Science.gov

Sample records for ethical aspects

  1. Biotechnology patents and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Terragni, F

    1993-01-01

    Should we set any limits on patenting? More specifically, must we set any limits on patenting in the field of biotechnology? There should be general agreement on the exclusion of humans from patentability. The European Parliament voted unanimously on an amendment to the Community Directive regarding patenting stating that the human body and its parts are not patentable as such. Patenting of humans indeed would be against fundamental human rights; against the shared principles of freedom, autonomy, and dignity of each single human being. The same reasons apply to requests to reject the "commercialization of the human body." However, much more difficult is reaching a consensus on what are the parts of humans that should not be marketed--organs, tissues, cells, genes, smaller DNA fragments? Probably there is no consensus on where to draw the line when we deal with parts of the human body. Nevertheless, an ethical component is very strong in raising opposition to patenting human DNA. Whatever our personal view on the issue, we cannot deny that ethical aspects must be considered in granting patents on human DNA. With reference to animals, the fears raised are that the patenting of transgenic animals could amplify the instrumental use (reification) and the neglect of their sentient nonobjectual nature: patenting could motivate, instead, the tendency to consider animals as the standard of things invented and as new consumer products. Moreover, animal patenting increases production and thus brings about the great suffering of animals. In regard to plants, the ethical implications of patenting have more to do with their socioeconomic effects, in particular on Third World countries, than for the organisms involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Ethical aspects of obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Ten Have, Marieke

    2014-04-01

    Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate.

  3. Ethical aspects of genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Carter, M A

    2001-07-01

    This article explores ethical concerns and emerging dilemmas associated with the proliferation of information resulting from the extraordinary advances in molecular genetics. It provides an overview of the ethical and legal challenges associated with predictive testing for inherited disease currently being addressed in the literature. Finally, it offers a framework of ethical principles that can be used to guide nurses and other practitioners in the appropriate application of research findings to the clinical practice setting. The ethical guidelines of self-determination, benefit-burden ratio, and justice promulgated in The Belmont Report are interpreted in the new context of predictive genetic testing. The author concludes by discussing how to balance the technical imperative to advance genetic knowledge for the sake of human health with the ethical imperative to preserve the fundamental rights and liberties of both individuals and communities who are its recipients.

  4. Ethical aspects of tissue engineering: a review.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Oerlemans, Anke; Trommelmans, Leen; Dierickx, Kris; Gordijn, Bert

    2008-12-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a promising new field of medical technology. However, like other new technologies, it is not free of ethical challenges. Identifying these ethical questions at an early stage is not only part of science's responsibility toward society, but also in the interest of the field itself. In this review, we map which ethical issues related to TE have already been documented in the scientific literature. The issues that turn out to dominate the debate are the use of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning. Nevertheless, a variety of other ethical aspects are mentioned, which relate to different phases in the development of the field. In addition, we discuss a number of ethical issues that have not yet been raised in the literature.

  5. [Ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activity].

    PubMed

    Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Lourenço, Maria Regina; Shinyashiki, Gilberto Tadeu

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at addressing the ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activities, the authors of this work referred to Etzioni and adopted a hospital classification as a reference of organization in which consent is based on the internalization of rules accepted as legitimate. Regarding patients, their need to adapt to medical behavior and hospital rules through internalization is considered to be a result of physicians', nurses' and the hospital's power. However, the authors view that such internalization is naive, without consent, especially by taking into account that most Brazilian patients do not know that they should or should not consent and are used to obeying. Thus, the work focused on nurses' managerial actions, indicating that they must be based on professional values, the Nursing ethical code as well as on the rights of hospitalized patients, thus integrating qualified care guided by respect, free consent and promotion of patients as the protagonists and subjects of care.

  6. Teaching the Ethical Aspects of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental and societal issues are often inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine environments, and science and social values must often be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. A new seminar course has been developed for the Marine Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) graduate program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland, to examine these issues. This 1-credit course, offered for the first time in Spring 2015, takes a complex systems perspective on major environmental and societal challenges to examine these linked issues in a variety of contexts. After a brief introduction to the emerging field of "geoethics," students develop a list of issues to examine throughout the seminar. Example topics could include fracking, offshore wind technology, dam removal, and iron fertilization, among others. A case-study approach is taken, with each class meeting focusing on one issue. For each case study, students are asked to 1) identify relevant scientific principles and major knowledge gaps, 2) predict potential outcomes, 3) identify stakeholders and likely viewpoints, and 4) construct communication plans to disseminate findings to these stakeholders. At the end of the semester, students give a brief presentation of the ethical aspects of their own research topics.

  7. Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Morris M.

    1991-01-01

    According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

  8. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues in virtue of its unique history, epidemiology, and biology. This paper provides preliminary ethical analyses of the especially salient issues of: (i) global health justice, (ii) universal access to malaria control initiatives, (iii) multidrug resistance, including artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance, (iv) mandatory screening, (v) mass drug administration, (vi) benefits and risks of primaquine, and (vii) malaria in the context of blood donation and transfusion. Several ethical issues are also raised by past, present and future malaria research initiatives, in particular: (i) controlled infection studies, (ii) human landing catches, (iii) transmission-blocking vaccines, and (iv) genetically-modified mosquitoes. This article maps the terrain of these major ethical issues surrounding malaria control and elimination. Its objective is to motivate further research and discussion of ethical issues associated with malaria--and to assist health workers, researchers, and policy makers in pursuit of ethically sound malaria control practice and policy. PMID:26693920

  9. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-12-22

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues in virtue of its unique history, epidemiology, and biology. This paper provides preliminary ethical analyses of the especially salient issues of: (i) global health justice, (ii) universal access to malaria control initiatives, (iii) multidrug resistance, including artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance, (iv) mandatory screening, (v) mass drug administration, (vi) benefits and risks of primaquine, and (vii) malaria in the context of blood donation and transfusion. Several ethical issues are also raised by past, present and future malaria research initiatives, in particular: (i) controlled infection studies, (ii) human landing catches, (iii) transmission-blocking vaccines, and (iv) genetically-modified mosquitoes. This article maps the terrain of these major ethical issues surrounding malaria control and elimination. Its objective is to motivate further research and discussion of ethical issues associated with malaria--and to assist health workers, researchers, and policy makers in pursuit of ethically sound malaria control practice and policy.

  10. [Ethical aspects of biological sample banks].

    PubMed

    Cambon-Thomsen, A; Rial-Sebbag, E

    2003-02-01

    Numerous activities in the domain of epidemiology require the constitution or the use of biological sample banks. Such biobanks raise ethical issues. A number of recommendations are applicable to this field, in France and elsewhere. Major principles applicable to biobanks include the respect of person's autonomy, the respect of human body, the respect of confidentiality. These principles are translated into practices through the following procedures: relevant information to the persons regarding their sample management prior to informed consent, opinion of an independent ethics committee, actual implementation of conditions for protecting samples and data. However, although those principles may appear quite simple and obvious, in the context of a largely international practice of research and given the large variety of biobanks, it is not always obvious for researchers to find their way. The attitudes vary between countries, there are numerous texts for various types of biobanks, the same texts raise different interpretations in different institutions, there are new ethical opinions expressed, and mainly the novelty of questions raised by the uses of samples that are possible today, especially in genetics, and were not foreseeable at the time of sampling make the field difficult in practice. This article reviews the types of biobanks, the relevant ethical issues. It also underlines the still unclear or ambiguous situations using some examples of practical situations.

  11. Ethical aspects of advanced reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2003-11-01

    The progress achieved during the last 25 years in the assisted reproductive technology field has been phenomenal. Many countries currently practice genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and surrogacy. While embryo research and therapeutic cloning are carried out only in a few centers, thus far human cloning has been universally condemned. Nonetheless, the rapid evolution and progress of these various techniques of assisted reproduction has opened a Pandora's box of ethical issues that must be urgently addressed.

  12. Ethical aspects of research on psychological trauma

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Herman, Allen; Kaminer, Debra; Rataemane, Solomon; Seedat, Soraya; Kessler, Ronald C.; Williams, David

    2000-01-01

    Research in the area of psychological trauma raises a number of complex ethical issues. These include questions about unjustified medicalization of suffering, retraumatization of survivors, the morality of also investigating perpetrators of trauma, and neglecting to provide appropriate intervention. We discuss some of these issues against the backdrop of a study of trauma in South Africa, and the recent work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in that country. PMID:22033592

  13. [Basic ethical aspects of living organ donation].

    PubMed

    Nagel, E; Mayer, J

    2003-06-01

    A characteristic feature of transplanting organs from living donors is that not only patients in need for treatment but also healthy individuals are submitted to medical interventions. Ethical considerations in this field have to deal with the question of property attributes of the human body and conflicts with traditional medical principles. Altruistic organ donation, appreciated by Christianity as a sign of charity, is indeed contradictory to the classic maxim of medical ethics "primum nihil nocere, " meaning "first of all, do not harm." The autonomous choice of a potential donor has to be balanced thoroughly against his personal physical and psychological risks. Apart from organ donation with altruistic motives, commercial incentives or payment for organ donation, which are increasingly under discussion in many nations, need profound ethical reflection. Organ selling does not lead to long-term economic benefit for individual donors in developing countries and is associated with a decline in health. A market system of organ sales would foster exploitation of the poor, and it is substantially doubtful whether autonomy and self determination are valid under circumstances of poverty and coercion. Commodification of the human body risks viewing persons as marketable objects. The human body,however, is an integral element of an individual's personality and not a resource to be removed. It is therefore fundamental that the social good of altruism is preserved as the major principle in organ donation.

  14. [Ethical questions related to nutrition and hidration: basic aspects].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, E; Girela, E

    2011-01-01

    Conditions that pose ethical problems related to nutrition and hydration are very common nowdays, particularly within Hospitals among terminally ill patients and other patients who require nutrition and hydration. In this article we intend to analyze some circumstances, according to widely accepted ethical values, in order to outline a clear action model to help clinicians in making such difficult decisions. The problematic situations analyzed include: should hydration and nutrition be considered basic care or therapeutic measures?, and the ethical aspects of enteral versus parenteral nutrition. PMID:22411365

  15. [Ethical questions related to nutrition and hidration: basic aspects].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, E; Girela, E

    2011-01-01

    Conditions that pose ethical problems related to nutrition and hydration are very common nowdays, particularly within Hospitals among terminally ill patients and other patients who require nutrition and hydration. In this article we intend to analyze some circumstances, according to widely accepted ethical values, in order to outline a clear action model to help clinicians in making such difficult decisions. The problematic situations analyzed include: should hydration and nutrition be considered basic care or therapeutic measures?, and the ethical aspects of enteral versus parenteral nutrition.

  16. Ethical aspects of organ donation activities.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Antoine; Barbari, Antoine; Younan, Farida

    2007-12-01

    Renal transplant remains the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Human organs can be harvested from 2 main sources: living and deceased donors. Preference should be given to deceased-donor transplants since they represent the only source of organs for several nonrenal solid-organ transplants and the only modality where there is no risk to the donor. Unfortunately, even the most well-developed deceased-donor program (eg, the Spanish program) can barely cover 50% of its waiting list because the demand for deceased-donor organs far exceeds supply. The success of transplant surgery has created a waiting list dilemma. Despite all efforts, deceased-donor donation cannot meet current needs and therefore, living donation demands serious consideration. This is supported by the fact that the risk to live donors is minimal, graft survival is significantly better than that of deceased-donor kidneys regardless of HLA matching, and professional ethical philosophers have fewer difficulties with voluntary living donations than with the removal of an organ from a cadaver. This is especially true in our region. Living-related donation has always been acceptable ethically. It is, however, limited by the number of willing and qualified donors, the high incidence of familial renal diseases, and donor coercion (especially in our area). Living-unrelated donation increases the availability of donors, decreases the chances of coercion, and eliminates the problem of consanguinity. It raises, however, the ethical issues of commercialism, transplant tourism, and organ trafficking. The arguments for and against living-unrelated donation are innumerable. They have been the subject of several international forums and have raised endless discussions. We have set long ago a series of rules and regulations that are in close agreement with the recent Amsterdam and Kuwait resolutions. We have been continually modifying them over the last 15 years to try to implement our

  17. The ethical aspects of regulating production.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J C

    2008-02-01

    Polls and surveys conducted within the United States show general agreement that there is public support for the protection of farm livestock and poultry. Concurrent with the growing public sentiment is the recent adoption of socially responsible corporate policies by major food retailers relative to animal welfare. The animal welfare assurance and audit programs developed by the private sector are an attempt to assure consumers that best practice measures and independent oversight result in a reasonable quality of life for food-producing animals. These programs represent voluntary self-regulation and arguably a market-based approach to secure the welfare of food-producing animals. Animal advocacy organizations historically seek regulatory oversight of animal care practice. Legislative routes that require government promulgation and enforcement of animal care regulations represent an involuntary form of animal welfare assurance. There are ethical considerations concerning the employment of voluntary or involuntary regulation of the welfare of food-producing animals. For example, degree of public endangerment, economic impact, viability of small to medium producers, food price, food quality, and food security are prominent among the ethical considerations in deliberating whether to impose regulatory mandates on production. In either regulatory approach, the public must be convinced that the welfare of food-producing animals can be secured in a transparent and convincing manner.

  18. Ethical aspects of human biobanks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Danijela; Polašek, Ozren; Marušić, Ana; Kolčić, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boraska, Vesna; Jerončić, Ana; Boban, Mladen; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Aim To systematically assess the existing literature on ethical aspects of human biobanks. Method We searched the Web of Science and PubMed databases to find studies addressing ethical problems in biobanks with no limits set (study design, study population, time period, or language of publication). All identified articles published until November 2010 were included. We analyzed the type of published articles, journals publishing them, involvement of countries/institutions, year of publication, and citations received, and qualitatively assessed every article in order to identify ethical issues addressed by the majority of published research on human biobanking. Results Hundred and fifty four studies satisfied our review criteria. The studies mainly came from highly developed countries and were all published in the last two decades, with over half of them published in 2009 or 2010. They most commonly discussed the informed consent, privacy and identifiability, return of results to participants, importance of public trust, involvement of children, commercialization, the role of ethics boards, international data exchange, ownership of samples, and benefit sharing. Conclusions The focus on ethical aspects is strongly present through the whole biobanking research field. Although there is a consensus on the old and most typical ethical issues, with further development of the field and increasingly complex structure of human biobanks, these issues will likely continue to arise and accumulate, hence requiring constant re-appraisal and continuing discussion. PMID:21674823

  19. Oocyte donation: particular technical and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Englert, Y; Govaerts, I

    1998-05-01

    This paper analyses the reasons that oocyte and sperm donation are experienced very differently by couples, despite their apparent similarity, and stresses the impact of the difficulties on donor recruitment in all oocyte donation programmes. The various types of donors (occasional, relational, in-vitro fertilization patient and professional) are described together with their motivations, resistance, advantages and disadvantages. The contradictory consequences with free or paid donation, the particular risks of oocyte donation (in comparison with sperm donation) both for the donor and for the recipient are highlighted. The problem of maintaining anonymity is then analysed in ethical terms but also in terms of technical efficacy. A strategy is described which, due to the decision of retaining anonymity, authorizes the sharing of oocytes between recipients. This has as a consequence, an increase in treatment efficacy by avoiding wastage of oocytes offered as a donation. PMID:9665329

  20. [Brain death: biological and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Roczeń, R; Bohatyrewicz, R

    2001-01-01

    The article presents briefly historical development of death criteria from the modern times to the present. The criteria which are used for identification and diagnosing death on the base of respiratory and circulatory death definition are described. This work underlines the inadequacy of the definition of the brain death in relation to patients with persistent vegetative state and in relation to anencephalic newborns. The author describes the pathology and clinical and laboratory evidence of the brain stem death, which gave the possibility to justify the thesis that in case of the brain stem death ontological arguments are sufficient for diagnosing the death of a human being. The attention of the ethic of the life sanctity (on the base of halachic's law) and its opposing influence on the evolution of the medical definition of death has been paid. The recognition of the brain as the death of an individual is a cultural shock, which from scientific point of view changed the ways of thinking, almost immediately but did not in the awareness of the society. The work also underlies the fact that utilitarian argumentation can not be a criterion for making a decision concerning the life of an individual.

  1. Saving lives in road traffic—ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aim This article aims at giving an overview of five ethical problem areas relating to traffic safety, thereby providing a general framework for analysing traffic safety from an ethical perspective and encouraging further discussion concerning problems, policies and technology in this area. Subjects and methods The problems presented in the article are criminalisation, paternalism, privacy, justice and responsibility, and the reasons for choosing these are the following. First, they are all important areas in moral philosophy. Second, they are fairly general and it should be possible to categorise more specific problems under these headings. Ethical aspects of road traffic have not received the philosophical attention they deserve. Every year, more than 1 million people die globally in traffic accidents, and 20 to 50 million people are injured. Ninety per cent of the road traffic fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries, where it is a growing problem. Politics, economics, culture and technology affect the number of fatalities and injuries, and the measures used to combat deaths in traffic as well as the role of road traffic should be ethically scrutinised. The topics are analysed and discussed from a moral-philosophical perspective, and the discussion includes both theory and applications. Results and conclusion The author concludes with some thoughts on how the ethical discussion can be included in the public debate on how to save lives in road traffic. People in industrialised societies are so used to road traffic that it is almost seen as part of nature. Consequently, we do not acknowledge that we can introduce change and that we can affect the role we have given road traffic and cars. By acknowledging the ethical aspects of road traffic and illuminating the way the choices society makes are ethically charged, it becomes clear that there are alternative ways to design the road traffic system. The most important general conclusion is that discussion

  2. Environmental aspects of ethical animal production.

    PubMed

    Siegford, J M; Powers, W; Grimes-Casey, H G

    2008-02-01

    distribution, may also differ from prevalent industrial production practices. Clearly, consumers and producers considering the benefits and costs of ethical animal production practices need to understand the system-wide environmental impacts of these approaches to meeting demand for animal products.

  3. Medicine, Media Communication and Ethical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Summary On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn’t a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health

  4. [Triploid cloned human embryos: ethical, social, and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    This work attempts to place the experiment within the scientific and social framework of pluripotent-stem-cell research and offer reflections of an ethical and (to a lesser extent) legal nature on the results obtained by this research group. To these ends, the work is divided into two parts. The first part describes the most important aspects of Noggle and Egli's announcement and the biotechnological and media context in which it was made. The second part is concerned with the bioethical issues raised by the experiment. There are basically four issues, which relate to: (1) the nuclear transfer technique, (2) the use of human ovules to carry out the experiment, (3) the destruction of human blastocysts, and (4) the ethical requirements of scientific publications.

  5. [Establishing and operating a human biobank. Ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Jahns, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Particularly in the past decade which has been marked by efforts to foster individualized/personalized medicine the need for well-characterized high-quality collections of human biological material has significantly increased. When establishing and operating a human biobank the interests and the "freedom" of biomedical research must always be weighed against the interests and rights of patients and/or donors; in this process ethical aspects should be considered systematically. In addition, the importance of quality control and quality assurance has largely increased in human biobanking, both from a scientific and even more from an ethical point of view, because donated biological materials are potentially stored for decades and (on request) might serve for currently not foreseeable biomedical research purposes. In addition, the compatibility of national human biobanks with international biobank networks becomes increasingly important.

  6. [Establishing and operating a human biobank. Ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Jahns, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Particularly in the past decade which has been marked by efforts to foster individualized/personalized medicine the need for well-characterized high-quality collections of human biological material has significantly increased. When establishing and operating a human biobank the interests and the "freedom" of biomedical research must always be weighed against the interests and rights of patients and/or donors; in this process ethical aspects should be considered systematically. In addition, the importance of quality control and quality assurance has largely increased in human biobanking, both from a scientific and even more from an ethical point of view, because donated biological materials are potentially stored for decades and (on request) might serve for currently not foreseeable biomedical research purposes. In addition, the compatibility of national human biobanks with international biobank networks becomes increasingly important. PMID:26753862

  7. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27640410

  8. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. [Ethical and legal aspects at the emergency department

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P R; Torreão, L A

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss ethical and legal aspects of physicianś attitudes in emergency departments under the light of Braziĺs codes and laws.METHODS: The authors raise questions based upon case reports and comment using the medical ethical code, laws that protect children and adolescents, hospitalized children and adolescents rights statement and medical federal council decisions.RESULTS: The authors discuss child patients' rights and the parents disclosure right; the problem of domestic violence and abuse and the physician duty to denunciate this kind of practice for the child security and protection; the medical responsability even under workplace adverse conditions, as well as the concerns related to transportation of patients to another hospital; the dilemma between withholding and withdrawing life support measures at the emergency department and the prohibition to certificate death in violent death situations; the autonomy and decision-making capa-city of adolescent patients and their limitations, including violation of confidentiality.CONCLUSIONS: The commentaries presented in the article try to explain to the pediatrician how to identify ethical and legal conflicts in the emergency department and to prepare him (her) to assume attitudes based on codes and legal statements, as well as to respect the patient's rights. PMID:14685477

  10. Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a

  11. Technological innovations in forensic genetics: social, legal and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage the participation of scientific actors in the development of anticipatory governance deliberations concerning the widening application of forensic genetics in an increasing number of criminal and civil jurisdictions.

  12. Academic espionage: dysfunctional aspects of the publish or perish ethic.

    PubMed

    Mensah, L L

    1982-11-01

    There are many dysfunctional manifestations relative to the tenure and promotion process. These are disruptive to academic life. Much of this is encouraged by the university because of their publish or perish ethic. Excellence in classroom teaching and success in the field of clinical and human endeavours are not highly valued in deliberations to grant tenure and advancement in academic rank. Research and publications are the major yardsticks upon which a faculty member is judged. This prevailing perspective poses a dilemma for many nursing faculty who have high clinical workloads and have not been socialized for academic survival. The pressures to publish and research can be achieved in a realistic and non-stressful way. Three aspects seem to be particularly relevant to facilitate this achievement; these are: anticipatory planning, balancing the workload, and understanding the interpersonal dimensions of collegiality. PMID:6924943

  13. Gastroscopy in Pediatric Surgery: Indications, Complications, Outcomes, and Ethical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Louise; Hambraeus, Mette; Arnbjörnsson, Einar

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to map gastroscopies performed at a single tertiary pediatric surgery centre to investigate indications, complications, outcomes, and ethical aspects. Material and Methods. A retrospective study of gastroscopies performed during two time periods (2001–2004 and 2011–2014) was conducted. Data regarding indications, outcomes, and complications of pediatric gastroscopies were analysed from a prospectively collected database. Results. The indications for gastroscopies changed over time. Therefore, 376 gastroscopies performed from 2011 through 2014 were studied separately. The median patient was four years old. The predominant indications were laparoscopic gastrostomy (40%), investigation of gastroenterological conditions (22%), obstruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract (20%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (15%), and other indications (3%). Percentages of gastroscopies with no positive findings for each condition were laparoscopic gastrostomy, 100%; gastroenterological conditions, 46%; obstruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 36%; GERD, 51%. Furthermore, gastroscopies did not lead to any further action or change in treatment in 45% of gastroenterological conditions and 72% of GERD cases. The overall complication rate was 1%. Conclusion. The results are valuable to educate pediatric surgeons and to inform health care planning when including gastroscopy within clinical practice. PMID:25883646

  14. [Ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk].

    PubMed

    Rippe, K P

    2009-05-01

    The article discusses two ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk. First, it considers whether fluoridation contradicts the right of self-determination. Second, it discusses the chances and risks of fluoridation. The answer to the first question depends on whether people can choose other options. Freedom of choice is not simply the right to choose between different options. It is a right which defends the moral integrity of persons. Nobody should be coerced to eat or drink something which he or she rejects morally. In the political sphere, personal rights of persons can be restricted if and only if it is necessary, if there is a public interest, and if the restriction of the right is reasonable. Regarding fluoridation, even in the best risk-chance scenario, some persons have to expect a net harm. Therefore, the reasoning in favor of fluoridation has to have a specific purpose. The proclaimed reasoning is that fluoridation will benefit the worst off and is therefore a demand of justice. But this argument fails as there are other options to benefit the worst off. Even in the best risk-chance scenario, only one option is morally permissible: the fluoridation of salt, which respects the freedom of choice.

  15. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    PubMed

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them. PMID:23130743

  16. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    PubMed

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  17. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Gotthart M

    2004-01-01

    The repeated attempts to tighten up the literary report are finally showing effects. This not only as a result of shorter reports but also because of the fact that less is being written and published regarding our topic. The discussion seems exhausted which, for years, dealt with the controversial moral status of animals and the--finally--constitutionally sanctioned status of animal protection in Germany. The problem of animals in ethics is becoming a rarity. Correspondingly, bio-ethics is oriented towards human problems and related borderline cases in a rather one-sided manner. This radically altered situation corresponds to an equally profound shift in the direction of our thinking. In the 1970's it was the shock in reaction to brutality towards T.V.-reports. But soon questions asking about the guilty were being posed. To direct the question from a guilt-related "who" to the "what" of the underlying reasons was a more difficult task. Just like social ethics developed out of social criticism, modern animal ethics developed out of the criticism of cruelty to animals. And, to the degree that this criticism became a common public concern, it lost its importance in comparison to the ethical questions now moving into the centre of the interest. In view of book-production this means that animal protection-related literature appears in three major groups: Husbandry, Use and Abuse, Animal Protection Law, Animal (Protection) Ethics. To collect these three groups simultaneously is becoming increasingly difficult. The concentration on, and supposedly a limitation to the sectors morals and ethics of the man-animal relationship cannot be avoided in the literary report. Morals is stressed here in particular in order to limit the excessive dominance of theoretical ethics and to preserve the priority of action-guiding morals.

  18. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects

    PubMed

    Teutsch

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary remarks Preceding the detailed literary review, here a few events, topics and publications for the busy reader including * The decision of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) to declare unconstitutional and invalid chicken owner ordinances permitting caging * The decision of the German parliament to declare animal protection a national goal * Publication of a number of books which are likely to influence discussions for years to come since they bring to a close developments having emerged over an extended period of time. Without claiming to be exhaustive the following should be mentioned: Marc Bekoff and Carron A. Meany, ed.: "Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare", an extensive work being reviewed by Peter Thornton in chapter 3.6 of this report. For the first time, animal protection of the Anglo-American tradition is being summarised, in theory as well as in practice, and, on high standards: "The list of contributors reads like a Who"s Who of experts in their chosen fields and includes philosophers such as Peter Singer, Tom Regan, Tom Beauchamp and Bernard Rollin and welfare scientists such as Don Broom, David Fraser, Temple Grandin. Others involved in examining the role of animals in society and our relationship with them, such as Andrew Linzey, Richard Ryder, James Serpell and David Morton (to name just a few), have also provided entries" (Peter Thornton). The comprehensive monograph by Johannes Caspar: "Tierschutz im Recht der modernen Industriegesellschaft. Eine rechtliche Neukonstruktion auf philosophischer und historischer Grundlage" (Animal Protection in the Law of modern industrial Society. A new legal Construct on a philosophical and historical Base) represents an extensive critical incorporation of animal protection in Germany under legal and ethical aspects including a detailed rendering of the actual treatment of animals. The term "critical incorporation" was used on purpose since never before was cruelty

  19. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects

    PubMed

    Teutsch

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary remarks Preceding the detailed literary review, here a few events, topics and publications for the busy reader including * The decision of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) to declare unconstitutional and invalid chicken owner ordinances permitting caging * The decision of the German parliament to declare animal protection a national goal * Publication of a number of books which are likely to influence discussions for years to come since they bring to a close developments having emerged over an extended period of time. Without claiming to be exhaustive the following should be mentioned: Marc Bekoff and Carron A. Meany, ed.: "Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare", an extensive work being reviewed by Peter Thornton in chapter 3.6 of this report. For the first time, animal protection of the Anglo-American tradition is being summarised, in theory as well as in practice, and, on high standards: "The list of contributors reads like a Who"s Who of experts in their chosen fields and includes philosophers such as Peter Singer, Tom Regan, Tom Beauchamp and Bernard Rollin and welfare scientists such as Don Broom, David Fraser, Temple Grandin. Others involved in examining the role of animals in society and our relationship with them, such as Andrew Linzey, Richard Ryder, James Serpell and David Morton (to name just a few), have also provided entries" (Peter Thornton). The comprehensive monograph by Johannes Caspar: "Tierschutz im Recht der modernen Industriegesellschaft. Eine rechtliche Neukonstruktion auf philosophischer und historischer Grundlage" (Animal Protection in the Law of modern industrial Society. A new legal Construct on a philosophical and historical Base) represents an extensive critical incorporation of animal protection in Germany under legal and ethical aspects including a detailed rendering of the actual treatment of animals. The term "critical incorporation" was used on purpose since never before was cruelty

  20. [Global aspects of medical ethics: conditions and possibilities].

    PubMed

    Neitzke, G

    2001-01-01

    A global or universal code of medical ethics seems paradoxical in the era of pluralism and postmodernism. A different conception of globalisation will be developed in terms of a "procedural universality". According to this philosophical concept, a code of medical ethics does not oblige physicians to accept certain specific, preset, universal values and rules. It rather obliges every culture and society to start a culture-sensitive, continuous, and active discourse on specific issues, mentioned in the codex. This procedure might result in regional, intra-cultural consensus, which should be presented to an inter-cultural dialogue. To exemplify this procedure, current topics of medical ethics (spiritual foundations of medicine, autonomy, definitions concerning life and death, physicians' duties, conduct within therapeutic teams) will be discussed from the point of view of western medicine.

  1. Evaluation of ethical aspects in health technology assessment: more methods than applications?

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Droste, Sigrid

    2015-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) emerged with the increased need for systematical evaluation of health technologies in the 1970s. From its very beginning, ethics was a constitutive part of HTA, and over the years a wide range of approaches have been suggested to address ethical aspects of health technologies. Despite a vast variety of methodologies in ethics, there is no consensus about the appropriateness of the existing methods. Moreover, while the available methods are many, their applications are few. While methods for addressing ethical issues in HTA have been richly reviewed, their applications are poorly tracked. Hence, a bottom up approach, that is, from practice to theory, may turn out to be as helpful as a top-down review. We need a review of the examples of ethics in HTA so we better can learn how the methods are used in practice, analyze the role of context, and better can assess the merits of the various methods.

  2. 'The one truly serious philosophical problem': Ethical aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Khan, Murad M; Mian, Ayesha I

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a major global public health problem with an estimated one million deaths every year. It is one of the most personal yet one of the most complex acts anyone can perform, as it goes to the very core of the concept of human existence and the meaning of life. The philosophical debate on suicide has spanned centuries with no clear answers. Juxtaposed within the various perspectives that suicide can be studied from is the ethical perspective that brings into sharp focus the conflict between personal autonomy and societal responsibility towards suicidal individuals. Mental health professionals find themselves in the midst of this conflict as they are assumed to have the responsibility to prevent suicide in their patients, while patients' responsibility towards themselves is frequently overlooked. Mental health professionals need to be aware of the ethical concerns that arise in the care of suicidal patients.

  3. Ethical aspects of using medical social media in healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The advances in internet and mobile technologies and their increased use in healthcare led to the development of a new research field: health web science. Many research questions are addressed in that field, starting from analysing social-media data, to recruiting participants for clinical studies and monitoring the public health status. The information provided through this channel is unique in a sense that there is no other written source of experiences from patients and health carers. The increased usage and analysis of health web data poses questions on privacy, and ethics. Through a literature review, the current awareness on ethical issues in the context of public health monitoring and research using medical social media data is determined. Further, considerations on the topic were collected from members of the IMIA Social Media Working group. PMID:24825685

  4. Innovative therapies: general aspects and ethical criteria for evaluating protocols.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways of interpreting the notion of "innovation" with reference to therapeutics. The term is generally given a wide meaning, encompassing anything that brings something new. From the ethical point of view the definition of "innovation" is of key importance, for example when dealing with a major problem such as the evaluation of protocols that propose "innovative" therapies. There is currently debate as to whether this should be accomplished using the same procedures typically applied to experimental research protocols, or by following quite different procedures when "innovation" is involved. The present article offers an overview of the notion of "innovation" in the context of biomedical research, together with some considerations and proposals for evaluating it from the ethical viewpoint.

  5. Ethical and legal aspects of noninvasive prenatal genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2014-02-01

    The new technology that will allow genetic testing of a fetus within the first trimester of pregnancy by isolating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in the mother's blood raises a range of ethical and legal issues. Considered noninvasive, this test is safe and reliable, and may avoid alternative genetic testing by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, which risks causing spontaneous abortion. Ethical and legal issues of cffDNA testing will become more acute if testing expands to fetal whole-genome sequencing. Critical issues include the state of the science or diagnostic art; the appropriateness of offering the test; the implications of denying the test when it is available and appropriate; disclosure and counseling following test results; and management of patients' choices on acquiring test results. A challenge will be providing patients with appropriate counseling based on up-to-date genetic knowledge, and accommodating informed patients' legal choices.

  6. Ethical aspects of using medical social media in healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The advances in internet and mobile technologies and their increased use in healthcare led to the development of a new research field: health web science. Many research questions are addressed in that field, starting from analysing social-media data, to recruiting participants for clinical studies and monitoring the public health status. The information provided through this channel is unique in a sense that there is no other written source of experiences from patients and health carers. The increased usage and analysis of health web data poses questions on privacy, and ethics. Through a literature review, the current awareness on ethical issues in the context of public health monitoring and research using medical social media data is determined. Further, considerations on the topic were collected from members of the IMIA Social Media Working group.

  7. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  8. Ethical and legal aspects of applied genomic technologies: practical solutions.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Penelope K

    2005-02-01

    Many ethical and legal issues surround genomic technologies, some of which are present for other kinds of medical data, but some of which are specific to genomic data. Specifically the global nature of genomic data and the life-long implications of genetic defects on the health of the individual subject produce challenges in the ethical and legal handling of this data. In general, data derived from transcriptome analysis, which studies gene expression, as well as proteomics and metabolomics, carry less ethically-charged information than measures of the germ line genome. However, theoretical issues that have been raised related to withholding therapy based on a specific genotype which could also apply to a specific expression profile. Potential solutions for these challenges are discussed, such as maintaining a connection with research participants through a trusted third party, using electronic means to manage that contact and reconsent subjects. A flexible, secure information technology infrastructure is proposed to manage and search consent forms, provide the ability to collect additional data and consent while maintaining participant confidentiality.

  9. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Håberg, Siri E; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Lafolie, Pierre; Zoega, Helga; Sarkkola, Catharina; von Kraemer, Stephanie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Nørgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Both ethical values and conditions for registry-based research are similar in the Nordic countries. While Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have chosen different legal frameworks, these differences can be resolved through mutual recognition of ethical applications and by harmonizing the different systems, likely leading to increased collaboration and enlarged studies. PMID:26648756

  10. Voluntary and involuntary sterilization: medical, ethical, legal and religious aspects.

    PubMed

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-08-01

    Surgical voluntary sterilization has become one of the most widely used methods of contraception, with vasectomy and tubal sterilization being the most commonly employed techniques, associated with a low failure, morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae rate. As sterilization is related with the elimination of the possibility for procreation, a number of ethical, legal and religious issues have arisen, leading often to personal misjudgements, legal disputes, and failures in applying family planning. Involuntary sterilization is currently not practiced, except in cases of severely mentally retarded people, who are unable to appreciate the consequences of their acts or care for their children and who may have a high likelihood of propagating hereditary disease.

  11. Ethical Aspects of Evaluating a Patient’s Mental Capacity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    When a patient’s mental capacity to make decisions is open to question, the physician often calls in a psychiatrist to help make the determination. The psychiatrist’s conclusions may be taken to a court to determine the patient’s legal competency. In this article, the author presents several clinical criteria psychiatrists may use when determining patients’ mental capacities. The author discusses two critical ethical questions psychiatrists should consider when they use this criteria: (1) whether they should use a fixed or sliding standard and (2) if they adopt a sliding standard, what clinical factors should be given the greatest weight. The author also discusses whether psychiatrists should take initiative to obtain a second opinion from another psychiatrist or mental health professional. Finally, the author discusses research regarding patients who are likely to have more impaired capacity for performing executive functions, patients requesting surgical procedures that are ethically without precedent, and patients possibly having inner awareness under conditions that previously were not considered possible. PMID:19724765

  12. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  13. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-07-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  14. Ethical aspects of renal transplantation from living donors.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P; Berloco, P B

    2007-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantages for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but it at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality of 0.03%. This theoretical risk for the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be effectively prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high, not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other infective agents, as well as of inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies consider kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and therefore do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our Center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation. PMID:17692612

  15. Ethical aspects of renal transplantation from living donors.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P; Berloco, P B

    2007-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantages for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but it at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality of 0.03%. This theoretical risk for the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be effectively prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high, not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other infective agents, as well as of inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies consider kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and therefore do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our Center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation.

  16. Ethical aspects of obstetric care: expectations and experiences of patients in South East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Ezugwu, Frank O; Ugwu, George O; Lawani, Osaheni L; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical ethics is not given due priority in obstetric care in many developing countries, and the extent to which patients value compliance with ethical precepts is largely unexplored. Objective To describe the expectations and experiences of obstetric patients in South East Nigeria with respect to how medical ethics principles were adhered to during their care. Methods This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study involving parturient women followed in three tertiary hospitals in South East Nigeria. Results A total of 1,112 women were studied. The mean age of respondents was 29.7 ± 4.1 years. Approximately 98% had at least secondary education. Ninety-six percent considered ethical aspects of care as important. On the average, over 75% of patients expected their doctors to comply with the different principles of medical ethics and specifically, more than 76% of respondents expected their doctors to comply with ethical principles related to information and consent during their antenatal and delivery care. There was a statistically significant difference between the proportions of women who expected compliance of doctors with ethical principles and those who did not (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that increasing levels of skilled occupation (odds ratio [OR] 9.35, P < 0.001), and residence in urban areas (OR 2.41, P < 0.001) increased the likelihood of patients expecting to be informed about their medical conditions and their opinions being sought. Although the self-reported experiences of patients concerning adherence to ethical principles by doctors were encouraging, experiences fell short of expectations, as the level of expectation of patients was significantly higher than the level of observed compliance for all the principles of medical ethics. Conclusion The level of practice of medical ethics principles by doctors during obstetric care in South East Nigeria was encouraging but still fell short of the expectations of patients. It

  17. The Practical Aspects of Online Counseling: Ethics, Training, Technology, and Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.; Rochlen, Aaron B.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the practical aspects of online counseling, including ethics, training, supervision, technology, and competency issues. The authors discuss online counseling's strengths and limitations and present guidelines for what types of clients and counseling psychologists may be appropriate for online counseling. To illustrate the…

  18. Foundations Symposium: A Continued Dialogue on Critical Theory, Cultural Analysis, and Ethical Aspects of the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jane; And Others

    Seven articles are presented from a symposium on critical theory, cultural analysis, and the ethical aspects of the use of educational technology. Two papers deal with the educational philosophy of two modern thinkers, and others focus on educational technology in the modern or postmodern era. The following papers are included: (1) "Foucault and…

  19. The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

  20. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal. PMID:23529363

  1. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  2. [Orphan drugs: some legal, ethical and economics aspects].

    PubMed

    Pabst, J Y

    2001-09-01

    Besides well-known diseases, about 5,000 identified are classed as "orphan" because of the lack of any response in terms of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. The development of drugs for these diseases, intended for a limited number of patients, often requires considerable research, and subsequently, cost. The aim of the present article is to discuss the ethical, political and economic problems relevant to the development and disposal of drugs specifically designed for these diseases, now commonly called "orphan" drugs. These questions have been raised at discussions and dialogues at the European Parliament where European regulations on orphan drugs were adopted on December 15, 1999. These regulations (141/2000/EEC) came into effect in the European Union on January 22, 2000, and are widely inspired from the American model. The regulations stipulate that the criterion for designation of the drug is based on a disease prevalence of 5/10000). Advantages commonly recognized for the orphan drug status concern: community registration (centralized marketing approval), eligibility for grants and national or community fiscal support, lower or canceled registration fees, technical contribution via the European drug agency (EMEA), and exclusive rights for a 10-year period. On May 12, 2000, the European Commission completed the status by adopting rules establishing the criteria used for designating a drug as an orphan drug. This document implements the dispositions available to pharmaceutical firms inciting them to invest in the development of orphan drugs. PMID:11567205

  3. Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business.

    PubMed

    Maroušek, Josef; Hašková, Simona; Zeman, Robert; Žák, Jaroslav; Vaníčková, Radka; Maroušková, Anna; Váchal, Jan; Myšková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called "accelerators". The opinions of the sale representatives' with regards to other alternatives of biowaste utilization and their own products were reviewed. The robust analyzes of several "accelerated" composts revealed that the quality was generally low. Only two accelerated composts were somewhat similar in quality to the blank sample that was produced according to the traditional procedure. Overlaps between the interests of decision makers on future soil fertility were weighed against the preferences on short-term profit. Possible causes that allowed the boom of these underperforming products and the possible consequences are also discussed. Conclusions regarding the ethical concerns on how to run businesses with products whose profitability depends on weaknesses in the legal system and customer unawareness are to follow. PMID:26026968

  4. ETHICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS REGARDING PRESYMPTOMATIC TESTING FOR NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Cozaru, Georgeta Camelial; Aşchie, Mariana; Mitroi, Anca Florentina; Poinăreanu, I; Gorduza, E V

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's dementia, Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease or spinocerebellar ataxia, manifests into adulthood with an insidious onset, slowly of progressive symptoms. All of these diseases are characterized by presimptomatic stages that preceded with many years of clinical debut. In Parkinson's disease, more than half of the dopaminergic neurons of the black substance are lost before the advent of motor characteristic manifestations. In Huntington's chorea, the progressive neurodegenerative disease could be diagnose prenatal and presymptomatic by analyse of the number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin gene. A similar mechanism represented by expansion of trinucleotide repeats during hereditary transmission from parents to children was identified in fragile X syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia, spinal muscular and bulbar atrophy, or myotonic dystrophy. Presymptomatic diagnosis in all these progressive diseases raise many ethical issues, due to the psychological impact that can cause the prediction of a disease for which there is currently no curative treatment. Therefore, a positive result can produce serious psychological trauma and major changes in the lifestyle of the individual, instead, a negative result can bring joy and tranquillity. But the problem arises if presymptomatic testing in these neurodegenerative diseases brings greater benefits compared to the possible psychological damage, which can add the risk of stigmatization or discrimination. PMID:27125067

  5. Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business.

    PubMed

    Maroušek, Josef; Hašková, Simona; Zeman, Robert; Žák, Jaroslav; Vaníčková, Radka; Maroušková, Anna; Váchal, Jan; Myšková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called "accelerators". The opinions of the sale representatives' with regards to other alternatives of biowaste utilization and their own products were reviewed. The robust analyzes of several "accelerated" composts revealed that the quality was generally low. Only two accelerated composts were somewhat similar in quality to the blank sample that was produced according to the traditional procedure. Overlaps between the interests of decision makers on future soil fertility were weighed against the preferences on short-term profit. Possible causes that allowed the boom of these underperforming products and the possible consequences are also discussed. Conclusions regarding the ethical concerns on how to run businesses with products whose profitability depends on weaknesses in the legal system and customer unawareness are to follow.

  6. The Return of Lombroso? Ethical Aspects of (Visions of) Preventive Forensic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Munthe, Christian; Radovic, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The vision of legendary criminologist Cesare Lombroso to use scientific theories of individual causes of crime as a basis for screening and prevention programmes targeting individuals at risk for future criminal behaviour has resurfaced, following advances in genetics, neuroscience and psychiatric epidemiology. This article analyses this idea and maps its ethical implications from a public health ethical standpoint. Twenty-seven variants of the new Lombrosian vision of forensic screening and prevention are distinguished, and some scientific and technical limitations are noted. Some lures, biases and structural factors, making the application of the Lombrosian idea likely in spite of weak evidence are pointed out and noted as a specific type of ethical aspect. Many classic and complex ethical challenges for health screening programmes are shown to apply to the identified variants and the choice between them, albeit with peculiar and often provoking variations. These variations are shown to actualize an underlying theoretical conundrum in need of further study, pertaining to the relationship between public health ethics and the ethics and values of criminal law policy. PMID:26566397

  7. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Novotny, T E; Carlin, D

    2005-08-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use.

  8. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Carlin, D

    2005-01-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use. PMID:16046698

  9. [The clinical history in surgical processes. Bioethical aspects and basic professional ethics].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, Eliseo

    2008-11-01

    Surgeons are increasingly facing multiple civil liability claims from their patients. Against this background and taking any eventual liability claims into account, surgeons must be increasingly aware of the importance of maintaining patient medical histories, which raises numerous questions on the length of time and form of keeping them. Ethical and legal obligations need to be taken into account in order to identify the controversial aspects related to patients and their environment, as well as shedding light on the most appropriate behaviour in each case. We must never forget the case history is a clinical document, subjected to the medical art and medical ethics which regulate it. PMID:19080907

  10. [The clinical history in surgical processes. Bioethical aspects and basic professional ethics].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, Eliseo

    2008-11-01

    Surgeons are increasingly facing multiple civil liability claims from their patients. Against this background and taking any eventual liability claims into account, surgeons must be increasingly aware of the importance of maintaining patient medical histories, which raises numerous questions on the length of time and form of keeping them. Ethical and legal obligations need to be taken into account in order to identify the controversial aspects related to patients and their environment, as well as shedding light on the most appropriate behaviour in each case. We must never forget the case history is a clinical document, subjected to the medical art and medical ethics which regulate it.

  11. Psychosurgery in the modern era: therapeutic and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Z H

    1992-01-01

    Brain operations for psychiatric illness were in the past the centre of public controversy. Fear of untoward side-effects and an exaggerated use of the procedure including treatment of societal aspects of the disease process caused a virtual cessation of psychosurgical operations. With the introduction of techniques that could accurately lesion specific areas in the brain, especially in the limbic system, psychosurgical procedures were revived. Psychiatric syndromes, such as obsessive-compulsive affective disorders, were shown to have benefited from such intervention, without giving rise to untoward side-effects. Given societal supervision it is appropriate to reconsider the use of psychosurgery in well-defined clinical entities of mental disease that do not respond to alternative therapy.

  12. Ethical aspects of judging the alternative treatment of children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Enskär, K

    1995-03-01

    In recent decades the improved treatment of childhood cancer has increased the proportion of children being cured. However, the intensive treatment required also implies a heavy burden for the children and their families. The purpose of this article is to judge the ethical aspects of different treatment regimens used for children with cancer by means of a case study. The analysis is based on the ethical model by Beauchamp and Childress. The assessment is based on every person, or group of persons, involved and is on the principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. The analysis shows that intensification of treatment of children with cancer is ethically justified from a deontological point of view. The consequences are more difficult to anticipate from a utilitarian perspective.

  13. Assessment vs. appraisal of ethical aspects of health technology assessment: can the distinction be upheld?

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Lars; Heintz, Emelie

    2014-01-01

    An essential component of health technology assessment (HTA) is the assessment of ethical aspects. In some healthcare contexts, tasks are strictly relegated to different expert groups: the HTA-agencies are limited to assessment of the technology and other actors within the health care sector are responsible for appraisal and recommendations. Ethical aspects of health technologies are considered with reference to values or norms in such a way that may be prescriptive, or offer guidance as to how to act or relate to the issue in question. Given this internal prescriptivity, the distinction between assessment and appraisal seems difficult to uphold, unless the scrutiny stops short of a full ethical analysis of the technology. In the present article we analyse the distinction between assessment and appraisal, using as an example ethical aspects of implementation of GPS-bracelets for people with dementia. It is concluded that for HTA-agencies with a strictly delineated assessment role, the question of how to deal with the internal prescriptivity of ethics may be confusing. A full ethical analysis might result in a definite conclusion as to whether the technology in question is ethically acceptable or not, thereby limiting choices for decision-makers, who are required to uphold certain ethical values and norms. At the same time, depending on the exact nature of such a conclusion, different action strategies can be supported. A positive appraisal within HTA could result in a decision on mandatory implementation, or funding of the technology, thereby making it available to patients, or decisions to allow and even encourage the use of the technology (even if someone else will have to fund it). A neutral appraisal, giving no definite answer as to whether implementation is recommended or not, could result in a laissez-faire attitude towards the technology. A negative appraisal could result in a decision to discourage or even prohibit implementation. This paper presents an

  14. Assessment vs. appraisal of ethical aspects of health technology assessment: can the distinction be upheld?

    PubMed

    Sandman, Lars; Heintz, Emelie

    2014-01-01

    An essential component of health technology assessment (HTA) is the assessment of ethical aspects. In some healthcare contexts, tasks are strictly relegated to different expert groups: the HTA-agencies are limited to assessment of the technology and other actors within the health care sector are responsible for appraisal and recommendations. Ethical aspects of health technologies are considered with reference to values or norms in such a way that may be prescriptive, or offer guidance as to how to act or relate to the issue in question. Given this internal prescriptivity, the distinction between assessment and appraisal seems difficult to uphold, unless the scrutiny stops short of a full ethical analysis of the technology. In the present article we analyse the distinction between assessment and appraisal, using as an example ethical aspects of implementation of GPS-bracelets for people with dementia. It is concluded that for HTA-agencies with a strictly delineated assessment role, the question of how to deal with the internal prescriptivity of ethics may be confusing. A full ethical analysis might result in a definite conclusion as to whether the technology in question is ethically acceptable or not, thereby limiting choices for decision-makers, who are required to uphold certain ethical values and norms. At the same time, depending on the exact nature of such a conclusion, different action strategies can be supported. A positive appraisal within HTA could result in a decision on mandatory implementation, or funding of the technology, thereby making it available to patients, or decisions to allow and even encourage the use of the technology (even if someone else will have to fund it). A neutral appraisal, giving no definite answer as to whether implementation is recommended or not, could result in a laissez-faire attitude towards the technology. A negative appraisal could result in a decision to discourage or even prohibit implementation. This paper presents an

  15. Banks, repositories and registries of stem cell lines in Europe: regulatory and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kristina

    2009-03-01

    To overview banks, repositories and registries of stem cell lines in Europe excluding bone marrow and cord blood banks; to concisely discuss the most important scientific, regulatory and ethical aspects of stem cell banking in a manner understandable to a layperson, but remain detailed enough not to compromise thoroughness of information. Review of scientific publications, laws and ethical guidelines in this field up through September 2008; hearing the opinions of key persons working in stem cell banking. The article discusses the procedure of stem cell banking and related safety issues and reviews the regulation of stem cell banking at the regional (European) and the national level. Stem cell banking can help meet scientific and certain ethical imperatives, but is complicated in the context of heterogeneous laws, guidelines, and ethical standards. In the pluralistic European society with cultural diversity leading to heterogeneous laws, harmonisation of international guidelines and national laws regulating stem cell banking is needed, as well as mapping of implementation at the national level.

  16. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

  17. Kidney allocation for transplantation: some aspects of ethics and comparative law.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2012-09-01

    The allocation of organs is a crucial ethical issue. The importance attached to different allocation criteria differs considerably among the various national and international organizations. The balance between justice-centered and utility-centered systems is shifting and there are signs of a possible swing away from systems centered mainly on waiting times to others centered mainly on criteria of utility. This evolution is very significant and seems to run counter to the main stream of modern bioethics. Examples from different national policies are given herein. Particular attention is given to Europe, where national bioethics committees have tended to ignore the aspect of organ allocation. By overemphasizing the issues related to informed consent, the ethical challenges arising from the problems of resource allocation are often relegated to second place. PMID:22974843

  18. Ethical and legal aspects in medically assisted human reproduction in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ioan, Beatrice; Astarastoae, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Up to the present, there have not been any specific norms regarding medically assisted human reproduction in Romanian legislation. Due to this situation the general legislation regarding medical assistance (law no. 95/2006, regarding the Reform in Health Care System), the Penal and Civil law and the provisions of the Code of Deontology of the Romanian College of Physicians are applied to the field of medically assisted human reproduction. By analysing the ethical and legal conflicts regarding medically assisted human reproduction in Romania, some characteristics cannot be set apart because they derive from religious, cultural and socio-economic aspects. In this article the authors identify the development stages of medically assisted human reproduction in Romania, beginning from these characteristics and insisting upon the failure of the legal system in this specific field. The authors consider that the law regarding medically assisted human reproduction cannot be effective because it did not take into account the ethical and cultural aspects that might appear. Furthermore, in this framework of the legal process, no public debate involving the representatives of civil society was undertaken although the Council of Europe Oviedo Convention approved by our country according to law no. 17/2001 stipulated exactly this working method.

  19. Ethical, legal, and social aspects of farm animal cloning in the 6th Framework Programme for Research.

    PubMed

    Claxton, John; Sachez, Elena; Matthiessen-Guyader, Line

    2004-01-01

    Cloned livestock have potential importance in the provision of improved medicine as well as in the development of livestock production. The public is, however, increasingly concerned about the social and ethical consequences of these advances in knowledge and techniques. There is unevenness throughout Europe in different Member States' attitudes to research into livestock cloning. Although there is EU legislation controlling the use of animals for research purposes, there is no legislation specifically governing cloning in livestock production. The main EU reference is the 9th Opinion of the European Group on Ethics, which states "Cloning of farm animals may prove to be of medical and agricultural as well as economic benefit. It is acceptable only when the aims and methods are ethically justified and when carried out under ethical conditions." The ethical justification includes the avoidance of suffering, the use of the 3Rs principle and a lack of better alternatives. The Commission addresses these issues in the 6th Framework Programme by promoting the integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in all proposals where they are relevant, by fostering ethical awareness and foresight in the proposals, by encouraging public dialogue, and by supporting specific actions to promote the debate. Research must respect fundamental ethical principles, including animal welfare requirements.

  20. Ethical aspects of directly observed treatment for tuberculosis: a cross-cultural comparison

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a major global public health challenge, and a majority of countries have adopted a version of the global strategy to fight Tuberculosis, Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS). Drawing on results from research in Ethiopia and Norway, the aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss ethical aspects of the practice of Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) in a cross-cultural perspective. Discussion Research from Ethiopia and Norway demonstrates that the rigid enforcement of directly observed treatment conflicts with patient autonomy, dignity and integrity. The treatment practices, especially when imposed in its strictest forms, expose those who have Tuberculosis to extra burdens and costs. Socially disadvantaged groups, such as the homeless, those employed as day labourers and those lacking rights as employees, face the highest burdens. Summary From an ethical standpoint, we argue that a rigid practice of directly observed treatment is difficult to justify, and that responsiveness to social determinants of Tuberculosis should become an integral part of the management of Tuberculosis. PMID:23819555

  1. On the ethical aspects of the testimony of statisticians in court.

    PubMed

    Gehan, E A

    2002-10-01

    This article considers a legal case presented by the Gore campaign to the Florida Eleventh Circuit Court in December 2000 to contest the election results giving the 25 electoral votes from the State of Florida to George W Bush--basically awarding the presidency to Bush. Consideration is given to the ethical aspects of the testimony of two statisticians, one for Gore and one for Bush, who testified about whether the certified election results rejected a number of legal votes and included a number of illegal votes sufficient to place in doubt the results of the election. It is concluded that neither statistician violated accepted ethical standards of the statistical profession, though the Bush statistician's testimony was at least borderline unethical on certain points. The main problem seems to be with the advocacy principle of the American legal system that leads to the prosecution witnesses testifying narrowly to the truths about the case, whereas the defense witnesses do the same from their viewpoint and also try to belittle the testimony of the prosecution witnesses. All of this makes it difficult to uncover the real truths in the case. The judge's decision was to reject Gore's case and this helped to clear the path to the election of Bush as President of the United States.

  2. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs.

  3. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs. PMID:27012736

  4. Legal, Ethical, and Financial Aspects of Providing Services to Children with Swallowing Disorders in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    This article considers the role of the speech-language pathologist in providing services to children with swallowing disorders in the public school setting. Topics addressed include requirements (or aspects) under various federal laws and regulations, as well as ethical, liability, and funding issues. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  5. PATIENT'S RIGHT TO INFORMED CONSENT IN REPUBLIC SRPSKA: LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PHYSICAL REHABILITATION).

    PubMed

    Milinkovic, Igor; Majstorovic, Biljana

    2014-12-01

    The principle of informed consent, which requires a patient's fully-informed consent prior to the medical treatment, is closely connected with the value of human dignity. The realization and protection of a patient's dignity is not possible without his/her right to choose the character and scope of medical treatment. This goal cannot be adequately achieved within the traditional model of medical paternalism characterized by the physician's authoritative position. The first part of the article deals with the content and ethical significance of the informed consent doctrine. The legal framework of informed consent in Republic Srpska (RS), one of the two Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH)entities, is analyzed. Special reference is made to the relevance of the informed consent principle within the physical rehabilitation process. Although ethical aspects of physical rehabilitation are often overlooked, this medical field possesses a strong ethical dimension (including an appropriate realization of the patient's right to informed consent).

  6. Nutrigenomics and ethics interface: direct-to-consumer services and commercial aspects.

    PubMed

    Ries, Nola M; Castle, David

    2008-12-01

    A growing variety and number of genetic tests are advertised and sold directly to consumers (DTC) via the Internet, including nutrigenomic tests and associated products and services. Consumers have more access to genetic information about themselves, but access does not entail certainty about the implications of test results. Potential personal and public health harms and benefits are associated with DTC access to genetic testing services. Early policy responses to direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing often involved calls for bans, and some jurisdictions prohibited DTC genetic tests. Recent policy responses by oversight bodies acknowledge expansion in the range of DTC tests available and suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" regulatory approach is not appropriate for all genetic tests. This review discusses ethical and regulatory aspects of DTC genetic testing, focusing particularly on nutrigenomic tests. We identify policy options for regulating DTC genetic tests, including full or partial prohibitions, enforcement of existing truth-in-advertising laws, and more comprehensive information disclosure about genetic tests. We advocate the latter option as an important means to improve transparency about current evidence on the strengths and limits of gene-disease associations and allow consumers to make informed purchasing decisions in the DTC marketplace.

  7. Information about occupational exposure to asbestos given to cases in an etiological study: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, A E; González, C; Agudo, A; Calleja, A; Beltrán, M; González-Moya, J; Hernandez, S; Panades, R; Ramirez, J; Turuguet, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to consider some ethical aspects of the provision of information, to the cases or their families, about the assessment of occupational asbestos exposure obtained in a case-control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura. An informative letter with the result of the evaluation of their occupational exposure to asbestos was sent to the participating cases (and/or their family). Those whose exposure was classified as certain/probable were also informed of the legislation regarding occupational diseases. Of the 132 cases, 32.6% of subjects and/or their families made telephone calls expressing interest in the content of the informative letter. Among the 63 cases classified as certain/probable exposure, this proportion was 47.6%. Out of 43 cases in which the age at diagnosis was < or = 65 years and the exposure to asbestos was certain/probable, only two (4.6%) were signed off work owing to occupational disease. Only one of the mesothelioma cases was recognized by the Spanish National Institute for Social Security (INSS) as having an occupational disease. The process of communication of the results of an epidemiological research should include the provision of information on the exposure data to each one of the subjects, and/or their families. There is a great disparity between the number of cases of certain/probable exposure to asbestos identified in our study, and the number registered as an occupational disease by the INSS.

  8. The Defence of Artificial Life by Synthetic Biology From Ethical and Social Aspects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyi; Yin, Zhou; Shao, Zhexin; Xie, Qiong

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic biology opens up exciting new opportunities for research and industry. Although the work of synthetic biologists presents many beneficial applications, it also raises potentially serious ethical concerns. Therefore, clear ideas must be formed regarding its ethical and social implications, e.g., public perception, safety, security, intellectual property rights and so on. In this review, the authors identified four issues relevant to synthetic biology and discussed associated ethical and practical implications. By weighing these perspectives of all sides, this paper clarifies the point that synthetic biology, as an emerging discipline with many anticipated benefits and positive impacts on society, can acquire moral support and ethical defence. Therefore, synthetic biologists should not be shackled with heavy ethical chains, but we must ensure that research is conducted under strict control and effective supervisory methods.

  9. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  10. Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell research in the islamic world: positions and reflections.

    PubMed

    Ilkilic, Ilhan; Ertin, Hakan

    2010-06-01

    Rapid technological developments in human embryonic stem cell research are holding promises of future new medical treatment for a range of currently incurable chronic diseases. At the same time, stem cell research using human embryos raises radically new, previously unimaginable ethical issues posing a dramatic challenge to humankind. By analysing the discourses on these ethical issues we can show that the cultural values and religious convictions of all stakeholders involved play a decisive role in formulating ethical positions. In the Islamic world, too, stem cell research using human embryos provokes new discussions about the moral status of the embryo according to Islamic ethical norms. In our paper we describe the theological and philosophical criteria used in this debate and discuss some ethical positions vis-à-vis embryonic stem cell research formulated in the Islamic world, including official regulations existing in some Muslim countries. While most of the existing literature in this field is primarily descriptive, the present paper endeavours to examine not only the arguments and their historical conditions as such; in addition, we will for the first time provide a critical reflection on the methodology underlying commonly held positions. In our view, this reflection is of paramount importance in establishing a straightforward constructive dialogue between different cultures and academic disciplines.

  11. [Cultural aspects of ethical decisions at the end of life and cultural competence].

    PubMed

    Ilkilic, Ilhan

    2008-08-01

    Advances in medical science and technology offer new medical interventions at the end of life. These new medical measures create new ethical issues, which increase in complexity in a multicultural society. This paper discusses three cases, in which cultural value systems play a decisive role. Change in the goals of therapy, truth telling of diagnosis and prognosis and presumed will of the patient are the key ethical points in these cases. Because of growth in minority populations in Germany, it is foreseeable that the number of these issues will increase in the near future. The author of this paper argues that concepts and measurements must be urgently developed in health care systems to help the medical staff in their daily practises. According to him, cultural competence and cultural sensitive advanced directives can be helpful for solving complex ethical problems at the end of life. Other interventions and measurements were also described for improved end-of-life care in multicultural setting.

  12. Research on human-animal entities: ethical and regulatory aspects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kristina

    2009-09-01

    To review the ethical and regulatory issues related to the research on human-animal entities at various stages. Review of scientific publications, laws and ethical guidelines in this field up through September 2008. The article presents the overall picture of the research on human-animal entities in Europe, including the public opinion and the country-specific regulations and guidelines regarding such research, discusses the ethical issues, including both arguments opposing and favoring such research, as well as discusses and clarifies the terminology used. Creation of human-animal entities with the potential for what may be viewed as human faculties raises profound questions concerning the rights and responsibilities of human beings. There is great need for informed discussions and interchanges between the expert researchers, ethicists, policymakers, lawyers and the public in general to come to consensus regarding the issues discussed in this paper. Suggestions regarding these rights and responsibilities are overviewed.

  13. [Ethical and legal aspects of animal experiments on non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Luy, J

    2007-03-01

    Animal experiments on non-human primates give cause for ethical concerns for three reasons (1) the inclusion of "ethical animal protection" in the German Constitution (Article 20a of the "Grundgesetz" GG, 2002) has led to real consequences for the application process with respect to the use of primates for fundamental research; (2) the legal requirements in Europe to ensure animal welfare are currently being tightened and (3) the global problem of the protection of species, especially with respect to the capturing and subsequent sale of primates is still unsolved. As a result of the way humans interpret the term justice (the principle of equality) it was to be expected that great apes, being the animals that most closely resemble humans, would play a key role in the establishment of animal protection laws. In 1997,Great Britain and Ireland made it illegal to conduct experiments on great apes. In 1999, New Zealand went even further and created a kind of basic rights for great apes. In 2003,The Netherlands forbade animal experiments using great apes as did Sweden, which also included gibbons in this ban (which is in line with current taxonomy, which considers gibbons to belong to the family Hominidae). In 2006 Austria forbade experiments carried out on chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orang-utans, and gibbons. Only recently, a state commission on ethics in Switzerland demanded that the Swiss government do the same. And the summer of 2006 saw a debate in Spain on the inclusion of the protection of great apes in the primary goals of the state. Due to the principle of equality, a further extension (both geographically and systemically) of the exclusion of great apes from animal experiments is to be expected. Since Article 20a GG on "ethical animal protection" came into effect on August 1,2002, the regulatory authorities in Germany have the right to independently check and control animal experiments as to their ethical tenability (Administrative Court Giessen, confirmed

  14. The ethical landscape: identifying the right way to think about the ethical and societal aspects of synthetic biology research and products.

    PubMed

    Yearley, Steven

    2009-08-01

    Synthetic biology promises to be highly innovative in its contribution to scientific understanding. But it offers other sorts of innovation too: in the variety of applications that could result and in the wide range of practitioners who could become involved. But directly corresponding to each of these is a kind of regulatory concern. If the entry barriers are low for a form of scientific practice with dramatic implications then the need for regulatory control over access is great since no one wants unlicensed operators releasing experimental organisms. If there are likely to be extensive opportunities for application within the human body and in the open environment (for energy production or novel forms of bioremediation) then the release and safety-testing implications are potentially enormous. Proponents of synthetic biology have been quick to realise that these challenges call for reviews of the societal and ethical aspects of synthetic biology. This paper shows that the template commonly adopted for such reviews draws on bioethics. It goes on to show that this template is far from ideal, both because of limitations in the way that bioethics has been institutionalized and because of key differences between the regulatory demands on synthetic biology and on bioethics. The paper concludes that broader models of societal and ethical review of synthetic biology are urgently required.

  15. Clinical and Ethical Aspects of Financial Capacity in Dementia: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Marson, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to issues like treatment and research consent capacity, financial capacity has received relatively little clinical and ethical attention in the dementia literature. Yet issues of financial capacity emerge frequently in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and related dementias, and commonly present ethical and clinical challenges for clinicians treating these patients. These issues include whether a patient with possible dementia has sufficient capacity independently to manage their financial affairs, needs referral for financial capacity assessment, and/or is being financially exploited or abused by others. The accurate identification, assessment and successful handling of such financial capacity issues can have a substantial impact on the financial and psychological well-being of patients and their family members. The present commentary presents an overview of financial capacity and associated clinical and ethical issues in dementia, and describes a set of possible clinician roles regarding these issues as they arise in clinical practice. The commentary concludes with a section describing educational resources available to clinicians and bioethicists seeking additional guidance in handling financial capacity issues. The ultimate goal of the paper is to focus clinical and ethical attention on a neglected capacity that is of fundamental importance for patients, families, and health care and legal professionals. PMID:24078779

  16. Ethical aspects of public health legislation: the Mental Health Care Bill, 2011.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, Harish; Goswami, Kausik; Chaturvedi, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    A legal framework is essential to promote and safeguard the interests of persons with mental illness. Since the Indian Lunacy Act, 1912, mental health legislation has come a long way. Currently efforts are underway to modify the existing Mental Health Act taking into account the resolutions under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The proposed Mental Health Care Bill, 2011 incorporates promising modifications, like "caregiver", "nominated representative", "consent", "support" for decision making, and "advance directive" for persons with mental illness in its rubric, which seems potentially beneficial to the patients. The proposed new bill should facilitate and strengthen a mental health policy which provides acceptable, accessible, and equitable mental health care. A law becomes meaningful when it is realistic, implementable and ethical in provisions. In this comment, we take a critical look at the proposed 'The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011' through the lens of ethical principles.

  17. Ethical aspects of public health legislation: the Mental Health Care Bill, 2011.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, Harish; Goswami, Kausik; Chaturvedi, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    A legal framework is essential to promote and safeguard the interests of persons with mental illness. Since the Indian Lunacy Act, 1912, mental health legislation has come a long way. Currently efforts are underway to modify the existing Mental Health Act taking into account the resolutions under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The proposed Mental Health Care Bill, 2011 incorporates promising modifications, like "caregiver", "nominated representative", "consent", "support" for decision making, and "advance directive" for persons with mental illness in its rubric, which seems potentially beneficial to the patients. The proposed new bill should facilitate and strengthen a mental health policy which provides acceptable, accessible, and equitable mental health care. A law becomes meaningful when it is realistic, implementable and ethical in provisions. In this comment, we take a critical look at the proposed 'The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011' through the lens of ethical principles. PMID:22319853

  18. Opinion on the ethical aspects of health care of patients at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Serrão, D

    1999-01-01

    Demographic evolution and scientific progress in the treatment of fatal diseases have brought about a large number of disabled old persons and of greatly dependent persons. Nowadays, the dying process of people in such conditions is slower, though irreversible, and it has created a new form of medical care known as palliative medicine. Seven situations of this kind are discussed, with the corresponding ethical appraisal of the possible medical decisions in each case. The opinion on this matter by the Portuguese National Council of Ethics for the Life Sciences, based on the initial report, is then reproduced. It is against euthanasia strictu sensu being legalised and no longer a criminal offence, recommending however the development of all forms of palliative medicine.

  19. Overlooked aspects in the education of science professionals: Mentoring, ethics, and professional responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Stephanie J.

    1994-03-01

    Science as profession is generally defined narrowly as research. Science education as preparation for a profession in research is usually perceived as course work and laboratory training, even though the necessary knowledge and skills to pursue a research career are more extensive and diverse and are learned in one-on-one interaction with mentors. A complete education of science professionals includes the values, ethical standards and conventions of the discipline since they are fundamental to the profession. Mentoring and education in the responsible conduct and reporting of research and in the ethical dimensions of science are among the professional responsibilities of scientists and need to be discussed as part of science education. Moreover, science as an enterprise is much more than research and includes a number of other components, including science teaching, science journalism, and science policy. Each of these contributes to the nature of science and its role in society.

  20. Difficulties and challenges in reviewing ethical aspects of research in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes Júnior, Luís Carlos; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia de; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    Objective To reflect on the problems faced by researchers from different areas, especially of Humanities and Social Sciences, when submitting research projects for evaluation by the research ethics committees in Brazil. Method A theoretical and reflective study based on international literature and the critical analysis of the authors. Results Although Resolution 466/2012, which addresses human research, contains some innovations, issues related to the research participants remain obscure and the project evaluation process is time-consuming. Conclusion The difficulties faced by researchers, especially in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences, must be transposed to ensure that the ethical guidelines are applicable, in terms of principles and procedures, to the different research traditions. Appropriate human research standards must be managed by a system with a satisfactory operational capacity, according to the specificities of the different areas of knowledge.

  1. Ethical and Legal Aspects of Conducting Clinical Trials in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    R, Harsha

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) is a condition where the patients will be mentally unstable initially and where later, with therapy, they gradually return to normalcy. As AWS comprises two stages; a mentally unstable state and a normal state of mind, the ethical and legal issues behind recruitment of these subjects become a little ambiguous in a clinical trial. This study was taken up to clarify the uncertainty regarding the biphasic states of minds (i.e. unstable mind and sound mind) of the subjects who were involved in a clinical trial done on AWS. Law and ethics regarding the clinical trials which involve psychiatric subjects need to be strengthened and amended from time to time, in order to protect the interests of both patients and physicians. PMID:24995195

  2. Ethical aspects of the expansion of neonatal screening programme due to technological advances.

    PubMed

    Elliman, David

    2012-06-01

    Many countries are considering the expansion of their newborn bloodspot screening programmes. Whereas some countries screen for very few conditions, others are planning to screen for dozens. While advances in technology may facilitate this expansion, they must not lead it at the expense of considerations of the possible harms of this expansion. This article reviews some of the potential disbenefits of this expansion and outlines the ethical issues that should be considered.

  3. Ethical considerations in the de-adoption of ineffective or harmful aspects of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Leigh, Jeanna Parsons; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-09-01

    De-adoption refers to the discontinuance of a medical practice or health service found to be ineffective or harmful following a previous period of adoption. As growing healthcare budgets threaten to cripple the societies that fund them, facilitating de-adoption may be integral to sustainable healthcare systems that provide high-quality care. This article explores ethical issues pertinent to de-adoption including the underpinnings of beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, and autonomy. PMID:27498394

  4. [Ethical aspects of medical thought on the madness in the enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Martini, Mariano; Gorini, Ilaria; Licata, Marta; De Stefano, Francesco; Schiavone, Michele; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2016-08-01

    The seventeenth century is a period of transition from religious views that are not authentic but dogmatic about demonic influences to the application of scientific and methodological criteria in science. During Enlightenment there was an approach heavily influenced by ethical issues. In this context, there is a rational recognition of the value of man free from the teleological type references. Mental illnesses are treated using scientific criteria. During the seventeenth century clinical interest is also extended to psychosis and not only to neurosis. There are several significant changes in the care of psychiatric patient, and healthcare institutions are improved and increased. Many behaviors are inspired by the values of philanthropy.

  5. [Ethical aspects of medical thought on the madness in the enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Martini, Mariano; Gorini, Ilaria; Licata, Marta; De Stefano, Francesco; Schiavone, Michele; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2016-08-01

    The seventeenth century is a period of transition from religious views that are not authentic but dogmatic about demonic influences to the application of scientific and methodological criteria in science. During Enlightenment there was an approach heavily influenced by ethical issues. In this context, there is a rational recognition of the value of man free from the teleological type references. Mental illnesses are treated using scientific criteria. During the seventeenth century clinical interest is also extended to psychosis and not only to neurosis. There are several significant changes in the care of psychiatric patient, and healthcare institutions are improved and increased. Many behaviors are inspired by the values of philanthropy. PMID:27598954

  6. Ethical aspects of the mitigation obstruction argument against climate engineering research.

    PubMed

    Morrow, David R

    2014-12-28

    Many commentators fear that climate engineering research might lead policy-makers to reduce mitigation efforts. Most of the literature on this so-called 'moral hazard' problem focuses on the prediction that climate engineering research would reduce mitigation efforts. This paper focuses on a related ethical question: Why would it be a bad thing if climate engineering research obstructed mitigation? If climate engineering promises to be effective enough, it might justify some reduction in mitigation. Climate policy portfolios involving sufficiently large or poorly planned reductions in mitigation, however, could lead to an outcome that would be worse than the portfolio that would be chosen in the absence of further climate engineering research. This paper applies three ethical perspectives to describe the kinds of portfolios that would be worse than that 'baseline portfolio'. The literature on climate engineering identifies various mechanisms that might cause policy-makers to choose these inferior portfolios, but it is difficult to know in advance whether the existence of these mechanisms means that climate engineering research really would lead to a worse outcome. In the light of that uncertainty, a precautionary approach suggests that researchers should take measures to reduce the risk of mitigation obstruction. Several such measures are suggested.

  7. Ethical aspects of the use of stem cell derived gametes for reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido

    2010-09-01

    A lot of interest has been generated by the possibility of deriving gametes from embryonic stem cells and bone marrow stem cells. These stem cell derived gametes may become useful for research and for the treatment of infertility. In this article we consider prospectively the ethical issues that will arise if stem cell derived gametes are used in the clinic, making a distinction between concerns that only apply to embryonic stem cell derived gametes and concerns that are also relevant for gametes derived from adult stem cells. At present, it appears preferable to use non-embryonic stem cells for the derivation of gametes. Adult stem cell derived gametes do not present any problems with regard to the moral status of the human embryo, bypass the safety risks linked to SCNT and do not present any ambiguity or novel problems with regard to informed consent, psychological consequences for the child or genetic parenthood. A remaining ethical concern, however, regards the safety of the procedure in terms of the welfare of the resulting children. This should spark a thorough reflection on how far one must go to accommodate a person's wish to have a genetically related child.

  8. Living unrelated kidney donors: ethical aspects of living kidney donation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gustavo Fernandes; Guedes, Clarissa Diniz

    2011-01-01

    Brazil has established the largest public kidney transplantation system in the world .46.2% of transplants in 2008 came from living donors. The vast majority of these involved relatives of the recipient; less than 8% came from unrelated donors. In 2008, Brazil's health minister proposed banning unrelated donors in kidney transplantation. A large number of the over 35,000 Brazilians on the waiting list for a kidney would be denied a transplant without the use of unrelated donors. Brazilian culture has a unique feature, the "informal family", that is not legally recognised as a "family entity and is bound by affection rather than genetic or legal ties. It is vital that Brazil establishes a regulated, standardised, and ethical system of organ procurement; creates awareness about transplantation in physicians and the public; upgrades facilities and standardises medical care, and enforces legislation for transplantation. However, outlawing the use of unrelated donors would result in injustice for many patients who seek kidneys.

  9. The Surgical Treatment of Morbid Obesity: Economic, Psychosocial, Ethical, Preventive, Medical Aspects of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, Sylvia B.; Griffen, Ward O.; Anderson, James W.; Whitaker, E. Berton; Wiegert, H. Thomas; Searle, Maureen; Engelberg, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Surgical treatment of morbid, familial, juvenile-onset obesity in a 37-year-old, 260-pound, mother of three children by jejunoileal bypass was subsequently converted to gastric bypass. The resulting weight loss of 110 pounds resulted in personality changes and changes in family dynamics and was followed by divorce. Medical, psychosocial, and economic aspects of the case are discussed. PMID:6140795

  10. Is Judgement of Biotechnological Ethical Aspects Related to High School Students' Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Ales; Javornik, Branka; Kosmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications.…

  11. Incorporating Knowledge of Legal and Ethical Aspects into Computing Curricula of South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayman, Ian; Kyobe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As students in computing disciplines are introduced to modern information technologies, numerous unethical practices also escalate. With the increase in stringent legislations on use of IT, users of technology could easily be held liable for violation of this legislation. There is however lack of understanding of social aspects of computing, and…

  12. Business ethics in ethics committees?

    PubMed

    Boyle, P

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  13. ETHICAL ASPECTS AND DILEMMAS OF PREPARING, WRITING AND PUBLISHING OF THE SCIENTIFIC PAPERS IN THE BIOMEDICAL JOURNALS

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper author discussed about preparing and submitting manuscripts - scientific, research, professional papers, reviews and case reports. Author described it from the Editor’s perspective, and specially talked about ethical aspects of authorship, conflict of interest, copyright, plagiarism and duplicate publication from the point of view of his experiences as Editor-in-Chief of several biomedical journals and Chief of Task Force of European Federation of Medical Informatics journals and member of Task Force of European Cardiology Society journals. The scientific process relies on trust and credibility. The scientific community demands high ethical standards to conduct biomedical research and to publish scientific contents. During the last decade, disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI ), (also called competing loyalties, competing interests or dual commitments), has been considered as a key element to guarantee the credibility of the scientific process. Biases in design, analysis and interpretation of studies may arise when authors or sponsors have vested interests. Therefore, COI should be made clear to the readers to facilitate their own judgment and interpretation of their relevance and potential implications. Results and Discussion: Authors are responsible to fully disclose potential COI . In October 2009 the ICMJE proposed an electronic “uniform” format for COI disclosure. Four main areas were addressed: authors´ associations with entities that supported the submitted manuscript (indefinite time frame), associations with commercial entities with potential interest in the general area of the manuscript (time frame 36 months), financial association of their spouse and children and, finally, non-financial associations potentially relevant to the submitted manuscript. Consumers of medical scholarship expect a reliable system of disclosure in which journals and authors make disclosures appropriately and consistently. There is a stigma

  14. Is Judgement of Biotechnological Ethical Aspects Related to High School Students' Knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Črne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Aleš; Javornik, Branka; Košmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications. These applications-Bt corn, genetically modified (GM) salmon, somatic and germ line gene therapy (GT)-were investigated from the viewpoints of usefulness, moral acceptance and risk perception. In addition, patterns and quality of moral reasoning related to the biotechnological applications from the aspect of moral acceptability were examined. Clear gender differences were found regarding the relationship between our students' pre-knowledge of genetics and their attitudes to biotechnological applications. While females with a better genetics background expressed a higher risk perception in the case of GM salmon, their similarly well-educated male colleagues emphasized the risk associated with the use of germ line GT. With all four biotechnological applications, patterns of both rationalistic-deontological and teleological-and intuitive moral reasoning were identified. Students with poorer genetics pre-knowledge applied an intuitive pattern of moral reasoning more frequently than their peers with better pre-knowledge. A pattern of emotive reasoning was detected only in the case of GM salmon. A relatively low quality of students' moral reasoning, as demonstrated by their brief and small number of supporting justifications (explanations), show that there is a strong need for practising skills of argumentation about socio-scientific issues in Slovenian high schools on a much larger scale. The implications for future research and classroom applications are discussed.

  15. The why and how of enabling the integration of social and ethical aspects in research and development.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Steven M; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    New and Emerging Science and Technology (NEST) based innovations, e.g. in the field of Life Sciences or Nanotechnology, frequently raise societal and political concerns. To address these concerns NEST researchers are expected to deploy socially responsible R&D practices. This requires researchers to integrate social and ethical aspects (SEAs) in their daily work. Many methods can facilitate such integration. Still, why and how researchers should and could use SEAs remains largely unclear. In this paper we aim to relate motivations for NEST researchers to include SEAs in their work, and the requirements to establish such integration from their perspectives, to existing approaches that can be used to establish integration of SEAs in the daily work of these NEST researchers. Based on our analyses, we argue that for the successful integration of SEAs in R&D practice, collaborative approaches between researchers and scholars from the social sciences and humanities seem the most successful. The only way to explore whether that is in fact the case, is by embarking on collaborative research endeavours.

  16. Ethical and hygiene aspects of the reprocessing of medical devices in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan

    2008-01-01

    Based on safety and quality principles, for each medical device (MD), regardless of its declared status as single- or multi-use device, careful considerations must be made. This includes assessment whether reprocessing is economical and ecological meaningful, and technical feasible. So far, however, in Germany reprocessing of declared single use MD is legally allowed, provided that the above aspects are well covered. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate, when circumstances allow reprocessing of declared single-use MD. For reprocessing of single use MD the following preconditions must be fulfilled:The security level of the reprocessed MD must be equivalent to the status of the newly delivered item; this means that a patient is not exposed to a higher risk through a reprocessed disposable MD than through the new, i.e. un-processed product.The reprocessing must be based on a detailed risk assessment and risk analysis, and must be described in detail regarding selection of the reprocessing method. Additionally, all necessary safety- and quality assurance measures must be stated.The reprocessing measure needs to be accompanied with a quality management system which determines and documents the responsibility of all stages of reprocessing; where the corresponding reprocessing procedures are well defined; and the efficacy of the procedure is proven by product-specific or product-group-specific tests and reports. The process must be validated according to recognised methods of science and technology, taking into account potential negative influences of the reprocessing on the properties of the material and the technical and functional safety. For reprocessing of MDs of the category Critical C the quality assurance must be certified by an accredited certifying body. PMID:20204097

  17. Model for integrated management of quality, labor risks prevention, environment and ethical aspects, applied to R&D&I and production processes in an organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. R.; Torres, F.; Yoldi, V.; Arcega, F.; Plaza, I.

    2012-04-01

    It is proposed an integrated management model for an organization. This model is based on the continuous improvement Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle and it intends to integrate the environmental, risk prevention and ethical aspects as well as research, development and innovation projects management in the general quality management structure proposed by ISO 9001:2008. It aims to fulfill the standards ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OSHAS 18001, SGE 21 y 166002.

  18. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children--what do experts in the field say?

    PubMed

    Oerlemans, Anke J M; Rodrigues, Catarina H C M L; Verkerk, Marian A; van den Berg, Paul P; Dekkers, Wim J M

    2010-08-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women and fetuses, and (3) research with neonates. Because of the overlap of these three areas in this project, we can expect to be confronted with new ethical challenges. To be able to respond adequately and timely to current and possible future ethical issues, a prospective and anticipatory ethical analysis is essential. To obtain a first survey of ethical issues that might arise during the different phases of the project, the Delphi method was used. The professionals directly involved in the EuroSTEC project were questioned about their views on possible ethical issues. The first round yielded 27 ethical issues, which the respondents were asked to prioritize in the second round. For the fundamental research phase, issues deemed most important were privacy and informed consent of the tissue donor. For the animal experimentation phase, three issues were mentioned (in order of decreasing priority): the suffering of animals, the use of animals as means to an end, and the limited adequacy of the animal models. Issues that were deemed most important during the clinical (trial) phase pertained to the problem of weighing risks and benefits for the fetus/child and the pregnant woman.

  19. Ethical aspects of genome diversity research: genome research into cultural diversity or cultural diversity in genome research?

    PubMed

    Ilkilic, Ilhan; Paul, Norbert W

    2009-03-01

    The goal of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was to reconstruct the history of human evolution and the historical and geographical distribution of populations with the help of scientific research. Through this kind of research, the entire spectrum of genetic diversity to be found in the human species was to be explored with the hope of generating a better understanding of the history of humankind. An important part of this genome diversity research consists in taking blood and tissue samples from indigenous populations. For various reasons, it has not been possible to execute this project in the planned scope and form to date. Nevertheless, genomic diversity research addresses complex issues which prove to be highly relevant from the perspective of research ethics, transcultural medical ethics, and cultural philosophy. In the article at hand, we discuss these ethical issues as illustrated by the HGDP. This investigation focuses on the confrontation of culturally diverse images of humans and their cosmologies within the framework of genome diversity research and the ethical questions it raises. We argue that in addition to complex questions pertaining to research ethics such as informed consent and autonomy of probands, genome diversity research also has a cultural-philosophical, meta-ethical, and phenomenological dimension which must be taken into account in ethical discourses. Acknowledging this fact, we attempt to show the limits of current guidelines used in international genome diversity studies, following this up by a formulation of theses designed to facilitate an appropriate inquiry and ethical evaluation of intercultural dimensions of genome research. PMID:18592399

  20. To know or not to know? Integrating ethical aspects of genomic healthcare in the education of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov

    2015-01-01

    Novel possibilities for employing genetic testing as part of the diagnostic process for a wide variety of diseases and conditions are emerging almost every day. This development brings prospects of more efficient treatment and prevention of serious and often lethal conditions. However, it also raises ethical questions concerning the issue of knowing or not knowing about our genetic make-up. Thus, as techniques for genetic testing are increasingly employed, demands on health professionals are changing. Health professionals must be able to inform and guide patients, and therefore they need knowledge and competencies related to both the technical and the ethical dimensions of genetic testing. This paper explores the requirements of the general education of health professionals if this need for ethics is acknowledged. It is suggested that it is important to include both an individualised and a societal ethical perspective to the development of genomic healthcare and that a key concept in doing so is 'professional reflectivity'. Employing one concrete example of teaching, this concept of reflectivity is operationalised in the health educational setting at the bachelor's level with a special focus on biomedical laboratory science, and three key concepts are developed: Gap sensitive interaction, professional humility, and contextual awareness. Additionally, anchored ethical dialog is explored as an instructional design that may support the development of reflectivity among health professionals.

  1. To Know or Not to Know? Integrating Ethical Aspects of Genomic Healthcare in the Education of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov

    2015-01-01

    Novel possibilities for employing genetic testing as part of the diagnostic process for a wide variety of diseases and conditions are emerging almost every day. This development brings prospects of more efficient treatment and prevention of serious and often lethal conditions. However, it also raises ethical questions concerning the issue of…

  2. Ethics in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

    2014-01-01

    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  3. [Parte III. Ethical and juridical aspects in end-stage chronic organ failures. A position paper on a shared care planning].

    PubMed

    Barbisan, Camillo; Casonato, Carlo; Palermo Fabris, Elisabetta; Piccinni, Mariassunta; Zatti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The specific target of an experts panel was to assess in terms of law and ethics the compliance of a new specific decision making algorithm described in the position paper proposed by the Gruppo di Lavoro Insufficienze Croniche d'Organo, with the main goal of the position paper consisting in the shared care planning process. The following specific aspects were assessed by the experts: a) the impact on case law and statute law of a new clinical pathway shared by scientific societies in light of good clinical practice and scientific evidence; b) the relevance of all tools useful to identify the appropriateness of care pathways, recognizing responsibilities and decision-making skills related to the end of life choices made by all stakeholders involved (healthcare professionals, patients and their beloved ones); c) the consistency of the healthcare professionals duties proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order; d) the opportunity to take into account the role of all healthcare providers involved in care relationship; e) the consistency of the definition of patient rights at the end of life as proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order and the relevance in this context of simultaneous palliative care; f) the relevance of shared care planning and its consistency with the proposed operative tools; g) the relevance of the conscientious objection issue and the compliance of management tools proposed in the position paper with the results of ethical and legal considerations; h) considerations about available resources allocation.

  4. Legislative and ethical aspects of introducing new technologies in medical care for senior citizens in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Kacetl, Jaroslav; Maresova, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The majority of developed countries are currently experiencing demographic aging. The most frequently expressed concerns related to the changing age structure are the increased costs of social and medical care, a lack of labor force in the job market, and financial sustainability of the pension system. These concerns are often based on the pessimistic view of population aging. This view understands aging as a prolonged period of illness and suffering. On the other hand, optimists believe that a longer life span is a result of increased quality of life and better health care. The quality of life may be improved not only by medicaments, but also by rapidly developing area of medical devices, which allow better care for seniors in many areas. Aim This contribution aims to assess the legislative environment and ethical questions related to the use of medical devices, especially medical devices, in medical care for senior citizens. Methods The methods used in this study are literature reviews of legislative and ethical environment in the European Union (EU) and the US. Results Main findings of this study result from assessing the state of medical device regulations in Europe and the US. Namely, the US regulation seems to be better arranged, which is probably due to the fact that there is only one responsible body – the US Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for all medical device regulations. On the other hand, in the EU, talks about new legislation are led by ministers from all the EU member states and it may take a long time before all the EU countries come to an agreement. PMID:27499618

  5. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-02-08

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.

  6. Promoting the social value of research in Kenya: Examining the practical aspects of collaborative partnerships using an ethical framework

    PubMed Central

    Lairumbi, Geoffrey Mbaabu; Molyneux, Sassy; Snow, Robert W.; Marsh, Kevin; Peshu, Norbert; English, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The ethics of research continue to attract considerable debate, particularly when that research is sponsored by partners from the North and carried out in the South. Ethical research should contribute to social value in the country where research is being carried out, but there is significant debate around how this might be achieved and who is responsible. The literature suggests that researchers might employ two inter-related strategies to maximise social value: collaborative partnerships with policy makers and communities from the outset of research, and dissemination of research results to participants, policy makers and implementers once the research is over. These areas have received relatively little empirical attention. In this study, we carried out 40 in-depth interviews to explore the role of collaborative partnerships in health research priority setting, and the way in which research findings are disseminated to aid policy making and implementation in Kenya. Interviewees included policy makers, researchers, policy implementers and representatives of organisations funding health reforms in Kenya. Two policy issues were drawn upon as tracers wherever possible: (1) the introduction of Artemesinin- based Combination Therapies (ACTs), an anti-malarial treatment policy; and (2) Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) vaccine for the prevention of pneumococcal diseases among children. The findings point to significant gaps in the ‘research to policy to practice’ pathway, particularly for national research institutions with a focus on clinical/biomedical research. These gaps reflect poorly effective partnerships among stakeholders and limit the potential social value of much research. While more investment is needed to establish strong structures for promoting and directing collaboration and partnership, how to target this investment is not entirely clear, especially in the context of the considerable power of the global health agenda and the research financing tied to

  7. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-01-01

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

  8. Ethics for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  9. [Ethics, science and utilitarianism].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T

    1997-11-01

    We begin this article with the distinction between Deontology, Moral and Ethics. We also review the concept and the relevance of Bioethics, as the "science of survival", and as part of Ethics, a section of Philosophy. We tried to answer two further questions considering the role of Science in orienting Ethics, or the possible place of utilitarianism in controlling Ethics. The author discusses some new aspects of the doctor/patient relationship, and their evolution in the last 100 years, as well as the relations between patients and Health care institutions. Some ethical problems were also raised related to the beginning and the end of life. Finally the author reflects on the difficulties of defining ethical concepts in the near future.

  10. [Suicide - ethical and juridical aspects].

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paul

    2015-10-01

    This paper discusses the phenomenon of suicidality with regard to patient autonomy on the one hand and the obligation of medical professionals to provide support and treatment on the other hand. The continuation of a broad debate on these issues within the whole of society is mandatory also in the future. Suicide and assisted suicide are topics with high relevance for medicine in general and for psychiatry in particular. They can, however, not be handled by medical specialists alone.

  11. Blackballing: Professional and Ethical Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Publications Research Service, Washington, DC.

    Commentaries concerning the objective selection of scientists by their peers for membership in professional organizations and institutes are presented in this article published in the USSR. The case of negative balloting on L. S. Salyamon at the Learned Council of the Soviet Scientific Research Institute of Oncology is the main concern. An…

  12. [Ethic aspects of conducting physiological-hygienic and psychological studies on human subjects as applied to the activities in extreme environments].

    PubMed

    Genin, A M; Smirnova, T A

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with ethic concerns of biomedical research involving human subjects aimed at mitigating risks for and raising the effectiveness of humans in extreme environments. Cited are the main principles of the Nuremberg Code, Helsinki Declaration, Convention of the European Council on Bioethics and other international and national documents regulating ethic implementation of research with participation of human subjects. The 6-year experience of the Bioethics Commission convened at SRC RF--IBMP is summarised.

  13. [Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell use and commercial umbilical cord blood stem cell banking. Ethical reflections on the occasion of the regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Virt, G

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products also includes therapies with human embryonic stem cells. The use of these stem cells is controversially and heavily discussed. Contrary to the use of adult stem cells, medical and ethical problems concerning the use of human embryonic stem cells persists, because this use is based on the destruction of human life at the very beginning. The regulation foresees, therefore, subsidiarity within the European Member States. Although there are no ethical problems in principle with the use of stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, there are social ethical doubts with the banking of these stem cells for autologous use without any currently foreseeable medical advantage by commercial blood banks. Also in this case subsidiarity is valid.

  14. Ethical and technical considerations for the creation of cell lines in the head & neck and tissue harvesting for research and drug development (Part II): Ethical aspects of obtaining tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    Upile, Tahwinder; Jerjes, Waseem; Kafas, Panagiotis; Singh, Sandeep U; Mahil, Jaspal; Sandison, Ann; Hopper, Colin; Sudhoff, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Background Although much has been published for the development of cell lines, these were lab based and developed for scientific technical staff. Objective of review We discuss the ethical implications of tissue retention and present a generic consent form (Part II). We also present a simple and successful protocol for the development of cell lines and tissue harvesting for the clinical scientist (Part I). Conclusion Consent is also more proximate and assurance can be given of appropriate usage. Ethical questions concerning tissue ownership are in many institutions raised during the current consenting procedure. We provide a robust ethical framework, based on the current legislation, which allows clinicians to be directly involved in cell and tissue harvesting. PMID:19344502

  15. Information Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martha Montague

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on information ethics in scholarly and professional literature. Computer ethics, cyberethics, and the philosophies of information and information technology are also discussed. The recent use of the term global information ethics, suggesting the unification of many concerns common to information ethics, computer ethics, and cyberethics, is…

  16. A review of Indian psychiatry research and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Ethics does not seem to be a favorite topic of Indian authors. Electronic search of the IJP web site could only identify six articles which were directly related to ethics. One article discussed the relationship of ethics religion and psychiatry. Another editorial discussed the concept of responsibility in psychiatrists. Other editorial discussed the truth about ‘truth serum’ in legal investigations. One article discussed the ethical aspects of published research. There were two articles that specifically discussed ethical aspects. This write-up provides some details about the ethical aspects of psychiatric practice, specific to India, and emphasizes the need to rediscover ethics in India. PMID:21836698

  17. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.

  18. Ethical stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069

  19. Ethical stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions.

  20. Ethical issues in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Hessel, P A; Fourie, P B

    1987-12-19

    Ethical concerns pervade all aspects of epidemiological investigations. Ethical issues, including planning, carrying out, analysing and presenting the results of a study, are discussed. In southern Africa, where many community-based epidemiological surveys are undertaken, issues relating specifically to the conduct of such studies are especially relevant. These include informed consent, confidentiality and privacy.

  1. Situating Ethics in Games Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…

  2. Ethics and Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felch, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of ethics and continuing medical education (CME) are discussed in terms of CME consumers (physicians), providers, and others; vacation CME and "brownie points"; marketing and cosponsorship; financial support from industry; and entrepreneurialism. (CT)

  3. [Newborn at the limit of viability. Part 2: Recommendations regarding treatment of mother and newborn at the limit of viability considering ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The first Polish recommendations regarding the treatment of mothers and infants born at the limit of viability are the result of 1,5 years of work by the Team for Ethical Recommendations in Perinatology, consisting not only of gynecologists-obstetricians and neonatologists, but also geneticists, psychologists, ethics specialists, philosophers and lawyers. Their development was based on similar standards already existing in other European countries, as well as in Australia, Canada and the USA. The recommendations were accepted by the National Consultant for Neonatology, Polish Gynecological Society, Polish Perinatal Medicine Society and Polish Pediatric Society. The Recommendations indicate ethical problems and presented transfer of information among the members of the treatment team as well as between the team and the parents of extremely immature newborns. The necessity of informing parents about their infant's chances for survival has been emphasized, as well as the need to hear their opinions and expectations. A Prenatal Consultation Card and Newborn Treatment Card have been attached to the recommendations, as a tool for presenting decisions and parents' opinions. Problems concerning accurate determination of gestational age and biological maturity of the foetus have also been discussed. Furthermore, on the basis of international research, morbidity and mortality data on infants born at the limit of viability have been presented. The paper also presents recommendations concerning: in utero transport, cesarean section and undertaking resuscitation as opposed to palliative care in newborns depending on their gestational age. It has been emphasized that gestational age cannot be the only criteria in the course of making decisions. Individual pre- and post-natal factors influencing the prognosis should also be taken into account. Recommendations allow both for the situation when the gestational age is precisely determined and when it is uncertain. Attention has been

  4. Secret ethics business?

    PubMed

    Gillam, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I question the common assumption that the workings of Human Research Ethics Committees should be treated as confidential. This is actually quite a complex issue, since there are many stages in the ethics approval process, and a number of different stakeholders who might wish to claim access, or restrict access, to different sorts of information. Here I consider just one aspect--whether ethics committee members should be free to reveal in public the details of what occurs in their meetings. My approach is two-fold: first a negative argument that confidentiality does not apply to ethics committee deliberations, and then a positive argument that there is an important public good, namely accountability, to be served by making these deliberations open to the public.

  5. Ethical Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  6. Medical and nursing ethics: never the twain?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, A

    1995-06-01

    Since the publication of Carol Gilligan's In a different voice in 1982, there has been much discussion about masculine and feminine approaches to ethics. It has been suggested that an ethics of care, or a feminine ethics, is more appropriate for nursing practice, which contrasts with the 'traditional, masculine' ethics of medicine. It has been suggested that Nel Noddings' version of an 'ethics of care' (or feminine ethics) is an appropriate model for nursing ethics. The 'four principles' approach has become a popular model for medical or health care ethics. It will be suggested in this article that, whilst Noddings presents an interesting analysis of caring and the caring relationship, this has limitations. Rather than acting as an alternative to the 'four principles' approach, the latter is necessary to provide a framework to structure thinking and decision-making in health care. Further, it will be suggested that ethical separatism (that is, one ethics for nurses and one for doctors) in health care is not a progressive step for nurses or doctors. Three recommendations are made: that we promote a health care ethics that incorporates what is valuable in a 'traditional, masculine ethics', the why (four principles approach) and an 'ethics of care', the 'how' (aspects of Noddings' work and that of Urban Walker); that we encourage nurses and doctors to participate in the 'shared learning' and discussion of ethics; and that our ethical language and concerns are common to all, not split into unhelpful dichotomies.

  7. Ethical Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  8. [Medical ethics as professional ethics].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ivo

    2012-09-25

    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.

  9. Teaching Business Ethics after the Financial Meltdown: Is It Time for Ethics with a Sermon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.

    2010-01-01

    Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business…

  10. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  11. Teaching psychiatric ethics.

    PubMed

    Bloch, S

    1988-11-01

    In the last decade, we have witnessed a burgeoning of interest in ethical issues amongst psychiatrists. Teaching of the subject, however, remains at a rudimentary stage. Various approaches to such instruction are available, particularly modelling (students observe their experienced counterpart), the case method (examining specific clinical situations which involve a need for ethical decision-making), and the seminar approach (trainees are exposed to a core body of knowledge, mainly theoretical in nature). Faced with these different teaching models, the University of Oxford Department of Psychiatry has opted for a blend of all three approaches, which incorporates two goals: an increase in the trainees' sensitivity to the many intricate moral dilemmas facing the psychiatric profession; and their familiarity with salient concepts in moral philosophy which constitute a basis for ethical reasoning and which have a bearing on clinical practice. The teaching programme comprises the following: a pair of trainees prepares a presentation on an aspect of psychiatric ethics under the supervision of a senior psychiatrist. A moral philosopher assumes the role of discussant of the ethical problems raised by the trainees; this is followed by a general discussion. Topics have included involuntary hospitalization, dual loyalty, suicide, psychiatric diagnosis, and ethical issues in various spheres of psychiatric practice such as sex therapy, psychotherapy and child psychiatry. The approach has worked effectively and proved rewarding to all participants involved. PMID:3226351

  12. Ethics in biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.

  13. Clinical ethics committee.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J. G.; Lilford, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    An informal clinical ethics committee was set up to advise on ethical problems in prenatal diagnosis in Leeds. It was used twice in six months but was not called on again in the subsequent year, and we describe this experience. In North America similar committees are often used to advise on clinical moral dilemmas, and we review the published evidence from there and discuss some of the advantages and problems. Our committee's advice may have altered clinicians' actions considerably, but perhaps doctors in Britain are not yet ready to surrender this aspect of clinical autonomy. PMID:7549638

  14. Beyond Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, F. Washington

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on piety and ethics in education because current debates about education for character frequently neglect the fundamental existential questions that underlie the ethical. Every school ought to be teaching certain basic existential truths about mortality and the possibility of meaning in life, including man's modest place in the universe.…

  15. Iconoclastic ethics.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1984-12-01

    Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life.

  16. Large ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  17. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  18. Guidelines help managers deal with ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Gould, G R; Younkins, E W

    1989-07-01

    While a great deal of effort has been devoted to improving financial management techniques in the healthcare industry, little attention has been paid to addressing the ethical issues facing financial managers. In the years ahead, the ability to evaluate the ethical aspects of alternative courses of action may be as important as technical and managerial skills.

  19. Ethical Issues for an Editorial Board: "Kairaranga"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2008-01-01

    With academic journals, we think of the ethical aspects of the research contained in the articles rather than with the journal itself. However, journal editing has its own set of ethical concerns, which this article addresses. One is ensuring that the anonymity of institutions and participants, in research and the reporting of practice, is…

  20. An Ethics of Vision for Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkhead, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    Argues that morality is a form of reality construction requiring a socially negotiated sensibility. Notes that this view is harmonious with the essential interpretive task of journalism. Stresses the importance of moral imagination as an aspect of moral reasoning, and claims that ethical action depends on an ethics of vision, a "seeing" before…

  1. Ethical leadership.

    PubMed

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness.

  2. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life‐threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  3. In a Dimension of Height: Ethics in the Education of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Aparna Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Ethics penetrates every aspect of Western education. Many of its dominant narratives-- education as salvation, as progress, as panacea, and as liberation, for example--are infused with the ethical. Educators are compelled by ethical callings; in fact, education as the call of the ethical informs the singular and collective identities of educators.…

  4. [Assisted suicide - medical, legal, and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Bosshard, G

    2012-02-01

    Unlike in most European countries, assisted suicide is not illegal in Switzerland. The number of assisted suicides procured by right-to-die organisations such as Exit or Dignitas has sharply increased in the last twenty years. Central part of the doctor's involvement is the prescription of a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital. In doing so, the doctor has to apply to the rules of medical due care. A proper examination of the patient is required, who must be informed about his diagnosis, about the expected prognosis, and about different treatment options. Verification of the patient's decisional capacity is crucial. In general, a staff member of the organisation but not the doctor is present during suicide. Following death, the assisted suicide has to be reported to the police as an extraordinary death case.

  5. Environmental and Ethical Aspects of International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    Well-intentioned U.S. immigration policy has two ill effects in that it encourages the belief that emigration can relieve overpopulation in third-world countries, maintaining high fertility rates, and it results in U.S. domestic population growth that threatens employment opportunities and the environment. (SLD)

  6. Irrationality: psychological, ethical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A

    1999-01-01

    A definition and a concise classification of irrational mentality and behaviour is proposed in the paper. The basic goal is to reveal the psychological mechanisms of inducing irrational individual and group behaviour by certain social agents. An attempt is made to apply the methodology of self-organization theory to the analysis of psychic equilibrium. The inducing of irrational behaviour is qualified as a crime against the freedom of the individual. In view of its grave social consequences a plea for its serious legal treatment is made.

  7. Irrationality: psychological, ethical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A

    1999-01-01

    A definition and a concise classification of irrational mentality and behaviour is proposed in the paper. The basic goal is to reveal the psychological mechanisms of inducing irrational individual and group behaviour by certain social agents. An attempt is made to apply the methodology of self-organization theory to the analysis of psychic equilibrium. The inducing of irrational behaviour is qualified as a crime against the freedom of the individual. In view of its grave social consequences a plea for its serious legal treatment is made. PMID:10436738

  8. Writing a Scientific Paper III. Ethical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2011-07-01

    The main theme of this paper is truthful communication of scientific results. Therefore, concepts of truth, error, quality and value are elaborated. The following bibliometric parameters are explained: the journal impact factor, the journal cited half-life, and the journal immediacy index, as well as paper counts, citation rates, citation index and the Hirsch index. These bibliometric indices and indicators are illustrated with examples derived from bibliometric analyses of the astronomical literature. Scientific misconduct in the broadest sense is discussed by category: researcher misconduct, author misconduct, referee and grant-reviewer misconduct. But also publisher misconduct, editorial misconduct and mismanagement, and research supervisor misbehavior are dealt with. The overall signatures of scientific misconduct are focused on, as well as the causes and the cures. This is followed by a Section devoted to whistleblowing. The biases of bibliometric indices, and the use and abuse of bibliometrics are illustrated. Moreover, suggestions for remediating the present defective system of bibliometric measurement and evaluation are worked out. Finally, the hopes and concerns of our students - either expressed during or after the lectures, or through subsequent private contacts - are passed on.

  9. [Assisted suicide - medical, legal, and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Bosshard, G

    2012-02-01

    Unlike in most European countries, assisted suicide is not illegal in Switzerland. The number of assisted suicides procured by right-to-die organisations such as Exit or Dignitas has sharply increased in the last twenty years. Central part of the doctor's involvement is the prescription of a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital. In doing so, the doctor has to apply to the rules of medical due care. A proper examination of the patient is required, who must be informed about his diagnosis, about the expected prognosis, and about different treatment options. Verification of the patient's decisional capacity is crucial. In general, a staff member of the organisation but not the doctor is present during suicide. Following death, the assisted suicide has to be reported to the police as an extraordinary death case. PMID:22294304

  10. Teaching Ethical Issues in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    This paper presents a study that investigates the teaching and learning aspects of controversial issues in science education. Teaching ethical issues is mandatory for science teachers in England; however, teachers may experience difficulties in exploring contemporary issues in science due to rapid and unpredictable changes. The study carries an…

  11. Juridical and ethical peculiarities in doping policy.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Mike J; Tarasti, Lauri

    2010-03-01

    Criticisms of the ethical justification of antidoping legislation are not uncommon in the literatures of medical ethics, sports ethics and sports medicine. Critics of antidoping point to inconsistencies of principle in the application of legislation and the unjustifiability of ethical postures enshrined in the World Anti-Doping Code, a new version of which came into effect in January 2009. This article explores the arguments concerning the apparent legal peculiarities of antidoping legislation and their ethically salient features in terms of: notions of culpability, liability and guilt; aspects of potential duplication of punishments and the limitations of athlete privacy in antidoping practice and policy. It is noted that tensions still exist between legal and ethical principles and norms that require further critical attention. PMID:20211997

  12. Methods and Tools for Ethical Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis; Kostrzewa, Agata; Laaksoharju, Mikael

    The objectives of the tutorial are to provide knowledge of basic ethical, psychological and organizational theories that are relevant to consider ethical aspects during design and use of IT systems; knowledge and skills about handling and solving ethical problems in connection with design and use of IT-systems; and skills in using questionnaires, surveys, interviews and the like in connection with software development and IT-use. It contains lectures, workshop and exercises; use of special tools to identify and consider IT ethical issues during planning, construction, installation and use of IT systems; and group exercises where the participants train their ethical skills on IT ethical conflicts and problems. Intended participants are system developers, purchasers, usability experts, academics, HCI teachers.

  13. Juridical and ethical peculiarities in doping policy.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Mike J; Tarasti, Lauri

    2010-03-01

    Criticisms of the ethical justification of antidoping legislation are not uncommon in the literatures of medical ethics, sports ethics and sports medicine. Critics of antidoping point to inconsistencies of principle in the application of legislation and the unjustifiability of ethical postures enshrined in the World Anti-Doping Code, a new version of which came into effect in January 2009. This article explores the arguments concerning the apparent legal peculiarities of antidoping legislation and their ethically salient features in terms of: notions of culpability, liability and guilt; aspects of potential duplication of punishments and the limitations of athlete privacy in antidoping practice and policy. It is noted that tensions still exist between legal and ethical principles and norms that require further critical attention.

  14. [Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Nishibori, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Key concepts which should be recognized to understand today's medical ethics required for information management regarding clinical research are privacy protection, use limitation, individual participation, and accountability. Special attention should be paid to concepts other than privacy protection, because they are fairly new to medical professionals. Furthermore, in laboratory medicine, we have real problems, for example, how to protect privacy concerning specimens gathered from patients. Therefore, there have been many kinds of rules or guidelines established recently. Although we tend to strictly follow these guidelines, it is not always clear which guidelines should be applied to certain cases, or they do not always exactly correspond to a specific case. The full understanding of the principles of medical ethics represented by these guidelines is essential. In this paper, a clinical research document reviewed by an ethical review board is shown as an example.

  15. On Change of Concepts: From Teacher's Occupational Ethics to Professional Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Chuan-bao

    2006-01-01

    The transition from experience-based teachers to expertise-based ones has marked a significant phase in the history of human education. The conceptive transition from the general "occupational ethics" of teachers to "professional ethics" is actually an important aspect of the transition from experience-based to expertise-based teachers. The…

  16. Court of Ethics: Teaching Ethics and Ageing by Means of Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Israel

    2007-01-01

    Technological and scientific developments, progress in the discipline of gerontology, and an ageing population mean that we now have to contend with previously unknown ethical problems. Therefore, the teaching of ethics is an essential element of a comprehensive education in gerontology. This article discusses the unique aspects of gerontology…

  17. Ethical Ideology and Cultural Orientation: Understanding the Individualized Ethical Inclinations of Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brent

    2009-01-01

    As today's marketing graduates formally enter the business profession, they are expected to demonstrate the fruits of their ethics-intensive education. Hence, their professors and future bosses may call upon these graduates to discern and deal with ethical situations that affect various aspects of company and consumer relations. However, students…

  18. Ethical Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, John M.

    1970-01-01

    Eight key areas suggested for discussion by the APA and APGA as bases for formulation of ethical standards are: (1) leader qualifications; (2) limits on procedure; (3) confidentiality of group participants; (4) participant selection; (5) informed consent of participants; (6) freedom of client to withdraw; (7) safeguards for participants against…

  19. Ethical Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael; Posavac, Emil; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    1999-01-01

    The article and commentary in this special section consider the ethical implications of a remark by an employee in a business being evaluated that employees have been advised to make the program look good. Explores the implications for the evaluation and its usefulness. (SLD)

  20. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    PubMed

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  1. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

  2. [The biologization of ethics].

    PubMed

    Moreno Lax, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Three ethics exist as a condition of possibility of any possible ethics, following a material and biological foundation. This content argument (not logical-formal) supposes a refutation of the naturalistic fallacy that the analytical philosophy attributes to Hume, in three areas of the ethical human experience: body, society and nature. These are: the ethics of the species [J. Habermas], the ethics of liberation [E. Dussel] and the ethics of the responsibility [H. Jonas]. This material argument is a philosophical foundation to considering for three types of applied ethics: medical bioethics, development ethics and environmental ethics.

  3. [Population ethics and growth].

    PubMed

    Boim, D

    1988-01-01

    In order to formulate and implement a national demographic policy, various areas of science are called upon; however, since human lives are involved, ethical aspects play an important role not only in broad ideological terms, e.g, concerning overpopulation, but whenever practical decisions affecting technology and human resources are made. The article describes how the Catholic Church proposes certain "utopian" views or interpretations as part of an ethical "dynamism" and plurality needed when addressing the problem of overpopulation. 3 main starting point are defined for the determination of a population ethic: 1) ethics defined in terms of "nature," 2) in terms of the "human person," and 3) in terms of social "dialectic" involvement. The first point stresses the natural order of things as prescribed by God and impugns any birth control method; however, so-called natural birth control methods are allowed. The second point suggests that the human person is ethically center stage, a modernized position taken by the Church in tune with social realities and man's inherent intelligence. The primacy of live and responsibility is stressed as opposed to mere biological processes. Following this view, use of contraceptive, and even sterilization is allowed; however, abortion is excluded, since it means the elimination of a human life. The problem of overpopulation should be solved within the individual or micro-social context. The third point holds that it would be extremely myopic to reduce the position of the Church to advocating exclusively natural birth control methods while excluding social involvement. A "cosmic" view of faith would end putting material well-being before individual personal lives, would alert against egoism disguised as quality of life enhancement, and ultimately result in socially responsible fertility. In conclusion, the Church acknowledges that its contribution to the question of population ethics occurs in a pluralistic society that does not

  4. The Ethic of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  5. Ethics in American Health 1: Ethical Approaches to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  6. Ethics in American health 1: ethical approaches to health policy.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-10-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  7. Introducing ethics to chemistry students in a "Research Experiences for Undergraduates" (REU) program.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    A three-day ethics seminar introduced ethics to undergraduate environmental chemistry students in the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The seminar helped students become sensitive to and understand the ethical and values dimensions of their work as researchers. It utilized a variety of resources to supplement lectures and class discussion on a variety of issues. Students learned about the relevance of ethics to research, skills in moral reasoning, and the array of ethical issues facing various aspects of scientific research.

  8. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  9. Sports medicine: some ethical issues.

    PubMed Central

    Sim, J

    1993-01-01

    The ethical aspects of sports medicine have hitherto received little scrutiny, in contrast to its legal implications, which have recently been subject to much greater discussion. However, the differences that are apparent between sports medicine and 'mainstream' areas of clinical practice can shed new light on a number of the central issues within health-care ethics. By means of hypothetical case studies, this paper seeks to examine some of these issues within a sports medicine context. Specific attention will be paid to the concepts of autonomy and paternalism, issues to do with truthfulness, and the question of conflicting professional loyalties. It is suggested that the ethics of sports medicine warrant further and more detailed examination. PMID:8358592

  10. Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C B

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in this commentary, and by Philip Boyle in "Business ethics in ethics committees?"

  11. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Patrick I

    2014-05-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

  12. Who regulates ethics in the virtual world?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Seemu; Lomash, Hitashi; Bawa, Seema

    2015-02-01

    This paper attempts to give an insight into emerging ethical issues due to the increased usage of the Internet in our lives. We discuss three main theoretical approaches relating to the ethics involved in the information technology (IT) era: first, the use of IT as a tool; second, the use of social constructivist methods; and third, the approach of phenomenologists. Certain aspects of ethics and IT have been discussed based on a phenomenological approach and moral development. Further, ethical issues related to social networking sites are discussed. A plausible way to make the virtual world ethically responsive is collective responsibility which proposes that society has the power to influence but not control behavior in the virtual world.

  13. Ethics in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is the most common place to die. Also, ethical conflicts among stakeholders occur frequently in the ICU. Thus, ICU clinicians should be competent in all aspects for ethical decision-making. Major sources of conflicts are behavioral issues, such as verbal abuse or poor communication between physicians and nurses, and end-of-life care issues including a lack of respect for the patient's autonomy. The ethical conflicts are significantly associated with the job strain and burn-out syndrome of healthcare workers, and consequently, may threaten the quality of care. To improve the quality of care, handling ethical conflicts properly is emerging as a vital and more comprehensive area. The ICU physicians themselves need to be more sensitive to behavioral conflicts and enable shared decision making in end-of-life care. At the same time, the institutions and administrators should develop their processes to find and resolve common ethical problems in their ICUs. PMID:26175769

  14. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Patrick I

    2014-05-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  15. Who regulates ethics in the virtual world?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Seemu; Lomash, Hitashi; Bawa, Seema

    2015-02-01

    This paper attempts to give an insight into emerging ethical issues due to the increased usage of the Internet in our lives. We discuss three main theoretical approaches relating to the ethics involved in the information technology (IT) era: first, the use of IT as a tool; second, the use of social constructivist methods; and third, the approach of phenomenologists. Certain aspects of ethics and IT have been discussed based on a phenomenological approach and moral development. Further, ethical issues related to social networking sites are discussed. A plausible way to make the virtual world ethically responsive is collective responsibility which proposes that society has the power to influence but not control behavior in the virtual world. PMID:24469471

  16. Surgical innovation: the ethical agenda

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Marike L.; Carrière, Michelle E.; Bredenoord, Annelien L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present article was to systematically review the ethics of surgical innovation and introduce the components of the learning health care system to guide future research and debate on surgical innovation. Although the call for evidence-based practice in surgery is increasingly high on the agenda, most surgeons feel that the format of the randomized controlled trial is not suitable for surgery. Innovation in surgery has aspects of, but should be distinguished from both research and clinical care and raises its own ethical challenges. To answer the question “What are the main ethical aspects of surgical innovation?”, we systematically searched PubMed and Embase. Papers expressing an opinion, point of view, or position were included, that is, normative ethical papers. We included 59 studies discussing ethical aspects of surgical innovation. These studies discussed 4 major themes: oversight, informed consent, learning curve, and vulnerable patient groups. Although all papers addressed the ethical challenges raised by surgical innovation, surgeons hold no uniform view of surgical innovation, and there is no agreement on the distinction between innovation and research. Even though most agree to some sort of oversight, they offer different alternatives ranging from the formation of new surgical innovation committees to establishing national registries. Most agree that informed consent is necessary for innovative procedures and that surgeons should be adequately trained to assure their competence to tackle the learning curve problem. All papers agree that in case of vulnerable patients, alternatives must be found for the informed consent procedure. We suggest that the concept of the learning health care system might provide guidance for thinking about surgical innovation. The underlying rationale of the learning health care system is to improve the quality of health care by embedding research within clinical care. Two aspects of a learning health

  17. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  18. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  19. Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

    2011-03-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  20. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. PMID:26709962

  1. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs.

  2. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    PubMed

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  3. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters."

  4. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  5. Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics.

  6. Ethical issues in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Digiovanni, Laura M

    2010-06-01

    Obstetricians must become comfortable addressing the ethical issues involved in clinical obstetrics and therefore must have an understanding of the key elements of clinical medical ethics. Balancing the principles of medical ethics can guide clinicians toward solutions to ethical dilemmas encountered in the care of pregnant women. The purpose of this article is to review the ethical foundations of clinical practice, recognize the ethical issues obstetricians face every day in caring for patients, and facilitate decision making. This article discusses the relevant ethical principles, identifies unique features of obstetrical ethics, examines ethical principles as they apply to pregnant patient and her fetus, and thereby, provides a conceptual framework for considering ethical issues and facilitating decision making in clinical obstetrics.

  7. Preparedness: medical ethics versus public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Swain, Geoffrey R; Burns, Kelly A; Etkind, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Medical ethics generally applies to individual interactions between physicians and patients. Conversely, public health ethics typically applies to interactions between an agency or institution and a community or population. Four main principles underlie medical ethics: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. By contrast, public health ethical principles address issues such as interdependence, community trust, fundamentality, and justice. In large part because of the significant community-level effects of public health issues, medical ethics are suboptimal for assessing community-level public health interventions or plans-especially in the area of emergency preparedness. To be effective, as well as ethical, public health preparedness efforts must address all of the core principles of public health ethics.

  8. 'What is professional ethics?'.

    PubMed

    Brecher, Bob

    2014-03-01

    The very term 'professional ethics' is puzzling with respect to what both 'professional' and 'ethics' might mean. I argue (1) that professionalism is ambiguous as to whether or not it is implicitly committed to ethical practice; (2) that to be 'professionally' ethical is at best ambiguous, if not in fact bizarre; and (3) that, taken together, these considerations suggest that professional ethics is something to be avoided rather than lauded.

  9. Clinical ethics revisited

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Peter A; Pellegrino, Edmund D; Siegler, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective on clinical ethics problems. PMID:11346456

  10. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Adults in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines practical problems encountered in mentoring adult learners in higher education through stories of ethical dilemmas. Each incident illustrates the power that mentors possess and the ethical challenges of using this power to help or hurt proteges. Each example addresses an aspect of such power; the power to remove oneself as a…

  11. Faculty's Perceptions of Teaching Ethics and Leadership in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSagheer, Abdullah; Al-Sagheer, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper addressed the faculty's perception of engineering ethics and leadership training. The study looks into the present state of and methodologies for teaching engineering ethics and leadership and aims to determine the faculty's perception of an identified gap in this aspect of engineering education. Engineering education has strong ethics…

  12. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  13. Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…

  14. Educating about biomedical research ethics.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Bratislav; Stankovic, Mirjana

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the global and worsening problem of research misconduct as it relates to bio-medico-legal education. While research misconduct has serious legal implications, few adequate legal remedies exist to deal with it. With respect to teaching, research ethics education should be mandatory for biomedical students and physicians. Although teaching alone will not prevent misconduct, it promotes integrity, accountability, and responsibility in research. Policies and law enforcement should send a clear message that researchers should adhere to the highest standards of ethics in research. It is vital that researchers and physicians understand basic aspects of law and the legal system in order to develop understanding of the medico-legal issues not just in the legal context, but with a sound grounding in ethics, social and theoretical contexts so that they can practice good medicine. Routine and holistic research ethics education across the curriculum for medical students and resident physicians, and continuing medical education for practicing doctors, are probably the best ways to accomplish this goal.

  15. What are applied ethics?

    PubMed

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  16. Teaching ethics to trainees.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Russell D

    2002-03-01

    Medical events contain many sources of uncertainty. Instruction in medical ethics gives trainees vital knowledge that assists them with some of the sources of uncertainty. Instruction to provide this knowledge is not available from the usual science curriculum. From an understanding of the principles of ethics flows an application of those principles to timely ethical issues. Ethics education has become a mandated feature in accredited residency training programs. A flexible curriculum in ethics can be developed for trainees in child neurology. The education program encourages thoughtful caregivers and teaches the methods for resolution of ethical issues and conflicts. Selection of topics is based on faculty and trainee interest and on situations of current relevance in the training program. Ethics education results in trainees who become capable of ethical reasoning and capable of resolving many of the clinical situations where issues arise that require decisions based on ethical principles.

  17. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  18. Ethical issues in artificial nutrition and hydration.

    PubMed

    Fine, Robert L

    2006-04-01

    From the time of Hippocrates, approximately 2500 years ago, medical ethics has been seen as an essential complement to medical science in pursuit of the healing art of medicine. This is no less true today, not only for physicians but also for other essential professionals involved in patient care, including clinical nutrition support practitioners. One aspect of medical ethics that the clinical nutritionist must face involves decisions to provide, withhold, or withdraw artificial nutrition and hydration. Such a decision is not only technical but often has a strong moral component as well. Although it is the physician who writes any such order, the clinical nutritionist as fellow professional should be a part not only of the scientific aspects of the order but of the moral discourse leading to such an order and may certainly be involved in counseling physicians, other healthcare providers, patients, and families alike. This paper is intended to give the clinical nutritionist a familiarity with the discipline of medical ethics and its proper relationship to medical science, politics, and law. This review will then offer a more specific analysis of the ethical aspects of decisions to initiate, withhold, or withdraw artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) and offer particular commentary on the ethically significant pronouncements of Pope John Paul II in March of 2004 related to vegetative patients and artificial or "assisted" nutrition and hydration. PMID:16556921

  19. Ethics: A Theory of Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    This book review characterizes Robert Veatch's A Theory of Medical Ethics as a "third-generation" treatise that looks beyond case- and issue-oriented analysis to develop the theoretical bases of a "true system of medical ethics." Veatch proposes a "draft medical ethical covenant" based on a "triple contract" model, in which the moral principles of contract keeping, autonomy, honesty, avoiding killing, and justice govern the physician's relationship to both individual patients and society.

  20. Ethics Hype?

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    There has been growing concern about the phenomenon of science hype, the tendency to exaggerate the value or near-future application of research results. Although this is a problem that touches every area of biomedicine, the topic of genetics seems to be particularly prone to enthusiastic predictions. The world has been told for over two decades-by the media, researchers, politicians, and the biotech industry-that a genome-driven health care revolution is just around the corner. And while the revolution never seems to arrive, the hopeful rhetoric continues. It has been suggested that this unrelenting "genohype" is having a range of adverse social consequences, including misleading the public and hurting the long-term legitimacy of the field. While we need more good data on the nature and magnitude of these possible harms, few would argue with the proposition that sustained science hype is a bad thing. We all benefit from robust science and accurate public representations of biomedical research. But, to date, there has been very little consideration of the degree to which the scholarship on the related ethical, legal, and social issues has been hyped. Are the conclusions from ELSI scholarship also exaggerated? PMID:27649824

  1. Code of ethics: principles for ethical leadership.

    PubMed

    Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.

  2. [Social and ethical issues of xenotransplantation].

    PubMed

    He, Q; Li, Y; Li, S

    1998-11-01

    The worldwide shortage in the supply of donor organs and tissues is becoming more pronounced. Xenotransplantation may probably give the hope to overcome the problem ultimately. However, it gives rise to a number of social and ethical issues, among them, the pig appears to be a likely source for human transplantation because it entails least social and ethical issues than no-human primates or other animals and the pig is similar to human in many aspects. The ethical and economic aspects must also be taken into consideration. Patient and his family's privacy may be stripped because the patient has received a new or unusual treatment. Xenograftings will squint towards a kind of commodities which are different from human graftings and it is a challenge to human transplantation. Xenotransplantation brings a risk of creating new human disease and pandemic, so, it is necessary to formulate a policy and provide input to draft guidelines on the regulation of xenotransplantation.

  3. Reproductive health and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2007-10-01

    Individuals' reproductive choices are private matters, but sexual conduct and pregnancy impose significant public health burdens. Ethical principles of public health are distinguishable from principles applied in modern bioethics. Bioethical principles have been developed at the clinical or microethical level, affecting relations among individuals, whereas pubic health ethics applies at the population-based or macroethical level. Resolution of issues, for instance of consent to healthcare interventions and preservation of privacy, is different in public health practice from in clinical medicine. Public health aspects of human reproduction concern reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in resource-poor countries, and the contribution to high rates of each of unsafe abortion, most prevalent where abortion laws are restrictive. Further aspects of public health ethics concern limited access to contraceptive services, the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, causes of infertility, especially due to STIs, and responses to each of these concerns.

  4. Ethics in the classroom: a reflection on integrating ethical discussions in an introductory course in computer programming.

    PubMed

    Smolarski, D C; Whitehead, T

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent approaches to introducing students in a beginning computer science class to the study of ethical issues related to computer science and technology. This consists of three components: lectures on ethics and technology, in-class discussion of ethical scenarios, and a reflective paper on a topic related to ethics or the impact of technology on society. We give both student reactions to these aspects, and instructor perspective on the difficulties and benefits in exposing students to these ideas.

  5. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  6. [Ethics, politics, and rights in pharmacogenomics].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    The article focuses in three aspects. Firstly, distinctions are drawn between pharmacogenetic testing and other types of genetic test, and the advantages of pharmacogenomics for individuals and society generally are discussed. Secondly, the article examines some of the ethical problems raised by research in and clinical aspects of pharmacogenomics. Thirdly and lastly, a number of risk potentially associated with this new technology are discussed. PMID:12703107

  7. Nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: a longitudinal study of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gaudine, Alice; Thorne, Linda

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed.

  8. Learning from Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Mark D.

    1987-01-01

    Reports analysis of 60 case studies of ethical dilemmas faced by experiential educators. Identifies issues which enhance likelihood of moral dilemmas: funding, residential programming, and risk-taking. Exposes need for a professional "code of ethics." (NEC)

  9. Technical Note: Ethical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, J.

    Ethical economics is inspirational, expanding our vision beyond the narrow self-interest of the theoretical economic man. Ethical economics sees more value in space settlement than conventional economic calculations that can inappropriately discount the value of the future.

  10. Ethical issues in cloning.

    PubMed

    Satris, S

    2000-01-01

    There is great public concern with the ethics of human cloning. This paper briefly examines some of what I identify as pseudo-problems or myths associated with cloning, and some of the more substantial ethical concerns.

  11. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  12. Persuasion as Ethical Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1985-01-01

    States that teachers should help students understand in practical terms how to recognize good ethical persuasion and to understand when even distinguished, honest, and moral writers might need to resort to "unfair ethical persuasion." (EL)

  13. Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Abelardo; Siemens, George

    2014-01-01

    The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as…

  14. [Ethics in health policy and public health].

    PubMed

    Tichácek, B

    2000-11-01

    The author explains and illustrates by historical references terms such as health policy, public health, health. Next he deals with ethical principles of the health policy in the following sections: a) respecting people and their rights, b) maximalization of benefit and minimalization of damage, c) legal aspects.

  15. [Mental health film festival and ethics].

    PubMed

    Simonnet, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The mental health film festival is based on the respect of the patient as a subject and is a place where psychic suffering can be expressed. As a film is destined to be shown, there is a dilemma between the aesthetic and the therapeutic aspects and, it's in this link that the ethical dimension concerned by this kind of activity takes place.

  16. Ethical Issues in Bereavement Research: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Alicia Skinner

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for the conduct of ethical research are reviewed and applied to the field of thanatology. Unique aspects of bereavement studies are identified and are discussed in the context of socially sensitive research. Topics include: freedom for subjects to withdraw from research, consideration of risks and benefits, and the qualifications of…

  17. Exploring the Ethical Implications of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a potentially exciting opportunity to use technology to realise many of the long-promised benefits of universal higher education. While there are many positive aspects to the MOOCs on offer and in development, there are also significant ethical concerns arising from various initiatives. These include…

  18. Abortion in Adolescence: The Ethical Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    This essay, addressed to medical personnel and counselors, presents a bioethical approach to adolescent abortion. Topics include an overview of abortion in the U.S., related medical issues, data pertinent to adolescent abortions, ethical theory, adolescent moral development, and moral aspects of treatment of adolescents. (Author/DB)

  19. Libraries and the Ethics of Censorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of literature pertaining to the subject of censorship in modern libraries. It interrogates the literature in terms of the ethical debates informing much of the contemporary academic writing on this subject. A multi-pronged approach to the subject is adopted. The review includes evaluations of the relevant aspects of…

  20. A study of the ethics of induced abortion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Um, Y R

    1999-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the ethical aspects of induced abortion from the viewpoint of Korean women, and to compare and contrast their ethical considerations and values with the views of western ethical scholars. The two extremes of ethical arguments about induced abortion are pro-life and pro-choice. However, the Korean women who participated in this study showed that conflicting ethical values were raised between the principle of caring and the sanctity of life or the principle of respect for the person, not between the right of self-determination and the sanctity of life. The results of the study suggest that it would be better to include the viewpoints of women in any ethical discussion on abortion in order for ethicists and health professionals to understand more fully the dimensions of moral clinical problems and be in a better position to discuss them in a practical manner. PMID:10696196

  1. A study of the ethics of induced abortion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Um, Y R

    1999-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the ethical aspects of induced abortion from the viewpoint of Korean women, and to compare and contrast their ethical considerations and values with the views of western ethical scholars. The two extremes of ethical arguments about induced abortion are pro-life and pro-choice. However, the Korean women who participated in this study showed that conflicting ethical values were raised between the principle of caring and the sanctity of life or the principle of respect for the person, not between the right of self-determination and the sanctity of life. The results of the study suggest that it would be better to include the viewpoints of women in any ethical discussion on abortion in order for ethicists and health professionals to understand more fully the dimensions of moral clinical problems and be in a better position to discuss them in a practical manner.

  2. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  3. Giftedness and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…

  4. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  5. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  6. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics. PMID:27261069

  7. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  8. Ethics and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references. (MES)

  9. Ethics in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugnet, Chris, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…

  10. Ethics in Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, F. J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of recent approaches to management and examines the ethical implications of using these approaches. Applies elements of these innovative systems to three cases that are both managerially and ethically complex. Claims that new processes must be developed to address ethical issues as part of all management decisions. (RJM)

  11. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  12. Ethics for Online Intermediaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Donna B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Explores ethical issues for online searchers that are exacerbated by the searcher's gatekeeper function--searcher competence, searcher bias, inaccurate search results, misuse of search results by client, and privacy and confidentiality. A model for ethical decision making is presented and a list of guidelines for ethical conduct is suggested. (EJS)

  13. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  14. Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  15. Ethics and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  16. The Evolution of Ethics.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Ethical issues and dilemmas span from conception to the grave. The interconnectedness of advocacy, ethics, and end of life/death with dignity are woven into this issue of the Professional Case Management journal. Case management is a critical member of the team when these discussions arise. And knowledge of the issues, along with legal, ethical, and professional codes, is highlighted. PMID:27231955

  17. Ethical Dilemmas in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicastro, Mary L.

    This paper presents an introduction to higher education models of ethical orientation and a series of exercises that were part of a workshop on ethics given by the Small Business Institute Directors' Association (SBIDA). Three models of ethical orientation include a self-interest orientation, with the professor solely concerned with his…

  18. Clarifying the Ethical Tendency in Education for Sustainable Development Practice: A Wittgenstein-Inspired Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohman, Johan; Ostman, Leif

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the debate about the moral and ethical aspects of education for sustainable development by suggesting a clarification of ethics and morals through an investigation of how these aspects appear in educational practice. The ambition is both to point to the normative dangers of education for sustainable development…

  19. [Public health ethics is partnership ethics].

    PubMed

    Sass, H-M

    2008-02-01

    Securing and safeguarding the health of citizens are preeminent governmental obligations and cultural as well as ethical responsibilities. Public health needs to be developed, implemented and reviewed in partnership with existing private and public market forces and with health-literate citizens; mission, strategy, tactics and ethics of public health depend on partnership ethics. Traditional sets of principles in bioethics, research ethics, or clinical ethics are not useful to delineate the framework, the mandate, and the specific conflicts and risks in public health. The SEMPER model exemplifies the role of the principles of safety, education, minimax, partnership, efficiency, review and their interactions for public health in securing and promoting health and quality of life.

  20. Ethical responsibilities of editors, reviewers, and authors.

    PubMed

    Cowell, H R

    2000-09-01

    Scientific misconduct, which is neither new nor unique, is prevalent in the medical literature. Although fabrication of data obviously is unethical, and although ethical rules of conduct for certain aspects of medical studies, such as informed consent, are theoretically accepted worldwide, numerous authors do not adhere to ethical rules of conduct. Ethically, the editor is responsible, as a gatekeeper, for ensuring that material to be published is accurate and valid. Thus, the editor's main responsibility is to the reader. Nonetheless, the editor also must serve the author by selecting unbiased reviewers and by providing the assurance that material will be selected for publication based solely on the scientific quality of the material. Peer reviewers are obligated to maintain a posture of confidentiality throughout the review process. Authors are responsible for adequate planning before undertaking a study, and for safeguarding patients' rights during the study. The author must read all cited references completely, strive for accuracy, and be certain that the material reported is valid, because it will be used in the treatment of patients. Hopefully, awareness of the ethical problems related to medical writing will provide a clearer understanding of the ethical aspects of medical writing.

  1. Ethical Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Victoroff, Michael S.

    1985-01-01

    The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

  2. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is." PMID:27164779

  3. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  4. Empirical ethics and its alleged meta-ethical fallacies.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob; Gordijn, Bert

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the concept of empirical ethics as well as three meta-ethical fallacies that empirical ethics is said to face: the is-ought problem, the naturalistic fallacy and violation of the fact-value distinction. Moreover, it answers the question of whether empirical ethics (necessarily) commits these three basic meta-ethical fallacies.

  5. Nursing Ethics: A Lifelong Commitment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Jeschke, E Ann

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the health-care context as well as the roles and responsibilities of nurses have drastically changed. Leaders in nursing around the world recognize that the health-care system is stressed and the well-being of the nursing workforce plagued by the pressures and challenges it faces in everyday practice. We do not intend to make a strong normative argument for why nursing ethics education should be done in a certain way, but instead show from where we have come and to where we can go, so that educators are positioned to address some of the current shortcomings in ethics education. Our goal is to provide an illustration of ethics education as an interwoven, ongoing, and essential aspect of nursing education and professional development. By developing professional identity as character, we hope that professional nurses are given the skills to stand in the face of adversity and to act in a way that upholds the core competencies of nursing. Ultimately, health-care organizations will thrive because of the support they provide nurses and other health-care professionals.

  6. Possibilities of Engineering Ethics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Junya

    This paper discusses the possibilities of teaching engineering ethics in universities. This is based on the teaching experience of a newly developed course that has been introduced to the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Fukui, since April 2004. Entitled “ethics for engineers”, the course targeted senior-level students and makes use of a newly written textbook that emphasizes social aspects of science and technology. To encourage students to think and form their own opinions with regards to their role as engineers in a modern technological society, the book is complemented by other materials such as videos, newspaper articles and some other relevant books. Students are also encouraged to write reports that reflect their own opinion on subjects such as what kind of engineers they intend to be, or what do ethics mean to them? The paper will conclude by giving a course evaluation including students' response, highlighting valuable experiences and stating the importance of further developing this topic in engineering education.

  7. Nursing Ethics: A Lifelong Commitment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Jeschke, E Ann

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the health-care context as well as the roles and responsibilities of nurses have drastically changed. Leaders in nursing around the world recognize that the health-care system is stressed and the well-being of the nursing workforce plagued by the pressures and challenges it faces in everyday practice. We do not intend to make a strong normative argument for why nursing ethics education should be done in a certain way, but instead show from where we have come and to where we can go, so that educators are positioned to address some of the current shortcomings in ethics education. Our goal is to provide an illustration of ethics education as an interwoven, ongoing, and essential aspect of nursing education and professional development. By developing professional identity as character, we hope that professional nurses are given the skills to stand in the face of adversity and to act in a way that upholds the core competencies of nursing. Ultimately, health-care organizations will thrive because of the support they provide nurses and other health-care professionals. PMID:26673373

  8. [Ethical issues in live surgical demonstrations].

    PubMed

    Haruta, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    Live surgical demonstrations are very useful educational tools for teaching skills, real-time problem solving, and how to manipulate new devices. However, such demonstrations may cause anxiety to surgeons because they are always aware of the commentator and attending physicians. Concentrating solely on the patient during an operative procedure is a medical ethical principle for surgeons. There are few advantages for patients in undergoing demonstration surgeries, except that they can expect the best surgeon in the field to operate. Therefore, surgeons should carefully control all aspects of live demonstrations, especially the indications, procedure selected, and results, to resolve ethical issues.

  9. [The Christian ethic and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Hourton, J

    1991-03-01

    The Catholic Church and the Christian faith in general have been accused of a history of sexual repression and denunciation of the dangers of all expressions of sexuality as well as of neglecting sex education within religious education. This work seeks to analyze the apparent conflict between Christian ethics and the experience of modern sexuality, and discusses the response of Christian ethics to the conflict. Beginning at the Renaissance and for the entire modern epoch, a moral system that might be called secularized has confronted that of the Church; it has been more liberal, utilitarian, and hedonistic in sexual matters. In the course of becoming more permissive, human sexuality like so many other aspects of modern culture has lost most of its sacred character. The sexual sphere in modern cultural and moral development is 1 of the aspects in which morals and customs are most distanced from religious influence. Despite the great sexual permissiveness of the mass media and the culture at large, adolescents and youth of today do not appear to have advanced any closer to a general state of happiness. Sexuality today--despite whatever sex education is available--is still enveloped in the same ignorance, feat, complexes, and conflicts as ever. The youth of today should have access to better sex education, they should be liberated from both religious taboos that impede health sexual adjustment and from the sexual permissiveness celebrated in much of the mass media. Teachers and moralists should engage in a dialogue in which the problem of sex education is examined in its complexity in order to identify elements of an improved process that would lead to a true humanization. An ethics that goes beyond the permissiveness of the present is needed, but it should not be based on fear of AIDS, fear of pregnancy, or any other fears or threats. A positive secular ethics moved by natural motivations and a Christian ethics motivated by faith in the love of God should appear

  10. Is mandatory research ethics reviewing ethical?

    PubMed

    Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary

    2013-08-01

    Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen.

  11. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  12. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics.

  13. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics. PMID:22711449

  14. Practical aspects of telehealth: financial considerations.

    PubMed

    Loh, P K; Sabesan, S; Allen, D; Caldwell, P; Mozer, R; Komesaroff, P A; Talman, P; Williams, M; Shaheen, N; Grabinski, O; Withnall, D

    2013-07-01

    The second in a series of articles about the practical aspects of telehealth, this paper includes information and a case history on the cost-benefits for patients and practitioners using telehealth. The case history demonstrates that telehealth can save travel time for patients, carers and specialists, and can reduce out-of-pocket expenses. The practical aspects of telehealth article series considers the contextual, clinical, technical and ethical components of online video consultations.

  15. Excellence: The Importance of Vision and Work Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the topic of excellence and shares key aspects of excellence that he has found to be true in his life's journey. He discusses two elements of excellence, namely (1) "vision"; and (2) "work ethic", and describes some characteristics of each element. Three aspects: (1) interpersonal skills; (2) initiative; and (3)…

  16. Dismembering the ethical physician

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, S J

    2006-01-01

    Physicians may experience ethical distress when they are caught in difficult clinical situations that demand ethical decision making, particularly when their preferred action may contravene the expectations of patients and established authorities. When principled and competent doctors succumb to patient wishes or establishment guidelines and participate in actions they perceive to be ethically inappropriate, or agree to refrain from interventions they believe to be in the best interests of patients, individual professional integrity may be diminished, and ethical reliability is potentially compromised. In a climate of ever‐proliferating ethical quandaries, it is essential for the medical community, health institutions, and governing bodies to pursue a judicious tension between the indispensable regulation of physicians necessary to maintain professional standards and preserve public safety, and the support for “freedom of conscience” that principled physicians require to practise medicine in keeping with their personal ethical orientation. PMID:16597808

  17. The ethics of safe sex.

    PubMed

    Broom, N D; Rickett, C E

    1988-12-14

    Western society has undergone a vast sociological change during the 20th century in terms of the value of sexuality. Sexual choice has gained a new legitimacy never before experienced. There is less guilt surrounding issues of sexuality and it is now common place to hear and see explicit discussions about sex in the mass media. This acceptance has undoubtedly encouraged many people to be more daring and promiscuous in their sexual activities. Proof of this can be seen in the increase is the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Presently there are more than 20 epidemiologically significant diseases that are sexually transmitted. Beyond the 5 old standards of gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, lyphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinala STDs now include: chlamydia trachomatis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus, genital mycoplasms, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, vaginitis, enteric infections, and ectoparasitic diseases. Keeping all this in mind, the question of the ethics of safe sex must be addressed. In many countries, the governments have undertaken large public education programs to encourage safe sex practices. All these programs a founded upon two ideas: that safe sex should be promoted free of any ethical discussions or considerations, and that technology alone, the condom, will protect the public from the problem of STDs. However these campaigns will fail to protect the public unless they try to intervene at some level other than the mechanical aspect of the sex act itself. Condoms have failure rates too high to be relied upon as the sole means of protecting the public. Sex education for children and an inclusion of the ethical aspects of sex, now that the consequences can mean death, must be included in these government programs if they are to be successful.

  18. Symbiotic empirical ethics: a practical methodology.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Like any discipline, bioethics is a developing field of academic inquiry; and recent trends in scholarship have been towards more engagement with empirical research. This 'empirical turn' has provoked extensive debate over how such 'descriptive' research carried out in the social sciences contributes to the distinctively normative aspect of bioethics. This paper will address this issue by developing a practical research methodology for the inclusion of data from social science studies into ethical deliberation. This methodology will be based on a naturalistic conception of ethical theory that sees practice as informing theory just as theory informs practice - the two are symbiotically related. From this engagement with practice, the ways that such theories need to be extended and developed can be determined. This is a practical methodology for integrating theory and practice that can be used in empirical studies, one that uses ethical theory both to explore the data and to draw normative conclusions.

  19. Teaching Ethics to Engineers: A Socratic Experience.

    PubMed

    Génova, Gonzalo; González, M Rosario

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present the authors' experience of teaching a course in Ethics for Engineers, which has been delivered four times in three different universities in Spain and Chile. We begin by presenting the material context of the course (its place within the university program, the number of students attending, its duration, etc.), and especially the intellectual background of the participating students, in terms of their previous understanding of philosophy in general, and of ethics in particular. Next we set out the objectives of the course and the main topics addressed, as well as the methodology and teaching resources employed to have students achieve a genuine philosophical reflection on the ethical aspects of the profession, starting from their own mindset as engineers. Finally we offer some results based on opinion surveys of the students, as well as a more personal assessment by the authors, recapitulating the most significant achievements of the course and indicating its underlying Socratic structure. PMID:26026967

  20. Science, ethics and war: a pacifist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited.

  1. Teaching Ethics to Engineers: A Socratic Experience.

    PubMed

    Génova, Gonzalo; González, M Rosario

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present the authors' experience of teaching a course in Ethics for Engineers, which has been delivered four times in three different universities in Spain and Chile. We begin by presenting the material context of the course (its place within the university program, the number of students attending, its duration, etc.), and especially the intellectual background of the participating students, in terms of their previous understanding of philosophy in general, and of ethics in particular. Next we set out the objectives of the course and the main topics addressed, as well as the methodology and teaching resources employed to have students achieve a genuine philosophical reflection on the ethical aspects of the profession, starting from their own mindset as engineers. Finally we offer some results based on opinion surveys of the students, as well as a more personal assessment by the authors, recapitulating the most significant achievements of the course and indicating its underlying Socratic structure.

  2. Ethics in age estimation of unaccompanied minors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Kvaal, S I; Willems, G

    2012-11-30

    Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors. (2) Since most age estimation investigations are based on medical examination, the four basic principles of biomedical ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, non-malevolence, justice. (3) The use of medicine for non treatment purposes. (4) How age estimates with highest accuracy in age prediction can be obtained. Ethical practice in age estimation of unaccompanied minors is achieved when different but related aspects are searched, evaluated, weighted in importance and subsequently combined. However this is not always feasible and unanswered questions remain.

  3. [Care between ethics, work and political].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Down to the roots, the ethics of care have stood up a "different voice". Building on Carol Gilligan's works, the concept was developed widely in opposition with the rational and universalist aspect of Kant's moral philosophy. However, it also appears that this vision of care runs counter sets the three other main dominant moral theories, ie, utilitarism, John Rawls' procedural ethics and the Aristotelian virtue ethics. We may assert that the care theory presents itself as a contextualized moral theory aiming at taking into account others' vulnerability, in a practical way. Hence, the general term of "care" may encompass the notions of "help", "support" and "healing process", which, in France, for have often been opposed for varied reasons--historical, economical, psychological, professional etc... Switching from a moral position to a professional and practical activity, the concept of care has now undeniably taken on now a social and political dimension.

  4. [Care between ethics, work and political].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Down to the roots, the ethics of care have stood up a "different voice". Building on Carol Gilligan's works, the concept was developed widely in opposition with the rational and universalist aspect of Kant's moral philosophy. However, it also appears that this vision of care runs counter sets the three other main dominant moral theories, ie, utilitarism, John Rawls' procedural ethics and the Aristotelian virtue ethics. We may assert that the care theory presents itself as a contextualized moral theory aiming at taking into account others' vulnerability, in a practical way. Hence, the general term of "care" may encompass the notions of "help", "support" and "healing process", which, in France, for have often been opposed for varied reasons--historical, economical, psychological, professional etc... Switching from a moral position to a professional and practical activity, the concept of care has now undeniably taken on now a social and political dimension. PMID:26685550

  5. Ethics in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Haines, Ted

    1989-11-01

    We know little about perceptions, practices, or constraints of ethics in occupational health because little research has been done. Opinions about the field, however, are abundant. Existing codes of ethical practice in occupational health have not consciously been derived from the fundamental principles of "freedom" and "well-being" or from philosophical premises and methods; rather, they are based on consensus among practitioners. The author outlines useful concepts and methods for making decisions about ethical questions in occupational health.

  6. [Population, ethics and equity].

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)

  7. Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.

    2001-01-01

    Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

  8. Engineering Practice and Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, William T.; Kline, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Offers ways of applying science and technology studies to the teaching of engineering ethics. Suggests modifications of both detailed case studies on engineering disasters and hypothetical, ethical dilemmas employed in engineering ethics classes. (Author/CCM)

  9. [Nursing care: an ethical act].

    PubMed

    Gruat, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Care means taking care, paying extreme attention to others in vulnerable situations, "helping and not hurting". Admitting that ethical care exists would require recognizing that there are also treatments which are not ethical. However, care can only be ethical.

  10. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Anjali M; Dwyer, James; Bosco, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    All physicians are faced at some time with fundamental challenges while striving to respect the principle canons which define a physician's ethical code. These canons are: 1. Primacy of patient interests, 2. Patient confidentiality, 3, Informed consent, and 4. Maintenance of a high standard of care. Athletes, because of their focus on performance, often present unique situations which lead to ethical challenges not seen in the general patient population. Adherence to the four principle ethical canons guides physicians to make ethical decisions when dealing with these unique patients. PMID:22894696

  11. Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality.

  12. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Anjali M; Dwyer, James; Bosco, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    All physicians are faced at some time with fundamental challenges while striving to respect the principle canons which define a physician's ethical code. These canons are: 1. Primacy of patient interests, 2. Patient confidentiality, 3, Informed consent, and 4. Maintenance of a high standard of care. Athletes, because of their focus on performance, often present unique situations which lead to ethical challenges not seen in the general patient population. Adherence to the four principle ethical canons guides physicians to make ethical decisions when dealing with these unique patients.

  13. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  14. The ethics of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karasu, T B

    1980-12-01

    The author addresses the ethics of psychotherapy in terms of the interface between science and ethics, the goals of treatment, the therapeutic relationship, and special issues of confidentiality and therapist-patient sex. He considers the problems of multiple therapeutic modalities, dual allegiance of the therapist, the therapeutic use (and abuse) of power, and issues of dependency and suggests ways to maximize the clinician's exercise of ethical choices. Ethical dilemmas in psychotherapy are not entirely soluble; ultimately, the therapist, guided by his or her profession as a group, will be able to find answers to the complex problems that inevitably arise. PMID:7435705

  15. Enhancing ethical decision making in sexuality and AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C E; Piercy, F P

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, sexuality education has consisted of teaching adolescents about human anatomy, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases. Most sexuality and AIDS education curricula have emphasized neither the relational aspects nor the ethical meaning of sexual behavior. However, current guidelines for comprehensive sexuality education from the National Guidelines Task Force acknowledge the ethical dimensions of sexuality. This paper advocates providing sexuality and AIDS education in a way that helps adolescents explore the ethical meaning of their sexual behavior. Principles from Rest's model of moral development are presented as one example of an ethical framework that could inform sexuality and AIDS education curricula. Rest describes four internal processes that produce moral behavior: moral sensitivity, moral judgment, moral motivation, and moral character. For each of these processes, illustrative questions and activities are suggested here which can be used by sexuality and AIDS educators to facilitate discussions with adolescents about the ethical meaning and implications of their sexual behavior.

  16. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  17. The task of nursing ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Melia, K M

    1994-01-01

    This paper raises the questions: 'What do we expect from nursing ethics?' and 'Is the literature of nursing ethics any different from that of medical ethics?' It is suggested that rather than develop nursing ethics as a separate field writers in nursing ethics should take a lead in making the patient the central focus of health care ethics. The case is made for empirical work in health care ethics and it is suggested that a good way of setting about this is to ask practising nurses about the real ethical problems they encounter. PMID:8035446

  18. Systems ethics and the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Clements, C D

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the current conclusions in medical ethics which have followed the 1969-1970 Medical Ethics Discontinuity, a break that challenged the Hippocratic way of thinking about ethics. The resulting dislocations in quality of care and the medical value system are discussed, and an alternative medical ethics is offered: Systems Ethics. A methodology for a Systems Ethics analysis of cases is presented and illustrated by the case of a physician-assisted suicide. The advantages, both theoretical and clinical, of a Systems Ethics approach to medicine, which is an expansion of the Hippocratic tradition in medical ethics, are developed. Using Systems Ethics, it is possible to avoid the dangers of legalism, bureaucratic ethics, utilitarian cost cutting, and "political correctness" in medical ethics.

  19. Legal and ethical issues in research

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Camille; Han, Nian-Lin Reena; Sng, Ban Leong

    2016-01-01

    Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Relevant original publications (The Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences/World Health Organisation International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Association of Medical Editors Recommendations on Publication Ethics Policies, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, CoSE White Paper, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use-Good Clinical Practice) form the literature that are relevant to the ethical and legal aspects of conducting research that researchers should abide by when conducting translational and clinical research. Researchers should note the major international guidelines and regional differences in legislation. Hence, specific ethical advice should be sought at local Ethics Review Committees. PMID:27729698

  20. Genetic susceptibility to malignant diseases--ethical issues. Minireview.

    PubMed

    Munzarová, M

    2002-01-01

    Ethical problems connected with genetic testing with the intention of the measurement of the susceptibility or predisposition to malignant tumors are presented (respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, confidentiality, privacy, veracity and truth-telling, informed consent, right to know, right not to know, informational self-determination, etc.). Various aspects dealing with ethics of screening and research projects involving human subjects are discussed as well.

  1. Ethics and blood donation: A marriage of convenience.

    PubMed

    Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Garraud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Quality, safety, risks and risk management are currently the leading words in transfusion medicine, and several approaches are necessary to correctly evaluate the fundamental basis of blood transfusion. Ethics is probably the most focused approach with which to examine the inconsistencies and conflicts of interest of the various stakeholders involved in the transfusion medicine field. In this short review, the authors will present some aspects of ethics related to blood transfusion, particularly those involving blood donation. PMID:27476014

  2. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  3. Care Ethics in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Candice L.

    2003-01-01

    Difficulties with current models of ethics education (correct reasoning, virtue theory, directive moral education) include emphasis on reward/punishment and a presumptive bias toward abstract reasoning. Teaching a care-based ethics would promote a fuller notion of mature moral agents and broaden the school climate beyond compliance. (Contains 19…

  4. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  5. Ethics in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  6. Ethical issues in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, J C

    2000-01-01

    New ethical questions have arisen from our ability to intervene in the structure of the genome. Responsible use of this technique requires ethical evaluation in which experts, potential beneficiaries and the general public should all participate. The examples of genetically modified food and of human genetics help to illustrate the issues involved.

  7. Ethics and the Nonprofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Toni; Hudspeth, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The American nonprofit sector is large, effective and influential, but with influence comes responsibility. Ethical lapses, whether real or perceived, can draw the attention of regulators and the public, leading to financial and reputational damage that can impair an organization's ability to carry out its mission. Written ethics and compliance…

  8. Ethics by Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirk, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Research from the Schools of Integrity project identified openness, honesty, relationship-building, and constant rigorous reflection as key elements in schools that successfully balance academic rigor with ethical development. To translate these findings into the public school setting, the Institute for Global Ethics spoke to six secondary school…

  9. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  10. Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  11. Ethical Proactive Threat Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aycock, John; Sullins, John

    Through a provocative examination of the positive effects of computer security research on regular users, we argue that traditional security research is insufficient. Instead, we turn to a largely untapped alternative, proactive threat research, a fruitful research area but an ethical minefield. We discuss practices for ethical research and dissemination of proactive research.

  12. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of College Unions-International, Bloomington, IN.

    The code of ethics for the college union and student activities professional is presented by the Association of College Unions-International. The preamble identifies the objectives of the college union as providing campus community centers and social programs that enhance the quality of life for members of the academic community. Ethics for…

  13. The Ethical Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  14. New-World Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Businesses, particularly training departments, have reacted to terrorist attacks, collapse of major businesses, and wrongdoing by religious figures. Trainers have responded by offering safety and security-related training, helping establish risk-management procedures, increasing ethics training, and rewriting ethics codes. (JOW)

  15. Cultivating an Ethical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starratt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Often the school is left as an institution seemingly ethically neutral, leaving untouched questions about whether the school itself is a site of injustice toward both educators and children. Springing from his well-known "Building an Ethical School", Robert J. Starratt now looks more closely at the educational leader's responsibility to ensure…

  16. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  17. Ethics in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    The issues of ethics in the university and the role of higher education in society are addressed. Distinctions are made between legal behavior and ethical behavior, and the question of how the university needs to balance the two in order to fulfill its unique role in society while it simultaneously strives to reside and survive within it is…

  18. Ethics a la Dilbert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Ethics Challenge Game (developed by Lockheed Martin Corp. and free to educators), which is a board game based on the Dilbert comic strip character that provides realistic scenarios for discussion of ethical behavior in various business/workplace situations. Describes the game, offers comments on faculty reactions after playing the…

  19. Ethics of Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William S.

    Ethical concepts, when taught, should be operational and placed in context. Applying the operational criterion is tough enough in a single culture; however, in a course in intercultural communication, difficulties are multiplied. The teacher of an intercultural communication classroom should embrace the position that many ethical principles are…

  20. Ethical? Toward Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making" by M. D. Rogerson et al (see record 2011-19198-001). Among the many insightful points made by Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp, and Younggren (October 2011) regarding nonrational processes in ethical decision making, one deserves further explication: Many of…

  1. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

    The American Sociological Association's code of ethics for sociologists is presented. For sociological research and practice, 10 requirements for ethical behavior are identified, including: maintaining objectivity and integrity; fully reporting findings and research methods, without omission of significant data; reporting fully all sources of…

  2. Ethics in Online Publications.

    PubMed

    Vervaart, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Journals have been publishing the results of scientific investigations since the founding of Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Since then we have witnessed a massive expansion in the number of journals to the point that there are now approximately 28,000 active, peer reviewed journals collectively publishing more than 1.8 million articles per year. Before the mid-1990s, these journals were only available on paper but by the end of the 20th century, most journals had moved to online platforms. Online publication has also served as the impetus for the move to 'open-access' to the information contained in journals. The fact that a publication is 'on-line' and 'open-access' does not negate the responsibility of the author and the publisher to publish in an ethical way. [1] The document produced by the IFCC Ethics Task Force (TF-E) on publication ethics states that 'Ethics in Science at its broadest level encompasses research ethics, medical ethics, publication ethics, conflicts of interest, ethical responsibilities as educator, plus many other areas.' Thus publication ethics is a continuum from the first step of research design through to the information being read by the reader. In general terms 'publication ethics' includes the ethical behaviour of the authors in writing and submitting a scientific manuscript to a publisher for the purpose of publication, thus any discussion of publication ethics must include the role of the authors, referees, publisher and reader and the issues of authorship (and the use of 'ghosts'), plagiarism, duplicate publication (including in different languages), image manipulation (particularly in the era of digitisation), and conflict of interest [2]. To aid the authors, and others involved in the process of publication, a number of resources are now available particularly those from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) [3] and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) [4]. More recently the issue of 'publisher ethics' has

  3. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals.

  4. Ethics consultation and autonomy.

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2008-03-01

    Services of ethics consultants are nowadays commonly used in such various spheres of life as engineering, public administration, business, law, health care, journalism, and scientific research. It has however been maintained that use of ethics consultants is incompatible with personal autonomy; in moral matters individuals should be allowed to make their own decisions. The problem this criticism refers to can be conceived of as a conflict between the professional autonomy of ethics experts and the autonomy of the persons they serve. This paper addresses this conflict and maintains that when the nature of both ethics consultation and individual autonomy is properly understood, the professional autonomy of ethics experts is compatible with the autonomy of the persons they assist.

  5. Towards clinical bioethics (or a return to clinical ethics?).

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics has traditionally been oriented towards the clinical setting. Since the middle of the last century, however, various circumstances (associated mainly, though not exclusively, with rapid advances in technology and knowledge) have considerably broadened both the field of enquiry and the scope of this discipline. This is due partly to the overlap between medical ethics and bioethics, which in recent decades has acquired its own identity and concerns a multitude of ethical aspects in the biomedical field. Clinical ethics taps into the vast wealth of deontology, so that it has no need for additional criteria or principles, or for the definition of new values: rather, it recognizes the need to apply existing criteria, principles and values to contingent circumstances and contexts. A special role is reserved for ethics committees and, above all, for clinical ethics consultants, although in some countries the former are concerned mainly with authorisations for clinical trials. Clinical ethics consultants, however, may have a more incisive influence in clinical decisions: the special requisites and skills they need have been defined and discussed in various documents which are mentioned briefly in the present article. The presence of these consultants does not exonerate clinical physicians from their responsibilities or from liability for their decisions, in the formation of which they must refer constantly to codes of professional ethics. PMID:24424236

  6. Ethical Awareness and Ethical Orientation of Turkish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…

  7. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  8. Four Roles of Ethical Theory in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Magelssen, Morten; Pedersen, Reidar; Førde, Reidun

    2016-09-01

    When clinical ethics committee members discuss a complex ethical dilemma, what use do they have for normative ethical theories? Members without training in ethical theory may still contribute to a pointed and nuanced analysis. Nonetheless, the knowledge and use of ethical theories can play four important roles: aiding in the initial awareness and identification of the moral challenges, assisting in the analysis and argumentation, contributing to a sound process and dialogue, and inspiring an attitude of reflexivity. These four roles of ethical theory in clinical ethics consultation are described and their significance highlighted, while an example case is used as an illustration throughout. PMID:27471935

  9. Four Roles of Ethical Theory in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Magelssen, Morten; Pedersen, Reidar; Førde, Reidun

    2016-09-01

    When clinical ethics committee members discuss a complex ethical dilemma, what use do they have for normative ethical theories? Members without training in ethical theory may still contribute to a pointed and nuanced analysis. Nonetheless, the knowledge and use of ethical theories can play four important roles: aiding in the initial awareness and identification of the moral challenges, assisting in the analysis and argumentation, contributing to a sound process and dialogue, and inspiring an attitude of reflexivity. These four roles of ethical theory in clinical ethics consultation are described and their significance highlighted, while an example case is used as an illustration throughout.

  10. [A separation of public health ethics from medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Schröder, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Until now there are only a few approaches in the German-speaking realm to establish an explicit ethical framework for moral issues of public health--although a need for public health ethics in times of SARS and avian flu is obvious. One deficit of the discussion so far is that there is no systematic separation of medical ethics and public health ethics. Thus, the core and interdisciplinary focus of public health is often not met. However, to frame discussions of moral issues within a specific public health ethics framework seems to be fruitful. This paper deals with the conceptual differences of medical ethics and public health ethics. The discussion helps both applied ethical discourses to sharpen their focus and strengthen their appeal. The author develops and presents a conceptual and normative frame for public health ethics and offers a concise set of ethical principles for the discussion of moral challenges in public health.

  11. Addressing ethical issues in geriatrics and long-term care: ethics education at the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M; Turner, L; Bourret, E

    2000-01-01

    An innovative program in ethics education exists at Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care. This program can serve as a helpful model for long-term care and geriatric care facilities seeking to implement formal training programs in bioethics. Various aspects of the ethics education program are examined. In addition to describing the role of the ethics committee and research ethics board, consideration is given to case consultations, ethics rounds, the training of junior physicians and medical students, grand rounds and the planning of conferences and guest lectures. With regard to educational content in bioethics, health law, professional guidelines and the principlist approach of Beauchamp and Childress are used to explore the ethical dimensions of particular cases. Given the clinical context of the educational initiatives, the pedagogical approach is predominately case-based. While the bioethics literature emphasizes the patient-physician relationship, ethics education at Baycrest recognizes the importance of multiple professions. Physicians, nurses, social workers, speech pathologists, nutritionists and other health care providers are involved in ethical deliberation and education. PMID:11143884

  12. A primer on dental ethics: Part I. Kknowing about ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    The field of dental ethics has matured to the point where it is worthwhile to summarize it. An overview is presented of the methods commonly used to present ethics in dental schools. The three most popular approaches to ethical theory are normative principles (good rules), virtue ethics (good people), and utilitarian views (good outcomes). Each of these approaches has advantages, and each is incomplete. The general problem of converting ethical knowledge to moral conduct will be presented in a subsequent essay. PMID:17585735

  13. From subject to participant: ethics and the evolving role of community in health research.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Mikesell, Lisa; Jones, Felica; Khodyakov, Dmitry

    2015-05-01

    Belmont Report principles focus on the well-being of the research subject, yet community-engaged investigators often eschew the role of subject for that of participant. We conducted semistructured interviews with 29 community and academic investigators working on 10 community-engaged studies. Interviews elicited perspectives on ethical priorities and ethical challenges. Interviewees drew on the Belmont Report to describe 4 key principles of ethical community-engaged research (embodying ethical action, respecting participants, generalizing beneficence, and negotiating justice). However, novel aspects of the participant role were the source of most ethical challenges. We theorize that the shift in ethical focus from subject to participant will pose new ethical dilemmas for community-engaged investigators and for other constituents interested in increasing community involvement in health research.

  14. A neurocognitive model of the ethical decision-making process: implications for study and practice.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Scott J

    2006-07-01

    The field of business ethics is entrenched in a cognitive approach that portrays the ethical decision-making process as a completely deliberate and reasoned exercise. In light of growing concerns about the veracity of this approach, I build upon current knowledge of how the brain functions to present a neurocognitive model of ethical decision making. The model suggests that ethical decision making involves 2 interrelated yet functionally distinct cycles, a reflexive pattern matching cycle and a higher order conscious reasoning cycle, and thereby describes not only reasoned analysis, but also the intuitive and retrospective aspects of ethical decision making. The model sparks research in new areas, holds significant implications for the study of ethical decision making, and provides suggestions for improving ethical behavior in organizations.

  15. Ethics committees -- 1990 and beyond: the genie out of the bottle?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hasting Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The implications for ethics committees of the pending federal Patient Self-Determination Act are discussed by John C. Fletcher in "The Patient Self-Determination Act: yes," and by Alexander Morgan Capron in "The Patient Self-Determination Act: not now." The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in "Business ethics in ethics committees?" News items by Thomasine Kushner ("Networks across America") and Todd Sagin ("The Philadelphia story") conclude the column.

  16. Research Ethics: Reforming Postgraduate Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Research ethics is not only a matter of doing no harm, or even abiding by the guidelines of the Ethics Review Board of the institution. While these matters are important and legal requirements, there is much more at stake in discussions of research ethics. Research ethics establish the foundation upon which research rests. Taking the social…

  17. Ethical Issues in Clinical Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Linda L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four papers on ethical issues in physical education clinical settings are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Teaching" (L. Bain); (2) "Ethics in Professional Advising and Academic Counseling of Graduate Students" (G. Roberts); (3) "Ethical Issues in Clinical Services" (R. Singer); and (4) a reaction to the three previous papers by Bonnie Berger.…

  18. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  19. Teaching the Ethics of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

  20. Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

    2008-01-01

    Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

  1. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  2. A discussion of the ethical implications of random drug testing in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Timothy

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses the scientific and ethical implications of random drug testing in the workplace. Random drug testing, particularly in safety-sensitive sectors, is a common practice, yet it has received little critical analysis. My conclusion is that there are important ethical challenges with these programs. Employers must ensure that every aspect of their policies are rooted in scientific evidence, linked rationally to the goal of workplace safety, and are ethically justifiable. PMID:26022100

  3. Dharma and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Sridevi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the numerous policies, regulations and laws aimed at promoting and ensuring ethical practice in healthcare, ethical misconduct remains rampant. Perhaps something more is needed to encourage a genuine and sustained moral attitude and behaviour. To a casual reader, the regulations on ethics read merely as a list of do's and don'ts and their philosophical foundation is not clear. In actuality, morality is often grounded in philosophy. Traditionally, religious and theistic philosophies drove moral behaviour. However, this is changing due to the current trend of secularism. Hindu philosophies are among the oldest philosophies that are still thriving, and this article explores these philosophies and compares and contrasts them with some of the contemporary ethical theories to assess if they can add value to the field of medical ethics. The main theme of the article is dharma or righteous conduct, the concepts related to it and how these can have a bearing on the development of an ethical attitude and the practice of medical ethics. PMID:24152344

  4. Ethical Codes: A Standard for Ethical Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Examines the codes of ethics of three major education associations (the National Association of Secondary School Principals, the National Education Association, and the American Association of School Administrators) and their usefulness in developing a school-specific code. The codes' language reveals how these organizations think about students,…

  5. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts.

  6. Rating Ethical Content-Short Form (RECS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomberg, Anna; Orlova, Darya; Matthews, Amanda; Narvaez, Darcia

    2004-01-01

    The "Rating Ethical Content Scale" ("RECS") judges the content of stories for positive content, based on the Four Process model of ethical behavior: ethical sensitivity, ethical judgment, ethical focus and ethical action (Rest, 1983; Narvaez, & Rest, 1995). For example, a story with Ethical Sensitivity has evidence of concern for others and…

  7. Ethics in Online Publications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Journals have been publishing the results of scientific investigations since the founding of Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Since then we have witnessed a massive expansion in the number of journals to the point that there are now approximately 28,000 active, peer reviewed journals collectively publishing more than 1.8 million articles per year. Before the mid-1990s, these journals were only available on paper but by the end of the 20th century, most journals had moved to online platforms. Online publication has also served as the impetus for the move to ‘open-access’ to the information contained in journals. The fact that a publication is ‘on-line’ and ‘open-access’ does not negate the responsibility of the author and the publisher to publish in an ethical way. [1] The document produced by the IFCC Ethics Task Force (TF-E) on publication ethics states that ‘Ethics in Science at its broadest level encompasses research ethics, medical ethics, publication ethics, conflicts of interest, ethical responsibilities as educator, plus many other areas.’ Thus publication ethics is a continuum from the first step of research design through to the information being read by the reader. In general terms ‘publication ethics’ includes the ethical behaviour of the authors in writing and submitting a scientific manuscript to a publisher for the purpose of publication, thus any discussion of publication ethics must include the role of the authors, referees, publisher and reader and the issues of authorship (and the use of ‘ghosts’), plagiarism, duplicate publication (including in different languages), image manipulation (particularly in the era of digitisation), and conflict of interest [2]. To aid the authors, and others involved in the process of publication, a number of resources are now available particularly those from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) [3] and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) [4]. More recently the issue of

  8. Ethics in Online Publications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Journals have been publishing the results of scientific investigations since the founding of Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Since then we have witnessed a massive expansion in the number of journals to the point that there are now approximately 28,000 active, peer reviewed journals collectively publishing more than 1.8 million articles per year. Before the mid-1990s, these journals were only available on paper but by the end of the 20th century, most journals had moved to online platforms. Online publication has also served as the impetus for the move to ‘open-access’ to the information contained in journals. The fact that a publication is ‘on-line’ and ‘open-access’ does not negate the responsibility of the author and the publisher to publish in an ethical way. [1] The document produced by the IFCC Ethics Task Force (TF-E) on publication ethics states that ‘Ethics in Science at its broadest level encompasses research ethics, medical ethics, publication ethics, conflicts of interest, ethical responsibilities as educator, plus many other areas.’ Thus publication ethics is a continuum from the first step of research design through to the information being read by the reader. In general terms ‘publication ethics’ includes the ethical behaviour of the authors in writing and submitting a scientific manuscript to a publisher for the purpose of publication, thus any discussion of publication ethics must include the role of the authors, referees, publisher and reader and the issues of authorship (and the use of ‘ghosts’), plagiarism, duplicate publication (including in different languages), image manipulation (particularly in the era of digitisation), and conflict of interest [2]. To aid the authors, and others involved in the process of publication, a number of resources are now available particularly those from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) [3] and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) [4]. More recently the issue of

  9. Law and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, D A

    1979-01-01

    Summarising the interrelationship between law and medical ethics, I would say that in cases which do not touch the patient's body or integrity, such as professional secrecy, statutory law may take precedence over rules of medical ethics. But in cases where the human subject becomes a victim because of domestic statutory laws which are in contradiction with medical ethics, the medical practitioners should insist on adhering to their professional standards in such a way that the legislators will have to adapt their legislations to the laws of humanity and public conscience. Legislators, as well as medical practitioners, should not forget that the term 'being' is preceded and qualified by 'human'. PMID:469871

  10. The ethics of life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Small, Robin

    2002-08-01

    Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive--our expectation of further life--and the other negative--the loss of potential life brought about by death. The most common method of determining this loss, by counting only the period of time between death and some particular age, implies that those who die at ages not far from that one are regarded as losing very little potential life, while those who die at greater ages are regarded as losing none at all. This approach has methodological advantages but ethical disadvantages, in that it fails to correspond to our strong belief that anyone who dies is losing some period of life that he or she would otherwise have had. The normative role of life expectancy expressed in the 'fair innings' attitude arises from a particular historical situation: not the increase of life expectancy in modern societies, but a related narrowing in the distribution of projected life spans. Since life expectancy is really a representation of existing patterns of mortality, which in turn are determined by many influences, including the present allocation of health resources, it should not be taken as a prediction, and still less as a statement of entitlement. PMID:12956176

  11. Ethical issues in perinatal genetics.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2011-04-01

    Ethics is an essential dimension of perinatal genetics. This article introduces perinatologists to the ethical principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy and uses these ethical principles to articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient. Together these constitute an ethical framework that we apply to risk assessment, in response to which women may be divided into four groups: prenatal genetic counseling, and the responsible management of pregnancies complicated by genetic anomalies of the fetus.

  12. Ethical issues in perinatal genetics.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2011-04-01

    Ethics is an essential dimension of perinatal genetics. This article introduces perinatologists to the ethical principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy and uses these ethical principles to articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient. Together these constitute an ethical framework that we apply to risk assessment, in response to which women may be divided into four groups: prenatal genetic counseling, and the responsible management of pregnancies complicated by genetic anomalies of the fetus. PMID:21051301

  13. [Ethics and prevention of medicalization].

    PubMed

    Tovar-Bobo, M; Cerecedo-Pérez, M J; Rozadilla-Arias, A

    2013-10-01

    Society has shifted issues of subjective and social reality of the population into the medical field, with the obsession with perfect health becoming a predominant pathogenic factor in the increase in the number of diseases and patients, while the level of health in the population is improving. The power of medicine has made the idea of «medicalising» various aspects of life that can be perceived as medical problems as attractive even when it is not the case. Living entails times of unhappiness and anguish but, should we treat these episodes? We are in the health culture of «everything, here and now». In this article, the ethical implications of unnecessary interventions are analysed, along with the different alternatives that the professionals involved may perform to redirect this situation. It is reflected if we want a world where we all risk wearing labels for this or that disease. PMID:23768567

  14. Making Moral Mistakes: What Ethical Failure Can Teach Students About Life and Leadership.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Jon C

    2015-01-01

    Learning from ethical failures is critical for overall character development as well as an important aspect in the formation of student leaders. This chapter examines types of ethical failure that students often confront in college. The author includes a personal moral failure that occurred when he was a student leader.

  15. Ethical Research Practices across Disciplinary Boundaries: The Process of Research Involving Children with a Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Colette; Carville, Sheelagh

    2008-01-01

    Despite the plethora of papers reporting evidence from studies examining aspects of child development, there was until quite recently a dearth of literature on the ethical implications of research involving children and vulnerable groups. To inform the debate, this paper begins by drawing a distinction between ethical and methodological approaches…

  16. Ethics and Body Politics: Interdisciplinary Possibilities for Embodied Psychotherapeutic Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegranti, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Ethical approaches to practice and research in counselling and arts/psychotherapies demand an urgent attention to body politics. Bodies are not neutral; gender, sexuality, ethnicity and class are socio-political aspects that shape our mental, emotional and physical selves and inform our ethical values. Drawing from the author's embodied practice…

  17. The Educational Efficacy of a Values-Based Online Tool in a Public Health Ethics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripken, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the educational efficacy of an online software decision-making program, The Values Exchange. While ethics is a vital aspect of educating public health professionals, it is both difficult to teach and assess. There is a need to identify best practices in the pedagogy of public health ethics and in…

  18. Counterfactual Thinking and Ethical Decision Making: A New Approach to an Old Problem for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The present study extends understanding of the self-regulatory aspects of ethical decision making by integrating and exploring relationships among counterfactual thinking, attribution, anticipatory emotions, and ethical decision-making constructs and processes. Specifically, we examine the effects of a manipulation designed to stimulate a…

  19. Heritage ethics: Toward a thicker account of nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2016-02-01

    The key to understanding the moral identity of modern nursing and the distinctiveness of nursing ethics resides in a deeper examination of the extensive nursing ethics literature and history from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, that is, prior to the "bioethics revolution". There is a distinctive nursing ethics, but one that falls outside both biomedical and bioethics and is larger than either. Were, there a greater corpus of research on nursing's heritage ethics it would decidedly recondition the entire argument about a distinctive nursing ethics. It would also provide a thicker account of nursing ethics than has been afforded thus far. Such research is dependent upon identifying, locating, accessing and, more importantly, sharing these resources. A number of important heritage ethics sources are identified so that researchers might better locate them. In addition, a bibliography of heritage ethics textbooks and a transcript of the earliest known journal article on nursing ethics in the US are provided. PMID:26602787

  20. Heritage ethics: Toward a thicker account of nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2016-02-01

    The key to understanding the moral identity of modern nursing and the distinctiveness of nursing ethics resides in a deeper examination of the extensive nursing ethics literature and history from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, that is, prior to the "bioethics revolution". There is a distinctive nursing ethics, but one that falls outside both biomedical and bioethics and is larger than either. Were, there a greater corpus of research on nursing's heritage ethics it would decidedly recondition the entire argument about a distinctive nursing ethics. It would also provide a thicker account of nursing ethics than has been afforded thus far. Such research is dependent upon identifying, locating, accessing and, more importantly, sharing these resources. A number of important heritage ethics sources are identified so that researchers might better locate them. In addition, a bibliography of heritage ethics textbooks and a transcript of the earliest known journal article on nursing ethics in the US are provided.

  1. Korean nursing students' ethical problems and ethical decision making.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Cameron, Miriam E; Han, Sung-Suk; Ahn, Sung-Hee; Oh, Hyo-Sook; Kim, Kyeong-Uoon

    2003-11-01

    This Korean study replicated a previously published American study. The conceptual framework and method combined ethical enquiry and phenomenology. The research questions were: (1) What is nursing students' experience of ethical problems involving nursing practice? and, (2) What is nursing students' experience of using an ethical decision-making model? The participants were 97 senior baccalaureate nursing students, each of whom described one ethical problem and chose to use one of five ethical decision-making models. From 97 ethical problems, five content categories emerged, the largest being health professionals (69%). The basic nature of the ethical problems was the students' experience of conflict, resolution and rationale. Using an ethical decision-making model helped 94% of the students. A comparison of the Korean and American results yields important implications for nursing ethics education, practice and research. PMID:14650482

  2. Professional Ethics of Software Engineers: An Ethical Framework.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Yotam; Mark, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an ethical framework for software engineers that connects software developers' ethical responsibilities directly to their professional standards. The implementation of such an ethical framework can overcome the traditional dichotomy between professional skills and ethical skills, which plagues the engineering professions, by proposing an approach to the fundamental tasks of the practitioner, i.e., software development, in which the professional standards are intrinsically connected to the ethical responsibilities. In so doing, the ethical framework improves the practitioner's professionalism and ethics. We call this approach Ethical-Driven Software Development (EDSD), as an approach to software development. EDSD manifests the advantages of an ethical framework as an alternative to the all too familiar approach in professional ethics that advocates "stand-alone codes of ethics". We believe that one outcome of this synergy between professional and ethical skills is simply better engineers. Moreover, since there are often different software solutions, which the engineer can provide to an issue at stake, the ethical framework provides a guiding principle, within the process of software development, that helps the engineer evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different software solutions. It does not and cannot affect the end-product in and of-itself. However, it can and should, make the software engineer more conscious and aware of the ethical ramifications of certain engineering decisions within the process.

  3. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  4. Frankenstein, Dolly, and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A growing cadre of science teachers and researchers are developing curriculum blueprints for teaching the science and ethics of genetics to help students put advances in biotechnology into proper perspective. Lists five sources for teaching genetics. (MLF)

  5. Brain resuscitation. Ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Omery, A; Caswell, D

    1989-03-01

    Brain resuscitation is the newest in a long line of treatment protocols that is designed to aid us in sustaining not just life, but quality life in the critical care setting. Like other, previously established protocols, it is not value free. Its implementation brings ethical considerations that must be addressed. If the issues are not addressed, there is the real danger that the resulting moral dilemmas will overwhelm the nurse. In brain resuscitation, there are at least three ethical issues that must be recognized. These are the role of resuscitation in the life process, allocation of scarce resources, and participation in research. To address these issues, nurses will have to be aware of the ethical principle and/or perspectives involved. For some of these issues, the solutions will have to come from nursing's national organizations, such as the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Other solutions presented will require the nurse to come to an individual decision regarding the ethics of brain resuscitation. The journey to the conclusion of this discussion will end with disappointment for those who sought an algorhythm or decision tree with which to make definitive decisions in regard to ethical decisions about brain resuscitation. To have assumed that such an absolute discussion in regard to the ethical perspectives related to brain resuscitation is possible or even desirable would have been to deny the moral/ethical responsibilities of the nurse who practices in a critical care setting. While these ethical responsibilities can be overwhelmingly burdensome, they can also be opportunities. They can be positive opportunities for our health care colleagues, our patients, and ourselves. PMID:2803694

  6. Ethics of international collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Dinoop, KP; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Education and research together are vital components of academic institutions and globalization has improved health care education and research in numerous ways, one of which is multinational/transnational research/international collaboration. Usually academic institutions of high-income countries and institutions in low-income countries participate in collaboration. These collaborative research are guided by international ethics codes proposed by the international ethics committee to avoid stringent follow/unethical practices. PMID:25709946

  7. Ethics for electic utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, C.W.; Toffler, B.L. )

    1991-05-15

    This article examines the ethical challenges of remaining honest and fair when the playing field of competition does not appear to be level. Topics discussed include measuring performance, monitoring use of services, public opinion of utility integrity and commitment to service, making ethical concerns and language a part of the management decision process, and communication of moral issues to a place where resolution can occur.

  8. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  9. Expanding nurses' participation in ethics: an empirical examination of ethical activism and ethical assertiveness.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Sarah-Jane; Jansson, Bruce S; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Shirk, Marilyn; Wunch, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This research project investigated the extent to which nurses engage in two important kinds of ethical behaviours: ethical activism (where they try to make hospitals more receptive to nurses' participation in ethics deliberations) and ethical assertiveness (where they participate in ethics deliberations even when not formally invited). This research probed not only the extent to which nurses engage in these ethical behaviours but also whether this is influenced by professional, training and organizational factors. A random sample of 165 nurses from three major hospitals in Los Angeles provided the data. Regression analyses indicate that both ethical activism and ethical assertiveness are strongly influenced by nurses' perceptions of the receptivity of hospitals to their inclusion in ethics deliberations. In addition, nurses' education in ethics is a significant predictor of ethical activism. The findings have important implications for the content of nurses' ethics training as well as for expanding the boundaries of nurses' participation in ethics deliberations. The authors define ethics deliberations as specific meetings of a number of people to discuss an ethical issue, such as one regarding the care of a patient. PMID:14763647

  10. Ethical Ambiguity in Science.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David R; Ecklund, Elaine Howard

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on 171 in-depth interviews with physicists at universities in the United States and the UK, this study examines the narratives of 48 physicists to explain the concept of ethical ambiguity: the border where legitimate and illegitimate conduct is blurred. Researchers generally assume that scientists agree on what constitutes both egregious and more routine forms of misconduct in science. The results of this study show that scientists perceive many scenarios as ethically gray, rather than black and white. Three orientations to ethical ambiguity are considered-altruism, inconsequential outcomes, and preserving the status quo-that allow possibly questionable behavior to persist unchallenged. Each discursive strategy is rationalized as promoting the collective interest of science rather than addressing what is ethically correct or incorrect. The results of this study suggest that ethics training in science should focus not only on fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism and more routine forms of misconduct, but also on strategies for resolving ethically ambiguous scenarios where appropriate action may not be clear.

  11. Ethical care at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Latimer, E J

    1998-06-30

    In treating dying patients, who by virtue of their physical and emotional situation are frail and vulnerable, physicians must meet a high standard of professional, ethical care. Such a standard is based upon a philosophy of care that recognizes the patients' inherent worth as human beings and their uniqueness as individuals. The ethical and virtuous physician will practice in accordance with the principles of biomedical ethics that form the foundations of thought and treatment approaches in this area and will seek to do the best for the patient and the family. "Doing the best" includes respecting autonomy through gentle truth-telling, helping the patient and family to set treatment goals, and providing for symptom control, continuing attentive care and accompaniment throughout the course of the illness. Total care includes physical, emotional and spiritual aspects, is sensitive to cultural values and is best provided by an interdisciplinary team. Practices of symptom control in routine care and in crisis situations, as well as the cessation and non-initiation of treatment, will have as their goals the relief and comfort of the patient. The ethical physician will not act with the intention of bringing about the death of the patient, whether by ordering medication in excess of that required for symptom control, administering a lethal injection or any other means.

  12. Peer Mediation Programs in Schools: Resolving Classroom Conflict but Raising Ethical Concerns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozmus, Kelly

    1997-01-01

    Peer mediation programs' flexibility is their major strength and a potential weakness. The article examines positive and negative aspects of peer mediation programs; discusses implementation, evaluation, and funding mechanisms; and explores ethical concerns, highlighting accessibility, acceptance, accountability, supervision, training, and…

  13. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  14. Public titles of clinical trials should have ethics review.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Carla; Reveiz, Ludovic; Tisdale, John F

    2015-09-01

    A key aspect to guarantee that research with human subjects is ethical is being overlooked. Ethics review committees invest great effort examining the informed consent documents of research protocols to ensure that potential participants can provide consent validly and are not deluded into thinking that the experimental intervention they may sign up for is already known to be therapeutic. However, these efforts to avoid what is called the "therapeutic misconception" might be in vain if the title with which the studies are being introduced to the potential participants escapes ethics review. Research participants might be deceived by clinical trials entitled "novel therapy" when the point of the trial is precisely to find out whether the intervention at stake is therapeutic or not. Providing potential research participants with such misleading information hampers their ability to make informed decisions. The well-established scrutiny that ethics review committees exercise with regard to consent forms is limited if the registration of clinical trials, for which a public title is chosen, constitutes a process that is independent from the ethics review. In this article, we examine this problem, assess recent measures to integrate clinical trial registration with ethics review processes, and provide specific recommendations to solve the problem and ultimately enhance the accountability, transparency, and ethics of research with human subjects.

  15. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics.

  16. Errant corporations, diffuse responsibilities, and the environment: ethical issues in the Orica case study.

    PubMed

    Grace, Damian

    2009-04-01

    The papers in this volume deal with various aspects of the HCB legacy at the Orica plant at Botany. Whether explicitly or implicitly, they are concerned with questions of ethics; with the just distribution of burdens and benefits; with just processes for disposing of dangerous industrial waste; and with a just custodianship of the Botany environment. These ethical issues illustrate the difficulty of securing corporate accountability, and the elusiveness of responsibility within organisations. This paper reflects on some of the issues for ethics raised by the Orica case and their significance for corporate ethics.

  17. Errant corporations, diffuse responsibilities, and the environment: ethical issues in the Orica case study.

    PubMed

    Grace, Damian

    2009-04-01

    The papers in this volume deal with various aspects of the HCB legacy at the Orica plant at Botany. Whether explicitly or implicitly, they are concerned with questions of ethics; with the just distribution of burdens and benefits; with just processes for disposing of dangerous industrial waste; and with a just custodianship of the Botany environment. These ethical issues illustrate the difficulty of securing corporate accountability, and the elusiveness of responsibility within organisations. This paper reflects on some of the issues for ethics raised by the Orica case and their significance for corporate ethics. PMID:18762363

  18. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Macklin, R

    1992-01-01

    Ethical issues of RU-486 in the US are the same as those of any new medical technology, but the politics of abortion can tempt us to believe that antiprogestins pose new ethical hazards. Good facts are needed to have good ethics. Risk-benefit assessments reveal medical facts and begin with clinical trials, evaluating RU-486's effectiveness and the degree and likelihood it causes harm, discomfort, and side effects. They should also consider social and psychological risks and benefits. Clinical trails in Los Angeles show that women who had previously undergone a surgical abortion method found RU-486 to be a less violent abortion method. Antiabortion proponents misconstrue this benefit to be a disadvantage, because they believe women undergoing abortion should suffer from pain and suffering. Even though an international convention ensures reproductive freedom for women, women must be informed about and have access to all family planning services in order to exercise this right. Ethics and the law require voluntary, informed consent. Yet, the US prevents workers at federally-funded family planning programs from providing clients any information on abortion, thereby violating this ethical requirement. Ethical precepts are also violated by denying women their right to privacy and by the punitive actions taken against women undergoing abortion by physicians, other health workers, and antiabortion proponents. Ru-486 allows women to undergo an abortion in private. Abortion opponents consider this privacy a disadvantage, because they lose targets for picketing, harassment, and violence. They believe that the improved access to abortion awarded by RU-486 would make abortion emotionally easier for women, leading to an increase in the number of abortions. Yet, there is no empirical evidence to support this. Again they see a benefit (decreased psychological stress) as a disadvantage. Ethical arguments show that RU-486 provides women greater health benefits, fosters their right

  19. Scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Holland, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Nursing ethics centres on how nurses ought to respond to the moral situations that arise in their professional contexts. Nursing ethicists invoke normative approaches from moral philosophy. Specifically, it is increasingly common for nursing ethicists to apply virtue ethics to moral problems encountered by nurses. The point of this article is to argue for scepticism about this approach. First, the research question is motivated by showing that requirements on nurses such as to be kind, do not suffice to establish virtue ethics in nursing because normative rivals (such as utilitarians) can say as much; and the teleology distinctive of virtue ethics does not transpose to a professional context, such as nursing. Next, scepticism is argued for by responding to various attempts to secure a role for virtue ethics in nursing. The upshot is that virtue ethics is best left where it belongs - in personal moral life, not professional ethics - and nursing ethics is best done by taking other approaches.

  20. Scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Holland, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Nursing ethics centres on how nurses ought to respond to the moral situations that arise in their professional contexts. Nursing ethicists invoke normative approaches from moral philosophy. Specifically, it is increasingly common for nursing ethicists to apply virtue ethics to moral problems encountered by nurses. The point of this article is to argue for scepticism about this approach. First, the research question is motivated by showing that requirements on nurses such as to be kind, do not suffice to establish virtue ethics in nursing because normative rivals (such as utilitarians) can say as much; and the teleology distinctive of virtue ethics does not transpose to a professional context, such as nursing. Next, scepticism is argued for by responding to various attempts to secure a role for virtue ethics in nursing. The upshot is that virtue ethics is best left where it belongs - in personal moral life, not professional ethics - and nursing ethics is best done by taking other approaches. PMID:20536764

  1. [The contagion of adolescent suicide: cultural, ethical and psychosocial aspects].

    PubMed

    Gérard, N; Delvenne, V; Nicolis, H

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents. The risk factors are many and varied. The contagion of suicide was raised as a potential cause of youth suicide. In support of this argument, we did a review of the literature on the possible contagion of adolescent suicide. Several types of situations can support this hypothesis : when a youth is faced with the suicide of a relative or close friend, when he lived in a community, through the media or via the Internet. The way suicide is reported in the press shows a correlation with increased incidence of suicide among adolescents. In summary, there is evidence increasingly obvious that the contagion is the source of some youth suicides. For this reason, it seems important that preventive measures are in place. However, although this mechanism has been instrumental in initiating the act, it is important to note that suicide is always the result of several factors including the personal history of the subject.

  2. [The digital looking glass: ethical aspects of large data collections].

    PubMed

    Witt, Elke

    2015-08-01

    The increase in the quality and quantity of health-related data stored and analyzed in different contexts is leading to new challenges to the protection of privacy. To demonstrate the major challenges, a description of the main categories of large data collections is given, followed by a short analysis of their current data security demands. The rising possibilities and risks that emerge from the increasing potential of big data methods of aggregation and the analysis of the huge amount of health-related data are discussed in light of the question: should new ways be found to further ensure the right to privacy? PMID:26092164

  3. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market.

  4. The fetal patient – ethical aspects of fetal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Deprest, J.; Toelen, J.; Debyser, Z.; Rodrigues, C.; Devlieger, R.; De Catte, L.; Lewi, L.; Van Mieghem, T.; Naulaers, G.; Vandevelde, M.; Claus, F.; Dierickx, K.

    2011-01-01

    The pregnant patient is a vulnerable subject, and even more so when a serious fetal condition is diagnosed. (Invasive) fetal therapy should only be offered when there is a good chance that the life of the fetus will be saved, or irreversible damage by the disease or disability is prevented. Following diagnosis of a potentially treatable condition, the patient needs to be referred to a center with sufficient expertise in diagnosis and all therapeutic options. Preferences of the physician towards one or another antenatal intervention is not at stake prior to that moment. When fetal therapy is justified, it should be offered with full respect for maternal choice and individual assessment and perception of potential risks, and should be at the location where there is sufficient expertise. For therapies of unproven benefit, the absence of evidence must be disclosed, and therapy should only be undertaken with full voluntary consent of the mother. These ought to be undertaken within well designed and approved trials and only by experts in the treatment modality. Potential risks and eventual morbidities in case of therapeutic failure should be part of the counselling, neither should fetal therapy be presented as an alternative to termination of pregnancy PMID:24753868

  5. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market. PMID:25164164

  6. Ethics: views from IACUC members.

    PubMed

    Houde, Lisa; Dumas, Claude; Leroux, Thérèse

    2009-07-01

    Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members were interviewed on various ethical matters, including ethics, animal ethics, science and ethics, and the use of animals in research, in order to explore their implicit ethical framework. The results revealed that IACUC members entertain rich and diverse beliefs about ethics, that are part of an implicit ethical framework which relates to different domains of knowledge, such as biology (differences between human and animals), psychology (e.g. affective relationships with pets), and so on. The results also revealed that IACUC members hold quite a restrictive view on both animal ethics and animal use in research, and that they apply implicit ethical notions, such as respect and justice, to some elements (e.g. ethical rules) of the explicit ethical framework they are provided with when performing ethical evaluations of animal use. The study suggests that IACUC members should be provided with more up-to-date information on topics such as animal ethics and animal use in research.

  7. The development of computer ethics: contributions from business ethics and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Wong, K; Steinke, G

    2000-04-01

    In this essay, we demonstrate that the field of computer ethics shares many core similarities with two other areas of applied ethics. Academicians writing and teaching in the area of computer ethics, along with practitioners, must address ethical issues that are qualitatively similar in nature to those raised in medicine and business. In addition, as academic disciplines, these three fields also share some similar concerns. For example, all face the difficult challenge of maintaining a credible dialogue with diverse constituents such as academicians of various disciplines, professionals, policymakers, and the general public. Given these similarities, the fields of bioethics and business ethics can serve as useful models for the development of computer ethics.

  8. [Ethical problems in genetics and reproduction medicine].

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ch J; Huber, J C

    2002-01-01

    Novel knowledge in the fields of molecular biology, genetics and reproductive medicine will revolutionize medicine in the near future. Among many new therapeutical aspects arise a number ethical questions that include preimplantation diagnostics, embryonic stem cell research and gene therapy. Believing in scientific progress is often criticized but today it is primarily ignorance as well as fundamentalism that block sensible discussions. In the future it shall be of importance to differentiate between "to be alive" and "to have a life", hence yielding a new definition of the term "life". Also important is to keep in mind the difference between individual moral claims and general ethics. Without doubt, the current developments in medicine will bring about interesting consequences but the inherent dangers are recognizable as well. However, only a positive attitude will result in beneficial developments. More flexibility on all sides will be needed in the concurrent discussion process.

  9. The social individual in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    1992-01-01

    Except for several provocative final sentences, Sigrid Fry-Revere's "A Libertarian Critique of H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.'s The Foundations of Bioethics" is not a libertarian so much as it is a philosophical critique. Engelhardt's work has been widely reviewed, and its arguments have been discussed in Fry-Revere's article and elsewhere. Although it would be impractical in this context to undertake the development of a full-scale, philosophical alternative to libertarianism in bioethics, some recent work in philosophy and clinical ethics bears strongly on the challenge that Engelhardt's work represents. In this commentary I will focus on the implications of a certain alternative philosophy -- and by comparison the limitations of Engelhardt's libertarianism -- for one important aspect of clinical ethics: our understanding of the nature of individuality, with special reference to the situation of the patient. I write as an admiring critic of Engelhardt's work, from which I have learned and drawn inspiration....

  10. Ethics and Motivation in Remedial Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article examines motivational potentialities in remedial mathematics education within an ethical context, applying a model for ethical decision making in education developed by Shapiro and Stefkovich, in which three broad ethical categories are discussed: the ethic of justice, the ethic of care, and the ethic of critique. These ethical…

  11. ASCA Ethical Standards and the Relevance of Eastern Ethical Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical…

  12. Ethical Becoming: Adult Ethical Development in Christian Congregations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Davin J.

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of adult ethical development in Christian congregations. Using an empirical hermeneutic phenomenological methodology, this study examined how five pastors understand and encourage ethical development, developing an in-depth analysis and interpretation of their perceptions of the phenomenon of adult ethical development. Two primary…

  13. The Most Exciting Thing: Researcher Ethics and Personal Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This autoethnographic chapter explores the thoughts, feelings, desires, and ethical struggles of the author when he rode along with a patrol officer and saw a dead body. Drawing on communication ethics, the author problematizes his ethics, faith, identity, and personal desires. He learns it is important for researchers to consider their personal…

  14. Work Ethic Characteristics: Perceived Work Ethics of Supervisors and Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Gregory C.; Hill, Roger B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the work ethics of supervisors with that of the employees they manage. The study investigated the occupational work ethics of both workers and their supervisors in a variety of businesses and industries to determine if there was a significant difference in the work ethics of these two groups as measured by…

  15. Biomedical patents and ethics: a Canadian solution.

    PubMed

    Gold, E R

    2000-05-01

    World Trade Organization member states are preparing for the upcoming renegotiation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. One of the important elements of that renegotiation is the ethical considerations regarding the patenting of higher life forms and their component parts (e.g. DNA and cell-lines). The interface between the genetic revolution, patentability, and ethical considerations is the subject of this article. The author identifies, explores, and critiques four possible positions Canada may adopt in respect of patentability of biomedical material. First, Canada could do nothing. This approach would mean keeping biomedical materials outside the patent system and outside the stream of commerce. Canada would simply wait for an international consensus to develop before adopting a position of its own. Second, Canada could go it alone. It could implement a policy that balances the incentive effects of patents with the need to incorporate ethical and social values into the decision-making process regarding the use of biomedical materials. In respect of this option, the author proposes a model whereby non-profit bodies would hold the exclusive rights to research, use, and exploit biomedical materials. Third, Canada could follow the United States, Europe, and Japan by providing for almost unrestricted patenting of biomedical materials. This would be the most industry-friendly alternative. The fourth and final option is to use the medicare system to promote discussion of ethical considerations involved in the use of biomedical materials. The power of provincial health agencies may be used as a lever to ensure the discussion of ethical considerations concerning the use of biomedical materials. The author concludes that the fourth and final option is the best alternative for Canada while waiting for an international consensus to emerge.

  16. Ethical, legal, and societal issues and recommendations for controlled and uncontrolled DCD.

    PubMed

    Haase, Bernadette; Bos, Michael; Boffa, Catherine; Lewis, Penney; Rudge, Chris; Valero, Ricard; Wind, Tineke; Wright, Linda

    2016-07-01

    This report deals with organ retrieval procedures in both controlled and uncontrolled DCD, looking at the ethical, legal, and psychosocial aspects during the different phases of the process. A recently published report by the UK Donation Ethics Committee (UKDEC) has served as an important reference document to outline the steps in the controlled DCD patient-donor pathway (Academy of Medical Royal Colleges. UK Donation Ethics Committee. An ethical framework for controlled donation after circulatory death. December 2011). For uncontrolled DCD, the UKDEC pathway description was adapted. At the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013, an established expert European Working Group reviewed the UKDEC reports, which were then considered along with the available published literature. Along this pathway, the crucial ethical, legal, and psychosocial aspects have been flagged, and relevant recommendations have been formulated based on a consensus of the working group. PMID:26581182

  17. Ethics and Transcultural Nursing Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliason, Michele J.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that nursing practice and theory cannot be ethical unless cultural factors are taken into consideration and that ethical/transcultural nursing is central to the philosophy and practice of nursing. (Author)

  18. Teaching Ethics to Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joyce E.; Thompson, Henry O.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss the ethics content to be taught in nursing education and the goals of ethics education for both undergraduate and graduate students. Teacher qualifications and evaluation of learning are also considered. (CH)

  19. Is Your (Ethical) Slippage Showing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Lowell G.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the causes of ethical slippage which damages creditability and invites increased governmental regulation. Suggests 15 concrete steps that can be taken to rectify the situation. Includes an ethics test. (JOW)

  20. Ethics and nuclear arms: European and American perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical and moral aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the development of a nuclear policy, war and peace in the nuclear age, the viewpoint of the German churches, the US Catholic bishops and nuclear arms, nuclear pacifism, NATO and ''first use,'' and Christian morality with regard to nuclear arms.

  1. Room with a View: Ethical Encounters in Room 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grube, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes ethical encounters in Room 13, a schoolroom where children made what they wanted, posed their own questions, and ran an art room like a small business. In Room 13 children had the responsibility to maintain all aspects of the art studio. Specific decisions fell to an annually elected management team, a small…

  2. Balancing ethical decisions and financial constraints in practice.

    PubMed

    2016-05-28

    Some vets find charging properly for their services to be a stressful and challenging aspect of practice. However, as James Yeates argued during a session at the BSAVA congress in Birmingham last month, charging correctly can be justified both economically and ethically. Laura Honey reports. PMID:27235491

  3. Selling the Work Ethic: From Puritan Pulpit to Corporate PR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Sharon

    This book provides an account and critique of the work ethic, a central aspect of modern capitalist society. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 considers social changes in Europe in the 16th-17th centuries, maintaining that work was imbued with moral qualities and wealth seeking acquired social legitimacy through religious sanction. Chapter 3…

  4. Sport and Technology: Ethics on the Cutting Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, William H.

    This paper deals with growing ethical dilemmas in sport as technology advances. Three aspects of sport are discussed: (l) the perpetual conflict between process (training) and product (the actual contest); (2) technophobia, the fear of the new world of technology; and (3) "technosport" or technological training. It is necessary to understand that…

  5. Ethics and Morality in Software Development: A Developer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Computers and other digital devices have become ubiquitous in our lives. Almost all aspects of our lives are in part or wholly impacted by computers and the software that runs on them. Unknowingly, we are placing our livelihoods and even our lives in the hands unknown software developers. Ethical and moral decisions made during software…

  6. The Ethics of Screening for Early Intervention in HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Carol; Bayer, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the ethical aspects of screening and testing for clinical detection of individuals infected with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Careful consideration must be given to individuals' rights, respect for their privacy, and society's obligations to provide needed clinical and social services in translating cautious medical…

  7. Overstepping the Mark: Ethics Procedures, Risky Research and Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine Lomas; Fonseca, Lariane

    2010-01-01

    The authors reflect on the nature and experience of the process of ethics approval applied to educational research in Australia. Drawing on examples, dysfunctional aspects are identified, which impact most powerfully on particular individuals and groups. Possible explanations for the current situation are discussed, and an argument is made for a…

  8. An Approach to Ethics Utilizing the Experience of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    Delineates a generalized difference between men and women in approaches to ethics. Reiterates Carol Gilligan's theory that men generally believe in a morality of rights whereas women subscribe to a morality of relationships. Discusses other aspects of this dichotomy including ideas of good, evil, and sin. (MJP)

  9. When Values and Ethics Conflict: The Counselor's Role and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Glenda R.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…

  10. Law and Ethics for Practitioners in Counseling and Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Dean L.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses pertinent aspects of law and ethics as they relate to practitioners in counseling and guidance. Identifies major areas and cites cases that involve civil liability litigation. Also discusses the rights of minors in cases dealing with child abuse and abortion. (ML)

  11. The Internationalisation of Higher Education: Some Ethical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    All the papers included in this volume implicitly adopt an ethical stance towards the aspect of internationalisation that they investigate or discuss, but necessarily these stances only occasionally become explicit. In this paper, therefore, I look at the impact of internationalisation on universities and at their impact in turn on the…

  12. A study of an ethics education topic for undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzidis, Evdokia; Schmitz, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to explore nursing students' perceptions of the relative value of various aspects of the ethical component of the undergraduate topic, 'Ethics and Law applied to Nursing' (topic NURS2104). To enable time for reflection on ethics in nursing, sampling occurred 1 year after successful completion of the above-mentioned topic and after successful completion of all but the final clinical experience components of the Bachelor of Nursing (BN) degree. A significant proportion of respondents perceived ethics education as relevant to professional practices. It is also noteworthy that the ethical decision-making strategies that had been incorporated into the topic (NURS2104) became transformed by the clinical experience of each particular student. While results of this study are not conclusive, they nevertheless provide important information for future nursing students on the evolutionary development of ethics education.

  13. Cross-Cultural Considerations in U.S. Research Ethics Education

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Demand among graduate and postdoctoral trainees for international research experience brings together students and investigators from increasingly diverse cultural backgrounds around the world. Educators in research ethics and scientific integrity need to address the cultural aspects of both science and ethics to help all trainees learn ethical practices for effective collaboration with a diverse array of partners. NIH and NSF’s mandates for instruction in the responsible conduct of research do not specifically address the needs of international trainees or U.S. trainees who undertake research projects abroad. Nonetheless, research ethics educators’ typical focus on policy and professional standards can offer trainees and faculty investigators helpful insights into differing ethical values and priorities in research. Examination of linguistic differences can also reveal important conceptual frameworks that shape ethical practice. New resources for teaching research integrity in cross-cultural settings can be a valuable addition to the development of shared understanding of the goals of scientific research. PMID:25574262

  14. Personality and ethical decision-making in research: the role of perceptions of self and others.

    PubMed

    Antes, Alison L; Brown, Ryan P; Murphy, Stephen T; Waples, Ethan P; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D

    2007-12-01

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED BASIC PERSONALITY characteristics, narcissism, and cynicism as predictors of ethical decision-making among graduate students training for careers in the sciences. Participants completed individual difference measures along with a scenario-based ethical decision-making measure that captures the complex, multifaceted nature of ethical decision-making in scientific research. The results revealed that narcissism and cynicism (individual differences influencing self-perceptions and perceptions of others) showed consistently negative relationships with aspects of ethical decision-making, whereas more basic personality characteristics (e.g., conscientiousness, agreeableness) were less consistent and weaker. Further analyses examined the relationship of personality to metacognitive reasoning strategies and socialbehavioral response patterns thought to underlie ethical decision-making. The findings indicated that personality was associated with many of these social-cognitive mechanisms which might, in part, explain the association between personality and ethical decisions.

  15. Do Brazilian scientific journals promote the adherence of Chagas disease researchers to international ethical principles?

    PubMed

    Malafaia, Guilherme; Guilhem, Dirce; Talvani, André

    2013-01-01

    The ethical aspects of the Brazilian publications about human Chagas disease (CD) developed between 1996 and 2010 and the policy adopted by Brazilian medical journals were analyzed. Articles were selected on the SciELO Brazil data basis, and the evaluation of ethical aspects was based on the normative contents about ethics in research involving human experimentation according to the Brazilian resolution of the National Health Council no. 196/1996. The editorial policies of the section "Instructions to authors" were analyzed. In the period of 1996-2012, 58.9% of articles involving human Chagas disease did not refer to the fulfillment of the ethical aspects concerning research with human beings. In 80% of the journals, the requirements and confirmation of the information about ethical aspects in the studies of human CD were not observed. Although a failure in this type of service is still observed, awareness has been raised in federal agencies, educational institutions/research and publishing groups to standardize the procedures and ethical requirements for the Brazilian journals, reinforcing the fulfillment of the ethical parameters, according to the resolution of NHC no. 196/1996.

  16. Ethics of scientific publication

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Published scientific research breeds the development of clinical management guidelines and pathways. Currently, scholarly proficiency is assessed using numerous primitive metrics for incentives that can kindle publication of hoax or flawed research content. Such flawed data can lead to wastage of resources, time, and most importantly harm to the society. Authors, editors, and peer reviewers need to be genuine in conducting, analyzing, and publication of scientific research. Institutions need to be aware and utilize advanced metrics to assess the scientific reputation of researchers. This short review discusses in brief the common authorship and editorial ethical issues encountered in scientific publication and the newer metrics available for the assessment of scholarly excellence. Editors and peer reviewers need to be acquainted with the common ethical issues and follow consensus international guidelines on publication ethics to tackle them appropriately. PMID:27722097

  17. Ethical issues and addiction.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Binta; Scheiner, Melissa; Campbell, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    The epidemic of substance abuse continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians nationwide. Although there is a tendency to simply associate drug abuse with poverty, the problem affects every social stratum gender and race; and pregnant women are no exception. Caring for pregnant, substance-using women and their infants presents complex legal and ethical issues. Debate is ongoing about whether criminal penalties should be imposed on women based solely on their use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. Furthermore, controversies persist about the rights and wishes of pregnant women versus the interests of their fetuses. For health professionals, conflict arises when the pregnant woman chooses behaviors that have the potential to harm the developing fetus. The ethical dilemma arises from competing autonomy-based and beneficence-based obligations to the maternal-fetal dyad. This chapter explores the ethics-based conflicts in the delivery of health care to drug abusing pregnant women.

  18. Ethics of vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

    2011-10-01

    Ethical issues are present at each stage in the vaccine product life cycle, the period extending from the earliest stages of research through the eventual design and implementation of global vaccination programs. Recent developments highlight fundamental principles of vaccine ethics and raise unique issues for ongoing vaccination activities worldwide. These include the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination campaign, renewed attention to the potential global eradication of polio, and the ongoing evaluation of vaccine risk controversies, most notably the alleged link between childhood vaccines and autism. These cases present ethical challenges for public health policy-makers, scientists, physicians, and other stakeholders in their efforts to improve the health of individuals, communities, and nations through vaccination. PMID:22440783

  19. Ethical issues in immunisation.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette

    2009-01-29

    Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes.

  20. Ethics of vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

    2011-10-01

    Ethical issues are present at each stage in the vaccine product life cycle, the period extending from the earliest stages of research through the eventual design and implementation of global vaccination programs. Recent developments highlight fundamental principles of vaccine ethics and raise unique issues for ongoing vaccination activities worldwide. These include the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination campaign, renewed attention to the potential global eradication of polio, and the ongoing evaluation of vaccine risk controversies, most notably the alleged link between childhood vaccines and autism. These cases present ethical challenges for public health policy-makers, scientists, physicians, and other stakeholders in their efforts to improve the health of individuals, communities, and nations through vaccination.

  1. Ethical issues in disasters.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Fatimah

    2011-08-01

    A disaster is a situation that overwhelms the local population's capacity to respond, thus necessitating a request for assistance from outside the impacted area. In these circumstances, needs usually outweigh resources. The objective of response is to do the greatest good for the greatest number of people (the utilitarian principle). As such, some unique ethical considerations will arise that are not seen in day-to-day practice.The adoption of medical ethics principles is important in such situations, but certain provisions must be accepted. In large-scale, complex disasters, it may be impossible to provide optimal care to each patient. This paper will discuss some of the challenges for healthcare personnel at "ground zero", how training in preventive ethics may help, and what principles can be applied when working in disaster-affected areas or when responding to disasters.

  2. Ethics in neurodevelopmental disability.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Bell, Emily; Shevell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, like autism spectrum disorders and cerebral palsy are a common health problem in children. Given the impact of these conditions on children, families, and healthcare and social systems, the care of developmentally challenged children raises questions related to values and ethical principles. We review the common features of neurodevelopmental disorders that help understand the associated ethical questions. We focus on three major areas where ethical questions arise for clinicians and those involved in making decisions for or caring for these children: (1) the principles of decision-making and autonomy as they relate to developmental disability; (2) the issues related to quality of life that have long intersected with developmental disability; and (3) the use of unproven therapies and diagnostics that are particularly controversial given the extent that neurodevelopmental disabilities impact children and their families, yet active treatments options are limited. PMID:24182383

  3. Ethics in Science.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om P

    2015-09-01

    Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics

  4. Ethics in Science.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om P

    2015-09-01

    Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics

  5. Are You an Ethical Leader?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    To "have" ethics is to hold to a set of beliefs about what is right and wrong or what is good and bad. One could argue that an individual will exhibit true ethics only when that individual has an internal motivation for his or her behavior. In essence, the "character" of ethics has everything to do with one's beliefs. In this article, the author…

  6. Ensuring ethical behavior in organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Milter, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper examines both the industrial-age and the information-age organization`s attempts to ensure ethical behavior. Organizational responses to deal with this task include establishing written codes, appointing ethics officers, developing ethics committees, training, and impacting educational systems.

  7. Exploring Ethics with Contemporary Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Joyce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the way in which we should go about introducing ethics into the study of our interpersonal relations in the hope of formulating a foundation upon which to base our theories and analyze our behavior. We should ask ourselves whether there should be different criteria for interpersonal ethics than for ethics in other areas of…

  8. The Ethics of Archival Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Heidi A.; Porter, James E.

    2012-01-01

    What are the key ethical issues involved in conducting archival research? Based on examination of cases and interviews with leading archival researchers in composition, this article discusses several ethical questions and offers a heuristic to guide ethical decision making. Key to this process is recognizing the person-ness of archival materials.…

  9. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  10. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  11. Daily Practice: Ethics in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePree, Chauncey M., Jr.; Jude, Rebecca K.

    2010-01-01

    The classic question, "Should business schools teach ethics?" is not often asked anymore given the drip, drip, drip of business corruption reported in the news. Even skeptics allow that business ethics education could not hurt and might improve the ethics of business leaders. Furthermore, universities, colleges, and business accrediting…

  12. Everyday Ethics: Reflections on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Gretchen B.; Rallis, Sharon F.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article frames the contributions for this issue on everyday ethics--moments that demand moral considerations and ethical choices that researchers encounter. We discuss concerns raised within the research community about the tendency to observe merely obligatory ethical procedures as outlined in Human Subjects Review regulations.…

  13. Ethical Considerations of Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ethical concerns of information science professionals from two viewpoints: concerns of practitioners and the information industry, including a prototype for ethical contexts and principles for ethical actions; and concerns of theoreticians and researchers, including system principles and ideological, political, and social frameworks.…

  14. Assessing Ethics in Secondary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of science courses now include consideration of the ethical implications of science. However, there is little agreement about how ethical reasoning in science should be assessed. This article highlights the conclusions of a seminar on the assessment of ethics in science that was organized by the Nuffield Foundation Curriculum…

  15. Ethics and School Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Charles H.

    1995-01-01

    Lists a variety of possible ethical incidents that may confront a school business manager. Proposes that ethics be given adequate treatment in preservice programs, that all educators be made more aware of ethics, and that members of the profession be trained and encouraged to police their fellow members. (MLF)

  16. The Centrality of Ethical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Harris, Jessica; Klenowski, Val; Smeed, Judy; Spina, Nerida

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The central argument in this paper is that ethical school leadership is imperative in a context of increasing performance-driven accountability. The purpose of this paper is to focus on school principals' perceptions of how they understand ethical leadership and how they lead the ethical use of data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This…

  17. The ethics of expediency.

    PubMed

    Glickel, Steven Z

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic pressures on medicine have redefined traditional relationships between physicians and patients, researchers and regulatory bodies, and consultants and device companies. Physicians are disheartened that the public perception of medicine, reinforced by the media, is often negative. Ethical lapses are frequently the focus of criticism. A recent example that received considerable attention is the inextricable link between physicians and medical device companies. Although both groups have clear codes defining the ethical interaction between them, expediency and loose adherence to those guidelines has been problematic. In a climate of skepticism, the house of medicine needs to reverse and not feed that skepticism.

  18. [Crisis in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Stellamor, K

    1996-01-01

    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism). PMID:9036685

  19. [Crisis in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Stellamor, K

    1996-01-01

    There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism).

  20. Do ethical considerations influence any in HTA reports? A review of reports

    PubMed Central

    Shams Moattar, Alireza; Asghari, Fariba; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dealing with ethical considerations is a major component of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) definitions. Objectives: Present study aimed to explore and describe the manner of ethical analyses in HTA reports and the effects it had on HTA-related decision making around the world. Methods: By considering the contextual milieu of reports and searching for ethical themes and subjects in HTA full reports, a descriptive analysis of HTA reports' contents and related processes was conducted. The review focused on all English HTA reports issued in a year. All ethical aspects, criteria, approaches, and also decision- making related ethical issues were described and summarized in retrieved reports. The inclusion of ethical aspects in final decision-making criteria of HTA reports was also considered. Results: Eighty-nine HTA reports issued in one year were included in this review and analyzed for ethical considerations. There was no trace of any ethical issues in 60.7% of retrieved HTA reports. Dimensions of equity in resource distribution, stakeholder engagement, social values, essence and nature of technology, and ethical issues about the method of assessment for decision making, and physician-patient relationship were raised and discussed in 38.2%, 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.4%, 34.8% and 3.4% of reports respectively. Those issues were also included in 44.1, 5.9, 2.9, 2.9, 0 and 2.9% of final reports, respectively. In overall, only in 16 cases (17.9%) of all 89 reports, ethical issues were included in HTA decision-making orientations. Conclusion: This review shows that ethical issues are occasionally raised and discussed in HTA reports. More importantly, the inclusion of ethical concerns as a decision criterion in HTAs is few and insufficient. PMID:27493906

  1. Beyond a code of ethics: phenomenological ethics for everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient.

  2. Ethical Judgments and Behaviors: Applying a Multidimensional Ethics Scale to Measuring ICT Ethics of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung

    2009-01-01

    Assuming that ICT ethics are influenced by both moral and circumstantial factors, the study investigates Japanese college students' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in three scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems and explores why they make such decisions, relying on five moral philosophies: moral equity, relativism,…

  3. Furthering the sceptical case against virtue ethics in nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Holland, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    In a recent article in this journal I presented a sceptical argument about the current prominence of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. Daniel Putman has responded with a defence of the relevance of virtue in nursing. The present article continues this discussion by clarifying, defending, and expanding the sceptical argument. I start by emphasizing some features of the sceptical case, including assumptions about the nature of sceptical arguments, and about the character of both virtue ethics and nursing ethics. Then I respond to objections of Putman's such as that, according to virtue ethics, virtue is relevant to the whole of a human life, including one's behaviour in a professional context; and that eudaimonia should be central in explaining and motivating a nurse's decision to enter the profession. Having argued that these objections are not compelling, I go on to discuss an interesting recent attempt to reassert the role of virtue ethics in the ethics of professions, including nursing. This centres on whether role-specific obligations - e.g. the obligations that arise for a moral agent qua lawyer or mother - can be accommodated in a virtue ethics approach. Sean Cordell has argued that the difficulty of accommodating role-specific obligations results in an 'institution-shaped gap' in virtue ethics. He suggests a way of meeting this difficulty that appeals to the ergon of institutions. I endorse the negative point that role-specific obligations elude virtue ethics, but argue that the appeal to the ergon of institutions is unsuccessful. The upshot is further support for scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics. I end by gesturing to some of the advantages of a sceptical view of virtue ethics in nursing ethics.

  4. Furthering the sceptical case against virtue ethics in nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Holland, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    In a recent article in this journal I presented a sceptical argument about the current prominence of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. Daniel Putman has responded with a defence of the relevance of virtue in nursing. The present article continues this discussion by clarifying, defending, and expanding the sceptical argument. I start by emphasizing some features of the sceptical case, including assumptions about the nature of sceptical arguments, and about the character of both virtue ethics and nursing ethics. Then I respond to objections of Putman's such as that, according to virtue ethics, virtue is relevant to the whole of a human life, including one's behaviour in a professional context; and that eudaimonia should be central in explaining and motivating a nurse's decision to enter the profession. Having argued that these objections are not compelling, I go on to discuss an interesting recent attempt to reassert the role of virtue ethics in the ethics of professions, including nursing. This centres on whether role-specific obligations - e.g. the obligations that arise for a moral agent qua lawyer or mother - can be accommodated in a virtue ethics approach. Sean Cordell has argued that the difficulty of accommodating role-specific obligations results in an 'institution-shaped gap' in virtue ethics. He suggests a way of meeting this difficulty that appeals to the ergon of institutions. I endorse the negative point that role-specific obligations elude virtue ethics, but argue that the appeal to the ergon of institutions is unsuccessful. The upshot is further support for scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics. I end by gesturing to some of the advantages of a sceptical view of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. PMID:22950730

  5. Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Mats G

    2002-01-01

    The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation.

  6. Psychiatric Aspects of Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, G.; Desousa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical transplantation of human organs from deceased as well as living donors to sick and dying patients began after the Second World War. Over the past 50 years the transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells has become a worldwide practice which has extended, and greatly enhanced the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives. The field of transplantation medicine provides an important chance for liaison between psychiatric professionals and other transplant physicians and surgeons. The discrepancy between the ever-increasing demand for organs but the decreasing supply makes it important to evaluate and prioritize individuals who are in dire need of the organ. However, this also gives rise to certain ethical questions. The following paper discusses various psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in general. PMID:25013589

  7. A team-taught interdisciplinary approach to engineering ethics.

    PubMed

    Graber, Glenn C; Pionke, Christopher D

    2006-04-01

    This paper outlines the development and implementation of a new course in Engineering Ethics at the University of Tennessee. This is a three-semester-hour course and is jointly taught by an engineering professor and a philosophy professor. While traditional pedagogical techniques such as case studies, position papers, and classroom discussions are used, additional activities such as developing a code of ethics and student-developed scenarios are employed to encourage critical thinking. Among the topics addressed in the course are engineering as a profession and its role in society; ethical successes and failures; risk, safety, and the environment; professional responsibilities; credit and intellectual property; and international concerns. The most significant aspect of the course is that it brings both engineering and non-engineering points of view to the topics at hand. This is accomplished in two ways. First, as mentioned previously, it is team-taught by engineering faculty with an interest in ethical and societal issues, and by philosophy faculty with expertise in the field of professional ethics and an interest in science and technology. Second, the course is offered to both engineers and non-engineers. This mix of students requires that all students must be able to explain their technical and ethical decisions in a non-technical manner. Work teams are structured to maximize interdisciplinary interaction and to foster insights by each student into the professional commitments and attitudes of others.

  8. Ethical issues for bioscientists in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Purchase, Iain F H

    2002-02-28

    The scientific understanding of biological processes is developing extremely fast, providing opportunities for changing people's lives in many ways-through health care, food and the environment. The speed with which these changes are occurring means that even bioscientists can only keep up with their own narrow field of science. It is not surprising that members of the public are frightened about the rapidity and impact of the changes arising from the biological revolution. These concerns are often expressed in ethical terms. Decision making about the direction of research and its application is becoming more transparent. This means that bioscientists will have to engage in the debate about their work with members of the public, including those who are opposed to it, in order to create acceptance of their work and its products. At the moment, bioscientists are often ill equipped to enter this debate because of their lack of training in ethics and lack of understanding of the impact of ethics on their work. A better understanding of bioethics will be necessary for entering this debate with vigour. A comprehensive ethical analysis is outside the scope of this text. Some of the principal arguments about the ethics of two aspects of bioscience research-genetically modified crops and the use of experimental animals-will be discussed to illustrate a few of the issues that derive from ethical analyses. I hope that this will encourage toxicologists to take a greater interest in bioethics.

  9. [Ethics in clinical practice and in health care].

    PubMed

    Pintor, S; Mennuni, G; Fontana, M; Nocchi, S; Giarrusso, P; Serio, A; Fraioli, A

    2015-01-01

    The clinical ethics is the identification, analysis and solution of moral problems that can arise during the care of a patient. Given that when dealing with ethical issues in health care some risks will be encountered (talking about ethics in general, or as a problem overlapped with others in this area, or by delegation to legislative determinations) in the text certain important aspects of the topic are examined. First of all ethics as human quality of the relationship between people for the common good, especially in health services where there are serious problems like the life and the health. It is also necessary a "humanizing relationship" between those who work in these services in order to achieve quality and efficiency in this business. It is important a proper training of health professionals, especially doctors, so that they can identify the real needs and means of intervention. It is also important that scientific research must respect fundamental ethical assumptions. In conclusion, ethics in health care is not a simple matter of "cookbook" rules, but involves the responsibility and consciousness of individual operators.

  10. Ethical and legal considerations in video recording neonatal resuscitations.

    PubMed

    Gelbart, B; Barfield, C; Watkins, A

    2009-02-01

    As guidelines for neonatal resuscitation evolve from a growing evidence base, clinicians must ensure that practice is closely aligned with the available evidence, based on methodologically sound and ethically conducted research. This paper reviews ethical, legal and risk-management issues arising during the design of a quality-assurance project to make video recordings of neonatal resuscitations after high-risk deliveries. The issues, which affect patients, researchers, staff and the hospital at large, include the following: 1) Informed consent for research involving emergency procedures is often not possible, for lack of time to provide sufficient information. The mental capacity of the subject or parent may be compromised by the impending emergency, and freedom of choice is threatened by the time pressure to consent. 2) Video recording of the inevitable medical errors raises issues of whether participating staff may be identifiable and accountable, affecting their willingness to participate in such research. The approach to staff participation and identification is reviewed. 3) The use of video data for education threatens the privacy of research subjects. The ethics of maintaining privacy is balanced with the ethics of using the data to improve practice of resuscitation. 4) The research subjects (patients, or the staff whose performance is being monitored) must be defined. 5) There are legal and ethical aspects of management and ownership of data. 6) The role of the Human Research Ethics Committee in protecting the research subject and possibly the medicolegal interests of the hospital is discussed. This paper reviews the literature and discusses the issues.

  11. Ethics and stem cell therapeutics for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    As research on stem cell therapeutics for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in adults is being planned and conducted it is essential to address the ethical issues associated with it. The considerable attention that is currently focused on the ethical issues associated with stem cell research as well as the acute clinical situations sometimes encountered when treating cardiovascular disease, underscore the need for explicit attention to the ethical aspects of this research. In this article, I survey some of the key ethical considerations regarding research involving stem cell therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases including: (1) the standard ethical considerations for translational and clinical research and mechanisms of ethical oversight of them; (2) additional oversight related to stem cell research; (3) considerations for obtaining informed consent for this research and in selecting individual human subjects to participate in it; (4) concerns related to justice that may manifest themselves with respect to which research endeavors move forward and (5) conflicts of interest in research and their potential relationship to research integrity.

  12. Developing an Evaluation Tool for Assessing Clinical Ethics Consultation Skills in Simulation Based Education: The ACES Project.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Katherine; Parsi, Kayhan; McCarthy, Michael; Siddall, Viva Jo; Kuczewski, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities has created a quality attestation (QA) process for clinical ethics consultants; the pilot phase of reviewing portfolios has begun. One aspect of the QA process which is particularly challenging is assessing the interpersonal skills of individual clinical ethics consultants. We propose that using case simulation to evaluate clinical ethics consultants is an approach that can meet this need provided clear standards for assessment are identified. To this end, we developed the Assessing Clinical Ethics Skills (ACES) tool, which identifies and specifies specific behaviors that a clinical ethics consultant should demonstrate in an ethics case simulation. The aim is for the clinical ethics consultant or student to use a videotaped case simulation, along with the ACES tool scored by a trained rater, to demonstrate their competence as part of their QA portfolio. The development and piloting of the tool is described. PMID:25794891

  13. Developing an Evaluation Tool for Assessing Clinical Ethics Consultation Skills in Simulation Based Education: The ACES Project.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Katherine; Parsi, Kayhan; McCarthy, Michael; Siddall, Viva Jo; Kuczewski, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities has created a quality attestation (QA) process for clinical ethics consultants; the pilot phase of reviewing portfolios has begun. One aspect of the QA process which is particularly challenging is assessing the interpersonal skills of individual clinical ethics consultants. We propose that using case simulation to evaluate clinical ethics consultants is an approach that can meet this need provided clear standards for assessment are identified. To this end, we developed the Assessing Clinical Ethics Skills (ACES) tool, which identifies and specifies specific behaviors that a clinical ethics consultant should demonstrate in an ethics case simulation. The aim is for the clinical ethics consultant or student to use a videotaped case simulation, along with the ACES tool scored by a trained rater, to demonstrate their competence as part of their QA portfolio. The development and piloting of the tool is described.

  14. Ethics and Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrlich, Beulah F.

    A study of the use of "proteksia," a system of securing personal influence in Israel, is discussed in this article and is related to concepts of intercultural ethics. The information on the study is taken from an article "On Proteksia," by B. Danet and H. Hartman, focusing on "proteksia" as it relates to bureaucratic norms and nonbureaucratic…

  15. Ethics: An Informal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Mark

    1996-01-01

    An adventure educator describes his process of "waking up" to awareness of the role of ethics in professional practice. Four critical incidents in this process involved the obligation to protect clients from undue harm, responsibility to continually assess one's professional competence, duty to share information with peers, and importance of…

  16. Ethics in Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Retailers must decide whether to make the most money or help the most people. This conflict between democratic ideals and the free enterprise system must be made within the corporate structure and thus puts a great deal of pressure on the businessman. Suggests questions that the retailer can ask himself regarding his professional ethics. (JMD)

  17. Enhancing Ethical Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Diane; Walker, Mary

    2012-01-01

    As teachers continue professional development throughout their careers to better serve the educational needs of students who are gifted, it becomes apparent that one of the goals is to strive to increase self-awareness of ethical and moral professional decisions and actions. Often, this requires intentional reminders and deliberate work to…

  18. Suicide and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

  19. Ethics, Morality, and Mores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    It is possible to approach, but not to achieve, the goal of perfection. To the three traditional philosophical values of truth, goodness, and beauty it is appropriate to append the important values of wisdom, humanness, and grace. Among the resources available toward the perfection of behavior are ethics, morality, and mores. The first chapter of…

  20. [Responsibility, compassion and ethics].

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of responsibility and compassion are fundamental in ethics. These notions help to safeguard humaneness, especially in the field of health care and notably in palliative care. These concepts can be put into practice by caregivers and applied to daily practice. PMID:27633700

  1. Ethical issues in genetics.

    PubMed

    Shannon, T A

    1999-03-01

    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.

  2. Proactively Teaching Technology Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2004-01-01

    This article presents certain advice to librarians on online ethical conduct. It is very important for librarians to talk to their students and clear the permissible limit of what is allowed and what is not. Librarians should teach some strategies about using clues in search results to discriminate between relevant and non-relevant Web sites.…

  3. Software engineering ethics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    Software engineering ethics is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: lack of a system viewpoint; arrogance of PC DOS software vendors; violation od upward compatibility; internet worm; internet worm revisited; student cheating and company hiring interviews; computing practitioners and the commodity market; new projects and old programming languages; schedule and budget; and recent public domain comments.

  4. Tobacco and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Gerard; Porter, Alan

    1986-01-01

    Tobacco is both dangerous and addictive. Its production and use thus raise ethical questions which involve the smoker, parents, teachers, producers, distributors and the State. The moral responsibilities of the various parties are examined critically and legal restrictions are considered to be justified. PMID:3735230

  5. Ethical Questions and Biologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    A three-part questionnaire was used to assess degree of emphasis given to values education in college biology. In addition to demographic data, the questionnaire, mailed to 377 biologists (185 forms returned), included items focusing on the significance of ethical issues and when life-science related values are best introduced to students. (JN)

  6. Ethics and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochen, Manfred

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of the debate in the information science profession over whether a code of ethics would be useful presents sample issues and places them in historical and philosophical frameworks for considering the tension between knowledge and power. Practical guidelines are offered to help information professionals act out of wisdom. (Author/EM)

  7. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  8. [Outdoor Ethics Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izaak Walton League of America, Arlington, VA.

    This document contains information about outdoor ethics issues. The information was compiled by the Izaak Walton League of America, established in 1922 as a national nonprofit organization whose members educate the public about emerging natural resource threats and promote citizen involvement in environmental protection efforts. The league…

  9. Biotechnology, Ethics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental differences between current and past knowledge in the field of biotechnology mean that we now have at our disposal the means to irreversibly change what is meant by "human nature". This paper explores some of the ethical issues that accompany the (as yet tentative) attempt to increase scientific control over the human genetic code in…

  10. Technology and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joan Marie

    1997-01-01

    Describes four open-ended activities for students in grades 4-12 designed to encourage thought, discussion, and decision making in classes dealing with issues in ethics and technology. Provides teacher directions, describes activities, and outlines debriefing sessions for lessons in copyright infringement, network security, artificial…

  11. Ethical dilemmas in pharmacy.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, W

    1988-01-01

    Results of surveys in which pharmacy students and pharmacists responded to ethical dilemmas are discussed. Respondents indicated a high level of concern about patient welfare and patient rights in dilemmas involving conflicts with socio-economic issues, and with peers and physicians. Conflicts that might arise as the roles of pharmacists change and the health-care systems evolve are also discussed. PMID:3351881

  12. Imagery as Ethical Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gaye Leigh

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five realms to explore when distinguishing the efficacy of images. Explores six ethical issues that the use of images raise, such as misconception and sensationalism. Proposes a strategy for analyzing controversial images and illustrates the use of this methodology by analyzing the use of "Joe Camel" in advertising. (CMK)

  13. Communication Curricula and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, S. L.

    A study examined the role of ethics in advertising and public relations courses. A questionnaire was sent to 183 colleges and universities that offer major fields of studies in advertising or public relations, and 134 institutions responded for a return rate of 73%. Results indicated that: (1) nearly all (97%) of the respondents affirm that the…

  14. Ethics without Indoctrination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    To bring ethics into the curriculum without indoctrinating students with adults' moral incapacities, distortions, and closed-mindedness, educators need to integrate eithics with critical thinking, literature, science, history, and civics instruction. Implementation requires excellent supplemental resources, good leadership, and inservice redesign.…

  15. "Systematizing" ethics consultation services.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Eves, Margot M; Allen, Nathan G; Smith, Martin L; Peña, Adam M; Cheney, John R; Majumder, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    While valuable work has been done addressing clinical ethics within established healthcare systems, we anticipate that the projected growth in acquisitions of community hospitals and facilities by large tertiary hospitals will impact the field of clinical ethics and the day-to-day responsibilities of clinical ethicists in ways that have yet to be explored. Toward the goal of providing clinical ethicists guidance on a range of issues that they may encounter in the systematization process, we discuss key considerations and potential challenges in implementing system-wide ethics consultation services. Specifically, we identify four models for organizing, developing, and enhancing ethics consultation activities within a system created through acquisitions: (1) train-the-trainer, (2) local capacity-building, (3) circuit-riding, and (4) consolidated accountability. We note each model's benefits and challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the broader landscape of issues affected by consolidation. We anticipate that clinical ethicists, volunteer consultants, and hospital administrators will benefit from our recommendations.

  16. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  17. Ethics: An Educational Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Citing scandals in accounting, law, banking, securities and corporations, Candace de Russy, a member of the State University of New York Board of Trustees recently urged college boards to "make ethics a living tradition, a day-to-day reality throughout higher education." If colleges prepare bankers, lawyers, accountants and brokers, de Russy…

  18. The Schooling of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Brian V.

    2014-01-01

    Growing concern about a shrinking cultural consensus on values, coupled with religious pluralisation and the realisation that schooling is not, and cannot be, value-neutral, have led to proposals to teach ethics in schools, interpreted as a contribution of the discipline of philosophy to the common curriculum. To the extent that this approach is…

  19. Human experimentation in historical and ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Howard-Jones, N

    1982-01-01

    Prepared as background material for a World Health Organization/Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences document, Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects (1982), this article reviews historical aspects of human experimentation and considers several current issues. It refers to early experiments, including auto-experiments by physicians; traces the history of drug trials through the pharmacotherapeutic revolution and the thalidomide tragedy; and describes the formulation of ethical requirements during the Weimar Republic in Germany. Contemporary problems discussed are the use of controls and placebos, investigators as subjects, special categories of subjects, and informed and vicarious consent. The text of the proposed WHO/CIOMS Guidelines is appended.

  20. The Ethics of Breast Surgery.

    PubMed

    Throckmorton, Alyssa; VanderWalde, Lindi; Brackett, Craig; Dominici, Laura; Eisenhauer, Thomas; Johnson, Nathalie; Kong, Amanda; Ludwig, Kandice; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pugliese, Matthew; Teller, Paige; Sarantou, Terry

    2015-10-01

    Breast surgery has evolved as a subspecialty of general surgery and requires a working knowledge of benign and malignant diseases, surgical techniques, shared decision-making with patients, collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team, and a basic foundation in surgical ethics. Ethics is defined as the practice of analyzing, evaluating, and promoting best conduct based upon available standards. As new information is obtained or as cultural values change, best conduct may be re-defined. In 2014, the Ethics Committee of the ASBrS acknowledged numerous ethical issues, specific to the practice of breast surgery. This independent review of ethical concerns was created by the Ethics Committee to provide a resource for ASBrS members as well as other surgeons who perform breast surgery. In this review, the professional, clinical, research and technology considerations that breast surgeons face are reviewed with guidelines for ethical physician behavior.

  1. Ethics and prevention of overweight and obesity: an inventory.

    PubMed

    ten Have, M; de Beaufort, I D; Teixeira, P J; Mackenbach, J P; van der Heide, A

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity, such as taxes on certain foods and beverages, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees, sometimes raise questions about what is considered ethically acceptable. There are obvious ethical incentives to these initiatives, such as improving individual and public health, enabling informed choice and diminishing societal costs. Whereas we consider these positive arguments to put considerable effort in the prevention of overweight indisputable, we focus on potential ethical objections against such an effort. Our intention is to structure the ethical issues that may occur in programmes to prevent overweight and/or obesity in order to encourage further debate. We selected 60 recently reported interventions or policy proposals targeting overweight or obesity and systematically evaluated their ethically relevant aspects. Our evaluation was completed by discussing them in two expert meetings. We found that currently proposed interventions or policies to prevent overweight or obesity may (next to the benefits they strive for) include the following potentially problematic aspects: effects on physical health are uncertain or unfavourable; there are negative psychosocial consequences including uncertainty, fears and concerns, blaming and stigmatization and unjust discrimination; inequalities are aggravated; inadequate information is distributed; the social and cultural value of eating is disregarded; people's privacy is disrespected; the complexity of responsibilities regarding overweight is disregarded; and interventions infringe upon personal freedom regarding lifestyle choices and raising children, regarding freedom of private enterprise or regarding policy choices by schools and other organizations. The obvious ethical incentives to combat the overweight epidemic do not necessarily override the potential ethical constraints, and further

  2. Ethics and prevention of overweight and obesity: an inventory.

    PubMed

    ten Have, M; de Beaufort, I D; Teixeira, P J; Mackenbach, J P; van der Heide, A

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity, such as taxes on certain foods and beverages, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees, sometimes raise questions about what is considered ethically acceptable. There are obvious ethical incentives to these initiatives, such as improving individual and public health, enabling informed choice and diminishing societal costs. Whereas we consider these positive arguments to put considerable effort in the prevention of overweight indisputable, we focus on potential ethical objections against such an effort. Our intention is to structure the ethical issues that may occur in programmes to prevent overweight and/or obesity in order to encourage further debate. We selected 60 recently reported interventions or policy proposals targeting overweight or obesity and systematically evaluated their ethically relevant aspects. Our evaluation was completed by discussing them in two expert meetings. We found that currently proposed interventions or policies to prevent overweight or obesity may (next to the benefits they strive for) include the following potentially problematic aspects: effects on physical health are uncertain or unfavourable; there are negative psychosocial consequences including uncertainty, fears and concerns, blaming and stigmatization and unjust discrimination; inequalities are aggravated; inadequate information is distributed; the social and cultural value of eating is disregarded; people's privacy is disrespected; the complexity of responsibilities regarding overweight is disregarded; and interventions infringe upon personal freedom regarding lifestyle choices and raising children, regarding freedom of private enterprise or regarding policy choices by schools and other organizations. The obvious ethical incentives to combat the overweight epidemic do not necessarily override the potential ethical constraints, and further

  3. Ethical aspects of future health care: globalisation of markets and differentiation of societies - ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2008-01-01

    The shift in health care to an aggregate corporate and distributed model dominated by electronic methods of diagnosis, record-keeping and communication spanning jurisdictional boundaries raises technical, social and paradigmatic issues. The technical issues concern the material natures of the tools, devices, procedures and protocols; the social issues gravitate around abstract matters like individual rights and models of responsibility within a corporate setting and accountability in inter-jurisdictional contexts; the paradigmatic issues centre in the question of how the rights and duties of traditional and direct health care translate into the mediated context of the globally expanded corporate model of eHealth and telemedicine. The present discussion presents a brief overview of the issues and sketches some of their implications for the evolution of contemporary health care. PMID:18376035

  4. Ethical aspects of future health care: globalisation of markets and differentiation of societies - ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2008-01-01

    The shift in health care to an aggregate corporate and distributed model dominated by electronic methods of diagnosis, record-keeping and communication spanning jurisdictional boundaries raises technical, social and paradigmatic issues. The technical issues concern the material natures of the tools, devices, procedures and protocols; the social issues gravitate around abstract matters like individual rights and models of responsibility within a corporate setting and accountability in inter-jurisdictional contexts; the paradigmatic issues centre in the question of how the rights and duties of traditional and direct health care translate into the mediated context of the globally expanded corporate model of eHealth and telemedicine. The present discussion presents a brief overview of the issues and sketches some of their implications for the evolution of contemporary health care.

  5. Governing boards as facilities' principal ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J W

    1987-01-01

    Ethics is the systematic analysis of our (individual and organizational) behavior's impact on the dignity of persons. It is the disciplined approach to choosing the better alternative for respecting dignity. Any group that primarily deals with issues that have a deep and broad impact on the dignity of persons should be recognized as an ethics committee. In organizations such as hospitals, the chief among these groups is the board of trustees because governance responsibility concerns the most far-reaching and fundamental questions of the organization's life and its impact on its employees, patients, and community. Adequate ethical reflection requires four key elements: participation of the community of concern, that community which represents all the major aspects of the problem at hand; a consensus on fundamental value priorities; shared critical methodology and conceptual tools; and appropriate process and structures. The principal focus here is on the consensus of value priorities. An agreement on general values such as justice, charity, and compassion can be assumed to exist, but dealing with specifics reveals considerable diversity and even conflict. Therefore a group charged with governance responsibilities must build a consensus on the meaning of key values in terms of making specific decisions and then further specify these values in probing questions, key indicators, criteria, and auditing methods.

  6. Ethics and interpreting in psychotherapy with refugee children and families.

    PubMed

    Björn, Gunilla Jarkman

    2005-01-01

    Basic ethical principles like autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice should be taken into consideration step by step when treating refugee children and their families. These principles may be considered from the point of view of each of the actors involved--patient, therapist and interpreter. This paper is focused on the role of the interpreter and on different aspects to be considered by the therapist when working with interpreters in psychotherapeutic treatment of refugee children and families. Elements of case histories are used to illustrate situations faced in working with an interpreter. An ethical analysis of a case where a teenage refugee received therapeutic treatment using an interpreter is made.

  7. The structure and functioning of ethical review committees.

    PubMed

    Gutteridge, F; Bankowski, Z; Curran, W; Dunne, J

    1982-01-01

    This overview of ethics committees for biomedical and behavioral research considers principal issues in the role and operation of these committees in various countries. It suggests general guidelines derived from a literature review and from a survey of existing committees by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. Aspects of present practice discussed are the governance and authority of ethics committees, the scope of activities subject to review, committee size and composition, and special concerns in review. These concerns include informed consent, risk/benefit assessment, qualifications of investigators, research design, selection of subjects, privacy, and compensation for injury.

  8. Ethical inquiry and the concept of research.

    PubMed

    Jameton, A; Fowler, M D

    1989-04-01

    The place of scholarly research in nursing has not been well studied. Ethical inquiry, as scholarly research, has been included in this neglect. The concept of ethics research is defended and new research approaches to ethics are outlined. Forms of ethics research identified are scholarly, empirical, and dual mode. Questions considered are: Is ethics research research? What are the forms of ethics research? What is the role of empiricism in ethics research? And what is the relationship of ethics research to the moral concerns of nursing? Ethics research explores the basic moral norms undergirding nursing research, practice, and education. PMID:2496647

  9. [Ethics in committees].

    PubMed

    Hottois, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    The management of techno-scientific and multicultural societies, open and evolving, can neither be conceived nor carried out on the basis of fundamentalist, essentialist rules that are characteristic of closed, immobile societies. Within a global civilisation, fundamentalisms are only acceptable as individual or community beliefs. Against the background of our civilisation on the chaotic road to globalisation described here, what are the methodological rules for bioethics committees? A first rule concerns the composition of the committees: it must be multidisciplinary and pluralist. The second rule concerns the distinction of types, which is less evident at a time which cultivates postmodernism. The "types" which absolutely must be distinguished are: science, ethics, morals, law, politics. The third rule concerns the concluding procedures. A majority vote procedure after information and limited discussion makes it possible to conclude easily and rapidly. But it generally seems not to be very ethical, especially if it does not allow minorities to have their divergent opinions appear among the conclusions in an explicit argued manner. The "lazy dissensus" must, however also be avoided: it consists in not really engaging the interdisciplinary, pluralist discussion, simply exposing and explaining each position, on the pretext that pluralism is respecting diversity, the freedom to believe, to think and to express oneself either each for himself or in the name of one's community or tradition. This sort of "postmodern" methodology, individualistic and communitarian to an extreme, is precariously balanced in relation to the committee's ethical vocation. It is therefore very important that an ethics committee really engages in discussion and expresses, let's say, a preference for consensus. This preference is the expression of its "ethical" nature: in this word (as in the word "moral", in fact), there is a reference to what is common, to what unites and makes social life

  10. 5 CFR 2635.107 - Ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ethics advice. 2635.107 Section 2635.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.107 Ethics advice. (a) As required by §§...

  11. 43 CFR 20.201 - Ethics officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department Ethics Program § 20.201 Ethics officials. (a) Designated Agency Ethics Official refers to the official designated under 5 CFR 2638.201 to coordinate and manage the Department's ethics program. (b) The... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethics officials. 20.201 Section...

  12. 5 CFR 2635.107 - Ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ethics advice. 2635.107 Section 2635.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.107 Ethics advice. (a) As required by §§...

  13. 5 CFR 2635.107 - Ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ethics advice. 2635.107 Section 2635.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.107 Ethics advice. (a) As required by §§...

  14. 43 CFR 20.201 - Ethics officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Department Ethics Program § 20.201 Ethics officials. (a) Designated Agency Ethics Official refers to the official designated under 5 CFR 2638.201 to coordinate and manage the Department's ethics program. (b) The... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethics officials. 20.201 Section...

  15. 43 CFR 20.201 - Ethics officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Department Ethics Program § 20.201 Ethics officials. (a) Designated Agency Ethics Official refers to the official designated under 5 CFR 2638.201 to coordinate and manage the Department's ethics program. (b) The... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethics officials. 20.201 Section...

  16. Power and the teaching of medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, B

    1999-01-01

    This paper argues that ethics education needs to become more reflective about its social and political ethic as it participates in the construction and transmission of medical ethics. It argues for a critical approach to medical ethics and explores the political context in medical schools and some of the peculiar problems in medical ethics education. PMID:10635507

  17. 5 CFR 2635.107 - Ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ethics advice. 2635.107 Section 2635.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.107 Ethics advice. (a) As required by §§...

  18. 43 CFR 20.201 - Ethics officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Department Ethics Program § 20.201 Ethics officials. (a) Designated Agency Ethics Official refers to the official designated under 5 CFR 2638.201 to coordinate and manage the Department's ethics program. (b) The... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethics officials. 20.201 Section...

  19. 43 CFR 20.201 - Ethics officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Department Ethics Program § 20.201 Ethics officials. (a) Designated Agency Ethics Official refers to the official designated under 5 CFR 2638.201 to coordinate and manage the Department's ethics program. (b) The... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Ethics officials. 20.201 Section...

  20. 5 CFR 2635.107 - Ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ethics advice. 2635.107 Section 2635.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.107 Ethics advice. (a) As required by §§...