher MMHg percentage of the total Hg in rhizosphere sediments. However, SRB were not significantly favoured in rhizosphere sediments as shown by qPCR. Our findings support the hypothesis that rooted macrophytes created a microenvironment favorable for Hg methylation. The presence of E. nuttallii in Hg contaminated sediments should therefore not be overlooked. PMID:23029102

  5. Sequencing Insights into Microbial Communities in the Water and Sediments of Fenghe River, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sidan; Sun, Yujiao; Zhao, Xuan; Wang, Lei; Ding, Aizhong; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2016-07-01

    The connection between microbial community structure and spatial variation and pollution in river waters has been widely investigated. However, water and sediments together have rarely been explored. In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing was performed to analyze microbes in 24 water and sediment samples from natural to anthropogenic sources and from headstream to downstream areas. These data were used to assess variability in microbial community structure and diversity along in the Fenghe River, China. The relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters was statistically analyzed. An average of 1682 operational taxonomic units was obtained. Microbial diversity increased from the headstream to downstream and tended to be greater in sediment compared with water. The water samples near the headstream endured relatively low Shannon and Chao1 indices. These diversity indices and the number of observed species in the water and sediment samples increase downstream. The parameters also differ in the two river tributaries. Community structures shift based on the extent of nitrogen pollution variation in the sediment and water samples. The four most dominant genera in the water community were Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Comamonadaceae, and Pseudomonas. In the sediments, the most dominant genera were Stramenopiles, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Comamonadaceae. The number of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in the headstream water slightly differed from that in the sediment but varied considerably in the downstream sediments. Statistical analysis showed that community variation is correlated with changes in ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. This study identified different microbial community structures in river water and sediments. Overall this study emphasized the need to elucidate spatial variations in bacterial diversity in water and sediments associated with physicochemical gradients and to show the effects of such

  6. APPLICATION OF 3D COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO THE QUANTIFICATION OF MARINE SEDIMENT COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) has been demonstrated to be a cost efficient tool for the qualitative and quantitative study of estuarine benthic communities along pollution gradients.
    Now we have advanced this technology to successfully visualize and discriminate three dimen...

  7. Community structures and distribution of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing and nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria in surface sediments of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Hong, Yiguo; Cao, Huiluo; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and denitrification are two important processes responsible for nitrogen loss; monitoring of microbial communities carrying out these two processes offers a unique opportunity to understand the microbial nitrogen cycle. The aim of the current study was to characterize community structures and distribution of anammox and nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria in surface sediments of the northern South China Sea (SCS). The consistent phylogenetic results of three biomarkers of anammox bacteria, including 16S rRNA, hzo, and Scalindua-nirS genes, showed that Scalindua-like bacteria were the only anammox group presenting in surface sediments of the SCS. However, a relatively high micro-diversity was found within this group, including several SCS habitat-specific phylotypes, Candidatus "Scalindua zhenghei". Comparing to 16S rRNA gene, hzo and Scalindua-nirS genes provided a relatively higher resolution to elucidate anammox bacteria. For the nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria, the detected nirS gene sequences were closely related to various marine nirS denitrifiers, especially those which originated from coastal and estuarine sediments with a much higher diversity than anammox bacteria. Anammox bacterial communities shifted along with the seawater depth, while nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria did not. Although nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria have a much higher abundance and diversity than anammox bacteria, they showed similar abundance variation patterns in research sites, suggesting the two microbial groups might be affected by the similar environmental factors. The significant correlations among the abundance of the two microbial groups with the molar ratio of NH4 (+) to (NO2 (-) + NO3 (-)), pH, and organic matters of sediments strongly supported this hypothesis. PMID:23354291

  8. Community structures and distribution of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing and nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria in surface sediments of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Hong, Yiguo; Cao, Huiluo; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and denitrification are two important processes responsible for nitrogen loss; monitoring of microbial communities carrying out these two processes offers a unique opportunity to understand the microbial nitrogen cycle. The aim of the current study was to characterize community structures and distribution of anammox and nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria in surface sediments of the northern South China Sea (SCS). The consistent phylogenetic results of three biomarkers of anammox bacteria, including 16S rRNA, hzo, and Scalindua-nirS genes, showed that Scalindua-like bacteria were the only anammox group presenting in surface sediments of the SCS. However, a relatively high micro-diversity was found within this group, including several SCS habitat-specific phylotypes, Candidatus "Scalindua zhenghei". Comparing to 16S rRNA gene, hzo and Scalindua-nirS genes provided a relatively higher resolution to elucidate anammox bacteria. For the nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria, the detected nirS gene sequences were closely related to various marine nirS denitrifiers, especially those which originated from coastal and estuarine sediments with a much higher diversity than anammox bacteria. Anammox bacterial communities shifted along with the seawater depth, while nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria did not. Although nirS-encoding nitrite-reducing bacteria have a much higher abundance and diversity than anammox bacteria, they showed similar abundance variation patterns in research sites, suggesting the two microbial groups might be affected by the similar environmental factors. The significant correlations among the abundance of the two microbial groups with the molar ratio of NH4 (+) to (NO2 (-) + NO3 (-)), pH, and organic matters of sediments strongly supported this hypothesis.

  9. ESTUARINE HABITAT RESTORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-09-01

    Restoring estuarine habitats generally means repairing damages caused by humans and natural forces. Because of the extensive human occupation, development, and use of coastal areas for centuries, the extensive estuarine habitats have been either destroyed or significantly impaired.

  10. Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries Lima, Marta1; Menor, Eldemar2; Lima, Enjolras3; Neumann, Virginio4 1MFGTransportes, Brazil; 2Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil 3Servico Geologico do Brasil-CPRM, Brazil 4Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil Heavy metal (HM) concentrations in estuarine sediments of the Botafogo and Manguaba river, North-eastern Brazil were investigated on basis of samples from a bottom core drill performed 4km from the mouth of the rivers. Total sediments (TS) of the sliced profiles (62 cm, Botafogo river and 87 cm, Manguaba river ) were submitted to chemical analysis (51 elements), mineralogical analysis (XRD) and statistical study, followed by stoichiometric calculations. Geochronologic determinations of 210Pb allowed studying the evolution of the contamination level approximately 150 year-old interval in the Botafogo river. Mercury (Hg) and Arsenic (As) are emphasized because of a chlorine-soda industry that dumps its effluents about 15 km upstream of the estuary and extensive cultivation of sugarcane existent in this watershed. Hg background in pelitic total sediments (PTS) was certain established considering the Hg content (126 ppb) in sedimentary intervals previous to 1910. The production of chlorine-soda (since 1963) coincides with a drastic increase of the Hg concentrations and contemporary values around 6.000 ppb, without interruption in the pollutant process. The conclusions found that the Hg was the main indicator of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments of the Botafogo river. On the other hand, an increase in the Hg-As concentrations has been observed at the last decades due to an increase of the clay mineral fraction in TS of the Manguaga river. This scenario indicates that the accumulation of HM has been constant since the last decades, under a

  11. Responses of Aromatic-Degrading Microbial Communities to Elevated Nitrate in Sediments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meiying; He, Zhili; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jin; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-10-20

    A high number of aromatic compounds that have been released into aquatic ecosystems have accumulated in sediment because of their low solubility and high hydrophobicity, causing significant hazards to the environment and human health. Since nitrate is an essential nitrogen component and a more thermodynamically favorable electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, nitrate-based bioremediation has been applied to aromatic-contaminated sediments. However, few studies have focused on the response of aromatic-degrading microbial communities to nitrate addition in anaerobic sediments. Here we hypothesized that high nitrate inputs would stimulate aromatic-degrading microbial communities and their associated degrading processes, thus increasing the bioremediation efficiency in aromatic compound-contaminated sediments. We analyzed the changes of key aromatic-degrading genes in the sediment samples from a field-scale site for in situ bioremediation of an aromatic-contaminated creek in the Pearl River Delta before and after nitrate injection using a functional gene array. Our results showed that the genes involved in the degradation of several kinds of aromatic compounds were significantly enriched after nitrate injection, especially those encoding enzymes for central catabolic pathways of aromatic compound degradation, and most of the enriched genes were derived from nitrate-reducing microorganisms, possibly accelerating bioremediation of aromatic-contaminated sediments. The sediment nitrate concentration was found to be the predominant factor shaping the aromatic-degrading microbial communities. This study provides new insights into our understanding of the influences of nitrate addition on aromatic-degrading microbial communities in sediments. PMID:26390227

  12. Responses of Aromatic-Degrading Microbial Communities to Elevated Nitrate in Sediments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meiying; He, Zhili; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jin; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-10-20

    A high number of aromatic compounds that have been released into aquatic ecosystems have accumulated in sediment because of their low solubility and high hydrophobicity, causing significant hazards to the environment and human health. Since nitrate is an essential nitrogen component and a more thermodynamically favorable electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, nitrate-based bioremediation has been applied to aromatic-contaminated sediments. However, few studies have focused on the response of aromatic-degrading microbial communities to nitrate addition in anaerobic sediments. Here we hypothesized that high nitrate inputs would stimulate aromatic-degrading microbial communities and their associated degrading processes, thus increasing the bioremediation efficiency in aromatic compound-contaminated sediments. We analyzed the changes of key aromatic-degrading genes in the sediment samples from a field-scale site for in situ bioremediation of an aromatic-contaminated creek in the Pearl River Delta before and after nitrate injection using a functional gene array. Our results showed that the genes involved in the degradation of several kinds of aromatic compounds were significantly enriched after nitrate injection, especially those encoding enzymes for central catabolic pathways of aromatic compound degradation, and most of the enriched genes were derived from nitrate-reducing microorganisms, possibly accelerating bioremediation of aromatic-contaminated sediments. The sediment nitrate concentration was found to be the predominant factor shaping the aromatic-degrading microbial communities. This study provides new insights into our understanding of the influences of nitrate addition on aromatic-degrading microbial communities in sediments.

  13. In-Well Sediment Incubators to Evaluate Microbial Community Stability and Dynamics following Bioimmobilization of Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Brett R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Gan, M.; Resch, Charles T.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Smithgall, A. N.; Pfiffner, S.; Freifeld, Barry M.; White, D. C.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-09-23

    An in-situ incubation device (ISI) was developed in order to investigate the stability and dynamics of sediment associated microbial communities to prevailing subsurface oxidizing or reducing conditions. Here we describe the use of these devices at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site. During the 7 month deployment oxidized Rifle aquifer background sediments (RABS) were deployed in previously biostimulated wells under iron reducing conditions, cell densities of known iron reducing bacteria including Geobacteraceae increased significantly showing the microbial community response to local subsurface conditions. PLFA profiles of RABS following in situ deployment were strikingly similar to those of adjacent sediment cores suggesting ISI results could be extrapolated to the native material of the test plots. Results for ISI deployed reduced sediments showed only slight changes in community composition and pointed toward the ability of the ISIs to monitor microbial community stability and response to subsurface conditions.

  14. Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments

    PubMed Central

    Franzetti, Andrea; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöling, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning. PMID:26823996

  15. Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments.

    PubMed

    Thureborn, Petter; Franzetti, Andrea; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöling, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning. PMID:26823996

  16. Metal-contaminated Sediment Effects on Biofilm Communities: Impairment of Multiple Stream Ecosystem Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, G.; Costello, D.

    2012-12-01

    Photosynthetic biofilms are crucial drivers of many important stream ecosystem functions (e.g., primary and secondary production, N cycling), yet we have a limited understanding of how these critical communities respond to contaminated sediments. Divalent metals (e.g., Cu, Ni, Zn) are ubiquitous in urban streams and may be contributing to the decline in ecosystem function in urban waters. We exposed natural biofilm communities in five different streams to a common sediment amended with four concentrations of Ni and Cu. Contaminated sediments were placed into cups, covered with mesh disks for biofilm attachment, and secured to the streambed. After 6 weeks, biofilm-colonized disks were analyzed for net primary production (NPP), chlorophyll a, and metal content. Sediments below the biofilms were analyzed for total metals, acid volatile sulfide, and high-resolution vertical dissolved oxygen concentrations. Additional biofilm disks were separated from the sediment and fed to Lymnaea stagnalis to assess indirect effects of sediment metal on grazers. Among our five streams, we found variation in the biofilm response to metals with the most productive stream (Elm Creek) showing the strongest negative response to metal-contaminated sediment. Contaminated sediments in Elm Creek reduced biofilm growth, slowed primary production, and prevented penetration of oxygen into surface sediments. In the less productive streams, biofilms did not reduce NPP in the presence of sediment metal and there was still substantial penetration of oxygen into sediments; however, metals moved out of the sediment and accumulated in the biofilm. L. stagnalis exposed to metal-contaminated biofilms fed at a slower rate than those given clean biofilms. This study suggests that biofilms, and the biogeochemical cycles they drive, can potentially be impaired by contaminated sediment but the response is context dependent. Further, indirect dietary effects of contaminated sediment occur more widely than

  17. [Sedimentation on reef communities at Bahías de Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Granja Fernández, María R; López Pérez, Ramón A

    2008-09-01

    Although coral reef sedimentation is important because it modifies processes like symbioses, reproduction, recruitment and coral growth, Mexican Pacific studies are lacking. On this regard, spatio-temporal variations in sedimentation rate were investigated in six coral reef communities from Oaxaca. During February 2006-January 2007 (excluding April, July and August) two sediment structures, with four sediment traps each, were randomly installed. Sediment traps were replaced with a mean periodicity of 38 days, and the sediments were washed, filtered, dried and weighted in order to calculate sedimentation rate. Sedimentation rate was heterogeneous among localities (F,36 = 7.06, P < 0.01). It was high at Isla Montosa (653.31 kg m(-2) year(-1)) and Isla Cacaluta (450.09 kg m(-2) year(-1)), intermediate at San Agustin, Jicaral-Chachacual and Dos Hermanas (155.18-92.53 kg m(-2) year(-1)) and low at La Entrega (14.33 kg m(-2) year(-1)). Sedimentation rate was homogeneous through time (F7,34 = 0.85, P > 0.5); nonetheless, during the dry season (November-March) sedimentation rate in the area oscillated between 6.8-73.5 mg cm(-2) day(-1), whereas during the rainy season (May-October) the values were 141-1088 % higher (74.5-147.6 mg cm(-2) day(-1), Mann-Whitney U = 137, n = 42, P = 0.03). There was a significant relationship between sedimentation rate and pluvial precipitation (Spearman R = 0.83, n = 8, P = 0.009), suggesting that the amount of sediment reaching coral communities is closely tied to regional precipitation. Sedimentation rates recorded at Isla Montosa (366.64 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) and Isla Cacaluta (366.03 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) during the rainy season can be considered lethal-sublethal considering sediment tolerance and rejection efficiency of stony corals. The absence of coral mortality during the rainy season may result from: a) high efficiency of active sediment removal, b) increased physiological tolerance to sediments, and c) a high degree of passive sediment

  18. Downwelling wind, tides, and estuarine plume dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhigang; Ma, Ronghua; Huang, Mingfen; Chen, Changsheng; Chen, Yong; Xie, Congbin; Beardsley, Robert C.

    2016-06-01

    The estuarine plume dynamics under a downwelling-favorable wind condition were examined in the windy dry season of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using the PRE primitive-equation Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The wind and tide-driven estuarine circulation had a significant influence on the plume dynamics on both local and remote scales. Specifically, the local effect of downwelling-favorable winds on the plume was similar to the theoretical descriptions of coastal plumes, narrowing the plume width, and setting up a vertically uniform downstream current at the plume edge. Tides tended to reduce these plume responses through local turbulent mixing and advection from upstream regions, resulting in an adjustment of the isohalines in the plume and a weakening of the vertically uniform downstream current. The remote effect of downwelling-favorable winds on the plume was due to the wind-induced estuarine sea surface height (SSH), which strengthened the estuarine circulation and enhanced the plume transport accordingly. Associated with these processes, tide-induced mixing tended to weaken the SSH gradient and thus the estuarine circulation over a remote influence scale. Overall, the typical features of downwelling-favorable wind-driven estuarine plumes revealed in this study enhanced our understanding of the estuarine plume dynamics under downwelling-favorable wind conditions.

  19. EFFECTS OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINANTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS ON MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY TROPHIC STRUCTURE IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic communities from estuaries throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico were studied to assess the influence of sediment contaminants and natural environmental factors on macrobenthic community trophic structure. Community trophic data were also used to evaluate whether re...

  20. The influence of estuarine conditions on the dynamics of a coastal phytoplankton community in a micro-tidal estuary: Yura River Estuary, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Fukuzaki, K.; Akiyama, S.; Ichimi, K.; Kasai, A.; Fukushima, K.; Ueno, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Yamashita, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The western side of Wakasa Bay, Tango Sea, Japan receives most of its allochthonous nutrient input from the Yura River. The Yura Estuary is classified as micro-tidal with a spring tidal range of less than 0.5 m. In summer, generally, the river discharge is low and the sea level is high, so the salt wedge extends 20 km upstream. Then, phytoplankton blooms occur due to an influx of riverine nutrients in the estuary. In contrast, during spring, river discharge is high and the salt wedge is not formed. These seasonal differences in estuarine physical and biological conditions may affect the coastal zone. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of estuarine conditions on the dynamics of the coastal phytoplankton community in this micro-tidal estuary. For this objective, field surveys were conducted both in the coastal zone and the river side of this estuary. Four sampling stations with depths of 5, 10, 20 and 30 m were set in the coastal zone, and weekly surveys were conducted from December 2009 to June 2011. Six sampling stations were set between the mouth of the Yura River and 16 km upstream, and monthly surveys were conducted in summer (from June 2010 to August 2010) and spring (from February 2011 to April 2011). Vertical profiles of salinity, water temperature and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured with a CTD profiler at each station. With water samples taken from the surface, middle, and bottom layers at each station, concentrations of chlorophyll a, pheophytin, and nutrients were analyzed. The nutrients flux from the upstream to the estuary correlated strongly with river discharge, not with nutrient concentrations. In summer, when estuarine water were stratified, marine phytoplankton (mainly diatoms) developed in the middle layer of the estuary while freshwater phytoplankton (mainly green algae) increased in the surface layer of the river mouth. Nitrate concentration in riverine water was estimated to decline 15% while the water flowed from the

  1. Urban stormwater runoff drives denitrifying community composition through changes in sediment texture and carbon content.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Shane E; Rees, Gavin N; Walsh, Christopher J; Grace, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    The export of nitrogen from urban catchments is a global problem, and denitrifying bacteria in stream ecosystems are critical for reducing in-stream N. However, the environmental factors that control the composition of denitrifying communities in streams are not well understood. We determined whether denitrifying community composition in sediments of nine streams on the eastern fringe of Melbourne, Australia was correlated with two measures of catchment urban impact: effective imperviousness (EI, the proportion of a catchment covered by impervious surfaces with direct connection to streams) or septic tank density (which affects stream water chemistry, particularly stream N concentrations). Denitrifying community structure was examined by comparing terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of nosZ genes in the sediments, as the nosZ gene codes for nitrous oxide reductase, the last step in the denitrification pathway. We also determined the chemical and physical characteristics of the streams that were best correlated with denitrifying community composition. EI was strongly correlated with community composition and sediment physical and chemical properties, while septic tank density was not. Sites with high EI were sandier, with less fine sediment and lower organic carbon content, higher sediment cations (calcium, sodium and magnesium) and water filterable reactive phosphorus concentrations. These were also the best small-scale environmental variables that explained denitrifying community composition. Among our study streams, which differed in the degree of urban stormwater impact, sediment grain size and carbon content are the most likely drivers of change in community composition. Denitrifying community composition is another in a long list of ecological indicators that suggest the profound degradation of streams is caused by urban stormwater runoff. While the relationships between denitrifying community composition and denitrification rates are yet to be

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic adaptation of aerobic heterotrophic sediment bacterial communities to mercury stress.

    PubMed Central

    Barkay, T; Olson, B H

    1986-01-01

    The effects of mercury contamination of lake sediments on the phenotypic and genotypic mercury resistance of the indigenous heterotrophic aerobic bacterial communities were investigated. Strong positive correlations between mercury sediment concentration and the frequency of the gene coding for mercury volatilization (mer) (r = 0.96) or the phenotypic mercury resistance (r = 0.86) of the studied communities suggested that the inheritance via selection or genetic exchange of the mer gene had promoted bacterial adaptation to mercury. Failure to detect the mer gene in one mercury-contaminated sediment where phenotypic expression was low suggested that other mechanisms of resistance may partially determine the presence of mercury-resistant organisms in mercury-contaminated sediment or that the mercury in this particular sediment was very chemically limited in its availability to the microorganisms. PMID:3753001

  3. Benthic community and sediment quality assessment of Port Hope Harbour, Lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.R.; McKee, P.M.; Burt, A.J.; Goffin, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sediments in Port Hope Harbour, Lake Ontario, have been heavily contaminated by radionuclides and heavy metals from a radium recovery plant, a uranium refinery, and other industrial activities. Spatial patterns in surficial sediment contamination, benthic community structure, and bioaccumulation of contaminants were assessed to determine possible relationships and potential environmental hazards in the event of dredging. Benthic community differences in species composition and density between inner and outer harbour areas corresponded with both habitat and sediment quality differences. Sediment loss-on-ignition, nitrogen, iron, copper, lead, chromium, zinc, and nickel concentrations in the inner harbour exceeded provincial guidelines for open water disposal of dredged spoils. Only iron exceeded those guidelines in the other harbour. Tissue levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in benthic invertebrates were greatest at the most heavily contaminated stations in the inner harbour. Reduced benthic densities and maximum sediment contamination occurred near a refinery cooling water discharge. 59 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Phosphorus Chemistry and Bacterial Community Composition Interact in Brackish Sediments Receiving Agricultural Discharges

    PubMed Central

    Sinkko, Hanna; Sihvonen, Leila M.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Leivuori, Mirja; Rantanen, Matias; Paulin, Lars; Lyra, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Background External nutrient discharges have caused eutrophication in many estuaries and coastal seas such as the Baltic Sea. The sedimented nutrients can affect bacterial communities which, in turn, are widely believed to contribute to release of nutrients such as phosphorus from the sediment. Methods We investigated relationships between bacterial communities and chemical forms of phosphorus as well as elements involved in its cycling in brackish sediments using up-to-date multivariate statistical methods. Bacterial community composition was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning of the 16S rRNA gene. Results and Conclusions The bacterial community composition differed along gradients of nutrients, especially of different phosphorus forms, from the estuary receiving agricultural phosphorus loading to the open sea. This suggests that the chemical composition of sediment phosphorus, which has been affected by riverine phosphorus loading, influenced on bacterial communities. Chemical and spatial parameters explained 25% and 11% of the variation in bacterial communities. Deltaproteobacteria, presumptively sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing, were strongly associated to chemical parameters, also when spatial autocorrelation was taken into account. Sulphate reducers correlated positively with labile organic phosphorus and total nitrogen in the open sea sediments. Sulphur/iron reducers and sulphate reducers linked to iron reduction correlated positively with aluminium- and iron-bound phosphorus, and total iron in the estuary. The sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing bacteria can thus have an important role both in the mineralization and mobilization of nutrients from sediment. Significance Novelty in our study is that relationships between bacterial community composition and different phosphorus forms, instead of total phosphorus, were investigated. Total phosphorus does not necessarily bring out interactions between bacteria and

  5. ESTUARINE AND SCALAR PATTERNS OF INVASION IN THE SOFT-BOTTOM BENTHIC COMMUNITIES OF THE SAN FRANCISCO ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial patterns of nonindigenous species in seven subtidal soft-bottom communities in the San Francisco Estuary were quantified. Sixty nonindigenous species were found out of the 533 taxa enumerated (11%). Patterns of invasion across the communities were evaluated using a ...

  6. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  7. Archaeal communities associated with shallow to deep subseafloor sediments of the New Caledonia Basin.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Sauvadet, Anne-Laure; Chaduteau, Carine; Fouquet, Yves; Charlou, Jean-Luc; Prieur, Daniel; Cambon Bonavita, Marie-Anne

    2009-09-01

    The distribution of the archaeal communities in deep subseafloor sediments [0-36 m below the seafloor (mbsf)] from the New Caledonia and Fairway Basins was investigated using DNA- and RNA-derived 16S rRNA clone libraries, functional genes and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A new method, Co-Migration DGGE (CM-DGGE), was developed to access selectively the active archaeal diversity. Prokaryotic cell abundances at the open-ocean sites were on average approximately 3.5 times lower than at a site under terrestrial influence. The sediment surface archaeal community (0-1.5 mbsf) was characterized by active Marine Group 1 (MG-1) Archaea that co-occurred with ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) sequences affiliated to a group of uncultured sedimentary Crenarchaeota. However, the anoxic subsurface methane-poor sediments (below 1.5 mbsf) were dominated by less active archaeal communities, such as the Thermoplasmatales, Marine Benthic Group D and other lineages probably involved in the methane cycle (Methanosarcinales, ANME-2 and DSAG/MBG-B). Moreover, the archaeal diversity of some sediment layers was restricted to only one lineage (Uncultured Euryarchaeota, DHVE6, MBG-B, MG-1 and SAGMEG). Sequences forming two clusters within the Thermococcales order were also present in these cold subseafloor sediments, suggesting that these uncultured putative thermophilic archaeal communities might have originated from a different environment. This study shows a transition between surface and subsurface sediment archaeal communities.

  8. Seasonal and spatial diversity of microbial communities in marine sediments of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Huang, Yali; Li, Huixian; Tan, Hongming; Cao, Lixiang; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the diversity of microbial communities in marine sediments of the South China Sea by means of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The results revealed that the sediment samples collected in summer harboured a more diverse microbial community than that collected in winter, Deltaproteobacteria dominated 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from both seasons, followed by Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes. Archaea phylotypes were also found. The majority of clone sequences shared greatest similarity to uncultured organisms, mainly from hydrothermal sediments and cold seep sediments. In addition, the sedimentary microbial communities in the coastal sea appears to be much more diverse than that of the open sea. A spatial pattern in the sediment samples was observed that the sediment samples collected from the coastal sea and the open sea clustered separately, a novel microbial community dominated the open sea. The data indicate that changes in environmental conditions are accompanied by significant variations in diversity of microbial communities at the South China Sea.

  9. Molecular characterization of Pseudo-nitzschia community structure and species ecology in a hydrographically complex estuarine system (Puget Sound, Washington, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Katherine A.; Olson, Claire H.; Armbrust, E. Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Species within the toxic marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia coexist in coastal and estuarine waters globally and are difficult to distinguish by microscopy. Here, we describe a sensitive, high throughput PCR-based Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) approach to determine the relative abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species within natural communities over space and time. The method was quantitatively validated using simplified mixtures of DNA or ITS1 standards from isolates of P. pungens, P. multiseries, and P. delicatissima. Relative abundance calculations based on ARISA profiles from these mixtures reflected input ratios, with minor deviations resulting from intraspecific variability. ARISA was used to identify and quantify at least eight species within Puget Sound and the eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington, USA: P. americana, P. australis/P. seriata, P. cuspidata, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. fryxelliana, P. multiseries, and P. pungens; genotypes corresponding to P. pungens var. pungens and P. pungens var. cingulata were identified by environmental sequencing. The different species were significantly correlated with physical (temperature, salinity), biological (chlorophyll a fluorescence, oxygen), and/or chemical (ammonium, nutrient ratios) factors. The ability to determine shifts in the relative abundance of Pseudo-nitzschia species over spatial and temporal scales relevant to dispersion and selection facilitates dissection of the varied mechanisms driving vertical and horizontal species distribution patterns in hydrographically complex systems. PMID:27239082

  10. Influence of sediment characteristics on the composition of soft-sediment intertidal communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Jessica R.; Sigel, Bryan J.; Taylor, Caz M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic infaunal communities are important components of coastal ecosystems. Understanding the relationships between the structure of these communities and characteristics of the habitat in which they live is becoming progressively more important as coastal systems face increasing stress from anthropogenic impacts and changes in climate. To examine how sediment characteristics and infaunal community composition were related along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, we sampled intertidal infaunal communities at seven sites covering common habitat types at a regional scale. Across 69 samples, the communities clustered into four distinct groups on the basis of faunal composition. Nearly 70% of the variation in the composition of the communities was explained by salinity, median grain size, and total organic content. Our results suggest that at a regional level coarse habitat characteristics are able to explain a large amount of the variation among sites in infaunal community structure. By examining the relationships between infaunal communities and their sedimentary habitats, we take a necessary first step that will allow the exploration of how changes in habitat and community composition influence higher trophic levels and ecosystem scale processes. PMID:26157603

  11. nirS-containing denitrifier communities in the water column and sediment of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, S.; Hannig, M.; Gliesche, C.; Wardenga, R.; Köster, M.; Jürgens, K.; Braker, G.

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare structural differences in the nirS-type denitrifying microbial communities along the environmental gradients observed in the water column and coastal sediments of the Baltic Sea. To link community structure and environmental gradients, denitrifier communities were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on nirS as a functional marker gene for denitrification. nirS-type denitrifier community composition was further evaluated by phylogenetic analysis of nirS sequences from clone libraries. T-RFLP analysis indicated some overlap but also major differences between communities from the water column and the sediment. Shifts in community composition along the biogeochemical gradients were observed only in the water column while denitrifier communities were rather uniform within the upper 30 mm of the sediment. Specific terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) indicative of the sulfidic zone suggest the presence of nitrate-reducing and sulfide-oxidizing microorganisms that were previously shown to be important at the suboxic-sulfidic interface in the water column of the Baltic Sea. Phylogenetic analysis of nirS genes from the Baltic Sea and of sequences from marine habitats all over the world indicated distinct denitrifier communities that grouped mostly according to their habitats. We suggest that these subgroups of denitrifiers had developed after selection through several factors, i.e. their habitats (water column or sediment), impact by prevalent environmental conditions and isolation by large geographic distances between habitats.

  12. Community structure of epibenthic meiofauna in the St. Lucia Estuarine Lake (South Africa) during a drought phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillay, D.; Perissinotto, R.

    2009-01-01

    The St. Lucia Estuary is Africa's largest estuarine system. It is a major component of the iSimangaliso (formerly Greater St. Lucia) Wetland Park, which was declared a World Heritage Site in 1999. The system has been severely affected by drought conditions which have culminated in the mouth of the system being cut off from the Indian Ocean since June 2002, for a period of almost five years. This study aimed to document the dynamics of meiofauna of the system during a drought phase, since (1) the effects of droughts on estuaries are poorly documented and understood and (2) because studies of meiofauna have never been undertaken in this system before. Meiofauna samples as well as physico-chemical data were collected at representative sites in February, April, August and October 2005. The drought had a major effect on the estuary, resulting in the development of hypersaline conditions (maximum 126 at Hells Gate), and to the complete evaporation of pelagic habitats, especially in the northern regions. The meiofauna of the St. Lucia Estuary was statistically separated into two distinct spatial clusters under drought conditions. The first cluster comprised sites in the Narrows and the southern region of South Lake, while the second comprised sites in the northern regions of South Lake and False Bay. Meiofauna of cluster 1, which was least affected by the drought, comprised nematodes, polychaetes, copepods, amphipods and ostracods, all of which accounted for 97% of meiofauna in this cluster. Cluster 2 on the other hand, which was more severely affected by the drought, was dominated by nematodes and copepods, which cumulatively contributed 97% to meiofauna in this group. Taxonomic richness and diversity of meiofauna were positively correlated with water depth, while abundance was inversely correlated with water temperature. The major effects of low water levels on the meiofauna of the system occurred through a negative impact on diversity and taxonomic richness, resulting

  13. Bacterial Communities in Polluted Seabed Sediments: A Molecular Biology Assay in Leghorn Harbor

    PubMed Central

    Verni, Franco; Petroni, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Seabed sediments of commercial ports are often characterized by high pollution levels. Differences in number and distribution of bacteria in such areas can be related to distribution of pollutants in the port and to sediment conditions. In this study, the bacterial communities of five sites from Leghorn Harbor seabed were characterized, and the main bacterial groups were identified. T-RFLP was used for all samples; two 16S rRNA libraries and in silico digestion of clones were used to identify fingerprint profiles. Library data, phylogenetic analysis, and T-RFLP coupled with in silico digestion of the obtained sequences evidenced the dominance of Proteobacteria and the high percentage of Bacteroidetes in all sites. The approach highlighted similar bacterial communities between samples coming from the five sites, suggesting a modest differentiation among bacterial communities of different harbor seabed sediments and hence the capacity of bacterial communities to adapt to different levels and types of pollution. PMID:24227997

  14. Changes in northern Gulf of Mexico sediment bacterial and archaeal communities exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Devereux, R; Mosher, J J; Vishnivetskaya, T A; Brown, S D; Beddick, D L; Yates, D F; Palumbo, A V

    2015-09-01

    Biogeochemical changes in marine sediments during coastal water hypoxia are well described, but less is known about underlying changes in microbial communities. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) hypoxic zone sediments were characterized by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA V4-region gene fragments obtained by PCR amplification of community genomic DNA with bacterial- or archaeal-specific primers. Duplicate LCS sediment cores collected during hypoxia had higher concentrations of Fe(II), and dissolved inorganic carbon, phosphate, and ammonium than cores collected when overlying water oxygen concentrations were normal. Pyrosequencing yielded 158,686 bacterial and 225,591 archaeal sequences from 20 sediment samples, representing five 2-cm depth intervals in the duplicate cores. Bacterial communities grouped by sampling date and sediment depth in a neighbor-joining analysis using Chao-Jaccard shared species values. Redundancy analysis indicated that variance in bacterial communities was mainly associated with differences in sediment chemistry between oxic and hypoxic water column conditions. Gammaproteobacteria (26.5%) were most prominent among bacterial sequences, followed by Firmicutes (9.6%), and Alphaproteobacteria (5.6%). Crenarchaeotal, thaumarchaeotal, and euryarchaeotal lineages accounted for 57%, 27%, and 16% of archaeal sequences, respectively. In Thaumarchaeota Marine Group I, sequences were 96-99% identical to the Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 sequence, were highest in surficial sediments, and accounted for 31% of archaeal sequences when waters were normoxic vs. 13% of archaeal sequences when waters were hypoxic. Redundancy analysis showed Nitrosopumilus-related sequence abundance was correlated with high solid-phase Fe(III) concentrations, whereas most of the remaining archaeal clusters were not. In contrast, crenarchaeotal sequences were from phylogenetically diverse lineages, differed little in relative abundance between