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Sample records for estudos feministas brasil

  1. Improving weather modeling in South America through IDD-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.

    2007-05-01

    The IDD-Brasil constitutes of an international collaboration among Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LPM/UFRJ), Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE) and the Unidata Program Center (Unidata/UCAR), which connects several universities and research centers across the Americas in a network to share real-time hydro meteorological data. Using this network as a new path to deliver and acquire observational data, IDD-Brazil participants are capable of receiving observational data from GTS (Global Telecommunication System), locally ingested data from several automatic weather stations networks (mesonets) from INPE, the entire array of METAR and SYNOP observations, and several model outputs and satellite imagery. During recent years Numerical Models have been used constantly, especially in mesoscale research, but the lack of a dense observational network in South America leads to several constraints during the data assimilation and model validation. Since the IDD-Brasil offers an improved and simple method to have new datasets readily accessible, it has been used continuously as a new manner to distribute surface observations that are not currently available in GTS, such as several mesonets in Brazil that account for an increase in data density. Through the usage of data ingested in IDD-Brasil as guess fields it is possible to study how the assimilation in several global models frequently used as initial conditions for mesoscale simulations can be affected, since in certain areas in Brazil the density of data nearly doubles if compared to GTS. Therefore it is also possible to better validate the results generated in mesoscale simulations, in view of the fact that the network has an improved spatial distribution. It is expected that the increase of locally held numerical model output from South American institutions in IDD- Brasil leads to an increased awareness of the need to constantly validate these results with observational data, thus

  2. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  3. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  4. [Medical assessments and measurements in ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Mill, Jose Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Maestri, Marcelo K; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira, Ilka; Fuchs, Sandra C; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The article describes assessments and measurements performed in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Some assessments including anthropometric assessment, casual blood pressure measurement, and ankle-brachial index have an established clinical application while others including pulse wave velocity, heart rate variability, and carotid intima-media thickness have no established application and do not have reference values for healthy Brazilian population but may be important predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure measurement following postural change maneuver was included in the ELSA-Brasil because it has not been much tested in epidemiological studies. Innovative approaches were developed for assessing the ankle-brachial index using an automatic device instead of the mercury column to measure blood pressure and for assessing the anterior-posterior diameter of the right lobe of the liver by ultrasound for quantitative assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. All ELSA-Brasil subjects were younger (35 years or more) than those included in other cohorts studying subclinical atherosclerosis. The inclusion of younger individuals and a variety of assessments make the ELSA-Brasil a relevant epidemiology study nationwide and worldwide.

  5. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  6. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  7. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  8. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Seismic waether over Brasil during the Chile earthquake/tsunami of September 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kherani, Esfhan; Klausner, Virginia

    2016-07-01

    During an earthquake and tsunami, the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere hosts varieities of disturbances. We refer, this phenomena, as seismic weather, drawing anology from the space weather. In this work, we study the seismic weather over Brasil, associated with the September Chile eqarthquake/tsunami. We aim to simulate this seismic weather for which the seismogenic magnetic and airglow disturbances over Brasil are already reported. We employ the Seismic-Atmsopheric-Ionospheric coupling model (SAI) developed by us, to study this seismic weather. The Earth's surface displacement obtained from seismometer is consisdered as an input to the model which them trigger the Acoustic-Gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and subsequent magnetic and airglow disturbances in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupled system. The results provide better understanding of coupling arising from the Rayleigh wave forcing.

  10. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  11. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects. PMID:12402090

  12. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  13. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  14. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  15. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences. PMID:27192025

  16. [The teaching of history at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marieta de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    This work analyzes the trajectory of the history course at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil between 1939 and 1964/1965. Special emphasis is placed on the period between 1955 and 1965, when there was the separation of the history and geography courses, through to the onset of the reorganization of the schools and institutes of the university. The Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia was a benchmark for the other schools of philosophy in the country, as well as being a reference in the development of the history of education in Brazil. The approach adopted is geared to the field of the history of the historiography, with a focus on the study of the trajectories, institutions and relationship networks.

  17. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish. PMID:23618945

  18. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-01-01

    Background Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). Conclusion There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting. PMID:25424165

  19. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  20. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  1. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish.

  2. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  3. Factors associated with leisure time physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants: Ecological model.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the study was identify the prevalence and factors associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adult participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The LTPA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version. A hierarchical ecological model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPA distributed across blocks. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. In men, being more educated, having a high family income, living in environments with conditions and opportunities for PA, being retired and being overweight were positively associated, while current smoking, obesity and abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. Among women, being over 60years old, being more educated, having a high family income, living in an environment with conditions and opportunities for PA practice and being retired were positively associated, while being overweight, obese and having abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. The proposed ecological model explains the LTPA through the social, physical and personal environment and highlights gender differences in physical activity.

  4. "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program: characterization and evolution between 2004 and 2012.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Caetano, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program (PFPB) aims to improve access to medicines, offering subsidized products. It is structured in an arrangement involving public and private sectors. The paper described the organization and expansion of the PFPB and examined the reference price (RP) of the medicines paid by the government, between 2004 and 2012. It is an exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative approach, developed from the literature review and analysis of public documents. Quantitative data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Electronic System of Citizens Information Services. The PFPB is organized in two delivery models: public owned facilities (Rede Própria) and accredited private retail pharmacies (Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular-ATFP). The ATFP has allowed its own expansion, from 2006. Antihypertensives, antidiabetics and antiasthmatics were exempt from copayment, since 2011. The expansion of the ATFP Program was significant, for facilities and covered municipalities, 750% and 528%, respectively. The RP was reduced by 33.6% on average (ranging from 23-52%) for medicines available since the beginning of the ATFP. The expansion was performed with the actions hitherto unprecedented, as copayment and accreditation of private retail pharmacies.

  5. Improvements in the detection efficiency model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The detection efficiency (DE) is the most important performance gauge of a lightning detection network (LDN). Moreover, the main motivation for evaluating the DE of a LDN is to separate the geographical variations of the CG lightning parameters from the variations regarding the network performance. A review of previous relative DE techniques and simple methods to correct the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash density maps is presented. In addition, recent improvements in the flash DE model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) are discussed. The DE estimated values are based on the sensor individual DE probability functions, which are derived from a large amount of CG stroke data provided by the network considering different distances from the sensor and specific peak current ranges. The new approach provides better results when compared with the previous developments, since the calculation of the sensor DE probability functions neglects the lightning data provided by the minimum number of reporting sensors. Hence it is possible to minimize the unrealistic enhancement of the DE closer to the network boundaries ("border effect") without affecting significantly the performance inside the network. The main result is a more realistic correction of the CG flash density maps, particularly at the outermost network areas, leading to an improvement in the model sensitivity.

  6. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  7. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects.

  8. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  9. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  10. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  11. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  12. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR = 1.63, 95% IC = 1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR = 0.96, 95% IC = 0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR = 0.94, 95% IC = 0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  13. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  14. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  15. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  16. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  17. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  18. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics. PMID:27462850

  19. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-06-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  20. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  1. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  2. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  3. Um estudo espectrofotométrico da variável cataclísmica V3885 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. M. A.; Diaz, M. P.

    2003-08-01

    Variáveis Cataclísmicas são sistemas binários cerrados compostos de uma anã vermelha que transfere matéria para uma anã branca, em sistemas não magnéticos ocorre a formação de um disco de acresção em torno da anã branca. V3885 Sgr é uma variável cataclísmica classificada como sendo do tipo nova-like. É apresentado um estudo espectrofotométrico de V3885 Sgr de alta resolução temporal feito na região do visível. A região observada é centrada em Ha e abrange também a linha de HeI 6678. O primeiro resultado obtido neste estudo é a determinação do período orbital a partir de medidas da velocidade radial da linha de Ha como sendo 0,20716071(22) dias, resolvendo inconsistências quanto a esse valor na literatura e definindo uma efeméride a longo prazo para o sistema. Com este período e as medidas de velocidade radial do perfil de linha de Ha foi construído um diagrama de massas, através do qual restringimos as massas das componentes estelares do sistema e limitamos a inclinação orbital do sistema. Foram construídos diagramas de Greenstein para as linhas de Ha e HeI, onde os espectros médios em cada intervalo de fase são representados lado a lado em escala de cinza, indicando a existência de uma emissão intensa proveniente da parte posterior do disco. A partir da tomografia Doppler obtivemos perfis de emissividade radial para o disco tanto para a linha de Ha como para HeI. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com os de outros sistemas estudados com a mesma técnica. Serão apresentados também resultados da tomografia de flickering para o sistema.

  4. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  5. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  6. [Educational status and patterns of weight gain in adulthood in Brazil: Estudo Pró-Saúde].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; França, Rosana de Figueiredo; Faerstein, Eduardo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Chor, Dóra

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between participant and parental educational status (considered as an indicator of socioeconomic status) and participant pattern of weight gain in adulthood. We analyzed data from 2 582 baseline participants (1999) of Estudo Pró-Saúde (Pro-Health Study), a longitudinal investigation of civil servants from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-administered questionnaires were used to identify patterns of weight gain in adulthood. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for the association between parental and participant educational status and steady weight gain or weight cycling, with stable weight as a reference, using multinomial logistic regression models. For males, lower paternal educational level entailed a chance about 55% lower of weight cycling as compared to stable weight (OR = 0.45; IC95% = 0.26-0.78), whereas lower maternal schooling was related to increased risk of weight cycling, although without reaching statistical significance (OR = 1.68; IC95% = 0.94-3.00). The association between participant educational status and weight history was not statistically significant among men. In women, lower educational status entailed a chance 94% higher of self-reported weight cycling (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.17-3.23), and there was no association between parental educational level and history of weight gain. In this study, changes in weight throughout life, both steady and cyclic, were associated with parental and participant educational status, with major differences between genders.

  7. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN ELDERLY FROM VIÇOSA/MG, BRASIL.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Luiz Araújo Tinôco, Adelson; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia

    2015-11-01

    La prevalencia de deficiencia nutricional de vitamina B12 aumenta con la edad y es especialmente común en la población mayor. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar su prevalencia y los factores asociados a esta carencia en mayores no institucionalizados de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: estudio poblacional interseccional, realizado para identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a deficiencia de vitamina B12 entre la población de mayores en Viçosa (MG). Los datos fueron recopilados desde agosto de 2011 hasta junio de 2012 mediante una encuesta en los hogares y pruebas hematológicas y bioquímicas realizadas en 340 mayores. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en este grupo fue del 17,4% (95% CI, 13,4% - 21,4%). La deficiencia cognitiva se presenta como un factor importante relacionado con la deficiencia de vitamina B12. Conclusiones: el informe actual contribuye a los estudios que destacan ciertos factores que podrían afectar al rendimiento de las personas mayores en su proceso de envejecimiento natural, especialmente cuando estos factores están asociados con deficiencia cognitiva y dan lugar a una discapacidad significativa así como pérdida de calidad de vida. Así, los resultados aquí presentados han servido para aportar un conocimiento más comprensivo sobre la relación entre deficiencia de B12 y su impacto sobre este grupo de población. También han demostrado su relevancia de cara a la planificación de programas e iniciativas de salud pública centrados en este grupo de población.

  8. Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status intend to measure the subjective social status using a numbered stepladder image. This study investigated the reliability of the MacArthur scale in a subsample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Method Three scales were employed using different references: 1) the overall socioeconomic position; 2) the socioeconomic situation of the participant’s closer community; 3) the workplace as a whole. A total of 245 of the ELSA participants from six states were involved. They were interviewed twice by the same person within an interval of seven to fourteen days. The reliability of the scale was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Kappa values were 0.62(0.58 to 0.64) for the society ladder; 0.58(0.56 to 0.61) for the community-related ladder; and 0.67(0.66 to 0.72) for the work-related ladder. The ICC ranged from 0.75 for the work ladder to 0.64 for the community ladder. These values differed slightly according to the participants’ age, sex and education category. Conclusion The three ladders showed good stability in the test-retest, except the community ladder that showed moderate stability. Because the social structure in Brazil is rapidly changing, future qualitative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and understand the construct underlying the MacArthur Scale in the country. PMID:23253581

  9. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight.Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient.MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories.This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category.

  10. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  11. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  12. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos

  13. Night work is associated with glycemic levels and anthropometric alterations preceding diabetes: Baseline results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lucia; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-01-01

    Night work has been suggested as a risk factor for diabetes. Individuals with high triglyceride levels, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have a greater chance of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze glycemic levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and the anthropometric alterations that precede diabetes, considering their possible association with nigh work among a non-diabetic population. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprises of 15,105 civil servants (35-74 years old) at baseline (2008-2010). The following parameters were analyzed: serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides and glucose drawn from 12-hour fasting blood sample, glycated hemoglobin and 2-hour plasma glucose obtained after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, hip and waist measurements using standard equipment and techniques. Participants with diabetes, retired workers and day workers with previous experience of night work were excluded. Generalized linear models, a gamma regression model with an identity link function, were performed to test the association of night work with metabolic and anthropometric variables. The study sample consisted of 3918 men and 4935 women; 305 (7.8%) and 379 (7.7%) of the participants were men and women who worked at night, respectively. Among the men, the exposure to night work was associated with an increase in BMI (b-value = 0.542; p = 0.032) and waist circumference (b-value = 1.66; p = 0.014). For women, increased fasting plasma glucose (b-value = 2.278; p < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (b-value = 0.099, p < 0.001) and 2 hour plasma glucose (b-value = 5.479, p = 0.001) were associated with night work after adjustments. No significant associations between night work and triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol levels or waist-hip ratio were found. The influences of night work on metabolic and anthropometric factors

  14. Night work is associated with glycemic levels and anthropometric alterations preceding diabetes: Baseline results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lucia; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-01-01

    Night work has been suggested as a risk factor for diabetes. Individuals with high triglyceride levels, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, have a greater chance of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze glycemic levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and the anthropometric alterations that precede diabetes, considering their possible association with nigh work among a non-diabetic population. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprises of 15,105 civil servants (35-74 years old) at baseline (2008-2010). The following parameters were analyzed: serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides and glucose drawn from 12-hour fasting blood sample, glycated hemoglobin and 2-hour plasma glucose obtained after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, hip and waist measurements using standard equipment and techniques. Participants with diabetes, retired workers and day workers with previous experience of night work were excluded. Generalized linear models, a gamma regression model with an identity link function, were performed to test the association of night work with metabolic and anthropometric variables. The study sample consisted of 3918 men and 4935 women; 305 (7.8%) and 379 (7.7%) of the participants were men and women who worked at night, respectively. Among the men, the exposure to night work was associated with an increase in BMI (b-value = 0.542; p = 0.032) and waist circumference (b-value = 1.66; p = 0.014). For women, increased fasting plasma glucose (b-value = 2.278; p < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (b-value = 0.099, p < 0.001) and 2 hour plasma glucose (b-value = 5.479, p = 0.001) were associated with night work after adjustments. No significant associations between night work and triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol levels or waist-hip ratio were found. The influences of night work on metabolic and anthropometric factors

  15. Estudo e aplicação do código de desembaraçamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    O código KOREL é uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinação simultânea de parâmetros orbitais espectroscópicos para o desembaraço de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com até cinco componentes. Estudos já realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitações, aplicabilidade e eficiência do código para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuação dos estudos para sistemas com três componentes (sistemas hierárquicos), utilizando espectros sintéticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em órbitas cujos parâmetros são conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o código reproduz os parâmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situações físicas. É apresentado, ainda, uma discussão da aplicabilidade do código em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertação de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes estão, provavelmente, ainda na fase pré-sequência principal.

  16. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the "Americano do Brasil" layered intrusion, central Brazil, and its Ni-Cu sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Silva, Jonas Mota; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Bühn, Bernhard; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2011-01-01

    The "Americano do Brasil" Complex (ABC) is part of a cluster of coeval synorogenic mafic-ultramafic intrusions emplaced during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogenic Cycle in Brazil. The medium-sized ABC consists of interlayered dunite, peridotite, websterite, and gabbronorite. High Fo values of olivine (up to Fo88) and the crystallization sequence of the ABC (Ol + Chr ≥ Ol + Opx + Chr ≥ Cpx + Opx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx + Ilm + Mag) suggest crystallization from tholeiitic high-MgO parental magmas. Light rare earth element (REE)-enriched mantle-normalized REE profiles and ɛNd(T) values of +2.4 for cumulate rocks from the ABC suggest a depleted mantle source for the parental magma. The ABC Ni-Cu sulfide deposit (3.1 Mt at 1.12 wt.% Ni and 1.02 wt.% Cu) consists of three distinctively different orebodies (S1, S2, and G2). The S2 orebody, an unusual occurrence of stratiform massive sulfide hosted by dunite and peridotite in the interior of a layered intrusion, results from sulfides accumulated at the transient base of the magma chamber following a new influx of parental magma. The G2 orebody has an irregular and roughly cylindrical shape, consisting mainly of net-textured sulfides. The G2 orebody is hosted by peridotite and pyroxenite and located stratigraphically below the S1 orebody. S2 and G2 orebodies are characterized by low Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly below 0.4). The S1 orebody, hosted by websterite and gabbronorite in the more fractionated sequence of the ABC, is a cluster of several irregular discontinuous orebodies of Ni-Cu disseminated sulfides. The sulfides of the S1 orebody have high Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly between 0.5 and 0.8) and are highly depleted in PGE. The S1 orebody is interpreted to result from a later event of sulfide segregation in the magma chamber, possibly following the event that originated the G2 orebody. The bulk of δ34S values for sulfides of the ABC orebodies and their host rocks fall in the range of 0 ± 2‰. Higher

  17. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  18. Negative life events and migraine: a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress is a typical migraine trigger. However, the impact of negative life events on migraine activity is poorly studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between negative life events and migraine using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study conducted in six Brazilian cities. Baseline assessment included validated questionnaires for headache classification and the occurrence of five pre-specified negative life events (financial hardship, hospitalization other than for childbirth, death of a close relative, robbery and end of a love relationship), focusing on a 12-month period before evaluation. We built crude and adjusted logistic regression models to study the association between the occurrences of negative life events and migraine diagnosis and activity. Results We included 4,409 individuals with migraine and 4,457 participants without headache (reference). After adjustment for age, sex, race, income and educational level, we found that the occurrence of a negative life event (Odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.19 – 1.45) was associated with migraine. However, after stratifying with subgroup analyses, only financial hardship (Odds ratio = 1.65; 95% confidence interval = 1.47 – 1.87) and hospitalization (Odds ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.25 – 1.72) were independently associated with migraine. Further adjustment for a current major depression episode and report of religious activity did not significantly change the results. Considering migraine frequency as (a) less than once per month, (b) once per month to once per week, or (c) more than once per week, financial hardship and hospitalization remained significantly associated with migraine in all episode frequency strata, with higher odds ratios for higher frequencies in adjusted models. We also observed a significant

  19. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  20. Academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Project in Santa Catarina: the ethical-political viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Gripa, Denis William; Prospero, Elisete Navas Sanches; Ros, Marco Aurélio da

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify the fundamentals that drive the academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) project in Santa Catarina, based on the unit of analysis entitled values achieved. It is an exploratory and comprehensive study carried out in 2015, with tutors of the State of Santa Catarina, decentralized reference professionals of the Education and Health Ministries, and key reference professionals of the Education Ministry. Focus groups were used as the instrument for collection of data, through semi-structured interview. Based on the category Emergency care as a force of innovation in the Mais Médicos Program, the analysis was conducted from an ethical-political approach. Three fundamentals emerged: 'Putting out fires', 'Qualification of the Project', and 'the procedural point of view'. It was concluded that academic tutorship of the productive activities of doctors in emergency care is not an isolated pedagogical approach, since it is a part and a consequence of the historic development of the theory and of the practice. The activity corresponds, dialectically, to movements of rupture, resistance, emancipation and also requires collective reflection about the values chosen and achieved in the acts of decision. PMID:27653064

  1. Participation of small municipalities in the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Program in the macro-region of Northern Paraná.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas; Mattos, Luis Fernando Abucarub de; Oliveira, Emmeline Bernardes Duarte de; Domingos, Carolina Milena; Okamura, Carlos Takeo; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Doctor shortage is a constant problem in smaller cities and towns, which tend to be more vulnerable from a social and economic point of view, and located in geographically isolated areas. The goal of this study was to establish the share and characteristics of the small cities and towns in the macro-region of northern Paraná that subscribed to the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) program. This is a quantitative study of 82 cities and towns using primary and secondary data. Results show that only a few of them (6.1%) had any adherence criteria, which was not an impediment for other cities and towns (75%) to adhere to the project. Cities and towns with over five thousand inhabitants, lower municipal HDI (Human Development Index), some adherence criteria and more geographically isolated, either from the main city in the region or the closest large or mid-sized city, tended to adhere to the PMMB. It is undeniable that the PMMB significantly reduced the uneven distribution of doctors in Brazil and the study region. However, the sustainability of this policy is linked to addressing other remaining challenges in the SUS system.

  2. Academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Project in Santa Catarina: the ethical-political viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Gripa, Denis William; Prospero, Elisete Navas Sanches; Ros, Marco Aurélio da

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify the fundamentals that drive the academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) project in Santa Catarina, based on the unit of analysis entitled values achieved. It is an exploratory and comprehensive study carried out in 2015, with tutors of the State of Santa Catarina, decentralized reference professionals of the Education and Health Ministries, and key reference professionals of the Education Ministry. Focus groups were used as the instrument for collection of data, through semi-structured interview. Based on the category Emergency care as a force of innovation in the Mais Médicos Program, the analysis was conducted from an ethical-political approach. Three fundamentals emerged: 'Putting out fires', 'Qualification of the Project', and 'the procedural point of view'. It was concluded that academic tutorship of the productive activities of doctors in emergency care is not an isolated pedagogical approach, since it is a part and a consequence of the historic development of the theory and of the practice. The activity corresponds, dialectically, to movements of rupture, resistance, emancipation and also requires collective reflection about the values chosen and achieved in the acts of decision.

  3. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men.

  4. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  5. Participation of small municipalities in the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Program in the macro-region of Northern Paraná.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas; Mattos, Luis Fernando Abucarub de; Oliveira, Emmeline Bernardes Duarte de; Domingos, Carolina Milena; Okamura, Carlos Takeo; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Doctor shortage is a constant problem in smaller cities and towns, which tend to be more vulnerable from a social and economic point of view, and located in geographically isolated areas. The goal of this study was to establish the share and characteristics of the small cities and towns in the macro-region of northern Paraná that subscribed to the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) program. This is a quantitative study of 82 cities and towns using primary and secondary data. Results show that only a few of them (6.1%) had any adherence criteria, which was not an impediment for other cities and towns (75%) to adhere to the project. Cities and towns with over five thousand inhabitants, lower municipal HDI (Human Development Index), some adherence criteria and more geographically isolated, either from the main city in the region or the closest large or mid-sized city, tended to adhere to the PMMB. It is undeniable that the PMMB significantly reduced the uneven distribution of doctors in Brazil and the study region. However, the sustainability of this policy is linked to addressing other remaining challenges in the SUS system. PMID:27653075

  6. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men. PMID:25972396

  7. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  8. Controls on the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin -A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brasil flux network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Saleska, S. R.; Da Rocha, H. R.

    2009-04-01

    The Amazon Basin is categorized as a terrestrial biogeochemical "hotspot" where climate change and deforestation can trigger substantial changes on atmospheric CO. However, model skill at predicting seasonality of photosynthetic metabolism and ecosystem productivity in the Amazon is limited. To enhance our understanding of these processes, we investigated the seasonal and spatial patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia' project. We present the results of a simple model of leaf-flush for two central Amazon BrasilFlux sites, based on the eddy covariance estimates of canopy photosynthetic capacity (Pc) and measured canopy structure parameters. We found that in contrast to studies of Amazon evapotranspiration, which is highly correlated with available energy, Amazon ecosystem photosynthetic flux surprisingly showed no simple relationship with measures of available energy. We hypothesize that the seasonality of Amazon photosynthesis is controlled by the interaction of adaptive mechanisms (which biologically determine photosynthetic capacity through leaf flush and litter fall seasonality) and sunlight availability (which determines the fraction of photosynthetic capacity utilized). Equatorial climates advantage vegetation that can grow leaves in the dry season, when surface solar radiation peaks, but southerly sites may not because of reduced seasonality in surface radiation.

  9. Acute suicidal ideation in middle-aged adults from Brazil. Results from the baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Brunoni, André R; Nunes, Maria A; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-02-28

    Suicidal ideation represents an important burden worldwide. However, little is known about it in low-/middle-income countries. We investigated this issue in a large cross-sectional of Brazilian civil servants (ELSA-Brasil, the Brazilian Health Longitudinal Study, n=15,105). Logistic univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the strength of association (odds ratio, OR) between clinical and sociodemographic variables with acute life-weariness (tiredness of life) and suicidal thoughts. The presence of major depressive disorder (MDD), common mental disorders (CMDs), stressful life-events (SLEs) and poor self-perceived physical health was also collected. MDD and CMDs were strongly associated with suicidal ideation in univariate and multivariate analyses. For life-weariness thoughts, a modest, consistent association was found for female gender, being single, non-White ethnicity and poor education. SLEs and poor self-perceived physical health were also associated with suicidal ideation. Espiritism-Kardecism, but not other religions or Atheism/Agnosticism, was associated with lower rates of life-weariness and suicidal thoughts. To conclude, suicidal ideation does not differ in Brazil compared to developed countries, being primarily associated with psychiatric disorders and, to a lesser but significant extent, to social disadvantage, SLEs, poor self-perceived health and being single.

  10. Relations of Digital Vascular Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Arterial Stiffness: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil) Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Luisa C. C.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ribeiro, Antonio L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction is an early expression of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates basal pulse amplitude (BPA), endothelial function (PAT ratio), and wave reflection (PAT‐AIx) in the digital microvessels. In Brazilian adults, we investigated the correlations of PAT responses to CV risk factors and to carotid‐femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness. Methods and Results In a cross‐sectional study, 1535 participants of the ELSA‐Brasil cohort underwent PAT testing (52±9 years; 44% women). In multivariable analyses, more‐impaired BPA and PAT ratios were associated with male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein. Higher age and triglycerides were related to higher BPA, whereas lower systolic blood pressure, hypertension (HTN) treatment, and prevalent CV disease (CVD) were associated with lower PAT ratio. PAT‐AIx correlated positively with female sex, advancing age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and smoking and inversely to heart rate, height, BMI, and prevalent CVD. Black race was associated with lower BPA, higher PAT ratio, and PAT‐AIx. Microvessel vasodilator function was not associated with PWV. Higher PAT‐AIx was modestly correlated to higher PWV and PAT ratio and inversely correlated to BPA. Conclusion Metabolic risk factors are related to impaired microvessel vasodilator function in Brazil. However, in contrast to studies from the United States, black race was not associated with an impaired microvessel vasodilator response, implying that vascular function may vary by race across populations. PAT‐AIx relates to HTN, may be a valid measure of wave reflection, and provides distinct information from arterial stiffness. PMID:25510401

  11. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  12. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, R.D.; de Figueiredo, R.C.; Aquino, E.M.; Lotufo, P.A.; Bensenor, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine. PMID:26108100

  13. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  14. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  15. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides

  16. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  17. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  18. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  19. How brasil grows motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, V.; Trindade, S.C.; Branco, J.R.C.

    1981-03-01

    The general background in technical, economic, and political terms is discussed, along with the experience of using alcohol in automobiles. Since 1973 a concerted effort has been made to utilize various crops for the production of alcohol. The disposal of stillage is considered. 10 refs.

  20. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  1. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 at baseline (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (N = 721) included self-reported angina pectoris (n = 305), myocardial infarction (n = 259) and coronary revascularization (n = 239). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: Major findings indicate that comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders (n = 434) are associated with a threefold increase in CHD, MDD alone (n = 170) with a twofold increase in CHD, while generalized anxiety disorder alone (n = 1,394) and mixed anxiety and depression disorder (n = 1,844) – symptoms present, but diagnostic threshold not reached – are associated with a 1.5-fold increase in CHD, after full adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: The association with CHD is greatest in those with psychiatric comorbidity, while associations were also observed in MDD and generalized anxiety disorder without comorbidity. While findings are limited by the cross-sectional design of the study, given the known risks associated with comorbidity of the mood and anxiety disorders with CHD, findings reinforce the importance of comprehensive health assessment in Brazil. PMID:25762963

  2. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and C-Reactive Protein: Mediating Role of Health-Risk Behaviors and Metabolic Alterations. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Camelo, Lidyane V.; Giatti, Luana; Neves, Jorge Alexandre Barbosa; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Kawachi, Ichiro; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been postulated to be one mediating mechanism explaining the association between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to examine the association between life course SEP and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adulthood, and to evaluate the extent to which health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations mediate this association. Additionally, we explored the possible modifying influence of gender. Methods and Findings Our analytical sample comprised 13,371 participants from ELSA-Brasil baseline, a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. SEP during childhood, young adulthood, and adulthood were considered. The potential mediators between life course SEP and CRP included clusters of health-risk behaviors (smoking, low leisure time physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption), and metabolic alterations (obesity, hypertension, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes). Linear regression models were performed and structural equation modeling was used to evaluate mediation. Although lower childhood SEP was associated with higher levels of CRP in adult life, this association was not independent of adulthood SEP. However, CRP increased linearly with increasing number of unfavorable social circumstances during the life course (p trend <0.001). The metabolic alterations were the most important mediator between cumulative SEP and CRP. This mediation path accounted for 49.5% of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP among women, but only 20.2% among men. In consequence, the portion of the total effect of cumulative SEP on CRP that was mediated by risk behaviors and metabolic alterations was higher among women (55.4%) than among men (36.8%). Conclusions Cumulative SEP across life span was associated with elevated systemic inflammation in adulthood. Although health-risk behaviors and metabolic alterations were important mediators of this association, a sizable fraction of this

  3. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  4. Future of alcohol fuels programs in Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. V., Jr.; Rechtschaffen, E.; Goldstein, L., Jr.

    An updating is given of the Brazilian National Alcohol Program's production and utilization achievements to date in the substitution of ethanol and methanol for imported oil products. A series of Eucalyptus forestry and processing-industry projections are made for fuel output and jobs creation that may be expected by the year 2000. With few exceptions, methanol produced from wood grown on poorer soils than can now be used for sugarcane substitute for oil products and result in jobs creation several orders of magnitude higher than petroleum fuels.

  5. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  6. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde

  7. Projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation with blocking effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, H.; Krmpotić, F.

    1982-05-01

    The blocking effect is introduced through a canonical transformation in the projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is suggested that the blocking effect may play an important role in the description of the low-lying states in odd-mass nuclei. Present address: Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Member of Carrera de Investigador Científico, CONICET, Argentina. Sponsored by Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Brasil.

  8. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  9. The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V.; Benjamim, E. A.; Arazi, A.; Assuncao, M.

    2009-06-03

    The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

  10. Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes

    This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate teachers. The…

  11. Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (Φ) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and Φ are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

  12. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  13. Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

  14. Dangerous Fog Analyses and Forecast in the Maceio Airport, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N.; Silva, A.; Levit, V.; Santos, E.

    2010-07-01

    A small airplane fatal accident has occurred near Maceio Airport, on the coastal region on 26 July 2007. Low visibility in the intensive fog has provoked this accident. Weather forecast analysis, published in the local and central Brazilian newspapers during 2007, showed fog forecast absence during whole year. A study of the fog formation causes was elaborated using the high and low resolution satellite data, radar data, different products of NCEP reanalysis data and high resolution regional MM5 model simulation. The trade winds with a weak cyclonic curvature at the low levels have generated the humidity convergence at the superficial layers up to 850hPa on the coastal region. An anticyclonic circulation existence at the middle and higher levels and weak ascendant motion (by NCEP data) have support a weak convection development. The low levels clouds development on the continental region and convection development over ocean were confirmed by the radar and satellite data. A thermal inversion near surface level (up to 150m) and descendent movement at the middle and high levels were identified by MM5 model. Fog formation was simulated by PAFOG model. The conventional airport observations have shown the minimal visibility of 200m between 4 and 7a.m. Moreover visibility less than 1000m between 1 and 8a.m. with the minimal visibility of 213m was simulated by PAFOG model.

  15. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su

  16. Work-family conflict and time use: psychometric assessment of an instrument in ELSA-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Karina Araujo; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lima, Keury Thaisana Rodrigues Dos Santos; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the items to measure the work-family conflict and the time use for personal care and leisure, included in the baseline questionnaire of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil). We evaluated temporal stability (7-14 days) using kappa statistic and the validity of the construct by the correlation of Kendall's tau with other variables. Test-retest stability was discreet to moderate and the correlations were compatible with the underlying theory. Future studies in the context of ELSA-Brazil and in other populations will complement the assessment of its relevance. RESUMO Neste estudo, avaliamos as propriedades psicométricas dos itens para mensurar o conflito trabalho-família e o uso do tempo para cuidado pessoal e lazer, incluídos no questionário da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foram avaliadas a estabilidade temporal (7-14 dias) utilizando estatística kappa e a validade do construto pela correlação tau de Kendall com outras variáveis. A estabilidade teste-reteste foi discreta a moderada e as correlações, compatíveis com a teoria subjacente. Estudos futuros no contexto do ELSA-Brasil e em outras populações complementarão a avaliação da sua pertinência.

  17. Work-family conflict and time use: psychometric assessment of an instrument in ELSA-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Karina Araujo; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lima, Keury Thaisana Rodrigues Dos Santos; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the items to measure the work-family conflict and the time use for personal care and leisure, included in the baseline questionnaire of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil). We evaluated temporal stability (7-14 days) using kappa statistic and the validity of the construct by the correlation of Kendall's tau with other variables. Test-retest stability was discreet to moderate and the correlations were compatible with the underlying theory. Future studies in the context of ELSA-Brazil and in other populations will complement the assessment of its relevance. RESUMO Neste estudo, avaliamos as propriedades psicométricas dos itens para mensurar o conflito trabalho-família e o uso do tempo para cuidado pessoal e lazer, incluídos no questionário da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foram avaliadas a estabilidade temporal (7-14 dias) utilizando estatística kappa e a validade do construto pela correlação tau de Kendall com outras variáveis. A estabilidade teste-reteste foi discreta a moderada e as correlações, compatíveis com a teoria subjacente. Estudos futuros no contexto do ELSA-Brasil e em outras populações complementarão a avaliação da sua pertinência. PMID:27384968

  18. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A

  19. Providing Meaningful Learning for Students of the Sixth Grade of Middle School: a Study on the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Propiciando Aprendizagem Significativa Para Alunos do Sexto Ano do Ensino Fundamental: um Estudo sobre as Fases da Lua.) Propiciando el Aprendizaje Significativo Para Alumnos del Sexto Nivel de la Educación General Básica: un Estudio sobre Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Heineck, Renato

    2012-07-01

    We relate in this article a didactic experience studying the moon phases with a group of middle school students of a private school of the municipality of Passo Fundo, RS. Based on David Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory, we have sought to develop a proposal following a didactic model which simulates the phases of the Moon, as based on the previous conceptions of the students. The signs of learning were evidenced by means of memory registries of the activity. From the obtained results we believe that the proposal achieved its goals, since the students were able to identify, differentiate and transfer the phenomenon of the moon phases to new contexts. Thus, it is concluded that a methodology focused on a meaningful content for the students is fundamental to the construction and genuine grasping of what is being learned. Neste artigo, relata-se uma experiência didática de estudo das fases da Lua com uma turma do 6° ano do Ensino Fundamental, de uma escola privada do município de Passo Fundo, RS. Tendo como fundamentação teórica a Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa de David Ausubel, buscou-se desenvolver a proposta a partir de um modelo didático que simula as fases da Lua e com base nas concepções prévias dos estudantes. Os indícios da aprendizagem foram constatados através de registros de memórias da atividade. Pelos resultados apresentados, acredita-se que a proposta alcançou seus objetivos, uma vez que os estudantes conseguiram identificar, diferenciar e transferir o fenômeno das fases da Lua para novos contextos. Assim, conclui-se que uma metodologia com enfoque em um conteúdo significativo ao estudante é fundamental para a construção e compreensão genuína do que está sendo aprendido. En este artículo se relata una experiencia didáctica de estudio de las fases de la Luna con una clase de 6º año de la educación general básica de una escuela privada del municipio de Passo Fundo, RS. Teniendo como fundamentación teórica la Teor

  20. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  1. Estudo Multibanda do Conteudo Estelar de Regioes HII do Hemisferio Sul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Carmo Pinheiro, Marcio

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the stellar content of 11 optical/infrared Southern Galactic HII regions with 10h < α(J2000) < -17h and -65° < δ(J2000) < -35°. Nine optical objects with no published or uncertain distances were examined in order to identify their ionising sources and to determine their distances, whereas young stellar objects (YSOs) and main sequence ionising stars were photometrically classified in the two infrared clusters. We carried out optical spectroscopy and UBV photometry of the stellar content of these HII regions and obtained the distance of individual stars by spectroscopic parallax. To avoid using a fixed value for the total-to-selective extinction ratio RV, the reddening AV was determined directly by the colour-difference method. We classified as types O or B 24 out of the 31 stars for which optical spectra were obtained. In particular, we identified two new O stars in RCW 98 and RCW 99. The values for reddening obtained correspond to a mean = 3.44, which is about 10% higher of the mean value found for field stars over all directions of the Galaxy. For the HII regions NGC 3503, NGC 6334, RCW 55, RCW 87, RCW 98 e RCW 99, we obtained more precise distances calculated as the median of the spectroscopic parallaxes obtained for two to six different stars in each nebulae, with an internal dispersion of less than 5%. Among the objects more obscured in the Norma region, we analysed the stellar content of the East part of the large complex of HII regions GAL 331.5-00.1, which contains eight bright extended radio sources. This study comprises the infrared clusters [DBS2003] 156 and [DBS2003] 157, respectively associated to HII regions GAL 331.11-00.51 and GAL 331.31-00.34. In order to isolate the brightest 2MASS sources of their unresolved companions, we carried out JHK photometry with resolution better than 2MASS data. 47 Near-infrared (NIR) sources with Ks-band excess were identified following usual methods. Other 70 YSOs were also identified by using Mid-IR on-line data of the GLIMPSE survey. The search for radial-velocity measurements in the literature and the similarity between the stellar population explored have indicated the two regions as physically associated. With the determination of the spectroscopic parallaxes of four O-type and two B-type stars spread over the both clusters, this hypothesis was verified. The parallaxes of these 6 stars returned very compatible distances ( = 3.30 ± 0.29 kpc). The Near- and Mid-IR counterparts of the IRAS source 16085-5138 was found close to the field of [DBS2003] 157. This source has showed typical colours of a Ultra-compact HII region (UC HII) and spectral index α = 3.6 between 2 and 25 μm, which is typical of YSOs immersed in protostellar envelopes. A lower limit to the bolometric luminosity of the protostar embedded was computed as L = 7.7 × 10^3L⊙ (M = 10 M⊙), which corresponds to a B0 - B1 zero-age star. The cluster [DBS2003] 157 was found to be spread overall ∼4' × 4' region demarcated by a intense shell-like dust emission, where a secondary massive star formation is going on, likely as a result of the interaction between this dust and stellar winds.

  2. Barotrauma em peixes em usinas hidrelétricas: ferramentas para o estudo

    SciTech Connect

    Do Vale Beirao, Bernardo; Castelo Branco Marciano, Natlia; de Souza Dias, Luma; Carvalho Falco, Ricardo; Wander Dias, Edson; Leite Fabrino, Daniela; Barreira Martinez, Carlos; Martins Da Silva, Luiz Gustavo; Walker, Ricardo W.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-09-30

    The main source of electric power generation in Brazil comes from hydropower plants, nevertheless, the installed power is expected to raise 56.8%, reaching a total of 116,000 MW at the year 2020. The increase at the hydroelectric sector will be responsible for a series of fish community impacts. One of the impacts over the fish community is related to fish kills due to downstream passage through turbines or fish entrance at the draft tube from the tailrace. Usually when there is a maneuver and the turbine stops, fish get attracted and enter the draft tube and, just as the downstream passage through a turbine, when the turbine starts, a rapid decompression occurs and can cause barotrauma. When such events happen, according to Boyle’s law (P1V1=P2V2), swim bladder volume expands at the same rate that the pressure decreases, which can lead to the organ’s rupture.

  3. Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

  4. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  5. A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

  6. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  7. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  8. PONSETI BRASIL: A NATIONAL PROGRAM TO ERADICATE NEGLECTED CLUBFOOT - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Monica Paschoal; Pereira, Julio Cesar Rodrigues; Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Lourenco, Alexandre; Tedesco, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Laura Alves; Forlin, Edilson; Volpi, Reinaldo; Violante, Francisco; Brandao, Gilberto; Novaes, Eduardo; Zabeu, Jose Luis Amin; Kim, Jung Ho; Aguiar, Carlos; Merlotti, Maria Henriqueta Renno

    2011-01-01

    Background After hearing about the reproducible and excellent results of the Ponseti method for clubfoot treatment, a group of Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons organized and participated in a standardized national program to teach the Ponseti technique in 21 different cities across Brazil. Methods A total of 21 Ponseti symposiums were organized in a standard fashion from January, 2007 to December, 2008. They consisted of a two-day program with lectures, hands-on cast application, and discussion of local clinical cases presented by orthopaedic surgeons. Thirteen Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons, who had been trained by the University of Iowa or centers recognized by them, taught the method. Financial support for travel was provided by an English charity: La Vida (Vital Investment for Developing Aid in Latin America). The physicians who attended the symposiums answered questionnaires before and after the training. Results About 7% of the 8000 orthopaedic surgeons in Brazil (556 orthopaedic surgeons) were trained. These orthopaedic surgeons stated that they had treated about 4905 babies in the previous year via other methods, including extensive surgery. Seventeen percent of the surgeons did not know about the Ponseti technique at the start of the symposium. Eighty-eight percent reported they felt able to treat children with the Ponseti technique after the symposium. Ninety-four percent of respondents reported that the symposium changed their way of treating clubfoot Conclusions These Ponseti symposiums brought about an exchange of medical information and empowered the participants. This program is a good educational tool which can be used in eradicating neglected clubfoot in Brazil. PMID:22096418

  9. Abandonment and accessibility in railway historical buildings: Central do Brasil and Leopoldina Railstation.

    PubMed

    Brasil, C C G; Costa, A M; Castañon, J A B

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of a study in the city of Juiz de Fora-MG, whose objective is the assessment of areas of train station in relation to the inclusion of people with disabilities and consequently promote the historical and cultural heritage of this city. The railway buildings are important landmarks in the history of the city and its surroundings was formed the first core of urban development. Because this building was of the early nineteenth century, these were not designed to assist people with disabilities, in effect, we observed that the buildings are being underutilized. The difficulty of insertion of incentive policies is therefore not due to the commitment by the majority, making the deployment of new access.

  10. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  11. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  12. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  13. [Socioeconomic and geographic constraints to access mammography in Brasil, 2003-2008].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Evangelina Xavier Gouveia; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Praates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the effect of population characteristics and geographic location of residences and services on the odds of receiving a mammography in 2003 and 2008. Patterns of mammography use were analyzed using data from the Health Supplements of the National Household Sample Survey for women aged over 25, using prevalence ratios, and for women over 40 using multivariate logistic regression, correcting for complex sample design effects. In 2003, 54.6% of women of 50-69 years of age reported having had a mammography, in 2008, 71.5%. The odds are higher for those 50 to 69 years old, and increase with family income, education, being married, having consulted a doctor and having health insurance. Living in a metropolitan area trebles the chance of mammography. Compared to the Northern region, residents in all other regions have greater odds, greater distances decrease the odds. Coverage increased in the age range targeted by national policy, and inequalities due to income and education on access to mammography were reduced but regional convergence was not marked. Increased access seems to relate more to policies of income distribution and social inclusion, and to the availability of the examination in the Unified Health System, than to an increasing number of mammography units.

  14. Does offshore crustal taper control an onshore topographic displacement gradient in SE Brasil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, Tim; Terje Osmundsen, Per; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn

    2015-04-01

    The SE Brasilian Serras da Mantiqueira and do Mar topographic envelopes exhibit coast-parallel displacement gradients typical of linked normal faults in extending terrain. Between southern Curitiba and Cabo Frio, coast-perpendicular profiles show the distance from the maximum escarpment elevation to the likely location of the extended margin's flexural/rheological coupling point (Taper Break, or TB) is inversely correlative to the height of the escarpment. The correlation is similar to previously-published scaling relationships derived from Scandinavian and global datasets. Although Precambrian ductile shear zones guided brittle phase faulting during Mesozoic extension and Cenozoic margin uplift, the primary control governing fault reactivation and source-to-sink evolution of the SE Brasilian rifted margin seems rooted in crustal thinning. We see two lines of interest for petroleum exploration: Preferential reactivation of high angle faults at sharply-tapered margin sectors is expected to guide onshore to offshore sediment routing along margin-parallel corridors, and (should the TB-escarpment correlation be better validated with proposed analyses of high-quality marine geophysical datasets) a partial constraint upon architectural end member interpretations of deep crustal structure may be contemplated.

  15. Ergonomics at Volkswagen Brasil. Multidisciplinary work to equalize health, productivity and quality.

    PubMed

    Filus, Rodrigo; Wruca, Rodrigo; Charleaux, Vanessa; Ortega, Auro; Ferreira, Claudio; Jesus, Leandro; Stramari, Anderson; Neufel, Michel; Maia, Uyara

    2012-01-01

    Following the technological developments and presented to the multidisciplinary processes as automakers, Volkswagen Brazil, represented by its ergonomists, through this paper, shows the importance of ergonomic efficiency of management applied to various levels of life of a product, since its creation to its final implementation on production lines.The preventive work of ergonomists during the processes leading to production of a vehicle is accomplished through assessments on a simulated system called the Digital Factory. Since the initial stages to final product delivery there is a need for a multidisciplinary aligning the concepts of ergonomics, productivity and quality of product. Industrial Engineering, Process Engineering, ergonomists and workers are involved in the analysis made through the Workshop's showing the importance of discussion between the various users of the systems. The processes of series are also equipped with a set of certifications flow of job and planned audits on items that describe processes and applied ergonomics. PMID:22317399

  16. Zooming into the Paraná-Etendeka silicic volcanics, southern Brasil: a physical volcanological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualda, G. A. R.; Gravley, D. M.; Harmon, L. J.; Tramontano, S.; Luchetti, A. C. F.; Nardy, A.

    2015-12-01

    Paraná-Etendeka volcanism led to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean during the early Cretaceous. Most Paraná research has focused on the regional scale geochemistry and geochronology. Complementarily, we have taken a physical volcanological approach to elucidate the styles and locations of silicic eruptions with a focus on extrusive vs. explosive varieties, and an ultimate goal to characterise the crustal magmatic conditions. Through satellite to microscopic observations we can zoom from volcanic edifice and deposit morphologies, remarkably preserved in the Mesozoic landscape, to primary microscopic textures. Lava domes appear in clusters with high relief and are surrounded by lower flat-topped terraces comprised of multiple tabular-shaped packages with conspicuous horizontal jointing. Joint thickness coincides with layering from mm-scale laminations to larger lens-shaped blobs up to 20 cm thick and more than a metre long. These layered deposits appear to be compressed and/or stretched into the finer laminations and grade up into the fatter lens-shaped blobs. In other regions, extensive plateaus dominate the landscape with flat-lying flow packages continuous over 10's of kilometres and possibly further. Rheomorphism is evident in places with sub-parallel joints that grade up into a zone of deformation where curvilinear to overturned joint patterns reflect lateral forcing in a more ductile flow regime. Microscopically the blobs and surrounding matrix are almost indistinguishable except for subtle differences in spherulite textures, zonal alteration and distribution of crystal sizes. Although our research is relatively nascent, our observations suggest eruptions may have ranged from edifice building effusive ones to more explosive ones, albeit possibly relatively low fire fountains feeding hybridised lava/pyroclastic flows. Some of these flows are extensive, tens to possibly hundreds of kilometres long, consistent with high eruption rates of hot magma. These interpretations are consistent with published temperatures as hot as 1050 degrees for these silicic magmas. Preliminary work focusing on glass compositions and coexisting phase assemblages within the blobs reveals that silicic magmas resided in the shallow crust prior to eruption.

  17. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  18. Essentialism and the expression of social stereotypes: a comparative study of Spain, Brasil and England.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcos Emanoel; Alvaro Estramiana, José Luis; Schweiger Gallo, Inge

    2010-11-01

    Over the past few years, one of the most productive directions in the study of the activation and application of stereotypes has been provided by the essentialist concept of categorization. The research presented here studied the impact of two dimensions of essentialist beliefs--naturalism and entitativity-by using data collected from Brazil, Spain and England. The aim was to test whether there was a greater degree of essentialization among the naturalizable categories (sex, age and race) than among the entitative categories (economic condition, religion, political orientation, nationality and social condition). The results not only showed that participants hold more essentialist beliefs with regard to naturalistic categories but also showed the differences in the degree of essentialization across the three cultures. A discussion is conducted on the implications of the present findings, and on the heuristic value of the theoretical model (of the bidimensional nature of essentialism) adopted by this research.

  19. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  20. [Socioeconomic and geographic constraints to access mammography in Brasil, 2003-2008].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Evangelina Xavier Gouveia; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Praates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the effect of population characteristics and geographic location of residences and services on the odds of receiving a mammography in 2003 and 2008. Patterns of mammography use were analyzed using data from the Health Supplements of the National Household Sample Survey for women aged over 25, using prevalence ratios, and for women over 40 using multivariate logistic regression, correcting for complex sample design effects. In 2003, 54.6% of women of 50-69 years of age reported having had a mammography, in 2008, 71.5%. The odds are higher for those 50 to 69 years old, and increase with family income, education, being married, having consulted a doctor and having health insurance. Living in a metropolitan area trebles the chance of mammography. Compared to the Northern region, residents in all other regions have greater odds, greater distances decrease the odds. Coverage increased in the age range targeted by national policy, and inequalities due to income and education on access to mammography were reduced but regional convergence was not marked. Increased access seems to relate more to policies of income distribution and social inclusion, and to the availability of the examination in the Unified Health System, than to an increasing number of mammography units. PMID:21987309

  1. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles: "Resumption and Last Resort" (Joseph Aoun); "Existentials, A-Chains, and Reconstruction" (Norbert Hornstein); "How Long Was the Nineteenth Century" (David Lightfoot); "Formal Features and Parameter Setting: A View From Portuguese Past Participles and Romance Future Tenses" (Lucia Lobata); "Revisiting…

  2. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada (DELTA): Novos Estudos em Gamatica Gerativa, 2001 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics [DELTA]: New Studies in Generative Grammar, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These two issues of volume 17, include the following articles: "The Competing Motivation Model in the Functional Domains of Negation" (M. Angelica Furtado da Cunha); "Discursive Resonance and Politeness in Reading and Writing Practices" (Silvana Serrani Infante); "The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Brazilian Portuguese" (Maria Cecilia…

  3. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e é tal situação que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  4. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  5. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  6. [Preliminary report concerning the histologica patterns of an anthracotic pneumoconiosis observed in the area of Londrina, Brasil (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Coelho, R

    1975-01-01

    The A. presents a preliminary report concerning on the histologic patterns of an anthracotic pneumoconiosis found in necropsies of the "Hospital Universitário da Universidade de Londrina", Paraná, Brazil, and in some cases from the Legal Institute of the same town. The lesions, on its histologic pattern are comparable to those observed in the lung of coal and iron mines workers as described in the consulted literature. The cases studied (plantations workers and dwellers at rural and suburban areas) are proceeding from an essencially agricultural region, without detectable polluition by industry or others known factors. This agricultural zone presents some geophysic peculiarities and dust from the errosive soil, is a constant factor in the local athmosphere. The soil is so called "Terra Roxa" (red soil) and in its physicochemical composition there is a great amount of iron oxides, silica (silt, agril laceous material), aluminium, manganese, organic compounds. In this preliminary report the A. suggests further research for a better knowledge of the composition of the respirable air and if dust exposures are or not responsible for the lung lesions.

  7. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture).

  8. Policies for control and prevention of infections related to healthcare assistance in Brazil: a conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoretical-reflexive study that aims to discuss the development and changes in the quality of healthcare assistance to the patient over the years in Brazil, in light of the policies of control and prevention of Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Aspects of HAI and the process of change in health policy in Brazil, as well as the quality of assistance associated with its control, are approached in relation to policies of patient safety. There are various new theoretical and practical proposals created in Brazil. In spite of the difficulty of measuring patient safety, directed to the prevention and control of HAI, we emphasize that to only create policies and establish norms, guidelines, and indicators is not sufficient. If no structural support or conditions exist for interventions in the practices of healthcare professionals, aiming at results in acceptable levels, the control of HAI will not be achieved. Resumo Trata-se um estudo teórico-reflexivo, que objetiva discutir a evolução e as mudanças na qualidade da assistência ao paciente, ao longo dos anos no Brasil, à luz das políticas de controle e prevenção da Infecção Relacionada à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS). Aspectos sobre IRAS e o processo de mudança nas políticas de saúde no Brasil, bem como a qualidade da assistência associada ao seu controle, são abordados em relação às políticas de segurança do paciente. Há novas e várias propostas teóricas e práticas criadas no Brasil. Apesar da dificuldade de medir a segurança do paciente, direcionada à prevenção e controle das IRAS, enfatiza-se que somente criar políticas, estabelecer normas, diretrizes e indicadores não são suficientes. Se não houver suporte de estrutura e condições para as intervenções nas práticas dos profissionais na assistência prestada ao paciente, visando resultados em níveis aceitáveis, o controle das IRAS não será alcançado.

  9. Policies for control and prevention of infections related to healthcare assistance in Brazil: a conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoretical-reflexive study that aims to discuss the development and changes in the quality of healthcare assistance to the patient over the years in Brazil, in light of the policies of control and prevention of Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Aspects of HAI and the process of change in health policy in Brazil, as well as the quality of assistance associated with its control, are approached in relation to policies of patient safety. There are various new theoretical and practical proposals created in Brazil. In spite of the difficulty of measuring patient safety, directed to the prevention and control of HAI, we emphasize that to only create policies and establish norms, guidelines, and indicators is not sufficient. If no structural support or conditions exist for interventions in the practices of healthcare professionals, aiming at results in acceptable levels, the control of HAI will not be achieved. Resumo Trata-se um estudo teórico-reflexivo, que objetiva discutir a evolução e as mudanças na qualidade da assistência ao paciente, ao longo dos anos no Brasil, à luz das políticas de controle e prevenção da Infecção Relacionada à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS). Aspectos sobre IRAS e o processo de mudança nas políticas de saúde no Brasil, bem como a qualidade da assistência associada ao seu controle, são abordados em relação às políticas de segurança do paciente. Há novas e várias propostas teóricas e práticas criadas no Brasil. Apesar da dificuldade de medir a segurança do paciente, direcionada à prevenção e controle das IRAS, enfatiza-se que somente criar políticas, estabelecer normas, diretrizes e indicadores não são suficientes. Se não houver suporte de estrutura e condições para as intervenções nas práticas dos profissionais na assistência prestada ao paciente, visando resultados em níveis aceitáveis, o controle das IRAS não será alcançado. PMID:27556723

  10. Estudo da Oscilação de Neutrinos Muônicos Usando Dados Atmosféricos e de Acelerador nos Experimentos MINOS e MINOS+

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, Michelle Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    The MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) and MINOS+ experiments were designed to study neutrino oscillations using a muon neutrino beam which is detected in two different locations, in the Near Detector and in the Far Detector. The distance between the detectors allows the beam neutrinos to oscillate to a different flavor. Therefore, a disappearance of the muon neutrinos from the beam is observed in the Far Detector. The Far Detector has a special apparatus which makes possible the selection of atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos. These come from interactions of cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere. Both detectors have a magnetic field, allowing the distiction between neutrinos and antineutrinos interactions. This thesis presents the first combined analysis of data from the MINOS and MINOS+ experiments. We have analyzed the combined neutrino energy spectrum from the complete MINOS beam data and the first, more energetic, MINOS+ beam data. The disappearance of the muon neutrinos was observed and the data has shown to be congruent with the oscillation model. Beyond that, we have measured the atmospheric oscillation parameters of the beam and atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos from MINOS combined with the atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos from MINOS+. Assuming the same oscillation parameters for both neutrinos and antineutrinos, the best fit is obtained for inverted hierarchy and lower octant with Δm2 32 = 2:37 X 10-3 eV2 and sin2 θ 23 = 0:43, and the limits m2 32 = [2,29 - 2,49] 10-3 eV2 (68%) and sin2 θ23 = 0.36 - 0.66 (90%). These results are the most precise measurement of the neutrinos mass splitting using muon neutrino disappearance data only.

  11. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Linguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 1999 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Linguistic Theory and Application, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These issues include the following articles: "Portuguese Philology in Brazil" (Heitor Megale, Cesar Nardelli Cambraia); "Implications of Brazilian Portuguese Data for Current Controversies in Phonetics: Towards Sharpening Articulatory Phonology" (Eleonora Cavalconte Albano); "Morphological Studies in Brazil: Data and Issues" (Margarida Maria de…

  12. Revista de Documentacao de Estudos em Liguistica Teorica e Aplicada, 1998 (Journal of Documentary Studies in Linguistic Theory and Application, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Rajagopalan, Kanavillil, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of three issues of DELTA, comprising its entire output for 1998. DELTA is a journal of theoretical and applied linguistics and covers a wide variety of material related to language, speech, and education. The journal publishes only original research and ideas presented in the form of articles, debates, squibs, overviews,…

  13. A Astronomia no Ensino Superior Brasileiro entre 1808 e 1889

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo S.; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2003-05-01

    Este artigo apresenta os principais eventos ocorridos na história do ensino de astronomia nos cursos superiores que existiram no Brasil desde a chegada da Família Real portuguesa em 1808 até o final do período monárquico. Para compor esse esboço histórico, utilizamos, principalmente, livros didáticos, regulamentos, decretos e leis responsáveis pelas organizações dos conteúdos oferecidos e das carreiras dos responsáveis pela disciplina. Na análise do material empregado, investigamos a presença de concepções filosóficas e científicas, que podem ter norteado os conteúdos disciplinares. Não realizamos nenhuma comparação com o ensino de astronomia em outros países. Concluímos mostrando que o estudo de astronomia, durante o período monárquico, foi mais direcionado para a formação d engenheiros do que astrônomos. Gostaríamos de observar que o presente artigo não tem a pretensão de abordar o assunto de maneira completa e detalhada.

  14. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area.

  15. Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA BRASIL 2015): on the way to innovation - pharmaceutical/analytical technology, regulation and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Needham, Shane; Yates, Nathan; Barrientos, Rafael; Steel, Martin; Lee, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, São Paulo, Brazil, 3-5 August 2015 The 2nd Annual Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis was held on 3-5 August 2015 at Club Transatlântico, São Paulo, Brazil. This annual meeting began in 2014 and was the first industry-led event in Brazil to focus on the specific needs of industry researchers while bringing together technology and regulators. The goal of CPSA is to provide an in-depth review of innovative technology and industry practices through open discussion of industry-related issues and needs. Education and specialized training are the foundation of all CPSA events. As the industry has evolved so has CPSA. The CPSA annual meeting thrived with high quality scientific content, open interaction from industry opinion leaders and a collegial environment.

  16. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  17. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil

    PubMed Central

    d’Azevedo, P.A.; Secchi, C.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Sales, T.; Silva, F.M.; Tranchesi, R.; Pignatari, A.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant. PMID:24031279

  18. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  19. [Quality of life of primary care patients in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brasil: associations with stressful life events and mental health].

    PubMed

    Portugal, Flávia Batista; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Daniel Almeida; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Fortes, Sandra Lúcia Correia Lima

    2016-02-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective construct, which can be negatively associated with factors such as mental disorders and stressful life events (SLEs). This article seeks to identify the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, common mental disorders, symptoms suggestive of depression and anxiety, SLEs with QoL in patients attended in Primary Care (PC). It is a transversal study, conducted with 1,466 patients attended in PC centers in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in 2009 and 2010. Bivariate analysis was performed using the T-test and four multiple linear regressions for each QoL domain. The scores for the physical, psychological, social relations and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. By means of multivariate analysis, associations of the physical domain were found with health problems and discrimination; of the psychological domain with discrimination; of social relations with financial/structural problems; of external causes and health problems; and of the environment with financial/structural problems, external causes and discrimination. Mental health variables, health problems and financial/structural problems were the factors negatively associated with QoL.

  20. Complete genome sequence of Haloferax gibbonsii strain ARA6, a potential producer of polyhydroxyalkanoates and halocins isolated from Araruama, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Leonardo H; D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Vieira, Ricardo P; Clementino, Maysa M; Albano, Rodolpho M

    2015-10-20

    Haloferax gibbonsii strain ARA6 is a haloarchaea isolated from saline saltern samples from Vermelha lake, located in Araruama region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Its genome displays 66,2% G+C content and is composed by one circular chromosome of 2,945,391 bp and four circular plasmids comprising 993,063 bp. This genomic information shows H. gibbonsii's potential for biotechnological applications and can also contribute to assign evolutionary traits in the genus Haloferax. PMID:26299206

  1. A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzilli, Sueli

    2000-01-01

    Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

  2. O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebara, Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

  3. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  4. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area. PMID:25456825

  5. The Archean–Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brasil): Current models and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Martínez Dopico, C.; Aguilar Gil, C.; Moreira, H.; Hippertt, J. P.; Cutts, K.; Alkmim, F. F.; Lana, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is a metallogenic district (Au, Fe, Mn) located at the southernmost end of the São Francisco craton in eastern Brazil. In this region, a supracrustal assemblage composed of Archean greenstone and overlying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks occur in elongated keels bordering domal bodies of Archean gneisses and granites. The tectonomagmatic evolution of the Quadrilàtero Ferrífero began in the Paleoarchean with the formation of continental crust between 3500 and 3200 Ma. Although this crust is today poorly preserved, its existence is attested to by the occurrence of detrital zircon crystals with Paleoarchean age in the supracrustal rocks. Most of the crystalline basement, which is composed of banded gneisses intruded by leucogranitic dikes and weakly foliated granites, formed during three major magmatic events: Rio das Velhas I (2920-2850 Ma), Rio das Velhas II (2800-2760 Ma) and Mamona (2760-2680 Ma). The Rio das Velhas II and Mamona events represent a subduction-collision cycle, probably marking the appearance of a modern-style plate tectonic regime in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Granitic rocks emplaced during the Rio das Velhas I and II events formed by mixing between a magma generated by partial melting of metamafic rocks with an end member derived by recycling gneissic rocks of older continental crust. After deformation and regional metamorphism at ca. 2770 Ma, a change in the composition of the granitic magmas occurred and large volumes of high-K granitoids were generated. The ca. 6000 m-thick Minas Supergroup tracks the opening and closure of a basin during the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, between 2600 and 2000 Ma. The basal sequence involves continental to marine sediments deposited in a passive margin basin and contain as a marker bed the Lake Superior-type Cauê Banded Iron Formation. The overlying sediments of the Sabará Group mark the inversion of the basin during the Rhyacian Minas accretionary orogeny. This orogeny results from the collision between the nuclei of the present-day São Francisco and Congo cratons, generated the fold-and thrust belt structure of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Afterwards, the post- orogenic collapse resulted in the deposition of the Itacolomi Group and in the genesis of the dome-and-keel structure. In this paper, we review current knowledge about the 1500 Ma long-lasting tectonomagmatic and structural evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero identifying the most compelling open questions and future challenges.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Haloferax gibbonsii strain ARA6, a potential producer of polyhydroxyalkanoates and halocins isolated from Araruama, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Leonardo H; D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Vieira, Ricardo P; Clementino, Maysa M; Albano, Rodolpho M

    2015-10-20

    Haloferax gibbonsii strain ARA6 is a haloarchaea isolated from saline saltern samples from Vermelha lake, located in Araruama region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Its genome displays 66,2% G+C content and is composed by one circular chromosome of 2,945,391 bp and four circular plasmids comprising 993,063 bp. This genomic information shows H. gibbonsii's potential for biotechnological applications and can also contribute to assign evolutionary traits in the genus Haloferax.

  7. Simulated Extreme Prepitation Indices over Northeast Brasil in Current Climate and Future Scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wender Santiago Marinho, Marcos; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed extreme precipitation indices, for present and future modeled climates over Northeast of Brazil (NEB), from CORDEX simulations over the domain of Tropical Americas. The period for the model validation was from 1989-2007, using data from the European Center (ECWMF) Reanalysis, ERA-INTERIM, as input to drive the regional model (RAMS 6.0). Reanalysis data were assimilated via both lateral boundaries and the entire domain (a much weaker "central nudging"). Six indices of extreme precipitation were calculated over NEB: the average number of days above 10, 20 and 30 mm in one year (R10, R20, R30), the number of consecutive dry days (CDD), the number of consecutive wet days (CWD) and the maximum rainfall in five consecutive days (RX5). Those indices were compared against two independent databases: MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission). After validation, climate simulations were performed for the present climate (1985-2005) and short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079 to 2099) future climates for two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, nesting RAMS into HadGEM2-ES global model (a participant of CMIP5). Along with the indices, we also calculated Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) to study the behavior of daily precipitation in the present and by the end of the 21st century (2079 to 2099) to assess possible changes under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The regional model is capable of representing relatively well the extreme precipitation indices for current climate, but there is some difficulties in performing a proper validation since the observed databases disagree significantly. Future projections show significant changes in most extreme indices. Rnn generally tend to increase, especially under RCP8.5. More significant changes are projected for the long-term period, under RCP8.5, which shows a pronounced R30 enhancement over northern states. CDD tends to decrease over most of NEB in the short but this trend is reverted toward the end of the century in both scenarios with a significant increase in the duration of the dry season over Northwestern and Eastern NEB (exceeding 50 days over certain areas), whereas projected CWD changes are smaller. Rx5 shows a general increasing trend especially in the long term period,under RCP8.5.

  8. Impact of vinasse application in the C and N in the soils cultivaded with sugarcane in South Brasil, using Isotopic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. M.; Medeiros, G. G.; Adorno, F. C.; Possignolo, N. V.; Moreira, M. Z.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The main anthropogenic sources in the environment are fertilizers, pesticides, biomass burning, vehicle emissions, and disposal of urban and industrial waste. Vinasse is characterized as a residual of sugarcane distillery effluent with high concentrations of potassium and organic matter. The environmental impact caused by its use in the vinasse is modification chemical and physical properties in the soil and water. For this, the isotopic technique can be a powerful tool to understand the biogeochemical cycling of light elements (C and N). Some environmental studies have been conducted involving isotopic characterization of Carbon and Nitrogen in soil. Several soils cultivated with sugarcane of different regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed to perform the isotopic characterization. The study area was selected where soil management is by mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. The area was divided into three parts: control (without cultivation); after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane; after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. Three days after the harvest of sugarcane the vinasse was applied and sampling of soil surface was carried out in two periods of 7 and 30 days after application of vinasse. The isotopic determination in the sample soil and concentration of C and N was by IRMS, Thermo Delta Plus, allowing simultaneous determination of 13C/12C isotope ratios (δ13C) and 15N/14N (δ15N). The results of the C and N concentration in the vinasse applied were average values 2.52% and 0.02% and isotopic values of 13C and 15N were -14.1‰ and 5.2‰. The results for the C concentration of the three areas in two periods showed values around 0.86 to 1.01%. The 13C isotopic values were -16.8 to -15.0‰, demonstrating the predominant cultivation in the region in relation to δ13C values of C4 plant (sugarcane). The results of N analysis were 0.08 to 0.10% and 15N isotope analysis, showing values ranging from 7.9 to 8.5‰. No significant variation in concentration of N and C in three study areas was observed. Considering 13C and 15N isotopic characterization independent of management, there was noted no isotopic fractionation by microbial activity. The results evidenced that the addition of vinasse in the soil did not increase the concentration of C and N does not represent a source of C and N. Furthermore, the isotopic technique can be applied in studies involving biogeochemical cycling, aiming to identify progress or setbacks in the quality of soil and possible impact in ecosystem.

  9. Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA BRASIL 2015): on the way to innovation - pharmaceutical/analytical technology, regulation and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Needham, Shane; Yates, Nathan; Barrientos, Rafael; Steel, Martin; Lee, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, São Paulo, Brazil, 3-5 August 2015 The 2nd Annual Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis was held on 3-5 August 2015 at Club Transatlântico, São Paulo, Brazil. This annual meeting began in 2014 and was the first industry-led event in Brazil to focus on the specific needs of industry researchers while bringing together technology and regulators. The goal of CPSA is to provide an in-depth review of innovative technology and industry practices through open discussion of industry-related issues and needs. Education and specialized training are the foundation of all CPSA events. As the industry has evolved so has CPSA. The CPSA annual meeting thrived with high quality scientific content, open interaction from industry opinion leaders and a collegial environment. PMID:26617112

  10. Magnetic fabric and emplacement mechanisms in a co-mingled mafic and felsic magma chamber: the Espinharas granite (Borborema Province, NE Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, G.; Gouveia, F.; Archanjo, C.; Hollanda, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Espinharas granite is a co-mingled mafic and felsic magmatic complex forming part of the widespread Brasiliano plutonism that affected the Borborema Province during the Neoproterozoic. Syenogranite is mixed and mingled with diorite generating a range of aluminous shoshonitic hybrid rocks containing mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of various shapes and orientations. Geochemical modelling shows that the pluton originated by upper-mantle magma underplating and fault-assisted intrusion of diorite, which would supply heat for partial melting of the crust and formation of syenogranite. The Espinharas granite comprises syenogranites and diorites associated with quartz-monzonites, monzodiorites and syenites mainly deformed in the magmatic state. The pluton is emplaced within Paleoproterozoic augen gneisses from the basement and is bounded by high-temperature NE-trending mylonitic shear zones at its western and eastern borders. To the south, the pluton is in contact with the E-trending high-grade transpressional Patos shear zone. Magmatic foliations can be observed throughout the syenogranite and in the felsic rocks, being defined by a SPO of feldspars and quartz. However, they appear to be absent in the diorite. The microgranular enclaves display irregular contacts with the host syenogranite and may be often aligned in agreement with the magmatic foliation; they are also randomly dispersed and disrupted by monzo- to syenogranitic veins. The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique was employed in order to investigate the mechanical relationships between mingled mafic and felsic magmas, as well as their emplacement mechanisms. Susceptibilities are usually high (k > 1.3 mSI), suggesting that Ti-magnetite is the main carrier of the magnetic signal. The magnetic lineation plunges shallowly to NE, parallel to the pluton main elongation axis. Zircons from diorite and syenogranite yield U-Pb (SHRIMP) ages of ~ 620 Ma, which are attributed to the crystallization of the granite and are younger than the main metamorphic event in the Seridó Belt (~ 575 Ma). These data suggest that the magnetic fabric of the Espinharas granite records the high-temperature deformation observed in the Seridó Belt. This deformation was active during a prolonged time range (~ 100 Ma) in a hybrid magmatic chamber emplaced in the middle- to shallow continental crust. These conditions indicate that the Patos shear zone controlled the development of the magmatic- to solid-state fabric of the Espinharas granite, highlighting the contribution of strain partitioning in the mechanical mingling of magmas in the continental crust.

  11. The Archean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brasil): Current models and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Martínez Dopico, C.; Aguilar Gil, C.; Moreira, H.; Hippertt, J. P.; Cutts, K.; Alkmim, F. F.; Lana, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is a metallogenic district (Au, Fe, Mn) located at the southernmost end of the São Francisco craton in eastern Brazil. In this region, a supracrustal assemblage composed of Archean greenstone and overlying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks occur in elongated keels bordering domal bodies of Archean gneisses and granites. The tectonomagmatic evolution of the Quadrilàtero Ferrífero began in the Paleoarchean with the formation of continental crust between 3500 and 3200 Ma. Although this crust is today poorly preserved, its existence is attested to by the occurrence of detrital zircon crystals with Paleoarchean age in the supracrustal rocks. Most of the crystalline basement, which is composed of banded gneisses intruded by leucogranitic dikes and weakly foliated granites, formed during three major magmatic events: Rio das Velhas I (2920-2850 Ma), Rio das Velhas II (2800-2760 Ma) and Mamona (2760-2680 Ma). The Rio das Velhas II and Mamona events represent a subduction-collision cycle, probably marking the appearance of a modern-style plate tectonic regime in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Granitic rocks emplaced during the Rio das Velhas I and II events formed by mixing between a magma generated by partial melting of metamafic rocks with an end member derived by recycling gneissic rocks of older continental crust. After deformation and regional metamorphism at ca. 2770 Ma, a change in the composition of the granitic magmas occurred and large volumes of high-K granitoids were generated. The ca. 6000 m-thick Minas Supergroup tracks the opening and closure of a basin during the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, between 2600 and 2000 Ma. The basal sequence involves continental to marine sediments deposited in a passive margin basin and contain as a marker bed the Lake Superior-type Cauê Banded Iron Formation. The overlying sediments of the Sabará Group mark the inversion of the basin during the Rhyacian Minas accretionary orogeny. This orogeny results from the collision between the nuclei of the present-day São Francisco and Congo cratons, generated the fold-and thrust belt structure of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Afterwards, the post- orogenic collapse resulted in the deposition of the Itacolomi Group and in the genesis of the dome-and-keel structure. In this paper, we review current knowledge about the 1500 Ma long-lasting tectonomagmatic and structural evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero identifying the most compelling open questions and future challenges.

  12. Prevalence and distribution of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in urban and indigenous schoolchildren in Ortigueira, State of Paranà, Brasil: implications for control.

    PubMed

    Scolari, C; Torti, C; Beltrame, A; Matteelli, A; Castelli, F; Gulletta, M; Ribas, M; Morana, S; Urbani, C

    2000-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections represent a major public health problem in poor and developing countries. During the period September-October 1998 we conducted an epidemiological survey of STH infections in schoolchildren of an urban area (group A) and an indigenous reserve (group B), in the Municipality of Ortigueira, State of Paranà, Brazil, to assess potential benefits of mass treatment. Stool samples were examined for helminth eggs by quantitative (Kato-Katz) technique to determine the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infection. Moreover, we examined the relationship between prevalence and intensity of STH infections and housing/hygienic factors (by means of a 7-item questionnaire). 236 schoolchildren aged 5-15 years were enrolled, 136 in group A and 100 in group B. The prevalence of STH infections was significantly higher in group B (93%) than in group A (22%) (P < 0.001). Detected parasites were: A. lumbricoides (16.1% prevalence in group A, 88% in group B, P < 0.001), hookworms (5.8% in group A, 52% in group B, P < 0.001) and T. trichiura (5.1% in group A, 2% in group B, P = 0.2). Heavy infections were detected in 2.9% and 23% of the children in group A and B, respectively (P < 0.001). Housing/hygienic indicators were significantly poorer in group B. A statistically significant correlation was observed between total prevalence of STH infections and prevalence of high-intensity infections with most housing/hygienic variables. On the basis of these results, mass treatment and educational interventions were suggested for the indigenous community, whereas target treatment and educational interventions were suggested for the urban community. Even in a geographically homogeneous area different epidemiological realities can be found, which in turn can influence infection levels and control programmes. PMID:10810031

  13. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

  14. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  15. [Dengue fever in Portuguese speaking countries: which epidemiological links may we set?].

    PubMed

    Silvano, José; Abreu, Cândida

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A ocorrência recente de um conjunto de surtos de dengue em países da lusofonia previamente livres de doença, despertou- nos curiosidade quanto aos fatores concorrentes para o fenómeno e a necessidade de aprofundar conhecimentos quanto à patologia. Revemos a situação relativa à dengue nos países da lusofonia, relacionando os diferentes surtos e procurando contribuir para um melhor conhecimento do fenómeno. Material e Métodos: Revisão da literatura relativa ao tema e informação relevante obtida de comunicações orais. Resultados: Os surtos ocorridos entre os anos de 2009 e 2013 em Cabo Verde, Madeira e Angola (para lá da doença endémica no Brasil) partilham o mesmo vetor Aedes aegypti, mas são devidos a serotipos víricos com diferentes proveniências, como constatado em estudos genotípicos. A forte sub-notificação da doença em África e as dificuldades no diagnóstico e terapêutica são obstáculos ao real conhecimento da situação. Discussão: A hipótese de ligação entre alguns dos surtos não está completamente afastada. Pela elevada mobilidade de pessoas entre estas zonas e pelas alterações climáticas em curso, o território de Portugal expõe-se ao risco de introdução de dengue. A luta principal, a despeito de ferramentas emergentes ainda utópicas, é sem dúvida o controlo vetorial. Conclusão: Não foi possível provar qualquer ligação entre os diferentes surtos, mas é necessária preparação local dos profissionais de saúde, bem como o estabelecimento de estratégias de saúde pública e manutenção de redes de vigilância. Mais estudos epidemiológicos e entomológicos são necessários para caracterizar a verdadeira incidência de doença nos países lusófonos.

  16. Teaching of Astronomy at Teresa Martin College. (Breton Title: Ensino de Astronomia Nas Faculdades Teresa Martin.) Enseñanza de la Astronomia en la Facultad Teresa Martin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2005-12-01

    Courses with exclusive Astronomy contents did not exist at (FATEMA) Teresa Martin College's program until the end of 2002. In 2001, a series of educational experiments started in courses and classes of Astronomy at Mathematics and Geography departments. This actions culminated with the insertion of Teaching of Astronomy as a study theme in the course of Independent Studies for Mathematics professors in 2005. Até o final de 2002 inexistiam na grade curricular das Faculdades Integradas Teresa Martin (FATEMA) cadeiras com conteúdos exclusivos de Astronomia. A partir do ano de 2001 iniciou-se uma série de experiências educacionais através de modelos de cursos e de aulas de Astronomia nos Departamentos de Matemática e de Geografia, o que culminou com a inserção do Ensino de Astronomia como temática da disciplina de Estudos Independentes para o curso de Licenciatura em Matemática, em 2005. Hasta el final de 2002 no había en el currículo dela Facultad TeresaMartín (FATEMA) en San Pablo - SP, Brasil, disciplinas con contenidos exclusivos de Astronomía. A partir del año 2001 comenzó una secuencia de experimentos educacionales de carrera y de clases de Astronomía en los Departamentos de Matemática y Geografía, culminando en la implantación de clases de Enseñanza dela Astronomíaenla Licenciaturaen Matemática, en el año de 2003, y de la cátedra de extensión en Cosmografía parala Licenciaturaen Geografía.

  17. International Outreach in Africa - Complementary Efforts Using Common Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T.; Almeida, W. G.; Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Herrmann, S.; Hoswell, E.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Traore, A.; Spangler, T.; Warner, T.; Weingroff, M.; Ribeiro, N. A.; Soares, E.; Nascimento, A.; Lona, J.; Real, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    For the past few years, the U.S. Unidata Program Center (Unidata, a program in UCAR) and Brazil's Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC, a division of INPE) have collaborated in outreach efforts where free-and-open exchange of hydro-meteorological data and the provision of free analysis/visualization tools are helping to build a hemispheric community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the U.S. university community for over a decade. Unidata-CPTEC efforts have resulted in the creation of the Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil, a data sharing network that has extended access to real-time data to over 15 institutions in South America and most recently countries in West Africa and the African Sahel. UCAR and CPTEC are involved in separate, but philosophically-related and complementary outreach efforts in Africa: UCAR has embarked on an effort, The UCAR Africa Initiative, whose goal is assisting in building sustainable atmospheric-sciences capacity in Africa. CPTEC is collaborating with national weather services in three West African countries, universities in Brazil and Portugal, and one private Portuguese company in SICLIMAD, a project aimed at contributing to sustainable development in West Africa. This presentation will provide an overview of the efforts being undertaken as part of The UCAR Africa Initiative; an overview and update on CPTEC's efforts in SICLIMAD; and explore avenues for greater collaboration on African issues and endeavors.

  18. Estudo da utilizacao da biomassa florestal como fonte de produtos quimicos e energia atraves de processos quimicos e biotechnologicos (Utilization of forest biomass for chemicals and energy by chemical and biotechnological processes). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, I.M.S.S.

    1989-04-01

    The chemical composition and the non-structural carbohydrate composition were determined for 1-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill trees, grown in an experimental plantation with different nutrient and water supplies (C-trees, where no treatment was made and IL-trees, which received a nutrient supply and irrigation). Leaf carbohydrates were determined for the same conditions. Pulping experiments were made using kraft cooks of eucalyptus wood. The results of the pretreatments are complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations. Average wood composition was: ash 1.6%, total extractives 5.2%, Klason lignin 21.0%, soluble lignin 3.1% (% of o.d. weight). The results did not show statistical significant differences between the two growth conditions. The average wood carbohydrate composition was: glucose 2.7%, frutose 4.1% sucrose 1.3% and starch 0.5%. The average carbohydrate composition of leaves was: glucose 1.0%, frutose 1.7%, sucrose 0.1% and starch 4.1%. The average yield for the kraft wood delinification was 49%. The saccharification of pretreated eucalyptus chips with a steam-explosion pretreatment was: For H2SO4 impregnation 26.6% and for H2O impregnation 44.2%.

  19. A spatial approach for the epidemiology of antibiotic use and resistance in community-based studies: the emergence of urban clusters of Escherichia coli quinolone resistance in Sao Paulo, Brasil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Population antimicrobial use may influence resistance emergence. Resistance is an ecological phenomenon due to potential transmissibility. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of ciprofloxacin (CIP) population consumption related to E. coli resistance emergence and dissemination in a major Brazilian city. A total of 4,372 urinary tract infection E. coli cases, with 723 CIP resistant, were identified in 2002 from two outpatient centres. Cases were address geocoded in a digital map. Raw CIP consumption data was transformed into usage density in DDDs by CIP selling points influence zones determination. A stochastic model coupled with a Geographical Information System was applied for relating resistance and usage density and for detecting city areas of high/low resistance risk. Results E. coli CIP resistant cluster emergence was detected and significantly related to usage density at a level of 5 to 9 CIP DDDs. There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. Conclusions There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. The usage density of 5-9 CIP DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants within the same influence zone was the resistance triggering level. This level led to E. coli resistance clustering, proving that individual resistance emergence and dissemination was affected by antimicrobial population consumption. PMID:21356088

  20. Distribution and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus in São Paulo State, Brasil, in leaves of an affected sweet orange tree as determined by PCR.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Diva C; Saillard, Colette; Couture, Carole; Martins, Elaine C; Wulff, Nelson A; Eveillard-Jagoueix, Sandrine; Yamamoto, Pedro T; Ayres, Antonio J; Bové, Joseph M

    2008-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), an insect-transmitted disease of citrus, known for many years in Asia and Africa, has appeared in the state of São Paulo State (SSP), Brazil, in 2004, and the state of Florida, USA, in 2005. HLB endangers the very existence of citrus, as trees infected with the bacterial pathogen, irrevocably decline. In the absence of curative procedures, control of HLB is difficult and only based on prevention. Even though not available in culture, the HLB bacterium could be shown to be Gram-negative and to represent a new candidate genus, Candidatus Liberibacter, in the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Three Candidatus (Ca.) L. species occur: Ca. L. africanus in Africa, Ca. L. asiaticus in Asia, SSP, and Florida, and Ca. L. americanus in SSP. The liberibacters occur exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes. On affected trees, HLB symptoms are often seen on certain branches only, suggesting an uneven distribution of the Liberibacter. Occurrence of Ca. L. americanus, the major HLB agent in SSP, has been examined in 822 leaf samples from an affected sweet orange tree by two conventional PCR techniques and a newly developed real time (RTi) PCR, also used for quantification of the Liberibacter in the leaves. Even though RTi-PCR was able to detect as few as 10 liberibacters per gram of leaf tissue (l/g), no liberibacters could be detected in any of the many leaf samples from a symptomless branch, while in blotchy mottle leaves from symptomatic branches of the same tree, the Liberibacter titer reached values as high as 10(7)l/g. These results demonstrate the uneven distribution of the Liberibacter in HLB-affected trees.

  1. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks (Políticas para la formación de profesores de inglés en el Brasil de hoy: primeras aproximaciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Telma; Ferreira, Aparecida de Jesus; Alves Basso, Rosângela Aparecida; Carvalho Cruvinel, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher…

  2. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  3. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... notice (FR Doc. 2011-15233) published on pages 35893 and 35894 of the issue for Monday June 20, 2011. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil... Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, and Caixa...

  4. 78 FR 66258 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation...--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; email distrib@embraer.com... Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; email...

  5. 76 FR 5298 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos-- SP, CEP: 12227-901--PO Box: 36/2, BRASIL.... Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP, CEP: 12227-901--PO Box: 36/2, BRASIL; telephone: ++55 12...

  6. Conversations with Marcgrave: the Origin of Modern Astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere (Spanish Title: Conversando con Marcgrave: El Origen de la Astronomía Moderna en el Hemisferio Sur) Conversando Com Marcgrave: a Origem da Moderna Astronomia no Hemisfério Sul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Araújo, Fábio

    2005-12-01

    primer observatorio astronómico del hemisferio y autor de las primeras observaciones astronómicas sistemáticas utilizando telescopios de este lado del mundo. Nuestra "conversación" con Marcgrave es imaginada en el marco del Recife antiguo, lugar donde él vivió durante el período de Mauricio de Nassau, y reune algunos colegas profesores apasionados por la enseñanza de la Astronomía. La historia es contada, de esta forma, dentro de un clima ameno y hasta un poco divertido, si bien las informaciones históricas y conceptuales contenidas en ella están basadas en fuentes bibliográficas confiables, debidamente referenciadas al final del texto. Estas fuentes van desde la obra original de este científico, en la cual aparece su relato sobre la observación de un eclipse solar en Recife, pasando por obras clásicas respecto de él mismo, como la del profesor Juliano Moreira, hasta fuentes mucho más recientes como el influyente trabajo del profesor John North. Otros textos importantes referidos al período de la colonización holandesa en el Brasil, tales como las obras clásicas de Charles Boxer, Bouman y Boogaart entre otros, son también utilizados en la construcción de esta dramatización pedagógica que se refiere a un interesante capítulo de la Historia de la Astronomía. O ano de 2004 assinala os 400 anos do nascimento do conde Maurício de Nassau, um importante personagem da história do Brasil. O presente texto está relacionado com o período do domínio holandês em Pernambuco. O artigo tenta resgatar o começo do estudo da Astronomia no hemisfério Sul. Para tal, idealizamos uma dramatização de uma entrevista fictícia com o astrônomo alemão Georg Marcgrave, construtor do primeiro observatório astronômico deste hemisfério e autor das primeiras observações astronômicas sistemáticas com o uso de telescópios neste lado do mundo. Nossa "conversa" com Marcgrave é idealizada no cenário do Recife antigo, local em que ele viveu no período de Maur

  7. Data Democratization - Promoting Real-Time Data Sharing and Use Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T. C.; Almeida, W. G.; Leon, V. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Unidata Program Center (Unidata) of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is actively involved in international collaborations whose goals are the free-and-open sharing of hydro-meteorological data; the distribution of analysis and visualization tools for those data; the establishment of server technologies that provide easy-to-use, programmatic remote-access to a wide variety of datasets, and in the building of a community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. The tools and services provided by Unidata are available to the research and education community free-of-charge. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the US university community for over a decade. A collaboration among Unidata, Brazil's Centro de Previso de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos (CPTEC), the Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP) has resulted in the creation of a Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil. Collaboration between Unidata and the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) seeks to extend IDD data sharing throughout Central America and the Caribbean in an IDD-Caribe. Efforts aimed at creating a data sharing network for researchers on the Antarctic continent have resulted in the establishment of the Antarctic-IDD. Most recently, explorations of data sharing between UCAR and select countries in Africa have begun. Data analysis and visualization capabilities are available through Unidata in a suite of freely-available applications: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GEneral Meteorology PAcKage (GEMPAK); the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV); and University of Wisconsin, Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). Remote data access capabilities are

  8. Astronomy in Science Textbooks: An Analysis of Pnld 2008. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en los Libros de Ciencia: un Análisis del Pnld 2008.) Astronomia Nos Livros Didáticos de Ciências: Uma Análise do Pnld 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Patrícia; Quintanilha Vaz de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The importance of the textbooks in classrooms is revealed when studies are pointing that these pedagogical sources are, most of the times, the only source used by the elementary school teachers when preparing their Science lessons. When we analyzed the Astronomy contents in the textbooks approved by the Brazilian Textbook Program 2008 and which, in theory, are the best available in the Brazilian editorial market, we examined some categories in the 2008 Textbook Guide. This research characterizes the frequency of Astronomical contents appearing in the texts, in the pictures, and in the hands-on activities. Additionally, it describes some misconceptions and presents additional information on the collections. La importancia de los libros de texto en las aulas se pone de manifiesto cuando los estudios indican que este recurso educativo es a menudo la única fuente de consulta utilizada por el profesor de ciencias de la escuela primaria para preparar sus lecciones. Cuando analizamos el contenido presente en los libros de texto de astronomía aprobados por el Programa Nacional de Libros de Texto de 2008 y que, en teoría, son los mejores libros disponibles en el mercado editorial brasileño, buscamos examinar algunas categorías que figuran en los libros de texto de la Guía de Libros Didácticos de 2008. El estudio caracteriza la frecuencia del contenido de Astronomía en el texto, en las figuras, y en las actividades de experimentación. También describe algunos errores conceptuales y presenta un conjunto de información adicional sobre las colecciones. A importância dos livros didáticos nas salas de aula revela-se quando estudos apontam que este recurso pedagógico é, muitas vezes, a única fonte de consulta utilizada pelo professor de Ciências do ensino fundamental para a preparação de suas aulas. Quando analisamos os conteúdos de Astronomia presentes nos livros didáticos aprovados no Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2008 e que, teoricamente, são os

  9. A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus (Teleostei: Blenniidae) from Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Hudson T; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rangel, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Hypleurochilus, endemic to Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, off Brazil, is described. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. differs from its congeners in color pattern and anal-ray counts. A recent study shows a close relationship between H. brasil sp. n. and H. fissicornis. This new species is recorded from 3 to 15 m depth, solitary or in small groups (up to 10 individuals), always in small holes or associated with sea-urchins and sponges on the rocky reefs. Hypleurochilus brasil sp. n. is the eleventh recognized species of Hypleurochilus and the third species of this genus reported from the Brazilian Province. PMID:26240899

  10. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BRAZILIAN NETWORK FOR STUDIES IN REPRODUCTIVE AND PERINATAL HEALTH: THE POWER OF COLLABORATION IN POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMS.

    PubMed

    Cecatti, José G; Silveira, Carla; Souza, Renato T; Fernandes, Karayna G; Surita, Fernanda G

    2015-01-01

    , contribuem para a disseminação do conhecimento e estruturação da pesquisa em saúde. Diversas vantagens são atribuídas ao trabalho em rede como: a inclusão de maior número de participantes nos estudos; gerar evidências mais fortes e com maior representatividade da população (generalização secundária e validade externa); maior facilidade das publicações oriundas dos estudos serem aceitas em periódicos de impacto e abrangência; maior probabilidade de obtenção de verbas para financiamento; maior facilidade na coleta de dados sobre condições raras; inclusão de participantes de diferentes grupos étnicos e culturas, entre outras. No Brasil a Rede Brasileira de Estudos em Saúde Reprodutiva e Perinatal foi criada em 2008 com o objetivo inicial de desenvolver rede nacional de cooperação científica para vigilância da morbidade materna grave. Desde sua formação, cinco estudos foram desenvolvidos, alguns já encerrados e outros em fase de finalização, com outros dois em fase final de implantação. Os resultados das atividades desta Rede têm sido bastante produtivos e impactaram positivamente não apenas no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tocoginecologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, seu centro coordenador, mas também o de outros centros participantes, uma vez que expressivo número de artigos científicos foi publicado, mestrados e doutorados foram defendidos e pós-doutorados finalizados, de alunos de diversas áreas da saúde, de diferentes regiões e de várias instituições de todo o país, com alto impacto social dada a relevância dos temas estudados para o país.

  11. Teaching astronomy mediated by information and communication technologies: a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. H. L.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    O presente trabalho é parte preliminar de um estudo mais amplo em nível de doutorado sobre o ensino de astronomia mediado pelas tecnologias da informação e comunicação, utilizando dispositivos compactos, móveis e pessoais. Este estudo também faz parte do projeto institucional do CEFETMG sobre ambientes diversificados de aprendizagem sob fomento da agência estadual FAPEMIG (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais). Esta apresentação aborda o resultado das concepções prévias de estudantes em relação a conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, ligados à percepção e observação direta do céu. Três turmas de estudantes de 1ª série e uma turma de 3ª série do ensino integrado médio técnico da Educação Básica, Técnica e Tecnológica (EBTT) do CEFETMG Campus II - Belo Horizonte/MG foram submetidas a uma avaliação prévia através de questionário estruturado. Este questionário foi elaborado de forma a abordar a percepção dos estudantes em relação aos recursos gráficos (figuras e desenhos) representativos de conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, comuns em livros didáticos. Após a análise dos resultados desta avaliação, organizou-se uma estratégia de intervenção didática em sala de aula sobre o conteúdo de astronomia, utilizando-se de recursos de mediação baseados nas tecnologias da informação e comunicação. Os temas selecionados para esta estratégia didática foram relacionados aos assuntos básicos de astronomia em que ocorreu maior nível de desconhecimento dos estudantes. Os estudantes foram submetidos a avaliação posterior elaborada com os mesmos pressupostos da avaliação prévia. A análise dos resultados foi realizada a partir dos pressupostos da aprendizagem significativa (Ausubel; Novak e Hanesian, 1983). O ensino de astronomia por mediação das tecnologias da informação e comunicação indica uma alternativa preliminar aos trabalhos de campo usuais orientados na prática escolar, tais

  12. 75 FR 9811 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Campos-SP-BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927- 5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546;...

  13. 76 FR 7511 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will.... Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170--Putim-- 12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852...

  14. 76 FR 2279 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will.... Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170-Putim- 12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos-SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927- 5852...

  15. 77 FR 65050 - Continental Tire North America, LLC, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... November 29, 2010, in the Federal Register (75 FR 73159). No comments were received. To view the petition... March 2009 to October 2009 at Continental's plant located in Cama ari-BA, Brasil. A total...

  16. 75 FR 9814 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 STD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic.... Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170--Putim-- 12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12...

  17. 75 FR 8557 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546;...

  18. 77 FR 24425 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileria de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4) Will.... Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170, S o Jos dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box 36/2, BRASIL; fax ++55 12 3927... dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box 36/2, BRASIL; fax ++55 12 3927- 2619; email...

  19. Educacao Intercultural e a Dificuldade de sua Pratica: Um Estudo da Imagem do Migrante e sua Familia em Livros Didaticos Alemaes. (Intercultural Education and the Difficulty of Its Practice: A Study of the Image of the Migrant and His Family in German Textbooks.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Wivian

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief historical report on pedagogical efforts to improve the integration of migrants and their families into German society. Examines the way in which the migrants' social situation has been dealt with in textbooks, particularly in books on politics, history, geography, and occupational education. (PA)

  20. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su l

  1. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su l

  2. Severe maternal morbidity: a case-control study in Maranhao, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    para morbidade materna grave em São Luís, capital de um dos estados mais pobres do Brasil. Método Estudo caso-controle realizado em duas maternidades públicas de alto risco e duas UTIs de referência aos casos obstétricos entre 01/03/2009 e 28/02/2010. Foram incluídas todas as pacientes internadas por complicação do período grávido-puerperal e que preenchiam os critérios de Waterstone e/ou Mantel para morbidade materna grave. Foram selecionados para cada caso, dois controles por sorteio aleatório dentre as pacientes internadas no mesmo período e mesma maternidade que o caso. As informações de domínio sociodemográfico, clínico, obstétrico, comportamental, exposição a eventos estressores na gestação, assistência ao pré-natal, intercorrências obstétricas e atenção ao parto, foram obtidas por meio de entrevista estruturada. As variáveis foram analisadas por modelo de regressão logística múltipla não condicional, baseado em modelo hierarquizado a priori. Resultados Foram identificados como fatores de risco para morbidade materna grave: idade >35 anos (OR=3,11; IC 95%:1,53-6,31), hipertensão prévia à gestação (OR=2,52; IC 95%:1,09-5,80), antecedente de aborto (OR=1,61; IC 95%:0,97-2,68), ter realizado 4–5 consultas pré-natais (OR=1,78; IC 95%:1,05-3,01) ou 1–3 consultas (OR=1,89; IC 95%:1,03-3,49). Conclusão Os resultados do estudo corroboram a importância da assistência à saúde reprodutiva e o pré-natal completo e qualificado na prevenção de eventos mórbidos graves durante o ciclo grávido-puerperal. PMID:23399443

  3. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  4. Parâmetros biológicos e de habitats físicos para avaliação de bacias no Sudeste do Brasil. Ação Ambiental of a protocol for evaluating land use, physical habitat structure, and fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages in Brazilian river basins”).

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: This article has no abstract, in keeping with the format of the Brazilian journal Ação Ambiental, an applied-science news journal aimed at environmental engineers and managers of water and fisheries resources. Here is a rough synopsis of the article in English: A p...

  5. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    reconocen que una estrella es formada por una masa de gas; varios conocimientos previos parten de aspectos puramente visuales; por otro lado, los estudiantes no tienen el hábito de observar la naturaleza detalladamente, entre otros problemas. Vemos esta investigación como una probable fuente de referencia en la que los profesores de ciencias pueden reconocer la importancia del conocimiento previo, y la forma como interfieren con su práctica de enseñanza, además de la adquisición de recursos para la planificación de sus clases. Com base em leituras de artigos relacionados ao ensino de Astronomia publicados no Brasil, verificou-se a inexistência de investigações sobre o conhecimento prévio de estudantes acerca das características físicas das estrelas, fato que nos motivou a desenvolver a pesquisa apresentada. Os conhecimentos prévios de 125 estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio constituíram os dados do estudo, os quais foram inferidos através da análise das respostas cedidas em questionários impressos (Apêndice A). A partir da análise de conteúdo dessas respostas tornou-se possível realizar algumas inferências como, por exemplo: vários estudantes possuem dificuldade em elaborar um modelo explicativo sobre o funcionamento de uma estrela; são poucos os que dizem que as estrelas possuem certo tempo de existência; alguns alunos as imaginam com pontas; poucos reconhecem que uma estrela é formada por uma massa de gás; vários conhecimentos prévios partem de aspectos meramente visuais; ainda assim, os estudantes não possuem o hábito de observar a natureza mais detalhadamente, entre outras. Vemos essa pesquisa como uma provável fonte de consulta na qual os professores de ciências poderão, além de reconhecer a importância dos conhecimentos prévios para o ensino e como eles interferem em sua prática, adquirir subsídios para o planejamento de suas aulas.

  6. Aphid Species and Population Dynamics Associated with Strawberry.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, D; Araujo, E S; Zawadneak, M A C; Botton, M; Mogor, A F; Garcia, M S

    2013-12-01

    Aphids are among the major pests associated with strawberries in Southern Brasil. In this study, we identified the main species that occur in strawberry fields in the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. We also compared the effectiveness of different sampling methods and studied the population dynamics of aphid species during two strawberry crop cycles in the municipality of Pinhais, state of Paraná, Brasil. Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) and Aphis forbesi Weed were the main species associated with strawberry. The method of hit plant and the Möericke trap showed equal effectiveness to capture wingless and winged insects. The peak population of aphids in the state of Paraná occurred from September to November. This information can help producers to implement strategies to monitor and control the major aphid species that occur in strawberry culture. PMID:27193281

  7. Validity and reliability of the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ).

    PubMed

    d'Almeida, Karina S M; Souza, Gabriela C; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ) evalúa actitudes y comportamientos de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) relacionados con el cumplimiento de la restricción de sodio. Recientemente, ha sido traducido y adaptado culturalmente para uso en Brasil. No obstante, una validación adicional del instrumento se requiere para que pueda ser utilizado en el manejo de pacientes con IC en Brasil. Objetivo: Probar la fiabilidad y validez de la versión brasileña del DSRQ. Métodos: Validez aparente y de contenido fueron evaluados por un grupo de especialistas. Validez de constructo se evaluó mediante análisis factorial exploratoria y confirmatoria. La fiabilidad y consistencia interna del cuestionario fue evaluada mediante el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Resultados: Un total de 206 pacientes ambulatorios con IC fueron evaluados (edad media, 60,4 ± 11,9 años). Los resultados de la validez aparente y de contenido demostró la equivalencia entre la versión brasileña y de la versión original. En el análisis factorial exploratorio, el análisis de componentes principales (PCA) se obtuvieron cuatro factores con valores superiores a 1. Tres modelos fueron probados en el análisis factorial confirmatoria, y el modelo de tres factores resultantes del PCA mostró el mejor ajuste, representando 49% de la varianza. El alfa obtenido para las escalas de actitud/norma subjetiva, control de la conducta percibido y comportamiento dependiente fueron 0,71, 0,67 y 0,79, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que la versión brasileña del DSRQ es un instrumento válido y fiable para medir las actitudes y comportamientos relacionados con una dieta baja en sodio en pacientes brasileños con IC.

  8. STRATEGIES IN SEARCHING HOMOGENEITY IN A FACULTY OF A POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    Cecatti, José G; Fernandes, Karayna G; Souza, Renato T; Silveira, Carla; Surita, Fernanda G

    2015-01-01

    students´ teams. O docente tem importância fundamental no programa de pós-graduação, pois é quem planeja e executa grande parte das tarefas, sendo também o responsável por difundir conhecimentos aos alunos. O professor deve utilizar recursos didáticos que o qualifiquem continuamente, criando condições favoráveis para que o aluno se desenvolva e aprenda da melhor maneira e com mais facilidade. A homogeneidade no grupo de pós-graduação consiste da presença de subgrupos de pesquisa correspondentes às Áreas de Concentração, onde cada subgrupo trabalhe com algumas linhas de pesquisas diversificadas. É desejável que o corpo docente tenha significativa produção científica, de qualidade e distribuída homogeneamente entre os docentes. Estes devem sistematicamente buscar recursos em agências de fomento para pesquisa, tanto para o custeio dos estudos, quanto para a valorização dos pesquisadores envolvidos em todas as atividades. Os programas de pós-graduação precisam investir na formação de seus docentes, os quais devem aprimorar seus conhecimentos em epidemiologia de estudos clínicos, ética em pesquisa e em didática. Duas das características do sistema de pós-graduação no Brasil são a nucleação e a solidariedade, embasadas na capacidade e/ou interesse dos mais estruturados se solidarizarem com os programas iniciantes, cooperando com as suas atividades. A Capes valoriza a inserção social no contexto das atividades dos programas de pós-graduação, prevendo nos critérios de avaliação o reconhecimento de atividades com impacto tecnológico, cultural, educacional e social. Existe um modelo ideal de pós-graduação? Partimos do pressuposto de que não há uma fórmula matemática ou modelo ideal de pós-graduação e sim que cada instituição deve se adequar e buscar aperfeiçoar seu corpo docente e discente.

  9. Découverte d'une mégafaune holocène à la Toca do Serrote do Artur (aire archéologique de São Raimundo Nonato, Piauî, Brésil). A gruta do Serrote do Artur (área arqueológica de São Raimundo Nonato, Piaúi, Brasil): dataçoes holocênicas para megafáuna de mamíferos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Martine; Guérin, Claude; Parenti, Fabio

    1999-09-01

    The cave of Toca do Serrote do Artur (São Raimundo Nonato Archaeological Area, southeastern Piauí, Brazil) has yielded a Mammalian community constituted of Dasypus septemcinctus, Propraopus cf. sulcatus, Hoplophorus euphractus, Glyptodon clavipes, Conepatus sp., Panthera onca, Equus neogaeus, Dicotyles tajacu, Tayassu pecari, Palaeolama major, Mazama guazoubira, Mazama americana and a large Cervid. In comparison with the Mammalian fauna of the other sites from the same area, such a list shows a comparatively reduced biodiversity together with the presence of rare ( Hoplophorus, Conepatus) or unknown ( Propraopus, Palaeolama major) taxa. Explanation lies in the more recent age of the fossiliferous layers, probably Lower Holocene, as demonstrated by two 14C dating of 8 490 ± 120 BP and 6 890 ± 60 BP of the highest one. Moreover, that fauna shows the late survival of some genera ( Propraopus, Hoplophorus, Glyptodon, Equus, Palaeolama) together with climatic modifications related to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  10. Speech-Language Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda; Amato, Cibelle A. H.; Defense-Netrval, Danielle A.; Molini-Avejonas, Daniela R.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has more than 200 million inhabitants living in an area of more than 8.5 million km[superscript 2] (Ministério da Saúde, Brasil, 2013a,b). Granting access to health and educational services for populations in such different environments clearly demands different actions and resources. Official policies regarding rehabilitation services and…

  11. Brazilian National Assessment Data and Educational Policy: An Empirical Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Christine L.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Martelli, Dale R.

    2016-01-01

    In concert with other Latin American countries, Brazil has developed and implemented its own national assessment system for the purpose of monitoring, evaluating and improving their educational system. Prova Brasil is a census-based bi-annual assessment of Portuguese and mathematics achievement of middle school students in Brazil accompanied by…

  12. 75 FR 27403 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135 and -145...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... specified products. That supplemental NPRM was published in the Federal Register on February 23, 2010 (75 FR...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have...--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55...

  13. 76 FR 444 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 63422). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant...: 12227-901--PO Box: 38/2, BRASIL, telephone: ++55 12 3927-5383; fax: ++55 12 3927-2610;...

  14. 76 FR 37244 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Register on June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31332). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3.... Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852...

  15. Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peres, Clovis A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

  16. 76 FR 27237 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on February 10, 2011 (76 FR 7511). That NPRM... ''significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3.... Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852...

  17. 75 FR 34357 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8557). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant..., 2170-- Putim--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12...

  18. 76 FR 55781 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... was published in the Federal Register on January 13, 2011 (76 FR 2279). That NPRM proposed to correct... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3...--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax +55 12 3927-7546; e-mail...

  19. 75 FR 19201 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 260). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or...--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55...

  20. Computational Technique for Teaching Mathematics (CTTM): Visualizing the Polynomial's Resultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2015-01-01

    We find several applications of the Dynamic System Geogebra--DSG related predominantly to the basic mathematical concepts at the context of the learning and teaching in Brasil. However, all these works were developed in the basic level of Mathematics. On the other hand, we discuss and explore, with DSG's help, some applications of the polynomial's…

  1. Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

  2. 75 FR 31332 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55 12 3927-7546;...

  3. Exotic Nuclei in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-08-04

    The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil(RIBRAS) is described. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light rare isotopes such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed and the results are presented.

  4. Photoproduction of charm particles at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Cumalat, John P.

    1997-03-15

    A brief description of the Fermilab Photoproduction Experiment E831 or FOCUS is presented. The experiment concentrates on the reconstruction of charm particles. The FOCUS collaboration has participants from several Central American and Latin American institutions; CINVESTAV and Universidad Autonoma de Puebla from Mexico, University of Puerto Rico from the United States, and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas in Rio de Janeiro from Brasil.

  5. 75 FR 7929 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 LR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 7, 2009 (74 FR 21285). That NPRM proposed... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or...--12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone: +55 12 3927-5852 or +55 12 3309-0732; fax: +55...

  6. 76 FR 66615 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Regulatory Findings We have determined that this AD will not have.... Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February... references and includes Embraer Liebherr Eqiupamentos do Brasil Service Bulletin No. 2392-0850-32-02...

  7. Description of a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) and new records of sand flies from the State of Acre, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Freitas, Rui Alves; De Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; De Araújo, Edicarlos André Cavalcante; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2013-01-25

    Groundbreaking studies of phlebotomine sand fly populations in Assis Brasil, State of Acre, Brazil, resulted in the collection of 13 new records of phlebotomine sand flies and one previously undescribed species. Lutzomyia naiffi sp. nov. is described here. The new species is similar to Lutzomyia columbiana (Ristorcelli & Van Ty) in measurements and other morphological characters.

  8. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; de Medeiros, José Agostinho G.; Marcelino, José R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Mônica G.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  9. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.

    2009-06-03

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  10. Women's health and feminist politics.

    PubMed

    Faure, D

    1994-06-01

    The Sempreviva Organizacao Feminista (SOF) has aimed since 1963 to improve women's health in low-income communities in southeastern Brazil. There is concern for the whole person in all stages of a woman's life, not just the reproductive one commonly addressed in population control programs. SOF has linked gender, health, and poverty and contributed to social movements to improve conditions. SOF's constituency is about 90% women aged 20-40 years, with 2-5 children, and a lack of education. About 70% remain in the home caring for their families, and 25% are employed formally or informally. The women's fertility rates are high and they desire to limit childbearing. Most women are unaware of their own reproductive physiology and had not discussed sex with their parents before marriage. Active membership by 1971 was 7600 members. SOF's present aims are to strengthen the women's movement, to develop feminist approaches to health issues, to implement a women's health program, and to incorporate gender issued into other social movements. The present goals evolved out of the initial program of offering health services and family planning in a suburb of Sao Paulo. After break with their funding agency in 1967, over the refusal to promote female sterilization, they found funding by the World Council of Churches and others, which opened the doors to improvement in the quality of care. Meetings held every 2 years provide a forum for involvement of grassroots groups. The National Feminist Network for Health and Reproductive Rights provides the integrating mechanism for feminist nongovernmental groups and pressures the national government for reforms that will benefit women. SOF is just one of the grassroots organizations that offers collective and innovative experiences and empowerment. Social movements in the south and west of Sao Paulo have become more organized and demanded better public health policy or improvements in sanitation and waste disposal. SOF is currently

  11. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    applications will be presented alongside fundamental measurements and theories. The main scientific areas included: 1 Fundamental physical phenomena Point and extended defects in wide band-gap systems: oxides, fluorides, nitrides, alkali- and silver-halides, perovskites, minerals, ceramics, nano-structures, organic molecular crystals, glasses, high-k and low-k materials, photonic crystals. 2 Defects at surfaces and interfaces Thin films and low-dimensional systems. Colloids, nano-crystals, and aggregates. Defects and material preparation technology. Defects modelling and computational methods. Radiation effects, radiation induced defects, colour centres. Luminescence of excitons, impurities, and defects. Electronic excitations, excited state dynamics, radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Scintillation, energy transfer and storage, carrier trapping phenomena. Non-linear optical phenomena. Laser active centres. Phonons and defects, electron-phonon interactions. Defect diffusion, ionic relaxations, ionic transport. 3 Technological applications Radiologic imaging and detection, scintillators, and dosimeters. Optical devices and photonics, photorefractive electro-optics, optical fibres, lasers. Materials for micro-electronics. Solid electrolytes, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, fast ionic conductors. Conference chairpersons: Mário E G Valerio (Conference Chairman), Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, SE, Brasil Robert A Jackson (Programme Chairman), School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK Conference committees: International Advisory Committee R Capelletti, Italy A V Chadwick, UK J Corish, Ireland J D Comins, South Africa H W den Hartog, The Netherlands K Funke, Germany Robert A Jackson, UK O Kanert, Germany A A Kaplyanskii, Russia A Lushchik, Estonia F Lüty, USA M Moreno, Spain P E Ngoepe, South Africa M Nikl, Czech Republic S V Nistor, Romania Ch Pedrini, France O F Schirmer, Germany J-M Spaeth, Germany A M Stoneham, UK

  12. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The manifestations of arsenic poisoning caused by drinking water].

    PubMed

    Grinspan, D; Biagini, R

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with endemic chronic arsenical intoxication (HACRE) observed in several provinces in Argentina. Similar reports come from Chili, Mexico, Brasil, Bolivia, Peru and Japan. HACRE patients show no systemic, symptoms and specific manifestations are palmoplantar keratoderma, multiple cutaneous epitheliomas, mainly Bowen-type and respiratory or digestive carcinomas. The authors emphasize that these specific manifestations of HACRE are worth knowing for their possible social incidence.

  13. [Humanized support in emergency: a challenge for nursing].

    PubMed

    Dal Pai, Daiane; Lautert, Liana

    2005-01-01

    This experience report describes the humanized support given by the nurse in the attendance to patients in eminently critical health situation in the Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre (Brasil). The proposal was based on Jean Watson theory. The experience gave moments for personal and professional self-knowledge, and thoughts concerning the possibilities of construction of interpersonal humanist process in the emergency environment as well. Yet, it was possible to identify some limitations of the theory options referent to its practical applicability.

  14. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section of {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Moro, A. M.; Arazi, A.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Assuncao, M.

    2010-04-15

    The elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 120}Sn has been measured at four energies above the Coulomb barrier using the {sup 6}He beam produced at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil) facility. The elastic angular distributions have been analyzed with the optical model and three- and four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations. The total reaction cross sections have been derived and compared with other systems of similar masses.

  15. [Circuses and clowns. Experimental contribution to nursing methodology].

    PubMed

    Tognoni, G

    1990-01-01

    The description of a very original experience of health education in a region of Amazonia, Brasil (based on the utilization of techniques of population theater) is the occasion for a reflection on the possibilities and on the opportunity of adopting also for the nursing practice of western countries methodologically innovative approaches, which could allow a caring attention oriented not only to the problem of assistance, but more basically to the cultural components of the needs and expectations of defined populations.

  16. Redescription of the Monotypic Neotropical Genus Crepititermes Emerson (Termitidae: Termitinae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, M M; Cuezzo, C

    2015-10-01

    Based on a reexamination of specimens of Crepititermes Emerson deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil (MZUSP), we characterize the morphology and coiling in situ of the digestive tube of workers of Crepititermes verruculosus Emerson for the first time. We provide additional notes on the imago and soldier and present digital images and illustrations for all castes. We also update the currently known geographical distribution of C. verruculosus, adding some biological remarks.

  17. [Microscopic examination of Guaraná powder--Paullinia cupana Kunth].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    1999-01-01

    Guaraná is a product from the seeds of the Amazonian liana Paullinia cupana that is also cultivated since a couple of years. It is rich in caffeine and serves in Brasil for the production of stimulants, soft drinks, and sweets. In the drug scene it is sometimes trafficked as natural stimulant or drug surrogate. Microscopic examination shows the presence of starch and tannins and provides a simple, quick and cheap method to distinguish guaraná from drugs of abuse.

  18. Surface Radiative Fluxes from GOES-E over the Amazon Basin: Model Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, J. C.; Pinker, R. T.; Pereira, E. B.; Martins, F. R.; Kato, H.; de Miranda, R. M.; Wonsick, M.

    2006-12-01

    In this study reported are results from an algorithm intercomparison initiative aimed at the development of improved estimates of surface radiative fluxes from satellite observations over the Amazon Basin. Three algorithms are used: (UMD-SRB, University of Maryland; GL1.2, INPE, Brazil; and Brasil-SR, INPE and University of Santa Catarina, Brazil). The algorithms are physically based, yet differ in their implementation and the way they address issues specific to this region, such as aerosols from biomass burning. Two fifteen day periods in 2005 were selected representing the rainy and dry seasons. The same satellite observations from GOES E were used by all the models. Ground truth from existing stations in the Amazon as well as from a new solar monitoring network of high quality have been used in evaluation. Using daily mean values for the March rainy season, it was found that: 1) the Brasil-SR and UMD-SRB estimates bear a close resemblance; 2) higher irradiances for Petrolina (semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil) are best described by the UMD-SRB and Brasil-SR, probably due to better assessment of water vapor column and absorption parameterization; 3) the GL1.2 results shows a systematic deviation, underestimating daily mean by about 20 Wm-2, but have lower dispersion than UMD-SRB or Brasil-SR; 4) irradiance interval 180 < E < 250 Wm-2 seems better described by GL1.2. This last behavior may be related to better assessment of cloudiness under partial coverage situations. September is characterized by intensive biomass burning in several Brazilian regions, particularly in the Amazon. The Northeast region is not affected by aerosols and estimates from all three models are in close agreement and have similar characteristics to those of March. For the Amazon sites: 1) lower irradiances (for overcast days) are correctly assessed; 2) UMD-SRB and Brasil-SR overestimate solar radiation, especially for higher irradiances (lower cloudiness); 3) GL1.2 model does not include

  19. [Rediscovery of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the "Restinga" in the Nacional Park Lençóis Maranhenses, Barreirinhas, MA, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rêgo, Márcia; Albuquerque, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 95 years after the original description, a nest of Melipona subnitida Ducke was rediscovered in the state of Maranhão, in a restinga ecosystem of the Barreirinhas municipality, Northeastern Brazil. The voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of the "Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas" of the "Departamento de Biologia UFMA".

  20. Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, João

    2004-04-01

    A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

  1. [Zika virus: a public health overview on epidemiology, clinical practice and prevention].

    PubMed

    D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Ciabattini, Marco; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus mainly transmitted by mosquitoes bites. During the last months, the attention of Public Health Institutions has been drawn by a significant increase of microcephaly cases in Brasil and analyses highlighted a connection between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and fetal microcephaly. Since 2015, many Zika virus outbreaks have been identified in South America and there is concern about the spread of the virus in areas where competent vectors are present. Nowadays, vaccination is not available and prevention is based on individual measures and on vectors control. This review of the most recent studies give an overview on the Zika problem. PMID:27336960

  2. [Zika virus: a public health overview on epidemiology, clinical practice and prevention].

    PubMed

    D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Ciabattini, Marco; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus mainly transmitted by mosquitoes bites. During the last months, the attention of Public Health Institutions has been drawn by a significant increase of microcephaly cases in Brasil and analyses highlighted a connection between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and fetal microcephaly. Since 2015, many Zika virus outbreaks have been identified in South America and there is concern about the spread of the virus in areas where competent vectors are present. Nowadays, vaccination is not available and prevention is based on individual measures and on vectors control. This review of the most recent studies give an overview on the Zika problem.

  3. [Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Tratominae) in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    PubMed

    Salvatella Agrelo, R; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Puime, A

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783). It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M. monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uruguaiana), on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border.

  4. Wheat yield estimation at the farm level using TM Landsat and agrometeorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, B. F. T.; Batista, G. T.

    1991-01-01

    A model for estimating wheat yields on the farm level was developed, that integrates the Landsat TM data and agrometeorological information. Results obtained for a test site in southern Brasil for years of 1986 and 1987 show that the vegetation index derived from Landsat TM could account for the 60 to 40 percent wheat-yield variability observed between the two crop years. Compared to results using either the Landsat TM vegetation index or the agrometeorological data alone, the joint use of both types of data in a single model yielded a significant improvement.

  5. TRANSLATION AND VALIDATION OF THE FOOD NEOPHOBIA SCALE (FNS) TO THE BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro de Andrade Previato, Helena Dória; Herman Behrens, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: La Escala de Neofobia Alimentaria (ENA), desarrollada originalmente en lengua inglesa, ha sido ampliamente utilizada en diferentes estudios para evaluar el deseo individual de probar nuevos alimentos. Sin embargo, es necesario un proceso de traducción y adaptación cultural para permitir su uso en otros países. Objetivo: traducir y validar la ENA en portugués brasileño. Métodos: la escala fue traducida al portugués, de forma independiente, por tres profesores de inglés, siendo traducido al revés al inglés por otros tres profesionales del sector. Se entregaron estas traduciones a una muestra de 40 estudiantes de posgrado de la Universidad de Campinas, São Paulo (Brasil), entre septiembre y octubre de 2014. La reproducibilidad entre los instrumentos se evaluó por medio del coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI). La confiabilidad interna de la escala se evaluó por medio del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. La puntuación total de la ENA varió 10-70 y los individuos fueron clasificados con neofilia alimentaria (≤ 16,4), neutralidad (16,5-38,5) y neofobia alimentaria (≥ 38,6). Resultados: el CCI entre los ítems de la versión original y traducida se situó entre 0,266 y 0,815 (p < 0,05) y la puntuación total de la ENA fue 0,903 (p < 0,001). El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach fue 0,916. La mayoría de los encuestados fueron clasificados como neutrales (72,5%), el otro 10% como neofilia y solo el 17,5% con neofobia alimentaria. Conclusiones: la versión brasileña de la ENA resultó ser una herramienta adecuada y confiable para medir la neofobia alimentaria. No obstante, se necesitan investigaciones futuras para evaluar la presencia de neofobia alimentaria en la población brasileña y para analizar su impacto en la conducta alimentaria.

  6. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Florindez, D T; Morales, E

    2000-03-01

    A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae) originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region. PMID:10743644

  7. V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas da Rocha, J. F.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Wuesnche, C. A.; de Medeiros, J. R., Silva, A. V. R.; Lavouras, D. F.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Vieira Martins, R.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia, a qual ocorreu em 11/05/2002 em todos os estabelecimentos de ensino fundamental ou médio previamente cadastrados. Participaram do evento 60.338 alunos distribuídos por 1469 escolas pertencentes a todos os Estados brasileiros. Uma equipe de 5 alunos foi escolhida para representar o Brasil na VII Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia que ocorreu na Rússia em 2002 e dois de nossos alunos ganharam a medalha de bronze naquele evento.

  8. Comparison of Reference Values in Whole Blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J Mice Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Suzuki, M. F.; Júnior, C. R. B.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2011-08-01

    The Br, Ca, Cl, K, Na and S concentrations in whole blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J mice were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Reference values obtained from twenty one whole blood samples of these strains were analyzed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (São Paulo, Brasil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood as well as to evaluate the performance of treatments in muscular dystrophy.

  9. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species. PMID:26487825

  10. [Pediatric anesthetic during brain immaturity and neurodevelopment disorders].

    PubMed

    Catré, Dora; Lopes, Maria Francelina; Cabrita, António Silvério; Silva Viana, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Diversos estudos experimentais e clínicos sugerem que fármacos usados em anestesia pediátrica podem exercer efeitos indesejáveis sobre o sistema nervoso central imaturo. O objetivo desta revisão consistiu em avaliar os resultados e conclusões de estudos publicados na literatura sobre perturbações persistentes do neurodesenvolvimento após exposição a anestésicos de crianças em fase de imaturidade cerebral. Material e Métodos: Realizámos uma pesquisa bibliográfica em diversas bases de dados (PubMed, SciELO e Cochrane Library), utilizando os termos ‘Pediatric anesthesia OR Pediatric anesthetic OR Developing brain anesthetic OR Developing brain anesthesia AND behavior disorders’ e foram incluídos os estudos em humanos, referentes a efeitos persistentes no neurodesenvolvimento após exposição a anestésicos nos primeiros quatro anos de idade. Resultados: Dez estudos retrospetivos cumpriram os critérios de inclusão. Destes, sete sugerem alteração do neurodesenvolvimento por exposição de criança pequena à anestesia, por oposição aos resultados obtidos pelos restantes três. Discussão: Embora maioritariamente utilizem bases de dados amplas, os estudos encontrados são retrospetivos, variam nos grupos teste, incluem variáveis de confusão por vezes contornáveis e alguns apresentam incorreções na escolha da população teste e controlo que podem comprometer a fiabilidade dos resultados. Conclusão: As numerosas limitações dos poucos estudos clínicos disponíveis fazem com que a informação reportada ainda se considere insuficiente para mudar a prática clínica atual. No entanto, sendo indiscutível que se mantêm as recomendações para providenciar anestesia quando necessária, independentemente da idade, os alertas encontrados na literatura são preocupantes, existindo indicação para que sempre que possível sejam ponderadas alternativas que possam contribuir para diminuir os riscos da exposição anestésica.

  11. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  12. [Toxicological and immunological aspects of scorpion venom (Tytius pachyurus): neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Barona, Jacqueline; Otero, Rafael; Núñez, Vitelbina

    2004-03-01

    The toxicity and immunochemical properties of Tityus pachyurus Pocock scorpion venom was characterized, as well as the neutralization capacity against it by three anti-scorpion antivenoms (Alacramyn, Instituto Bioclón, México; Suero antiescorpiónico, Instituto Butantán, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Suero antiescorpiónico, Centro de Biotecnología, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela). The venom yield, obtained by manual milking, 680+/-20 microg venom, a 50% lethal dose in mice was 4.8 microg/kg (90 microg for an 18-20 g mouse). The most common symptoms of venom poisoning in mice were sialorrhea, respiratory distress, profuse sweating, ataxia, behavior alterations (restlessness, somnolence) and hyperglycemia at 3 and 24 hours after subcutaneous venom injection (0.5 LD50). The neutralizing capacity of Bioclón (México City) and Butantán (Sao Paulo) antivenoms (for a 50% effective dose) was 330 and 292 microg venom/ml antivenom, respectively. The Biotecnología (Caracas) antivenom did not neutralize the lethal effect of venom. By electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was demonstrated that the venom contains proteins from less than 14 kd to 97 kd. The Western blots indicated immunological reactivity of the three antivenoms with most of venom components, including proteins of low molecular mass (<14 kd). The results allow to conclude that T. pachyurus venom is neutralized efficiently by anti-scorpion antivenoms produced in México and Brasil.

  13. Using satellite data to study the relationship between rainfall and diarrheal diseases in a Southwestern Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Paula Andrea Morelli; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; Reis, Vera Lúcia; Costa, Duarte; Brown, Irving Foster

    2016-03-01

    The North region is the second region in Brazil with the highest incidence rate of diarrheal diseases in children under 5 years old. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between rainfall and water level during the rainy season principally with the incidence rate of this disease in a southwestern Amazon basin. Rainfall estimates and the water level were correlated and both of them were correlated with the diarrheal incidence rate. For the Alto Acre region, 2 to 3 days' time-lag is the best interval to observe the impact of the rainfall in the water level (R = 0.35). In the Lower Acre region this time-lag increased (4 days) with a reduction in the correlation value was found. The correlation between rainfall and diarrheal disease was better in the Lower Acre region (Acrelândia, R = 0.7) and rainfall upstream of the city. Between water level and diarrheal disease, the best results were found for the Brasiléia gauging station (Brasiléia, R = 0.3; Epitaciolândia, R = 0.5). This study's results may support planning and financial resources allocation to prioritize actions for local Civil Defense and health care services before, during and after the rainy season.

  14. An update on clinical oncology for the non-oncologist.

    PubMed

    Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTRecent advances in the understanding of tumor driver mutations, signaling pathways that lead to tumor progression, and the better understanding of the interaction between tumor cells and the immune system are revolutionizing cancer treatment. The pace at which new treatments are approved and the prices at which they are set have made it even more difficult to offer these treatments in countries like Brazil. In this review we present for the non-oncologist these new treatments and compare their availability in Brazilian public health system and private health system with that of developed countries.RESUMOAvanços recentes na compreensão de mutações promotoras de desenvolvimento do câncer, sinalização que leva à progressão de tumores, e o avanço no entendimento da interação entre as células tumorais e o sistema imunológico estão revolucionando o tratamento do câncer. A velocidade com que novos tratamentos são aprovados e o alto custo das medicações dificultam a disponibilização de terapêuticas em países como o Brasil. Nesta revisão, apresentamos ao não oncologista esses novos tratamentos e comparamos sua disponibilidade nos sistemas público e privado de saúde no Brasil com os países desenvolvidos. PMID:27462901

  15. Biblioteca Virtual de Salud Enfermería Regional: Trayectoria de Construcción, Fuentes de Información, Estrategias y Próximos Pasos.

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Francisco C. F.; Malvárez, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Resumen La BVS Enfermeria constituye un nuevo paradigma en enfermería una vez que o modelo representa una expansión de la cooperación técnica y ha como objetivos centrales promover la ampliación del acceso la información sobre enfermería la través del acceso universal equitativo y construir un patrimonio informacional en enfermería, ayudando la mejorar la formación y práctica de enfermería a actuar con compromiso ético-social en el área de educación, investigación y atención a la salud. Como resultado del proceso de sensibilización, verifica-se la construcción de Bibliotecas Virtuales de Enfermería en varios países (Brasil, Argentina, Bolívia y Uruguay). La expectativa es que las BVS’s nacionais convergen a un gran portal que se está construyendo en una colaboración con BIREME/OPS/OMS, de la Asesoría Regional de Enfermería de la OPS-Washington y de Ministerio de Salud del Brasil, así como instituciones líderes en la producción del conocimiento en enfermería Iberoamérica. PMID:24199093

  16. Nutritional adequacy in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mesquita de Carvalho, Cláudia; Dias Mendonça, Dayana; Haas Piovesan, Carla; Edler Macagnan, Fabrício; Pandolfo Feoli, Ana Maria

    2014-11-16

    Introducción: La terapia nutricional en el tratamiento del síndrome metabólico es un factor clave. Es importante educar los pacientes sobre los beneficios de seguir el tratamiento cuando se quiere promover cambios nel estilo de vida. Objetivo: El objetivo fue evaluar la adecuación nutricional en individuos con síndrome metabólico de acuerdo con las recomendaciones dietéticas prescritas. Métodos: Un ensayo clínico con 72 sujetos con síndrome metabólico, llevados a cabo en el sur de Brasil. Asesoramiento nutricional se llevó a cabo, asociada o no con el ejercicio físico durante tres meses. Un retiro de alimentos de 24 horas, y un registro de alimentos de dos días fueron los métodos de referencia para el consumo de alimentos. La adecuación nutricional se determinó mediante la ingesta de energía y nutrientes, grupos de alimentos definidos por la Pirámide de Alimentos del Brasil. Results: Los voluntarios alcanzado un promedio del 80% del consumo de energía se recomienda. La ingestión de proteínas y lípidos fue mayor de lo esperado, y la ingesta de hidratos de carbono fue inferior a los niveles recomendados. Hubo una baja ingesta de cereales, verduras, productos lácteos y frijoles (p.

  17. An update on clinical oncology for the non-oncologist.

    PubMed

    Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTRecent advances in the understanding of tumor driver mutations, signaling pathways that lead to tumor progression, and the better understanding of the interaction between tumor cells and the immune system are revolutionizing cancer treatment. The pace at which new treatments are approved and the prices at which they are set have made it even more difficult to offer these treatments in countries like Brazil. In this review we present for the non-oncologist these new treatments and compare their availability in Brazilian public health system and private health system with that of developed countries.RESUMOAvanços recentes na compreensão de mutações promotoras de desenvolvimento do câncer, sinalização que leva à progressão de tumores, e o avanço no entendimento da interação entre as células tumorais e o sistema imunológico estão revolucionando o tratamento do câncer. A velocidade com que novos tratamentos são aprovados e o alto custo das medicações dificultam a disponibilização de terapêuticas em países como o Brasil. Nesta revisão, apresentamos ao não oncologista esses novos tratamentos e comparamos sua disponibilidade nos sistemas público e privado de saúde no Brasil com os países desenvolvidos.

  18. [Periarticular Corticosteroid Injection in the Therapeutic Approach of Musculoskeletal Disease in General Practice: A systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Trindade, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Internacionalmente constata-se o tratamento de patologia músculo-esquelética em cuidados de saúde primários através de técnicas de infiltração peri-articular de corticosteróides. Este artigo procede à análise da evidência existente, com o objectivo de contribuir para a discussão do desenvolvimento dessa prática, ainda diminuta, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Análise qualitativa de estudos controlados aleatorizados, custo-efectividade, transversais e coorte restrospectivo, recorrendo ao modelo PRISMA. Fontes de dados: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Essential Evidence Plus. Critérios de elegibilidade: infiltrações de corticosteróides no tratamento de patologia músculo-esquelética e indicação de contexto em cuidados de saúde primários. Resultados: Foram incluídos nove estudos controlados aleatorizados, três estudos de custo-efectividade, três estudos transversais, três estudos descritivos e um estudo coorte retrospectivo. A maioria dos indicadores de sucesso da utilização de infiltrações de corticosteróides por médicos de medicina geral e familiar mostrou eficácia a curto prazo; a longo prazo não mostrou superioridade comparativamenteàs intervenções alternativas. O balanço entre os encargos económicos e o aumento da qualidade de vida é favorável à utilização desta técnica em cuidados de saúde primários. Todos os onze estudos que avaliaram a segurança registaram efeitos adversos ligeiros e nenhum grave. Discussão: O desempenho das técnicas de infiltração peri-articular de corticosteróides permite figurá-las como opção terapêutica no tratamento de patologia músculo-esquelética nos cuidados de saúde primários Portugueses. Importa incentivar estudos, nomeadamente a nível nacional, que suportem tanto os indicadores de eficácia, como de segurança desta técnica. Conclusão: A infiltração peri-articular de corticosteróides constitui uma opção relativamente eficaz, segura e com potencial de

  19. CONHECIMENTO DA LEI GERAL DE SAÚDE – RESPEITO ÀS TRANSFUSÕES SANGUÍNEAS EM MÉDICOS E PACIENTES TESTEMUNHAS DE JEOVÁ DO HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DA REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA, ELSA DÍAZ

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo avalia quanto o corpo médico do Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conhece, respeita, informa e aplica a Lei Geral de Saúde em relação aos direitos do paciente Testemunha de Jeová de negar-se a ser transfundido (respeito a sua autonomia); também se os Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem a Lei Geral de Saúde e até que ponto têm se beneficiado diante dessa proposição. O estudo revelou que nem médicos, nem Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem de fato essa lei. PMID:20689657

  20. Bundle Approach to Reduce Bloodstream Infections in Neutropenic Hematologic Patients with a Long-Term Central Venous Catheter.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jose Manuel; Leite, Luís; França, Daniela; Capela, Rita; Viterbo, Luísa; Varajão, Natalina; Martins, Ângelo; Oliveira, Isabel; Domingues, Nélson; Moreira, Ilídia; Santo, Ana; Trigo, Filipe; Mariz, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi reduzir através de um pacote de medidas as infeções sistémicas e as taxas de infeções com origem no cateter venoso central nos doentes hematológicos em neutropenia com cateter venoso central de longa duração. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospetivo não randomizado realizado na unidade onco-hematológica do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto no período compreendido entre 1 de agosto de 2010 até 31 de janeiro de 2012. Durante este período foi introduzido um pacote de medidas (grupo estudo) e comparados os resultados nos 6 meses anteriores à sua implementação (grupo de controlo). As medidas consistiram na utilização de conectores de pressão neutra em detrimento dos conectores de pressão positiva, na sua troca mais frequente e numa solução anti-séptica mais eficaz. Foram incluídos neste estudo 116 doentes hematológicos com cateter venoso central de longa duração inserido por um período superior a 72 h. Foram contabilizados 8 867 dias de cateter (6 756 dias de cateter venoso central no grupo estudo e 2 111 dias de cateter venoso central no grupo de controlo). Resultados: Obteve-se uma redução significativa nas taxas de infeções sistémicas e infeções com origem no cateter venoso central. As taxas de infeções sistémicas: [32,69 (grupo de controlo) vs. 9,43 (grupo estudo)], com uma redução de incidência de 71% [risco relativo 0,2886, CI 95% (0,1793 - 0,4647), p < 0,001] e taxas de infeções com origem no cateter venoso central: [17,53 (grupo de controlo) vs. 4,73 (grupo estudo)], com redução de incidência de 71% [risco relativo 0,2936, CI 95% (0,1793 - 0,5615), p < 0,014]. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa (p > 0,05) na contagem de neutrófilos à data da colheita das amostras de hemoculturas entre ambos os grupos: 69% (< 500 neutrófilos/mm3) [71% (grupo estudo) vs. 68% (grupo de controlo)]. Conclusões: A introdução deste pacote de medidas baseado nas variáveis do

  1. Experiências internacionais da aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Josceli Maria; Hummel, Anderson Diniz; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia; Pisa, Ivan Torres; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever as experiências recentes com a aplicação de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica em gastroenterologia, de forma a estabelecer o nível de desenvolvimento, testes e vantagens conferidas à prática médica com a introdução desses softwares. Métodos Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS e ISI Web of Knowledge, utilizando termos relacionados à sistemas de apoio à decisão e à gastroenterogia, incluindo artigos originais publicados no período entre 2005 e 2010. Foram recuperadas 104 publicações, na busca inicial e, após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram eleitos nove estudos para leitura do texto completo. Resultados Os sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica apresentam grande multiplicidade de problemas clínicos e investigação de doenças. Em 89% dos casos, são descritos modelos experimentais para o desenvolvimento de sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica. A descrição dos resultados obtidos por técnicas de inteligência artificial em 78% das publicações. Em dois dos estudos foram realizadas comparações com o médico e em apenas uma publicação um estudo controlado foi descrito, mostrando evidências de melhorias na prática médica. Conclusão Os estudos mostram potenciais benefícios dos sistemas de apoio à decisão clínica à prática médica, porém, estudos controlados em ambiente real devem ser realizados para comprovar esta perspectiva. PMID:26491625

  2. Early determinants of overweight and obesity at 5 years old in preschoolers from inner of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Luciana Neri; Silva, Kellen Cristine; de Castro Ferreira, Sofia Emanuelle; Lopes Moreira, Lidiane; Lessa, Angelina do Carmo; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Brasil está experimentando una transición nutricional caracterizada por una reducción en la prevalencia de deficiencias nutricionales y un aumento del sobrepeso y la obesidad, no sólo en los adultos sino también en los niños y los adolescentes. Objetivos: Este estudio se diseñó para evaluar los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad en preescolares brasileños de 5 años de edad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de una cohorte de 232 preescolares nacidos en Diamantina/ Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos, que incluían situación socioeconómica, antropometría, dieta, antecedentes de los preescolares y familiares, se recogieron entre julio de 2009 y julio de 2010. Para identificar los factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad, se realizaron una regresión logística y un modelo jerárquico. Resultados: El sobrepeso y la obesidad ocurrieron en el 17,2 % de los preescolares. Tras ajustar para obesidad materna, la renta per cápita, la ingesta de alimentos, la ganancia de peso entre los 0-4 meses de edad y el tiempo dedicado al juego, los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad que alcanzaban una significación estadística fueron la obesidad materna [OR = 3,12 (IC al 95 % 1,41- 6,91), P = 0,01], la ganancia de peso de más de 0,85 kg/mes en los primeros 4 meses de vida [OR = 2,16 (IC al 95 % 1,01-4,64), P = 0,04] y una menor renta per cápita [OR = 0,32 (IC al 95 % 0,13-0,79), P = 0,01]. Conclusión: Los resultados muestran que la mayor ganancia de peso durante los 4 primeros meses de vida y tener una madre obesa aumentan las probabilidades de sobrepeso/obesidad en los preescolares, mientras que una menor renta per cápita es un factor de protección.

  3. Effectiveness of prediction equations in estimating energy expenditure sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight.

    PubMed

    Lopes Rosado, Eliane; Santiago de Brito, Roberta; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la adecuación de las ecuaciones de predicción para la estimación del gasto energético (GE), en comparación con el GE medido por calorimetría indirecta en una muestra de mujeres brasileñas y españolas con exceso de peso corporal. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal con 92 mujeres adultas obesas [26 brasileñas —G1— y 66 españolas —G2— (20-50 años)]. Se evaluó el peso y la talla durante el ayuno para el cálculo del índice de masa corporal y las ecuaciones de predicción. Se evaluó el GE usando la calorimetría indirecta de circuito abierto con campana respiratoria. Resultados: En G1 y G2, se encontró que las estimaciones obtenidas por Harris-Benedict, Shofield, FAO/OMS/ ONU y Henry y Rees no difieren del GE estimado por calorimetría indirecta, la cual presentó valores más altos que las ecuaciones propuestas por Owen Mifflin -St Jeor y Oxford. Para G1 y G2 la ecuación predictiva que presentó valores más cercanos al valor obtenido por la calorimetría indirecta fue la FAO/OMS/ONU (7,9% y 0,46% subestimación, respectivamente), seguido por Harris-Benedict (8,6% y 1,5% subestimación, respectivamente). Conclusión: Las ecuaciones propuestas por la FAO/ OMS/ONU, Harris-Benedict, Shofield y Henry & Rees fueron adecuadas para estimar el GE en una muestra de mujeres brasileñas y españolas con exceso de peso corporal. Las otras ecuaciones subestimaron el GE.

  4. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y

  5. Understanding the Impacts of Climate and Hydrologic Extremes on Diarrheal Diseases in Southwestern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, P. A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial diarrheal diseases have a high incidence rate during and after flooding episodes. In the Brazilian Amazon, flood extreme events have become more frequent, leading to high incidence rates for infant diarrhea. In this study we aimed to find a statistical association between rainfall, river levels and diarrheal diseases in children under 5, in the river Acre basin, in the State of Acre (Brazil). We also aimed to identify the time-lag and annual season of extreme rainfall and flooding in different cities in the water basin. The results using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite rainfall data show robustness of these estimates against observational stations on-ground. The Pearson coefficient correlation results (highest 0.35) indicate a time-lag, up to 4 days in three of the cities in the water-basin. In addition, a correlation was also tested between monthly accumulated rainfall and the diarrheal incidence during the rainy season (DJF). Correlation results were higher, especially in Acrelândia (0.7) and Brasiléia and Epitaciolândia (0.5). The correlation between water level monthly averages and diarrheal diseases incidence was 0.3 and 0.5 in Brasiléia and Epitaciolândia. The time-lag evidence found in this paper is critical to inform stakeholders, local populations and civil defense authorities about the time available for preventive and adaptation measures between extreme rainfall and flooding events in vulnerable cities. This study was part of a pilot application in the state of Acre of the PULSE-Brazil project (http://www.pulse-brasil.org/tool/), an interface of climate, environmental and health data to support climate adaptation. The next step of this research is to expand the analysis to other climate variables on diarrheal diseases across the whole Brazilian Amazon Basin and estimate the relative risk (RR) of a child getting sick. A statistical model will estimate RR based on the observed values and seasonal forecasts (higher

  6. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y

  7. [Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: priorities for disease management and research].

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chor, Dóra; Aquino, Estela M L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Vigo, Alvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-01

    Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases are the main source of disease burden in Brazil. In 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched the Strategic Plan of Action for Management of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases focusing on population-based interventions to manage cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases mainly through fighting tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. Although a significant number of scientific studies on chronic diseases and their risk factors have been undertaken in Brazil, few are of cohort design. In this context, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort study of 15,105 Brazilian public servants reflects the reality of high prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and the main chronic diseases risk factors. The diversity of information that the Study will produce can provide important input to better understand the causes of chronic diseases and to support public policies for fighting them.

  8. Situated modelling in the drawing workshop for bobbin lace.

    PubMed

    Saldanhar, Maria Christine Werba; de Almeida, Juliana Donato

    2012-01-01

    The current article presents the process of situated modeling in the drawing workshop for bobbin lace developed and implemented in the Núcleo de Produção Artesanal Rendeiras da Vila, in Ponta Negra, Natal-Brasil. The workshop aimed to rescue the domain over the product in the production of bobbin lace through capacitation of both experienced and novice craftswomen. The modeling of the drawing workshop was grounded on the sociotechnical construction and in the concepts of anthropotechnology and also social technology. The modelling required an intense process of social construction involving the members of GREPE-UFRN (Group of extension and Research in Ergonomics) and the lacemakers od the community. The domain of drawing the lace has enabled the expression of the craftswomen creativity, increasing the amount of works and the sustainable development,thus reducing the risks of extinction of such art in the Village of Ponta Negra.

  9. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  10. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.

  11. First record of Segonalia Young (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from Brazil including the description of S. machadoi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-01-01

    Segonalia, a previously monotypic genus known from Bolivia, is newly recorded from Brazil and Paraguay based on specimens of S. steinbachi Young, 1977 from Minas Gerais State, Brazil and Paraguay and a new species from Piauí and Pará States, Brazil. Segonalia machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CZMA: Brasil, Piauí State, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, 04˚5'57"S, 41˚42'34"W 193 m a.s.l., 12.II.2013, D.M. Takiya leg.) can be distinguished from the type species by its body length and shape of the male pygofer apex and aedeagus. A diagnosis of Segonalia and comparative notes and illustrations of the type species are given. PMID:27395968

  12. [The contribution of Carlos Chagas Filho to the institutionalization of scientific research in Brazilian universities].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Darcy Fontoura de

    2012-06-01

    This paper studies the period considered the 'prehistory' of the Instituto de Biofísica, namely between November 1937 and October 1945, during which Carlos Chagas Filho championed the inclusion of scientific research at Universidade do Brasil (UB), despite facing multiple and complex obstacles. The lack of successful precedents at UB isolated him to one inexpressive chair. The equipment available was inadequate for his purposes; there were no official sources and forms of access to funding for science or trained personnel for research activities. On the other hand, Chagas Filho won over allies due both to the political and social clout of his name and his marriage, and to his scientific influence ensuing from his success in attaining the goals he fought for.

  13. [Science as a profession: an interview with Carlos Chagas Filho].

    PubMed

    Chagas Filho, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    The editing of this interview focuses on aspects of the extensive professional career of Carlos Chagas Filho, who was the founder of the Instituto de Biofísica of the Universidade do Brasil, currently the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. It highlights the scientific and political role he played in Brazilian science and on the international scene. His memoirs include his experience at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, where he began his scientific training; the efforts to create the Laboratório de Física Biológica, succeeded by the Instituto de Biofísica; his work on the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas and the Academia Brasileira de Ciências; the part he played at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; his time as president of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Vatican, which led him to ponder questions about the relationship between science and religion.

  14. [Reliability and validity of the pain assessment tool in confused older adults--IADIC].

    PubMed

    Saurin, Gislaine; Crossetti, Maria da Graça Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    This is a methodological study, the objective was to conduct the pre-test and validate the psychometric properties of the Pain Assessment Tool in Confused Elderly (IADIC) in the immediate postoperative period. The sample consisted of 104 patients aged 60 years and over in the immediate postoperative perio4 admitted to the recovery room after surgery in a general hospital of Rio Grande do Sul Brasil. Data were collected from April to August 2012. Patients included in the study were diagnosed as confused after application of the Confusion Assessment Method-CAM and possessed age of 71.51 +/- 8.81 years. In the pre-test did not require modifications of the instrument. Upon validation the psychometric properties and internal consistency showed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 and reproducibility assessed by the intmraclass coefficient was 0.838. Internal consistency and reproducibility gave IADIC the validity and reliability for use in Brazil.

  15. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  16. Observacoes do Cometa de Halley no Continuo de 22 GHz E 44 GHz, E NA Raia Maser de Vapor de H20 EM 22.2 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Z.; Scalise, E., Jr.; Botti, L. C. L.; Cancoro, A. C. O.; Monteiro Do Vale, J. L.; del Ciampo, L. F.; Tateyama, C. E.; Vilas Boas, J. W. S.; Homor, J. L.; Kaufmann, P.

    1987-05-01

    0 cometa de Halley foi observado no contínuo nas frequencias de 22 GHz e 44 GHz no Observatório de Itapetinga, Brasil, no período Fevereiro-Abril de 1986. 0 cometa foi detetado em ambas frequẽncias, apresentando variabilidade corn escalas de tempo de horas. Cálculos teóricos mostram que a radicão não pode ser devida a transicões livre-livre na região ionizada resultante da interacão do cometa corn 0 vento solar. A emissão seria então devida à radiacão térmica dos gráos da coma do cometa, cuja densidade também foi variável em intervalo de horas. Não foi detetada emissão maser de H2O maior que 4 Jy.

  17. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2012 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.

    2014-05-01

    We report the results of speckle runs at the 4.1 m Southern Astronomical Research telescope in 2012 and 2013. A total of 586 objects were observed. We give 699 measurements of 487 resolved binaries and upper detection limits for 112 unresolved stars. Eleven pairs (including one triple) were resolved for the first time. Orbital elements have been determined for the first time for 13 pairs; orbits of another 45 binaries are revised or updated. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  18. Inclusion of Astronomy Themes in an Inovative Approach of Informal Physics Teaching for High School Students. (Spanish Title: Inclusión de Temas Astronómicos en Uma Abordaje Innovadora de la Enseñanza Informal de Física Para Estudiantes de Secumdaria.) Inclusão de Temas Astronômicos Numa Abordagem Inovadora do Ensino Informal de Física Para Estudantes do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiara Mota, Aline; de Morais Bonomini, Iracema Ariel; Meloni Martins Rosado, Ricardo

    2009-12-01

    The current work reports on an experience on Astronomy education at the Federal University of Itajubá through an extra-curricular course offered for High School students. This initiative was motivated by the low attention paid to the Astronomy subjects at this stage of the Brazilian Formal Education, in spite that the National Curricular Parameters (PCN and PCN+, in Brazil) point out the importance of their inclusion Este artículo relata una experiencia en la enseñanza de la astronomía efectuada en la Universidad Federal de Itajubá en la forma de un curso de extensión orientado para los estudiantes del colegio secundario. Esta iniciativa surgió de constatar la poca atención dada a la Astronomía en esta etapa de la Educación formal brasileña, a pesar que los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN y PCN+, en Brasil) destacan la importancia de su inclusión. Este artigo relata uma experiência em ensino de Astronomia realizada na Universidade Federal de Itajubá na forma de um curso de extensão voltado para alunos do Ensino Médio. Esta iniciativa surgiu da pouca atenção que se dá à Astronomia nesta etapa da Educação embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN e PCN+) apontem a importância de sua inclusão.

  19. [Acceptance of handmade products containing nuts and fructooligosaccharides].

    PubMed

    de Freitas Folly, Gilce Andrezza; Neiva da Silva, Ester; Vieira Verner, Fabiana; Dos Santos Silva, Fernanda Cacilda; Pinheiro Volp, Ana Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los prebióticos y alimentos con propiedades funcionales proporcionan beneficios para la salud de los consumidores a través de la prevención de muchas enfermedades. Objetivo: Verificar la aceptación de productos artesanales (chocolate en barra, dulce de soja y pan dulce) formulados con nueces (linaza, maní y nueces de Brasil) y, o fructooligosacáridos (FOS). Métodos: Cuatro muestras de cada producto fueron preparados con adición de diferentes concentraciones de nueces y FOS. La evaluación sensorial se realizó mediante una muestra de 373 consumidores, con 126, 121 y 126 probadores para muestras de chocolate en barra, dulce de soja y pan dulce, respectivamente, utilizándose la escala hedónica de nueve puntos. Los resultados fueron sometidos a Análisis de Varianza (ANOVA) y el test de Tukey. Resultados y Discusión: Observándose las medias de los juzgamientos, se infiere que las muestras con mayor aceptación han sido de pan dulce con nueces de Brasil y, o FOS. Sin embargo, todas las muestras son buenas alternativas de mercado y se lo mostró un promedio de entre 6 y 9 puntos, más un aumento de ácidos grasos omega 3 y 6, proteínas, fibras, vitaminas, antioxidantes y minerales, así como fitoquímicos, los cuales desempeñan un papel importante en la promoción de la salud. Conclusión: Los productos artesanales formulados con oleaginosas y, o FOS tuvieron una buena aceptabilidad y pueden mejorar los hábitos alimentarios de los consumidores. Pero para probar la funcionalidad de estos productos, se necesitan nuevos estudios.

  20. A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João Renato

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species.ResumoUma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

  1. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in the Brazilian Western Amazon before and after the Interoceanic highway paving: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and associated factors, before and after the implementation of the Interoceanic Highway. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study on children under 5 years of age was conducted in the municipality of Assis Brasil, AC, Brazil, in 2003 and 2010. Prevalence of undernutrition was observed by using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and adopting a cut-off point equal to or lower than a -2 Z-score. Overweight prevalence was defined by a cut-off point equal to or greater than a +2 Z-score of the WHZ index. Z-scores were calculated relative to WHO 2006 reference data. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to the children’s guardians, investigating family socio-economic and demographic characteristics, morbidities, access to services and child care. Associated factors were identified by hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of low HAZ (undernutrition) was 7.0% in 2003 and 12.2% in 2010. The prevalence of high WHZ (overweight) was 1.0% and 6.6% for 2003 and 2010, respectively. It was not possible to adjust the multiple model for the year 2003. The factors associated with low HAZ in 2010 were: wealth index, the situation of living with biological parents, maternal height and presence of open sewage, whereas the factors associated with a high WHZ in the same year were: child’s age, mother’s time of residence in the location, mother’s body mass index. Conclusions Overweight increase within this undernutrition scenario reveals that the process of nutritional transition began in this Amazonian city only in the last decade, and therefore, it is delayed when compared to overweight in other parts of Brazil. Such nutritional transition in Assis Brasil may have been facilitated by the construction of the Interoceanic Highway. PMID:24283293

  2. [RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATTERNS OF BREASTFEEDING AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN BRAZILIAN AND SPANISH SCHOOLCHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Mora Urda, Ana Isabel; Pereira da Silva, Raiane; Bisi Molina, María del Carmen; Bresciani Salaroli, Luciane; Montero López, María del Pilar

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la relación entre alimentación temprana y presión arterial en etapas posteriores de la vida todavía se muestra incierta y, a veces, contradictoria. Algunas investigaciones apuntan hacia el efecto protector de la lactancia materna sobre la enfermedad cardiovascular, mientras que otras no obtienen resultados concluyentes. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre patrones de lactancia durante los primeros meses de vida y tensión arterial en la infancia, en dos muestras de niños y niñas procedentes de dos poblaciones con características socioculturales diferentes, controlando el efecto de la calidad de la alimentación en la infancia. Métodos: el estudio, de diseño transversal y retrospectivo, se realizó con 492 escolares de edades comprendidas entre los 8 y los 10 años, y se compone de dos muestras, ambas recogidas en colegios públicos, una en Madrid (España) y otra en Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brasil). Resultados: el 90% de la muestra fue amamantado en algún momento, 196 (44,2%) en Madrid y 247 (55,7%) en Vitória/ES. La duración media de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) en Madrid fue de 12,89 semanas (std=9,6) y en Vitória/ES de 22,00 semanas (std= 13,4), siendo estas diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Los valores medios de presión arterial sistólica, diastólica y media fueron significativamente superiores en la muestra brasileña. La prevalencia de hipertensión limítrofe y de hipertensión también fue mayor en la muestra brasileña que en la española, 68% vs 32% y 60% vs 40%, respectivamente. En las dos muestras se observó asociación entre una duración más corta de LME y mayor prevalencia de hipertensión en la infancia. Con respecto a la asociación entre calidad de la alimentación y valores de presión arterial, esta fue solo significativa en la muestra brasileña, pero no en la española. Discusión: en ambas muestras se observa un efecto protector de la LM sobre la presi

  3. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Power of Food Scale for Use by Adult Populations in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Gabriela; Santos, Osvaldo; Camacho, Marta; Torres, Sandra; Mucha-Vieira, Filipa; Sampaio, Daniel; Oliveira-Maia, Albino J

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A Power of Food Scale é uma escala que avalia um constructo designado por fome hedónica, frequentemente definido como o apetite por alimentos de elevada palatibilidade, mais do que a sua ingestão propriamente dita. Este estudo teve como objetivo a caracterização das propriedades psicométricas de uma versão portuguesa da Power of Food Scale, nomeadamente da sua fiabilidade e validade de constructo. Material e Métodos: Os dados foram obtidos de 1266 participantes adultos, provenientes de três amostras distintas: duas amostras não clínicas e uma amostra clínica de indivíduos com obesidade severa, candidatos a cirurgia da obesidade. Resultados: Verificamos que a estrutura factorial da versão portuguesa da Power of Food Scale é semelhante à do questionário original e que apresenta fiabilidade teste-reteste e validade de constructo adequadas. Adicionalmente, apresentamos neste estudo o primeiro contributo para a definição de normas populacionais para os scores da Power of Food Scale. Discussão: A versão portuguesa da Power of Food Scale apresentou boas propriedades psicométricas: é um instrumento válido e fiável para a avaliação do constructo fome hedónica, suportando a sua utilização tanto em amostras clínicas como não clínicas, bem como em estudos longitudinais. Conclusão: Estes resultados demostram que a versão portuguesa da Power of Food Scale é um instrumento útil, tanto em contexto clínico, como de investigação, nomeadamente para o estudo do constructo fome hedónica em populações de língua portuguesa, incluindo populações clínicas de indivíduos com obesidade.

  4. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    The 6th Workshop of the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG6) was held in São José dos Campos, Brazil, from 15 to 19 October 2012, at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC). It was sponsored and organized by CPTEC with the co-sponsoring of the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT).

  5. Aerobic program in persons with stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Francica, Juliana V; Bigongiari, Aline; Mochizuki, Luis; Miranda, Maria Luiza J; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre o exercício após acidente vascular cerebral.Material e Métodos: Para isso, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados e controlados publicados no PubMed e PEDro. Os critérios para inclusão dos artigos foram: Estudos - ensaios clínicos randomizados ou controlados; participantes - adultos de qualquer idade com diagnóstico clínico de acidente vascular cerebral; intervenções - qualquer treino físico aeróbio que vise melhorar a capacidade e/ou função cardiovascular. Dois revisores independentes categorizaram os ensaios selecionados, avaliaram a qualidade metodológica e extraíram os dados relevantes. A análise realizada foi dos vários protocolos usados tanto para a avaliaçãoe treino de indivíduos pós-acidente vascular cerebral.Resultados: De acordo com estudos clínicos analisados, uma vasta gama de instrumentos foi utilizada para medir a capacidade funcional dos pacientes. Ergometria e ergoespirometria foram os principais dispositivos da avaliação da capacidade cardiovascular. Treino\\exercício na bicicleta ergométrica foi a estratégia de treino mais comumente usada, e fisioterapia convencional (baseada em alongamentos, fortalecimentos, treino de equilíbrio, coordenação e marcha) foi a terapia de controle mais frequente.Discussão: A duração do programa variou de 4 semanas a 6 meses, a frequência semanal média foi de três sessões por semana, enquanto que a intensidade do treinamento variou de 40 a 80% da frequência cardíaca máxima ou VO2 máximo. A duração de sessões de treino variou entre 25 minutos a 1 hora.Conclusão: O treino físico é uma ferramenta promissora para o tratamento de pacientes pós-AVC, tanto em termos de melhoria da capacidade funcional e da capacidade cardiovascular. No entanto, mais estudos são necessários para ampliar a área de atuação terapêutica nesta população.

  6. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Collins, Rupert A; Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa

  7. [Relationship between smoking and anxiety and depression in primary care].

    PubMed

    Farinha, Helder; Raposo de Almeida, Joana; Aleixo, Ana Rita; Oliveira, Hugo; Xavier, Filomena; Santos, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A prevalência de tabagismo em Portugal é estimada em 19,7% (2005). O tabagismo é prevalente nas perturbações da ansiedade. Alguns estudos referem que 60% dos fumadores tem história de depressão. A dependência tabágica pode ser avaliada pela escala de Fagerström. A Escala de Ansiedade e Depressão Hospitalar permite estimar a ansiedade e depressão. O objectivo deste trabalho foi procurar a existência de relação entre tabagismo e ansiedade/depressão em utentes de oito unidades de cuidados primários.Material e Métodos: Foi desenhado um estudo observacional, descritivo, transversal, analítico. Inquérito anónimo. Foram considerados como critérios de inclusão os utilizadores das unidades, maiores de 18 anos e alfabetizados e de exclusão os menores de 18 anos ou erros no preenchimento dos inquéritos. As variáveis consideradas foram: Fagerström, Escala de Ansiedade e Depressão Hospitalar, idade, estado civil, género, profissão, escolaridade.Resultados: Foram considerados no estudo um total de 608 indivíduos, sendo 64% do género feminino e 21% de fumadores. Não verificámos diferenças em termos de ansiedade ou depressão na comparação entre não fumadores, ex-fumadores e fumadores. Verificámos que o grau de dependência da nicotina varia directamente com a ansiedade e depressão embora só se encontre relação estatisticamente significativa no género feminino, mesmo após correcção do efeito da idade.Discussão: Existe relação entre dependência da nicotina e gravidade de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sobretudo no género feminino. Limitação: viés de selecção.Conclusão: Este estudo fornece informação relativa aos factores psicológicos associados ao consumo de tabaco, podendo ser útil no tratamento da dependência de nicotina.

  8. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Collins, Rupert A; Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa

  9. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa

  10. [Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions].

    PubMed

    Nunes, Dulce Maria; Portella, Jean Cristtus; Bianchi e Silva, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this experience report is to present the Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions (Laboratório de Estudos Semióticos nas Interações de Cuidado - LESIC). The lab was set up at the Nursing School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil in 2010. It has the purpose of providing didactic and pedagogical updates, based on the Theory developed by the Paris School of Semiotics, that enable the increase of knowledge and interactive/observational skills regarding the nature and mastery of human care.

  11. Método numérico das diferenças finitas no domínio do tempo aplicado a ondas Alfvén em plasma astrofísico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. C.; Kintopp, J. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Opher, R.

    2003-08-01

    Ondas Alfvén em plasma astrofísico têm sido objeto de intenso estudo nas últimas décadas pelo fato de apresentarem papel importante em muitas áreas de pesquisa na astrofísica. Particularmente são importantes no mecanismo de aquecimento da coroa solar; em ventos estelares; em jatos galácticos e extragalácticos; em discos protoestelares, etc. A formulação para diferenças finitas no domínio do tempo (FDTD), aplicada a plasma magnetizado é desenvolvida para estudo das propriedades de ondas Alfvén em três dimensões (3D-FDTD). O método é aplicado inicialmente a um plasma homogêneo e isotérmico imerso em uma região com campo magnético externo B0, que sofre uma pequena perturbação. Uma vez gerada a onda, esta perturbação é retirada e, então analisamos a evolução temporal das ondas, bem como a forma de seu amortecimento.

  12. Instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz em Raios Cometários

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, O. T.; Shigueoka, H.; Voelzke, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Raios cometários são estruturas finas e longas da cauda de cometas do Tipo I (ou de plasma). Como eles apresentam simetria cilíndrica, admitem modelos MHD simples. Este trabalho explora essa possibilidade, apresentando um estudo sistemático da estabilidade e das oscilações de raios cometários na aproximação de plasma homogêneo. O critério de estabilidade, combinado com dados observacionais de perturbações (ondas, hélices, rupturas etc), constitui um importante diagnóstico da velocidade do plasma cometário em relação ao vento solar circundante, contribuindo assim para esclarecer questões fundamentais, tais como, o papel da instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz na aceleração do plasma cometário, a propagação, conversão de modos e amortecimento de certas ondas do espectro MHD nos raios cometários. Os resultados deste estudo nortearão a análise de um grande número de imagens do Cometa Halley arquivadas em CD-ROM pela equipe dos fenômenos de grande escala do International Halley W!

  13. Depression and anxiety following deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Couto, Maria Inês; Monteiro, Ana; Oliveira, Ana; Lunet, Nuno; Massano, João

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A estimulação cerebral profunda (ECP) é eficaz na doença de Parkinson (DP) avançada, melhorando sintomas motores, flutuações e a qualidade de vida. No entanto, têm sido reportados efeitos adversos psiquiátricos, mas de uma forma variável e não padronizada. O objectivo deste artigo é analisar e sumarizar a evidência publicada sobre sintomas depressivos e ansiedade em doentes com DP após ECP, através de revisão sistemática e meta-análise. Material e Métodos: A PubMed foi pesquisada até Maio 2012 para identificar os estudos que avaliaram sintomas depressivos e ansiedade em doentes com doença de Parkinson submetidos a estimulação cerebral profunda bilateral do núcleo subtalâmico (NST) ou globo pálido interno (GPi). Foram feitas meta-análises com modelo de efeitos aleatórios para grupos de pelo menos três estudos homogéneos em relação ao desenho e instrumentos utilizados. Resultados: Foram selecionadas 63 referências; 98,4% continham dados relativos a escalas de avaliação de depressão e 38,1% relativos a ansiedade. Dois estudos não discriminavam o alvo usado; nos restantes 61 foi feita avaliação de curto prazo em 37 (60,7%), de médio prazo em 36 (59,0%) e de longo prazo em 5 (8,2%). Foram encontrados dados sobre variação pré/pós operatória em 57 (93,4%) estudos e 16 (26,2%) continham dados comparando ECP-NST versus outros grupos: ECP-GPi (n = 4 estudos, 25,0%), elegíveis para cirurgia (n = 6, 37,5%), e tratamento médico (n = 7, 43,8%). Discussão: É aparente a melhoria de depressão e ansiedade após ECP, sobretudo a curto prazo, efeito que tende a esbater-se em avaliações posteriores. Em relação à depressão a ECP-NST mostrou-se superior ao tratamento médico, mas não em comparação com o grupo de controlo elegível para cirurgia. Verificou-se o resultado oposto para a ansiedade, uma vez que os resultados favorecem o tratamento médico sobre a ECP-NST, e esta sobre o grupo de elegíveis para cirurgia

  14. [Abstract of Cochrane review].

    PubMed

    Carneiro, António Vaz; Costa, João

    2013-01-01

    Objectivos: Esta revisão sistemática destinou-se a determinar os efeitos sobre a mortalidade e morbilidade do rastreio do cancro da mama com mamografia em mulheres de risco baixo e em cuidados primários.Material e Métodos: Foram pesquisadas duas bases de dados - PubMed (Novembro 2012) e a World Health Organization’s International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (Novembro 2012) – para identificação de ensaios clínicos aleatorizados, prospectivos e controlados (Randomized Clinical trials – RCTs) comparando o rastreio com a não realização do rastreio. A extracção dos dados foi feita por dois investigadores que contactaram, quando necessário, os autores dos estudos para informação adicional.Resultados: Foram identificados 8 RCTs cujas amostras somaram 600 000 mulheres com idades entre 39-74 anos. Os resultados agregados dos ensaios de melhor qualidade metodológica (baixo risco de viés de selecção) não detectaram diferenças na mortalidade por cancro da mama aos 7 (risco relativo [RR] = 0,93; Intervalo de Confiança [IC] 95%: 0,79-1,09) ou aos 13 anos (RR = 0,90; IC 95%: 0,79-1,02). Os resultados agregados dos ensaios com maior risco de viés de selecção (por possível aleatorização inadequada) mostraram reduções significativas na mortalidade por cancro da mama aos 7 (RR = 0,71; IC95%: 0,61-0,83) e aos 13 anos (RR = 0,75; IC95%: 0,67-0,83). Não se verificou heterogeneidade entre os resultados dos estudos. Os resultados dos estudos de melhor epior qualidade metodológica foram semelhantes para as mulheres com menos e com mais de 50 anos de idade. Quer os resultados dos estudos de melhor qualidade, quer os resultados dos estudos com maior risco de viés, não encontraram diferenças na mortalidade oncológica (por todos os tipos de cancro) nem na mortalidade global, quer aos 7, quer aos 13 anos. Devido a deficiente classificação das causas de morte nas amostras dos RCTs, a mortalidade por cancro da mama revelou-se um resultado (outcome

  15. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the association with socioeconomic variables in adolescents from low-income region.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius; De Moraes, Augusto Cesar F; Carvalho, Heraclito B; Moreno, Luis A; Gomes Carneiro, André Luiz; dos Reis, Victor Manuel M; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de obesidad y sobrepeso, obesidad abdominal y hipertensión arterial en una muestra de adolescentes pertenecientes a una ciudad de baja renta en Brasil y su relación con el nivel socioeconómico, nivel educativo de lo responsable de la familia y tipo de escuela. Métodos: Estudio transversal con una muestra de 1014 adolescentes (54,8% chicas), con edades entre 14-19 años, estudiantes de las escuelas de la ciudad de Imperatriz (Brasil), seleccionadas por un muestreo aleatorio. Las variables dependientes evaluadas son: obesidad general y sobrepeso, obesidad abdominal, y tensión arterial alta (sistólica y/o diastólica). Las variables independientes son: nivel socioeconómico de la familia (NSO), el nivel de educación de lo responsable de la familia (NERF) y tipo de escuela. Las variables de confusión son: sexo, edad y nivel de actividad física. La prevalencia fue estimada, y la asociación entre las variables dependientes y las variables independientes se analizaron mediante razón de prevalencia (RP), con intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95%, estimado por la regresión de Poisson. Resultados: La prevalencia de la obesidad general fue de 3,8%, sobrepeso 13,1%, obesidad abdominal 22,7% y la tesión arterial alta 21,3%. Las análisis ajustadas indicaron que las chicas con NSO alto tienen mayor probabilidad de tener sobrepeso (RP=1,71 [IC95%: 1,13 a 2,87]), y chicos de las escuelas privadas tienen más probabilidad de tener obesidad (RP=1,79 [IC95%: 1.04- 3,08]) y obesidad abdominal (RP=1,64 [IC95%: 1,06 a 2,54]). Conclusión: La prevalencia de los FRC es alta en adolescentes de una región de baja renta. Los chicos de las escuelas privadas son más propensos a tener obesi dad y obesidad abdominal, y las chicas con NSO alto son más propensas a tener sobrepeso.

  16. [Prediction equations for fat percentage from body circumferences in prepubescent children].

    PubMed

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; De Marco, Ademir; de Arruda, Miguel; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Margarita Salazar, Ciria; Valgas, Carmen; Fuentes, José Damián; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Introdución: El análisis de la composición corporal a través de métodos directos e indirectos permite el estudio de los distintos componentes del cuerpo humano, constituyéndose en el eje central para valorar el estado nutricional. Objetivo: Desarrollar ecuaciones de predicción del % de grasa corporal a partir de circunferenciales corporales del brazo, cintura y pantorrilla y proponer percentiles para diagnosticar el estado nutricional de niños escolares de ambos sexos de 4-10 años. Métodos: Fueron seleccionados de forma intencional (noprobabilística) 515 niños, siendo 261 niños y 254 niñas pertenecientes al Programa de interacción y desarrollo del niño y del adolescente de la Universidad Estatal de Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brasil). Se evaluó las variables antropométricas de peso, estatura, pliegues cutáneos tricipital y subescapular y las circunferencias corporales del brazo, cintura y pantorrilla. Se determino el % de grasa a través de la ecuación propuesta por Boileau, Lohman y Slaughter (1985). A través del método de regresión se generaron 2 ecuaciones para predecir el porcentaje de grasa a partir de las circunferencias corporales; las ecuaciones 1 y 2 fueron validadas a través del método de validación cruzada. Resultados: Las ecuaciones obtenidas mostraron altos valores predictivos, oscilando con un R2 = 64-69%. En la validación cruzada entre el criterio y las ecuaciones de regresión propuestas no hubo diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) y se observó un alto grado de concordancia a un CI 95%. Conclusión: Las ecuaciones son validadas y son una alternativa para evaluar el porcentaje de grasa en niños escolares de ambos sexos de 4-10 años del Programa de interacción y desarrollo del niño y del adolescente de la Universidad Estatal de Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brasil).

  17. Brazil current eddy activity near cape São Tomé based on direct ADCP data measurements from 2006 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, N. D.; Gabioux, M.; Guerra, L. D.; Paiva, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Cape São Tomé, in the Campos Basin, is a region of intense ocean mesoscale activity where meanders and eddies are formed by instability processes of the Brazil Current. In this work seven years of ADCP current data (2006-2012) are analyzed at different depths over the continental shelf and slope of Campos Basin in order to characterize the variability and vertical struture of meanders and eddies. The present study is a continuation of Lima et al. (2010), in which two years of current meter data, taken at fewer locations and spanning a shorter depth range, were analyzed. This preliminary study suggested that eddy formation at Cape São Tomé may occur throughout the year, and that these eddies, which present a mixed barotropic and baroclinic structure, exert significant influence on the Brazil Current and on the upper portion of the Intermediate Western Boundary Current, which flows northward at intermediate depths. The longer time series of data, now available, alow us to check the validity of Lima et al. (2010) results about mesoscale activity activity, and to test their proposed conceptual model of eddy formation for other events. The ten ADCP moorings analyzed were located between 21°S and 23°S, and 41°W and 39°W. Measurements were taken from the surface down to 750 and 900 meters, and the data have different record lengths for each mooring. High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature dates (GHRSST) are also analyzed in order to provide a broader spatial view, assisting in the interpretation of the phenomena observed in the velocity data. The new results corroborate the study of Lima et al. (2010), showing that eddy formation is a reccuring phenomenon at Cape São Tomé for all the period analyzed. Eddies generate significant variability in current velocity both at the surface and at intermediate depths, changing the depth and intensity of Brasil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current system. While the average current system showed a strong baroclinic

  18. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mônica L P; Silva, Rita de Cássia R; Assis, Ana M O; Raich, Rosa M; Machado, Maria Ester P C; de J Pinto, Elizabete; de Moraes, Lia T L P; Ribeiro Júnior, Hugo da C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de insatisfacción corporal y factores asociados entre estudiantes de Salvador en Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en una muestra aleatoria de 1494 adolescentes (852 niñas y 642 niños) de entre 11 y 17 años de edad estudiantes de escuelas públicas en Salvador (Brasil). Los participantes completaron los cuestionarios: Cuestionario de La Figura Corporal y el Inventario de Actitudes Alimentarias. La imagen corporal pudo ser considerada satisfactoria o insatisfactoria. Se obtuvieron datos demográficos, antropométricos y económicos e información sobre la etapa de maduración sexual, la auto-percepción del peso corporal y el consumo de bebidas azucaradas y gaseosas. Para identificar los factores asociados se utilizó el análisis de regresión de Poisson. Resultados: La insatisfacción corporal estuvo presente en el 19,5% de los/as adolescentes, con una prevalencia del 26,6% entre las chicas y el 10% entre los chicos. Independientemente del sexo, la prevalencia de la insatisfacción corporal fue superior entre los/as adolescentes con sobrepeso u obesos (en las niñas, PR: 1,38, IC: 1,09-1,73 y en los niños, PR: 2,26, IC: 1,08-4,75), mayor entre los/as que percibían a sí mismos como “gordos” (en las niñas, PR: 2,85, IC: 2,07-3,93 y en los niños, PR: 3,17, IC: 1,39- 7,23), y entre los/as que tenían actitudes alimentarias negativas (en las niñas, PR: 2,42, IC: 1,91-3,08 y en los niños, PR: 4,67, IC: 2,85-7,63). Una reducción en la insatisfacción corporal se identificó sólo entre las niñas con bajo peso (RP: 0,12, IC: 0,03-0.49).Conclusiones: Se observó una alta ocurrencia de la insatisfacción corporal entre los adolescentes, y que factores biológicos y del comportamiento se asocian con dicha insatisfacción.

  19. Development of a High Speed Camera Network to Monitor and Study Lightning (Project RAMMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. V.; Pinto, O.; Santos, H. H.; Saba, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    This work proposes the development and applications of a network of high speed cameras for observation and study of lightning flashes. Four high-speed cameras are being acquired to be part of the RAMMER network. They are capable to record high resolution videos up to 1632 x 1200 pixels at 1000 frames per second. A robust system is being assembled to ensure the safe operation of the cameras in adverse weather conditions and enable the recording of a large number of lightning flashes per storm, larger than the values reported to date. As the amount of physical memory to record only 1 second of data is something like 3 - 4 GBytes, there is no way to make long recordings of thunderstorms, so a triggering system was conceived to address this problem and do the recordings of 2 seconds of data automatically for each lightning flash. The triggering system is an optical/electromagnetic system that is being tested since September/2010 and the whole system is under testing yet. This lightning information from the video recordings will be correlated with data from the sensors of the Brazilian Lightning Detection Network (BrasilDAT), from a network of electric field fast antennas, slow electric field antennas and Field-Mills, as well as with data from the LMA (Lightning Mapping Array) to be installed in 2011 in the cities of Sao Paulo and Sao Jose dos Campos. The following objectives are envisaged: a) make the first three-dimensional reconstructions of the lightning channel with high speed cameras and verify its dependence on the physical conditions associated with each storm; b) to observe almost all CG lightning flashes of a single storm cloud in order to compare the physical characteristics of the CG lightning flashes for different storms and their dependence on physical conditions associated with each storm; c) evaluate the performance of the new sensors of BrasilDAT network in different localities and simultaneously. The schematics of the sensors will be shown here, with

  20. Crustal thinning and tectonic geomorphology: redefining the passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, T.; Osmundsen, P. T.

    2012-04-01

    We describe Scandinavia's passive margin in terms of a hyper-extended distal margin, a variably tapered proximal margin that includes the outer onshore areas, and an upwarped, unstretched, continent-sloping hinterland that terminates against the "undeformed" cratonic interior. Two benchmark locations, defined as the taper break (TB) and the Hinterland Break in Slope (HBSL), occur at the inner boundary of the distal margin and at the transition from the continent-sloping hinterland and craton, respectively. The elevation of the seaward-facing escarpment is directly scaled to the distance between the taper break and the Hinterland Break in Slope. Scaling relationships between the taper of the crystalline crust in the direction of the distal margin and the length/dip of the hinterland backslope follow directly. The shape factors of major catchments are directly scaled to the taper of the proximal margin and drainage azimuths are parallel to the mean transport lineation recorded from a distinct population of range-bounding normal faults. Topographic expressions of the footwalls and offsets in apatite fission-track age-patterns indicate that fault movement controlled topography, locally and regionally inboard of sharp crustal tapers long after the main phase of crustal thinning. We extend our definition of the passive margin to other post-breakup margins. One particularly fine example is SE Brasil. New data (Zalan et al., 2011) suggest the direct correlation of SE Brasil's Taper Break with its escarpment elevation in a manner consistent with our Scandinavian and global observations. The Taper Hypothesis appears to hold across old and young, glaciated, and unglaciated margins. Following the stretching, thinning, and exhumation phase, an "accommodation phase" is warranted. During accommodation, the initially elevated escarpments can be eroded to very low base levels and subsequently undergo inboard rejuvenation by footwall uplift, in response to tensile stresses

  1. Dietary patterns of young adolescents in urban areas of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Célia Márcia Medeiros; Pinheiro, Liana Galvão Bacurau; Lima, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha; Lyra, Clelia Oliveira; de Sena Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio; Lima, Kenio Costa; Pedrosa, Lucia Fatima Campos

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Estudios nacionales de evolución temporal encuentran que la tendencia del consumo alimentario se asocia con aumento de la prevalencia de las enfermedades crónicas. Objetivos: Caracterizar los hábitos alimentarios de los adolescentes en un área urbana del Noreste de Brasil, relacionándolos con los marcadores dietéticos saludables. Métodos: Estudio transversal con adolescentes (n=430) de las escuelas públicas de Natal-RN, Brasil. El consumo alimentario se evaluó mediante dos recordatorios 24h. La técnica de Análisis de Componentes Principales fue utilizada para derivar patrones dietéticos, de acuerdo con: alimentos en gramos (g), la energía en Kcal y la fibra en gramos, lo que resulta, respectivamente, en 3 componentes principales distintos: 7, 8 y 4 (varianza acumulada >70%; cargas factoriales >0,4). La asociación entre las variables independientes y los escores de los factores de todos los componentes obtenidos, se determinó por la razón de prevalencia (IC 95%). Resultados: Los patrones dietéticos fueron: el (1) Sistema Alimentario Tradicional puro representó el primero componente de los modelos; el (2) Sistema Alimentario Combinado y de riesgo reveló marcadores de alimentación no saludables, debido a la alta frecuencia de azucares refinados, grasas saturadas y sal; y el (3) Sistema Alimentario Modificado fue identificado en el modelo de las fibras, el patrón 1 de nuevo fue observado en este patrón. Las asociaciones observadas, en particular del patrón SATm, distinguen por sexo, edad y estado nutricional. Conclusiones: Los patrones dietéticos 1 y 3 se caracterizaron por la preservación de las prácticas regionales de alimentos, muy saludables, desde el punto de vista de la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas, mientras que el 2 representó alerta y riesgo para la salud. Los hallazgos pueden subvencionar Políticas de Atención a la Salud para infancia y adolescencia en carácter intersectorial.

  2. Heat generated by Er:YAG laser in the pulp chamber of teeth submitted to removal of dental tissue and composite resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.; Pinheiro, Antonio; Spano, Julio; Barbin, Eduardo; Marchesan, Melissa A.

    2004-05-01

    The knowledge about and control of thermal energy produced by Er:YAG laser after irradiating hard dental tissues and compound resin is important because the pulp, like all vital biological tissue, has a certain capacity for supporting stimulus. The objective of this study was to analyze the thermal variation generated by Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94μm) during the preparation of a Class I cavity in the dental structure and in the removal of microhybrid Z100 (3M) compound resin. An evaluation was made of 30 maxillary human pre-molar teeth from the bank of the Endodontic Laboratory Center of Ribeirao Preto Dental School, Brasil. The sample was divided into 6 groups of 5 teeth each: Group 1, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 3Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 113 seconds); Group 2, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 4Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 81 seconds); Group 3, preparation of Class I cavity with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 6Hz, 343 impulses, 120J, 58 seconds); Group 4, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 3Hz, 258 impulses, 90J, 85 seconds); Group 5, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 4Hz, 258 impulses, 90J, 67 seconds); Group 6, removal of compound resin from Class I preparation with Er:YAG laser (350mJ, 6Hz, 258 impulses, 42 seconds). The laser used was KaVo Key 2 (Biberach, Germany), λ=2,94μm, P=3 Watts, pulse duration of 250μs, with air-water cooling. The increase in temperature during dental preparation and the removal of the compound resin was evaluated by means of a Tektronix DMM916 Thermocouple (Consitec, Brasil). The results showed that the application of laser for the removal of the hard dental tissues and for the removal of compound resins with the pulse frequencies 3, 4 and 6 Hz did not generate heating greater than 3.1°C and remained within the histopathological limits permitted for pulp tissue (5.5°C) and there was a significant statistical

  3. ANTHROPOMETRIC PROFILE AND NUTRITIONAL INTAKE IN PATIENTS WITH EPILEPSY.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Fernandez, Rochelly; Corrêa, Camila; Muxfeld Bianchim, Marino; Schweigert Perry, Ingrid D

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la calidad de vida alterada es común en los pacientes con epilepsia, especialmente debido a las comorbilidades cardiovasculares, el sobrepeso y la obesidad. Objetivos: evaluar el estado nutricional de los pacientes con epilepsia en base a mediciones antropométricas y la ingesta alimentaria. Métodos: este estudio transversal involucró a 72 pacientes reclutados por conveniencia en la Clínica de Epilepsia del Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil. La muestra consistió en pacientes de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años, que habían sido diagnosticados de epilepsia durante al menos un año. Variables investigadas: medidas antropométricas (peso y talla para la evaluación del estado nutricional y el IMC, circunferencia de la cintura para la evaluación del riesgo cardiovascular); la ingesta nutricional en base a un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos; nivel socioeconómico basado en los Criterios de Clasificación Económica del Brasil. Resultados: la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue del 66,7%, y el 85,4% de las mujeres tenían un alto riesgo cardiovascular. Los pacientes presentaron una baja frecuencia de control de las crisis (41,7%), alta ingesta de carbohidratos y proteínas, así como baja ingesta de ácidos grasos mono y poliinsaturados (incluyendo ácidos grasos omega 3 y 6). No se observaron diferencias en el estado nutricional ni el consumo entre los pacientes con convulsiones controlados o no controlados. Conclusiones: los pacientes con epilepsia tienen riesgos de comorbilidades, como se evidencia por su tendencia al sobrepeso/obesidad y obesidad abdominal. Aunque el control de las crisis no parece estar relacionado con el estado nutricional y la ingesta, la presencia de tales comorbilidades apunta la necesidad de vigilancia nutricional e intervención en estos pacientes, con un enfoque especial en la redistribución de macronutrientes y en los niveles de ácidos grasos en la dieta.

  4. The intake of yam (Dioscorea bulbifera Linn) attenuated the hyperglycemia and the bone fragility in female diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rêgo, Thaís de Salgado; Ash, Louise da Silva; Pessoa, Letícia; Feijó, Márcia Barreto da Silva; Leite, Juliana; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los pacientes diabéticos tienen un mayor riesgo de fracturas osteoporóticas. Los alimentos, como el ñame, para oponerse a la hiperglucemia, se ha utilizado para el tratamiento de la diabetes. Objetivos: El objetivo era evaluar el papel de ñame brasileño (Dioscorea bulbifera) sobre la glucemia y el hueso parámetros de ratas diabéticas hembra. Métodos: Ratas Wistar hembra con 3 meses de edad fueron asignados en tres grupos. El grupo de control (C, n = 6), tratados con dieta normal de la grasa. Las ratas diabéticas tratadas con dieta alta en grasas y sin (DM, n = 8) y con (DMY, n = 8) harina de ñame liofilizado. Después se cuantificaron 5 semanas del experimento, la glucosa y la insulina en suero, la masa páncreas, el número y el área de islotes del páncreas. Y los parámetros de fémur fueron analizados por absorciometría de rayos X de energía dual (DXA) y la tomografía computarizada (CT). Resultados: Las diferencias se consideraron significativas si P < 0,05. Grupos diabéticos mostraron menor (P < 0,05): el fémur y la masa páncreas, el área de los islotes pancreáticos y la insulina. Sin embargo, DMY mostró inferior (-10%, P < 0,05) concentraciones de glucosa al grupo DM. Fémur, por DXA, mostró menor densidad mineral ósea, el contenido y el área en el grupo de DM. Mientras que el grupo DMY mostró mayor (27%, P < 0,05) radiodensidad de la cabeza femoral en comparación con el grupo de DM. Discusión: Suplemento de harina de ñame brasileña no fijó un defecto, pero alivia las consecuencias de la enfermedad diabética experimental. Se mostró resultados para controlar el aumento de los niveles de glucosa en sangre en ratas diabéticas, lo que sugiere la protección en agentes oxidantes y posponer daño en el hueso. Conclusión: Teniendo en cuenta todos los resultados de este estudio, nuestros resultados sugieren que la harina de ñame actúa de producir beneficios en la diabetes experimental.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF LETTUCE SALADS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS SPP.

    PubMed

    Guimarães César, Josi; Madruga Peres, Andriele; Pereira das Neves, Caroline; Tupiniquim Freitas de Abreu, Érica; Fagundes de Mello, Jozi; Nunes Moreira, Ângela; Lameiro Rodrigues, Kelly

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la procura por estabelecimientos que ofrecen alimentos prontos para consumo ha aumentado, sin embrago, los alimentos disponibles en estos locales pueden estar contaminados con microorganismos patogénicos, pudiendo causar enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos. Objetivos: evaluar la calidad microbiológica de las ensaladas de lechuga en los restaurantes de Pelotas RS Brasil, a través de los recuentos de coliformes termotolerantes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. y la detección de Salmonella spp. Resistencia a los antimicrobianos de Staphylococcus spp. también se evalúan. Métodos: fueron colectadas 36 muestras de ensaladas de lechuga en nueve restaurantes y realizada la cuantificación de coliformes termotolerantes, Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus spp. e investigación de Salmonella spp., siguiendo la metodología del Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Los aislados de Staphylococcus spp. fueron sometidos al examen de resistencia a antimicrobianos por el método de difusión con discos. Resultados y discusión: de las 36 muestras de ensalada de lechuga, 61,1% presentaron cuantificación de coliformes termotolerantes superiores a lo permitido por la legislación brasileña, y hubo confirmación de E. coli en 5,6% de las muestras. La cuantificación de Staphylococcus coagulasa positiva representó 5,6% de los aislados y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa representó 77,8%. Todas las muestras presentaron ausencia de Salmonella spp. De los 30 aislados de Staphylococcus spp. examinados, 56,7% fueron resistentes a penicilina, 46,7% a oxacilina, 26,7% a eritromicina y 23,3% fueron multirresistentes. Conclusión: la calidad microbiológica de las ensaladas de lechuga se mostró inadecuada debido a la presencia de microorganismos patogénicos, y los aislados de Staphylococcus spp. presentaron elevado porcentaje de resistencia antimicrobiana.

  6. [The functional planning of a enteral nutrition unit for home care at a hospital in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Salomon, Ana Lúcia; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Con el objeto de garantizar la calidad del producto ofrecido a los clientes en sus domicilios, las unidades hospitalarias necesitan adecuar sus áreas físicas para poder desarrollar todas las actividades especializadas que conlleva la nutrición enteral. Objetivo: Proporcionar una planificación funcional y las herramientas para la reorganización del espacio físico de una unidad de nutrición enteral, describiendo el proceso de preparación, la descripción de sus características y funciones laborales. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y documental, proporcionando las herramientas para la planificación funcional y de gestión de calidad en una unidad de preparación de la nutrición enteral en un hospital público del Distrito Federal, Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados en el período comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2010. Resultados. A través de la creación de un programa de nutrición enteral en el Departamento de Salud Pública del Distrito Federal y según lo dispuesto por la legislación nacional, se efectuó un plan de alta complejidad respecto de la nutrición enteral en atención al perfil demográfico y epidemiológico de la población. Este trabajo consiste en una propuesta de implementación de terapia nutricional dentro de un plan de alta complejidad, y de acuerdo a lo prescrito por la legislación del Ministerio de Salud Brasileño. El número de pacientes atendidos por esta modalidad terapéutica se ha ido incrementando, por consiguiente se hace necesario garantizar la calidad del servicio, por medio de la organización de los espacios funcionales. Conclusión. Por medio de la planificación funcional de un Laboratorio de Nutrición Enteral, se puede garantizar la asistencia nutricional especializada y de calidad, a la población hospitalaria o domiciliaria, tomando las precauciones necesarias en la manipulación de las fórmulas enterales.

  7. Design of quality indicators for oral nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    Gimenez Verotti, Cristiane Comeron; de Miranda Torrinhas, Raquel Susana Matos; Pires Corona, Ligiana; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: los indicadores de calidad en la terapia nutricional han sido propuestos como herramientas útiles para mejorar la terapia nutricional (TN). Este estudio pretende diseñar indicadores de calidad de terapia nutricional oral (ICTNO) factibles en el control de calidad de TN oral. Métodos: el diseño de ICTNO fue realizado por una comisión de nutrición clínica compuesta por brasileños expertos en TN del International Life Science Institute (ILSI). Más tarde, la aprobación de estos ICTNO fue valorada con análisis psicométricos recogiendo las opiniones de otros brasileños dedicados independientemente a la TN (n = 40) vía SurveyMonkey (encuesta por internet). Esta consistió en cuatro atributos valorando cada ICTNO (simplicidad, utilidad, objetividad y bajo precio) seguida de una escala Likert con cinco puntos. Resultados: los expertos en TN de ILSI proporcionaron el diseño de 12 QIONT, que fueron todos consistentemente (Alfa de Cronbach = 0,84) clasificados como válidos por expertos independientes en NT. Por orden de relevancia, los nuevos ICTNO valoraron: la frecuencia de screening nutricional, la prescripción de suplementos de nutrición oral para pacientes desnutridos que ya reciben dieta oral, la prescripción de suplementos de nutrición oral para pacientes con bajo riesgo nutricional que ya reciben dieta oral, el consejo nutricional, la adhesión al suplemento nutricional oral, los pacientes hospitalizados con dieta oral insuficiente y prescripción de suplementos nutricionales orales, los pacientes de UCI con dieta oral insuficiente y prescripción de suplementos nutricionales orales, el consejo de nutrición oral en pacientes de UCI, el consejo de nutrición oral en pacientes en planta, la intolerancia al volumen de suplemento oral debido a dosificación inadecuada, la intolerancia al sabor del suplemento oral y la intolerancia al volumen de suplemento oral. Conclusión: según la opinión experta, 12 potenciales y factibles nuevos ICTNO

  8. Correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsils.

    PubMed

    Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: A hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea é uma das principais causas da respiração oral. O diagnóstico preciso desta alteração é importante para o correto planejamento terapêutico. Em vista disso, estudos têm sido desenvolvidos a fim de fornecer subsídios quanto aos procedimentos que podem ser utilizados para o diagnóstico de obstrução faríngea.Objetivo: Verificar a correlação entre os exames de nasofibrofaringoscopia e cefalometria no diagnóstico de hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea.Método: Estudo transversal, clínico e experimental. Participaram deste estudo 55 crianças, 30 meninas e 25 meninos, com idades entre 7 e 11 anos. As crianças foram submetidas à avaliação nasofibrofaringoscópica e cefalométrica para a determinação do grau de obstrução da nasofaringe. Para verificar a correlação entre esses exames foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman ao nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: Na nasofibrofaringoscopia a maioria das crianças apresentou hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea graus 2 e 3, seguidas de grau 1. Na cefalometria a maior parte das crianças apresentou hiperplasia de tonsilas faríngeas grau 1, seguida de grau 2. Na correlação entre os exames, evidenciou-se correlação regular e positiva.Conclusão: A avaliação da hiperplasia de tonsilas faríngeas pode ser realizada pela nasofibrofaringoscopia e pela cefalometria, pois estes exames apresentam uma relação regular e positiva. No entanto, verificou-se que a cefalometria tende a subestimar o tamanho da tonsila faríngea em relação à nasofibrofaringoscopia.

  9. [Atypical femoral fractures and bisphosphonates treatment: is it a risk factor?].

    PubMed

    Geada, Nuno; Mafra, Inês; Barroso, Rogério; Franco, José

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: Os bifosfonatos têm eficácia comprovada na prevençÉo das fracturas osteoporóticas. Contudo, têm sido descritas fracturas femorais atípicas associadas à toma prolongada de bifosfonatos com um padrÉo radiológico bem definido. Os objectivos no nosso estudo foram caracterizar os doentes de idade ≥ 65 anos com fracturas femorais (subtrocantéricas/diafisárias) consideradas típicas e atípicas e avaliar a relaçÉo entre a ocorrência das fracturas atípicas e o uso de bifosfonatos.Material e Métodos: Realizámos um estudo caso-controlo com os doentes admitidos no nosso Hospital por fractura subtrocantérica ou diafisária do fémur, num período de cinco anos e meio. Após aplicaçÉo dos critérios de exclusÉo, as 92 fracturas (91 doentes) foram classificadas como atípicas ou típicas. A determinaçÉo do tratamento prévio com bifosfonatos foi obtida através do historial clínico dos doentes.Resultados: Foram encontradas 11 fracturas atípicas (10 doentes) e 81 fracturas típicas (81 doentes). A idade mediana entre os dois grupos foi estatisticamente diferente (72 anos - atípicas vs 80 anos - típicas, p < 0,01). A razÉo do uso de bifosfonatos foi de 0,60 nas fracturas atípicas e de 0,01 nas típicas, traduzindo um odds ratio de 101,1 (p < 0,01).DiscussÉo: Na generalidade, os nossos resultados sÉo apoiados e estÉo de acordo com os estudos publicados referentes à ocorrência de fracturas femorais atípicas associadas à toma de bifosfonatos.ConclusÉo: Apesar do pequeno número de casos foi possível demonstrar a relaçÉo, estatisticamente, significativa entre as fracturas femorais atípicas e a toma de bifosfonatos. De notar que estas fracturas atípicas ocorreram em doentes, significativamente, mais jovens do que os doentes com fracturas típicas.

  10. Symptoms and reason for a medical visit in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Falagan, José Antonio; Garcia-Prim, Jose Maria; Valdes, Luis; Carreira, Jose Martin; Pose, Antonio; Canive, Juan Carlos; Anton, Diana; Garcia-Sanz, Maria Teresa; Puga, Amalia; Temes, Enrique; Lopez-Lopes, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Contexto: A Os doentes com o diagnóstico de cancro do pulmão estão habitualmente sintomáticos no momento do diagnóstico, sendo comum que o médico ou o doente não associem essa sintomatologia com a eventualidade de um tumor maligno. Objectivos: Este estudo teve como objectivo a análise dos sintomas de doentes com cancro do pulmão e sua relação com as características pessoais ou com a doença oncológica. Material e Métodos: Foi levado a cabo um estudo retrospectivo englobando todos os doentes com o diagnóstico de cancro do pulmão na Região de Saúde de Pontevedra (Espanha) ao longo de um período de três anos. São analisados os sintomas de apresentação do doente, o motivo de consulta e a concordância entre ambos ou com quaisquer factores correlacionados. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 358 doentes, com uma média etária de 68,7 anos, sendo 87% dos doentes do sexo masculino. Os sintomas iniciais mais comuns foram sintomas constitucionais em 30,4% dos casos, tosse em 20,9% e dor torácica, descrita por 12% dos doentes. O motivo de consulta mais frequente foi dispneia em 22,1% dos doentes, um achado acidental em 15,4% dos doentes e hemoptise em 12,8%. Observou-se uma associação moderada (coeficiente de correlação = 0,495) entre os sintomas iniciais e o motivo de consulta. Conclusões: Uma elevada percentagem de doentes com um diagnóstico de cancro do pulmão apresentou sintomas associados com o tumor no momento do diagnóstico, mesmo num estadio inicial da doença.

  11. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  12. [Development and Validation of the National Functionality Table for Chronic Diseases].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla Sandra; Banco, Jaime; Lopes, Manuel; Escoval, Ana; Nogueira, Paulo; Diniz, José Alexandre; Guerra, Fernando; Coelho, Anabela

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: A avaliação sistemática e registo da funcionalidade de pessoas adultas com doença crónica permite horizontalizar políticas de saúde, sociais e emprego de acordo com a funcionalidade; dotar os profissionais de saúde e sociais de um instrumento de recolha de informação, que complemente os registos de doença; medindo os ganhos de funcionalidade. O objetivo de estudo foi desenvolver uma Tabela Nacional de Funcionalidade para adultos em idade ativa com doença crónica, de acordo com a Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Material e Métodos: Recorremos a métodos quantitativos e qualitativos; revisão da literatura (17 artigos), grupo focal (nove peritos), painel de Delphi (16 peritos) e estudo exploratório (309 pessoas com doença crónica). Resultados: Na revisão da literatura, foram identificadas 67 atividades limitadas na população em estudo das quais foram selecionadas 40 atividades pelo grupo focal e 38 validadas pelo painel de Delphi. Discussão: Para testar as propriedades psicométricas comparamos o valor médio de todos os coeficientes possíveis do tipo consistência interna (split-half). Na análise da discriminação dos níveis de funcionalidade em amostras diferentes, verificou-se a igualdade de vari'ncias pelo teste de Levene e a igualdade de média por recurso ao teste t. De acordo com a observação e análise do coeficiente α de Cronbach, verificou-se que a Tabela Nacional de Funcionalidade proposta apresenta bons níveis de fiabilidade. Na análise de componentes principais, identificaram-se cinco dimensões. Conclusão: A referida tabela tem características psicométricas apropriadas no que diz respeito à consistência, fiabilidade e validade interna.

  13. Abundância química de simbióticas na direção do bojo galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Costa, R. D. D.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo da distribuição de metalicidades de gigantes K no Bojo indica um largo intervalo com valores entre 0.1 a 10 vezes o valor solar. As razões elementais Ca/Fe, Si/Fe, Mg/Fe são típicas de estrelas do halo, apontando para um processo rápido de enriquecimento, via estrelas masssivas (SN's tipo II). No entanto, este cenário não combina com os resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias do bojo tais como os de Ratag et al. (1992, A&A,255,270), Cuisinier et al.(2000, A&A,353, 543), Escudero e Costa (2001, A&A,380, 300),que obtêm abundâncias análogas às do disco. Neste cenário, o estudo de estrelas simbióticas possibilita uma abordagem particularmente apropriada para o problema das abundâncias químicas de estrelas de massa intermediária em estágios avançados da evoluçao estelar. Apresentamos aqui os resultados da determinacão das abundâncias do grupo do CNO numa extensa amostra de simbióticas do bojo. Aliás, com a disponibilidade de espectros no visível determinamos também abundâncias de Ar, Ne, S e He, fundamentais para analisar os processos de enriquecimento químico ocorridos ao longo da evolução estelar, bem como a evolução química do meio interestelar. Com os espectros UV do satelite IUE obtivemos abundâncias de C, necessárias no estudo da evolução dos sistemas. As relaçoes C/N-O/N mostram que o material nebular é produto do vento da componente gigante e não dos eventos de nova que às vezes acontecem nestes sistemas, como foi mostrado por Nussbaumer et al (1988,A&A,198,179). As abundâncias de Ar, S, Ne e O são compativeis com resultados de fontes no disco e bojo, seguindo o gradiente proposto por muitos autores na literatura a partir de diferentes objetos como cefeidas, nebulosas planetárias e anãs G. (CAPES,FAPESP,CNPq)

  14. [Identification and preservation of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts].

    PubMed

    Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António; Carvalho, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: É indispensável ter um conhecimento profundo da morfologia da glândula tiróide e das estruturas com ela relacionadas no compartimento anterior do pescoço, para minimizar a morbilidade decorrente da cirurgia da tiróide, nomeadamente a lesão das glândulas paratiróides e dos nervos laríngeos. Este estudo pretendeu identificar glândulas paratiróides em peças de cadáver, confirmando-as histologicamente.Material e Métodos: Foram usadas 20 peças de cadáver para simular tiroidectomias. Durante a dissecção, foram isoladas as glândulas tiróides e eventuais glândulas paratiróides, que foram submetidas a estudo histológico.Discussão: Foram dissecadas 20 peças de cadáver (regiões cervicais anteriores), sendo isolados 48 fragmentos que correspondiam a eventuais glândulas paratiróides, dos quais 35 foram confirmados histologicamente como sendo efectivamente paratiróides. Os 20 casos foram, então, divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o número de paratiróides confirmadas histologicamente. No primeiro grupo, constituído por 11 casos, todas as eventuais paratiróides foram confirmadas. No segundo grupo, constituído por seis casos, apenas algumas paratiróides foram confirmadas. No terceiro grupo, constituído por três casos, nenhuma das eventuais paratiróides isoladas era efectivamente paratiróide. Em sete das 20 glândulas tiróides isoladas, foram identificadas oito paratiróides no estudo histológico: quatro sub-capsulares; três extra-capsulares e uma intra-tiróideia. As dimensões das paratiróides não tinham relação estatisticamente significativa.Conclusão: O conhecimento da anatomia das estruturas do compartimento central do pescoço e das suas variações mais frequentes diminui, mas não elimina a morbilidade da cirurgia da tiróide, nomeadamente a excisão iatrogénica das paratiróides, cuja dificuldade de identificação foi evidenciada nas peças dissecadas.

  15. A Neurologist's Hard Day's Work: Impact of Inpatient Neurology Consultation in a Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Helena; Monteiro, Ana; Gomes, Tiago; Grilo, Miguel; Carvalho, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A consulta de neurologia realizada a doentes hospitalizados sob a responsabilidade de outras especialidades é um trabalho exigente mas muitas vezes sub-valorizado e pouco documentado. Este estudo pretendeu avaliar o impacto das consultas internas de neurologia num hospital português e, consequentemente, a performance do nosso Serviço no que diz respeito a esta matéria. Material e Métodos: Foi conduzido um estudo retrospetivo durante o ano de 2013 através da revisão de dados clínicos e demográficos. Resultados: Ao longo de um ano, os neurologistas no nosso Serviço avaliaram 632 doentes internados. As principais razões para o pedido de consulta foram a alteração do estado mental/comportamental, défice neurológico focal e crises epiléticas. Os pedidos de avaliação provieram principalmente de serviços médicos mas também de Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos e Intermédios. Os neurologistas sugeriram investigação adicional em cerca de 50% dos doentes; alterações terapêuticas foram efetuadas numa proporção semelhante de doentes. No final da consulta foi possível estabelecer um novo diagnóstico em 63% dos casos, sendo os mais frequentes manifestação neurológica de doenças sistémicas, epilepsia e doença vascular cerebral. Tal intervenção teve impacto no cuidado de 68% dos doentes. Discussão e Conclusão: Diferentes estudos na literatura suportam os nossos achados, enfatizando que esta atividade tem benefícios diretos no tratamento dos doentes e que é custo-efetiva. Os nossos resultados sugerem que a atividade de consultadoria interna da Neurologia resulta em intervenções úteis para a gestão clínica dos doentes internados.

  16. A Introdução de Astronomia Básica para Estudantes de 5 e 6 Séries do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Com intuito de despertar o interesse pelo estudo da astronomia, desenvolveu-se entre 2003 e 2006 no Centro Educacional do Serviço Social da Indústria situado no município de Mauá, São Paulo, um trabalho com duração de 12 meses para turmas de 11 e 12 anos, sendo três turmas por período (2003 / 2004, 2004 / 2005 e 2005 / 2006). O trabalho realizado, objetivando a introdução da astronomia básica com observações de constelações e das fases da Lua, permitindo estender-se a outros corpos celestes, iniciou-se com visita ao planetário Mundo Estelar, localizado no Ipiranga, São Paulo levantou-se a questão da importância do estudo da astronomia e foi lançado aos estudantes um trabalho de observação, com a proposta de localizar as constelações e compreender as fases da Lua, para o registro de tais observações, foram distribuídos mapas celestes, pastas, planilhas de anotações com lacunas para, constelações, fases da Lua e relatos, onde os estudantes acrescentaram pesquisas e relatórios. Os resultados dos 346 estudantes foram que 86,7% (300) concluíram a etapa de observação, destes 300 estudantes 43,3% (130) pesquisaram sobre as constelações e 19,0% (57) localizaram até quatro constelações. Dos 346 estudantes, 44,2% (153) registraram as fases da Lua equivocadamente e 10,4% (36) anexaram reportagens sobre astronomia. Conclui-se que os estudantes se dividiram em pesquisadores, sendo os estudantes que registraram e anexaram informações e, os observadores que preencheram as planilhas de observações, além de desenvolverem habilidades e competências relacionadas ao estudo da astronomia.

  17. [Relational and reproductive trajectories leading to adolescent pregnancy in Portugal: a national and regional characterization].

    PubMed

    Pires, Raquel; Pereira, Joana; Pedrosa, Anabela Araújo; Bombas, Teresa; Vilar, Duarte; Vicente, Lisa; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Este estudo pretendeu caracterizar as trajetórias relacionais e reprodutivas conducentes à gravidez na adolescência em Portugal, explorando a existência de especificidades regionais.Material e Métodos: O estudo decorreu entre 2008 e 2013 em 42 serviços de saúde públicos. A amostra, nacionalmente representativa, incluiu 459 grávidas com idades entre os 12 e os 19 anos. Os dados foram obtidos por autorrelato, através de uma ficha de caracterização construída para o efeito.Resultados: Independentemente de terem tido um (59,91%) ou múltiplos parceiros sexuais (40,09%), as adolescentes engravidaram de forma mais frequente numa relação de namoro, utilizando contraceção à data da conceção e tendo identificado a falha contracetiva que esteve na origem da gravidez (39,22%). A nível regional, outras trajetórias surgiram com elevada prevalência, refletindo opções como a decisão de engravidar (Alentejo/Açores), a não utilização de contraceção (Centro/Madeira) ou a sua utilização ineficaz sem que a falha contracetiva fosse identificada (Madeira). As relações de namoro revelaram-se maioritariamente duradouras (> 19 meses), com homens mais velhos (> 4 anos) e fora do sistema de ensino (75,16%); estes resultados foram particularmente expressivos quando a gravidez foi planeada.Discussão: O conhecimento gerado por este estudo reflete a necessidade de investir em abordagens preventivas que atendam às necessidades específicas das jovens de cada região e integrem a população masculina de maior risco.Conclusão: Os nossos resultados podem contribuir para o delineamento de políticas de saúde mais eficazes e para uma atuação multidisciplinar mais informada ao nível da educação sexual e do planeamento familiar nas diferentes regiões do país.

  18. [231 laparoscopic cholecystectomy in ambulatory: what results?].

    PubMed

    Goulart, André; Delgado, Margarida; Antunes, Maria Conceição; Braga Dos Anjos, João

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A colecistectomia laparoscópica é actualmente o gold standard no tratamento da patologia litiásica vesicular e colecistite aguda. A sua realização em regime de cirurgia de ambulatório permanece em discussão. O presente estudo tem por objectivo analisar a qualidade e segurança das colecistectomias laparoscópicas realizadas pela Unidade de Cirurgia de Ambulatório do Hospital de Braga e comparar os resultados com outros centros europeus que realizam colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório.Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional prospectivo de doentes submetidos a colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório durante 26 meses. Foram recolhidos dados referentes à demografia do doente, complicações peri e pós-operatórias, tempo cirúrgico e tempo de permanência no recobro e internamentos não programados.Resultados: Foram submetidos a colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório com pernoita (alta < 24h) 231 doentes. Três doentes tiveram intercorrências intra-operatórias com necessidade de conversão para laparotomia e quatro doentes foram internados após a cirurgia. O tempo médio de cirurgia foi de 58 minutos e o tempo médio de recobro de 19h19m. A morbilidade pósoperatória foi de 7,8% tendo, ocorrido dois internamentos não programados.Discussão: Uma das discussões que existe em torno da colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório é a necessidade de vigilância hospitalar durante a primeira noite após a cirurgia. Na nossa unidade, iniciamos a realização da colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório com pernoita hospitalar. Os resultados de mais de dois anos e 231 doentes operados a colecistectomia laparoscópica mostram que é uma técnica perfeitamente segura em regime de ambulatório.Conclusões: Os dados do estudo mostram que a colecistectomia laparoscópica é uma técnica segura em regime de ambulatório, com resultados semelhantes comparativamente com

  19. Quality of Recovery after Anesthesia: Validation of the Portuguese Version of the 'Quality of Recovery 15' Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Sá, Ana Carolina; Sousa, Gabriela; Santos, Alice; Santos, Cristina; Abelha, Fernando José

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O questionário "Quality of Recovery 15" tem sido utilizado para o estudo da qualidade de recuperação após anestesia. O objetivo deste estudo foi validar a versão Portuguesa do questionário "Quality of Recovery 15". Material e Métodos: Após aprovação pela Comissão de ética institucional, foi realizado um estudo de coorte prospectivo em doentes submetidos a cirurgia eletiva de junho a agosto de 2013. A versão portuguesa do "Quality of Recovery 15" foi aplicada antes da cirurgia (T0) e 24 h após a cirurgia (T1) em 170 doentes. Os doentes incapazes de dar consentimento informado ou com comprometimento cognitivo foram excluídos. Má qualidade de recuperação foi definida para pontuações de "Quality of Recovery 15" em T1 inferiores à média das pontuações de "Quality of Recovery 15" menos 1 desvio padrão. Confiabilidade e discordãncia entre observadores foram avaliadas por meio da correlação intraclasse. Testes não-paramétricos foram utilizados para comparações. Resultados: Observou-se uma correlação negativa entre pontuações de "Quality of Recovery 15" e tempo de internamento na Unidade Pós-Anestésica (p = -0,264, p = 0,004) e tempo de internamento hospitalar (p = -0,274, p = 0,004). Trinta e dois doentes (19%) tiveram má qualidade de recuperação. Os doentes com má qualidade de recuperação tinham mais frequentemente diabetes mellitus e hipertensão arterial e estavam medicados com antidepressivos com mais frequência. Os doentes com má qualidade de recuperação foram mais frequentemente submetidos a anestesia combinada e menos frequente a anestesia geral e locorregional (p = 0,008). O questionário teve boa consistência interna; a confiabilidade do teste-reteste foi boa. Discussão: A versão portuguesa do "Quality of Recovery 15" mostrou boa correlação com a versão original. Conclusão: Este questionário parece ser uma avaliação precisa e confiável para a qualidade de recuperação.

  20. Measuring emotional awareness from a cognitive-developmental perspective: Portuguese adaptation studies of the levels of emotional awareness scale.

    PubMed

    Torrado, Marco; Ouakinin, Sílvia; Lane, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A Escala de Níveis de Consciência Emocional (LEAS) foi desenvolvida para avaliar o constructo consciência emocional, numa perspectiva cognitivo-desenvolvimentista e influenciada pelas Teorias de Piaget e Werner. É composta por 20 situações ou cenários que evocam emoções e tem sido usada em múltiplas investigações nos domínios da regulação emocional, alexitimia e perturbações psiquiátricas. Trata-se de uma medida bem documentada, validada e precisa. Em virtude da sua extensão, alguns investigadores têm vindo a utilizar uma das formas paralelas que compõe a versão completa, a LEAS-A, sendo contudo notória a vacuidade de estudos que descrevam as qualidades psicométricas desta versão. Face à inexistência de uma medida de caracterização da organização da experiência emocional para a população portuguesa, desenvolveu-se a versão portuguesa da LEAS, caracterizaram-se diversos indicadores de precisão e validade, assim como para a versão reduzida LEAS-A. Materiais e Métodos: Foram desenvolvidos três estudos com estas versões, dois deles com recurso a estudantes universitários e um outro com uma amostra da população em geral. Resultados: A versão portuguesa demonstrou níveis elevados de precisão, mais robustos do que os encontrados em estudos de adaptação da escala noutros países. A LEAS-A apresentou bons níveis de precisão e indicadores de validade discriminante e concorrente. As pontuações obtidas na LEAS-A mostraram-se independentes da presença de afecto negativo e associaram-se significativamente a um estilo cognitivo externalizado, próprio do funcionamento alexitímico. Conclusões: As versões portuguesas da LEAS e da LEAS-A apresentam qualidades psicométricas muito adequadas, o que permite o seu uso científico. São discutidas as implicações da sua utilização nos contextos clínico e de investigação.

  1. [Weight control attempts among Portuguese adults: prevalence, motives and behavioral strategies].

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês; Andrade, Ana M; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Em Portugal não existem dados atuais sobre tentativas de controlo do peso nem sobre estratégias e motivos na base dessas tentativas na população. Este estudo teve como objectivos determinar a prevalência das tentativas de perda/manutenção do peso e identificar as estratégias comportamentais e os motivos associados, numa amostra representativa da população adulta portuguesa. Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal constituído por 1098 indivíduos adultos. A informação sociodemográfica, os dados antropométricos e as estratégias e motivos associados à perda/manutenção do peso foram recolhidos por entrevista telefónica. Resultados: Cerca de 44% dos adultos portugueses (53% de mulheres e 35% dos homens) estão ativamente a tentar controlar o peso. Salienta-se que 22% das mulheres com peso normal tentam perder peso e que 53% dos homens e 34% das mulheres com peso excessivo não o fazem. Entre os homens, 49% com nível educacional superior estão a tentar controlar o peso versus 32% com nível educacional básico. A estratégia mais frequentemente adoptada para gerir o peso é o consumo regular de hortícolas e os motivos mais referenciados são melhorar a saúde/prevenir doenças e melhorar o bem-estar. Discussão e Conclusão: Mais de metade das mulheres e cerca de um terço dos homens em Portugal estão ativamente a tentar gerir o seu peso, utilizando estratégias comportamentais consistentes com as recomendações de saúde pública. Os motivos de saúde e bem-estar predominam sobre os restantes. Este estudo contribui para o conhecimento da gestão do peso em Portugal, alertando para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de prevenção da obesidade adequadas ao perfil da população.

  2. Assessment of Suicidal Behavior in a Psychiatric Emergency Room in Lisbon.

    PubMed

    Marques, João Gama; Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Sampaio, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Alguns estudos têm alertado para a sobrecarga de tentativas de suicídio nas urgências médicas. Neste estudocaracterizamos os doentes suicidas numa urgência médica portuguesa. Material e Métodos: Durante três anos, todos os doentes observados pelo primeiro autor, em urgências médicas, após tentativa suicida, foram incluídos no estudo. A intencionalidade da tentativa suicida foi determinada com a Pierce Suicide Intent Scale. O seguimento foi registado recorrendo ao processo clínico, e o nível de satisfação a chamada telefónica. Resultados: Dos 120 doentes incluídos 70,8% eram mulheres e a média de idades foi 42,35 anos. A intencionalidade suicida (Pierce Suicide Intent Scale) foi baixa em 30,1%, média em 59,3% e elevada em 10,6%. Os principais preditores de intencionalidade suicida foram: género masculino (p < 0,001), história familiar de suicídio (p < 0,01), divórcio ou viuvez (p < 0,013) e doença mental grave (p < 0,015). Em 41,6% dos doentes não se apurou seguimento. Quanto à satisfação, apenas 19,5% deram resposta válida: 2,7% 'ligeiramente satisfeito', 4,4% 'moderadamente satisfeito', e 12,5% 'muito satisfeito'. Discussão: A Pierce Suicide Intent Scale é um instrumento útil na avaliação do comportamento suicida na urgência médica. Ocomportamento suicida de elevada intencionalidade está relacionado com género masculino, problemas sociais e antecedentes psiquiátricos pessoais e familiares. Conclusão: Os registos administrativos da urgência médica são ainda pouco rigorosos. As variáveis relacionadas com intencionalidade suicida são as mesmas que são descritas noutros países. Dos doentes a que conseguimos chegar, um quinto mostrou-se satisfeito com o seguimento. Mais estudos são necessários para compreender o comportamento suicida em Portugal.

  3. Looking for the Perfect Mentor.

    PubMed

    Sá, Ana Pinheiro; Teixeira-Pinto, Cristina; Veríssimo, Rafaela; Vilas-Boas, Andreia; Firmino-Machado, João

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A formação médica pós-graduada consiste num processo complexo no qual os orientadores assumem um papel fundamental. Apesar da sua importância, pouco se sabe sobre os orientadores dos internos portugueses. O presente estudo pretende caracterizar os orientadores de formação em Medicina Interna em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizado um estudo observacional, transversal e de carácter analítico, através um questionário online anónimo onde foram avaliadas as características demográficas dos orientadores, o seu percurso na Medicina Interna e envolvimento com o processo formativo. Resultados: Dos 213 questionários válidos (taxa de resposta estimada de 28,4%), a média global da satisfação com o orientador encontra-se nos 4,52 pontos (± 1,33), sendo a relação entre interno e orientador classificada nos 4,86 ± 1,04 pontos. O orientador âidealâfoi caracterizado como dedicado e responsável (4,9 ± 1,37 pontos), com domínio de competências práticas (4,8 ± 1,12 pontos) e teóricas (4,8 ± 1,07 pontos). Foram identificados como preditores da satisfação dos internos com o orientador a relação estabelecidaentre ambos, o envolvimento do orientador na formação, o seu dinamismo, inovação e disponibilidade [modelo explicativo de 82,5% da satisfação (R2 = 0,83; R2 a = 0,82)]. Discussão: O orientador desempenha um papel preponderante no sucesso da formação pós-graduada. Os internos de Medicina Interna em Portugal encontram-se globalmente satisfeitos com os seus orientadores e valorizam preferencialmente as suas capacidades pedagógicas. Conclusão: Este estudo aponta para a importância do orientador de formação na satisfação do interno com o seu internato, alertando para a necessidade de investir nos orientadores como forma de investimento na formação médica pós-graduada.

  4. Off-label and unlicensed utilization of drugs in a Brazilian pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Pereira Gomes, Vanessa; Melo da Silva, Kédma; Oliveira Chagas, Suely; dos Santos Magalhães, Igor Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Describir los patrones de utilizacion de medicamentos off-label y sin licencia en un hospital pediatrico de Brasil. Métodos: La investigacion consistio en un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y de corte transversal. Resultados: Un total de 1.158 medicamentos fueron prescritos para 320 pacientes, que representan 65 farmacos diferentes. En cuanto a la clasificacion de la utilizacion de medicamentos, la mayoria de los medicamentos fueron prescritos como en la ficha tecnica (57,2%), seguido off-label (36,4%) y por sin licencia (6,3%). Las prevalencias de uso sin licencia y off-label de drogas en la poblacion estudiada fueron 20,9 y 77,8%, respectivamente. La polifarmacia fue muy asociada a ambos off-label y el regimen sin licencia (OR 12,9; IC del 95%: 3,07 a 54,2 y OR 3,68; IC del 95%: 2,02 a 6,69, respectivamente), mientras que los ninos en edad preescolar fueron menos propensos a prescripcion sin licencia (OR 0,39; 95% CI 0,19-,79). El sexo y la duracion de la hospitalizacion no estaban relacionadas con estos resultados. Conclusiones: Son necesarios mas estudios para verificar el impacto de este patron en la ocurrencia de eventos adversos en los medicamentos.

  5. [Brazilian Nursing Magazine--a history of resistance].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, I; Lopes, M G; da Silva, M T

    1998-01-01

    Part of the conquest of ANEDB, since 1920 the REBEn itself inserting in the professional dispute about the diffusion of the nursing facts. Ought to Edith Magalhães Fraenkel and Rachel Haddock Lobo the inspiration and initiative for the creation, since 1929, within the participation in the I Quadrienal of ICN congress, in Montreal where were discussed facilities, difficulties and advance of nursing newspaper. The ANNAES of nursing, edited by the newspaper "Journal do Brasil--R.J.", in 1932, was the precursor of the REBEn. With her existence, readers, students and Professionals greediness for extend his specifics knowledge, constructors of the historic documentation and the knowledge profession, responsible by the scientific and technologic development and by the concept emission of different period of the Brazilian nursing, has learned to take advantage on his benefits. With more of 50 volumes and 200 edited copies the REBEn has acquired a reference status in the domestic and international of health and human science areas. Already consolidate; spread dissertation results, thesis, and work papers, presented or showed in Brazilian congresses of nursing. It's the most consulted newspaper as source and field scientific investigation. It provides the readers growth, organizer in the editorial process and counselors formation "ad hoc" through the permanent criticism and evaluation.

  6. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  7. The Optical Depth Sensor (ODS) for Mars atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, D.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Sarkissian, A.; Foujols, T.

    2015-10-01

    A small and sophisticated optical depth sensor (ODS) has been designed to work in both Martian and Earth environments. The principal goal of ODS is to carry out the opacity due to the Martian dust as well as to characterize the high altitude clouds at twilight, crucial parameters in understanding of Martian meteorology. The instrument was initially designed for the failed MARS96 Russian mission, and also was included in the payload of several other missions [1]. Until recently, it was selected (NASA/ESA AO) in the payload of the atmospheric package DREAMS onboard the MARS 2016 mission. But following a decision of the CNES, it is no more included in the payload. In order to study the performance of ODS under a wide range of conditions as well as its capable to provide daily measurements of both dust optical thickness and high altitude clouds properties, the instrument has participated in different terrestrial campaigns. A good performance of ODS prototype (Figure 1) on cirrus clouds detection and in dust opacity estimation was previously archived in Africa during 2004-2005 and in Brasil from 2012 to nowadays. Moreover, a campaign in the arctic is expected before 2016 where fifteen ODSs will be part of an integrated observing system over the Arctic Ocean, allowing test the ODS performance in extreme conditions. In this presentation we present main principle of the retrieval, the instrumental concept, the result of the tests performed and the principal objectives of ODS in Mars.

  8. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF); the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente). From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) and the Family Health Strategy.

  9. Petrophysical analysis of limestone rocks by nuclear logging and 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. F. S.; Lima, I.; Ferrucio, P. L.; Abreu, C. J.; Borghi, L.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    This study presents the pore-space system analysis of the 2-ITAB-1-RJ well cores, which were drilled in the São José do Itaboraí Basin, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. The analysis presented herein has been developed based on two techniques: nuclear logging and 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography. Nuclear logging has been proven to be the technique that provides better quality and more quantitative information about the porosity using radioactive sources. The Density Gamma Probe and the Neutron Sonde used in this work provide qualitative information about bulk density variations and compensated porosity of the geological formation. The samples obtained from the well cores were analyzed by microtomography. The use of this technique in sedimentary rocks allows quantitative evaluation of pore system and generates high-resolution 3D images (˜microns order). The images and data obtained by microtomography were integrated with the response obtained by nuclear logging. The results obtained by these two techniques allow the understanding of the pore-size distribution and connectivity, as well as the porosity values. Both techniques are important and they complement each other.

  10. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion. PMID:26787920

  11. Coliforms and Salmonella in seawater near to domestic sewage sources in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Melo, M T; Vieira, R H; Saker-Sampaio, S; Hofer, E

    1997-12-01

    The bacteriological conditions of the coastal region of Fortaleza (Ceará, Brasil), including the coastal zones of the Ceará and Cocó rivers, were examined. The study was conducted during June, September and December 1993, and March 1994. The region was divided into two areas: (i) Direct Influence Area (DIA), consisting of 20 sampling stations located near to discharge zones of the submarine pipeline system, where collections were carried out at the surface, and (ii) Indirect Influence Area (IIA), located near to the coastal zone, including Barra do Ceará, Kartódromo, Volta de Jurema, Mucuripe, Farol and Caça e Pesca beaches, totalling 26 sampling stations. The most probable number (MPN) of both total and fecal coliforms in DIA was positive only in station number 6, near to the sewage discharge exit. The following bacteria were identified: Citrobacter sp., Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli. Kartódromo beach was contaminated throughout the sampling period. Results of total fecal MPN was essentially lower than 3.0 x 10(2) coliforms/100 ml at Caça e Pesca beach. In December, at both DIA and IIA, Salmonella was identified in several samples. In DIA, the spatial distribution for Salmonella suggests that there should be a coastal sea current from east to west along the coastline. In IIA, Salmonella was identified at Kartódromo and Farol beaches throughout the sampling period.

  12. [Cloning: necessary reflections on the imaginary].

    PubMed

    Minahim, María Auxiliadora

    2009-01-01

    The article covers the innumerable reasons given for using cloning for therapeutic and reproductive purposes. The most commonly used argument in favour of the procedure has been that of preserving human dignity, which would include the wide exercising of personal autonomy without restrictions of an ethical nature. This view is countered by questions relating to the use of the technique, namely self-determination and the loss of the integrity of the species, which would include the transformation of a generation through the production of human beings and tissues. It must also be made clear that therapeutic cloning (which is carried out through the use of stem cells) is not yet a reality in the scientific world, with the result that the procedure that is supposedly necessary, which argues in favour of the destruction of the young embryo is misleading, as are also certain discourses used to refer to the theme and the science. Criminal law, on prohibiting this practice is anticipating it becoming a reality, protecting legal rights that affect supra-individual interests, such as the destruction of the young embryo, one of the issues of concern to ADIN (Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad en Brasil - Direct Action on Unconstitutionality in Brazil) 3510-0.

  13. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate. PMID:26602356

  14. PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, Y Paul

    2008-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami.Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina.

  15. Multi-technical analysis as a tool to investigate structural species in the "replica" of First Mass in Brazil painting by Sebastião Vieira Fernandes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Thiago G.; Ritcher, Fabio A.; de M. Correia, Marcelino D.; Escorteganha, Márcia R.; Santiago, Alina G.; Gonçalves, Samantha; Spudeit, Daniel A.; Micke, Gustavo A.; Miranda, Fábio S.

    2016-09-01

    Constituent materials of the painting "Primeira Missa no Brasil" by Sebastião Vieira Fernandes, which belongs to the Historical Museum of Santa Catarina, were analyzed by using imaging through UV-induced visible luminescence, FTIR, μ-FTIR, EDX and GC-MS with the aim of characterizing the materials and correlating them with Victor Meirelles' pigment elemental analysis reported in the literature. The images obtained under ultraviolet light showed alterations in the painting's aging process and instances of possible repainting confirmed by μ-FTIR, where characteristic bands of barium sulfate were identified. EDS analyses showed that there is a correlation between the elemental composition of pigments used by Meirelles and Fernandes, especially for lead, associated with lead white and proven by FTIR, used for giving a light tone to the paint, and found in all the analyzed samples. The GC-MS results revealed the presence of the mixture of linseed and animal oil as the main binding components with the predominance of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linolenic acids.

  16. A halo event created at 200 m above the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, N. M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R. H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of analysis on a cosmic-ray induced nuclear event with the total visible energy approx. = 1300 TeV which is characterized by the central (halo) part of a strong energy concentration and the outer part of a large lateral spread are presented. The event (named as P06) was detected in the 18th two-storied emulsion chamber exposed at Chacaltaya by Brasil-Japan Collaboration. As the nuclear emulsion plates were inserted at every layer of the concerned blocks in the upper and the lower chambers together with RR- and N-type X-ray films, it is possible to study the details of the event. Some results on P06 have already been reported 1 based on the general measurement of opacity on N-type X-ray films: (1) the total energy of halo is approx. = 1000 TeV; (2) the shower transition reaches its maximum at approx. 16 cu; and (3) the radius of halo is 6.5 mm (at the level of 10 to the 6th power electrons/sq.cm.). The results in more details will be described.

  17. Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where 222Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and 222Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3). PMID:24729565

  18. Impact of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in reducing physician shortage in Brazilian Primary Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Sábado Nicolau; Stralen, Ana Cristina de Sousa van; Cella, Joana Natalia; Wan Der Maas, Lucas; Carvalho, Cristiana Leite; Faria, Erick de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program (PMM) was put in place in Brazil aiming to reduce inequalities in access to Primary Healthcare. Based on diverse evidence that pointed to a scenario of profound shortage of doctors in the country, one of its central thrusts was emergency provision of these professionals in vulnerable areas, referred to as the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) Project. The article analyses the impact of the PMM in reducing shortage of physicians in Brazilian municipalities. To do this, it uses the Primary Healthcare Physicians Shortage Index, which identifies and measures the shortage in the periods of March 2003 and September 2015, before and after implementation of the program. The results show that there was a substantial increase in the supply of physicians in primary healthcare in the period, which helped reduce the number of municipalities with shortage from 1,200 to 777. This impact also helped reduce inequalities between municipalities, but the inequities in distribution persisted. It was also found that there was a reduction in the regular supply of doctors made by municipalities, suggesting that these were being simply substituted by the supply coming from the program. Thus, an overall situation of insecurity in care persists, reflecting the dependence of municipalities on the physician supply from the federal government.

  19. Mini-winkler extractor and pitfall trap as complementary methods to sample formicidae.

    PubMed

    Silva, F H O; Delabie, J H C; dos Santos, G B; Meurer, E; Marques, M I

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps as appropriate and complementary methods to sample ant communities in the phytophysiognomy mosaic in the Poconé Pantanal region, state of Mato Grosso, Brasil. Seven units were studied for landscape, located within a 25 km(2) collection area, formed by thirty 250-m transects, at 1-km intervals in a 5 × 5 km area. Five collection points were marked in each transect at 50-m intervals, totaling 150 points. A collection was made at each sampling point with mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps. Using the mini-Winkler extractor, 1,088 individuals were collected distributed in 20 genera and 55 species, with Solenopsis invicta Buren and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 as the most frequent ants. Using pitfall traps, 2,726 individuals distributed in 24 genera and 48 species were sampled and Dorymyrmex (gr. pyramicus) sp.1 and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 were the most frequent species. A significant difference between the methods was observed in measured species number. The Principal coordinates analysis discriminated two species groups exclusively sampled by the mini-Winkler extractor and another by the pitfall methods. Therefore, it was concluded that these methods were complementary for ant diversity inventories in the Poconé Pantanal region.

  20. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage of dental composites by an optical method.

    PubMed

    Weig, K M; Magalhães Filho, T R; Costa Neto, C A; Costa, M F

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes an alternative methodology for evaluating polymerization shrinkage of dental composites using an advanced video extensometer (AVE) system. This equipment measures the displacement between two points drawn on a tooth's wall without requiring physical contact with the tooth. By doing so, the polymerization process was monitored by the cusp deflection. This technique was used in human and bovine teeth, where the cavities were prepared under controlled conditions so that the volume of the composite used was the same in both types of teeth. After the cavity preparation, the specimens were acid etched, washed and dried, and then the adhesive was applied and polymerized. The composite was then inserted into the cavity. Polymerization was performed with two different light polymerizing units (LD Max and Optilight Max - Gnatus do Brasil), and the displacement curve of the tooth cusp was recorded for a period of 400 s. After a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the technique was capable of evaluating shrinkage by the deflection from the cusps and that the human and bovine teeth do not react in a similar manner towards the polymerization shrinkage of composites.

  1. Modeling pollution potential input from the drainage basin into Barra Bonita reservoir, São Paulo - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, R B; Novo, E M L M

    2015-05-01

    In this study multi-criteria modeling tools are applied to map the spatial distribution of drainage basin potential to pollute Barra Bonita Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brasil. Barra Bonita Reservoir Basin had undergone intense land use/land cover changes in the last decades, including the fast conversion from pasture into sugarcane. In this respect, this study answers to the lack of information about the variables (criteria) which affect the pollution potential of the drainage basin by building a Geographic Information System which provides their spatial distribution at sub-basin level. The GIS was fed by several data (geomorphology, pedology, geology, drainage network and rainfall) provided by public agencies. Landsat satellite images provided land use/land cover map for 2002. Ratings and weights of each criterion defined by specialists supported the modeling process. The results showed a wide variability in the pollution potential of different sub-basins according to the application of different criterion. If only land use is analyzed, for instance, less than 50% of the basin is classified as highly threatening to water quality and include sub basins located near the reservoir, indicating the importance of protection areas at the margins. Despite the subjectivity involved in the weighing processes, the multi-criteria analysis model allowed the simulation of scenarios which support rational land use polices at sub-basin level regarding the protection of water resources.

  2. Vitamin d deficiency is associated with insulin resistance independent of intracellular calcium, dietary calcium and serum levels of parathormone, calcitriol and calcium in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Rocha, Tatiana Martins; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Hay evidencias de que la deficiencia de vitamina D se asocia con mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. Sin embargo, no se sabe si esta asociación es independiente de calcio en la dieta, el calcio intracelular y los niveles séricos de hormona paratiroidea, calcitriol y calcio. Objetivos: investigar la relación independiente de la deficiencia de vitamina D con resistencia a la insulina, el perfil lipídico, el estado inflamatorio, la presión arterial y la función endotelial. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado con 73 mujeres pre menopáusicas sanas brasileñas con edad 18-50 años. Todos los participantes fueron evaluados para: niveles séricos de 25 hidroxivitamina D, parámetros antropométricos, la composición corporal, metabolismo del calcio, resistencia a la insulina, el perfil de lipoproteínas, estado inflamatorio, la presión arterial y la función endotelial. La función endotelial fue evaluada por el índice de hiperemia reactiva mediante el uso de Endo-PAT 2000®. Las mujeres fueron estratificados en dos grupos: con deficiencia de vitamina D (25 hidroxivitamina D.

  3. Serum and liver lipids distributions in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat treated with diet containing yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) flour.

    PubMed

    Rozeno Pessoa, Letícia; Rêgo, Thaís de Salgado; Asht, Louise da Silva; Monteiro, Igor Cabral Coutinho do Rêgo; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares; Feijó, Márcia Barreto da Silva; Correia-Santos, André Manoel; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: La enfermedad hepática como una de las principales causas de mortalidad en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Hay un interés para investigar las propiedades hipolipemiantes de ñame. El objetivo era evaluar el papel de ñame brasileña (Dioscorea bulbifera) en suero y los niveles hepáticos de triglicéridos y colesterol, en las ratas diabéticas . Métodos: Las ratas se dividieron en tres grupos: control (C), diabéticos (DM); Diabetic ñame (DMA), se trata con dieta que contenía 25 g / 100 g de harina de ñame. Después de 5 semanas de experimento, la glucosa, la insulina, la grasa gonadal y la masa del hígado fueron evaluados. Se cuantificaron las concentraciones de suero e hígado de los triglicéridos y las concentraciones de colesterol. Se determinaron los tioles totales de hígado. Resultados: Después de las 5 semanas, experimental ducha grupos (p.

  4. Carbon emissions in energy production and use in the tropical region: The case of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Porto, R.M.G. Jr.; Peres, F.M. Jr.; Cecchi, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    The Brasil is one of the most important region in the tropics. An efficient management in energy use and production in this state of Rio de Janeiro could be an excellent model to others development regions in the tropics. In 1994, the State of the Rio de Janeiro represented around 13 millions of inhabitants, an economy of 42 billions US$ (gross national products), the biggest brazilian producer in petroleum and natural gas and a large market to energy products (electric power and fossil fuels). This state was responsible for 8.6 millions tonnes of carbon in CO2 emissions in 1994, issue to combustion of petroleum products (65.9%), coal (27.8%), natural gas (3.7%), charcoal and fuelwood (2.6%). The principals responsibles to these carbon emissions are the industrial activities (40%), the transport (35.7%) and energy production (12%). The main objectives of this work are analyze the carbon emissions in energy production and use in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 1994, the possibilities to reduction this amount and the perspectives to renewable energy.

  5. Identification of phases in the interaction layer between U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, C.L. Komar; Arico, S.F.; Mirandou, M.; Balart, S.N.; Gribaudo, L.M.

    2008-07-15

    Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1wt.% Si) at 550 deg. C. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layer are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al, Si) with 25at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This last phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with XRD Synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brasil. (author)

  6. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  7. Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where 222Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and 222Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3).

  8. The growth and contamination mechanism of the Cana Brava layered mafic-ultramafic complex: new field and geochemical evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanardi, Tommaso; Girardi, Vicente A. V.; Correia, Ciro T.; Sinigoi, Silvano; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    The Cana Brava complex is the northernmost of three layered complexes outcropping in the Goiás state (central Brasil). New field and geochemical evidences suggest that Cana Brava underwent hyper- to subsolidus deformation during its growth, acquiring a high-temperature foliation that is generally interpreted as the result of a granulite-facies metamorphic event. The increase along the stratigraphy of the incompatible elements abundances (LREE, Rb, Ba) and of the Sr isotopic composition, coupled with a decrease in ɛNd(790), indicate that the complex was contaminated by the embedded xenoliths from the Palmeirópolis Sequence. The geochemical data suggest that the contamination occurred along the entire magma column during the crystallization of the Upper Mafic Zone, with in situ variations determined by the abundance and composition of the xenoliths. These features of the Cana Brava complex point to an extremely similarity with the Lower Sequence of the most known Niquelândia intrusion (the central of the three complexes). This, together with the evidences that the two complexes have the same age (c.a. 790 Ma) and their thickness and units decrease northwards suggests that Cana Brava and Niquelândia are part of a single giant Brasilia body grown through several melt impulses.

  9. A taxonomic revision of small neotropical saurian Malarias allied to Plasmodium minasense.

    PubMed

    Telford, S R

    1979-01-01

    Saurian malaria species which produce schizonts smaller than normal erythrocyte nuclei, with 4-8 merozoietes and gametocytes equal to or smaller than erythrocyte nuclei in size, parasitizing hosts of the lizard families Scincidae, Iguanidae and Teiidae in the Neotropics are considered to be Plasmodium minasense Carini and Rudolph, 1912. Subspecific designations are given to distinctive populations parasitizing different host species: P. minasense minasense is recognized from the type host, Mabuya mabouya of Brasil; P. minasense carinii Leger and Mouzels, 1917 from Iguana iguana of coastal South America; P. minasense anolisi subsp. nov. from Anolis limifrons of Panama; P. minasense capitoi subsp. nov. from Anolis capito of Panama; P. minasense plicae subsp. nov. from Plica umbra of Guyana; P. minasense tegui subsp. nov. from Tupinambis teguixin of Venezuela; and P. minasense diminutivum Telford, 1973, new combination, from Ameiva ameiva of Panama. Plasmodium rhadinurum Thompson and Huff, 1944 is recognized as a distinct species at present on the basis of possessing schizonts of different shape, asexual stages with filamentous projections in most portions of its range, and larger gametocytes, as well as apparent sympatry with P. minasense carinii in some areas. PMID:533109

  10. Coliforms and Salmonella in seawater near to domestic sewage sources in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Melo, M T; Vieira, R H; Saker-Sampaio, S; Hofer, E

    1997-12-01

    The bacteriological conditions of the coastal region of Fortaleza (Ceará, Brasil), including the coastal zones of the Ceará and Cocó rivers, were examined. The study was conducted during June, September and December 1993, and March 1994. The region was divided into two areas: (i) Direct Influence Area (DIA), consisting of 20 sampling stations located near to discharge zones of the submarine pipeline system, where collections were carried out at the surface, and (ii) Indirect Influence Area (IIA), located near to the coastal zone, including Barra do Ceará, Kartódromo, Volta de Jurema, Mucuripe, Farol and Caça e Pesca beaches, totalling 26 sampling stations. The most probable number (MPN) of both total and fecal coliforms in DIA was positive only in station number 6, near to the sewage discharge exit. The following bacteria were identified: Citrobacter sp., Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli. Kartódromo beach was contaminated throughout the sampling period. Results of total fecal MPN was essentially lower than 3.0 x 10(2) coliforms/100 ml at Caça e Pesca beach. In December, at both DIA and IIA, Salmonella was identified in several samples. In DIA, the spatial distribution for Salmonella suggests that there should be a coastal sea current from east to west along the coastline. In IIA, Salmonella was identified at Kartódromo and Farol beaches throughout the sampling period. PMID:9608520

  11. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  12. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes. PMID:17627439

  13. Impact of South Atlantic Anomaly on the SPOT and Envisat DORIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr; Dousa, Jan; Filler, Vratislav; Hugentobler, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) refers to the area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, leading to increased levels of cosmic radiation at lower altitudes than elsewhere over the surface. A strong effect of the SAA on the quality of Jason-1 DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) observations is well known and several relevant analyses has been published. However, the significant effect of SAA on the other DORIS satellites has not been known. The goal of the paper is to bring a detail analyses of possible SAA effect on the SPOT -2,4,5 and the Envisat DORIS observations. The resulted zenithal total delay (ZTD), oscillator frequency offset and station coordinates, estimated using single-satellite data processing, are presented and discussed. A DORIS-GNSS ZTD comparison is done in addition. A significant bias was detected when processing SPOT-5 data for South American stations Santiago in Chille, Cachoeira Paulista in Brasil and Arequipa in Peru. Even if the detected bias is much lower than in case of Jason-1 and doesn't degrade the DORIS observation so strongly, possible future approach of the SPOT-5 SAA effect elimination (model of oscillator behavior or exclusion of the most corrupted observations) could improve the DORIS solutions. A comparable level of SAA-related effect was not detected for any other of the analyzed satellites.

  14. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  15. SAOZ balloon profiles for the validation of OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS at various latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutail, F.

    2005-08-01

    SAOZ is a small remote sensing instrument looking at solar occultation during the ascent of the balloon and during sunset (or sunrise) from floating altitude. It is a UV-visible spectrometer measuring O3 and NO2 and in its enhanced UV version, BrO. The vertical profiles, retrieved by onion peeling, have a typical vertical resolution of 1.5 km. Since the launch of ODIN in 2001 seventeen SAOZ balloon flights have been performed at various latitudes and seasons: a - nine flights at mid-latitudes in summer and autumn from southern France (43°N) within the BALODIN/CNES and ESABC programs and from Vanscoy (52°N) in Saskatchevan within the MANTRA 2002 and MANTRA 2004 Canadian campaigns; b - four flights in the Arctic from Kiruna in Sweden (67°N) in winter, inside and outside the polar vortex as well as in summer; c - and finally four flights in the tropics from Bauru in Brasil (22°S) in summer within the pre-HIBISCUS and HIBISCUS/VINTERSOL EU project. Comparison with coincident OSIRIS/ODIN, SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and GOMOS/ENVISAT ozone, NO2 and BrO profiles are presented.

  16. Behavior and identification of ephemeral sand dunes at the backshore zone using video images.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro V; Pereira, Pedro S; Calliari, Lauro J; Ellis, Jean T

    2016-09-01

    The backshore zone is transitional environment strongly affected by ocean, air and sand movements. On dissipative beaches, the formation of ephemeral dunes over the backshore zone plays significant contribution in the beach morphodynamics and sediment budget. The aim of this work is to describe a novel method to identify ephemeral dunes in the backshore region and to discuss their morphodynamic behavior. The beach morphology is identified using Argus video imagery, which reveals the behavior of morphologies at Cassino Beach, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Daily images from 2005 to 2007, topographic profiles, meteorological data, and sedimentological parameters were used to determine the frequency and pervasiveness of these features on the backshore. Results indicated that coastline orientation relative to the dominant NE and E winds and the dissipative morphological beach state favored aeolian sand transport towards the backshore. Prevailing NE winds increase sand transportation to the backshore, resulting in the formation of barchans, transverse, and barchanoid-linguiod dunes. Precipitation inhibits aeolian transport and ephemeral dune formation and maintains the existing morphologies during strong SE and SW winds, provided the storm surge is not too high.

  17. [The registered nurse and the battle against tuberculosis in Brazil: 1961-1966].

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Hercília Regina do Amaral; de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Lourenço, Lucia Helena Silva Corrêa

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances that promoted the implementation of the new Program for Action Against Tuberculosis in Brazil (Programa de Ação na Luta contra a Tuberculose no Brasil) and discuss the strategies used by registered nurses from the Santa Maria State Hospital, Guanabara State, to adjust nursing care to the new program against tuberculosis. This was performed through document research, interviews, and statements from nurses working at the time of the reorganization. Documents were analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic power by Pierre Bourdieu, and included written and oral documents as well as secondary sources. The reorganization of the nursing service was performed under the leadership of a nurse whose symbolic capital assigned power and prestige to implement the necessary changes. It is concluded that the work of that nurse made it possible to implement the new program and contributed to establishing the position and importance of the registered nurse in providing care to individuals with tuberculosis, for prevention and cure.

  18. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Araujo, C R; Moreira, M A; Lana-Peixoto, M A

    2006-09-01

    This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only) published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed). A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03). Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  19. Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis human cases along the Brazilian border with Peru and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; dos Santos, Ana Paula de Azevedo; Freitas, Rui Alves; de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Rodrigues, Moreno Souza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we identified the phlebotomine sandfly vectors involved in the transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil, which is located on the Brazil-Peru-Bolivia frontier. The genotyping of Leishmania in phlebotomines was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 6,850 sandflies comprising 67 species were captured by using CDC light traps in rural areas of the municipality. Three sandfly species were found in the state of Acre for the first time: Lutzomyia georgii, Lu. complexa and Lu. evangelistai. The predominant species was Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi and Lu. davisi (total 59.27%). 32 of 368 pools were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA (16 pools corresponding to Lu. davisi, and 16 corresponding to Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi), with a minimal infection prevalence of 1.85% in Lu. davisi and 2.05% in Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi. The Leishmania species found showed maximum identity with L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in both phlebotomine species. Based on these results and similar scenarios previously described along the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia tri-border, the studied area must take into consideration the possibility of Lu. davisi and Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi as probable vectors of ACL in this municipality. PMID:27304023

  20. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; de Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health – ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system’s resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  1. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  2. La enumeración de la soltería femenina en los censos de población: sesgo y propuesta de corrección

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Esteve, Albert; Garcia, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo investigar el efecto que la disolución de las uniones consensuales tiene en los niveles de soltería que proporciona el Censo de Población, niveles derivados de la variable estado civil. Para ello comparamos los datos censales con los de la Encuestas de Demografía y Salud (de ahora en adelante DHS) en aquellos países y años para los que disponemos de ambas fuentes en el mismo año o años adyacentes (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia y Perú). Los resultados muestran claramente que las proporciones de nunca unidas derivadas de la variable censal ’Estado civil’ son sistemáticamente más elevadas que las estimadas a partir de las DHS. La razón de esta sobreestimación obedece al hecho de que personas que estuvieron en unión libre en el pasado se declaran solteras en el momento del Censo. La elevada proporción de mujeres solteras que tienen hijos según el Censo es una prueba de ello y a su vez una solución efectiva para corregir el sesgo. PMID:25593515

  3. EL PROGRAMA CITI: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA LA CAPACITACIÓN EN ÉTICA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul

    2011-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina PMID:21687817

  4. Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: a new emerging neurotropic virus.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El actual brote epidemico por virus Zika se inicio en 2015 y en la actualidad afecta a 31 paises y territorios en America. Se revisan los aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos asociados con la infeccion por virus Zika. Desarrollo. Desde 2007, 55 paises de America, Asia, Africa y Oceania han detectado transmision local del virus. La actual epidemia ha afectado a casi 1,5 millones de personas en Brasil. El 80% de los casos son asintomaticos. La enfermedad por virus Zika cursa con fiebre, exantema maculopapular, artralgias y conjuntivitis no purulenta. Los sintomas suelen ser autolimitados y duran una semana. Se ha descrito un aumento de la incidencia de los casos de microcefalia, lesiones retinianas y sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociados con el virus Zika. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociado al Zika en la Polinesia es una variante axonal motora pura. El ARN del virus Zika se ha identificado en muestras de tejido cerebral, placenta y liquido amniotico de niños con microcefalia y en perdidas fetales de mujeres infectadas por Zika durante el embarazo. Se recomienda realizar la prueba de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante transcriptasa inversa para detectar ARN virico y pruebas serologicas (IgM ELISA y anticuerpos neutralizantes) para confirmar una infeccion por Zika. El diagnostico diferencial incluye la infeccion por virus dengue y chikungunya. Conclusiones. Existe un conocimiento limitado sobre los mecanismos patogenicos implicados y las consecuencias a largo plazo de la infeccion por virus Zika en adultos y recien nacidos.

  5. Modeling pollution potential input from the drainage basin into Barra Bonita reservoir, São Paulo - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, R B; Novo, E M L M

    2015-05-01

    In this study multi-criteria modeling tools are applied to map the spatial distribution of drainage basin potential to pollute Barra Bonita Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brasil. Barra Bonita Reservoir Basin had undergone intense land use/land cover changes in the last decades, including the fast conversion from pasture into sugarcane. In this respect, this study answers to the lack of information about the variables (criteria) which affect the pollution potential of the drainage basin by building a Geographic Information System which provides their spatial distribution at sub-basin level. The GIS was fed by several data (geomorphology, pedology, geology, drainage network and rainfall) provided by public agencies. Landsat satellite images provided land use/land cover map for 2002. Ratings and weights of each criterion defined by specialists supported the modeling process. The results showed a wide variability in the pollution potential of different sub-basins according to the application of different criterion. If only land use is analyzed, for instance, less than 50% of the basin is classified as highly threatening to water quality and include sub basins located near the reservoir, indicating the importance of protection areas at the margins. Despite the subjectivity involved in the weighing processes, the multi-criteria analysis model allowed the simulation of scenarios which support rational land use polices at sub-basin level regarding the protection of water resources. PMID:26132013

  6. LOW BACK PAIN IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN A WESTERN CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Júlio Alberto Agante; Genebra, Caio Vitor dos Santos; Maciel, Nicoly Machado; Fiorelli, Alexandre; de Conti, Marta Helena Souza; De Vitta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain in children and its relationship with gender, age, exercise practice and sedentary activities (time on TV and on computer and/or video game). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 1,461 students, being 754 males and 707 females enrolled in the 5th to 8th grades of all five local elementary schools of urban Ourinhos, SP, Brasil, aged 10-14 years old, from whom sociodemographic data, time spent on sedentary activities such as TV and computer and/or video game were collected. We conducted a descriptive, bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of low back pain in the sample was 18.5%, being 15.5% in boys and 21.6% in girls. Low back pain was associated to the female gender, age range between 12-14 years and the habit of watching TV more than three times a week and over 3 hours per day. Conclusion: The students analyzed showed high prevalence of low back pain related to gender, age and habit of watching TV. Appropriate interventions should be implemented to reduce the occurrences of back pain in schoolchildren. Level of Evidence III, Cross Sectioning. PMID:26981028

  7. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos de

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health - ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system's resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  8. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion.

  9. Instability domains of δ Scuti and Slowly Pulsating B stars : How will the CoRoT satellite help to determine the limits ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, L.; Michel, E.; Aerts, C.; Kaiser, A.; Neiner, C.; Poretti, E.; Garrido, R.; Baglin, A.; Auvergne, M.; Catala, C.; Weiss, W.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Maceroni, C.; Ribas, I.

    2009-07-01

    This work is intended to illustrate the possibilities offered by the CoRoT satellite observations to study the different instability strips, and through them, physical processes and specific features of stellar interiors. The CoRoT space mission {(Baglin A. et al. 2002)}, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developped and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany and Spain. It enables us to observe oscillations from stars down to a noise level of less than a ppm, much lower than the limit usually obtained from the ground. During the nominal duration of the mission, about 6 long runs (˜ 150d each) and 6 short runs (˜ 20d each) will take place {(CoRoT Book, 2006)}. Only 2 long runs and 1 short run are illustrated in this study. This means that the number of available targets will have more than tripled by the end of the mission. These data might help testing the "purity" of the instability strips (i.e. the presence/absence of photometrically constant stars within) and lead to the discovery of new classes of pulsating stars {(Degroote et al 2008)}. We address this problem in the frame of the B and A main sequence stars.

  10. 5th International School on Field Theory and Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Following the philosophy that the International School on Field Theory and Gravitation must be held each three years in different Brazilian Universities and, if possible, in different brazilian states, the next meeting will take place at Physics Institute of Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT, Cuiabá city on April, 20-24/2009 very close to the beautiful Pantanal and Chapada dos Guimarães area. The goal of the meeting is to promote a greater integration among many physicists from the local university, UFMT, Co-organizing institutions in Brasil and foreign countries such as Canada, USA, Italy, China, England, Swiss, Spain, Brazil and others; to stimulate the organization of scientific events in our physics Institute and thus contributing to local research activities; to exhibit different fields of physics and to stimulate new lines of theoretical research and technological developments in the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT. Finally, we make efforts to promote the development of advanced studies, taking it to the present core of research in a strong process of affirmation of new lines of theoretical studies in our Physics Institute. To this, we invite colleagues, collaborators, researchers, students, and friends to attend this fifth edition of International School on Field Theory and gravitation-2009.

  11. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. III. Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Dame, Kyra; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Jeon, Young-Beom; Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair R.; Kunder, Andrea; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2013-06-01

    This is the third in a series of papers studying the variable stars in old globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary goal of this series is to look at how the characteristics and behavior of RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to those of their counterparts in Oosterhoff-I/II systems. In this paper we present the results of our new time-series BVI photometric study of the globular cluster Reticulum. We found a total of 32 variables stars (22 RRab, 4 RRc, and 6 RRd stars) in our field of view. We present photometric parameters and light curves for these stars. We also present physical properties, derived from Fourier analysis of light curves, for some of the RR Lyrae stars. We discuss the Oosterhoff classification of Reticulum and use our results to re-derive the distance modulus and age of the cluster. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  12. Periodic Variations in the O - C Diagrams of Five Pulsation Frequencies of the DB White Dwarf EC 20058-5234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessio, J.; Sullivan, D. J.; Provencal, J. L.; Shipman, H. L.; Sullivan, T.; Kilkenny, D.; Fraga, L.; Sefako, R.

    2013-03-01

    Variations in the pulsation arrival time of five independent pulsation frequencies of the DB white dwarf EC 20058-5234 individually imitate the effects of reflex motion induced by a planet or companion but are inconsistent when considered in unison. The pulsation frequencies vary periodically in a 12.9 year cycle and undergo secular changes that are inconsistent with simple neutrino plus photon-cooling models. The magnitude of the periodic and secular variations increases with the period of the pulsations, possibly hinting that the corresponding physical mechanism is located near the surface of the star. The phase of the periodic variations appears coupled to the sign of the secular variations. The standards for pulsation-timing-based detection of planetary companions around pulsating white dwarfs, and possibly other variables such as subdwarf B stars, should be re-evaluated. The physical mechanism responsible for this surprising result may involve a redistribution of angular momentum or a magnetic cycle. Additionally, variations in a supposed combination frequency are shown to match the sum of the variations of the parent frequencies to remarkable precision, an expected but unprecedented confirmation of theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  13. SOAR Adaptive Optics Observations of the Globular Cluster NGC 6496

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Luciano; Kunder, Andrea; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2013-06-01

    We present high-quality BVRI photometric data in the field of globular cluster NGC 6496 obtained with the SOAR Telescope Adaptive Module (SAM). Our observations were collected as part of the ongoing SAM commissioning. The distance modulus and cluster color excess as found from the red clump are (m - M) V = 15.71 ± 0.02 mag and E(V - I) = 0.28 ± 0.02 mag. An age of 10.5 ± 0.5 Gyr is determined from the difference in magnitude between the red clump and the subgiant branch. These parameters are in excellent agreement with the values derived from isochrone fitting. From the color-magnitude diagram we find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.65 dex and hence support a disk classification for NGC 6496. The complete BVRI data set for NGC 6469 is made available in the electronic edition of the Journal. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  14. The Nucleus of Main-belt Comet 259P/Garradd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLennan, Eric M.; Hsieh, Henry H.

    2012-10-01

    We present observations of the main-belt comet 259P/Garradd, previously known as P/2008 R1 (Garradd), obtained in 2011 and 2012 using the Gemini North Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii and the SOAR telescope at Cerro Pachon in Chile, with the goal of computing the object's phase function and nucleus size. We find an absolute magnitude of HR = 19.71 ± 0.05 mag and slope parameter of GR = -0.08 ± 0.05 for the inactive nucleus, corresponding to an effective nucleus radius of re = 0.30 ± 0.02 km, assuming an R-band albedo of pR = 0.05. We also revisit observations reported for 259P while it was active in 2008 to quantify the dust mass loss and compare the object with other known main-belt comets. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  15. Behavior and identification of ephemeral sand dunes at the backshore zone using video images.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro V; Pereira, Pedro S; Calliari, Lauro J; Ellis, Jean T

    2016-09-01

    The backshore zone is transitional environment strongly affected by ocean, air and sand movements. On dissipative beaches, the formation of ephemeral dunes over the backshore zone plays significant contribution in the beach morphodynamics and sediment budget. The aim of this work is to describe a novel method to identify ephemeral dunes in the backshore region and to discuss their morphodynamic behavior. The beach morphology is identified using Argus video imagery, which reveals the behavior of morphologies at Cassino Beach, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Daily images from 2005 to 2007, topographic profiles, meteorological data, and sedimentological parameters were used to determine the frequency and pervasiveness of these features on the backshore. Results indicated that coastline orientation relative to the dominant NE and E winds and the dissipative morphological beach state favored aeolian sand transport towards the backshore. Prevailing NE winds increase sand transportation to the backshore, resulting in the formation of barchans, transverse, and barchanoid-linguiod dunes. Precipitation inhibits aeolian transport and ephemeral dune formation and maintains the existing morphologies during strong SE and SW winds, provided the storm surge is not too high. PMID:27598845

  16. Role of Brazilian zoos in ex situ bird conservation: from 1981 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Zoos may play an important role in conservation when they maintain and breed large numbers of animals that are threatened with extinction. Bird conservation is in a privileged situation owing to the extensive biological information available about this class. Annual inventories produced by the "Sociedade de Zoológicos do Brasil" in the years 1981, 1990, 2000, and 2005 were analyzed. Variables, such as the number of zoos per geographic region; number of birds held; number of bird species in each IUCN threat category; number of exotic and native bird species; number of potentially breeding bird species; number of bird species in each order; and number of threatened bird species breeding, were analyzed. Brazilian zoos kept more than 350 bird species. The number of bird species and specimens held by the Brazilian Zoos increased from 1981 to 2000, but decreased in 2005. The same pattern was observed for the number of species in each IUCN threat category. Results showed that the potential of the Brazilian zoos in bird conservation needs to be enhanced because they maintain threatened species but do not implement systematic genetic, reproductive, or behavioral management protocols for most species.

  17. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage of dental composites by an optical method.

    PubMed

    Weig, K M; Magalhães Filho, T R; Costa Neto, C A; Costa, M F

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes an alternative methodology for evaluating polymerization shrinkage of dental composites using an advanced video extensometer (AVE) system. This equipment measures the displacement between two points drawn on a tooth's wall without requiring physical contact with the tooth. By doing so, the polymerization process was monitored by the cusp deflection. This technique was used in human and bovine teeth, where the cavities were prepared under controlled conditions so that the volume of the composite used was the same in both types of teeth. After the cavity preparation, the specimens were acid etched, washed and dried, and then the adhesive was applied and polymerized. The composite was then inserted into the cavity. Polymerization was performed with two different light polymerizing units (LD Max and Optilight Max - Gnatus do Brasil), and the displacement curve of the tooth cusp was recorded for a period of 400 s. After a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the technique was capable of evaluating shrinkage by the deflection from the cusps and that the human and bovine teeth do not react in a similar manner towards the polymerization shrinkage of composites. PMID:25492174

  18. [Preliminary study on the presence of arbovirus in the populations of Corrientes and Misiones].

    PubMed

    Hodara, V L; Jozan, M; Martínez, H; Work, T H; Juan, N J; Weissenbacher, M

    1991-01-01

    Human seroprevalence of Flavivirus was determined by hemagglutination inhibition tests on 479 sera from Misiones and 49 from Corrientes provinces. Paraná and Uruguay river bank communities from Argentina and neighbouring countries carry out frequent traffic across the rivers. With the aim of searching for a possible introduction of Dengue virus from Brasil or/and Paraguay, reactivity among people from Paraná and Uruguay river communities was compared with those from mountain communities. Two sera from Ituzaingó (Corrientes Province) were positive for Dengue 2. In Misiones, 3 sera from Oberá and 2 from Montecarlo were reactive for Dengue 2 and 1 serum from Puerto Iguazú was reactive for Dengue 1. Seroprevalence among the river population was significatively higher than among the mountain population. Likewise, populations on Paraná river showed more positive sera than those on Uruguay river; 54% of the samples possessed titers for SLE virus higher than for Dengue or Yellow fever. Anti-alphavirus (EEE and WEE) antibodies tested in sera from Misiones people showed a complementary distribution pattern to flavivirus. Seroprevalence of anti-alphavirus antibodies was higher in the mountain than in the river populations.

  19. [Prevalence of Flavivirus antibodies in young voluntary recruits to military service in the province of Formosa, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Glowacki, G; Spinsanti, L; Basualdo, M A; Díaz, G; Contigiani, M

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence to Flavivirus, in young people living in risk areas. We analyzed 189 human sera from 3 towns in the Province of Formosa. This area corresponds to the border that limits Brasil and Paraguay and the aim was to search for a possible introduction of Dengue and Yellow Fever from these countries. Serological tests such as haemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation (CF) and neutralization (NT) were performed using St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), Bussuquara, Ilheus, Yellow fever and dengue 1 and 2 viruses. No definite evidence for HI antibodies to dengue and Ilheus was obtained. One serum cross-reacted only with yellow fever and two sera only for Bussuquara by the HI test. Only one serum was confirmed to be positive for Bussuquara by NT test. A total of 22 sera from 189 were positive for SLE by the HI test and 40 were also reactive by the NT test. The seroprevalence measured by HI and NT antibodies was similar in the three departments studied. These results show that SLE virus is present in the North of Argentina with an important value of prevalence so that this agent could play an important role in the febrile infections not virologically confirmed.

  20. Inbreeding studies in Brasilian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    1983-11-01

    We present results of comparisons between consanguineous and control couples and their children in Southern Brasil. Multiple regression, t-test and chi 2 analyses were applied to the data. The following variables were investigated; Parents: structure of first cousin marriages, latitude and longitude of birthplaces, cohabitation time, rurality, marriage age, occupation, number of liveborn children, and frequency of twinning. Schoolchildren: clinical data as classified into 24 discontinuous traits, each one subdivided into two categories (number and severity), and seven continuous traits (weight, height, pulse rate, respiratory rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and temperature); nutrition indices and biotype; family names; intelligence tests and school performance; birth order, age, hair color, hair type, eye color, and skin color; twinning in the sibship, and infant mortality among sibs of the propositi. Our study showed a) nonrandomness of consanguineous marriages as detected on structural, racial, geographical, and temporal levels; b) a heavy mutational load of about 1.5 lethons acting on infant mortality; c) no inbreeding effect on morbidity in general (with a possible exception of "ear morbidity", including hearing deficit); d) a modest inbreeding depression on height (a decrease of 2 cm with an increase of 10% of inbreeding); 3) a suggestion of inbreeding depression on "intelligence".

  1. Ten Years of a National Oral Health Policy in Brazil: Innovation, Boldness, and Numerous Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pucca, G A; Gabriel, M; de Araujo, M E; de Almeida, F C S

    2015-10-01

    Brazil is the only country in the world to propose a universal health care system with the aim of guaranteeing delivery of all levels of health care, free of charge, to a population of over 200 million inhabitants by means of a unified health system ("Sistema Único de Saúde" [SUS]). The national policy of oral health, also known as Smiling Brazil ("Brasil Sorridente"), was implemented in 2004. Oral health was designated as 1 of the 4 priority areas of the SUS, transforming oral health care in Brazil, with the objective that the SUS achieve the integrality of care envisaged at its creation. The aim of this article is to share part of this experience in order to prompt reflection about the inclusion of oral health care in other health care systems around the world. The most significant results of Smiling Brazil can be seen in 3 areas: (1) oral health epidemiological indicators, (2) financial investment and professional development, and (3) the building of an oral health care network throughout the 10 y of the policy. The "Discovery!" article presented here portrays 10 y of evolution; however, it is important to point out that this is a process undergoing construction and that the oral health care network needs to be further expanded, refined, and solidified so that over time and through changes in the political parties in power, Smiling Brazil prevails as a perennial policy and not merely an action by a single government.

  2. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  3. [Pediatric retroperitoneal tumors].

    PubMed

    Benicio dos Santos, I; Benicio dos Santos, M

    1980-01-01

    The author has based his work "Retroperitoneals tumors in infancy and childhood" in 65 cases observed at "Hospital Martagao Gesteira", Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. 32 of the retroperitoneals tumors, either intrarenals or extrarenals, observed in infancy and childhood were Wilm's tumor, 22 neuroblastoma, 5 hydronephrosis, 2 multicystic kidney, 1 policystic kidney, 2 pancreatic cyst and 1 biliar cyst. Wilm's tumor had the highest incidence - 32 cases (49,2%); neuroblastoma was in the second place in incidence - 22 (33,8%) of the 65 cases of retroperitoneals tumors studied, were neuroblastoma. As registered by the author in previous paper, the neuroblastoma, on contrary of what is established in the specialized literature, not was: the most frequent abdominal tumors, in infancy and childhood, neither it was also the abdominal pediatric tumor which could match Wilm's tumor in incidence. The plain X ray film of the abdomen, the Excretory Urography, the Cavography and Arteriography, the Radiological Examination of the Stomach and Duodenum, of the Small Intestine and the Colons, contribute in a very important way to establish the topography (retro or intraperitoneal) of the pediatric abdominal tumors. The author emphasizes that the plain X ray film of the abdomen supply important elements for the conclusion concerning the localization of abdominal tumors, from the observation of a simple criterion - the retroperitoneals tumors obliterate the border of kidney, because they are placed in the same plan of the kidney, data which is not pointed out sufficiently by the authors who have studied the subject.

  4. Results from the first flight of the VSB-30 sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmerio, Ariovaldo Felix; Roda, Eduardo Dore; Turner, Peter; Jung, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    The successful qualification flight of the VSB-30 occurred in October 23, 2004, in Alcantara, Brasil, after a long campaign mainly due to adverse wind conditions. In the wake of this flight, lies the renewed hope to keep the European sounding rocket microgravity program alive. This paper presents technical aspects of the main subsystems, the rocket and flight results. In the subsystem level, the results of the three firing tests of the S31 motor are presented together with the expected flight trust curve. The second stage fins and the payload service module were also important develoments that required extensive ground test qualification. The use of the ground qualified thrusters for the VLS-1 spin-up system proved to be a good asset for the VSB-30 spin up system. The second stage tail can and the payload adapter have large structural margins and did not undergo qualification tests. In the system level, the main tasks were to predict the trajectory parameters and establish the flight safety procedure. The payload service module was equipped with 3-axis gyros, accelerometers, vibration accelerometers, a GPS receiver and temperature sensors that provided a wealth of information on the flight dynamics, trajectory parameters and the mechanical environment. All expected and unexpected results are discussed.

  5. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos de

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health - ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system's resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health.

  6. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ``tip" of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ``stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  7. Imaging Survey of Subsystems in Secondary Components to Nearby Southern Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2014-10-01

    To improve the statistics of hierarchical multiplicity, secondary components of wide nearby binaries with solar-type primaries were surveyed at the SOAR telescope for evaluating the frequency of subsystems. Images of 17 faint secondaries were obtained with the SOAR Adaptive Module that improved the seeing; one new 0.''2 binary was detected. For all targets, photometry in the g', i', z' bands is given. Another 46 secondaries were observed by speckle interferometry, resolving 7 close subsystems. Adding literature data, the binarity of 95 secondary components is evaluated. We found that the detection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods in the well-surveyed range from 103 to 105 days is 0.21 ± 0.06—same as the normal frequency of such binaries among solar-type stars, 0.18. This indicates that wide binaries are unlikely to be produced by dynamical evolution of N-body systems, but are rather formed by fragmentation. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Michigan State University.

  8. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  9. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mendez, Rene A.; Horch, Elliott P.

    2015-08-01

    The results of speckle interferometric observations at the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) telescope in 2014 are given. A total of 1641 observations were taken, yielding 1636 measurements of 1218 resolved binary and multiple stars and 577 non-resolutions of 441 targets. We resolved for the first time 56 pairs, including some nearby astrometric or spectroscopic binaries and ten new subsystems in previously known visual binaries. The calibration of the data is checked by linear fits to the positions of 41 wide binaries observed at SOAR over several seasons. The typical calibration accuracy is 0.°1 in angle and 0.3% in pixel scale, while the measurement errors are on the order of 3 mas. The new data are used here to compute 194 binary star orbits, 148 of which are improvements on previous orbital solutions and 46 are first-time orbits. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  10. Perinatal factors associated with neural tube defects (anencephaly [correction of anancephaly], spina bifida and encephalocele).

    PubMed

    Ogata, A J; Camano, L; Brunoni, D

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of risk factors for the occurrence of neural tube defects. Data for 33,535 births which occurred at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo from July 1973 to December 1986 were collected in a prospective manner as recommended by "Estudo Colaborativo Latino-Americano de Malformações Congênitas" (ECLAMC, Collaborative Latin American Study on Congenital Malformations). Twenty-six cases of neural tube defects were detected (0.77/1000 births). Of these, 11 were cases of spina bifida (0.39/1000 births), 9 of anencephaly (0.27/1000 births) and 6 of encephalocele (0.18/1000 births). We observed a higher frequency of polyhydramnios, premature labor, Apgar scores of less than 7 at the first and fifth minutes, low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation.

  11. Cohort Profile update: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort follow-up visits in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria CF; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana MB

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we update the profile of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, with emphasis on a shift of priority from maternal and child health research topics to four main categories of outcome variables, collected throughout adolescence: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); (iv) human capital. We were able to trace 81.3% (n = 4106) of the original cohort at 18 years of age. For the first time, the 18-years visit took place entirely on the university premises, in a clinic equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for the assessment of body composition. We welcome requests for data analyses from outside scientists. For more information, refer to our website (http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.projetos_de_pesquisas/estudos/coorte_1993) or e-mail the corresponding author. PMID:24729426

  12. United Republic of Tanzania. United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. United Nations Fund for Population Activities UNFPA. Office of Policy Analysis and Statistics.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The lack of community child care services is a serious deterrent to women seeking responsibilities outside the home. The Pathfinder Fund supported CESUN, Centro de Estudos Supletivos de Narandiba, an educational organization devoted to nonformal training, was consulted to conduct 3 courses for community women in child care in 2 favelas (shanty towns) in Brazil. Women with a limited educational background were taught a broad range of topics, from child development to nutrition to daycare management, greatly increasing their confidence and community involvement. Child care cooperatives were built and staffed, offering young children supervised activities and balanced meals for the 1st time. The Caregivers Training Course has provided new jobs for community women, and is freeing other women to seek new work, while improving their child's quality of life.

  13. [Diabetes mellitus and its influence on the success of endodontic treatment: a retrospective clinical study].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Carrilho, Eunice; Carrilho, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A diabetes mellitus é uma doença endócrina onde estão envolvidas as hormonas produzidas pelos ilhéus de Langerhans. A diabetes mellitus pode afetar várias funções do sistema imunitário do indivíduo, predispondo-o para a inflamação crónica, degradação progressiva dos tecidos e diminuição da reparação tecidular. Das alterações provocadas por esta doença ao nível da cavidade oralpode-se destacar a xerostomia, disgeusia, alterações periodontais, aumento da suscetibilidade à infeção e alterações tanto ao nível da polpa dentária como nos tecidos periapicais.Objetivos: O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência da diabetes mellitus ao nível dos tecidos periapicais e no sucesso dos tratamentos endodônticos nestes doentes.Material e Métodos: Foram analisados 737 casos clínicos tratados na consulta da Área de Medicina Dentária, a que foram feitos tratamentos endodônticos não cirúrgicos, entre os anos de 2003 e 2012. Destes foram selecionados os doentes com diabetes mellitus, num total de 32, dos quais 23 se dispuseram a vir à consulta e a participar neste estudo. Os dados recolhidos foram analisados no software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 19, a um nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: Foram avaliados 37 dentes no grupo teste e 25 no grupo controlo. Para os parâmetros analisados relativos ao diagnóstico pulpar, mobilidade, presença de fístula, dor à percussão horizontal e vertical, avaliação da restauração definitiva e intervalo de tempo entre a consulta de obturação e a restauração definitiva e/ou a consulta de controlo, não foram verificadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p > 0,05). Em relação à avaliação do sucesso dos tratamentos endodônticos realizados, este foi de 62% nogrupo de teste e de 80% no grupo controlo (p > 0,05).Conclusões: Os resultados deste estudo não são conclusivos em relação ao aumento da prevalência da periodontite

  14. [Epidemiology of Vertigo on Hospital Emergency].

    PubMed

    Roque Reis, Luis; Lameiras, Rita; Cavilhas, Pedro; Escada, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    Introdução: A vertigem é um dos motivos mais frequentes na procura de atendimento médico especializado na urgência. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o peso real que as alterações do equilíbrio têm na urgência de Otorrinolaringologia, as suas características epidemiológicas e uma eventual sazonalidade por estações do ano. Usou-se uma amostra de doentes que utilizou o serviço de urgência desta especialidade de um hospital central universitário de Lisboa durante um período de quatro anos. Material e Métodos: O projeto foi concebido como um estudo epidemiológico descritivo de tipo populacional, retrospectivo, no período de 2010 a 2013. Incluiu uma população total de 40 173 atendimentos de doentes que nesse período utilizou o serviço de urgência de Otorrinolaringologia. As variáveis estudadas incluíram a idade, género, número anual de casos (total e percentual), data da crise de vertigem, distribuição sazonal por estações do ano e proporção anual de casos internados. Resultados: Um total de 4 347 doentes (10,8%) procurou atendimento médico devido a vertigem ou alterações do equilíbrio ao longo dos quatro anos do estudo. Verificou-se um aumento anual do número de casos entre 7,6% (em 2010) a 17% (em 2013). As mulheres foram mais frequentemente afetadas (68,3%) e as crises ocorreram mais frequentemente em indivíduos entre os 60 e 79 anos de idade (40%). Os casos distribuíram-se de forma heterogénea entre as estações do ano, havendo mais episódios de vertigem no verão e no outono e com uma tendência crescente entre 2010 e 2013. O número de internamentos aumentou anualmente nesse período. Discussão: A epidemiologia da vertigem e dos distúrbios vestibulares específicos é ainda um campo a estudar, pois pode ter utilidade para a tomada de decisões clínicas e para o planeamento dos cuidados de saúde. Conclusão: O estudo revelou que os casos de vertigem na urgência aumentaram anualmente e são mais frequentes no sexo

  15. [Autism and Early Neurodevelopmental Milestones].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Xavier; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: A perturbação do espectro do autismo, neste texto também designada por autismo, é uma patologia crónica do neurodesenvolvimento, que se manifesta precocemente na infância por alterações da interação social, comunicação e comportamento repetitivo. Não estando disponíveis biomarcadores específicos, o diagnóstico baseia-se exclusivamente na avaliação clínica. O objetivo deste estudo é verificar quais os marcadores precoces do desenvolvimento psicomotor ou neurodesenvolvimento, que se correlacionam significativamente com a gravidade da clínica central do autismo, quocientes de desenvolvimento e com a função adaptativa. Material e Métodos: Procedemos ao estudo retrospetivo de uma população de 1 572 indivíduos com o diagnóstico de autismo seguidos na Unidade de Neurodesenvolvimento e Autismo do Centro de Desenvolvimento da Criança do Hospital Pediátrico do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra. Analisámos seis marcadores precoces do desenvolvimento psicomotor: idades de aquisição 'da marcha', 'das primeiras palavras', 'das primeiras frases', 'do controlo de esfíncter vesical diurno', 'do controlo de esfíncter vesical noturno' e de início das primeiras queixas. Posteriormente dividimos a amostra em três subgrupos de gravidade clínica segundo a escala Childhood Autism Rating Scale e pesquisamos diferenças significativas entre os três subgrupos relativamente aos seis marcadores definidos. Resultados: O marcador 'idade de aquisição das primeiras frases' foi, de entre os seis, aquele que se correlacionou mais fortemente com as variáveis da clínica de autismo, quocientes de desenvolvimento/inteligência e comportamento ou função adaptativa. Na divisão da amostra em subgrupos de gravidade clínica, foi o de maior gravidade que mostrou idades de aquisição dos marcadores do neurodesenvolvimento mais tardias e idades mais precoces de manifestação das primeiras queixas. Discussão: Este estudo vem demonstrar a

  16. The evaluation of QT intervals during diagnosis and after follow-up in acromegaly patients.

    PubMed

    Baser, Husniye; Akar Bayram, Nihal; Polat, Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Ersoy, Reyhan; Bozkurt, Engin; Cakir, Bekir

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O estudo teve como objectivo a determinação do intervalo QT em doentes com acromegália e a análise da correlação entre o intervalo QT e a concentração de hormona do crescimento e de IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1). Material e Métodos: O estudo englobou 41 doentes com acromegália. O grupo de controlo englobou 41 indivíduos com características semelhantes no que se refere a comorbilidades, idade e género. A electrocardiografia de doentes com acromegália foi obtida no início do estudo e após o follow-up. Foi apenas obtido um electrocardiograma no grupo de controlo. Foram calculados o QT máximo, QT mínimo, dispersão do intervalo QT, QT máximo corrigido, QT mínimo corrigido e dispersão do intervalo QT corrigido. Resultados: Os valores do QT máximo basal, dispersão do intervalo QT, QT máximo corrigido e dispersão do QT corrigido foram significativamente mais prolongados no grupo de doentes com acromegália do que nos controlos. O QT máximo corrigido e a dispersão do QT corrigido foram significativamente mais curtos durante o seguimento clínico, quando comparados com os valores basais dos doentes. O QT máximo, dispersão do QT, QT máximo corrigido e dispersão do QT corrigido durante o seguimento clínico não foram estatisticamente diferentes dos valores obtidos nos controlos. Com excepção de uma correlação negativa entre os valores da hormona do crescimento e a dispersão do QT corrigido em doentes durante o seguimento clínico, nenhuma outra correlação foi assinalada entre os valores do intervalo QT e as concentrações de hormona do crescimento e de IGF-1. Concluiu-se que a dispersão do intervalo QT está correlacionada com a duração da doença nos doentes com acromegália. Discussão: Em doentes com acromegália, é importante a detecção de preditores clínicos de arritmia cardíaca. A dispersão do intervalo QT é considerada um preditor relevante de arritmias ventriculares. Os doentes com acromeg

  17. Oncology Referral Concerning Paediatric Neurosurgery? Analysis of the Situation between 2008-2013 in the North of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ana; Nogueira-Silva, Luís; Vaz, Rui; Oliveira, Joana

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: Os tumores primários do sistema nervoso central representam o segundo grupo de neoplasias mais frequente e são a principal causa de morte devido a tumores sólidos em crianças. O nosso estudo teve como objetivos realizar a mais atualizada análise epidemiológica desta doença no norte de Portugal e avaliar o possível benefício da centralização de cuidados. Material e Métodos: Este estudo de base populacional incluiu todos os tumores primários do sistema nervoso central diagnosticados e histologicamente confirmados em indivíduos menores de 18 anos de idade, que residem no norte do país, desde Janeiro 2008 até Dezembro 2013. Os dados foram obtidos por meio da avaliação dos processos clínicos dos doentes. Nós descrevemos as características das crianças e dos seus tumores e analisámos os quocientes doente: neurocirurgião pediátrico e tipo histológico de tumor: neurocirurgião pediátrico e as taxas de sobrevivência, mortalidade, complicações e recidiva. Resultados: Foram registados 147 casos. A média de idade ao diagnóstico foi de 8,0 ± 5,2 anos. Os astrocitomas foram o tipo histológico mais frequentemente encontrado (34%). O tipo histológico foi a única variável com influência estatisticamente significativa na mortalidade (p = 0,001). As sobrevivências a um, três e cinco anos relativas ao período entre 2008 - 2013 foram estatisticamente superiores às do intervalo entre 2005 - 2007. Os astrocitomas apresentam a mais alta taxa de sobrevivência, sendo estatisticamente diferente dos outros tipos de tumor (p = 0,015). Estimámos uma média de 12,25 casos tratados anualmente por neurocirurgião pediátrico no nosso hospital. Discussão: Os nossos resultados são, globalmente, consistentes com os encontrados na literatura mundial, mas registrámos taxas de sobrevivência mais altas. O número de casos tratados por neurocirurgião pediátrico está de acordo com o recomendado. Conclusão: Demonstrámos que houve melhoria

  18. [Adaptation and psychometric proprieties study for the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale - Escala de Coping para Adolescentes].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Cruz, Diana; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Sampaio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O coping é um processo psicológico que leva ao ajustamento individual perante situações de stress. A Adolescent Coping Scale é um instrumento de investigação e uma ferramenta clínica, amplamente utilizada. O presente estudo tem como objectivos desenvolver uma versão Portuguesa da Adolescent Coping Scale e analisar as estratégias e estilos de coping dos jovens da nossa amostra.Material e Métodos: Um questionário anónimo compreendendo a Adolescent Coping Scale obteve respostas de 1 713 alunos (56% do sexo feminino, com idades compreendidas entre os 12 e os 20 anos e uma média etária de 16). O estudo de validade da escala contemplou: análise em componentes principais e avaliação da consistência interna; análise confirmatória através de modelo de equações estruturais. Posteriormente, foram comparadas por género as estratégias e estilos de coping da amostra (testes t para amostras independentes).Resultados: A estrutura final da adaptação da Adolescent Coping Scale reteve 70 itens, que avaliam 16 estratégias de coping agrupadas em três estilos distintos. As escalas apresentaram bons valores de consistência interna (alfas de Cronbach compreendidos entre 0,63 e 0,86, com a exceção de uma dimensão que apresentou um valor de 0,55) e o modelo confirmatório demonstrou bom fit (goodness of fit index compreendidos entre 0,94 e 0,96). Foram eliminadas duas estratégias de coping por motivos estatísticos (ausência de saturação de itens suficientes nas dimensões correspondentes). Verificámos que o estilo de coping focado na resolução do problema é aquele maioritariamente utilizado pelos adolescentes da nossa amostra, em ambos os sexos. No sexo feminino observaram-se valores médios mais elevados nos estilos de coping não produtivo e de referência a outros.Discussão: A versão adaptada apresenta elevada semelhança com a escala original, com alterações minor espectáveis tendo em conta que o coping é influenciado por

  19. Modelo de atmosfera solar ajustado às observações do raio solar em 17GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Silva, A. V. R.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo das variações do raio solar durante o ciclo de atividades do Sol e das diferenças em relação à sua distribuição angular nos fornece informações importantes sobre as mudanças na estrutura da atmosfera solar. Neste trabalho foram analisados mais de 3600 mapas do Sol em 17 GHz obtidos pelo Rádio Heliógrafo de Nobeyama (NoRH), durante 1 ciclo de atividade solar (1992-2003). O raio solar foi definido no ponto onde a temperatura de brilho do mapa era equivalente à metade da temperatura do Sol calmo (temperatura mais comum no mapa).Em relação à sua variação ao longo do ciclo solar, o estudo foi dividido em duas partes: a) ajuste de uma circunferência a pontos distribuídos ao redor do Sol todo. Este estudo mostrou uma variação correlacionada com o ciclo de atividade do Sol. b) ajuste da circunferência a pontos situados somente nas regiões polares. Neste caso os resultados mostraram que o raio polar sofre pouca variação durante o ciclo, com tendência à anticorrelação com este. Além disto, a média do raio polar, durante o período analisado, foi 1" menor que o raio medido no Sol todo. Para estudar a distribuição angular do raio solar, comparamos a média da distribuição de 10 mapas no período de mínima atividade solar com a média de 10 mapas no período de máximo, este estudo mostrou um grande aumento do raio na região equatorial no período de máxima atividade solar. As medidas do raio foram usadas como um dos parâmetros para a criação de um modelo atmosférico (além da temperatura de brilho do Sol e do abrilhantamento do limbo observado), onde mostramos que um modelo atmosférico com a região de transição situada a 3500 km fornece um raio 5" menor que as medidas observacionais. Esta incompatibilidade do modelo com os dados observacionais foi contornada com a inclusão de espículas, estas fazem com que o raio solar aumente proporcionalmente à altura que estas atingem na atmosfera solar. A anticorrelação do raio

  20. Breast cancer patients survival and associated factors: reported outcomes from the Southern Cancer Registry in Portugal.

    PubMed

    André, Maria Rosario; Amaral, Sandra; Mayer, Alexandra; Miranda, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objectivos: A incidência do cancro da mama em Portugal é inferior à média europeia, sendo, ainda assim, a neoplasia mais frequente na mulher. As taxas de mortalidade por cancro de mama apresentam uma distribuição heterogénea nas diferentes regiões de Portugal. São múltiplos os factores que podem influenciar esta distribuição, incluindo aspectos demográficos e socioeconómicos, características biológicas tumorais, e o acesso aos cuidados de saúde. O objectivo deste estudo é detectar diferenças na sobrevivência do cancro de mama feminino e os principais factores associados. Material e Métodos: Estudo de coorte, de base populacional e orientação retrospectiva, com follow-up. Foram incluídos casos de cancro de mama diagnosticados em 2005 e residentes na região sul de Portugal, tendo os dados sido recolhidos a partir da base de dados do Registo Oncológico Regional Sul (ROR-Sul) e complementados com dados dos processos clínicos. Resultados: Foram incluídos neste estudo 1 354 doentes. Observaram-se as seguintes variações geográficas: na distribuição etária, com uma população envelhecida no Alentejo; na distribuição de sub-tipos tumorais, com uma maior incidência de tumores HER2- positivo no Algarve e maior incidência de tumores HER2-negativo na Região Autónoma da Madeira. A sobrevivência global estimada aos 5 anos foi de 80%, com uma associação significativa com o estadio, receptores hormonais e status HER2. Não foram identificadas diferenças na sobrevivência entre mulheres residentes em regiões geográficas distintas. Discussão: Apesar das diferenças observadas na distribuição etária e de sub-tipos tumorais entre regiões geográficas, os nossos resultados não suportam a existência de discrepâncias na sobrevivência do cancro de mama entre estas regiões. As características biológicas tumorais parecem ser os principais factores associados à sobrevivência do cancro de mama feminino na nossa população. Conclus

  1. [First-trimester biochemical markers and small-for-gestational-age infants].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Cláudia; Santos, Joana; Rita Pinto, Ana; Manso, Pedro; Pereira, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Estudos anteriores mostram uma relação dos marcadores bioquímicos do 1º trimestre, proteína plasmática A associada à gravidez e subunidade β da gonadotrofina coriónica, com o nascimento de recém-nascidos com peso abaixo do percentil 10. O nosso objectivo foi descrever a relação entre estes marcadores bioquímicos com os recém-nascidos leves para a idade gestacional, na nossa população.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo analítico de 2 305 grávidas que realizaram o rastreio combinado do primeiro trimestre entre Março 2009 e Setembro de 2011. Comparação entre o grupo dos recém-nascidos abaixo do percentil 10 e o grupo controlo (recém-nascidos de termo com peso acima do percentil 10) e os recém-nascidos abaixo do percentil 3 e o grupo controlo. Foi realizado uma análise de regressão múltipla e logística com a utilização dos valores de proteína plasmática A associada à gravidez e subunidade β da gonadotrofina coriónica (em múltiplos da mediana) e as características demográficas maternas como etnia, peso e status tabágico.Resultados: O estudo revelou uma contribuição independente da proteína plasmática A associada à gravidez, do peso materno e dos hábitos tabágicos para os recém-nascidos abaixo do percentil 10. Na regressão logística para o marcador proteína plasmática A associada à gravidez, o risco relativo abaixo do percentil 10 foi de 2,41 e abaixo do percentil 3 de 3,41 (p < 0,01). No caso da subunidade β da gonadotrofina coriónica, o odds ratio determinado para percentil inferior a 10 foi de 1,70 (p = 0,03) e para o percentil inferior a 3 foi de 3,22 (p < 0,01). Conclusões: Baixos níveis da proteína plasmática A associada à gravidez e de subunidade β da gonadotrofina coriónica (valores inferiores ao percentil 5 da população estudada) estiveram relacionados com aumento do risco do nascimento de recém- nascidos leves para a idade gestacional na população de grávidas abrangidas pelo

  2. [Psychodrama as a pedagogical strategy: experiences in undergraduate teaching of women's health services].

    PubMed

    Diniz, N M; Lopes, R L; Almeida, M S; Gesteira, S M; de Oliveira, J F

    2000-08-01

    As the result from a discussion by the Grupo de Estudos sobre Saúde da Mulher--GEM (Group of Studies on Women's Health), psychodrama has been used as a pedagogical strategy to develop the topic Female's Conditions and Women's Health. Written and oral individual accounts as well as stories constructed in "group meetings" were treated by the gender perspective. The dynamics has facilitated relationships and self-knowledge, making it possible for day-by-day situations to emerge. The reflection between what is lived and what is theoretical has allowed the visibility of women's insertion in the public and private sectors as well as created situations for the construction of concepts.

  3. A new species of Eidmanacris Chopard, 1956, with notes on its distribution in Brazilian caves (Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    Bolfarini, Marcio P

    2016-02-23

    The genus Eidmanacris comprises 19 species distributed through Brazil, Bolivia ad Paraguay. In Brazil, the genus has a broad distribution, but its occurrence in Brazilian caves is poorly known; the only species recorded is E. alboannulata for the cave "Gruta da Toca", Itirapina municipality, São Paulo State. In this study I describe a species, E. lencionii Bolfarini, n. sp., with a discussion on its distribution in Brazilian caves, and its relation with the hypogean environment. The type material is deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP) and the Laboratório de Estudos Subterrâneos da Universidade Federal de São Carlos (LES/UFSCar).

  4. [Maternal mortality: socio-demographic and causal profile].

    PubMed

    Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Correia, Sandra Gomes

    2006-01-01

    This study had as an objective to evaluate the maternal death in the city of Porto Alegre (RS) at the years of 1999, 2000 and 2001. Made part of the population all the women between 10 and 49 years old who died during the pregnancy, on birth or one year from these events. The data was collected from the Information Team about Mortality (Equipe de Informação sobre Mortalidade) and from the Municipal Council of Studies and Prevention of the Maternal Deaths of Porto Alegre (Conselho Municipal de Estudos e Prevençăo das Mortes Maternas de Porto Alegre). The most frequent causes of the maternal death were: infection post-birth (15%) and hypertensive trouble of the pregnancy (15%), followed by illness of the circulatory system/Heart Attack (13%), septicemy (10%) and the causes related to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (8%).

  5. Public health and tropical modernity: the combat against sleeping sickness in Portuguese Guinea, 1945-1974.

    PubMed

    Havik, Philip Jan

    2014-01-01

    Until the establishment of the "Commission for the study of and combat against sleeping sickness" (Missão de estudo e combate à doença do sono) in 1945, underfunded and understaffed health services had not been a priority for the colonial administration in Portuguese Guinea. The Commission not only implemented endemic disease control in the territory under the auspices of metropolitan institutions, but also provided preventive public healthcare to the local population. Its relative success in reducing the negative impact of Human African Trypanosomiasis turned the colony into an apparent model of tropical modernity. In the process, the local evolution of the disease was marginalized, despite the tacit but contested recognition by some health professionals of the role of popular healthcare. PMID:25055331

  6. [Health care associated multidrug-resistant bacteria in a pediatric hospital: five year experience].

    PubMed

    Mação, Patrícia; Lopes, João Casalta; Oliveira, Henrique; Oliveira, Guiomar; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Nos últimos anos tem-se assistido a um aumento das infeções por bactérias multirresistentes. Os dados pediátricos no global, e em particular em Portugal, são escassos.Objectivos: Avaliar a evolução das infeções por bactérias multirresistentes associadas aos cuidados de saúde num hospital pediátrico.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo de incidência efetuado nas enfermarias médicas, cirúrgicas e de cuidados intensivos num hospital pediátrico nível III, entre Janeiro de 2005 e Dezembro de 2009. As bactérias multirresistentes estudadas foram Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente (SAMR), bacilos gram negativos produtores de β-lactamases de espectro expandido (ESBL), Enterococcus spp resistentes à vancomicina (ERV), Pseudomonas aeruginosa multirresistentes (PAMR) e Acinetobacter baumanii resistente aos carbapenems. Foram analisados dados demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriais, terapêuticos e presença de fatores de risco.Resultados: Durante o período de estudo foram identificadas 106 bactérias multirresistentes associadas, correspondentes a 72 crianças, com predomínio do sexo masculino (65,3%). As bactérias multirresistentes mais frequentemente identificadas foram SAMR (35,8%), PAMR (29,2%) e bacilos gram negativos com fenótipo ESBL (17,9%). Destas 106 bactérias multirresistentes, 45 (42,5%) foram identificadas em infeção. Ao longo do período de estudo, a proporção anual de infeções por bactérias multirresistentes variou entre 32,0% em 2006 e 55,6% em 2009 (p = 0,376). A taxa de incidência global de infeção por estas bactérias foi de 0,400 por 1 000 dias de internamento, correspondendo a 0,274 infeções por 100 internamentos, valor que se manteve estável ao longo dos cinco anos. Predominaram as infeções da corrente sanguínea (31,1%), intra-abdominais (20,0%), associadas a cateter venoso central (17,8%) e da pele e tecidos moles (11,1%). Todas as crianças tinham fatores de risco e os mais

  7. A new species of Eidmanacris Chopard, 1956, with notes on its distribution in Brazilian caves (Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    Bolfarini, Marcio P

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eidmanacris comprises 19 species distributed through Brazil, Bolivia ad Paraguay. In Brazil, the genus has a broad distribution, but its occurrence in Brazilian caves is poorly known; the only species recorded is E. alboannulata for the cave "Gruta da Toca", Itirapina municipality, São Paulo State. In this study I describe a species, E. lencionii Bolfarini, n. sp., with a discussion on its distribution in Brazilian caves, and its relation with the hypogean environment. The type material is deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP) and the Laboratório de Estudos Subterrâneos da Universidade Federal de São Carlos (LES/UFSCar). PMID:27394244

  8. [Molding soldiers, forming citizens: doctor Eduardo Augusto Pereira de Abreu, the Paraguayan War, and physical education in Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carlos Leonardo Bahiense; de Melo, Victor Andrade

    2011-06-01

    The article discusses Eduardo Augusto Pereira de Abreu's Estudos higiênicos sobre a educação física, intelectual e moral do soldado (Hygienic studies on the physical, intellectual, and moral education of soldiers), published in 1867. Marked by the experience of the Paraguayan War, this was one of the first works that endeavored explicitly to conjoin medical and military concerns and to establish a clear link between molding a soldier and forming a citizen, both ready to defend the fatherland. Placing heavy emphasis on the practice of physical activities tied in with civism, robustness, and good health, the book both anticipated and influenced subsequent debates in Brazil on the importance of physical education.

  9. Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

  10. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  11. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  12. Post-Surgical Quality of Life, Psychological State and what Patients Think about the Effectiveness of Heller Myotomy in the Treatment of Achalasia.

    PubMed

    Vale-Fonseca, Telma; Ferreira-Pinto, Luis; Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida; Carneiro, Silvestre

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: A interrupção da motilidade esofágica que caracteriza a acalásia provoca disfagia, dor, perda de peso e desnutrição. Portanto, estes doentes referem uma redução na qualidade de vida e apresentam estados emocionais negativos. Procedimentos cirúrgicos, como a miotomia de Heller, têm-se revelado eficazes, permitindo retornar a uma qualidade de vida melhor. Material e Métodos: Foram incluídos no presente estudo 45 pacientes submetidos a miotomia de Heller. A avaliação pós-operatória foi realizada usando uma versão modificada do questionário de Qualidade de Vida Específico para a Acalasia. A qualidade de vida e a presença de sintomas psicológicos foram avaliados utilizando a versão portuguesa do Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 e a Escala de Ansiedade e Depressão Hospitalar. Resultados: Um total de 31 doentes (69%) foi avaliado, média de idades de 53 anos (18). A disfagia foi o principal sintoma clínico. Uma clara melhoria da disfagia, regurgitação, dor e perda de peso foi evidenciada após a cirurgia (p < 0,001). O domínio da saúde mental do SF-36 apresentou um coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de -0,689 com HADS -D e de -0,557 com HADS-A (p < 0,001 e p = 0,002, respetivamente). Conclusão: Este estudo demonstra que a miotomia de Heller se associa a uma boa qualidade de vida nos doentes com acalásia e reforça a ideia de que este é um procedimento seguro e eficaz.

  13. Brachial plexus morphology and vascular supply in the wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Angélica-Almeida, Maria; Casal, Diogo; Mafra, Manuela; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Martins-Ferreira, José; Ferraz-Oliveira, Mário; Amarante, José; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O rato é provavelmente a espécie animal mais utilizada em estudos experimentais de reparação nervosa. Com este trabalho pretendeu-se aprofundar o conhecimento da morfologia e da vascularização do plexo braquial do rato.Material e Métodos: Trinta ratos adultos foram estudados relativamente à morfologia e vascularização do plexo braquial. As técnicas usadas foram a injecção intravascular e dissecção sob microscópio operatório, bem como técnicas de microscopia óptica e microscopia electrónica de varrimento.Resultados: Morfologicamente, o plexo braquial do rato é um pouco diferente do plexo braquial humano. O suprimento arterial e venoso do plexo braquial do rato deriva direta ou indiretamente dos vasos vizinhos. Estes vasos formam plexos vasculares densos e interconectados no epinervo, perinervo e endonervo. Vários componentes do plexo braquial do rato são acompanhados durante um trajecto relativamente longo por vasos sanguíneos relativamente calibrosos e constantes que fornecem o seu plexo epineural, tornando o seu levantamento como retalhos nervosos possível.Discussão: A vascularização do plexo braquial do rato não é muito diferente da reportada na espécie humana, tornando o rato um modelo animal útil para o estudo experimental da fisiopatologia e tratamento da patologia do nervo periférico.Conclusão: Os nossos resultados apoiam a homologia entre o rato e o Homem em termos de morfologia e vascularização do plexo braquial. Este trabalho sugere que vários componentes do plexo braquial do rato podem ser utilizados como retalhos nervosos, incluindo fibras predominantemente motoras, sensitivas ou fibras mistas.

  14. Twenty Years of Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Single Portuguese Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Dantas Brito, Margarida; Campilho, Fernando; Branca, Rosa; Vaz, Carlos; Roncon, Susana; Campos, António

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: O linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células B pode ser curado em 60% - 70% dos doentes. O transplante autológo de progenitores hematopoiéticos é o tratamento de intenção curativa standard à recidiva. Este tratamento intensivo após primeira remissão num grupo selecionado de doentes de alto risco é controverso e fez parte da estratégia do nosso Serviço durante alguns anos. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, consulta do processo clínico. Resultados: Este estudo analisa o outcome de 113 doentes transplantados entre 1992 e 2012. Formaram-se quatro grupos com base no status pré-transplante: a) primeira remissão completa após 1 ciclo de quimioterapia (n = 64); b) segunda remissão completa após ≥ duas linhas de quimioterapia (n = 15); c) segunda remissão completa (n = 15); d) doença mais avançada (n = 19). O protocolo de quimioterapia de primeira linha mais utilizado foi R-CHOP (n = 71) e CHOP (n = 28). O seguimento mediano foi de 34 meses (1 - 221). Aos cinco anos a sobrevivência global foi de 73% (± 5) e a sobrevivência livre de progressão 75% (± 5). Conclusão: A imunoquimioterapia convencional seguida de transplante autólogo é uma opção segura e eficaz no tratamento de casos selecionados de linfoma difuso de grandes células B. Na nossa casuística cerca de 70% dos doentes de alto risco atingiram remissões duráveis com esta estratégia terapêutica.

  15. The Illness Experience: Palliative Care Given the impossibility of Healing.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Margarida Maria Florêncio; Amazonas, Maria Cristina Lopes de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a reflection about being terminally ill and the various ways that the subject has at its disposal to deal with this event. The objective is to understand the experience of palliation for patients undergoing no therapeutic possibilities of cure. The methodology of this study has the instruments to semi-structured interview, the participant observation and the field diary, and the Descriptive Analysis of Foucault's inspiration how the narratives of the subjects were perceived. The Results of paper there was the possibility of looking at the experience of illness through the eyes of a subject position assumed by the very sick. As conclusion we have than when choosing palliative care, the terminally ill opts for a way to feel more comfortable and resists the impositions of the medical model of prolonging life. O presente trabalho traz uma reflexão a respeito do ser um doente terminal e das várias maneiras que o sujeito tem a seu dispor para lidar com esse acontecimento. Nosso objetivo foi compreender a experiência da paliação por sujeitos doentes sem possibilidades terapêuticas de cura. A metodologia deste estudo teve como instrumentos a Entrevista Narrativa, a Observação Participante e o Diário de Campo, sendo a Análise Descritiva de inspiração foucaultiana o modo como as narrativas dos sujeitos foram percebidas. O resultado do estudo mostrou a possibilidade de olhar a experiência do adoecer através da ótica de uma posição de sujeito assumida pelo próprio enfermo. E concluímos que ao escolher os cuidados paliativos, o doente terminal opta por um modo de se sentir mais confortável e resiste às imposições do modelo médico de prolongamento da vida. PMID:27384275

  16. The Illness Experience: Palliative Care Given the impossibility of Healing.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Margarida Maria Florêncio; Amazonas, Maria Cristina Lopes de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a reflection about being terminally ill and the various ways that the subject has at its disposal to deal with this event. The objective is to understand the experience of palliation for patients undergoing no therapeutic possibilities of cure. The methodology of this study has the instruments to semi-structured interview, the participant observation and the field diary, and the Descriptive Analysis of Foucault's inspiration how the narratives of the subjects were perceived. The Results of paper there was the possibility of looking at the experience of illness through the eyes of a subject position assumed by the very sick. As conclusion we have than when choosing palliative care, the terminally ill opts for a way to feel more comfortable and resists the impositions of the medical model of prolonging life. O presente trabalho traz uma reflexão a respeito do ser um doente terminal e das várias maneiras que o sujeito tem a seu dispor para lidar com esse acontecimento. Nosso objetivo foi compreender a experiência da paliação por sujeitos doentes sem possibilidades terapêuticas de cura. A metodologia deste estudo teve como instrumentos a Entrevista Narrativa, a Observação Participante e o Diário de Campo, sendo a Análise Descritiva de inspiração foucaultiana o modo como as narrativas dos sujeitos foram percebidas. O resultado do estudo mostrou a possibilidade de olhar a experiência do adoecer através da ótica de uma posição de sujeito assumida pelo próprio enfermo. E concluímos que ao escolher os cuidados paliativos, o doente terminal opta por um modo de se sentir mais confortável e resiste às imposições do modelo médico de prolongamento da vida.

  17. Inclusion of Visually Impaired in the School Programme Scheduled Visit of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST). (Breton Title: Inclusão de Deficientes Visuais no Programa de Visita Escolar Programada do Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST).) Inclusión de Discapacitados Visuales en el Programa Escolar Programado del Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Gonçalves, Carla; da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Inclusive Education in Brazil, contemplated in the 1988 Constitution and in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (9.394/96) highlights the importance and urgency of promoting inclusive education as a formative element of nationality. Inclusive Education refers to all people who are struggling in school. Inclusion should be in all educational institutions (formal and informal). Our goal in the graduation final task was to report the experience of mediation to visually impaired students of the Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) at the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), and also suggest some modifications and present new proposals for the School Visit Program (VEP) through a specially constructed apparatus, where the sky can be sensed near the latitude of Rio de Janeiro. A educação inclusiva no Brasil, contemplada na Constituição de 1988 e a Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (9.394/96), destaca a importância e urgência de se promover a inclusão escolar como elemento formador da nacionalidade. A educação inclusiva diz respeito a todas as pessoas que enfrentam dificuldades na escola. A inclusão deve estar em todas as instituições educacionais (formais e não formais). Nosso objetivo, no trabalho de final de curso de licenciatura, foi apresentar o relato de experiência de mediação aos alunos deficientes visuais do Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), as modificações e novas propostas para o Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) através de um aparelho especialmente construído onde se pode perceber o céu na latitude próxima a do Rio de Janeiro. La educación inclusiva en el Brasil, contemplada en la Constitución de 1988 y en la Ley de Directrices y Bases de la Educación Nacional (9.394/96), destaca la importancia y la urgencia de promover la inclusión escolar como elemento formador de la nacionalidad. La educación inclusiva se refiere a todas las personas

  18. Sr-Nd constraints and trace-elements geochemistry of selected Paleo and Mesoproterozoic mafic dikes and related intrusions from the South American Platform: Insights into their mantle sources and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, V. A. V.; Teixeira, W.; Mazzucchelli, M.; Corrêa da Costa, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of selected mafic intrusions from cratonic areas of the South American Platform shows considerable differences among their mantle sources and geodynamic features, particularly regarding the dikes from the SW Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons. The tholeiites from the SW Amazonian Craton, which belong to the Serra da Providência Intrusive Suite (1.55 Ga), the Nova Lacerda swarm (1.44 Ga), the Colorado Complex (1.35 Ga), and the Nova Brasilândia Group (1.10 Ga), originated from a mantle source composed mainly of a N-MORB end-member, with a variable addition of slab fluids (up to 30%, according to the adopted model) from oceanic lithosphere due to episodic subductions during the Mesoproterozoic. Mafic intrusions from Nova Lacerda swarm and Colorado Complex are related to arc settings formed during the 1.47-1.35 Ga closure of the oceanic domain separating the Amazonian Craton and the Paraguá Terrane, whereas the tholeiites from the Serra da Providência Intrusive Suite and the Nova Brasilândia Group are considered intracratonic. The dike swarms of the São Francisco Craton are associated with intra-plate events. The inferred composition of the mantle source of the Lavras swarm (1.9 Ga) has a predominant E-MORB signature, and a modest contribution of up to 10% of an OIB component. The mantle composition underwent considerable changes during the Proterozoic, as indicated by the sources of the younger dikes, represented by the Diamantina (0.93 Ga) and the Salvador-Olivença swarms (0.92 Ga), to which considerable amount of slab derived fluids, probably from recycled crustal material, and OIB component were added. Changes in mantle composition and dikes intrusions could be related to the initial disruption of the Rodinia Supercontinent. The Florida (1.79 Ga) and Tandil (2.0 Ga) dikes are associated with extensional events of the Rio de La Plata Craton. In spite of the similarities between the tectonic framework of these swarms and that of Lavras (1.9 Ga

  19. Birds and people in semiarid northeastern Brazil: symbolic and medicinal relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background At least 511 species of birds occur in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil and many of them interact with human populations in a number of different ways, including their use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs. Objective The present work examined these types of birds/human interactions (use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs) in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte State in northeastern Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through semi-structured interviews with 120 local residents. Results A total of 16 wild bird species distributed among 11 families were found to interact directly with humans, with Columbidae being the best represented family. Seven species were identified in the medicinal category, five were related to symbolic aspects, while four species were identified as being related to both categories (medicinal and symbolic). Conclusion The accumulated folk knowledge, beliefs, and practices involving the avifauna in the semiarid region of Brazil, whether symbolic or medicinal, demonstrated the cultural importance of this vertebrate group to local human populations and revealed a belief system intrinsically related to cynegetic practices in the region. Portuguese abstract Introdução No semiárido do Brasil ocorrem 511 espécies de aves, algumas das quais interagem frequentemente com as populações humanas locais de diferentes formas, incluindo o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças. Objetivo Esta pesquisa registrou as aves diretamente associadas a essas formas de interação (o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças) na região semiárida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 120 moradores locais. Resultados Foram registradas 16 espécies de aves silvestres distribuídas em 11 famílias, sendo Columbidae a que apresentou o maior número de

  20. Reviving Erathostenes. (Breton Title: Revivendo Eratóstenes.) Reviviendo a Eratóstenes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo Cesar R.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the commemorations of the International Year of the Physics and having as its main objective to introduce students to the scientific method, the Rio de Janeiro Planetarium Foundation, in partnership with many institutions of Brazil and Europe, coordinated the activity "Reviving Eratosthenes" whose objective was the determination of the Earth's circumference. We used the famous procedure adopted by Eratosthenes more than 2000 years ago, with some adaptations. This work considers and analyzes the method used by us, aiming the application in schools. The use of places in different meridians allows a better understanding of the abstract concepts such as geographic coordinate and time zones. We obtained reasonably precise results, which improve for pairs of distant cities. Finally, one of the most important conclusions achieved by the students involved is the importance of the cooperation (international in this case) to solve problems. Fazendo parte das comemorações do Ano Internacional da Física e tendo como principal objetivo introduzir estudantes do ensino médio ao método científico, a Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, em parceria com diversas instituições do Brasil e da Europa, coordenou a atividade "Revivendo Eratóstenes" cujo objetivo foi a determinação da circunferência da Terra. Para isso, utilizou-se um procedimento semelhante ao empregado pelo sábio Eratóstenes há mais de 2.000 anos, com algumas adaptações. Este trabalho propõe e analisa o método que empregamos, visando a aplicação em escolas. A possibilidade de se trabalhar com locais em diferentes meridianos permite uma melhor compreensão dos conceitos mas abstratos, como coordenadas e fusos horários. A precisão dos resultados é bastante razoável, melhorando para cidades bem afastadas. Finalmente, uma das conclusões mais importantes é a percepção, por parte dos estudantes, da importância da colaboração (neste caso, internacional) para resolver

  1. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF A PROGRAMME PROMOTING ADEQUATE AND HEALTHY EATING ON ADOLESCENT HEALTH MARKERS: AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Brito Beck da Silva, Karine; Leovigildo Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Couto, Ricardo David; Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las repercusiones de un protocolo de promoción de una alimentación adecuada y saludable en los parámetros de salud de adolescentes. Métodos: se trata de un estudio de intervención, controlado, con una duración de nueve meses, en el cual participaron estudiantes, con una edad entre 10 y 17 años, matriculados en dos escuelas (intervención/ control) situadas en un barrio pobre del municipio de Salvador (Bahia), Brasil. Fueron previstas para la escuela bajo intervención acciones de promoción de una alimentación adecuada y saludable, con base en el Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Guía Alimentaria para la Población Brasileña). Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de tales acciones, todos los alumnos fueron sometidos a los exámenes bioquímicos, de maduración y antropométricos al principio y al final de los nueve meses. Además, contestaron a un cuestionario sobre consumo alimentario, actividad física y comportamiento sedentario. También se consiguió información sobre las condiciones socioeconómicas de la familia. La opción fue el análisis de Ecuaciones de Estimaciones Generalizadas (GEE) para evaluar las asociaciones de interés. Resultados: se verificó que los estudiantes bajo intervención presentaron una disminución de 7,64 mg/dL en la media del colesterol total (p = 0,009), de 7,77 mg/dL en la media del LDLc (p = 0,003), un incremento del 18% en el consumo de legumbres (OR = 1,18; 95%IC 1,03-1,37) y del 17% en el consumo de verduras (OR = 1,17; 95%IC 1,01-1,35), comparados con aquellos que no fueron sometidos a la intervención. No hubo diferencias en los parámetros antropométricos estudiados. Conclusión: los resultados apuntaron un efecto positivo de las acciones de promoción de la alimentación adecuada y saludable en la reducción del colesterol total, LDL-c, en el aumento del consumo de vegetales y legumbres, evidenciando una vez más que el modelo de intervención fue capaz de prever y/o tratar

  2. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  3. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present part of the results obtained by the intervention made from the author's Master degree project, which consisted in the development of a set of Astronomy classes for first year of High School students from a private school in the "Distrito Federal", Brasilia, Brazil, making use of a didactical material called mini-planetarium (MP) as the main resource. Using Paulo Freire's contextualization and dialogicity ideas as a theoretical framework guided by these lessons, it was proposed to the students the assembly and application of that resource in a planetarium session. During the project, some subjects such as the apparent trajectory of stars through Brasilia's sky, the location of the cardinal points beginning from the Southern Cross constellation, the color of stars and the stars being seen from a particular place were emphasized. It was found that the students showed an improvement of their understanding about these subjects, as well as a significant excitement with the developed methodology. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar algunos de los resultados obtenidos en el proyecto de la tesis de maestría del autor, que incluyó el desarrollo de algunas clases de Astronomía, con estudiantes del primer año del bachillerato de una escuela privada del Distrito Federal (Brasilia, Brasil), utilizando como materia prima didáctica el recurso llamado miniplanetario (MP). Utilizando como base teórica orientadora de esas clases las ideas de contextualización y dialógica de Paulo Freire, fue propuesto a los estudiantes el montaje y la utilización de este recurso en una función de planetario. Durante el proyecto, se enfatizaron asuntos tales como la trayectoria aparente de las estrellas del cielo de Brasilia, la ubicación de los puntos cardinales a partir de la constelación de la Cruz del Sur, los colores de las estrellas y las estrellas vistas desde una localidad determinada. Se constató que los estudiantes mostraron una mejora

  4. Prediction of health risk due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in urban air in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rainho, C R; Velho, A M A; Corrêa, S M; Mazzei, J L; Aiub, C A F; Felzenszwalb, I

    2013-02-28

    Risk assessment can provide a comprehensive estimate of potential effects of contaminants under specific, well-defined, and well-described circumstances, providing quantitative relationships between exposure and effects to identify and to define areas of concern. We investigated the mutagenic activity of particulate matter in air samples collected from three sites in Rio de Janeiro city. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at Avenida Brasil, at Campus of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, and at Rebouças Tunnel. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains TA98/1.8-DNP(6), YG1021, and YG1024, commonly used in mutagenicity assays, were treated (10-50 µg/plate), with and without exogenous metabolization. The highest values for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected at Rebouças Tunnel. For chrysene, as an example, the concentration was nearly 200 times higher than that established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Frequent traffic jams can place bus drivers who go through the Rebouças Tunnel at risk of exposure to up to 0.69 ng/m(3) benzo(a) pyrene. Independent of exogenous metabolization, mutagenicity was detected in strains YG1021 and YG1024 at all the sites, suggesting nitro and amino derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Rebouças Tunnel air samples gave the highest values for rev/µg and rev/m(3). This could be due to the fact that the long, enclosed passageway through a mountain restricts ventilation. The cancer risk estimate in this study was 10(-3) for the benzo(a)pyrene, at the two sites, indicating a high risk.

  5. Biometry and diversity of Arabica coffee genotypes cultivated in a high density plant system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, W N; Tomaz, M A; Ferrão, M A G; Martins, L D; Colodetti, T V; Brinate, S V B; Amaral, J F T; Sobreira, F M; Apostólico, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was developed to respond to the need for an increase in crop yield in the mountain region of Caparaó (southern Espírito Santo State, Brazil), an area of traditional coffee production. This study aimed to analyze the diversity and characterize the crop yield of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. with potential for cultivation in high plant density systems. In addition, it also aimed to quantify the expression of agronomic traits in this cultivation system and provide information on the genotypes with the highest cultivation potential in the studied region. The experiment followed a randomized block design with 16 genotypes, four repetitions, and six plants per experimental plot. Plant spacing was 2.00 x 0.60 m, with a total of 8333 plants per hectare, representing a high-density cultivation system. Coffee plants were cultivated until the start of their reproductive phenological cycles and were evaluated along four complete reproductive cycles. Genotypes with high crop yield and beverage quality, short canopy, and rust resistance were selected. C. arabica genotypes showed variability in almost all characteristics. It was possible to identify different responses among genotypes grown in a high plant density cultivation system. Although the chlorophyll a content was similar among genotypes, the genotypes Acauã, Araponga MG1, Sacramento MG1, Tupi, and Catuaí IAC 44 showed a higher chlorophyll b content than the other genotypes. Among these, Sacramento MG1 also showed high leafiness and growth of vegetative structures, whereas Araponga MG1, Pau-Brasil MG1, and Tupi showed high fruit production. In addition, Araponga MG1 had also a higher and more stable crop yield over the years.

  6. Experimental Study of Alluvial Fan Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Devauchelle, O.; Barrier, L.; Métivier, F.

    2015-12-01

    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers flow onto flatter lowlands. The associated change of slope causes sediment deposition. As the river is free to move laterally, it builds conical sedimentary structures called alluvial fans. Their location at the interface between erosional and depositional areas makes them valuable sedimentary archives. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. Most natural fans are built by braided streams. However, to avoid the complexity of braided rivers, we develop a small-scale experiment in which an alluvial fan is formed by a single channel. We use a mixture of water and glycerol to produce a laminar river. The fluid is mixed with corindon sand (~ 300 μm) in a tilted channel and left free to form a fan around its outlet. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experimental run. We record the fan progradation and the channel morphology with top-view pictures. We also generate an elevation map with an optical method based on the deformation of a moiré pattern. We observe that, to leading order, the fan remains self-affine as it grows, with a constant slope. We compare two recent studies about the formation of one-dimensionnal fan [Guerit et al. 2014] and threshold rivers [Seizilles et al. 2013] to our experimental findings. In particular, we propose a theory witch relates the fan morphology to the control parameters ( fluid and sediment discharges, grain size). Our observation accord with the predictions, suggesting that the fan is built near the threshold of sediment motion. Finally, we intend to expand our interpretation to alluvial fans build by single-thread channels ( Okavango, Bostwana; Taquari and Paraguay, Brasil; Pastaza, Peru).

  7. An AO-assisted Variability Study of Four Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, R.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Strader, J.; Hakala, P.; Catelan, M.; Peacock, M. B.; Simunovic, M.

    2016-09-01

    The image-subtraction technique applied to study variable stars in globular clusters represented a leap in the number of new detections, with the drawback that many of these new light curves could not be transformed to magnitudes due to severe crowding. In this paper, we present observations of four Galactic globular clusters, M 2 (NGC 7089), M 10 (NGC 6254), M 80 (NGC 6093), and NGC 1261, taken with the ground-layer adaptive optics module at the SOAR Telescope, SAM. We show that the higher image quality provided by SAM allows for the calibration of the light curves of the great majority of the variables near the cores of these clusters as well as the detection of new variables, even in clusters where image-subtraction searches were already conducted. We report the discovery of 15 new variables in M 2 (12 RR Lyrae stars and 3 SX Phe stars), 12 new variables in M 10 (11 SX Phe and 1 long-period variable), and 1 new W UMa-type variable in NGC 1261. No new detections are found in M 80, but previous uncertain detections are confirmed and the corresponding light curves are calibrated into magnitudes. Additionally, based on the number of detected variables and new Hubble Space Telescope/UVIS photometry, we revisit a previous suggestion that M 80 may be the globular cluster with the richest population of blue stragglers in our Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  8. Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.

    PubMed

    Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish.

  9. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  10. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies.

  11. Availability of food stores and consumption of fruit, legumes and vegetables in a Brazilian urban area.

    PubMed

    Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Loures Mendes, Larissa; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Carvalho Malta, Deborah; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2014-12-17

    Antecedentes: El ambiente alimentar puede tener una influencia importante en la disponibilidad y el acceso a ellos, éste desempeña un papel importante en la salud de las poblaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el consumo de frutas, legumbres y hortalizas (FLV) de adultos y la disponibilidad de las tiendas de alimentos en el contexto del espacio socioeconómico y geográfico en el territorio de las unidades básicas de salud en una capital brasileña. Métodos: El estudio se desarrolló a partir de la información obtenida a través de la Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades no Transmisibles Prevención de Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL), utilizando muestras de la ciudad de Belo Horizonte en los años de 2008 a 2010. Un total de 5.611 registros fueron geo-codificados usando el código postal. Una puntuación fue creada en base a la frecuencia semanal y diario del consumo de FLV . El área de las unidades básicas de salud se utilizó como unidad vecinal. Se utilizaron los datos geo-referenciados de los comercios de venta de comida en la ciudad y el barrio. Resultados: A medida que aumentaba la renta del barrio, hubo un aumento en la distribución de los establecimientos de comida e bebidas para todas las categorías estudiadas. Se observaron las puntuaciones más altas de consumo FLV en zonas con niveles de ingresos más altos. Conclusión: La mayor concentración de tiendas de alimentos e bebidas e mayor puntuación de consumo, independientemente da calidad de los productos ofrecidos, fue observado en las áreas geográficas con mayor poder adquisitivo.

  12. Biometry and diversity of Arabica coffee genotypes cultivated in a high density plant system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, W N; Tomaz, M A; Ferrão, M A G; Martins, L D; Colodetti, T V; Brinate, S V B; Amaral, J F T; Sobreira, F M; Apostólico, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was developed to respond to the need for an increase in crop yield in the mountain region of Caparaó (southern Espírito Santo State, Brazil), an area of traditional coffee production. This study aimed to analyze the diversity and characterize the crop yield of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. with potential for cultivation in high plant density systems. In addition, it also aimed to quantify the expression of agronomic traits in this cultivation system and provide information on the genotypes with the highest cultivation potential in the studied region. The experiment followed a randomized block design with 16 genotypes, four repetitions, and six plants per experimental plot. Plant spacing was 2.00 x 0.60 m, with a total of 8333 plants per hectare, representing a high-density cultivation system. Coffee plants were cultivated until the start of their reproductive phenological cycles and were evaluated along four complete reproductive cycles. Genotypes with high crop yield and beverage quality, short canopy, and rust resistance were selected. C. arabica genotypes showed variability in almost all characteristics. It was possible to identify different responses among genotypes grown in a high plant density cultivation system. Although the chlorophyll a content was similar among genotypes, the genotypes Acauã, Araponga MG1, Sacramento MG1, Tupi, and Catuaí IAC 44 showed a higher chlorophyll b content than the other genotypes. Among these, Sacramento MG1 also showed high leafiness and growth of vegetative structures, whereas Araponga MG1, Pau-Brasil MG1, and Tupi showed high fruit production. In addition, Araponga MG1 had also a higher and more stable crop yield over the years. PMID:26909972

  13. South Atlantic sag basins: new petroleum system components

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, S.G. Mohriak, W.U.; Mello, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    Newly discovered pre-salt source rocks, reservoirs and seals need to be included as components to the petroleum systems of both sides of the South Atlantic. These new components lie between the pre-salt rift strata and the Aptian salt layers, forming large, post-rift, thermal subsidence sag basins. These are differentiated from the older rift basins by the lack of syn-rift faulting and a reflector geometry that is parallel to the base salt regional unconformity rather than to the Precambrian basement. These basins are observed in deep water regions overlying areas where both the mantle and the crust have been involved in the extension. This mantle involvement creates post-rift subsiding depocenters in which deposition is continuous while proximal rift-phase troughs with little or no mantle involvement are bypassed and failed to accumulate potential source rocks during anoxic times. These features have been recognized in both West African Kwanza Basin and in the East Brasil Rift systems. The pre-salt source rocks that are in the West African sag basins were deposited in lacustrine brackish to saline water environment and are geochemically distinct from the older, syn-rift fresh to brackish water lakes, as well as from younger, post-salt marine anoxic environments of the drift phase. Geochemical analyses of the source rocks and their oils have shown a developing source rock system evolving from isolated deep rift lakes to shallow saline lakes, and culminating with the infill of the sag basin by large saline lakes to a marginally marine restricted gulf. Sag basin source rocks may be important in the South Atlantic petroleum system by charging deep-water prospects where syn-rift source rocks are overmature and the post-salt sequences are immature.

  14. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  15. Eating habits, nutritional status and quality of life of patients in late postoperative gastric bypass Roux-Y.

    PubMed

    Prazeres de Assis, Priscila; Alves da Silva, Silvia; Sousa Vieira de Melo, Camila Yandara; de Arruda Moreira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos alimenticios, el estado nutricional y la calidad de vida de pacientes en el periodo posoperatorio de la cirugía bariátrica de Fobi-Capella. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico transversal en 66 pacientes sometidos a cirugía bariátrica y monitorizados por el personal del Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz (HUOC), en el noreste de Brasil. Se aplicó un cuestionario que contemplaba características sociodemográficas e información demográfica relativa a los hábitos alimenticios, y también se evaluaba la calidad de vida por el método BAROS. Resultados: En la tolerancia a los alimentos, en la categoría de «difícil de comer» se notificaron alimentos tales como carne, pollo, arroz, ensalada cruda y maíz y en la «no ingeridos» estaban maíz, seguido de caramelos, carne y pollo. Hubo una reducción del peso corporal total y del IMC y, en consecuencia, un aumento del PEP% con el tiempo. Con respecto a la calidad de vida, se pudo observar que la mayor parte de los pacientes la clasificaron como «buena» en ambos grupos de 6-18 meses y de > 18 meses. Conclusiones: Nuestro resultados demuestran que la cirugía bariátrica produjo unos efectos satisfactorios en esta población; sin embargo, existe la necesidad de una educación nutricional continuada, especialmente en el grupo de más de 18 meses tras la cirugía.

  16. 221 Eos: A remnant of a partially differentiated parent body?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothé-Diniz, T.; Carvano, J. M.

    2004-11-01

    The asteroid 221 Eos (K class), has been traditionally associated to CO/CV meteorites (Bell 1988). This association is based solely on spectral similarities with meteorites, and previously the best spectral analog to Eos was found to be the CO3 Warrenton (Burbine et al. 2001). The 52-color spectrum (http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/) and the SMASSIR spectrum (Burbine and Binzel 2001) of 221 Eos in the NIR region, combined with the SMASSII spectrum (Bus and Binzel 2001) in the visible, has now been compared to the whole RELAB meteorites database (http://www.planetary.brown.edu/relab/rel_pub/) updated on July 31, 2003. This comparison revealed a better spectral analog to Eos: the anomalous stone Divnoe, a primitive achondrite meteorite. Problems and implications of such match for the composition of Eos and its dynamical family will be discussed. This work has been supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq/Brasil. References: Bell, J.F. 1988. A Probable Asteroidal Parent Body for the CV or CO Chondrites. Meteoritics 23, 256. Burbine, T.H. and Binzel, R.P. Bus, S.J. and Clark, B.E. 2001. K asteroids and CO3/CV3 chondrites. Icarus 36, 245. Burbine, T.H. and Binzel, R.P. 2002. Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey in the Near-Infrared. Icarus 159, 468. Bus, S.J. and Binzel, R.P. 2002. Phase II of the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey: The Observations. Icarus 158, 106.

  17. Estructuras circumnucleares en la galaxia Seyfert interactuante NGC 1241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.

    We have studied the rotation curve and morphology of the central 10 kiloparsecs (~40'') of NGC 1241 obtaining 50 radial velocity measurements in three different position angles. These observations indicate a large velocity gradient of 70 km/sec/('') in the central 5''. The fitting of different density distribution laws to the derived rotation curve indicates a mass of ~ 9 E9 Msolar in the inner kpc. HST-NICMOS images show the presence of a circumnuclear star formation ring at radius ~ 2.8'' (720 pc). This ring is more defined than most of the known cases and harbours a mini-bar and nuclear spiral arms with a sense of rotation opposite than the main spiral arms. This morphological evidence suggest the presence of a dynamically decoupled system inside the circumnuclear ring. As in other cases studied by us, the ring seems to be inside an Inner Lindblad Resonance and the Lindblad curve ω-κ/2 for this object begins to drop for Rmax = 400 pc (~1.5''), but the limited spatial resolution does not allow us to find out a definitive evidence for the existence of a second ILR inside at inner radii. Up to date there is no published morphological or kinematical evidence for the presence of a second ILR at such small radii, a necessary ingredient for the presence of circumnuclear ring of star formation, considering the results of recent hydrodynamic simulations. We have proposed the observation of NGC 1241 with better instruments in order to extend the rotation curve to the central 2'', unveil the presence of a second inner resonance, study in detail the structural properties of the nuclear counterrotating arms and establish accurate models of mass distribution in galaxies with circumnuclear rings. This program has been awarded with Band 1 observing time at the Gemini North Telescope Quick Start Stage (Brasil and Argentina).

  18. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305T), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scheuner, Carmen; Tindall, Brian J.; Lu, Megan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; et al

    2014-12-08

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448 T, were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published andmore » the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. We study phylogenomic analyses that indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. Lastly, in addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the

  19. Heritage and Observatories in Brazil at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granato, Marcus

    The first systematic asronomical observations in the southern hemisphere were in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, in the short period of Dutch rule in the region (1637-1644). Later, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there were three observatories on Brazilian soil: Imperial Observatório do Rio de Janeiro, Observatório da Escola Politecnica, both in Rio de Janeiro and Observatório Central, in the southern city of Porto Alegre. The first was created by Imperial decree by D. Pedro I, on 15 October 1827, while the second, linked to Universidade do Brasil, was established on 5 July 1881. The third was planned in 1889, but only inaugurated on 24 January 1908 as part of the Escola de Engenharia. All three institutions exist to this day, and their scientific instruments of historical value are included in cultural heritage preservation projects. The largest collection of this kind of objects is at Museu de Astronomia e Ciéncias Afins (MAST), most of whose 2000 artefacts come from the Imperial Observatory (today the National Observatory). Many of them were produced in Germany by manufacturers such as Gustav Heyde, Carl Zeiss, Askania-Werke, Carl Bamberg and Max Kohl. The buildings of the Observatório Central (1921) and Observatório Nacional (1921) are listed by federal and state heritage protection agencies, particularly because they were purpose built for astronomical research and have architectural features typical of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that have not been altered over the years.

  20. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  1. Fotometria WHBY |o lll|/HB de Regiones H 11 Y la HISTORIA de la Formacion ESTELAR Reciente EN la PEQUENA NUBE de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.; Dottori, H. A.

    1987-05-01

    El ancho equivalente WHβ de la linea de Hβ en emisión y la razón [0 III]/Hβ del par λλ4959, 50 7 A del [0111], fueron medidos en 23 regiones HII de la Peque˜a Nube de Magallanes, por medio de la fotometría fotoeléctrica a través de un sistema de tres filtros interferenciales: dos Hβ , con bandas pasantes de 100 y 30 A, y un [0111] centrado en 5000 A y con banda pasante de 50 A. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con los telescopios de 1.60-m y 0.60-m del Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasópolis, Brasil. Fueron escogidos diafragmas suficientemente grandes para captar la radiación integrada de cada región HII. Las medidas fueron calibradas por comparación a un conjunto de nebulosas planetarias con flujos absolutos bien definidos. A través de la comparación entre los datos observacionales y modelos evolutivos de WHβ y [0 III] /Hβ (Copetti et al.1986', Astr. and Ap., 156, 111), las edades de las regiones HIl fueron estimadas. Basada en la distribución espacial de las edades de regiones HIl, la historia de la formación estelar reciente en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes es analizada. La similitud de las medidas de WH&beta y [OIII]/WHβ entre las regiones H II observadas sugiere que hubo una explosión de formación estelar a 4±1 x106 años en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes. (Parcialmente financiado por CNPq).

  2. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. PMID:25278142

  3. Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.

    PubMed

    Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

  4. Seroepidemiological Survey of Canine Leishmania Infections from Peripheral Areas in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; Carlota, Francisco Canindé; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Natal, northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania spp. In this study, was evaluated the antileishmanial IgG antibody and epidemiological factors related to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods: Sera samples obtained by venipuncture of 1,426 dogs living in areas of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence were tested for detection of IgG anti-leishmania antibodies with Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay (IFA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Chi-square (x2) and Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Differences were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 10.30% (147/1,426); prevalence increased when the samples were found to be positive at least for one technique ([417/1,426] 29.3%). The high percentage of seroprevalence was observed in Nova República (15.35%), Nova Natal I (12.7%) and Lagoa Azul (11.4%) neighborhoods. In the Planalto, Soledade and Brasil Novo, the infection rates ranged from 7.5 at 8.06%. (p=0.00051). There was neither statistically significant difference between leishmanial infection nor clinical signs of disease (p=0.84; OR=1.0 [0.41; 2.3]), sex (p=0.78, OR=0.94 [0.66; 1.28]); and breed (p=0.92; OR=1.0 [0.65; 1.54]) were observed. Conclusion: The RESULTS suggest that CVL is widely distributed in Natal, may be increasingly urbanizing and will spread through neighborhoods but not endemic, resulting in a serious public health problem, emphasizing the need for epidemiological studies to a greater understanding of the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in these specific areas and contribute proactively to the public health policies. PMID:26668661

  5. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  6. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index; assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carla Alberici; Orlandi, Silvana Paiva; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad pronostica del Índice Inflamatorio-Nutricional (INI) en pacientes con cáncer del tracto gastrointestinal y pulmón. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal, con pacientes de un servicio de quimioterapia en Brasil, entre Julio de 2008 y Mayo de 2010. INI (Albúmina/CRP) y el estadio nutricional (Valoración Global Subjetiva-SGA) fueran evaluados. INI de riesgo fue definido como menor que 0.35. El tiempo medio de acompañamiento fue 1.6 año. Analices estadísticas fueran realizadas con el programa Stata 11.1™. Resultados: Fueron evaluados 74 pacientes, con edad media de 63.4 años, la mayoría hombres (58%) e con cáncer gastrointestinal (71%). Desnutrición fue identificada en 87% de los pacientes (22% con desnutrición grave). El INI medio fue 2.67 y 54% de los individuos presentaban INI de riesgo. Durante el acompañamiento hubieran 49 óbitos (66%). El tiempo mediano de sobrevida de los pacientes con INI de riesgo fue significantemente más corto que de los pacientes con INI normal (p = 0.002). El grupo con INI de riesgo llevó 0.78 año para decaer 50%, en cuanto el grupo con INI normal llevó 2.78 año (p = 0.001). INI de riesgo y desnutrición grave fueron factores independientes de peor sobrevida. Conclusión: El INI demostró capacidad pronostica en esta amuestra y puede ser una herramienta útil, basada testes rutineros y disponibles, para evaluar pacientes con cáncer.

  7. [The suicide problem in Stefan Zweig's works].

    PubMed

    Haenel, T

    1981-01-01

    The life of the Vienna-born writer Stefan Zweig, whose centenary will be on November 28th, 1981, is portrayed in the light of some external data. His works - mainly novellas - in which the theme of suicide plays a central role, are briefly presented, and his preference for describing psychological borderline and extreme states is stressed. One of his first poems and his last one - more than forty years lie between them - are discussed with reference to his depression and suicidal tendencies. Zweig, who at least since the First World war had been periodically suffering from depressions, was looked after and in a sense also treated by his first wife Friderike von Winternitz, until he had to leave his home in Salzburg in 1935. In 1939, he divorced from his wife and married his sickly secretary, Lotte Altmann, who suffered from asthma and depression. After prolonged stays in England, North and South America he settled in Petropolis near Rio de Janeiro in Brasil, where he spent the last months of his life. Zweig was the second son of a dominating, self-willed mother and a dignified, almost "motherly" father. He felt his childhood to have been constricted and hemmed in. His narcissism, which has played an essential role in relation to his suicide, has its roots in his childhood. Direct as well as indirect hints at suicide were not lacking during the last two years of Zweig's life, which were increasingly filled with depression and anxiety. The preface to his autobiography "The World of Yesterday" may be interpreted as an indirect announcement of suicide. On February 22nd, 1942, Zweig committed suicide together with his second wife in Petropolis.

  8. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  9. The worldwide prevalence of insufficient physical activity in adolescents; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Guerra, Paulo Henrique; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de los estudios transversales sobre la prevalencia de actividad física insuficiente (IPA) sobre la de base a un punto de corte definido por la OMS (< 60 min/d de actividad física moderada y vigorosa). Métodos: La búsqueda se llevó a cabo utilizando bases de datos en línea (BioMed Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline PubMed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus), e incluyó artículos publicados desde el inicio de las bases de datos hasta 18 de febrero de 2012, así como las referencias citadas por los artículos recuperados y la información proporcionada por los autores. Sólo artículos originales que evaluaban el nivel de actividad física mediante cuestionarios fueron considerados. Resultados: De los 2.384 artículos recuperados inicialmente, quince estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, de los cuales siete fueron llevados a cabo en Brasil. La prevalencia de la IPA varió de 18,7% a 90,6%, con una mediana de 79,7%. En todas las encuestas, la prevalencia fue mayor en las niñas que en los niños y y los países en desarrollo presentaron una mayor prevalencia. Conclusiones: Se concluye que la prevalencia de la IPA es alta entre los adolescentes y que la definición adoptada en este estudio se utiliza raramente en la literatura. Estos resultados sugieren que es necesario el desarrollo de intervenciones para aumentar los niveles de actividad física entre los adolescentes.

  10. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Marques, Cibele Dantas; Ribeiro Silva, Rita de Cássia; Machado, Maria Ester C; Portela de Santana, Mônica Leila; Castro de Andrade Cairo, Romilda; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Oliveira Reis Maciel, Leonardo; Rodrigues Silva, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Un estudio transversal se llevó a cabo con 1477 estudiantes de primaria matriculados en las escuelas públicas de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, para evaluar la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad. Métodos: La muestra se determinó por la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados en dos etapas para la selección de escuelas y clases. Más tarde, posteriori error se calculó. Los estudiantes fueron clasificados como sobrepeso u obesos de acuerdo con la clasificación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, 2007. Ellos también fueron clasificados de acuerdo a la edad, la etapa de maduración sexual, y la presencia de obesidad abdominal. Resultados: En general, el 9,3% de los estudiantes tenían sobrepeso y el 6,4% eran obesos, por lo tanto, el 15,7% de los alumnos se considera que tienen exceso de peso (sobrepeso + obesidad), con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. De la población total estudiada el 12,9% presentaron obesidad abdominal, esta condición se observa en el 13% de su peso normal. Se encontró asociación entre el sobrepeso y la edad < 14 AÑOs (p = 0,030) y obesidad abdominal (p = 0,001). Conclusiones: Los programas de intervención deben ser implementados para prevenir y tratar la obesidad en la infancia y la adolescencia. Además, los profesionales que trabajan con las personas en este grupo de edad deben ser sensibles a este problema. La necesidad de estandarizar los indicadores antropométricos utilizados en los diferentes estudios se enfatiza también.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305T), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448T, were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published and the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. In addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the order should be

  12. [Efficacy of zinc on lineal growth on Latin American children younger than 5; systematic review].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morán, Elsa; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: En la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos existe una deficiencia de micronutrientes, retraso en el crecimiento, y altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad infantil. En la actualidad se ha asociado la deficiencia de zinc con el retraso del crecimiento infantil. El propósito de esta revisión, fue analizar artículos sobre estudios aleatorizados que evaluaron el efecto de la suplementación con zinc y el crecimiento infantil. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de la literatura en la base de datos de PubMed con las palabras claves “Micronutrient supplementation and growth”, publicados de enero de 2005 a abril de 2013. Se identificaron 34 estudios aleatorizados controlados (EAC) realizados en Latinoamérica, de los cuales cinco reunieron los criterios de inclusión. Se añadió un estudio referido por otros autores. Resultados: Los estudios se realizaron en Brasil, Cuba, Perú, Ecuador, y Guatemala. En ningún estudio se observó el efecto positivo del zinc sobre el crecimiento lineal. Conclusión: La revisión realizada sugiere que la suplementación con zinc no tiene un efecto significativo sobre el crecimiento lineal; sin embargo, podría tener beneficios sobre el crecimiento en niños con deficiencia de zinc si se añaden otros nutrientes en deficiencia.

  13. Heart rate variability is a trait marker of major depressive disorder: evidence from the sertraline vs. electric current therapy to treat depression clinical study.

    PubMed

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Kemp, Andrew H; Dantas, Eduardo M; Goulart, Alessandra C; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Boggio, Paulo S; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Fregni, Felipe; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2013-10-01

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a cardiovascular predictor of mortality. Recent debate has focused on whether reductions in HRV in major depressive disorder (MDD) are a consequence of the disorder or a consequence of pharmacotherapy. Here we report on the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-pharmacological intervention, vs. sertraline to further investigate this issue. The employed design was a double-blind, randomized, factorial, placebo-controlled trial. One hundred and eighteen moderate-to-severe, medication-free, low-cardiovascular risk depressed patients were recruited for this study and allocated to either active/sham tDCS (10 consecutive sessions plus two extra sessions every other week) or placebo/sertraline (50 mg/d) for 6 wk. Patients were age and gender-matched to healthy controls from a concurrent cohort study [the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)]. The impact of disorder, treatment and clinical response on HRV (root mean square of successive differences and high frequency) was examined. Our findings confirmed that patients displayed decreased HRV relative to controls. Furthermore, HRV scores did not change following treatment with either a non-pharmacological (tDCS) or pharmacological (sertraline) intervention, nor did HRV increase with clinical response to treatment. Based on these findings, we discuss whether reduced HRV is a trait-marker for MDD, which may predispose patients to a host of conditions and disease even after response to treatment. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of depression pathophysiology and the relationship between MDD, cardiovascular disorders and mortality.

  14. Experimental study of a single channel alluvial fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, Pauline; Devauchelle, Olivier; Barrier, Laurie; Métivier, François

    2016-04-01

    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers reach a flat plain and start to depose their sediment load into a conical sedimentary structure called alluvial fan. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. Most natural fans are built by braided streams. However, to avoid the complexity of braided rivers, we develop a small-scale experiment in which an alluvial fan is formed by a single channel. We use a mixture of water and glycerol to produce a laminar river. The fluid is mixed with corindon sand (~ 300 μm) in a tilted channel and left free to form a fan around its outlet. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experimental run. We record the fan progradation and the channel morphology with top-view pictures. We also generate an elevation map with an optical method based on the deformation of a moiré pattern. We observe that, to leading order, the fan remains self-affine as it grows, with a constant slope. We compare two recent studies about the formation of one-dimensionnal fan [Guerit et al. 2014] and threshold rivers [Seizilles et al. 2013] to our experimental findings. In particular, we propose a theory witch relates the fan morphology to the control parameters (fluid and sediment discharges, grain size). Our observations accord with the predictions, suggesting that the fan is built near the threshold of sediment motion. At the first order, the fan profile is linear and control by the water discharge. The downstream decrease in sediment discharge add a curvature to this profile. Finally, we intend to expand our interpretation to alluvial fans build by single-thread channels ( Okavango, Bostwana; Taquari and Paraguay, Brasil).

  15. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  16. U-Pb geochronology of the Lagoa Real uranium district, Brazil: Implications for the age of the uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Lydia Maria; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Cruz, Simone C. P.; Machado, Nuno; Noce, Carlos Maurício; Alkmim, Fernando Flecha

    2015-03-01

    The Lagoa Real uranium district in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is the most important uranium province in the country and presently produces this metal in an open-pit mine operated by Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil. Uranium-rich zones are associated with plagioclase (dominantly albite ± oligoclase) -rich rocks, albitites and metasomatized granitic-gneisses, distributed along NNW/SSE striking shear zones. We have used the ID-TIMS U-Pb method to date zircon and titanite grains from the São Timóteo granitoid, and albite-rich rocks from the Lagoa Real district in order to assess the age of granite emplacement, deformation/metamorphism and uranium mineralization. The isotopic data support the following sequence of events (i) 1746 ± 5 Ma - emplacement of the São Timóteo granitoid (U-Pb zircon age) in an extensional setting, coeval with the beginning of the sedimentation of the Espinhaço Supergroup; (ii) 956 ± 59 Ma hydrothermal alteration of the São Timóteo granitoid and emplacement of the uranium mineralization (U-Pb titanite age on an albite-rich sample); (iii) 480 Ma metamorphism, remobilization and Pb loss (U-Pb titanite age for the gneiss sample), during the nucleation of shear zones related to the collision between the São Francisco-Congo and Amazonia paleoplates. The 956 ± 59-Ma mineralization age is apparently associated with the evolution of the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre rift. This age bracket may bear an important exploration implication, and should be included in the diverse age scenario of uranium deposits worldwide.

  17. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  18. Metal-poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope. II. Discovery of Four Stars with [Fe/H] <= -3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Lee, Young Sun; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Rossi, Silvia; Santucci, Rafael M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the discovery of seven low-metallicity stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, six of which are extremely metal-poor (EMP, [Fe/H] <= -3.0), with four having [Fe/H] <= -3.5. Chemical abundances or upper limits are derived for these stars based on high-resolution (R ~ 35,000) Magellan/MIKE spectroscopy, and are in general agreement with those of other very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature. Accurate metallicities and abundance patterns for stars in this metallicity range are of particular importance for studies of the shape of the metallicity distribution function of the Milky Way's halo system, in particular for probing the nature of its low-metallicity tail. In addition, taking into account suggested evolutionary mixing effects, we find that six of the program stars (with [Fe/H] <= -3.35) possess atmospheres that were likely originally enriched in carbon, relative to iron, during their main-sequence phases. These stars do not exhibit overabundances of their s-process elements, and hence may be, within the error bars, additional examples of the so-called CEMP-no class of objects. Based on observations gathered with: The 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope (SO2011B-002), which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU); and the New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European Southern Observatory (088.D-0344A), La Silla, Chile.

  19. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. II. NGC 1786

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2012-12-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B-V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  20. Empirical Determination of Convection Parameters in White Dwarfs. I. Whole Earth Telescope Observations of EC14012-1446

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M. H.; Kanaan, A.; Thompson, S. E.; Dalessio, J.; Shipman, H. L.; Childers, D.; Clemens, J. C.; Rosen, R.; Henrique, P.; Bischoff-Kim, A.; Strickland, W.; Chandler, D.; Walter, B.; Watson, T. K.; Castanheira, B.; Wang, S.; Handler, G.; Wood, M.; Vennes, S.; Nemeth, P.; Kepler, S. O.; Reed, M.; Nitta, A.; Kleinman, S. J.; Brown, T.; Kim, S.-L.; Sullivan, D.; Chen, W. P.; Yang, M.; Shih, C. Y.; Jiang, X. J.; Sergeev, A. V.; Maksim, A.; Janulis, R.; Baliyan, K. S.; Vats, H. O.; Zola, S.; Baran, A.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Paparo, M.; Bognar, Z.; Papics, P.; Kilkenny, D.; Sefako, R.; Buckley, D.; Loaring, N.; Kniazev, A.; Silvotti, R.; Galleti, S.; Nagel, T.; Vauclair, G.; Dolez, N.; Fremy, J. R.; Perez, J.; Almenara, J. M.; Fraga, L.

    2012-06-01

    We report on an analysis of 308.3 hr of high-speed photometry targeting the pulsating DA white dwarf EC14012-1446. The data were acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope during the 2008 international observing run XCOV26. The Fourier transform of the light curve contains 19 independent frequencies and numerous combination frequencies. The dominant peaks are 1633.907, 1887.404, and 2504.897 μHz. Our analysis of the combination amplitudes reveals that the parent frequencies are consistent with modes of spherical degree l = 1. The combination amplitudes also provide m identifications for the largest amplitude parent frequencies. Our seismology analysis, which includes 2004-2007 archival data, confirms these identifications, provides constraints on additional frequencies, and finds an average period spacing of 41 s. Building on this foundation, we present nonlinear fits to high signal-to-noise light curves from the SOAR 4.1 m, McDonald 2.1 m, and KPNO 2 m telescopes. The fits indicate a time-averaged convective response timescale of τ0 = 99.4 ± 17 s, a temperature exponent N = 85 ± 6.2, and an inclination angle of θ i = 32fdg9 ± 3fdg2. We present our current empirical map of the convective response timescale across the DA instability strip. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  1. The Distance to the Massive Galactic Cluster Westerlund 2 from a Spectroscopic and HST Photometric Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Álvarez, Carlos A.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Bradley, David R.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Norris, Mark A.; Cool, Richard J.; Miller, Brendan P.

    2013-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric determination of the distance to the young Galactic open cluster Westerlund 2 using WFPC2 imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical spectroscopy. HST imaging in the F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W filters resolved many sources previously undetected in ground-based observations and yielded photometry for 1136 stars. We identified 15 new O-type stars, along with two probable binary systems, including MSP 188 (O3 + O5.5). We fit reddened spectral energy distributions based on the Padova isochrones to the photometric data to determine individual reddening parameters RV and AV for O-type stars in Wd2. We find average values langRV rang = 3.77 ± 0.09 and langAV rang = 6.51 ± 0.38 mag, which result in a smaller distance than most other spectroscopic and photometric studies. After a statistical distance correction accounting for close unresolved binaries (factor of 1.08), our spectroscopic and photometric data on 29 O-type stars yield that Westerlund 2 has a distance langdrang = 4.16 ± 0.07 (random) +0.26 (systematic) kpc. The cluster's age remains poorly constrained, with an upper limit of 3 Myr. Finally, we report evidence of a faint mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring surrounding the well-known binary candidate MSP 18, which appears to lie at the center of a secondary stellar grouping within Westerlund 2. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  2. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  3. [Presence of antibodies against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype VI in patients with acute febrile illness].

    PubMed

    Contigiani, M S; de Basualdo, M; Cámara, A; Ramírez, A; Díaz, G; González, D; Medeot, S; Osuna, D

    1993-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no record of human cases produced by Dengue virus (Flavivirus), but Paraguay and Brasil (neighbouring countries) have notified human outbreaks of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. In this report, we inform the serological results of a limited human outbreak of a Dengue-like acute illness that occurred in General Belgrano Island, Formosa, Argentina in April 1989. This island is 35 km far from Clorinda city of Paraguay river, with a human population of 150 inhabitants. The weather of this area is humid with abundant rainfall, favouring mosquitoes proliferation. Two samples of serum from 28 human notified cases were studied using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI), complement fixation (CF), and plaque reduction neutralization (NT) test in Vero cell cultures. All tested sera were negative to Dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, Yellow Fever, Bussuquara, Rocio, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis arboviruses as well as Influenza and Rubella viruses. By contrast, infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), subtype VI-AG80-663 strain was demonstrated (34.5% positive by HI, 39.1% by CF and 51.6% by NT). Seroconversion was detected by NT in six cases and only five were positive by CF. The 26.8% of the sera reacted also with VEE subtype I AB by NT. Considering that no cross reaction were detected in NT with these two subtypes, our results suggest that both viruses are concomitantly circulating in the studied area. Furthermore, the seroconversions detected with AG80-663 strain firmly indicate that during the outbreak this virus subtype was circulating in the island, although we could not assure that it was the causal agent of the acute disease.

  4. Expansion Of Sugarcane Production In São Paulo, Brazil: Implications For Fire Occurrence And Respiratory Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriarte, M.

    2008-12-01

    Recent increases in the price of oil have generated much interest in biofuel development. Despite the increasing demand, the social and environmental impacts of large scale adoption of biofuels at both regional and national scales remain understudied, especially in developing economies. Here we use municipality-level data for the state of São Paulo in Brasil to explore the effects of fires associated with sugarcane cultivation on respiratory health of elderly and children. We examined the effects of fires occurring in the same year in which respiratory cases were reported as well as chronic effects associated with long-term cultivation of sugarcane. Across the state, respiratory morbidity attributable to fires accounted for 113 elderly and 317 child cases, approximately 1.8% of total cases in each group. Although no chronic effects of fire were detected for the elderly group, an additional 650 child cases can be attributed to the long term cultivation of sugar cane increasing to 5.4% the percent of children cases that can be attributed to fire. For municipalities with greater than 50% of the land in sugarcane the percentage increased to 15% and 12 % respectively for elderly and children. An additional 209 child cases could also be attributed to past exposure to fires associated with sugarcane, suggesting that in total 38% of children respiratory cases could be attributed to current or chronic exposure to fires in these municipalities. The harmful effects of cane- associated fires on health are not only a burden for the public health system but also for household economies. This type of information should be incorporated into land use decisions and discussions of biofuel sustainability.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION TO REDUCE THE CONSUMPTION OF HIGH-CALORIE FOODS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN IN TERESINA, PIAUÍ (BRAZIL).

    PubMed

    Melo dos Santos, Marize; Passos Oliveira, Vanessa; Teixeira Lima, Sueli Maria; Clímaco Cruz, Kyria Jayanne; Soares de Oliveira, Ana Raquel; Soares Severo, Juliana

    2015-08-01

    Introdución: existe una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso y hábitos alimentarios pobres entre los adolescentes, y estos factores contribuyen al desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la efectividad de una intervención educativa diseñada para reducir el consumo de alimentos con alto contenido calórico en los niños de las escuelas públicas en Teresina, Piauí (Brasil). Material y métodos: estudio cuasi-experimental, aleatorizados y de intervención cuantitativo realizado con adolescentes (n = 126), con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 14 años, de ambos sexos. La intervención educativa se desarrolló durante nueve semanas, con reuniones semanales. Se realizó una encuesta previa y posterior a la intervención. Las asociaciones entre las variables fueron examinadas usando una prueba de chi-cuadrado (x2). Resultados: se observó una reducción significativa en el consumo de refrescos y jugos procesados posterior a la intervención educativa (p = 0,007). Tiene una mayor reducción en el consumo semanal de alimentos embutidos (p = 0,072). El consumo semanal de los adolescentes de alimentos fritos y patatas fritas también se redujo significativamente después de la intervención educativa (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: el programa educativo de alimentación y nutrición fue eficaz en la reducción de la ingesta de alimentos altos en calorías y bebidas de los adolescentes, lo cual contribuyó a una mejora en la calidad de los alimentos consumidos por los niños de las escuelas evaluadas.

  6. Tv food advertising geared to children in Latin-American countries and Hispanics in the USA: a review.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: El propósito de esta revisión fue analizar los estudios sobre anuncios de alimentos en la TV en Latinoamérica y en los EEUU dirigidos a Hispanos. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de trabajos publicados de 1986 a 2015, en las bases de datos de MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SCIELO, y CINAHL, en internet de acceso abierto, sobre anuncios de alimentos en la televisión dirigidos a niños en países latinoamericanos y a Hispanos que viven en los Estados Unidos. Resultados: La búsqueda dio como resultado veinticuatro estudios, seis realizados en Chile, cinco en México, cuatro en Brasil, tres en Hispanos de EEUU, y uno en cada uno de los siguientes países: Argentina, Perú, Colombia, Honduras y Venezuela. Una gran proporción de anuncios sobre alimentos en la TV están dirigidos a los niños y a sus familias. Esta exposición ha sido asociada a la preferencia y solicitud de compra de estos alimentos por los niños y con un aumento del IMC, sobrepeso y obesidad en niños y adultos. Conclusión: Se observa una alarmante alta exposición de anuncios de alimentos en la TV dirigida a niños, lo que demanda políticas regulatorias, supervisión, y rendimiento de cuentas eficaces.

  7. ASSOCIATION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND FOOD INTAKE.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Daianne Cristina; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; de Oliveira Lima, José Wellington; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Posso Lima, Gláucia; Ribeiro de Oliveira, Ticihana; Araújo Chagas Vergara, Clarice Maria; Sousa Nunes Pinheiro, Diana Célia; Lima Herculano Júnior, José Ruver; de Pontes Ellery, Thais Helena

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la infección por H. pylori afecta a más de la mitad de la humanidad, siendo un problema de salud pública. Su prevalencia es significativamente mayor en los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. Se ha sugerido que la infección por H. pylori puede influir en la ingesta y la homeostasis calórica. Propósito: comparar el estado nutricional y la ingesta de alimentos de los pacientes incluidos en el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con y sin infección por H. pylori. Métodos: se evaluarón 140 pacientes. Realizaron la endoscopia digestiva alta para investigar la presencia de H. pylori. Se midieron el peso corporal y la altura de los pacientes. La ingesta de alimentos se investigó a través de dos recordatorios de 24 horas, con los dados transformados en gramos y analizados en el software DietWin Professional 2.0. Los resultados se compararon mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado o la prueba t de Student. Se adoptó de p < 0,05 como nivel de significación. Resultados: hubo predominio de pacientes con exceso de peso tanto para Hp - (60,3%) como Hp + (67,7%), sin diferencias entre ellos. La ingesta de alimentos de los grupos evaluados fue similar. Conclusiones: no hubo diferencias en el estado nutricional y la ingesta de alimentos entre los dos grupos.

  8. Long periods (1 -10 mHz) geomagnetic pulsations variation with solar cycle in South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon Silva, Willian; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Guimarães Dutra, Severino Luiz; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; de Siqueira, Josemar; Espindola Antunes, Cassio

    The occurrence and intensity of the geomagnetic pulsations Pc-5 (2-7 mHz) and its relationship with the solar cycle in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly -SAMA is presented. The study of geomagnetic pulsations is important to help the understanding of the physical processes that occurs in the magnetosphere region and help to predict geomagnetic storms. The fluxgate mag-netometers H, D and Z, three axis geomagnetic field data from the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra (29.42° S, 53.87° W, 480m a.s.l.), RS, Brasil, a were analyzed and correlated with the solar wind parameters (speed, density and temperature) from the ACE and SOHO satellites. A digital filtering to enhance the 2-7 mHz geomagnetic pulsations was used. Five quiet days and five perturbed days in the solar minimum and in the solar maximum were selected for this analysis. The days were chosen based on the IAGA definition and on the Bartels Musical Diagrams (Kp index) for 2001 (solar maximum) and 2008 (solar minimum). The biggest Pc-5 amplitude averages differences between the H-component is 78,35 nT for the perturbed days and 1,60nT for the quiet days during the solar maximum. For perturbed days the average amplitude during the solar minimum is 8,32 nT, confirming a direct solar cycle influence in the geomagnetic pulsations intensity for long periods.

  9. Optical Spectroscopic Observations of γ-Ray Blazar Candidates. III. The 2013/2014 Campaign in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landoni, M.; Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Masetti, N.; Smith, H. A.; Tosti, G.; Chomiuk, L.; Strader, J.; Cheung, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of our exploratory program carried out with the southern Astrophysical Research telescope aimed at associating counterparts and establishing the nature of the Fermi Unidentified γ-ray Sources (UGSs). We selected the optical counterparts of six UGSs from the Fermi catalog on the basis of our recently discovered tight connection between infrared and γ-ray emission found for the γ-ray blazars detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer in its all-sky survey. We perform for the first time a spectroscopic study of the low-energy counterparts of the Fermi UGSs, in the optical band, confirming the blazar-like nature of the whole sample. We also present new spectroscopic observations of six active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources which appear to be BL Lac objects. Finally, we report the spectra collected for six known γ-ray blazars belonging to the Roma BZCAT that were obtained to establish their nature or better estimate their redshifts. Two interesting cases of high redshift and extremely luminous BL Lac objects (z ≥ 1.18 and z ≥ 1.02, based on the detection of Mg ii intervening systems) are also discussed. Based on observations obtained at the southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  10. An infrared diagnostic for magnetism in hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Grunhut, J. H.; Kraus, M.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Neiner, C.; Condori, C. A. H.; Campagnolo, J. C. N.; Souza, T. B.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetospheric observational proxies are used for indirect detection of magnetic fields in hot stars in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelength ranges. To determine the viability of infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines as a magnetic diagnostic for these stars, we have obtained low-resolution (R~ 1200), near-IR spectra of the known magnetic B2V stars HR 5907 and HR 7355, taken with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (OSIRIS) attached to the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope. Both stars show definite variable emission features in IR hydrogen lines of the Brackett series, with similar properties as those found in optical spectra, including the derived location of the detected magnetospheric plasma. These features also have the added advantage of a lowered contribution of stellar flux at these wavelengths, making circumstellar material more easily detectable. IR diagnostics will be useful for the future study of magnetic hot stars, to detect and analyze lower-density environments, and to detect magnetic candidates in areas obscured from UV and optical observations, increasing the number of known magnetic stars to determine basic formation properties and investigate the origin of their magnetic fields. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  11. Nebular phase observations of the Type-Ib supernova iPTF13bvn favour a binary progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncarayakti, H.; Maeda, K.; Bersten, M. C.; Folatelli, G.; Morrell, N.; Hsiao, E. Y.; González-Gaitán, S.; Anderson, J. P.; Hamuy, M.; de Jaeger, T.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kawabata, K. S.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We present and analyse late-time observations of the Type-Ib supernova with possible pre-supernova progenitor detection, iPTF13bvn, which were done ~300 days after the explosion. We discuss them in the context of constraints on the supernova's progenitor. Previous studies have proposed two possible natures for the progenitor of the supernova, i.e. a massive Wolf-Rayet star or a lower-mass star in a close binary system. Methods: Our observations show that the supernova has entered the nebular phase, with the spectrum dominated by Mg I]λλ4571, [O I]λλ6300, 6364, and [Ca II]λλ7291, 7324 emission lines. We measured the emission line fluxes to estimate the core oxygen mass and compared the [O I]/[Ca II] line ratio with other supernovae. Results.The core oxygen mass of the supernova progenitor was estimated to be ≲0.7 M⊙, which implies initial progenitor mass that does not exceed ~15-17 M⊙.Since the derived mass is too low for a single star to become a Wolf-Rayet star, this result lends more support to the binary nature of the progenitor star of iPTF13bvn. The comparison of [O I]/[Ca II] line ratio with other supernovae also shows that iPTF13bvn appears to be in close association with the lower mass progenitors of stripped-envelope and Type-II supernovae. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU); Chilean Telescope Time Allocation Committee proposal CN2014A-91.

  12. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos

  13. [Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: genotype-phenotype correlation].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Catarina; Vaz Matos, Inês; Ribeiro, Luís; Oliveira, Maria João; Cardoso, Helena; Borges, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A hiperplasia congénita da suprarrenal por deficiência de 21-hidroxílase constitui uma das doenças hereditárias mais comuns. Resulta de diferentes mutações no gene CYP21A2 e, na maioria dos casos, a gravidade da doença correlaciona-se com a variação alélica do CYP21A2. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o espectro mutacional do CYP21A2 e avaliar a correlação genótipo-fenótipo numa coorte de doentes portugueses com deficiência de 21-hidroxílase. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo de 22 doentes com diagnóstico clínico de deficiência de 21-hidroxílase. Foi feita análise molecular do CYP21A2 e estabelecida a correlação genótipo-fenótipo. Resultados: Foi realizada genotipagem em 22 doentes não relacionados: 5 com a forma clássica perdedora de sal (idade média ao diagnóstico de 10,2 dias; mínimo 1, máximo 20 dias), 7 com a forma clássica virilizante simples (idade média ao diagnóstico de 3,5 anos; mínimo 0 dias, máximo 7 anos) e 10 com a forma não clássica (idade média ao diagnóstico de 5,7 anos; mínimo 4 anos, máximo 8 anos). Os defeitos genéticos mais frequentes nas formas clássicas foram o I2 splice (24%) e I172N (24%), seguindo-se o Q318X (16%) e deleções de genes (16%) e, na forma não clássica, o V281L (80%). Verificou-se uma concordância genótipo-fenótipo global de 81,8%. O genótipo permitiu prever adequadamente o fenótipo em 83,3%, 100% e 90% dos doentes com mutações compatíveis com a forma clássica perdedora de sal, clássica virilizante simples e não clássica, respectivamente. Discussão: A frequência de defeitos genéticos observados nos nossos doentes é comparável a estudos semelhantes. Observou-se, na maioria dos casos, uma boa correlação genótipo-fenótipo. Conclusões: A análise molecular do CYP21A2 fornece informação importante relativamente à gravidade da doença e no aconselhamento genético e pré-natal.

  14. [Relation between metformin treatment and the development of hyperlactacidemia at the emergency room].

    PubMed

    Guelho, Daniela; Paiva, Isabel; Carrilho, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Em diabéticos tipo 2 sob metformina o desenvolvimento de hiperlactacidemia ou mesmo acidose láctica parece decorrer de um evento precipitante agudo. Este estudo objetiva avaliar a prevalência e risco relativo de hiperlactacidemia em diabéticos observados no Serviço de Urgência, os fatores preditores da concentração de lactatos e a influência da lactacidémia no prognóstico.Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal incluindo 138 diabéticos tipo 2, dos quais 66 sob metformina, e 83 doentes não diabéticos atendidos entre junho e outubro de 2012. Variáveis estudadas: idade, sexo, motivo de urgência, pressão arterial, hábitos farmacológicos, antecedentes, estudo analítico (bioquímica e gasometria arterial com doseamento de lactatos) e destino após observação. Análise estatística realizada com SPSS 21.0®.Resultados: A concentração de lactatos e proporção de hiperlactacidemia foram significativamente superiores nos diabéticos (2,1 ± 0,1 mmol/L vs. 1,1 ± 0,1mmol/L, p < 0,001 e 39,1% vs. 3,6%, p < 0,001, respetivamente); particularmente naqueles sob metformina comparativamente aos restantes diabéticos (2,7 ± 0,2 mmol/L vs. 1,6 ± 0,1 mmol/L, p < 0,001 e 56,9 % vs. 23,3 %, p < 0,001, respetivamente). Os diabéticos sob metformina contabilizaram uma probabilidade de hiperlactacidemia 25x superior (OR = 25,10, p < 0,05). A creatinina representou o único fator preditor independente da lactacidemia (B = 1,33; p < 0,05). Os doentes com hiperlactacidemia apresentaram probabilidade 4,4x superior de serem internados ou falecerem (OR = 4,37, p < 0,05). E, quando internados, contabilizaram tempo de internamento (21,66 ± 5,86 dias vs 13,68 ± 5,33dias, p < 0,001) e número de óbitos superiores (12,5% (n = 4) vs 4,3% (n = 2), p < 0,05).Conclusões: Demonstrou-se um risco acrescido de hiperlactacidemia em diabéticos tipo 2, particularmente naqueles sob metformina. A creatinina sérica representou o único fator preditor

  15. [Clinical and Epidemiological Study of Complicated Infection by Varicella-Zoster Virus in the Pediatric Age].

    PubMed

    Maia, Catarina; Fonseca, Jacinta; Carvalho, Isabel; Santos, Helena; Moreira, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Em Portugal, a incidência da infeção complicada por vírus varicela-zoster e respetivos custos é desconhecida. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as características clinico-epidemiológicas dos doentes em idade pediátrica internados com o diagnóstico de infeção complicada por vírus varicela-zoster. Material e Métodos: Estudo descritivo, baseado na análise dos processos clínicos dos doentes internados entre janeiro de 1999 e julho de 2013, com diagnóstico de infeção complicada por vírus varicela-zoster. Resultados: Foram internados 94 doentes por infeção complicada a vírus varicela-zoster, dois por reativação de infeção latente. A mediana da idade foi 38 (IQR 18 - 65) meses. As complicações mais frequentes foram as infeciosas (70,2%), destacando-se a sobreinfeção bacteriana da pele/tecido celular subcut'neo (37,2%) e as complicações respiratórias (24,5%). Seguiram-se as complicações neurológicas (19,1%), gastrointestinais (9,6%), hematológicas (5,3%) e osteoarticulares (4,3%). Diagnosticaram-se 38 (40,4%) infeções bacterianas invasivas, seis com bacteriemia. A mediana da idade na admissão foi mais elevada nas complicações imunológicas relativamente às complicações infeciosas. As complicações neurológicas ocorreram preferencialmente em crianças saudáveis, enquanto as complicações infeciosas, nomeadamente as infeções bacterianas invasivas foram mais frequentes nos doentes medicados com ibuprofeno e/ou corticoide. A evolução foi favorável na maioria dos casos. Discussão: As complicações da infeção pelo vírus varicela-zoster ocorreram preferencialmente em idade pré-escolar e doentes saudáveis. As complicações infeciosas, nomeadamente as dermatológicas e respiratórias, foram as mais frequentes, tendo sido verificada associação com a terapêutica prévia com ibuprofeno e /ou corticoide.Conclusão: Estudos multicêntricos deverão ser planeados com o intuito de otimizar e ajustar as

  16. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  17. [End of life in neonatology: palliative care integration].

    PubMed

    Soares, Célia; Rodrigues, Manuela; Rocha, Gustavo; Martins, Angelina; Guimarães, Hercília

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A limitação terapêutica e a implementação dos cuidados paliativos em Neonatologia revestem-se de extrema relevância na atualidade e são já uma realidade com tendência crescente em vários países. Não obstante, em Portugal, os estudos, recomendações e protocolos oficiais no que diz respeito às questões em fim de vida são ainda escassos.Material e Métodos: Analisamos retrospetivamente os processos clínicos dos recém-nascidos falecidos na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos do Centro Hospitalar de São João no período de 2010 a 2012 e comparamos os resultados com os obtidos num estudo realizado na mesma Unidade correspondente aos períodos 1992-1995 e 2002-2005.Resultados: Na população estudada as anomalias congénitas foram a causa de morte em 57,1% casos, a prematuridade extrema em 18,4% casos e a infeção em 16,3%. No que refere ao ‘modo de morrer’, a paragem cardiorrespiratória irreversível às manobras de reanimação observou-se em 57,1% casos; 20,4% faleceram após abstenção de tratamento e 22,4% após suspensão de tratamento. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas para o ‘modo de morrer’ e as variáveis tempo de internamento e presença dos pais no momento da morte. Em 28,6% casos houve registo de tomada de decisão pela limitação terapêutica e adoção de cuidados paliativos e em 16,3% decisão de não reanimar. Para as duas últimas registou-se um aumento ao longo das três décadas analisadas. Também se registou uma tendência crescente para a utilização de escala de avaliação de dor neonatal, opióides e sedativos, presença parental no momento da morte, reuniões entre pais e neonatologistas, reuniões interdisciplinares e apoio psicológico aos pais.Conclusão: Este estudo revela uma tendência crescente para a integração de medidas de limitação terapêutica e de cuidados paliativos na UCIN estudada. Contudo, há ainda muito a desenvolver, nomeadamente no que refere à investigação, forma

  18. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao

  19. [Quality assessment of long-term prescription records: QMP study].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana; Domingues, Brenda; Pimenta da Rocha, Raquel; Eiriz, Rita; Xavier, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A preocupação com a segurança na saúde torna essencial que todos os utentes, em particular os idosos por serem maioritariamente polimedicados, possuam uma lista completa e atualizada da sua medicação. Assim, propusemo-nos avaliar a qualidade dos registos eletrónicos de medicação prolongada.Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo, com componente analítico, no qual avaliámos a qualidade técnica dos registos de medicação prolongada nos idosos de quatro unidades de cuidados de saúde primários da região norte, antes e após uma intervenção. Nesta, efetuámos formação de boas práticas de registo aos médicos e promovemos a utilização do guia de Medicação Prolongada aos profissionais e utentes.Resultados: Avaliámos 388 registos de 33 médicos. A categoria ideal, ‘Medicação apropriada e posologia presente’, aumentou de 23,5% para 48% (p < 0,001). As restantes categorias ‘Medicação inapropriada’ e ‘Medicação apropriada e posologia ausente’ diminuíram de 16,7% para 7% (p = 0,006) e de 59,8% para 46,0% (p = 0,02), respetivamente. As variáveis condição de orientador de formação, local de trabalho, anos de Medicina Geral e Familiar e percentagem de idosos, apresentaram diferenças com significado estatístico no início do estudo, no entanto após a ‘intervenção’, apenas a percentagem de idosos continuou a apresentá-las.Discussão: Neste estudo, os médicos aderiram à proposta de mudança, independentemente da idade, género, condição de orientador de formação, local de trabalho e anos de Medicina Geral e Familiar. Consultas mais prolongadas na população idosa poderão ter impedido alcançar a melhor categoria de registo.Conclusão: Este trabalho original mostra que é necessário implementar medidas periódicas de formação pós-graduada para manutenção de registos médicos atualizados.

  20. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome: case series, two years at an intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Taborda, Lúcia; Barros, Filipa; Fonseca, Vitor; Irimia, Manuel; Carvalho, Ramiro; Diogo, Cláudia; Ramos, Armindo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória Aguda apresenta incidência e mortalidade significativas em Cuidados Intensivos, justificando estudos adicionais, nomeadamente para definição de novas abordagens terapêuticas. Os autores propuseram-se caracterizaros casos duma Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos em dois anos.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se a um estudo observacional retrospectivo dos casos admitidos numa Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos, cumprindo os critérios diagnósticos da American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS, tendo sido excluídos os não ventilados invasivamente. Pesquisados e submetidos a tratamento estatístico: dados demográficos, etiologia do Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória Aguda, comorbilidades, Índices de Gravidade, PaO2/FiO2, modalidades e parâmetros ventilatórios, compliance pulmonar, dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva, corticoterapia, terapêuticas de resgate, complicações, duração do internamento, óbitos.Resultados: Obtiveram-se 40 doentes, com uma mediana de 72,5 anos (amplitude interquartil 22) e um ratio feminino:masculino ≈1:1,86. Cinquenta e cinco por cento dos Síndrome de Dificuldade Respiratória Aguda tiveram etiologia pulmonar. A média do PaO2/ FiO2 mínimo foi 88mm Hg (IC 95%: 78,5-97,6). A média da PEEP máxima aplicada foi 12,4 cmH2O (Desvio Padrão 4,12) e a médiado Volume Corrente máximo utilizado foi 8,2 mL/Kg peso ideal (IC 95%: 7,7-8,6). A mediana dos dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva foi 10. Em 47,5% dos doentes foram administrados corticóides. Em 52,5% foi executado recrutamento alveolar. A complicação mais frequente foi a Pneumonia Associada a Ventilação (20%). A mediana da duração do internamento foi 10,7 dias (amplitude interquartil10,85). Faleceram 60% dos doentes. A probabilidade de outcome favorável ‘não óbito na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos’ foi 4,4x superior nos doentes sob corticoterapia e 11x superior nos doentes com idade < 65 anos

  1. [Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Depression and Eating Disorders in Patients Submitted to Bariatric Surgery].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Isabel; Marques Pinho, Ana; Arrojado, Filipa; Pinto-Bastos, Ana; Maia da Costa, José; Coelho, Rui; Calhau, Conceição; Conceição, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: A obesidade associa-se a um elevado número de comorbilidades, entre as quais a diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e a patologia psiquiátrica. A cirurgia bariátrica tem demonstrado ser a melhor solução para a perda de peso e a melhoria das complicações nos casos de obesidade mórbida. O objetivo deste estudo é o de analisar a evolução da diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e de variáveis psicopatológicas antes e depois da cirurgia bariátrica e verificar o seu impacto na perda de peso. Material e Métodos: É um estudo longitudinal, que avalia 75 indivíduos antes e depois de serem submetidos a cirurgia bariátrica (47 - banda gástrica; 19 - bypass Roux-en-Y gástrico; 9 - sleeve gástrico), com tempo de follow-up entre 18 e 46 meses. Os instrumentos de avaliação foram a entrevista clínica e os questionários Eating Disorder Examination questionnaire - EDE-Q e Beck Depression Inventory - BDI. Resultados: Verificou-se melhoria relativamente à variável dicotómica diabetes mellitus tipo 2 após a cirurgia (X(1) = 26,132, p < 0,001). Não ocorreu melhoria significativa em termos de patologia psiquiátrica quando a análise foi controlada para o tipo de cirurgia. Encontrámos uma associação significativa entre as variáveis em estudo no pós-cirúrgico e a perda de peso. Este modelo explica 27% da variação do peso após a cirurgia (R2 = 0,265) e é significativo F (3,33) = 2,981, p = 0,038. Discussão: A diabetes mellitus tipo 2, patologia depressiva ou do comportamento alimentar mostraram estar relacionados com a perda de peso. Não ficou esclarecido em que sentido esta relação é estabelecida, nem a relação que estas variáveis metabólicas e psicológicas possam ter entre si ao longo do período pós cirurgia bariátrica. Conclusão: A diabetes mellitus tipo 2 evoluiu favoravelmente após a cirurgia. Diabetes mellitus tipo 2, depressão e patologia alimentar no período pós-cirúrgico associaram-se a menor perda de peso. As variáveis estudadas no

  2. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  3. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  4. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  5. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  6. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e

  7. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  8. [Study on Portuguese Medical Schools' Learning Conditions: A National Analysis on Student Satisfaction, Student-Tutor Ratios and Number of Admissions].

    PubMed

    Grilo Diogo, Pedro; Moreira, Afonso; Coimbra, Ana; Coelho Silva, Ana; Nixon Martins, Artur; Mendonça, Carlos; Carvalho, Constança; Almeida, Gonçalo; Almeida, Hugo; Garcia Moreira, Inês; Rodrigues, Marta; Goulão, Miguel; Vasconcelos, Rafael; Vicente, Rodrigo; Magano, Sara

    2016-05-01

    Introdução: Os ambientes de ensino clínico e não clínico, bem como as condições de avaliação e estudo, influenciam a satisfação estudantil com as Escolas Médicas. Os rácios estudante-tutor podem ter impacto na perceção sobre o ensino em meio clínico. Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar a satisfação dos estudantes de Medicina e os rácios estudante-tutor em relação com o número de admissões das Escolas Médicas. Materiais e Métodos: Foi criado um questionário sobre os ambientes de aprendizagem, avaliação e estudo em oito Escolas Médicas, distribuído a 2037 estudantes. Calculou-se o alfa de Cronbach (consistência interna) e executou-se uma análise de componentes principais. Resultados: Condições de avaliação obtiveram os melhores resultados de satisfação, enquanto o ensino em meio clínico revelou as menores pontuações. O rácio estudante-tutor nacional em disciplinas clínicas (7,53) traduz diferenças significativas entre Escolas. Instituições com maior número de admissões evidenciam resultados inferiores de satisfação estudantil (r= -0,756; p < 0,05), com redução progressiva ao longo do curso. Elevados rácios estão correlacionados com baixa satisfação com o ensino em meio clínico (r= -0,826; p < 0,05). Discussão: O ensino em meio clínico evidencia menor satisfação estudantil, traduzindo os elevados rácios em disciplinas clínicas. Dependendo do número de admissões, existem diferenças significativas entre Escolas. A qualidade das estratégias de ensino-aprendizagem e articulação hospitalar podem igualmente ser variáveis importantes. Conclusão: As Escolas com maior número de admissões podem ser mais suscetíveis a baixos resultados de satisfação estudantil. Elevados rácios estudante-tutor em disciplinas clínicas podem reduzir a qualidade do ensino em meio clínico e inibir a aquisição de competências.

  9. [Restraints to anticoagulation prescription in atrial fibrillation and attitude towards the new oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Pereira-Da-Silva, Tiago; Souto Moura, Teresa; Azevedo, Luísa; Sá Pereira, Margarida; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Borges, Luís

    2013-01-01

    Introdução e Objetivos: Avaliar a taxa de prescrição de anticoagulantes orais na fibrilhação auricular, os fatores associados à não prescrição, os motivos referidos pelos clínicos para não prescrição de anticoagulantes incluindo os de nova geração e realizar estudo evolutivo a médio prazo. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospetivo sobre casos consecutivos de doentes com fibrilhação auricular com alta hospitalar. Registaram- se os scores CHA2DS2VASc e HASBLED, comorbilidades associadas e a medicação prévia e à data de alta. Na alta hospitalar, o médico assistente indicou em questionário o motivo de não prescrição de anticoagulantes orais e dos novos anticoagulantes orais. Exclusão: contra-indicação absoluta para anticoagulação, CHA2DS2VASc ≤ 1 e doença valvular. Os doentes foram reavaliados um ano após o recrutamento do primeiro doente. Resultados: Identificaram-se 103 candidatos a anticoagulação oral (79,6 ± 8,0 anos; CHA2DS2VASc 5,8 ± 1,4; HASBLED 2,6 ± 1,0; HASBLED ≥ 3 em 55,3%); os anticoagulantes foram prescritos em 34,0%. Fatores associados à não prescrição por ordem decrescente de relevância: uso prévio de antiagregantes, doente acamado e/ou demente, ausência de insuficiência cardíaca e número de fatores de risco hemorrágico. Razões invocadas para não prescrição por ordem decrescente de frequência: risco hemorrágico elevado, pequeno benefício, incapacidade de seguir o esquema terapêutico e dificuldade na monitorização da razão normalizada internacional (INR). Os novos anticoagulantes não foram prescritos e as razões invocadas foram, por ordem decrescente de frequência: informação insuficiente sobre estes fármacos, risco hemorrágico elevado, custo elevado e pequeno benefício. Aos 8,2 ± 2,5 meses de estudo evolutivo 33,3% dos doentes encontravam-se sob anticoagulação sem que os novos anticoagulantes tivessem sido prescritos. Conclusões: Nesta amostra, a taxa de prescrição de

  10. The Teaching of Astronomy in Uruguay. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en Uruguay.) O Ensino da Astronomia no Uruguai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintos Ganón, Reina; Fernández, Julio Angel

    2008-07-01

    We present in this work the development of astronomy in Uruguay since the colony times up to the present, stressing in particular those aspects related to the formal as well as informal teaching of astronomy. The first antecedents of astronomical studies in our country go back to the beginnings of the XVIIIth century related to the scientific expeditions from Europe coming to our shores. The teaching of astronomy was generalized at the high school level as soon as the end of the XIXth century, while itsintroduction at the university level happened much later, around the middle of the last century. We analyze the current situation of this subject, its problems, and some measures to strengthen its development. Se presenta en este trabajo el desarrollo de la astronomía en el Uruguay desde la época colonial hasta el presente, destacando en particular los aspectos vinculados a su enseñanza tanto formal como informal. Los primeros antecedentes de estudios astronómicos datan de la época colonial relacionados con las expediciones científicas del Viejo Mundo que llegaban a nuestras costas. La enseñanza de la Astronomía se generalizó en el ámbito de los estudios secundarios ya a fines del siglo XIX, mientras que en la Universidad su arribo fue mucho más tardío, a mediados del siglo pasado. Se analiza la situación actual de esta disciplina, sus problemas, y algunas medidas para fortalecer su desarrollo. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento da Astronomia no Uruguai desde a época colonial até o presente, destacando em particular os aspectos vinculados ao seu ensino tanto formal quanto informal. Os primeiros antecedentes de estudos astronômicos em nosso país datam da época colonial relacionados com as expedições científicas do Velho Mundo que chegavam às nossas costas. O ensino da Astronomia se generalizou no âmbito dos estudos secundários já no final do século XIX, enquanto que sua introdução na universidade foi muito mais tardia, em

  11. [Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Autoimmunity: Is There a Relationship?].

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Mónica; Silva, Sónia; Benedito, Manuela; Brito, Manuel João

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A relação entre linfomas e doenças autoimunes é descrita na literatura como bidirecional, existindo poucos dados em idade pediátrica. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de doenças autoimunes em crianças e adolescentes com linfoma de Hodgkin seguidos num Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica. Material e Métodos: Ao rever a casuística do Serviço de linfomas de Hodgkin nos últimos 16 anos (dados colhidos prospetivamente), constatou-se uma incidência aparentemente elevada de doenças autoimunes nas raparigas pelo que se realizou um estudo retrospetivo, com atualização do seguimento fora de tratamento, relativamente à existência de doenças autoimunes. Avaliaram-se: idade, sexo, tipo de doença autoimune, relação temporal com o linfoma, estádio e grupo histológico do linfoma e terapêutica efetuada. Resultados: Incluíram-se 52 casos de linfoma de Hodgkin, dos quais sete (13,5%), todos do sexo feminino, tiveram uma doença autoimune diagnosticada previamente, em simult'neo ou posteriormente ao linfoma. As doenças autoimunes encontradas foram: artrite idiopática juvenil, doença inflamatória intestinal, doença de Behçet, hepatite autoimune, lúpus eritematoso sistémico, tiroidite de Hashimoto e púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática. Em quatro doentes o diagnóstico foi posterior ao linfoma, em dois, prévio, e num simult'neo. Todos os casos, exceto o diagnóstico simult'neo, estão fora de tratamento e sem recidiva da doença oncológica. Não se verificaram óbitos. Discussão: Verificou-se uma importante prevalência de doenças autoimunes nas raparigas com linfoma de Hodgkin. Apresentamos os dados e discutimos possíveis causas desta relação com base numa revisão bibliográfica. Conclusões: Esta associação deve ser evocada, sendo necessário mais estudos, sobretudo em idade pediátrica.

  12. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health.

    PubMed

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Bastos, João Luiz; Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field. RESUMO Este estudo descreve a produção científica sobre saúde bucal veiculada na Revista de Saúde Pública, nos cinquenta anos de sua publicação. Foi realizado estudo de revisão narrativa, utilizando o PubMed como mecanismo de busca que indexa todos os fascículos da revista. De 1967 a 2015, foram publicados 162 manuscritos com foco específico em temas de saúde bucal. Essa temática esteve presente em todos os volumes da revista, com participação crescente ao longo dos anos. Cárie dentária foi o tema mais estudado, marcando presença constante na revista desde seu primeiro fascículo. Doença periodontal, fluorose, oclusopatias e outros temas emergiram antes mesmo do declínio dos indicadores de cárie. Políticas de saúde bucal é o tema mais recorrente nas duas últimas décadas. A Revista de Saúde Pública tem sido importante veículo de divulgação, comunicação e reflexão sobre saúde bucal, contribuindo de modo relevante para a interação técnico-científica entre os

  13. [Prevalence of Pre-Obesity/Obesity in Pre and Basic School Children at Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal].

    PubMed

    Camarinha, Bárbara; Graça, Pedro; Nogueira, Paulo Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: Mais de 30% das crianças portuguesas apresentam excesso de peso. Sendo um grave problema de saúde pública com múltiplas causas, só uma ação intersectorial e concertada poderá contribuir para a sua resolução. As autarquias possuem um conjunto de competências que as tornam ideais para uma intervenção eficaz na luta contra este problema. Para essa ação ser efetiva é necessária uma avaliação local da dimensão do problema e sua distribuição espacial. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar, do ponto de vista da prevalência de excesso de peso, a população do pré-escolar e primeiro ciclo do ensino básico sob responsabilidade da autarquia de Vila Nova de Gaia, o terceiro município mais populoso do país. Material e Métodos: Avaliaram-se 8 974 crianças do pré-escolar e primeiro ciclo do ensino básico do município, no ano letivo 2013/14. A avaliação do estado nutricional da amostra foi feita com recurso às medidas antropométricas peso e altura. Na classificação do estado nutricional considerou-se os percentis ou z-scores do índice de massa corporal para a idade de acordo com os critérios definidos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention e pela International Obesity Task Force. Resultados: A prevalência de excesso de peso pelo critério da Organização Mundial da Saúde foi de 37,4%. Identificaram-se disparidades na distribuição do excesso de peso nas escolas do concelho. Discussão: Os resultados encontrados foram ligeiramente superiores aos de outros estudos nacionais e internacionais, podendo a abrangência amostral justificar as diferenças encontradas. Conclusão: A prevalência encontrada é elevada e de distribuição aparentemente distinta a nível espacial, o que poderá contribuir para a identificação dos principais determinantes do problema a nível local.

  14. [MAST and AUDIT. Evaluation of psychometric characteristics in patients with alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Fonte, Aníbal; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Introdução/Objectivo: Avaliar a correlação entre a pontuação no MAST e no AUDIT em doentes internados para desintoxicaçãopor dependência de álcool e analisar a possibilidade destas pontuações refletirem a intensidade da gravidade da dependência e dos problemas relacionados com o uso do álcool.Material e Métodos: Estudo correlacional. Doentes internados pela primeira vez, para tratamento por dependência de álcool. Além de uma entrevista estruturada, do MAST e do AUDIT, foi utilizado o SADD para avaliação do grau de dependência do álcool e o APQ para os problemas relacionados com o consumo de álcool.Resultados: A consistência interna (α de Cronbach) do MAST foi 0,77 e a do AUDIT foi 0,73. A correlação entre os dois instrumentos foi moderada (R = 0,497, p < 0,001). Ambos apresentam correlação moderada e significativa (p < 0,001) com o SADD e o APQ. O conjunto de itens do AUDIT dirigidos para a dependência têm maior correlação com o SADD do que com o APQ, sucedendo o inverso com o conjunto de itens pertencentes à dimensão problemas/consequências adversas. Os dois instrumentos apresentam correlação baixa com o volume de álcool consumido avaliado em g/d.Conclusão: Tanto o MAST como o AUDIT apresentam uma pontuação total que reflete a gravidade da dependência e das perturbações induzidas pelo álcool. Em populações clínicas estes instrumentos podem ser utilizados como variável contínua, para registo quantitativo da magnitude dos problemas. O AUDIT, relativamente ao MAST, tem a vantagem de apresentar um número menor de itens, ser mais fácil de responder e de cotar. O AUDIT tem ainda a vantagem de apresentar conjuntos de itens pertencentes a três dimensões (quantidade/frequência, dependência, problemas/consequências adversas) que podem ser analisados separadamente permitindo uma caracterização mais especificação das situações em estudo.

  15. Hansen Neuropathy: Still a Possible Diagnosis in the Investigation of a Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Andreia; Costa, Alexandre; Taipa, Ricardo; Guimarães, António; Pires, Manuel Melo

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A lepra continua a ser uma das causas mais frequentes de neuropatia periférica. Apesar de tida como erradicada em Portugal, ainda se documenta no estudo neuropatológico de doentes com clínica de neuropatia periférica sem diagnóstico etiológico definido.Material e Métodos: Revisão dos casos neuropatia por doença de Hansen diagnosticados na Unidade de Neuropatologia do Centro Hospitalar do Porto no período de 1978 e 2013 atendendo ao género, idade, manifestações clínicas e achados neuropatológicos.Resultados: Foram identificados 21 doentes com diagnóstico neuropatológico de neuropatia por doença de Hansen, com predomínio do sexo masculino. A idade média ao diagnóstico foi de 52 anos, sendo a sintomatologia sensitiva predominante. O intervalo entre sintomatologia e diagnóstico oscilou entre 1 a 38 anos. Na maioria foi identificada forma tuberculoide em biópsia de nervo e detetados bacilos em pele e nervo em 44% dos casos.Discussão: A mononeurite é a forma mais comum de apresentação de hanseníase, podendo cursar com outras manifestações clínicas incluindo lesões cutâneas. A infeção pelo M. leprae lesiona fibras mielinizadas e não mielinizadas, com substituição do tecido nervoso por colagénio resultando em fibrose. O diagnóstico da lepra é apenas conseguido por estudo neuropatológico das lesões cutâneas e/ou nervo periférico, adjuvado pela identificação do bacilo.Conclusão: A doença de Hansen continua a ser um problema de saúde pública em áreas tropicais e, apesar de rara, ainda descrita em países ocidentais, devendo ser considerada como uma hipótese de diagnóstico na investigação de neuropatia periférica.

  16. [Evaluation of hearing in patients with multiresistant tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Leandro; Sousa, Claudia; Sousa, Aida; Ferreira, Catarina; Duarte, Raquel; Faria E Almeida, António; Condé, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A tuberculose multirresistente e a extensivamente resistente constituem atualmente a principal ameaça ao controlo da tuberculose a nível mundial. O seu tratamento exige o uso de um esquema terapêutico com fármacos de segunda linha por um período mínimo de 20 meses, onde se incluem aminoglicosídeos durante um período de cerca de oito meses. Estes estão associados a alterações cocleovestibulares permanentes. Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal que pretende avaliar a função auditiva em indivíduos que terminaram tratamento por tuberculose multirresistente (com esquema que incluia aminoglicosídeos) no Centro de Referência Regional para a Tuberculose Multirresistente da Sub-Região de Saúde do Norte entre os anos de 2009 e 2012. Os doentes que preencheram os critérios de inclusão foram convocados para a realização de: exame objetivo otorrinolaringológico, audiograma tonal e vocal, otoemissões acústicas por produtos de distorção nas frequências de 2000-5000 Hz e timpanograma. Resultados: Entre 2009 e 2012 foram referenciados 27 casos para o Centro de Referência para a tuberculose multirresistente da Região Norte, tendo-se verificado cinco óbitos. Dos 22 indivíduos convocados, compareceram 11. Estes possuíam idades compreendidas entre os 31 e os 59 anos (41 ± 10). A amicacina foi usada em 80% e a capreomicina nos restantes. Seis (60%) dos utentes estudados apresentaram surdez neurossensorial. As otoemissões acústicas foram negativas em todos os doentes com hipoacúsia neurossensorial, o que confirma a sua origem coclear. Discussão/ Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo sugerem a necessidade de existir uma monitorização audiológica mais frequente nos indivíduos com tuberculose multirresistente tratados com aminoglicosídeos permitindo detectar mais precocemente a perda auditiva.

  17. Late stillbirth: a ten year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Robalo, Raquel; Pedroso, Célia; Amaral, Njila; Soares, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A morte fetal tardia é um acontecimento que se mantém na prática diária, apesar de protocolos de vigilância pré-natal e intraparto. Objectivo: Análise dos factores que contribuíram para a causa principal ou condições associadas a morte fetal tardia num período de 10 anos Métodos: Coorte retrospectiva de 208 gestações tardias simples, cujo parto em unidade terciária de cuidados perinatais resultou no nascimento de um nado morto, num período de dez anos. Através de consulta de processo clínico foram analisados dados clínicos, laboratoriais e resultados de estudo anatomo-patológico feto-placentário. Resultados: A incidência de morte fetal tardia foi de 3,5 por cada 1000 nascimentos. Não foram encontradas quaisquer tendências na incidência de MF tardia ao longo do tempo de estudo. Em 12 (5,8%) casos a morte fetal foi um acontecimento intraparto e 72 (35%) eram gestações de termo. Em 14% a gravidez não foi vigiada. A IG média de diagnóstico foi 34 semanas. A principal causa de morte associou-se a patologia fetal, tendo sido identificados factores fetais em 59 casos, destes 25% foram considerados leves para a idade gestacional. Em 24.5% dos casos a causa de morte foi inexplicada. Identificaram-se factores de risco materno em 21% dos casos, a patologia hipertensiva foi frequente e foi associada a idade gestacional precoce (p = 0,028). Conclusões: Não houve oscilações na incidência de morte fetal tardia ao longo dos dez anos avaliados. A incidência foi de 3,5‰, idêntica à descrita em países desenvolvidos. Cerca de um quarto das mortes fetais foram inexplicadas. A patologia materna mais frequente foi a hipertensão crónica.

  18. A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

  19. [Characterization and Evolution of Avoidable Admissions in Portugal: The Impact of Two Methodologic Approaches].

    PubMed

    Sarmento, João; Alves, Conceição; Oliveira, Paula; Sebastião, Rita; Santana, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O objectivo deste estudo é avaliar a performance dos sistemas de saúde através dos internamentos evitáveis, dado que estes têm vindo a ganhar importância a nível internacional. Foram utilizadas duas metodologias distintas para a identificação dos internamentos por Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, fazendo uma descrição da realidade e a evolução destes em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Analisámos mais de 12 milhões de internamentos entre 2000 e 2012, utilizando as bases de dados de resumos de alta nacionais. Utilizaram-se duas metodologias de identificação das Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, determinando a sua concordância. Calculámos cenários de melhoria potencial. Resultados: Em 2012, 4,4% e 32,5% dos internamentos por causas médicas seriam evitáveis segundo a metodologia canadiana e espanhola respectivamente. Os internamentos são mais frequentes nas crianças e nos idosos, divergindo as suas causas de acordo com o grupo etário e a metodologia utilizada. A taxa de internamentos no período em análise diminuiu 20% segundo a metodologia canadiana e aumentou 16% segundo a espanhola. Existem agregados regionais de performance acima e abaixo da média nacional. A concord ncia entre as duas metodologias é baixa. Estimaram-se reduções potenciais entre 20,3% e 53,5% dos internamentos.Discussão: Os internamentos evitáveis assumem um volume considerável em Portugal. Apesar de em teoria serem evitáveis a sua eliminação por completo não é uma possibilidade prática, no entanto, o seu estudo possibilita a avaliação e monitorização de resultados e o estabelecimento de prioridades de intervenção. Conclusão: Para uma caracterização mais precisa dos internamentos evitáveis é necessário consensualizar em Portugal a metodologia para a sua identificação.

  20. Osteotomy at low-speed drilling without irrigation versus high-speed drilling with irrigation: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, João; Borrecho, Gonçalo; Oliveira, Pedro; Salvado, Francisco; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A cirurgia traumática pode afetar a maturação do tecido ósseo e, diminuir a previsibilidade de osteointegração, pelo que a lesão mecânica e térmica deve ser minimizada. O objectivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações histológicas imediatas provocadas pela osteotomia a 50 rpm sem irrigação e a 800 rpm com irrigação, no osso do coelho.Material e Métodos: Foram efectuadas 36 perfurações (18 com cada técnica) nas tíbias de seis coelhos adultos. A sequência debrocas utilizada foi: uma broca esférica com 1,5 mm de diâmetro, uma broca piloto com 2,0 mm de diâmetro, e uma broca com 3,5 mm de diâmetro. A cortical posterior das tíbias foi preservada, constituindo o osso de controlo. Procedeu-se à recolha das tíbias com os defeitos a analisar, para observação com microscópio óptico e análise qualitativa.Resultados: Os defeitos ósseos apresentaram bordos regulares. Observou-se tecido ósseo viável, vascularizado e com presença de osteócitos junto aos defeitos. A estrutura haversiana e lamelar do tecido encontrou-se mantida, bem como a rede vascular. A matriz extracelular não apresentou alterações. Os resultados indicam não haver diferenças histológicas entre as osteotomias a 800 rpm com irrigação e a 50 rpm sem irrigação.Conclusão: O nosso estudo sugere que as alterações no tecido ósseo provocadas pela osteotomia a 50 rpm sem irrigação e a 800 rpm com irrigação são semelhantes, e que ambas as técnicas mantêm o tecido ósseo viável para a colocação de implantes e respectiva osteointegração, cabendo ao clínico a escolha, em função de outras variáveis.

  21. Women's attachment as a predictor of pain during labour and post-delivery: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Costa Martins, José Manuel; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes; Pereira, Marco; Martins, Henriqueta; Oliveira, Célia; Puga, Alexandra; Coelho, Rui; Tavares, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: O parto é considerado uma das experiências mais dolorosas e significativas na vida de uma mulher. O objectivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o estilo de vinculaçÉo da grávida é um preditor significativo da dor experienciada durante o parto e após o nascimento.Material e Métodos: Trinta e duas grávidas foram avaliadas durante o terceiro trimestre de gravidez e durante o parto. A vinculaçÉo no adulto foi avaliada através da Escala de AvaliaçÉo no Adulto ' Revista. A intensidade da dor de parto foi avaliada através de uma Escala Visual Analógica para a dor durante o parto e após o nascimento.Resultados: As mulheres com um estilo de vinculaçÉo inseguro reportaram maior dor aos 3 cm de dilataçÉo cervical (p < 0,05), antes da administraçÉo da analgesia (p < 0,01) e após o nascimento (p < 0,05) que as mulheres com uma vinculaçÉo segura. Nos modelos multivariados, o estilo de vinculaçÉo mostrou-se um preditor significativo da dor no parto aos 3 cm de dilataçÉo cervical e antes da administraçÉo da analgesia, mas nÉo na dor percebida após o nascimento.DiscussÉo: Estes resultados confirmam que a dor de parto é influenciada por factores psicológicos relevantes e sugerem que o estilo de vinculaçÉo da mulher pode ser um factor de risco para maior intensidade de dor no parto.ConclusÉo: Estudos futuros no contexto da dor obstétrica devem considerar o estilo de vinculaçÉo como um indicador de diferenças individuais na experiência de dor durante o parto. Isto pode ter importantes implicações para a Anestesiologia e promover importantes mudanças nas práticas institucionais e procedimentos terapêuticos.

  22. Indications for cesarean deliveries during a 7-year period in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana; Policiano, Catarina; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Analisar a evolução da taxa de cesarianas e as principais indicações para cesariana num centro terciário.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo conduzido num hospital universitário que incluiu 5751 grávidas submetidas a cesariana entre 2005 e 2011. Analisaram-se as taxas de cesarianas, incluindo a taxa de primeiras cesarianas e de cesarianas repetidas. Para avaliar a contribuição relativa de cada uma das indicações na variação da taxa de primeiras cesarianas recorreu-se à regressão linear e determinou-se o valor do r2 ajustado.Resultados: Durante o período do estudo a taxa de cesarianas diminuiu de 30,9% para 27,6%. Esta descida deveu-se à diminuição da taxa de primeiras cesarianas (21,9% para 18,2%), apesar de se ter constatado um ligeiro aumento da taxa de cesarianas repetidas (9,0 para 9,4%). Entre as indicações para primeiras cesarianas, as causas materno-fetais e de apresentação anómala foram as que diminuiram mais, com valores de r2 ajustado de 0,70 e 0,55, respectivamente.Discussão: Os dados coligidos permitiram identificar a hipótese de que a diminuição da taxa de cesarianas se deveria a uma retração detectada sobretudo a nível das primeiras cesarianas, em particular as decorrentes de causas materno-fetais e apresentação anómala.Conclusão: A diminuição da taxa de primeiras cesarianas pode ser atribuída a várias modificações na prática clínica do Departamento, como a implementação da versão cefálica externa, a indução do trabalho de parto a partir das 41 semanas de gestação, em gravidezes de baixo risco e da realização de provas de trabalho de parto em casos de patologia materno-fetal. No entanto, indicações subjectivas, como a paragem de progressão do trabalho de parto e a suspeita de sofrimento fetal são ainda causas major de primeiras cesarianas.

  23. Effects of local anesthetic on the time between analgesic boluses and the duration of labor in patient-controlled epidural analgesia: prospective study of two ultra-low dose regimens of ropivacaine and sufentanil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Martins, José Manuel; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Pereira, Marco; Tavares, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A patient-controlled epidural analgesia com baixas concentrações de anestésicos é eficaz na redução da dor de parto. O objectivo deste estudo foi comparar dois regimes de doses ultrabaixas de ropivacaína e sufentanil (0,1% ropivacaína associada a 0,5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil vs. 0,06% ropivacaína associada a 0,5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil) nos intervalos entre bólus e na duração do trabalho de parto. Material e Métodos: Neste estudo prospectivo não-randomizado, realizado entre Janeiro e Julho de 2010, dois grupos de parturientes receberam patient-controlled epidural analgesia: o Grupo I (n = 58; 1 mg.ml-1 ropivacaína + 0,5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil) e o Grupo II (n = 57; 0,6 mg.ml-1 ropivacaína + 0,5 μg.ml-1 sufentanil). Quando necessário administraram-se doses de resgate de ropivacaína na concentração definida para cada grupo e sem sufentanil. Registaram-se a dor, os consumos de analgésicos, as características do bloqueio neuroaxial, do trabalho de parto, do recém-nascido, e a satisfação materna. Resultados: A dose de ropivacaína foi maior no Grupo I (9,5 [7,7-12,7] mg.h-1 vs. 6,1 [5,1-9,8 mg.h-1], p < 0,001). No Grupo I observouse um aumento do intervalo de tempo entre bólus (beta = 32,61 min, 95% CI [25,39; 39,82], p < 0,001), enquanto no Grupo II se observou uma diminuição dos intervalos (beta = -1,40 min, 95% CI [-2,44; -0,36], p = 0,009). A duração do segundo estadio do trabalho de parto foi significativamente maior no Grupo I do que no Grupo II (78 min vs. 65 min, p < 0,001). Conclusões: As parturientes que receberam ropivacaína a 0,06% exibiram uma menor evidência de efeitos cumulativos e um segundo estadio do trabalho de parto mais rápido do que as que receberam ropivacaína a 0,1%.

  24. Prevalence of Late Preterm and Early Term Birth in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Joana G; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2016-04-01

    Introdução: Nos últimos anos, vários autores evidenciaram a morbilidade associada aos partos ocorridos entre as 34 e 36 semanas (pré-termo tardio) e entre as 37 e 38 semanas de gestação (termo precoce). Neste sentido, pretendemos realizar um estudo epide-miológico dos partos que ocorrem nestas idades gestacionais, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizámos um inquérito, que foi aplicado a todos os hospitais públicos de Portugal, acerca da prevalência e via de parto nos partos pré-termo tardios e de termo precoce, e morbilidade e mortalidade neonatal associada. As questões referiam-se apenas a gestações de feto único e a partos ocorridos em 2013. Resultados: Incluímos 14 hospitais, correspondendo a 33,5% dos partos ocorridos em Portugal, em 2013. Verificámos que 5,4% dos partos ocorreram no período pré-termo tardio e 27% no termo precoce. Aproximadamente dois terços dos partos pré-termo tardio e três quartos dos partos de termo precoce foram espontâneos. A taxa de cesariana foi mais elevada entre as 34 e 36 semanas de gestação (39,1%) do que entre as 37 e 38 semanas (26,4%). As complicações neonatais foram mais frequentes após um parto pré-termo tardio (34,2%), quando comparadas com os de termo precoce (14,2%). Discussão: Na nossa amostra, a prevalência de parto pré-termo tardio e de termo precoce, ainda que ligeiramente inferior, é comparável à publicada em estudos anteriores. Conclusão: Á importante que a comunidade obstétrica nacional adote atitudes no sentido de limitar os partos antes das 39 semanas de gestação. Assim, nestas idades gestacionais os partos devem possuir uma indicação médica válida.

  1. Hearing symptoms personal stereos.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Tiara Santos; Borja, Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: Práticos e portáteis os estéreos pessoais se tornaram acessórios quase indispensáveis no dia a dia. Estudos revelam que os tocadores de música portáteis podem causar danos auditivos a longo prazo para quem ouve música em alto volume por um tempo prolongado.Objetivo: verificar a prevalência de sintomas auditivos em usuários de tocadores amplificados e conhecer os seus hábitos de usoMétodo: Estudo prospectivo observacional de corte transversal realizado em três instituições de ensino da cidade de Salvador- BA, sendo duas de rede pública e uma da rede privada. Responderam ao questionário 400 estudantes, de ambos os sexos, entre 14 e 30 anos que referiram o hábito de utilizar estéreos pessoais.Resultados: Os sintomas mais prevalentes foram hiperacusia (43,5%), plenitude auricular (30,5%) e zumbido (27,5), sendo que o zumbido é o sintoma mais presente na população mais jovem. Quanto aos hábitos diários: 62,3% usam frequentemente, 57% em intensidades elevadas, 34% em períodos prolongados. Verificou-se uma relação inversa entre tempo de exposição e a faixa de idade (p = 0,000) e direta com a prevalência do zumbido.Conclusão: Apesar de admitirem ter conhecimento sobre os danos que a exposição a som de alta intensidade pode causar a audição, os hábitos diários dos jovens evidenciam o uso inadequado dos estéreos portáteis caracterizados por longos períodos de exposição, intensidades elevadas, uso frequente e preferência pelos fones de inserção. A alta prevalência de sintomas após o uso sugere um risco maior para a audição desses jovens.

  2. [Vitamin D Insufficiency in a Hospital Population: A Photograph from the Laboratory Perspective].

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Joana; Fernandes, Vera; Garcia, Fernando Mota

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Apesar da hipovitaminose D ser cada vez mais reconhecida em todo o mundo, existem poucos estudos sobre a realidade portuguesa. Este trabalho pretende analisar o nível de vitamina D nos doseamentos realizados no nosso hospital e sua relação com idade, sexo, especialidade requisitante e momento da colheita. Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional dos doseamentos de 25(OH)D realizados no nosso Hospital entre junho de 2012 e novembro de 2014. Variáveis estudadas: sexo, idade, especialidade requisitante, mês de colheita. O status de vitamina D foi classificado como: 'Deficiência' (≤ 20 ng/mL), 'Insuficiência' (21 ' 29 ng/mL) e 'Suficiência' (≥ 30 ng/mL). Resultados: Incluímos 5 439 doseamentos; 55,0% pertenciam a mulheres; a idade mediana foi 64,0 anos. Sessenta por cento apresentavam 'Deficiência', 20,7% 'Insuficiência' e 18,9% 'Suficiência'. Encontrámos uma correlação negativa entre idade e nível de vitamina D (p < 0,001), não havendo diferenças significativas entre sexos. Nove especialidades requisitaram 98% dos doseamentos, destacando-se a Nefrologia (56,2%). Encontrámos diferenças entre especialidades requisitantes relativamente à idade e nível de vitamina D (p < 0,001). O nível de vitamina D variou ao longo do ano, com níveis superiores no verão, seguido do outono, primavera e inverno (p < 0,001). Apesar desta variação sazonal, a suficiência de vitamina D foi sempre minoritária, sendo de 27,8% no Verão e 9,2% no Inverno. Discussão: A carência de vitamina D nesta população é elevada, transversal a todas as idades e não compensada pela variação sazonal da exposição solar.Conclusão: A hipovitaminose D é um problema real, prevalente e merecedor de atuação na nossa população, atendendo às suas implicações clínicas.

  3. [Gestational diabetes and the new screening test's impact].

    PubMed

    Massa, Ana Catarina; Rangel, Ricardo; Cardoso, Manuela; Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Em 2011, foi introduzido um novo rastreio para a diabetes gestacional que permitiu um diagnóstico mais precoce e de maior número de casos com o intuito de reduzir complicações maternas e perinatais. O objectivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da diabetes gestacional, comparar resultados obstétricos e perinatais do anterior e presente rastreio e os resultados e realização da prova de reclassificação pós-parto. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo em gestações simples e diabetes gestacional diagnosticados em 2009 (n = 223) e 2012 (n = 237), vigiadas na Maternidade Dr. Alfredo da Costa, Portugal. Após consulta de processos clínicos procedeu-se à análise de características demográficas, história médica e obstétrica, aumento ponderal durante a gravidez, idade gestacional do diagnóstico, terapêutica utilizada, resultados perinatais e reclassificação pós-parto, seguida de comparação destas variáveis entre os anos de 2009 e 2012. Resultados: Em 2012, houve maior prevalência de diabetes gestacional, ganho ponderal inferior (p < 0,001), maior recurso à terapêutica farmacológica (p < 0,001) e aumento dos casos diagnosticados no primeiro e segundo trimestres (p < 0,001). Relativamente aos resultados neonatais, o peso médio do recém-nascido ao nascer foi significativamente menor (p = 0,001) com diminuição dos recém-nascidos grandes para a idade gestacional (p = 0,002). A taxa de reclassificação pós-parto foi semelhante nos dois anos mas em 2012 houve um aumento dos resultados normais e diminuição das anomalias da glicémia em jejum. Discussão: Critérios mais apertados do actual rastreio permitiram a redução da maioria das complicações da diabetes gestacional levantando novas questões. Conclusão: A introdução do actual rastreio resultou num aumento de prevalência, diagnóstico mais precoce e redução da macrossomia.

  4. Stigma and Attitudes towards Psychiatric Patients in Portuguese Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Gama Marques, João; Gramaça, João; Sampaio, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Este estudo pretende avaliar o impacto da educação psiquiátrica nas atitudes em alunos de medicina face aos doentes mentais. Material e Métodos: Foi conduzido um inquérito em corte transversal na maior faculdade de medicina portuguesa. Os alunos preencheram um questionário que incluía informação sociodemográfica, antecedentes pessoais e familiares de doença psiquiátrica, bem como a Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale. Resultados: Em 2 178 estudantes, 398 responderam ao inquérito, representando 18,2% daquela faculdade de medicina. Houve uma significativa melhoria em todas as dimensões avaliadas pela Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale, ao longo dos anos do curso de medicina. Os valores mais elevados verificaram-se na subescala Restritividade (38,01), e os valores mais baixos na sub-escala Autoritarismo (36,13). A melhor diferença verificou-se para a sub-escala Autoritarismo (5º ano - 1º ano = 2,03), e a pior diferença verificou-se para a sub-escala Benevolência (5º ano - 1º ano = 0,39). Os melhores resultados foram encontrados no final do 3º ano. Discussão: Os resultados poderão dever-se ao módulo de luta contra o estigma, incluído na disciplina de 'Introdução à Saúde Mental'. Esse efeito positivo ter-se-á perdido no 4º e 5º anos, com uma degradação das atitudes.Conclusão: Este estudo salienta a import'ncia dos módulos de luta contra o estigma na melhoria das atitudes dos estudantes de medicina perante a saúde mental. Este tipo de acções pedagógicas preventivas com intuito anti-estigma, devem ser na melhor preparação possível de gerações Médicas futuras.

  5. Estimativa de imagens solares soho através de redes neurais artificiais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Rios Neto, A.; Rosa, R. R.; Sawant, H. S.

    2003-08-01

    A Rede Neural Artificial (RNA), no âmbito da teoria computacional, constitui uma teoria emergente que, por possuir habilidade em aprender a partir de dados de entrada, encontra diferentes aplicações em diferentes áreas. Um exemplo é a utilização de RNA na caracterização de padrões associados à dinâmica de processos espaço-temporais relacionados a fenômenos físicos não-lineares. Para obter informações sobre o comportamento destes fenômenos físicos utiliza-se, em diversos casos, seqüências de imagens digitalizadas, onde a caracterização de alguns fenômenos espaço-temporais é o procedimento mais viável para descrever a dinâmica das regiões ativas do Sol. Com base em imagens observadas por telescópios a bordo de satélites, estudos de previsão de eventos solares podem ser programados, permitindo prever possíveis efeitos posteriores nas regiões mais próximas da Terra (tempestades geomagnéticas e irregularidades ionosféricas). Neste trabalho avaliamos o desempenho da RNA para estimar padrões espaço-temporais, ou seja, imagens solares em ultravioleta, obtidas através do telescópio a bordo do satélite SOHO. Os resultados mostraram que as RNA conseguem generalizar os padrões de maneira satisfatória sem perder de forma significativa os principais aspectos da configuração global da atmosfera solar, comprovando a eficácia da RNA como ferramenta para esse tipo de aplicação. Portanto, este trabalho comprova a viabilidade de uso desta ferramenta em projetos voltados ao estudo do comportamento solar, em trabalhos do grupo de Física do Meio Interplanetário (FMI) na DAS e em programas desenvolvidos pelo Núcleo de Simulação e Análise de Sistemas Complexos (NUSASC) do Laboratório Associado de Computação e Matemática Aplicada (LAC) do INPE.

  6. The importance of Zebrafish in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Bárbara; Santos Lopes, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) é um excelente organismo modelo para o estudo do desenvolvimento dos vertebrados. Este facto deve-se às grandes ninhadas que cada casal produz, que podem atingir 200 embriões a cada sete dias, e ao facto dos embriões serem pequenos, transparentes e com um rápido desenvolvimento externo.Material e Métodos: Usando ferramentas de pesquisa bibliográfica científica disponíveis online e utilizando e as palavras-chave “Zebrafish”, “biomedical research”, “human disease” e “drug screening”, avaliámos estudos originais e revisões indexadas na PubMed.Resultados: Neste artigo de revisão fazemos um resumo do trabalho realizado com este modelo no melhoramento doconhecimento de várias doenças humanas. Fizemos ainda um breve relato da investigação biomédica realizada em Portugal com o modelo de peixe-zebra.Discussão: Têm sido desenvolvidas poderosas ferramentas genéticas e de microscopia in vivo, que também tornaram o peixe-zebra num modelo valioso em investigação biomédica. A conjugação destes atributos com a optimização de sistemas automatizados de triagem de medicamentos, transformaram o peixe-zebra num top model da investigação em biomedicina, nomeadamente na triagem de compostos químicos com efeitos terapêuticos e em testes de toxicidade. Além disso, com a otimização da tecnologia dos xenografos, será possível usar o peixe-zebra na escolha de uma terapia personalizada.Conclusão: O peixe-zebra é um excelente organismo modelo na pesquisa biomédica, em screens de medicamentos e na terapia clinica.

  7. Abundâncias químicas de estrelas T Tauri fracas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, G. A.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos resultados do estudo de 44 estrelas pré-seqüência principal, para as quais buscamos realizar uma classificação espectroscópica e determinar parâmetros estelares e abundâncias químicas. A amostra foi escolhida da seguinte maneira : 21 objetos selecionados a partir de catálogos de objetos jovens, como o Pico dos Dias Survey e o Herbig Bell Catalogue, e 23 objetos selecionados a partir de contrapartidas ópticas de fontes de raios X detectadas pelo satélite ROSAT. Dentre 24 objetos previamente classificados como estrelas T Tauri Fracas, apenas 7 revelaram ser realmente pertencentes à essa classe, sendo os demais objetos T Tauri Clássicas ou estrelas evoluídas da pré-seqüência principal. Esse resultado demonstra que o critério mais utilizado para distinguir as T Tauri Clássicas das T Tauri Fracas, baseado na largura equivelente da emissão Ha, não é suficiente para determinar o estágio evolutivo desses objetos. Para o cálculo de parâmetros estelares e abundâncias, foram escolhidas as estrelas que apresentam características ideais para esse tipo de estudo, como ausência de velamento, baixa velocidade de rotação e espectros com razão sinal-ruído adequada. Os parâmetros estelares como temperatura efetiva e gravidade foram determinados através do equilíbrio de excitação e ionização das linhas de Ferro, e as abundâncias químicas foram calculadas utilizando o método de síntese espectral. Serão apresentados os parâmetros estelares e as abundâncias de Lítio para toda a amostra, e abundâncias de vários elementos quimicos para 7 estrelas estudadas em maior detalhe

  8. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias