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Sample records for ethical aspects

  1. Palliative sedation: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Miccinesi, Guido; Caraceni, Augusto; Maltoni, Marco

    2017-07-12

    Palliative sedation (PS), the medical act of decreasing a patient's awareness to relieve otherwise intractable suffering, is considered by some commentators to be controversial because of its consequences on residual survival and/or quality of life, and to be inappropriate for treating pure existential suffering. We will argue that PS must be always proportional, i.e. controlling refractory symptoms while keeping the loss of personal values (communication, affective relationships, care relationship) as low as possible, and that imminence of death is necessary too, from an ethical point of view, if a deep and continuous sedation (DCS) is proposed. Moreover, in case of pure existential suffering DCS should only be considered after repeated trials of respite sedation. The use of progressive consent and advance care planning to share the decision with the patient and to involve the family in the decision process as much as the patient desires is another ethical aspect to be pursued. Producing, implementing and sustaining guidelines at the higher scientific and professional level promise to help in improving both clinical and ethical aspects of the practice of PS.

  2. Ethical aspects of clinical chemistry.

    PubMed Central

    BenGershôm, E

    1983-01-01

    The work performed by the clinical chemist may deeply affect the decisions of the doctor and the well-being of the patient. Yet in contrast to the doctor and to the nurse the clinical chemist usually has no personal relationship with the patient. Being encumbered by much technology and anonymity is itself a reason for scrutinising his involvement in issues of health care ethics. This is an attempt at clarifying some major aspects: the relationship of his professional ethics to medical ethics as a whole, his ethical obligations to the patient and to society, and other aspects. PMID:6199500

  3. Neonatal screening: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Hermerén, G

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the ethical issues raised by neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis and to propose a structure for the ethical analysis of these issues. The structure is based on an analysis of some of the most common shortcomings of ethical analyses. The structure needs to be supplemented by facts about the present state of the art concerning effects and costs of the various screening and treatment alternatives. Such information is provided by other contributions to these proceedings.

  4. [Cloning--ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Munzarová, M

    2004-01-01

    Ethical problems related to cloning are discussed on three model situations: cloning of human beings (for example by utilizing the techniques of embryo splitting or nuclear transfer), use of embryonic cells in cloning techniques and cloning of nonembryonic cells. The first situation is strictly condemned, the second has been examined up present (it should be condemned as well) and the third is--under certain conditions--fully acceptable. The issue is discussed from the point of view of relevant Council of Europe documents as well.

  5. NANOTECHNOLOGY, NANOMEDICINE; ETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    GÖKÇAY, Banu; ARDA, Berna

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a field that we often hear of its name nowadays. Altough what we know about it is soo poor, we admire this field of technlogy, moreover some societies even argues that nanotechnology will cause second endustrial revolution. In addition, nanotechnology makes our basic scientific knowledge upside down and is soo powerfull that it is potent in nearly every scientific field. Thereby, it is imposible to say that nanotechnology; which is soo effective on human and human life; will not cause social and ethical outcomes. In general, the definition of nanotechnology is the reconfiguration of nanomaterials by human; there also are different definitions according to the history of nanotechnology and different point of views. First of all, in comparison to the other tehnology fields, what is the cause of excellence of nanotechnology, what human can do is to foresee the advantages and disadvantages of it, what are the roles of developed and developping countries for the progression of nanotechnology, what is the attitude of nanoethics and what is view of global politics to nanotechological research according to international regulations are all the focus of interests of this study. Last but not least, our apprehension capacity of nanotechnology, our style of adoption and evaluation of it and the way that how we locate nanotechnology in our lifes and ethical values are the other focus of interests. PMID:28424570

  6. Ethical aspects on rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Luis A; Galindo, Gilberto Cely

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries. Then we address problems related to diagnosis and some ethical aspects of newborn screening, prenatal, pre-implantation diagnosis and reference centers, as well as some conditions that should be met by the persons and institutions performing such tasks. Alternatives of solutions for the most critical situations are proposed. Subsequently the orphan drugs subject is discussed not only from the availability point of view, prizes, industrial practices, and purchasing power in developed and developing societies. The research related to rare disease in children and other especially vulnerable conditions, the need for informed consent, review boards or ethics comities, confidentiality of the information, biobanks and pharmacogenetics are discussed.

  7. Ethical aspects of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Bendelow, Gillian

    2010-11-01

    To review recent literature around the controversial diagnosis of personality disorder, and to assess the ethical aspects of its status as a medical disorder. The diagnostic currency of personality disorder as a psychiatric/medical disorder has a longstanding history of ethical and social challenges through critiques of the medicalization of deviance. More recently controversies by reflexive physicians around the inclusion of the category in the forthcoming revisions of International Classification of Diseases and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifications reflect the problems of value-laden criteria, with the diagnostic category being severely challenged from within psychiatry as well as from without. The clinical diagnostic criteria for extremely value-laden psychiatric conditions such as personality disorder need to be analyzed through the lens of values-based medicine, as well as through clinical evidence, as the propensity for political and sociolegal appropriation of the categories can render their clinical and diagnostic value meaningless.

  8. Critiquing the ethical aspects of a study.

    PubMed

    Pat, F

    1995-09-01

    The task of critiquing the ethical aspects of a study is complicated by convention. Research reports are written in a standardised way that may lead to ethical issues being ignored or mentioned only in passing ( 1 ). This can leave room for author and reader to make vastly different assumptions. The reader of a research paper must leant to recognise aspects of the research process which may be in conflict with accepted research ethics.

  9. [Ethical aspects of uterus transplantation].

    PubMed

    Chmel, Roman; Nováčková, Marta; Pastor, Zlatko; Matěcha, Jan; Čekal, Miloš; Froněk, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Uterus transplantation is an experimental treatment method with an ambition to become accepted treatment modality for women with absolute uterine factor infertility. The only legal alternative for these women to get parenthood is adoption which is accepted by most world societies and countries. Surrogate pregnancy is connected with many medical, ethical, legal, religious and social controversies in the great part of the world.Donors (in living donation), recipients, partners and also unborn children must be incorporated into the analysis of ethical risks and benefits of uterus transplantation. The main ethical risks for the recipient are surgery, immunosuppression, pregnancy and delivery. All the potential recipients have to be advised about further ethical issues like organ rejection, infection, side effects of the drugs, unsatisfactory fertilization and different complications during pregnancy.Uterus procurement in donor takes longer time than in standard hysterectomy due to preparation of uterine arteries and veins. Vessels with 2 mm diameter and their anatomical collision with ureter are connected with higher peroperative risk of uneventful surgical complications. Ethical issues might be connected with the uterus procurement in dead brain donors identically.The deliveries after uterus transplantation are fruitful but the risk of preterm delivery and immaturity of the newborns cannot be underestimated as well.

  10. [Ethical aspects of scientific research].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Laís Záu Serpa

    2003-05-01

    The professed importance of ethical relations in the development of researches in human beings has been observed in many standards. This text approaches the complexity of procedures, guidelines, risk and benefit analyses, and innumerable contributions, given the significance of pertinent and up-to-date consideration on the matter.

  11. Ethical aspects of aging research.

    PubMed

    Seppet, Enn; Pääsuke, Mati; Conte, Maria; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    During the last 50-60 years, due to development of medical care and hygienically safe living conditions, the average life span of European citizens has substantially increased, with a rapid growth of the population older than 65 years. This trend places ever-growing medical and economical burden on society, as many of the older subjects suffer from age-related diseases and frailty. Coping with these problems requires not only appropriate medical treatment and social support but also extensive research in many fields of aging-from biology to sociology, with involvement of older people as the research subjects. This work anticipates development and application of ethical standards suited to dynamic advances in aging research. The aim of this review is to update the knowledge in ethical requirements toward recruitment of older research subjects, obtaining of informed consent, collection of biological samples, and use of stem cells in preclinical and clinical settings. It is concluded that application of adequate ethical platform markedly facilitates recruitment of older persons for participation in research. Currently, the basic ethical concepts are subjected to extensive discussion, with participation of all interested parties, in order to guarantee successful research on problems of human aging, protect older people from undesired interference, and afford their benefits through supporting innovations in research, therapy, and care.

  12. Ethical aspects of tissue engineering: a review.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob B M; Oerlemans, Anke; Trommelmans, Leen; Dierickx, Kris; Gordijn, Bert

    2008-12-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a promising new field of medical technology. However, like other new technologies, it is not free of ethical challenges. Identifying these ethical questions at an early stage is not only part of science's responsibility toward society, but also in the interest of the field itself. In this review, we map which ethical issues related to TE have already been documented in the scientific literature. The issues that turn out to dominate the debate are the use of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning. Nevertheless, a variety of other ethical aspects are mentioned, which relate to different phases in the development of the field. In addition, we discuss a number of ethical issues that have not yet been raised in the literature.

  13. Ethical aspects in tissue research: thematic analysis of ethical statements to the research ethics committee

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have been published about ethics committees and the clarifications requested about the submitted applications. In Finland, ethics committees require a separate statement on ethical aspects of the research in applications to the ethics committee. However, little is known about how researchers consider the ethical aspects of their own studies. Methods The data were collected from all the applications received by the official regional ethics committee in the Hospital District of Northern Savo during 2004–2009 (n = 688). These included a total of 56 studies involving research on tissue other than blood. The statements by the researchers about the ethics about their own research in these applications were analyzed by thematic content analysis under the following themes: recruitment, informed consent, risks and benefits, confidentiality and societal meaning. Results The researchers tended to describe recruitment and informed consent process very briefly. Usually these descriptions simply stated who the recruiter was and that written consent would be required. There was little information provided on the recruitment situation and on how the study recruiters would be informed. Although most of the studies were clinical, the possibility was hardly ever discussed that patients could fail to distinguish between care and research. Conclusion The written guidelines, available on the webpages of the ethics committee, do not seem to be enough to help researchers achieve this goal. In addition to detailed guidelines for researchers, investigators need to be taught to appreciate the ethical aspects in their own studies. PMID:22873761

  14. [Ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activity].

    PubMed

    Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Lourenço, Maria Regina; Shinyashiki, Gilberto Tadeu

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at addressing the ethical aspects concerning nurses' managerial activities, the authors of this work referred to Etzioni and adopted a hospital classification as a reference of organization in which consent is based on the internalization of rules accepted as legitimate. Regarding patients, their need to adapt to medical behavior and hospital rules through internalization is considered to be a result of physicians', nurses' and the hospital's power. However, the authors view that such internalization is naive, without consent, especially by taking into account that most Brazilian patients do not know that they should or should not consent and are used to obeying. Thus, the work focused on nurses' managerial actions, indicating that they must be based on professional values, the Nursing ethical code as well as on the rights of hospitalized patients, thus integrating qualified care guided by respect, free consent and promotion of patients as the protagonists and subjects of care.

  15. [Interfamilial violence, medicolegal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Beauthier, J P

    2010-09-01

    Domestic or interfamilial violence--which is certainly not confined to disadvantaged social or cultural classes--is a process in which one partner carries against his spouse within the framework of private and privileged relationship (marriage, cohabitation, etc.), aggressive, violent and destructive behavior. All sectors of society are affected, whether urban or rural, and regardless of education or ethnic origin or religion. Such violence particularly affects women, but there are also violence perpetrated against men. This violence can take many forms, but we will only consider here the forensic clinical aspects, emphasizing the relevant legislation and medical ethics.

  16. [Ethical aspects of human lactation and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Parrilla Rodríguez, A M; Gorrín Peralta, J J

    2000-06-01

    Breastfeeding has experienced a surge in Puerto Rico thanks to the efforts of many women, as well as governmental, non-governmental and private organizations. Among the aspects which can affect the initiation, establishment and maintenance of successful breastfeeding one finds potential ethical conflicts among health professionals as well as the financial interests of the companies which produce and market artificial milks. These companies dedicate great marketing efforts and enormous sums of money in the sale of their products, in detriment of breastfeeding. The profit motive of these companies is in open contradiction to public health and to breastfeeding promotion. The international community has carried out efforts for more than two decades in the creation of structures which protect the rights of women and their children to ideal nutrition practices, free from commercial pressures, through breastfeeding. Possible ethical conflicts related to the new industry of breastfeeding paraphernalia are discussed, especially when these are marketed exclusively for profit. Recommendations are presented for health professionals in order for them to be able to face and respond to the unethical strategies practiced by the manufacturers of artificial milks in utilizing these professionals for legitimating and marketing their products.

  17. Teaching the Ethical Aspects of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental and societal issues are often inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine environments, and science and social values must often be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. A new seminar course has been developed for the Marine Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) graduate program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland, to examine these issues. This 1-credit course, offered for the first time in Spring 2015, takes a complex systems perspective on major environmental and societal challenges to examine these linked issues in a variety of contexts. After a brief introduction to the emerging field of "geoethics," students develop a list of issues to examine throughout the seminar. Example topics could include fracking, offshore wind technology, dam removal, and iron fertilization, among others. A case-study approach is taken, with each class meeting focusing on one issue. For each case study, students are asked to 1) identify relevant scientific principles and major knowledge gaps, 2) predict potential outcomes, 3) identify stakeholders and likely viewpoints, and 4) construct communication plans to disseminate findings to these stakeholders. At the end of the semester, students give a brief presentation of the ethical aspects of their own research topics.

  18. Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Morris M.

    1991-01-01

    According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

  19. [Ethical aspects of embryonic stem cell research].

    PubMed

    Kostka, U

    2002-11-01

    Research using embryonic stem cells raises a variety of ethical questions, which will be explored in this article. At the core of the ethical controversy is the question of the status of the embryo and its availability for research. A range of countries have approved the use of "supernumerous" embryos from in-vitro fertilization. But ethical problems also arise in reproduction medicine, the informed consent of affected couples, and the targeted production of embryos and egg cell donation for research. The author discuss some of these neglected issues and develops suggestions for comprehensive ethical reflection.

  20. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-12-22

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues in virtue of its unique history, epidemiology, and biology. This paper provides preliminary ethical analyses of the especially salient issues of: (i) global health justice, (ii) universal access to malaria control initiatives, (iii) multidrug resistance, including artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance, (iv) mandatory screening, (v) mass drug administration, (vi) benefits and risks of primaquine, and (vii) malaria in the context of blood donation and transfusion. Several ethical issues are also raised by past, present and future malaria research initiatives, in particular: (i) controlled infection studies, (ii) human landing catches, (iii) transmission-blocking vaccines, and (iv) genetically-modified mosquitoes. This article maps the terrain of these major ethical issues surrounding malaria control and elimination. Its objective is to motivate further research and discussion of ethical issues associated with malaria--and to assist health workers, researchers, and policy makers in pursuit of ethically sound malaria control practice and policy.

  1. Chirality and drugs in clinical practice and its ethical aspect.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Molly; Biswas, Indranil; Halder, Swaraj

    2009-01-01

    Recently specific enantiomer of different chiral molecules are being launched in the market as drugs. Here the rationality of scopes and uses of these drugs in therapeutic medicine is discussed including the ethical aspect.

  2. [Instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mirian; da Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti; Vattimo, Maria de Fatima Fernandes

    2014-02-01

    Experimental animal models offer possibilities of physiology knowledge, pathogenesis of disease and action of drugs that are directly related to quality nursing care. This integrative review describes the current state of the instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models, including the main recommendations of ethics committees that focus on animal welfare and raises questions about the impact of their findings in nursing care. Data show that, in Brazil, the progress in ethics for the use of animals for scientific purposes was consolidated with Law No. 11.794/2008 establishing ethical procedures, attending health, genetic and experimental parameters. The application of ethics in handling of animals for scientific and educational purposes and obtaining consistent and quality data brings unquestionable contributions to the nurse, as they offer subsidies to relate pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical aspect on the patient.

  3. Legal and Ethical Aspects of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jane A.; And Others

    These five mazes, with instruction manual, are designed to facilitate counselors' understanding of potential consequences and their ability to make appropriate legal and ethical decisions as helping professionals. Each maze consists of a problem situation similar to ones that might actually occur in a counseling situation, followed by several…

  4. Legal aspects of clinical ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, J

    2001-04-01

    In an increasingly litigious society where ritual demands for accountability and "taking responsibility" are now commonplace, it is not surprising that members of clinical ethics committees (CECs) are becoming more aware of their potential legal liability. Yet the vulnerability of committee members to legal action is difficult to assess with any certainty. This is because the CECs which have been set up in the UK are--if the American experience is followed--likely to vary significantly in terms of their functions, procedures, composition, structures and authority. As a consequence it is difficult to generalize about the legal implications. Nevertheless, despite these difficulties this article will outline the broad legal principles governing the potential liability of committee members. It will also consider the relationship between CECs and the courts. It begins, however, with a brief analysis of the relationship between ethics and law in committee deliberations, and in particular of the role of law and legal expertise on CECs.

  5. [Basic ethical aspects of living organ donation].

    PubMed

    Nagel, E; Mayer, J

    2003-06-01

    A characteristic feature of transplanting organs from living donors is that not only patients in need for treatment but also healthy individuals are submitted to medical interventions. Ethical considerations in this field have to deal with the question of property attributes of the human body and conflicts with traditional medical principles. Altruistic organ donation, appreciated by Christianity as a sign of charity, is indeed contradictory to the classic maxim of medical ethics "primum nihil nocere, " meaning "first of all, do not harm." The autonomous choice of a potential donor has to be balanced thoroughly against his personal physical and psychological risks. Apart from organ donation with altruistic motives, commercial incentives or payment for organ donation, which are increasingly under discussion in many nations, need profound ethical reflection. Organ selling does not lead to long-term economic benefit for individual donors in developing countries and is associated with a decline in health. A market system of organ sales would foster exploitation of the poor, and it is substantially doubtful whether autonomy and self determination are valid under circumstances of poverty and coercion. Commodification of the human body risks viewing persons as marketable objects. The human body,however, is an integral element of an individual's personality and not a resource to be removed. It is therefore fundamental that the social good of altruism is preserved as the major principle in organ donation.

  6. [Ethical questions related to nutrition and hidration: basic aspects].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, E; Girela, E

    2011-01-01

    Conditions that pose ethical problems related to nutrition and hydration are very common nowdays, particularly within Hospitals among terminally ill patients and other patients who require nutrition and hydration. In this article we intend to analyze some circumstances, according to widely accepted ethical values, in order to outline a clear action model to help clinicians in making such difficult decisions. The problematic situations analyzed include: should hydration and nutrition be considered basic care or therapeutic measures?, and the ethical aspects of enteral versus parenteral nutrition.

  7. [Ethical aspects of research in radiology].

    PubMed

    Pina, L

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research on human beings is essential for progress in medicine; however, it is also essential to safeguard research subjects' autonomy, dignity, and rights. Diverse documents have been developed in consensus to address these issues: some of the most relevant are the Nuremberg Code, the Helsinki Declaration, and the Oviedo Convention. In addition to being familiar with these fundamental documents, all radiologists who conduct research should know about Ethics Committees and consult them about the methodology of their studies, which must fulfill the conditions stipulated in the above-mentioned guidelines as well as in the legislation in force. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. [Ethical aspects of tuberculosis control under fascism].

    PubMed

    Hahn, S

    1983-05-01

    At the instance of the development of the tuberculosis control in the period from 1933 to 1945 is tried to elaborate the ethical principles which are the basis of the medical care of the German population in fascist Germany. The utilitaristic and biologistic opinions of the value dominating at this time proved as altogether characterized by the social aims of fascism and at the same time serve for their realization in the field of health politics. Also in the tuberculosis control--like in other social fields--transitory progress in organisation and prophylaxis and finally to be paid with deranging setbacks which reveal the inhumanity of fascism also in this field.

  9. [Deep brain stimulation in psychiatry: ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Müller, Ulf J; Bogerts, Bernhard; Voges, Jürgen; Galazky, Imke; Kohl, Sina; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kuhn, Jens; Steiner, Johann

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be an efficacious treatment for many neurological conditions and has thus been expanded to psychiatric diseases as well. Following an introduction on the history of DBS in psychiatry, this review summarizes commonly raised ethical concerns and questions on clinical trial design, selection of patients, informed consent and concerns about the possible impact of DBS on an individual's personality. Finally, it highlights the fact that critique on DBS in psychiatry is probably not selectively based on scientific concerns about potential risks; instead, the neurobiological origin of specific psychiatric disorders has been questioned.

  10. The ethical aspects of regulating production.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J C

    2008-02-01

    Polls and surveys conducted within the United States show general agreement that there is public support for the protection of farm livestock and poultry. Concurrent with the growing public sentiment is the recent adoption of socially responsible corporate policies by major food retailers relative to animal welfare. The animal welfare assurance and audit programs developed by the private sector are an attempt to assure consumers that best practice measures and independent oversight result in a reasonable quality of life for food-producing animals. These programs represent voluntary self-regulation and arguably a market-based approach to secure the welfare of food-producing animals. Animal advocacy organizations historically seek regulatory oversight of animal care practice. Legislative routes that require government promulgation and enforcement of animal care regulations represent an involuntary form of animal welfare assurance. There are ethical considerations concerning the employment of voluntary or involuntary regulation of the welfare of food-producing animals. For example, degree of public endangerment, economic impact, viability of small to medium producers, food price, food quality, and food security are prominent among the ethical considerations in deliberating whether to impose regulatory mandates on production. In either regulatory approach, the public must be convinced that the welfare of food-producing animals can be secured in a transparent and convincing manner.

  11. Ethical and social aspects of risk predictions.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J C

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews past, present and future social and ethical considerations of screening carriers of autosomal disorders and other heterozygotes. A body of ethical and social guidance has evolved in the 1970's and 1980's for screening. The values of voluntaristic participation and informed consent are high. The goal of programs should be to provide couples, families, and individuals with knowledge respecting their reproductive choices. The dangers are coercive strategies, stigmatization, and careless communication of risk information. It is assumed that the number of autosomal carrier states that are screenable will undoubtedly increase as will states of heterozygosity that cause susceptibility to common diseases. Before the end of the century, something approaching a "biopsy of the human genome" will be a practical reality. To balance the potential for harmful psychological and social effects of so much new genetic knowledge, new efforts must be made to find treatments for progeny affected by recessive disorders. Maternal and paternal screening, prenatal diagnosis and treatment will be increasingly linked in the future. This paper will report on a case of fetal therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a paradigm for the future. The argument will be made that society ought to put a higher priority on prenatal care and prevention of disorders of prematurity than genetic disorders with a low frequency, lest genetic screening be distorted by unfounded concern about eugenics.

  12. Prostitution as a Psychiatric Situation: Ethical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Tiosavljević, Danijela; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Turza, Karel; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jeremić, Vida

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the morally controversial phenomenon of prostitution. As the basis for contemplating the prostitution issue the most important is revealing and understanding its primitive ethical root. For understanding its "soul", its essence, also important is comprehending sexual, "elementary thoughts" of mankind, through the relationship between prostitution and religious, social, political and spiritual life, and its nature as a reflection of the sexual-ethical concepts in different epochs and nations. We emphasize the connection between prostitution and psychiatry. Placing a special focus on importance of personality for deciding to become a prostitute, and by pulling it through a moral prism we define prostitution as a new medical situation. In favor of that, we stress the importance of the presence, position and role of psychiatrists within an indispensable multidisciplinary team, which is complementary despite its heterogeneousness, synergistically and simultaneously dealing with psychological, physical and social health-problems of women engaged in prostitution. We propose peer education as a way of promoting healthy and safer behaviors among the subculture of prostitutes, where we see another important role of psychiatrists in selecting/recruiting, training and motivating peer educators among them.

  13. [PERSONALIZED MEDICINE AND EBM: ETHICAL ASPECTS].

    PubMed

    Radermecker, R P

    2015-01-01

    More patients are actually treated due to the incredible improvements of medical care, especially in the field of pharmacotherapy. Medical guidelines are based on the results of controlled trials. This kind of medicine, also called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), is actually the cornerstone of good clinical practice. Nevertheless, it remains a lot of patients disappointed by the fact that they have no medical gain of their treatment. The reason is that each patient has his/her own metabolic characteristics. Better is, the characterization of such patients, better will be the treatment targeting them. It is what is called the personalized medicine. To reach this challenge, pharmacogenetic advances would be helpful. From an antagonism between EBM and personalized medicine, this new medical paradigm has to consider these approaches as partners. To reach this goal, medical doctors, legal authorities and pharmaceutical companies have to be responsible in front of these new ethical challenges.

  14. Healthy limb amputation: ethical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Josephine; Elliott, Carl

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon in Scotland has amputated the legs of two consenting, physically healthy patients. Although a handful of medical professionals believe that the desire for healthy limb amputation is symptomatic of a mental disorder that can be treated only by amputation, there is currently no consensus on what causes a person to desire such a disabling intervention. As long as there is no established body of medical opinion as to the diagnosis and treatment of such a condition, performing the surgery may be a criminal act. Given the ethically problematic history of surgery for psychiatric conditions, as well as the absence of sound medical data on this condition, surgeons should exercise great caution before complying with a request to amputate a healthy limb.

  15. Resuscitation and DNR: ethical aspects for anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Layon, A J; Dirk, L

    1995-02-01

    Autonomy is a central ethical principle of medical practice. The physician's autonomy is usually expressed in concert with the other, overriding, ethic of medical care: beneficence. The autonomy of patients, however, has had a growing influence on medical decision-making and can complicate the process. One area where this is especially true is the manner in which cardiopulmonary resuscitation is disallowed: the do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation initially was a therapy automatically instituted in emergencies because it was life-saving. Data began to show, however, that this drastic measure was not always effective. Therefore, its use began to be limited through DNR orders, and policies about DNR orders have been developed to ensure it, in turn, is instituted properly. Besides being used when CPR is futile, the DNR order also serves as a formal means of accounting for a patient's autonomy. Data show, however, that patients are not routinely consulted on this issue even though they want to discuss it. In these cases, quality of life, a patient's subjective evaluation, serves as the basis of a DNR order and makes mandatory communication between physician and patient. Such communication, however, can be obstructed by social values about life and death and the urgent nature of medical care in these situations. To show how such communication ought to be incorporated into medical decision-making, one of the most difficult situations is examined hypothetically: the patient who has a DNR order but who consents to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. In these cases, frequent communication between physician and patient about each therapy and its effect most often will resolve dilemmas.

  16. Ethical aspects of human biobanks: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Danijela; Polasek, Ozren; Marusić, Ana; Kolcić, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boraska, Vesna; Jeroncić, Ana; Boban, Mladen; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2011-06-01

    To systematically assess the existing literature on ethical aspects of human biobanks. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed databases to find studies addressing ethical problems in biobanks with no limits set (study design, study population, time period, or language of publication). All identified articles published until November 2010 were included. We analyzed the type of published articles, journals publishing them, involvement of countries/institutions, year of publication, and citations received, and qualitatively assessed every article in order to identify ethical issues addressed by the majority of published research on human biobanking. Hundred and fifty four studies satisfied our review criteria. The studies mainly came from highly developed countries and were all published in the last two decades, with over half of them published in 2009 or 2010. They most commonly discussed the informed consent, privacy and identifiability, return of results to participants, importance of public trust, involvement of children, commercialization, the role of ethics boards, international data exchange, ownership of samples, and benefit sharing. The focus on ethical aspects is strongly present through the whole biobanking research field. Although there is a consensus on the old and most typical ethical issues, with further development of the field and increasingly complex structure of human biobanks, these issues will likely continue to arise and accumulate, hence requiring constant re-appraisal and continuing discussion.

  17. Ethical aspects of human biobanks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Danijela; Polašek, Ozren; Marušić, Ana; Kolčić, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boraska, Vesna; Jerončić, Ana; Boban, Mladen; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Aim To systematically assess the existing literature on ethical aspects of human biobanks. Method We searched the Web of Science and PubMed databases to find studies addressing ethical problems in biobanks with no limits set (study design, study population, time period, or language of publication). All identified articles published until November 2010 were included. We analyzed the type of published articles, journals publishing them, involvement of countries/institutions, year of publication, and citations received, and qualitatively assessed every article in order to identify ethical issues addressed by the majority of published research on human biobanking. Results Hundred and fifty four studies satisfied our review criteria. The studies mainly came from highly developed countries and were all published in the last two decades, with over half of them published in 2009 or 2010. They most commonly discussed the informed consent, privacy and identifiability, return of results to participants, importance of public trust, involvement of children, commercialization, the role of ethics boards, international data exchange, ownership of samples, and benefit sharing. Conclusions The focus on ethical aspects is strongly present through the whole biobanking research field. Although there is a consensus on the old and most typical ethical issues, with further development of the field and increasingly complex structure of human biobanks, these issues will likely continue to arise and accumulate, hence requiring constant re-appraisal and continuing discussion. PMID:21674823

  18. Integrating anticipated nutrigenomics bioscience applications with ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Lise; Ozdemir, Vural; Gremmen, Bart; Godard, Béatrice

    2008-03-01

    Nutrigenomics is a subspecialty of nutrition science which aims to understand how gene-diet interactions influence individuals' response to food, disease susceptibility, and population health. Yet ethical enquiry into this field is being outpaced by nutrigenomics bioscience. The ethical issues surrounding nutrigenomics face the challenges of a rapidly evolving field which bring forward the additional dimension of crossdisciplinary integrative research between social and biomedical sciences. This article outlines the emerging nutrigenomics definitions and concepts and analyzes the existing ethics literature concerning personalized nutrition and presents "points to consider" over ethical issues regarding future nutrigenomics applications. The interest in nutrigenomics coincides with a shift in emphasis in medicine and biosciences toward prevention of future disease susceptibilities rather than treatment of already established disease. Hence, unique ethical issues emerge concerning the extent to which nutrigenomics can alter our relation to food, boundaries between health and disease, and the folklore of medical practice. Nutrigenomics can result in new social values, norms, and responsibilities for both individuals and societies. Nutrigenomics is not only another new application of "-omics" technologies in the context of gene-diet interactions. Nutrigenomics may fundamentally change the way we perceive human illness while shifting the focus and broadening the scope of health interventions from patients to healthy individuals. In resource- and time-limited healthcare settings, this creates unique ethical dilemmas and distributive justice issues. Ethical aspects of nutrigenomics applications should be addressed proactively, as this new science develops and increasingly coalesces with other applications of genomics in medicine and public health.

  19. [Brain death: biological and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Roczeń, R; Bohatyrewicz, R

    2001-01-01

    The article presents briefly historical development of death criteria from the modern times to the present. The criteria which are used for identification and diagnosing death on the base of respiratory and circulatory death definition are described. This work underlines the inadequacy of the definition of the brain death in relation to patients with persistent vegetative state and in relation to anencephalic newborns. The author describes the pathology and clinical and laboratory evidence of the brain stem death, which gave the possibility to justify the thesis that in case of the brain stem death ontological arguments are sufficient for diagnosing the death of a human being. The attention of the ethic of the life sanctity (on the base of halachic's law) and its opposing influence on the evolution of the medical definition of death has been paid. The recognition of the brain as the death of an individual is a cultural shock, which from scientific point of view changed the ways of thinking, almost immediately but did not in the awareness of the society. The work also underlies the fact that utilitarian argumentation can not be a criterion for making a decision concerning the life of an individual.

  20. [The ethical aspects of physiological experiment].

    PubMed

    Al'bertin, S V

    2014-01-01

    A modern classification of invasive procedures developed according to International Bioethical Principles has been presented. The experimental data convincingly demonstrate that using of noninvasive approaches and techniques give a good opportunity to reduce a number of animals recruited in experiment as well as to keep the normal (not distressful) physiological functions of animals. The data presented stress that development of noninvasive techniques is closely related both to scientific and social aspects of our life, allowing the scientists to provide high validity of experimental data obtained as well as to keep themselves as a human beings.

  1. Ethical, legal and health economic aspects of neonatal screening.

    PubMed

    Riis, P

    1999-12-01

    The spectrum of the title of this work is wide, but necessarily so, because of the increasing interaction of the three key components--ethics, law and health economy--in all parts of health systems. Although by nature the key components are different, they are still interdependent. Ethics, as the overall term for values, norms and attitudes of democratic societies, is the basic reference for our controlling of our personal lives, our lives with each other, and our lives with society institutions in the broadest sense. Ethics is the cambrium for control with our general behaviour, but is at the same time the cambrium for the control mechanisms of societies, as expressed in national laws. Health economics is often considered a necessary but value-free part of the spectrum, in accordance with money's very material nature. And yet economics and other resource elements (as organs for transplantation or numbers of special experts) have a strong link to ethics via so-called distributional ethics ("we are able to do more than we can afford"). The main theme for this introduction is ethics. In neonatal screening it relates to two different aspects: one linked to the neonate as an individual who can benefit from early diagnosis of treatable diseases, the other to the neonate as a member of a family line, enabling geneticists later to use the results for genetic mapping of a whole family or of large societal groups.

  2. Saving lives in road traffic—ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aim This article aims at giving an overview of five ethical problem areas relating to traffic safety, thereby providing a general framework for analysing traffic safety from an ethical perspective and encouraging further discussion concerning problems, policies and technology in this area. Subjects and methods The problems presented in the article are criminalisation, paternalism, privacy, justice and responsibility, and the reasons for choosing these are the following. First, they are all important areas in moral philosophy. Second, they are fairly general and it should be possible to categorise more specific problems under these headings. Ethical aspects of road traffic have not received the philosophical attention they deserve. Every year, more than 1 million people die globally in traffic accidents, and 20 to 50 million people are injured. Ninety per cent of the road traffic fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries, where it is a growing problem. Politics, economics, culture and technology affect the number of fatalities and injuries, and the measures used to combat deaths in traffic as well as the role of road traffic should be ethically scrutinised. The topics are analysed and discussed from a moral-philosophical perspective, and the discussion includes both theory and applications. Results and conclusion The author concludes with some thoughts on how the ethical discussion can be included in the public debate on how to save lives in road traffic. People in industrialised societies are so used to road traffic that it is almost seen as part of nature. Consequently, we do not acknowledge that we can introduce change and that we can affect the role we have given road traffic and cars. By acknowledging the ethical aspects of road traffic and illuminating the way the choices society makes are ethically charged, it becomes clear that there are alternative ways to design the road traffic system. The most important general conclusion is that discussion

  3. Environmental aspects of ethical animal production.

    PubMed

    Siegford, J M; Powers, W; Grimes-Casey, H G

    2008-02-01

    distribution, may also differ from prevalent industrial production practices. Clearly, consumers and producers considering the benefits and costs of ethical animal production practices need to understand the system-wide environmental impacts of these approaches to meeting demand for animal products.

  4. Medicine, Media Communication and Ethical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Summary On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn’t a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health

  5. Medicine, media communication and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn't a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health services

  6. Medical ethics, clinical research, and special aspects in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Corrao, S; Arnone, G; Arnone, S; Baldari, S

    2004-09-01

    Medical ethics is the science of survival. It studies the working out of judgments on right or wrong referred to the human being as a biological entity interacting with the whole ecosystem. Medical ethics in clinical research raises numerous moral and technical issues. Methodological aspects are essential for carrying out the aim of clinical research. Medical ethics documents are inspired by the Nuremberg Code and culminate in the recently updated Helsinki Declaration of 1964. In Italy 2 ministerial decrees in 1997 and 1998 laid the basis for the work of a medical ethics committee. They acknowledge the European Good Clinical Practice Guidelines and set professional needs within ethical committees. In clinical research the use of ionising radiation merits special consideration. In the recent past, serious human rights abuses in radiation experiments of the 1950s and 1960s have been found. As regards research in this field we can refer to the publication of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and to the report of the World Health Organisation (WHO). Legislative decree no. 187 of May 26, 2000, which transposed the 97/43/ EURATOM Directive represents the most comprehensive and recent normative reference to clinical research using ionising radiation. However, law no. 39 of March 1, 2002 is important for the partial modifications of previous decrees (art. 108 of L.D. no. 230 of March 17, 1995 and, art. 4 and attachment III of L.D. no. 187 of May 26). In this paper medical ethics, research, methodological issues and aspects of ionizing radiation are discussed.

  7. [Euthanasia/assisted suicide. Ethical and socio-religious aspects].

    PubMed

    Chiriţă, V; Chiriţă, Roxana; Duică, Lavinia; Talau, Gh

    2009-01-01

    Euthanasia/Assisted Suicide are viewed differently by moral and religious references. In a religious way, cardinal confessions (Christianity, Judaism, Islamism, Buddhism) condemn euthanasia/assisted suicide and, in the same time have a more relaxed attitude regarding passive euthanasia. Other aspects of euthanasia regard financial/economic and ethical-medical considerations. All these contradictory standpoints are expressed in some legal acts that make specifications on the concept of "euthanasia"--Oregon's Death with Dignity Act (1994) and Netherlands's Euthanasia Law (2001).

  8. [Pneumothorax following dry needling treatment: legal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Gianpaolo; De Giorgio, Fabio; Ricci, Eleonora; Maggi, Loredana; Spagnolo, Antonio G; Ferrara, Paola Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Trigger point "dry needling" is a technique used to treat myofascial pain. It involves using filiform needles which are inserted into muscles to give local pain relief. Few cases of serious adverse events following this treatment have been reported in the literature. In this paper we describe the case of a professional swimmer who developed pneumothorax after dry needling treatment and discuss the medicolegal and ethical aspects related to competencies and responsibilities of medical doctors and physiotherapists performing the procedure.

  9. [Ethical aspects of clinical trials in rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Hasford, Joerg; Koch, Armin

    2017-03-08

    It is estimated that there are about four million people suffering from rare diseases in Germany. For roughly the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in therapeutic research for rare diseases. Drug research is highly regulated via numerous laws, regulations and ethical conventions that do not offer any waivers for clinical trials in rare diseases. Thus the ethical assessment of the clinical trial application for a rare disease is basically the same as for a common disease. As the ethical standards of clinical research, for example regarding informed consent, are derived from constitutional rights and have been codified in the German drug law, it is no surprise that they cannot depend on the frequency of a disease. A very important aspect of the ethical assessment is the biometric quality with regard to study design, sample size estimation and statistical analysis, as methodologically poor research with humans is per se unethical. Problems with sample size estimations and pilot studies will be addressed in more detail. Pilot studies should be avoided and sample size estimations should not assume overoptimistic effect sizes and should not increase the error probability beyond 5% two-sided.

  10. [Triploid cloned human embryos: ethical, social, and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    This work attempts to place the experiment within the scientific and social framework of pluripotent-stem-cell research and offer reflections of an ethical and (to a lesser extent) legal nature on the results obtained by this research group. To these ends, the work is divided into two parts. The first part describes the most important aspects of Noggle and Egli's announcement and the biotechnological and media context in which it was made. The second part is concerned with the bioethical issues raised by the experiment. There are basically four issues, which relate to: (1) the nuclear transfer technique, (2) the use of human ovules to carry out the experiment, (3) the destruction of human blastocysts, and (4) the ethical requirements of scientific publications.

  11. Societal and ethical aspects of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident in Japan in 2011 was a poignant reminder that radioactive contamination of the environment has consequences that encompass far more than health risks from exposure to radiation. Both the accident and remediation measures have resulted in serious societal impacts and raise questions about the ethical aspects of risk management. This article presents a brief review of some of these issues and compares similarities and differences with the lessons learned from the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Ukraine. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:651-653. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. ESPEN guideline on ethical aspects of artificial nutrition and hydration.

    PubMed

    Druml, Christiane; Ballmer, Peter E; Druml, Wilfred; Oehmichen, Frank; Shenkin, Alan; Singer, Pierre; Soeters, Peter; Weimann, Arved; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2016-06-01

    The worldwide debate over the use of artificial nutrition and hydration remains controversial although the scientific and medical facts are unequivocal. Artificial nutrition and hydration are a medical intervention, requiring an indication, a therapeutic goal and the will (consent) of the competent patient. The guideline was developed by an international multidisciplinary working group based on the main aspects of the Guideline on "Ethical and Legal Aspects of Artificial Nutrition" published 2013 by the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) after conducting a review of specific current literature. The text was extended and introduced a broader view in particular on the impact of culture and religion. The results were discussed at the ESPEN Congress in Lisbon 2015 and accepted in an online survey among ESPEN members. The ESPEN Guideline on Ethical Aspects of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration is focused on the adult patient and provides a critical summary for physicians and caregivers. Special consideration is given to end of life issues and palliative medicine; to dementia and to specific situations like nursing care or the intensive care unit. The respect for autonomy is an important focus of the guideline as well as the careful wording to be used in the communication with patients and families. The other principles of Bioethics like beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are presented in the context of artificial nutrition and hydration. In this respect the withholding and withdrawing of artificial nutrition and/or hydration is discussed. Due to increasingly multicultural societies and the need for awareness of different values and beliefs an elaborated chapter is dedicated to cultural and religious issues and nutrition. Last but not least topics like voluntary refusal of nutrition and fluids, and forced feeding of competent persons (persons on hunger strike) is included in the guideline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical

  13. Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a

  14. Mapping ethical and social aspects of cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Anne

    2016-12-25

    Cancer biomarkers represent a revolutionary advance toward personalised cancer treatment, promising therapies that are tailored to subgroups of patients sharing similar generic traits. Notwithstanding the optimism driving this development, biomarkers also present an array of social and ethical questions, as witnessed in sporadic debates across different literatures. This review article seeks to consolidate these debates in a mapping of the complex terrain of ethical and social aspects of cancer biomarker research. This mapping was undertaken from the vantage point offered by a working cancer biomarker research centre called the Centre for Cancer Biomarkers (CCBIO) in Norway, according to a dialectic move between the literature and discussions with researchers and practitioners in the laboratory. Starting in the lab, we found that, with the exception of some classical bioethical dilemmas, researchers regarded many issues relative to the ethos of the biomarker community; how the complexity and uncertainty characterising biomarker research influence their scientific norms of quality. Such challenges to the ethos of cancer research remain largely implicit, outside the scope of formal bioethical enquiry, yet form the basis for other social and ethical issues. Indeed, looking out from the lab we see how questions of complexity, uncertainty and quality contribute to debates around social and global justice; undermining policies for the prioritisation of care, framing the stratification of those patients worthy of treatment, and limiting global access to this highly sophisticated research. We go on to discuss biomarker research within the culturally-constructed 'war on cancer' and highlight an important tension between the expectations of 'magic bullets' and the complexity and uncertainty faced in the lab. We conclude by arguing, with researchers in the CCBIO, for greater reflexivity and humility in cancer biomarker research and policy.

  15. Ethical Aspects of Professional Dilemmas in the First Year of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvik, Marit; Smith, Kari; Helleve, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Education is described as a moral enterprise and many of the professional dilemmas teachers encounter have an ethical aspect. Research on ethical situations that novice teachers experience, however, seems to be limited, and we know little about how teacher education can prepare student-teachers for dealing with ethical issues. In this article a…

  16. Technological innovations in forensic genetics: social, legal and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage the participation of scientific actors in the development of anticipatory governance deliberations concerning the widening application of forensic genetics in an increasing number of criminal and civil jurisdictions.

  17. Academic espionage: dysfunctional aspects of the publish or perish ethic.

    PubMed

    Mensah, L L

    1982-11-01

    There are many dysfunctional manifestations relative to the tenure and promotion process. These are disruptive to academic life. Much of this is encouraged by the university because of their publish or perish ethic. Excellence in classroom teaching and success in the field of clinical and human endeavours are not highly valued in deliberations to grant tenure and advancement in academic rank. Research and publications are the major yardsticks upon which a faculty member is judged. This prevailing perspective poses a dilemma for many nursing faculty who have high clinical workloads and have not been socialized for academic survival. The pressures to publish and research can be achieved in a realistic and non-stressful way. Three aspects seem to be particularly relevant to facilitate this achievement; these are: anticipatory planning, balancing the workload, and understanding the interpersonal dimensions of collegiality.

  18. Early application of deep brain stimulation: clinical and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Woopen, Christiane; Pauls, K Amande M; Koy, Anne; Moro, Elena; Timmermann, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proven to be a successful therapeutic approach in several patients with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Hitherto its application was mainly restricted to advanced disease patients resistant to medication or with severe treatment side effects. However, there is now growing interest in earlier application of DBS, aimed at improving clinical outcomes, quality of life, and avoiding psychosocial consequences of chronic disease-related impairments. We address the clinical and ethical aspects of two "early" uses of DBS, (1) DBS early in the course of the disease, and (2) DBS early in life (i.e. in children). Possible benefits, risks and burdens are discussed and thoroughly considered. Further research is needed to obtain a careful balance between exposing vulnerable patients to potential severe surgical risks and excluding them from a potentially good outcome.

  19. [Ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk].

    PubMed

    Rippe, K P

    2009-05-01

    The article discusses two ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk. First, it considers whether fluoridation contradicts the right of self-determination. Second, it discusses the chances and risks of fluoridation. The answer to the first question depends on whether people can choose other options. Freedom of choice is not simply the right to choose between different options. It is a right which defends the moral integrity of persons. Nobody should be coerced to eat or drink something which he or she rejects morally. In the political sphere, personal rights of persons can be restricted if and only if it is necessary, if there is a public interest, and if the restriction of the right is reasonable. Regarding fluoridation, even in the best risk-chance scenario, some persons have to expect a net harm. Therefore, the reasoning in favor of fluoridation has to have a specific purpose. The proclaimed reasoning is that fluoridation will benefit the worst off and is therefore a demand of justice. But this argument fails as there are other options to benefit the worst off. Even in the best risk-chance scenario, only one option is morally permissible: the fluoridation of salt, which respects the freedom of choice.

  20. Gastroscopy in Pediatric Surgery: Indications, Complications, Outcomes, and Ethical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Louise; Hambraeus, Mette; Arnbjörnsson, Einar

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to map gastroscopies performed at a single tertiary pediatric surgery centre to investigate indications, complications, outcomes, and ethical aspects. Material and Methods. A retrospective study of gastroscopies performed during two time periods (2001–2004 and 2011–2014) was conducted. Data regarding indications, outcomes, and complications of pediatric gastroscopies were analysed from a prospectively collected database. Results. The indications for gastroscopies changed over time. Therefore, 376 gastroscopies performed from 2011 through 2014 were studied separately. The median patient was four years old. The predominant indications were laparoscopic gastrostomy (40%), investigation of gastroenterological conditions (22%), obstruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract (20%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (15%), and other indications (3%). Percentages of gastroscopies with no positive findings for each condition were laparoscopic gastrostomy, 100%; gastroenterological conditions, 46%; obstruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 36%; GERD, 51%. Furthermore, gastroscopies did not lead to any further action or change in treatment in 45% of gastroenterological conditions and 72% of GERD cases. The overall complication rate was 1%. Conclusion. The results are valuable to educate pediatric surgeons and to inform health care planning when including gastroscopy within clinical practice. PMID:25883646

  1. Research on embryos in Turkey with ethical and legal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vatanoğlu-Lutz, Emine Elif

    2012-01-01

    Technically, the term embryo refers to the products of conception after implantation into the wall of the womb, usually nearly two weeks after fertilization, up until the eighth week. Embryos contain stem cells which, according to scientists, could be used to cure a wide range of conditions. Stem cells can be coaxed into growing cells of any other type, which makes them potentially very useful indeed. However, removing stem cells from an embryo will kill the embryo, which some people object to. From the mid 1970s, IVF was being developed and research was carried out on the spare embryos produced. This research helped to improve IVF techniques, as well as to better understand the earliest stages of human development. Research also shed light on a variety of inheritable disorders. In Turkish Law, assisted reproduction treatment (ART) services are regulated with the Regulation of Assisted Reproductive Treatment Centers Act (RAPTCA) The Regulation was issued in 1987, but it has been amended several times since. Also, article 90 of the Turkish Penal Code covers some aspects of research on embryos. At the same time, the Biomedicine Convention (Oviedo Convention), signed by Turkey and which entered into force in 2003, has binding regulations about this issue. Different legal regulations and some ethical guidelines are in conflict with each other, creating much confusion for the researchers. In this paper these conflicts are discussed, giving some practical proposals. PMID:24592037

  2. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    PubMed

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  3. Social and ethical aspects of forensic genetics: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Wienroth, M

    2017-07-01

    This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of the concept of "proportionality" as a resource for balancing the social and ethical risks and benefits of the use of forensic genetics in support of criminal justice. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.

  4. Ethical and legal aspects in teaching students of medicine.

    PubMed

    Wlasienko, Pawel

    2005-01-01

    Due to the rapid advances in medical technology, medical students are now being faced with increasingly complex and unparalleled ethical and practical dilemmas during their training. The new and future challenges of high-tech medicine demand improvements in current medical education, not only by meeting the needs of students through humanized training programs, but also by involving them in finding solutions to the ethical and legal quandaries they encounter. Today's students of medical universities must acquire knowledge and understanding of the ethical and legal issues relevant to the practice of medicine, and we have to do everything possible to introduce these students to the current discussions on more or less controversial ethical and legal topics. Although final answers may not be found, the very discussion, argumentation, and awakening of students' interest should become an essential part of the core curriculum of every doctor.

  5. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Gotthart M

    2004-01-01

    The repeated attempts to tighten up the literary report are finally showing effects. This not only as a result of shorter reports but also because of the fact that less is being written and published regarding our topic. The discussion seems exhausted which, for years, dealt with the controversial moral status of animals and the--finally--constitutionally sanctioned status of animal protection in Germany. The problem of animals in ethics is becoming a rarity. Correspondingly, bio-ethics is oriented towards human problems and related borderline cases in a rather one-sided manner. This radically altered situation corresponds to an equally profound shift in the direction of our thinking. In the 1970's it was the shock in reaction to brutality towards T.V.-reports. But soon questions asking about the guilty were being posed. To direct the question from a guilt-related "who" to the "what" of the underlying reasons was a more difficult task. Just like social ethics developed out of social criticism, modern animal ethics developed out of the criticism of cruelty to animals. And, to the degree that this criticism became a common public concern, it lost its importance in comparison to the ethical questions now moving into the centre of the interest. In view of book-production this means that animal protection-related literature appears in three major groups: Husbandry, Use and Abuse, Animal Protection Law, Animal (Protection) Ethics. To collect these three groups simultaneously is becoming increasingly difficult. The concentration on, and supposedly a limitation to the sectors morals and ethics of the man-animal relationship cannot be avoided in the literary report. Morals is stressed here in particular in order to limit the excessive dominance of theoretical ethics and to preserve the priority of action-guiding morals.

  6. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects

    PubMed

    Teutsch

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary remarks Preceding the detailed literary review, here a few events, topics and publications for the busy reader including * The decision of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) to declare unconstitutional and invalid chicken owner ordinances permitting caging * The decision of the German parliament to declare animal protection a national goal * Publication of a number of books which are likely to influence discussions for years to come since they bring to a close developments having emerged over an extended period of time. Without claiming to be exhaustive the following should be mentioned: Marc Bekoff and Carron A. Meany, ed.: "Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare", an extensive work being reviewed by Peter Thornton in chapter 3.6 of this report. For the first time, animal protection of the Anglo-American tradition is being summarised, in theory as well as in practice, and, on high standards: "The list of contributors reads like a Who"s Who of experts in their chosen fields and includes philosophers such as Peter Singer, Tom Regan, Tom Beauchamp and Bernard Rollin and welfare scientists such as Don Broom, David Fraser, Temple Grandin. Others involved in examining the role of animals in society and our relationship with them, such as Andrew Linzey, Richard Ryder, James Serpell and David Morton (to name just a few), have also provided entries" (Peter Thornton). The comprehensive monograph by Johannes Caspar: "Tierschutz im Recht der modernen Industriegesellschaft. Eine rechtliche Neukonstruktion auf philosophischer und historischer Grundlage" (Animal Protection in the Law of modern industrial Society. A new legal Construct on a philosophical and historical Base) represents an extensive critical incorporation of animal protection in Germany under legal and ethical aspects including a detailed rendering of the actual treatment of animals. The term "critical incorporation" was used on purpose since never before was cruelty

  7. Pragmatic neuroethics: the social aspects of ethics in disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, evolution of ethics and bioethics is traced to show how an abstract and individualistic paradigm was at the core of mainstream ethics prior to the advent of bioethics and applied ethics. Bioethics has transformed this individualistic paradigm because of its inherent interdisciplinarity and real-world connection. This evolution has raised questions regarding how nonabstract (e.g., experiential) and nonindividualistic (e.g., social, relational) components of ethics could be married to normative theory and ethics reflection, the latter usually not amenable to empiric research. In the first part of this chapter, pragmatism is introduced as an approach offering perspectives on the integration of social, nonindividualistic aspects of ethics, supporting the use of social science methods within ethics and neuroethics. In the second part of this chapter, using the example of disorders of consciousness, a pragmatic perspective is explored to reframe questions and help foster nonreductionistic understandings of ethical questions and ethical dilemmas. This chapter aims to generate reflections on a set of specific clinical contexts that will also stimulate a discussion on the nature of ethical approaches. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethical aspects to be considered in brain banking.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sánchez, F F; Mordini, E; Ravid, R

    1997-01-01

    A brain bank is a prospective source of adequately collected and preserved tissues of the central nervous system obtained via a donor program, which are supplied for neurobiological research. Brain tissue banks collect brains, serum and cerebro-spinal fluid from patients suffering from neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's diseases, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis for diagnostic purposes and for the development of future diagnostic tests. To create and develop the right infrastructure underlying brain bank activities, one should have a medico-legal and ethical support according to local legislation. From an ethical point of view, brain bank activities can be divided into the following categories: a) factors related to the donor program; b) factors related to handling and management of organs; c) factors related to scientific research. The present paper deals with the above mentioned issues according to world-wide recognised ethical considerations and recommendations of several official statements, and specifies the objectives of the European Brain Bank Network (EBBN).

  9. [Global aspects of medical ethics: conditions and possibilities].

    PubMed

    Neitzke, G

    2001-01-01

    A global or universal code of medical ethics seems paradoxical in the era of pluralism and postmodernism. A different conception of globalisation will be developed in terms of a "procedural universality". According to this philosophical concept, a code of medical ethics does not oblige physicians to accept certain specific, preset, universal values and rules. It rather obliges every culture and society to start a culture-sensitive, continuous, and active discourse on specific issues, mentioned in the codex. This procedure might result in regional, intra-cultural consensus, which should be presented to an inter-cultural dialogue. To exemplify this procedure, current topics of medical ethics (spiritual foundations of medicine, autonomy, definitions concerning life and death, physicians' duties, conduct within therapeutic teams) will be discussed from the point of view of western medicine.

  10. Ethical aspects of reproductive health in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Brandt-Rauf, P W; Brandt-Rauf, S I

    1986-01-01

    Reproductive health in the workplace presents in microcosm all of the ethical dilemmas raised by occupational medicine and medicine generally, including confidentiality, workers' right to know, individual autonomy, paternalism, informed consent, cost-benefit analysis, and a host of other issues.

  11. [The ethical aspects of population screening programme of rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Pàmpols Ros, Teresa; Terracini, Benedetto; de Abajo Iglesias, Francisco J; Feito Grande, Lydia; Martín-Arribas, M Concepción; Fernández Soria, José María; Redondo Martín Del Olmo, Tomás; Campos Castelló, Jaime; Herrera Carranza, Joaquín; Júdez Gutiérrez, Javier; Abascal Alonso, Moisés; Morales Piga, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The Committee on Ethics of the Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (CEIIER) of the Spanish National Institute of Health Carlos III, presents this article dealing with ethical guidelines regarding the implementation of screening population programmes with special emphasis on genetic screening. After a critical review it has been addressed 24 recommendations concerning 14 topics: evaluation of the opportunity of the programme, including ethical analysis besides scientific evidences and cost/benefits issues; the need to differentiate between research and public health intervention and to built a specific and comprehensive programme; the creation of an interdisciplinary working group which control its implementation and prepare a protocol including justification, development, therapeutic or preventive actions and follow-up activities; the review of the programme by an independent Ethical committee; the guarantee of the voluntary, universal and equitable population access, which requires sufficient information on the programme and their specific relevant facts, as incidental detection of heterozygous state in minors in newborn screening and the relevance of non directive genetic counselling specially in prenatal screening offered to pregnant women; considerations regarding future uses of samples for research purposes; total quality and periodic programme evaluation; guarantee of personal data confidentiality and the conflict of interest statement of the members of all the Committees involved in the programme.

  12. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Gotthard M.

    1998-01-01

    Since in 1995, ALTEX offered the literary report a kind of journalistic home and - being a scientific journal - opened up even more in the direction of the Arts, the ethical dialogue could gain in shape as well as in colour. To deepen this co-operation even further every fourth issue of the quarterly has "ethics" as its emphasis. This provides the chance to give access in one issue to topical texts which were mentioned in the report but could not be cited in full length. Aside from the consideration of valued personal contacts at this point, the co-operation between ALTEX and the archives for ethics in animal -, nature - and environmental protection at Karlsruhe gains in efficacy. The goal shared by both is the animal report on the development of ethical thought about the relationship between us as humans and our animated environment as it is mirrored in literature. The proximity to ethics is not the only particularity of our project. We also aim to maintain a platform within German professional scientific writing and, at the same time inform through examples form developments in the Anglo-Saxon sphere. A structure of presentation of these topics has developed over the years which still shows features of "happening by chance". Still, it is meant to facilitate access to requested topics. As in former reports, ethical themes predominate. At times, one can get the impression that finding generally acceptable criteria is of particular importance. These criteria are supposed to provide the possibility to divide animals into two groups: The highly developed ones which are to be highly regarded and the others, remaining widely outside of our ethical attention. But this is not all - further arguments are at stake which would permit us to exercise preference regarding human wishes in cases of conflict over the welfare - and survival interests of the animals. In this way, two restrictive models add up in the following manner: First, the scope of animals which have to be paid

  13. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Gotthard M

    2005-01-01

    It is for reasons of age I will have to terminate my work at the Literary Review in the form developed since 1995. The report is being reduced to a concentration of ethically relevant reviews as exemplified in the fourth-quarter issue of ALTEX. This is to ascertain that essential developments in this field will not be overlooked. Insofar, the Literary Review will be continued under the heading "New literature concerning topics of animal ethics". The more central topics of animal ethics are being "used up" the more new questions are being formulated. Thus it was that during the last few years the plant-world, long neglected, was rediscovered and received attention through the publication of important works. Another recent discovery concerns itself with "cognitive ethology" which developed out of the critique of behaviourism and which is dealt with in a separate chapter in this issue. But there is also a "classic" of ethics who has been reviewed and interpreted anew repeatedly. In her book "Albert Schweitzer, a prophet of medical ethics", Heike Baranzke describes Schweitzer's ethics as not sentimental or nostalgic but rather as a radically modern stance, committed to the enlightenment. Manuel Schneider, also, conveys a comprehensive view of Albert Schweitzer's ethics in "Life in the middle of life - the relevance of the ethics of Albert Schweitzer", a book edited by Altner, Frambach, Gottwald and himself in 2005. For this, in particular, he derives a possibility of a physiocentric ethics. By contrast, Beate Weinzierl approaches Schweitzer on a complete personal and human level in "Yearning for nature - access to inner and outer nature with Albert Schweitzer". Wolfgang Senz is undertaking a critical appreciation of Albert Schweitzer's concept of "life" and this, foremost, in the light of Schweitzer's rejection of the Cartesian "I am". In the end, Jean Claude Wolf cannot manage without citing Schweitzer either, referring to him in his not accepting the (western) world

  14. Ethical aspects of using medical social media in healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The advances in internet and mobile technologies and their increased use in healthcare led to the development of a new research field: health web science. Many research questions are addressed in that field, starting from analysing social-media data, to recruiting participants for clinical studies and monitoring the public health status. The information provided through this channel is unique in a sense that there is no other written source of experiences from patients and health carers. The increased usage and analysis of health web data poses questions on privacy, and ethics. Through a literature review, the current awareness on ethical issues in the context of public health monitoring and research using medical social media data is determined. Further, considerations on the topic were collected from members of the IMIA Social Media Working group.

  15. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Teutsch, G M

    2000-01-01

    The attempts to reduce the volume of this report by tightening the areas of ecological ethics and practical animal protection has not been successful. To the contrary, the expansion of philosophical ethics has led to a further increase. In the face of ever growing numbers of publications in book form, attention given to articles in periodicals will have to be reduced drastically in the future. The debate about the moral status of animals continues within the philosophical discussion. Here, the central question deals with the qualities an animal species has to demonstrate in order to be recognised as worthy of protection. This dispute gains particular relevancy in facing a possible killing of animals (chapter 13). Following the still predominant anthropocentric opinion, the killing of an animal is morally questionable only if the respective animal is able to recognise being killed as a loss, even if such killing is conducted without inducing fear or pain. Animals unable to such a recognition - so the logical conclusion - cannot be harmed by any injustice, misfortune or suffering to which they are subjected. At this point, at the latest, our moral sensibility begins to react: Contrary to a rock, an animal"s life can be taken, and the preservation of life is programmed into the nature of "lower animals" as well. The philosophical discussion, though, gives rise to the impression that creatures could be divided up into groups of those where killing is ethically inadmissible, then those where killing would have to be defended and justified and finally those whose killing is ethically irrelevant. Set into practice, any standard of this kind would have to fail due the impossibility of defining these categories. A new development within animal rights (chapter 3.5) could open up if rights would be understood predominantly as the result of the attempt towards justice. Justice (chapter 3.4) far animals can be demanded with most convincing arguments because there are at best

  16. [Ethical aspects of living-donor kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Casares, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation is considered an established treatment for end-stage renal failure and is accepted in different transplant forums, nationally and internationally, while ensuring the safety of the donation, the information, the motivation and caring, the free consent and the absence profit. the living donor nephrectomy is not extent of risks so a good assessment of the donor's health status and psychosocial situation must be performed to evaluate if the benefits to donor and recipient outweigh the risks assumed. Information and Consent: to be considered ethically acceptable, the donor must be able to give his free consent to the donation after understanding the information provided, accepting the risks and benefits of organ donation, knowing the treatment alternatives for the recipient and the long-term consequences of his decision The absence of profit: offering or receiving money for an organ or other human tissue violates the principles of justice and equity and it is considered ethically and legally unacceptable it is important to make a good psychosocial assessment to identify whether the motivation is altruistic or not and, in other terms, to detect any kind of coercion (ex, in the family). Living donation must not be offered in desperate family situations so it is important to assess family relationships to rule out the absence of freedom in donor's choice.The Role of Health Care Ethics Committees: there exists a normative in our country that regulates living donation and establishes that the hospital ethics committees should participate in the process of living donation in all cases. Their job is to assess the process and develop a report on the donor free consent to donation. The responsible person of the living transplant program should provide the documentation necessary to the committee. An interview with the potential donor can be required in some cases.

  17. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  18. End of Life Issues in Cancer Cases: Ethical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Afsoon; Hashemi-Bahremani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Leili; Bazmi, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates ethical challenges cancer patients face in the end stages of life including doctors' responsibilities, patients' rights, unexpected desires of patients and their relatives, futile treatments, and communication with patients in end stages of life. These patients are taken care of through palliative rather than curative measures. In many cases, patients in the last days of life ask their physician to terminate their illness via euthanasia which has many ethical considerations. Proponents of such mercy killing (euthanasia) believe that if the patient desires, the physician must end the life, while opponents of this issue, consider it as an act of murder incompatible with the spirit of medical sciences. The related arguments presented in this paper and other ethical issues these patients face and possible solutions for dealing with them have been proposed. It should be mentioned that this paper is more human rational and empirical and the views of the legislator are not included, though in many cases human intellectual and empirical comments are compatible with those of the legislator.

  19. Male breast cancer: genetics, epigenetics, and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, P; Silvestri, V; Tommasi, S; Pinto, R; Danza, K; Falchetti, M; Gulino, M; Frati, P; Ottini, L

    2013-11-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease compared with female BC and our current understanding regarding breast carcinogenesis in men has been largely extrapolated from the female counterpart. We focus on differences between the ethical issues related to male and female BC patients. A systematic literature search by using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/), was carried out to provide a synopsis of the current research in the field of MBC genetics, epigenetics and ethics. Original articles and reviews published up to September 2012 were selected by using the following search key words to query the PubMed website: 'male breast cancer', 'male breast cancer and genetic susceptibility', 'male breast cancer and epigenetics', 'male breast cancer and methylation', 'male breast cancer and miRNA', 'male breast cancer and ethics'. As in women, three classes of breast cancer genetic susceptibility (high, moderate, and low penetrance) are recognized in men. However, genes involved and their impact do not exactly overlap in female and male BC. Epigenetic alterations are currently scarcely investigated in MBC, however, the different methylation and miRNA expression profiles identified to date in female and male BCs suggest a potential role for epigenetic alterations as diagnostic biomarkers. Overall, much still needs to be learned about MBC and, because of its rarity, the main effort is to develop large consortia for moving forward in understanding MBC and improving the management of MBC patients on a perspective of gender medicine.

  20. Evaluation of ethical aspects in health technology assessment: more methods than applications?

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Droste, Sigrid

    2015-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) emerged with the increased need for systematical evaluation of health technologies in the 1970s. From its very beginning, ethics was a constitutive part of HTA, and over the years a wide range of approaches have been suggested to address ethical aspects of health technologies. Despite a vast variety of methodologies in ethics, there is no consensus about the appropriateness of the existing methods. Moreover, while the available methods are many, their applications are few. While methods for addressing ethical issues in HTA have been richly reviewed, their applications are poorly tracked. Hence, a bottom up approach, that is, from practice to theory, may turn out to be as helpful as a top-down review. We need a review of the examples of ethics in HTA so we better can learn how the methods are used in practice, analyze the role of context, and better can assess the merits of the various methods.

  1. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Håberg, Siri E; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Lafolie, Pierre; Zoega, Helga; Sarkkola, Catharina; von Kraemer, Stephanie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Nørgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Both ethical values and conditions for registry-based research are similar in the Nordic countries. While Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have chosen different legal frameworks, these differences can be resolved through mutual recognition of ethical applications and by harmonizing the different systems, likely leading to increased collaboration and enlarged studies. PMID:26648756

  2. [Oncogenetic consultation: various relational, psychological and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Guex, P; Stiefel, F; Real, O

    1996-08-27

    The authors describe the gap between the implementation of a new technology in medicine and the development of a psychological and ethical framework that is thought to complement this implementation in order to guarantee the conditions for an optimal information of the patient and his relatives. As a second goal, the authors tries to anticipate the individual and systemic psychological impact these new technologies may have and the possibilities to overcome potential negative impacts. To conclude, a modification of the relations between physicians and patients and a different distribution of their roles and responsibilities is predicted permitting to face a medicine of the future, which will lead to considerable existential challenges.

  3. Ethical and legal aspects of noninvasive prenatal genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2014-02-01

    The new technology that will allow genetic testing of a fetus within the first trimester of pregnancy by isolating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in the mother's blood raises a range of ethical and legal issues. Considered noninvasive, this test is safe and reliable, and may avoid alternative genetic testing by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, which risks causing spontaneous abortion. Ethical and legal issues of cffDNA testing will become more acute if testing expands to fetal whole-genome sequencing. Critical issues include the state of the science or diagnostic art; the appropriateness of offering the test; the implications of denying the test when it is available and appropriate; disclosure and counseling following test results; and management of patients' choices on acquiring test results. A challenge will be providing patients with appropriate counseling based on up-to-date genetic knowledge, and accommodating informed patients' legal choices. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  5. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-07-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  6. The social, political, ethical, and economic aspects of biodefense vaccines.

    PubMed

    Poland, Gregory A; Jacobson, Robert M; Tilburt, Jon; Nichol, Kristin

    2009-11-05

    Besides natural disasters and naturally occurring novel infectious diseases, nothing potentially threatens the health and stability of nations and health systems as much as the devastating threat and unfathomability of bioterrorism. Other than attempts at political solutions and interdictive attempts, only antimicrobials and vaccines offer possible means for protection. Of these, vaccines offer the most immediate and definitive of preventive solutions. Limiting the development and use of vaccines however are social, political, ethical, and economic considerations, and this article will provide a brief exploration of each of these issues and the intersection with the need for such vaccines. In this article we define bioterrorism as the deliberate use of naturally occurring or bioengineered microorganisms in order to cause harm to people, animals, or plants.

  7. Ethical aspects of banking placental blood for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Reisner, E G; Kurtzberg, J

    1995-12-13

    Transplantation of blood cells harvested from the umbilical cord immediately after birth has been effective in repopulating the bone marrow. These placental blood transplantations may be safer than conventional bone marrow transplantations and may suspend the need to harvest bone marrow, a process fraught with difficulties. Further understanding and advancement of this emerging technology require developing large banks of placental blood. In this article, we examine some of the ethical issues associated with placental blood banking, including (1) questions about ownership of the tissue, (2) the necessity and nature of obtaining informed consent from parents for harvesting placental blood and the information-gathering process associated with it, (3) obligations to notify parents and children of the results of medical testing for infectious diseases and genetic information, (4) matters of privacy and confidentiality related to such information, and (5) the need for fair and equitable harvesting of and access to placental blood.

  8. Ethical aspects of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Blesa, José Rafael; Tudela, Julio; Aznar, Justo

    2016-05-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) (cloning), as a reproductive or therapeutic method, and mitochondrial DNA transfer, as a method to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases, are analyzed in this paper from a bioethics perspective. The licit purpose of being able to treat certain diseases, as in the case of SCNT, cannot justify, in any case, resorting to illicit means such as the manipulation, selection, and elimination of human embryos in the blastocyst phase, by using cell lines obtained from them. Crossing this line paves the way (as utilitarian ethics advocates) to assuming any cost in scientific experimentation so long as satisfactory results are obtained. With mitochondrial replacement, either human embryos are directly manipulated (pronuclear transfer) or germline cells are manipulated (maternal spindle transfer); changes in these could be transmitted to the offspring.

  9. Ethical aspects of determining and communicating prognosis in critical care.

    PubMed

    Bernat, James L

    2004-01-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to accurately determine and clearly communicate a patient's prognosis because a patient's or surrogate's decision whether to consent for aggressive treatment rests largely on their understanding of the patient's diagnosis and prognosis. Pitfalls in determining prognosis include uniformed summary judgement based on faulty pattern recognition, inadequate outcome data, utter reliance on retrospective studies, statistical limitations, nongeneralizability of outcome data, and the fallacy of the self-fulfilling prophecy. Pitfalls in physicians' communication of prognosis include inadequate time spent in discussion, use of technical jargon, biased framing of decisions, unjustified physician bias, patient innumeracy, ethnicity barriers, and surrogates' unfounded intuitions about critical illness and death. Improving the recognition of and surmounting the barriers to accurate determination and clear communication of prognosis can make critical care physicians more scientific and virtuous.

  10. The social, political, ethical, and economic aspects of biodefense vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Poland, Gregory A.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Tilburt, Jon; Nichol, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Besides natural disasters and naturally occurring novel infectious diseases, nothing potentially threatens the health and stability of nations and health systems as much as the devastating threat and unfathomability of bioterrorism. Other than attempts at political solutions and interdictive attempts, only antimicrobials and vaccines offer possible means for protection. Of these, vaccines offer the most immediate and definitive of preventive solutions. Limiting the development and use of vaccines however are social, political, ethical, and economic considerations, and this article will provide a brief exploration of each of these issues and the intersection with the need for such vaccines. In this article we define bioterrorism as the deliberate use of naturally occurring or bioengineered microorganisms in order to cause harm to people, animals, or plants. PMID:19837281

  11. Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business.

    PubMed

    Maroušek, Josef; Hašková, Simona; Zeman, Robert; Žák, Jaroslav; Vaníčková, Radka; Maroušková, Anna; Váchal, Jan; Myšková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called "accelerators". The opinions of the sale representatives' with regards to other alternatives of biowaste utilization and their own products were reviewed. The robust analyzes of several "accelerated" composts revealed that the quality was generally low. Only two accelerated composts were somewhat similar in quality to the blank sample that was produced according to the traditional procedure. Overlaps between the interests of decision makers on future soil fertility were weighed against the preferences on short-term profit. Possible causes that allowed the boom of these underperforming products and the possible consequences are also discussed. Conclusions regarding the ethical concerns on how to run businesses with products whose profitability depends on weaknesses in the legal system and customer unawareness are to follow.

  12. Foundations Symposium: A Continued Dialogue on Critical Theory, Cultural Analysis, and Ethical Aspects of the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jane; And Others

    Seven articles are presented from a symposium on critical theory, cultural analysis, and the ethical aspects of the use of educational technology. Two papers deal with the educational philosophy of two modern thinkers, and others focus on educational technology in the modern or postmodern era. The following papers are included: (1) "Foucault…

  13. The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

  14. The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

  15. The Practical Aspects of Online Counseling: Ethics, Training, Technology, and Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.; Rochlen, Aaron B.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the practical aspects of online counseling, including ethics, training, supervision, technology, and competency issues. The authors discuss online counseling's strengths and limitations and present guidelines for what types of clients and counseling psychologists may be appropriate for online counseling. To illustrate the…

  16. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  17. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Carlin, D

    2005-01-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use. PMID:16046698

  18. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Novotny, T E; Carlin, D

    2005-08-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use.

  19. The Return of Lombroso? Ethical Aspects of (Visions of) Preventive Forensic Screening.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Christian; Radovic, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The vision of legendary criminologist Cesare Lombroso to use scientific theories of individual causes of crime as a basis for screening and prevention programmes targeting individuals at risk for future criminal behaviour has resurfaced, following advances in genetics, neuroscience and psychiatric epidemiology. This article analyses this idea and maps its ethical implications from a public health ethical standpoint. Twenty-seven variants of the new Lombrosian vision of forensic screening and prevention are distinguished, and some scientific and technical limitations are noted. Some lures, biases and structural factors, making the application of the Lombrosian idea likely in spite of weak evidence are pointed out and noted as a specific type of ethical aspect. Many classic and complex ethical challenges for health screening programmes are shown to apply to the identified variants and the choice between them, albeit with peculiar and often provoking variations. These variations are shown to actualize an underlying theoretical conundrum in need of further study, pertaining to the relationship between public health ethics and the ethics and values of criminal law policy.

  20. The Return of Lombroso? Ethical Aspects of (Visions of) Preventive Forensic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Munthe, Christian; Radovic, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The vision of legendary criminologist Cesare Lombroso to use scientific theories of individual causes of crime as a basis for screening and prevention programmes targeting individuals at risk for future criminal behaviour has resurfaced, following advances in genetics, neuroscience and psychiatric epidemiology. This article analyses this idea and maps its ethical implications from a public health ethical standpoint. Twenty-seven variants of the new Lombrosian vision of forensic screening and prevention are distinguished, and some scientific and technical limitations are noted. Some lures, biases and structural factors, making the application of the Lombrosian idea likely in spite of weak evidence are pointed out and noted as a specific type of ethical aspect. Many classic and complex ethical challenges for health screening programmes are shown to apply to the identified variants and the choice between them, albeit with peculiar and often provoking variations. These variations are shown to actualize an underlying theoretical conundrum in need of further study, pertaining to the relationship between public health ethics and the ethics and values of criminal law policy. PMID:26566397

  1. [The clinical history in surgical processes. Bioethical aspects and basic professional ethics].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, Eliseo

    2008-11-01

    Surgeons are increasingly facing multiple civil liability claims from their patients. Against this background and taking any eventual liability claims into account, surgeons must be increasingly aware of the importance of maintaining patient medical histories, which raises numerous questions on the length of time and form of keeping them. Ethical and legal obligations need to be taken into account in order to identify the controversial aspects related to patients and their environment, as well as shedding light on the most appropriate behaviour in each case. We must never forget the case history is a clinical document, subjected to the medical art and medical ethics which regulate it.

  2. Assessment vs. appraisal of ethical aspects of health technology assessment: can the distinction be upheld?

    PubMed

    Sandman, Lars; Heintz, Emelie

    2014-01-01

    An essential component of health technology assessment (HTA) is the assessment of ethical aspects. In some healthcare contexts, tasks are strictly relegated to different expert groups: the HTA-agencies are limited to assessment of the technology and other actors within the health care sector are responsible for appraisal and recommendations. Ethical aspects of health technologies are considered with reference to values or norms in such a way that may be prescriptive, or offer guidance as to how to act or relate to the issue in question. Given this internal prescriptivity, the distinction between assessment and appraisal seems difficult to uphold, unless the scrutiny stops short of a full ethical analysis of the technology. In the present article we analyse the distinction between assessment and appraisal, using as an example ethical aspects of implementation of GPS-bracelets for people with dementia. It is concluded that for HTA-agencies with a strictly delineated assessment role, the question of how to deal with the internal prescriptivity of ethics may be confusing. A full ethical analysis might result in a definite conclusion as to whether the technology in question is ethically acceptable or not, thereby limiting choices for decision-makers, who are required to uphold certain ethical values and norms. At the same time, depending on the exact nature of such a conclusion, different action strategies can be supported. A positive appraisal within HTA could result in a decision on mandatory implementation, or funding of the technology, thereby making it available to patients, or decisions to allow and even encourage the use of the technology (even if someone else will have to fund it). A neutral appraisal, giving no definite answer as to whether implementation is recommended or not, could result in a laissez-faire attitude towards the technology. A negative appraisal could result in a decision to discourage or even prohibit implementation. This paper presents an

  3. Banks, repositories and registries of stem cell lines in Europe: regulatory and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kristina

    2009-03-01

    To overview banks, repositories and registries of stem cell lines in Europe excluding bone marrow and cord blood banks; to concisely discuss the most important scientific, regulatory and ethical aspects of stem cell banking in a manner understandable to a layperson, but remain detailed enough not to compromise thoroughness of information. Review of scientific publications, laws and ethical guidelines in this field up through September 2008; hearing the opinions of key persons working in stem cell banking. The article discusses the procedure of stem cell banking and related safety issues and reviews the regulation of stem cell banking at the regional (European) and the national level. Stem cell banking can help meet scientific and certain ethical imperatives, but is complicated in the context of heterogeneous laws, guidelines, and ethical standards. In the pluralistic European society with cultural diversity leading to heterogeneous laws, harmonisation of international guidelines and national laws regulating stem cell banking is needed, as well as mapping of implementation at the national level.

  4. Ethical aspects of sexual medicine. Internet, vibrators, and other sex aids: toys or therapeutic instruments?

    PubMed

    Jannini, Emmanuele A; Limoncin, Erika; Ciocca, Giacomo; Buehler, Stephanie; Krychman, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Sexual health is the result of a complex interplay between social, relational, intrapsychic, and medical aspects. Sexual health care professionals (SHCP) may face several ethical issues. Some SHCP prescribe Internet pornography for both diagnosis and therapy and some others directly sell vibrators and sex aids in their offices. Five scientists, with different perspectives, debate the ethical aspects in the clinical practice of the SHCP. To give to the Journal of Sexual Medicine's reader enough data to form her/his own opinion on an important ethical topic. Expert #1, who is Controversy's Section Editor, together with two coworkers, expert psycho-sexologists, reviews data from literature regarding the use of the Internet in the SHCP. Expert #2 argues that licensed professionals, who treat sexual problems, should not sell sexual aids such as vibrators, lubricants, erotica, and instructional DVDs to their clients. On the other hand, Expert #3 is in favor of the possibility, for the patient, to directly purchase sexual aids from the SHCP in order to avoid embarrassment, confusion, and non-adherence to treatment. Evidence and intelligence would suggest that both the Internet (in selected subjects) and the vibrators (in the correct clinical setting), with the due efforts in counseling the patients and tailoring their therapy, are not-harmful, excellent tools in promoting sexual health. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

  6. [Autonomy, care and justice: ethical aspects of the psychiatric treatment of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Höger, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    What is the right and good action in dealing with young patients in child and adolescent psychiatry? To answer this question, we have to consider professional standards, legal rules, and ethical reflections. With reference to the latter, four bioethical principles were proposed by Beauchamp and Childress to identify and to deal with ethical problems and conflicts. On the basis of this scheme we reflect on the legal aspects and discuss the following topics: (1) self-determination of adolescents concerning their own psychiatric treatment, (2) conflicts between autonomy and care, which occur relatively often, whenever restrictions to personal liberty are indicated, and (3) admission of adolescents in adult psychiatric wards. The bioethical principles facilitate a reliable decision-making process in individual cases. The standards of right and good action have to be implemented in the field of distributive justice. We find evidence that prioritization decisions for inpatient admission are already established in German child and adolescent psychiatry.

  7. Ethics and Medico Legal Aspects of “Not for Resuscitation”

    PubMed Central

    Salins, Naveen Sulakshan; Pai, Sachin Gopalakrishna; Vidyasagar, MS; Sobhana, Manikkath

    2010-01-01

    Not for resuscitation in India still remains an abstract concept with no clear guidelines or legal frame work. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a complex medical intervention which is often used inappropriately in hospitalized patients and usually guided by medical decision making rather than patient-directed choices. Patient autonomy still remains a weak concept and relatives are expected to make this big decision in a short time and at a time of great emotional distress. This article outlines concepts around ethics and medico legal aspects of not for resuscitation, especially in Indian setting. PMID:21811350

  8. What do patients expect from their physicians? Qualitative research on the ethical aspects of patient statements.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mehmet; Uçar, Muharrem; Güven, Tolga; Ataç, Adnan; Ozer, Mustafa

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the thoughts and expectations of patients receiving healthcare from their physicians and evaluate the ethical aspects of these thoughts and expectations. To determine the ethical aspects of the thoughts and expectations of patients, an open-ended question was asked on the web page of the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) Health Care Command, which is accessible to the users of the TAF intranet system (the internet system used within TAF institutions). The participants were asked to express their thoughts in their own words. A total of 804 participants answered the question by providing their input. The statements of the participants were classified separately by two public health specialists. The classification was made in accordance with the basic principles of patient rights, and they were collected under various headings including expectations about respect and care, good communication, informed consent, and fair and non-privileged distribution of healthcare services. The results show that patients tend to consider the physicians they see as solely responsible for all the negative issues that they encounter during their healthcare. This indicates that there is a need for extensive research on the underlying factors involved in the negative thoughts and feelings toward healthcare professionals in both TAF and Turkey in general.

  9. Ethical, legal, and social aspects of farm animal cloning in the 6th Framework Programme for Research.

    PubMed

    Claxton, John; Sachez, Elena; Matthiessen-Guyader, Line

    2004-01-01

    Cloned livestock have potential importance in the provision of improved medicine as well as in the development of livestock production. The public is, however, increasingly concerned about the social and ethical consequences of these advances in knowledge and techniques. There is unevenness throughout Europe in different Member States' attitudes to research into livestock cloning. Although there is EU legislation controlling the use of animals for research purposes, there is no legislation specifically governing cloning in livestock production. The main EU reference is the 9th Opinion of the European Group on Ethics, which states "Cloning of farm animals may prove to be of medical and agricultural as well as economic benefit. It is acceptable only when the aims and methods are ethically justified and when carried out under ethical conditions." The ethical justification includes the avoidance of suffering, the use of the 3Rs principle and a lack of better alternatives. The Commission addresses these issues in the 6th Framework Programme by promoting the integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in all proposals where they are relevant, by fostering ethical awareness and foresight in the proposals, by encouraging public dialogue, and by supporting specific actions to promote the debate. Research must respect fundamental ethical principles, including animal welfare requirements.

  10. Personalized Medicine in a New Genomic Era: Ethical and Legal Aspects.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, Maria; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Hussain, Syed Ather; Madadin, Mohammed; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2016-11-28

    The genome of two completely unrelated individuals is quite similar apart from minor variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms which contribute to the uniqueness of each and every person. These single nucleotide polymorphisms are of great interest clinically as they are useful in figuring out the susceptibility of certain individuals to particular diseases and for recognizing varied responses to pharmacological interventions. This gives rise to the idea of 'personalized medicine' as an exciting new therapeutic science in this genomic era. Personalized medicine suggests a unique treatment strategy based on an individual's genetic make-up. Its key principles revolve around applied pharmaco-genomics, pharmaco-kinetics and pharmaco-proteomics. Herein, the ethical and legal aspects of personalized medicine in a new genomic era are briefly addressed. The ultimate goal is to comprehensively recognize all relevant forms of genetic variation in each individual and be able to interpret this information in a clinically meaningful manner within the ambit of ethical and legal considerations. The authors of this article firmly believe that personalized medicine has the potential to revolutionize the current landscape of medicine as it makes its way into clinical practice.

  11. Ethical and public policy aspects of childhood obesity: opinions of scientists working on an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Wickins-Drazilova, D; Williams, G

    2010-08-01

    Scientists working on an obesity intervention project were asked questions, via questionnaire and interviews, relating to ethical and public-policy aspects of tackling childhood obesity. The main areas of enquiry concerned elements responsible for the rise in childhood obesity, key ethical areas of obesity interventions, helpfulness and effectiveness of policy measures, socioeconomic factors, and media coverage and political debate. Key results from this indicate that: there is disagreement about the amount of information about the causes of obesity that is needed before implementing interventions; an improvement in health and nutrition education of both children and adults through positive messages is seen as highly desirable; scientists regard environment, rather than genetics, as playing the major role in rising obesity levels; the level of individual responsibility being placed on parents and children may be unfair and unhelpful; whole-system, long-term and sensitive policy actions are needed rather than relying on quick fixes such as miracle pills; and there are country-specific issues related to rising obesity levels that need to be considered, though the respondents tended to have a great deal of faith in EU-wide interventions.

  12. Regulatory transparency: social, technical, and ethical aspects of clinical trial data access.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Varley Dias; Silveira, Dâmaris

    2015-06-01

    In the field of health regulation, enabling public access to data from clinical trials is a process currently undergoing consolidation by the principal regulators worldwide. This paper discusses recent developments in public policy regarding regulatory transparency, and the risks and benefits of a regulatory impact-analysis on clinical trial reports, from the perspective of the key stakeholders (i.e., patients, prescribers, government, society, industry, and regulators). Additionally, the social, technical, and ethical aspects of the datasharing process are highlighted, including access limits, commercially-confidential data and patent rights, privacy of research subjects, arrangements and publicity tools, and clinical trials registration. Furthermore, perspectives on improvement and expansion of regulatory transparency policies are presented, contextualizing North American, Latin American, and European experiences, and highlighting in-teragency cooperation and collaboration initiatives that aim to harmonize health programs and regulatory convergence.

  13. Legal, Ethical, and Financial Aspects of Providing Services to Children with Swallowing Disorders in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    This article considers the role of the speech-language pathologist in providing services to children with swallowing disorders in the public school setting. Topics addressed include requirements (or aspects) under various federal laws and regulations, as well as ethical, liability, and funding issues. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Ethical, behavioral, and social aspects of HIV vaccine trials in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lurie, P; Bishaw, M; Chesney, M A; Cooke, M; Fernandes, M E; Hearst, N; Katongole-Mbidde, E; Koetsawang, S; Lindan, C P; Mandel, J

    1994-01-26

    Several investigators are preparing to conduct efficacy trials of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines in the developing world. Failure to adequately address the unique ethical, behavioral, and social issues that surround vaccine testing in that setting will jeopardize the success of these trials and future acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research in the host nation. Twelve investigators from Africa, Asia, North America, and South America reviewed previous experience with HIV trials in developing countries and explored potential solutions to these issues. Host country scientists, government officials, and media must be actively involved in all aspects of the trials. Minimum prerequisites for conducting the trial include the following: (1) researching vaccines active against developing world HIV isolates; (2) establishing and maintaining an adequate technological infrastructure; (3) assessing the feasibility of recruitment in countries where the existence of HIV may be denied; (4) designing methods to obtain informed consent from each individual subject, rather than exclusively from family members or community elders; (5) creating locally appropriate instruments to measure risk behavior; (6) identifying a behavioral intervention for placebo and treatment groups; (7) making available laboratory methods to distinguish between natural HIV infection and vaccine-induced seropositivity; and (8) guaranteeing that an effective vaccine is available free of charge to the placebo group and at affordable prices to other host country residents.

  15. Nutrigenomics and ethics interface: direct-to-consumer services and commercial aspects.

    PubMed

    Ries, Nola M; Castle, David

    2008-12-01

    A growing variety and number of genetic tests are advertised and sold directly to consumers (DTC) via the Internet, including nutrigenomic tests and associated products and services. Consumers have more access to genetic information about themselves, but access does not entail certainty about the implications of test results. Potential personal and public health harms and benefits are associated with DTC access to genetic testing services. Early policy responses to direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing often involved calls for bans, and some jurisdictions prohibited DTC genetic tests. Recent policy responses by oversight bodies acknowledge expansion in the range of DTC tests available and suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" regulatory approach is not appropriate for all genetic tests. This review discusses ethical and regulatory aspects of DTC genetic testing, focusing particularly on nutrigenomic tests. We identify policy options for regulating DTC genetic tests, including full or partial prohibitions, enforcement of existing truth-in-advertising laws, and more comprehensive information disclosure about genetic tests. We advocate the latter option as an important means to improve transparency about current evidence on the strengths and limits of gene-disease associations and allow consumers to make informed purchasing decisions in the DTC marketplace.

  16. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. [Recommendations on the ethical aspects of specimen collections and human biobanks for biomedical research purposes].

    PubMed

    Abascal Alonso, Moisés; de Abajo Iglesias, Francisco J; Campos Castelló, Jaime; Feito Grande, Lydia; Herrera Carranza, Joaquín; Júdez Gutiérrez, Javier; Martín Arribas, M Concepción; Martín, Uranga Amelia; Pàmpols Ros, Teresa; Sánchez Martínez, M José; Terracini, Benedetto

    2007-01-01

    The collecting and storing of human biospecimens and associated data are a historical fact in medicine, but the biobank is a very recent concept. The advent of new technologies making it possible to store all types of specimens, including cells capable of staying alive outside the human body for an indefinite length of time, and to obtain scientific data of all types, including genetic information, has opened up a whole new realm of possibilities for research. All of the above has led to complex ethical issues coming to fore concerning the specimen donors, the researchers handling the specimens and society as a whole. This document is aimed at providing some recommendations to serve as a guideline and encourage responsible deliberation among all those involved, thus contributing to society's recognition and trust in the forthrightness of the research and the solidary end purposes thereof. A total of nineteen recommendations have been drafted concerning the following aspects: Biobank organization and operation, degree of specimen identification, data management guarantees, consent for taking part in research and for the incorporation of specimens into the biobank, the right to know and the right not to know, consent for transferring specimens to third parties, specimen harvesting in deceased individuals, management of the pre-existing biospecimen collections, title to and commercialization of specimens and research findings and resulting payback benefiting the community.

  18. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  19. The Defence of Artificial Life by Synthetic Biology From Ethical and Social Aspects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyi; Yin, Zhou; Shao, Zhexin; Xie, Qiong

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic biology opens up exciting new opportunities for research and industry. Although the work of synthetic biologists presents many beneficial applications, it also raises potentially serious ethical concerns. Therefore, clear ideas must be formed regarding its ethical and social implications, e.g., public perception, safety, security, intellectual property rights and so on. In this review, the authors identified four issues relevant to synthetic biology and discussed associated ethical and practical implications. By weighing these perspectives of all sides, this paper clarifies the point that synthetic biology, as an emerging discipline with many anticipated benefits and positive impacts on society, can acquire moral support and ethical defence. Therefore, synthetic biologists should not be shackled with heavy ethical chains, but we must ensure that research is conducted under strict control and effective supervisory methods.

  20. Those Moral Aspects Unique to the Profession: Principals' Perspectives on Their Work and the Implications for a Professional Ethic for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, William C.; Gutierrez, Kathrine J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined aspects of work-related behavior considered morally and ethically unique to the profession of educational leadership as expressed by practitioners. The purpose was to empirically test and develop a practical, profession-specific ethic as articulated by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2001, 2005) and Stefkovich (2006). The study used…

  1. Ethical aspects considered in doctor-patient relations: experiences of anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria de Fátima Oliveira Dos; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; Sousa, Eduardo Sérgio Soares; Oliveira, Harison José de; Ramalho, Gualter Lisboa

    2013-01-01

    Ethical principles guide professional conduct, particularly in establishing the doctor-patient relationship and, therefore, require constant reflection. The purpose of this study is to analyze ethical experiences of anesthesiologists in their interaction with the patient under their care. This was an exploratory study involving 16 active anesthesiologists at a university hospital in João Pessoa, Paraíba. We collected data through semi-structured interviews and analyzed qualitatively using the content analysis technique. The study findings show that the classification of ethical experiences of the study participants regarding the doctor-patient relationship were classified into five categories: respect for the patient, humane treatment, equal treatment, professional secrecy, and respect for patient autonomy. We conclude that respondents recognize the ethical and humanistic values that should guide the relationship with their patients.

  2. Occupational health practice and exposure to nanoparticles: reconciling scientific evidence, ethical aspects, and legal requirements.

    PubMed

    Franco, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims at focusing the relationship between scientific evidence and ethical values' issues of occupational health practice according to the new Italian law 81/2008 stating that the occupational health physician (OHP) is required to act according to the Code of Ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The code itself emphasizes that (i) the practice should be relevant, knowledge-based, sound, and appropriate to the occupational risks and (ii) the objectives and methods of health surveillance must be clearly defined. Because exposure to nanoparticles involves several uncertainties about health effects and may limit the effectiveness of workers' health surveillance, OHPs face a several ethical dilemmas, involving different stakeholders. The dilemmas arising from the practice should be dealt with according to the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, and justice in order to take a decision.

  3. Financial capacity in persons with schizophrenia and serious mental illness: clinical and research ethics aspects.

    PubMed

    Marson, Daniel C; Savage, Robert; Phillips, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    In contrast with issues of consent capacity, financial capacity has received surprisingly little clinical or ethical attention in the psychiatric literature. Issues of financial capacity emerge frequently regarding clients with serious mental illness (SMI), and their resolution has practical and ethical significance for clients, their families, and mental health professionals. These issues include whether a client has sufficient financial skills and judgment to live independently, whether a client requires a representative payee, and what goals for community reintegration should be established with a client. Similar to informed consent, issues of financial capacity raise ethical challenges for clinicians, caseworkers, and agencies. The present article addresses clinical and research ethics questions related to financial capacity in clients with schizophrenia and SMI. Clinical questions concern evaluation of financial capacity in clients with SMI, whether to seek assignment of a mandatory representative payee, whether to leverage treatment compliance through a representative payee arrangement, and whether a mental health professional should also serve as a client's representative payee. The research ethics question addresses implications of providing financial compensation for research participation to individuals with SMI and limited financial capacity and means. The ultimate goal of this article is to focus clinical and ethical attention on a neglected decisional capacity in SMI that is of fundamental importance for clients, families, clinicians, and researchers.

  4. [Construction and validation of the "La Salle Instrument" to evaluate the ethical aspects in biomedical research on human beings].

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Velasco-Jiménez, María Teresa; Domínguez-González, Alejandro; Meneses-Ruíz, Dulce María; Padilla-García, Raúl Amauri

    2017-01-01

    Research projects must demonstrate not only a rigorous scientific methodology, but also the ethical aspects that require profound reflection of the reviewers. Current regulations establish criteria for research projects on human health, but many of these aspects are subjective. How can the evaluation of such projects be standardized? This is the main subject of the current project. This project comprises two phases. First, the design and construction of an instrument of evaluation based on the fundamental principles of bioethics, which are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, and other aspects. The second phase consists of content validation through expert. During the phase of reviewing the instrument, it was necessary to make changes by adding, removing, or changing the concepts or criteria, which lead to the construction of the second version of the format. This new instrument was reviewed and analyzed by using the AGREE II instrument, and this version was validated by experts by greater than 95%. There are some recommendations to analyze the ethical aspects in research protocols involving human subjects, but they define the concepts and criteria to be evaluated. By presenting the criteria to be evaluated individually, the "La Salle instrument" allows the evaluation to be more objective and standardized.

  5. Ethics.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  6. Ethical and Sociocultural Aspects of Sexual Function and Dysfunction in Both Sexes.

    PubMed

    Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan; Brotto, Lori

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to highlight the salient sociocultural factors contributing to sexual health and dysfunction and to offer recommendations for culturally sensitive clinical management and research as well for an ethically sound sexual health care, counseling and medical decision-making. There are limited data on the impact of sociocultural factors on male and female sexual function as well as on ethical principles to follow when clinical care falls outside of traditional realms of medically indicated interventions. This study reviewed the current literature on sociocultural and ethical considerations with regard to male and female sexual dysfunction as well as cultural and cosmetic female and male genital modification procedures. It is recommended that clinicians evaluate their patients and their partners in the context of culture and assess distressing sexual symptoms regardless of whether they are a recognized dysfunction. Both clinicians and researchers should develop culturally sensitive assessment skills and instruments. There are a number of practices with complex ethical issues (eg, female genital cutting, female and male cosmetic genital surgery). Future International Committee of Sexual Medicine meetings should seek to develop guidelines and associated recommendations for a separate, broader chapter on ethics. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell research in the islamic world: positions and reflections.

    PubMed

    Ilkilic, Ilhan; Ertin, Hakan

    2010-06-01

    Rapid technological developments in human embryonic stem cell research are holding promises of future new medical treatment for a range of currently incurable chronic diseases. At the same time, stem cell research using human embryos raises radically new, previously unimaginable ethical issues posing a dramatic challenge to humankind. By analysing the discourses on these ethical issues we can show that the cultural values and religious convictions of all stakeholders involved play a decisive role in formulating ethical positions. In the Islamic world, too, stem cell research using human embryos provokes new discussions about the moral status of the embryo according to Islamic ethical norms. In our paper we describe the theological and philosophical criteria used in this debate and discuss some ethical positions vis-à-vis embryonic stem cell research formulated in the Islamic world, including official regulations existing in some Muslim countries. While most of the existing literature in this field is primarily descriptive, the present paper endeavours to examine not only the arguments and their historical conditions as such; in addition, we will for the first time provide a critical reflection on the methodology underlying commonly held positions. In our view, this reflection is of paramount importance in establishing a straightforward constructive dialogue between different cultures and academic disciplines.

  8. [Medical ethical aspects of culture in social interactions with Muslim patients].

    PubMed

    Ilkilic, I

    2007-07-30

    In today's world, the plurality of values is considered to be a constitutive feature of modern societies. In these societies, transcultural patient-physician relationships are a part of daily medical practice. Culturally determined value systems can be crucial for understanding the perception of notions such as "health" and "illness", leading to fundamental differences in assessing medical interventions and therapeutic objectives. Therefore, transcultural conflicts of interest are presenting medical ethical decision-making with new challenges. Time and again, medical practice demonstrates that cultural differences between physician and patient are correlated with the complexity of medical ethical conflicts, as can be seen in the relationship between Muslim patients and non-Muslim physicians in the German health care system. This paper discusses some of the central issues in these relationships like communication, sense of shame, religious duties, and medical end-of-life decisions, analyzing some concrete cases. Subsequently, a number of medical ethical theses relevant for multicultural societies will be discussed.

  9. Research on human-animal entities: ethical and regulatory aspects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kristina

    2009-09-01

    To review the ethical and regulatory issues related to the research on human-animal entities at various stages. Review of scientific publications, laws and ethical guidelines in this field up through September 2008. The article presents the overall picture of the research on human-animal entities in Europe, including the public opinion and the country-specific regulations and guidelines regarding such research, discusses the ethical issues, including both arguments opposing and favoring such research, as well as discusses and clarifies the terminology used. Creation of human-animal entities with the potential for what may be viewed as human faculties raises profound questions concerning the rights and responsibilities of human beings. There is great need for informed discussions and interchanges between the expert researchers, ethicists, policymakers, lawyers and the public in general to come to consensus regarding the issues discussed in this paper. Suggestions regarding these rights and responsibilities are overviewed.

  10. [The rules of ethics, legal aspects, and the issue of euthanasia].

    PubMed

    Swiatkowska-Flis, Beata; Pierzchała, Krystyna; Flis, Cezary

    2009-01-01

    The issue of euthanasia is gaining greater momentum in Poland. It is a matter of fact that Poland is a country with an increasing aging population. As a result of this increased awareness, this topic is also becoming increasingly controversial. Does a doctor have the right to decide, on behalf of another person, if they should end their life? What limitations should doctors be bound by in terms of their legal and ethical obligations? The purpose of this study is to investigate the ethical and legal implications associated with euthanasia.

  11. [Ethical and legal aspects of animal experiments on non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Luy, J

    2007-03-01

    Animal experiments on non-human primates give cause for ethical concerns for three reasons (1) the inclusion of "ethical animal protection" in the German Constitution (Article 20a of the "Grundgesetz" GG, 2002) has led to real consequences for the application process with respect to the use of primates for fundamental research; (2) the legal requirements in Europe to ensure animal welfare are currently being tightened and (3) the global problem of the protection of species, especially with respect to the capturing and subsequent sale of primates is still unsolved. As a result of the way humans interpret the term justice (the principle of equality) it was to be expected that great apes, being the animals that most closely resemble humans, would play a key role in the establishment of animal protection laws. In 1997,Great Britain and Ireland made it illegal to conduct experiments on great apes. In 1999, New Zealand went even further and created a kind of basic rights for great apes. In 2003,The Netherlands forbade animal experiments using great apes as did Sweden, which also included gibbons in this ban (which is in line with current taxonomy, which considers gibbons to belong to the family Hominidae). In 2006 Austria forbade experiments carried out on chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orang-utans, and gibbons. Only recently, a state commission on ethics in Switzerland demanded that the Swiss government do the same. And the summer of 2006 saw a debate in Spain on the inclusion of the protection of great apes in the primary goals of the state. Due to the principle of equality, a further extension (both geographically and systemically) of the exclusion of great apes from animal experiments is to be expected. Since Article 20a GG on "ethical animal protection" came into effect on August 1,2002, the regulatory authorities in Germany have the right to independently check and control animal experiments as to their ethical tenability (Administrative Court Giessen, confirmed

  12. The ethical landscape: identifying the right way to think about the ethical and societal aspects of synthetic biology research and products.

    PubMed

    Yearley, Steven

    2009-08-06

    Synthetic biology promises to be highly innovative in its contribution to scientific understanding. But it offers other sorts of innovation too: in the variety of applications that could result and in the wide range of practitioners who could become involved. But directly corresponding to each of these is a kind of regulatory concern. If the entry barriers are low for a form of scientific practice with dramatic implications then the need for regulatory control over access is great since no one wants unlicensed operators releasing experimental organisms. If there are likely to be extensive opportunities for application within the human body and in the open environment (for energy production or novel forms of bioremediation) then the release and safety-testing implications are potentially enormous. Proponents of synthetic biology have been quick to realise that these challenges call for reviews of the societal and ethical aspects of synthetic biology. This paper shows that the template commonly adopted for such reviews draws on bioethics. It goes on to show that this template is far from ideal, both because of limitations in the way that bioethics has been institutionalized and because of key differences between the regulatory demands on synthetic biology and on bioethics. The paper concludes that broader models of societal and ethical review of synthetic biology are urgently required.

  13. The ethical landscape: identifying the right way to think about the ethical and societal aspects of synthetic biology research and products

    PubMed Central

    Yearley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic biology promises to be highly innovative in its contribution to scientific understanding. But it offers other sorts of innovation too: in the variety of applications that could result and in the wide range of practitioners who could become involved. But directly corresponding to each of these is a kind of regulatory concern. If the entry barriers are low for a form of scientific practice with dramatic implications then the need for regulatory control over access is great since no one wants unlicensed operators releasing experimental organisms. If there are likely to be extensive opportunities for application within the human body and in the open environment (for energy production or novel forms of bioremediation) then the release and safety-testing implications are potentially enormous. Proponents of synthetic biology have been quick to realise that these challenges call for reviews of the societal and ethical aspects of synthetic biology. This paper shows that the template commonly adopted for such reviews draws on bioethics. It goes on to show that this template is far from ideal, both because of limitations in the way that bioethics has been institutionalized and because of key differences between the regulatory demands on synthetic biology and on bioethics. The paper concludes that broader models of societal and ethical review of synthetic biology are urgently required. PMID:19447816

  14. [Neonatal screening for congenital metabolic pathologies. Ethical and social aspects. Implications for nurses and midwives].

    PubMed

    Goberna Tricas, Josefina; Martín-Arribas, M Concepción

    2007-02-01

    The authors describe the diseases which are detectable by means of neonatal screening programs available in the different Spanish Autonomous Communities. They analyze some of the ethical and social implications which may occur and they emphasize what those programs mean for nursing professionals, fundamentally midwives and nurses who work in primary health care units or pediatric units.

  15. Clinical and Ethical Aspects of Financial Capacity in Dementia: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Marson, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to issues like treatment and research consent capacity, financial capacity has received relatively little clinical and ethical attention in the dementia literature. Yet issues of financial capacity emerge frequently in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and related dementias, and commonly present ethical and clinical challenges for clinicians treating these patients. These issues include whether a patient with possible dementia has sufficient capacity independently to manage their financial affairs, needs referral for financial capacity assessment, and/or is being financially exploited or abused by others. The accurate identification, assessment and successful handling of such financial capacity issues can have a substantial impact on the financial and psychological well-being of patients and their family members. The present commentary presents an overview of financial capacity and associated clinical and ethical issues in dementia, and describes a set of possible clinician roles regarding these issues as they arise in clinical practice. The commentary concludes with a section describing educational resources available to clinicians and bioethicists seeking additional guidance in handling financial capacity issues. The ultimate goal of the paper is to focus clinical and ethical attention on a neglected capacity that is of fundamental importance for patients, families, and health care and legal professionals. PMID:24078779

  16. Ethical aspects of public health legislation: the Mental Health Care Bill, 2011.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, Harish; Goswami, Kausik; Chaturvedi, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    A legal framework is essential to promote and safeguard the interests of persons with mental illness. Since the Indian Lunacy Act, 1912, mental health legislation has come a long way. Currently efforts are underway to modify the existing Mental Health Act taking into account the resolutions under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The proposed Mental Health Care Bill, 2011 incorporates promising modifications, like "caregiver", "nominated representative", "consent", "support" for decision making, and "advance directive" for persons with mental illness in its rubric, which seems potentially beneficial to the patients. The proposed new bill should facilitate and strengthen a mental health policy which provides acceptable, accessible, and equitable mental health care. A law becomes meaningful when it is realistic, implementable and ethical in provisions. In this comment, we take a critical look at the proposed 'The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011' through the lens of ethical principles.

  17. A priority paper for the societal and ethical aspects of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Markus; Ganguli-Mitra, Agomoni; Torgersen, Helge; Kelle, Alexander; Deplazes, Anna; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2009-12-01

    As synthetic biology develops into a promising science and engineering field, we need to have clear ideas and priorities regarding its safety, security, ethical and public dialogue implications. Based on an extensive literature search, interviews with scientists, social scientists, a 4 week long public e-forum, and consultation with several stakeholders from science, industry and civil society organisations, we compiled a list of priority topics regarding societal issues of synthetic biology for the years ahead. The points presented here are intended to encourage all stakeholders to engage in the prioritisation of these issues and to participate in a continuous dialogue, with the ultimate goal of providing a basis for a multi-stakeholder governance in synthetic biology. Here we show possible ways to solve the challenges to synthetic biology in the field of safety, security, ethics and the science-public interface.

  18. The cyber-aspects of virtual communities: free downloader ethics, cognition, and perceived service quality.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the downloader cognitive structures toward Web service quality and the downloader ethical attitudes across various levels of participation in a virtual community. Using four types of free downloads as the research subjects, the researcher found that the users in different participation degrees have different perception preferences. Owners of the free downloading Web sites can use the findings of this study to develop effective Web marketing strategies.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE ETHICAL ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONAL CONFIDENTIALITY IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Saliba, Nemre Adas; de Lima, Daniela Coelho; de Macedo, Ana Paula Ayala

    2008-01-01

    From the point of view of deontological ethics, privacy is a moral right that patients are entitled to and it is bound to professional confidentiality. Otherwise, the information given by patients to health professionals would not be reliable and a trustable relationship could not be established. The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of questionnaires with open and closed questions, the awareness and attitudes of 100 dentists working in the city of Andradina, São Paulo State, Brazil, with respect to professional confidentiality in dental practice. Most dentists (91.43%) reported to have instructed their assistants on professional confidentiality. However, 44.29% of the interviewees showed to act contradictorily as reported talking about the clinical cases of their patients to their friends or spouses. The great majority of professionals (98.57%) believed that it is important to have classes on Ethics and Bioethics during graduation and, when asked about their knowledge of the penalties imposed for breach of professional confidentiality, only 48.57% of them declared to be aware of it. Only 28.57% of the interviewees affirmed to have exclusive access to the files; 67.14% reported that that files were also accessed by their secretary; 1.43% answered that their spouses also had access, and 2.86% did not answer. From the results of the present survey, it could be observed that, although dentists affirmed to be aware of professional confidentiality, their attitudes did not adhere to ethical and legal requirements. This stand of health professionals has contributed to violate professional ethics and the law itself, bringing problems both to the professional and to the patient. PMID:19089294

  20. tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Voarino, Nathalie; Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising technology to enhance cognitive and physical performance. One of the major areas of interest is the enhancement of memory function in healthy individuals. The early arrival of tDCS on the market for lifestyle uses and cognitive enhancement purposes lead to the voicing of some important ethical concerns, especially because, to date, there are no official guidelines or evaluation procedures to tackle these issues. The aim of this article is to review ethical issues related to uses of tDCS for memory enhancement found in the ethics and neuroscience literature and to evaluate how realistic and scientifically well-founded these concerns are? In order to evaluate how plausible or speculative each issue is, we applied the methodological framework described by Racine et al. (2014) for “informed and reflective” speculation in bioethics. This framework could be succinctly presented as requiring: (1) the explicit acknowledgment of factual assumptions and identification of the value attributed to them; (2) the validation of these assumptions with interdisciplinary literature; and (3) the adoption of a broad perspective to support more comprehensive reflection on normative issues. We identified four major considerations associated with the development of tDCS for memory enhancement: safety, autonomy, justice and authenticity. In order to assess the seriousness and likelihood of harm related to each of these concerns, we analyzed the assumptions underlying the ethical issues, and the level of evidence for each of them. We identified seven distinct assumptions: prevalence, social acceptance, efficacy, ideological stance (bioconservative vs. libertarian), potential for misuse, long term side effects, and the delivery of complete and clear information. We conclude that ethical discussion about memory enhancement via tDCS sometimes involves undue speculation, and closer attention to scientific and social facts would

  1. Ethical and Clinical Aspects of Intensive Care Unit Admission in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Guidelines of the Ethics Commission of the French Society of Hematology

    PubMed Central

    Malak, Sandra; Sotto, Jean-Jacques; Ceccaldi, Joël; Colombat, Philippe; Casassus, Philippe; Jaulmes, Dominique; Rochant, Henri; Cheminant, Morgane; Beaussant, Yvan; Zittoun, Robert; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Admission of patients with hematological malignancies to intensive care unit (ICU) raises recurrent ethical issues for both hematological and intensivist teams. The decision of transfer to ICU has major consequences for end of life care for patients and their relatives. It also impacts organizational human and economic aspects for the ICU and global health policy. In light of the recent advances in hematology and critical care medicine, a wide multidisciplinary debate has been conducted resulting in guidelines approved by consensus by both disciplines. The main aspects developed were (i) clarification of the clinical situations that could lead to a transfer to ICU taking into account the severity criteria of both hematological malignancy and clinical distress, (ii) understanding the process of decision-making in a context of regular interdisciplinary concertation involving the patient and his relatives, (iii) organization of a collegial concertation at the time of the initial decision of transfer to ICU and throughout and beyond the stay in ICU. The aim of this work is to propose suggestions to strengthen the collaboration between the different teams involved, to facilitate the daily decision-making process, and to allow improvement of clinical practice. PMID:25349612

  2. Ethical aspects of a predictive test for Huntington's Disease: A long term perspective.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Petra Lilja; Petersén, Åsa; Graff, Caroline; Edberg, Anna-Karin

    2016-08-01

    A predictive genetic test for Huntington's disease can be used before any symptoms are apparent, but there is only sparse knowledge about the long-term consequences of a positive test result. Such knowledge is important in order to gain a deeper understanding of families' experiences. The aim of the study was to describe a young couple's long-term experiences and the consequences of a predictive test for Huntington's disease. A descriptive case study design was used with a longitudinal narrative life history approach. The study was based on 18 interviews with a young couple, covering a period of 2.5 years; starting 6 months after the disclosure of the test results showing the woman to be a carrier of the gene causing Huntington's disease. Even though the study was extremely sensitive, where potential harm constantly had to be balanced against the benefits, the couple had a strong wish to contribute to increased knowledge about people in their situation. The study was approved by the ethics committee. The results show that the long-term consequences were devastating for the family. This 3-year period was characterized by anxiety, repeated suicide attempts, financial difficulties and eventually divorce. By offering a predictive test, the healthcare system has an ethical and moral responsibility. Once the test result is disclosed, the individual and the family cannot live without the knowledge it brings. Support is needed in a long-term perspective and should involve counselling concerning the families' everyday life involving important decision-making, reorientation towards a new outlook of the future and the meaning of life. As health professionals, our ethical and moral responsibility thus embraces not only the phase in direct connection to the actual genetic test but also a commitment to provide support to help the family deal with the long-term consequences of the test. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. [Ethical aspects of pharmacological cognition enhancement and the use of psychostimulants by children and young persons].

    PubMed

    Walcher-Andris, Elfriede

    2006-03-01

    Pharmacological cognition enhancement aims at an improvement of cognitive activity and performance in healthy people by means of appropriate drugs. Ethical implications of this kind of cognition enhancement stand in need of reflection. For a number of reasons, the distinction between treatment and enhancement is fuzzy with regard to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In consideration of the growing number methylphenidate prescriptions, one question addressed in this article is whether or not psychostimulants are used not only for therapy but also for cognitive enhancement by children and young people. The possibility of a "grey zone" between treatment and enhancement seems to open the field for medicalization of social and pedagogical problems as well as for "hidden enhancement." In clinical practice, the use of stimulants is associated with certain ethical problems concerning diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ADHD. Some of these problems are associated with the possibility of cognition enhancement. In order to evaluate ethical problems of pharmacological cognition enhancement, short-term and long-term consequences of stimulant use need to be taken into account. This refers to the level of transmitter balance in the learning process, to the level of individual learning strategies as well as to the level of interaction. This raises the question (1) of how well adapted the means of enhancement are with regard to the end of a comprehensive education and socialization, and (2) whether there are justifiable limits to the standardization of behavior and knowledge. (3) Moreover, stipulating an autonomous decision as a minimum prerequisite for legitimate cognition enhancement seems inadequate in the case of children and young persons. Considering the evidence and the many open questions associated with pharmacological cognition enhancement for children and young persons, it is concluded that it is indeed a morally problematic technique.

  4. Ethical aspects of caregivers' experience with persons with dementia at mealtimes.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Lena Marmstål; Swall, Anna; Meranius, Martina Summer

    2016-09-01

    Persons with dementia are at risk of malnutrition and thus in need of assistance during mealtimes. Research suggest interventions for caregivers to learn how to facilitate mealtimes and eating, while other suggest a working environment enabling the encounter needed to provide high-quality care. However, the phenomenon of caring for this unique population needs to be elucidated from several perspectives before suggesting suitable implications that ensure their optimal health. To illustrate the meanings within caregivers' experiences of caring for persons with dementia during mealtime situations. We also measured weight and food intake among individuals with dementia to explain better the phenomenon of caring for them during mealtimes. Mixed method including focus group interviews with seven caregivers analyzed using phenomenological hermeneutics. In addition, for nine persons with dementia, weight and food intake were collected and descriptive statistics were calculated. Ethical review was obtained from an ethics committee, and all caregivers signed a consent form after being informed on the issue of research ethics. Relatives for persons with dementia were informed and signed the consent. In addition, throughout the study, the persons' expressions were observed aiming to respect their vulnerability, integrity, and dignity. One theme emerged from interviews (struggling between having the knowledge and not the opportunity), which was built upon three subthemes (being engaged and trying; feeling abandoned and insufficient; being concerned and feeling guilty). Seven of nine persons with dementia lost a minimum of 1.3 kg of weight and ate a maximum of 49.7% of the food served. Caregivers struggle because they have knowledge about how to provide high-quality care but are unable to provide this care due to organizational structures. The weight loss and insufficient eating among the persons with dementia may support this conclusion. Sufficient time for adequate care should

  5. [Ethical aspects of human cloning for therapeutic purposes and the use of embryonal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Kahn, A

    2000-01-01

    Embryo definition is without any ambiguity: it consists in a stage of development able to give rise to an autonomous organism. In this sense, it is obvious that human embryos could be produced by cloning. If the therapeutic prospects of therapeutic cloning are confirmed, there will be a tension between two ethical logics: to respect human embryos as possible persons ... and to improve the condition of severely affected patients. Whatever the definitive solution, its moral significance should be denied. In contrast, it seems possible to use spare embryons for selected research without considering them only as things.

  6. Ethical, moral and other aspects related to fertility preservation in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bruno Ramalho de; Kliemchen, Jhenifer; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2017-02-01

    Post-treatment fertility emerges as an important issue in the early counseling of individuals with cancer, since survivors may have their quality of life affected by the occurrence of functional failure of the gonads because of antineoplastic therapies. In the context, oncofertility has been developed as an interdisciplinary field of study that combines expertise in reproductive medicine and oncology, to provide strategies aiming to maintain the possibility of future procreation. Today, we have many options and techniques available for the preservation of gametes in men and women. Some of them are already considered well established and used in routine, but ethical and moral issues on the subject still need to be debated.

  7. [Ethical aspects of medical thought on the madness in the enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Martini, Mariano; Gorini, Ilaria; Licata, Marta; De Stefano, Francesco; Schiavone, Michele; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2016-08-01

    The seventeenth century is a period of transition from religious views that are not authentic but dogmatic about demonic influences to the application of scientific and methodological criteria in science. During Enlightenment there was an approach heavily influenced by ethical issues. In this context, there is a rational recognition of the value of man free from the teleological type references. Mental illnesses are treated using scientific criteria. During the seventeenth century clinical interest is also extended to psychosis and not only to neurosis. There are several significant changes in the care of psychiatric patient, and healthcare institutions are improved and increased. Many behaviors are inspired by the values of philanthropy.

  8. [Ethical-legal aspects of the civil responsibility of physicians in professional practice].

    PubMed

    Fortes, P A

    1990-12-01

    The ethical-juridical concepts related to the civil responsibility of medical activity in liberal practice are brought up to date. To this end, the arguments which guide the shaping up of the contractual relationship between the physician and the client are analysed, as also are the foundations on which the notion of guilt--an essential component of civil responsibility, whether relating to technical acts of to those within the field of medical humanism--are grounded. The answers presented for the solution of this question by European juridical systems are given.

  9. Ethical aspects of the use of stem cell derived gametes for reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido

    2010-09-01

    A lot of interest has been generated by the possibility of deriving gametes from embryonic stem cells and bone marrow stem cells. These stem cell derived gametes may become useful for research and for the treatment of infertility. In this article we consider prospectively the ethical issues that will arise if stem cell derived gametes are used in the clinic, making a distinction between concerns that only apply to embryonic stem cell derived gametes and concerns that are also relevant for gametes derived from adult stem cells. At present, it appears preferable to use non-embryonic stem cells for the derivation of gametes. Adult stem cell derived gametes do not present any problems with regard to the moral status of the human embryo, bypass the safety risks linked to SCNT and do not present any ambiguity or novel problems with regard to informed consent, psychological consequences for the child or genetic parenthood. A remaining ethical concern, however, regards the safety of the procedure in terms of the welfare of the resulting children. This should spark a thorough reflection on how far one must go to accommodate a person's wish to have a genetically related child.

  10. Ethical and legal aspects of stem cell practices in Turkey: where are we?

    PubMed

    Ozturk Turkmen, H; Arda, B

    2008-12-01

    Advances in medical technology and information have facilitated clinical practices that favourably affect the success rates of treatment for diseases. Regenerative medicine has been the focus of the recent medical agenda, to the extent of fundamentally changing treatment paradigms. Stem cell practices, their efficacy, and associated ethical concerns have been debated intensively in many countries. Stem cell research is carried out along with the treatment of patients. Thus, various groups affected by the practices inevitably participate in the discussions. In addition to discussions based on avoiding any harm, providing benefits and respecting personal autonomy and justice, problems arise owing to the lack of legal regulations for stem cell research and practice. The dimensions of the problems vary in the developing countries, with widespread use of advanced medical technology but with lack of sources allocated for healthcare, dominance of paternalistic physician-patient relationships and failure to achieve a sufficient level of awareness of patients' rights. This article discusses the current situation of stem cell practices within the context of regenerative medicine in Turkey and ethical concerns about some of the legal regulations, such as the Regulation for Umblical Cord Blood Banking and Guidelines for Non-embryonic Stem Cell Study for Non-clinical Purposes directing the research on this issue.

  11. Cyberdermatoethics I: ethical, legal, technologic, and clinical aspects of patient-physician e-mail.

    PubMed

    Luo, John; Logan, Christopher; Long, Thomas P; Bercovitch, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    As Internet access has become ubiquitous, electronic mail (e-mail) is becoming more widely used as a means of communication between patient and dermatologist. Dealing with the ethical, legal, and clinical consequences has lagged behind the technology. Privacy of e-mail cannot exist without security, and as a foundation for understanding e-mail security, the elements of e-mail technology are reviewed. One of the greatest risks of e-mail is compromise of privacy. Although self-documenting and convenient, e-mail lacks the emotional cues of face-to-face encounters, is asynchronous and not always read in timely fashion, and is not suitable for certain clinical concerns such as urgent matters and cancer diagnoses. Legal issues relating to federal privacy regulations, ethical issues such as autonomy and justice, and guidelines for the use of e-mail in clinical practice are reviewed. Case scenarios are used to present the pitfalls in clinical e-mail encounters, including establishment of the doctor-patient relationship, diagnosis and treatment over the Internet, and curbside consultations.

  12. Ethical aspects of the mitigation obstruction argument against climate engineering research.

    PubMed

    Morrow, David R

    2014-12-28

    Many commentators fear that climate engineering research might lead policy-makers to reduce mitigation efforts. Most of the literature on this so-called 'moral hazard' problem focuses on the prediction that climate engineering research would reduce mitigation efforts. This paper focuses on a related ethical question: Why would it be a bad thing if climate engineering research obstructed mitigation? If climate engineering promises to be effective enough, it might justify some reduction in mitigation. Climate policy portfolios involving sufficiently large or poorly planned reductions in mitigation, however, could lead to an outcome that would be worse than the portfolio that would be chosen in the absence of further climate engineering research. This paper applies three ethical perspectives to describe the kinds of portfolios that would be worse than that 'baseline portfolio'. The literature on climate engineering identifies various mechanisms that might cause policy-makers to choose these inferior portfolios, but it is difficult to know in advance whether the existence of these mechanisms means that climate engineering research really would lead to a worse outcome. In the light of that uncertainty, a precautionary approach suggests that researchers should take measures to reduce the risk of mitigation obstruction. Several such measures are suggested.

  13. Ethical aspects and dilemmas of preparing, writing and publishing of the scientific papers in the biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-09-01

    In this paper author discussed about preparing and submitting manuscripts - scientific, research, professional papers, reviews and case reports. Author described it from the Editor's perspective, and specially talked about ethical aspects of authorship, conflict of interest, copyright, plagiarism and duplicate publication from the point of view of his experiences as Editor-in-Chief of several biomedical journals and Chief of Task Force of European Federation of Medical Informatics journals and member of Task Force of European Cardiology Society journals. The scientific process relies on trust and credibility. The scientific community demands high ethical standards to conduct biomedical research and to publish scientific contents. During the last decade, disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI ), (also called competing loyalties, competing interests or dual commitments), has been considered as a key element to guarantee the credibility of the scientific process. Biases in design, analysis and interpretation of studies may arise when authors or sponsors have vested interests. Therefore, COI should be made clear to the readers to facilitate their own judgment and interpretation of their relevance and potential implications. Authors are responsible to fully disclose potential COI . In October 2009 the ICMJE proposed an electronic "uniform" format for COI disclosure. Four main areas were addressed: authors´ associations with entities that supported the submitted manuscript (indefinite time frame), associations with commercial entities with potential interest in the general area of the manuscript (time frame 36 months), financial association of their spouse and children and, finally, non-financial associations potentially relevant to the submitted manuscript. Consumers of medical scholarship expect a reliable system of disclosure in which journals and authors make disclosures appropriately and consistently. There is a stigma surrounding the reporting of COI that should

  14. Ethical aspects of undergoing a predictive genetic testing for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Petra Lilja; Juth, Niklas; Petersén, Åsa; Graff, Caroline; Edberg, Anna-Karin

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of undergoing a presymptomatic genetic test for the hereditary and fatal Huntington's disease, using a case study approach. The study was based on 18 interviews with a young woman and her husband from the decision to undergo the test, to receiving the results and trying to adapt to them, which were analysed using a life history approach. The findings show that the process of undergoing a presymptomatic test involves several closely connected ethical and medical questions, such as the reason for the test, the consequences of the test results and how health-care services can be developed to support people in this situation.

  15. Ethical aspects of urinary diversion for women with irreparable obstetric fistulas in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wall, L Lewis; Arrowsmith, Steven D; Hancock, Brian D

    2008-07-01

    Obstetric fistula formation is a catastrophic complication of prolonged obstructed labor. Obstetric fistulas are common in impoverished countries where access to maternal health care is poor. Although most fistulas can be closed successfully at the time of operation, a small number of women sustain such extensive pelvic injuries that their fistulas are irreparable. Some Western surgeons visiting African countries where fistulas are prevalent have become enthusiastic advocates of performing urinary diversions on these women, transplanting the ureters into the colon. We present a case study of one such woman with an irreparable obstetric fistula and discuss the complex ethical issues involved in considering whether to offer operations of this kind to African fistula victims.

  16. The therapeutic partnership: legal and ethical aspects of consumer health information.

    PubMed

    Gann, R

    1995-06-01

    Patients' rights to information in the UK are based on a mixture of statute (including legislation on access to medical records) and case law (principally revolving around the issue of informed consent). These rights are set out in the Patient's Charter, which is itself a mixture of rights based on legislation and those enforced by management practice. Failure to provide adequate information to a patient could expose a medical practitioner to action for negligence or battery. Negligent information-giving could also expose consumer health information services to damages, for which the best defence is a high standard of professional competence and adequate professional indemnity insurance. Sharing information about the risks and benefits of treatment to enable truly informed decision making and consent by the patient is a key element of an ethical relationship between care giver and consumer--the therapeutic partnership.

  17. Biobanks for research. Ethical and legal aspects in human biological samples collections in France.

    PubMed

    Noiville, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Because they gather huge quantities of human biological samples and information allowing for better understanding of diseases, biobanks appear as a very powerful tool for boosting both medical research and public health as a whole. Although France does not really appear as a leader in biobanking compared to China or UK, biobanks and other samples collections abound in our country and have then been regulated, even though french law does not use the term biobank as such. The present article gives an overview of the current legal framework and explores the remaining ethical and legal issues, concerning particularly the protection of donors, the sharing of biobanks content and the sharing of biobanks benefits. The article explains how these universal questions arise in this country and what answers (sometimes specific) they get or could get in the following years.

  18. Ethical, moral and other aspects related to fertility preservation in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Bruno Ramalho; Kliemchen, Jhenifer; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2017-01-01

    Post-treatment fertility emerges as an important issue in the early counseling of individuals with cancer, since survivors may have their quality of life affected by the occurrence of functional failure of the gonads because of antineoplastic therapies. In the context, oncofertility has been developed as an interdisciplinary field of study that combines expertise in reproductive medicine and oncology, to provide strategies aiming to maintain the possibility of future procreation. Today, we have many options and techniques available for the preservation of gametes in men and women. Some of them are already considered well established and used in routine, but ethical and moral issues on the subject still need to be debated. PMID:28333032

  19. Is Judgement of Biotechnological Ethical Aspects Related to High School Students' Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Ales; Javornik, Branka; Kosmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications.…

  20. Is Judgement of Biotechnological Ethical Aspects Related to High School Students' Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Ales; Javornik, Branka; Kosmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications.…

  1. Incorporating Knowledge of Legal and Ethical Aspects into Computing Curricula of South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayman, Ian; Kyobe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As students in computing disciplines are introduced to modern information technologies, numerous unethical practices also escalate. With the increase in stringent legislations on use of IT, users of technology could easily be held liable for violation of this legislation. There is however lack of understanding of social aspects of computing, and…

  2. Incorporating Knowledge of Legal and Ethical Aspects into Computing Curricula of South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayman, Ian; Kyobe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As students in computing disciplines are introduced to modern information technologies, numerous unethical practices also escalate. With the increase in stringent legislations on use of IT, users of technology could easily be held liable for violation of this legislation. There is however lack of understanding of social aspects of computing, and…

  3. Ethical aspects and dilemmas of fertility control of unwanted wildlife: an animal welfarist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Oogjes, G

    1997-01-01

    Proposals to manipulate the fertility of wild, free-living animals extend the domination humans already exercise over domesticated animals. Current lethal methods for population control include poisoning, trapping, hunting, dogging, shooting, explosives, fumigants, and deliberately introduced disease. Animal welfare interests are based on individual animal suffering, but those interests are often overshadowed by labelling of groups of animals as pests, resource species, national emblem or endangered species. Public concern for animal welfare and acceptance of new population control methods will be influenced by such labels. The animal welfare implications of new population control technology must be balanced against the existing inhumane lethal methods used. It will be difficult to resolve the dilemma of a mechanism for disseminating a fertility control agent that will cause some animal suffering (e.g. a genetically-manipulated myxoma virus for European rabbits), yet may reduce future rabbit populations and therefore the number suffering from lethal methods. An Animal Impact Statement is proposed as a tool to assist debate during development of fertility control methods and for decision making prior to their use. A comprehensive and objective Animal Impact Statement may introduce an ethic that moves the pendulum from attitudes that allow sentient animals to be destroyed by any and all available means, towards a more objective selection of the most effective and humane methods.

  4. Consumers on the Internet: ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Jennie; Nordgren, Anders; Perrudin, Maud; Ronteltap, Amber; Savigny, Jean; van Trijp, Hans; Nordström, Karin; Görman, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Consumers often have a positive attitude to the option of receiving personalized nutrition advice based upon genetic testing, since the prospect of enhancing or maintaining one's health can be perceived as empowering. Current direct-to-consumer services over the Internet, however, suffer from a questionable level of truthfulness and consumer protection, in addition to an imbalance between far-reaching promises and contrasting disclaimers. Psychological and behavioral studies indicate that consumer acceptance of a new technology is primarily explained by the end user's rational and emotional interpretation as well as moral beliefs. Results from such studies indicate that personalized nutrition must create true value for the consumer. Also, the freedom to choose is crucial for consumer acceptance. From an ethical point of view, consumer protection is crucial, and caution must be exercised when putting nutrigenomic-based tests and advice services on the market. Current Internet offerings appear to reveal a need to further guaranty legal certainty by ensuring privacy, consumer protection and safety. Personalized nutrition services are on the borderline between nutrition and medicine. Current regulation of this area is incomplete and undergoing development. This situation entails the necessity for carefully assessing and developing existing rules that safeguard fundamental rights and data protection while taking into account the sensitivity of data, the risks posed by each step in their processing, and sufficient guarantees for consumers against potential misuse.

  5. Supervised Disulfiram's Superior Effectiveness in Alcoholism Treatment: Ethical, Methodological, and Psychological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Colin; Streel, Emmanuel; Skinner, Marilyn

    2017-03-09

    Disulfiram (DSF) causes the ALDH-mediated deterrence of alcohol consumption. We review recent meta-analyses showing the superior effectiveness of supervised disulfiram (SD) in alcoholism treatment compared with oral naltrexone or acamprosate (ACP). The success of SD is also consistent with the almost complete absence of alcoholism in Japanese homozygotes for 'inefficient' ALDH. However, SD is an underused treatment and some clinicians have ethical objections to DSF. We examine these objections and argue that they are based on a misunderstanding of how DSF works. In particular, we argue that SD is not as is often claimed a variety of aversion therapy but aids cognitive, behavioural, educational and psychosocial interventions. It has some unique features that need to be better understood if it is to be properly compared with other treatments and effectively employed to help alcoholic patients, especially those who have not responded to other evidence-based interventions. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  7. ETHICAL ASPECTS AND DILEMMAS OF PREPARING, WRITING AND PUBLISHING OF THE SCIENTIFIC PAPERS IN THE BIOMEDICAL JOURNALS

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper author discussed about preparing and submitting manuscripts - scientific, research, professional papers, reviews and case reports. Author described it from the Editor’s perspective, and specially talked about ethical aspects of authorship, conflict of interest, copyright, plagiarism and duplicate publication from the point of view of his experiences as Editor-in-Chief of several biomedical journals and Chief of Task Force of European Federation of Medical Informatics journals and member of Task Force of European Cardiology Society journals. The scientific process relies on trust and credibility. The scientific community demands high ethical standards to conduct biomedical research and to publish scientific contents. During the last decade, disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI ), (also called competing loyalties, competing interests or dual commitments), has been considered as a key element to guarantee the credibility of the scientific process. Biases in design, analysis and interpretation of studies may arise when authors or sponsors have vested interests. Therefore, COI should be made clear to the readers to facilitate their own judgment and interpretation of their relevance and potential implications. Results and Discussion: Authors are responsible to fully disclose potential COI . In October 2009 the ICMJE proposed an electronic “uniform” format for COI disclosure. Four main areas were addressed: authors´ associations with entities that supported the submitted manuscript (indefinite time frame), associations with commercial entities with potential interest in the general area of the manuscript (time frame 36 months), financial association of their spouse and children and, finally, non-financial associations potentially relevant to the submitted manuscript. Consumers of medical scholarship expect a reliable system of disclosure in which journals and authors make disclosures appropriately and consistently. There is a stigma

  8. Failed surrogate conceptions: social and ethical aspects of preconception disruptions during commercial surrogacy in India.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sayani; Schicktanz, Silke

    2016-09-19

    sharing and understanding between each other through an ethics of care. Therefore, to nurture caring relationships, surrogacy needs to be understood as a moral commitment by -the surrogates and intended parents. To enable such a commitment, there is a need to reconsider the pre-defined and legally regulated professional duty of the doctors, agents and agencies. It cannot be a one-sided commitment, but has to have elements of mutuality.

  9. Acute tryptophan depletion in humans: a review of theoretical, practical and ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon N.

    2013-01-01

    The acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) technique has been used extensively to study the effect of low serotonin in the human brain. This review assesses the validity of a number of published criticisms of the technique and a number of previously unpublished potential criticisms. The conclusion is that ATD can provide useful information when results are assessed in conjunction with results obtained using other techniques. The best-established conclusion is that low serotonin function after tryptophan depletion lowers mood in some people. However, this does not mean that other variables, altered after tryptophan depletion, are necessarily related to low serotonin. Each aspect of brain function has to be assessed separately. Furthermore, a negative tryptophan depletion study does not mean that low serotonin cannot influence the variable studied. This review suggests gaps in knowledge that need to be filled and guidelines for carrying out ATD studies. PMID:23428157

  10. Is Judgement of Biotechnological Ethical Aspects Related to High School Students' Knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Črne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Aleš; Javornik, Branka; Košmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications. These applications-Bt corn, genetically modified (GM) salmon, somatic and germ line gene therapy (GT)-were investigated from the viewpoints of usefulness, moral acceptance and risk perception. In addition, patterns and quality of moral reasoning related to the biotechnological applications from the aspect of moral acceptability were examined. Clear gender differences were found regarding the relationship between our students' pre-knowledge of genetics and their attitudes to biotechnological applications. While females with a better genetics background expressed a higher risk perception in the case of GM salmon, their similarly well-educated male colleagues emphasized the risk associated with the use of germ line GT. With all four biotechnological applications, patterns of both rationalistic-deontological and teleological-and intuitive moral reasoning were identified. Students with poorer genetics pre-knowledge applied an intuitive pattern of moral reasoning more frequently than their peers with better pre-knowledge. A pattern of emotive reasoning was detected only in the case of GM salmon. A relatively low quality of students' moral reasoning, as demonstrated by their brief and small number of supporting justifications (explanations), show that there is a strong need for practising skills of argumentation about socio-scientific issues in Slovenian high schools on a much larger scale. The implications for future research and classroom applications are discussed.

  11. The why and how of enabling the integration of social and ethical aspects in research and development.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Steven M; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    New and Emerging Science and Technology (NEST) based innovations, e.g. in the field of Life Sciences or Nanotechnology, frequently raise societal and political concerns. To address these concerns NEST researchers are expected to deploy socially responsible R&D practices. This requires researchers to integrate social and ethical aspects (SEAs) in their daily work. Many methods can facilitate such integration. Still, why and how researchers should and could use SEAs remains largely unclear. In this paper we aim to relate motivations for NEST researchers to include SEAs in their work, and the requirements to establish such integration from their perspectives, to existing approaches that can be used to establish integration of SEAs in the daily work of these NEST researchers. Based on our analyses, we argue that for the successful integration of SEAs in R&D practice, collaborative approaches between researchers and scholars from the social sciences and humanities seem the most successful. The only way to explore whether that is in fact the case, is by embarking on collaborative research endeavours.

  12. [Review of ethical aspects in biomedical research. The experience of the Ethics Committee of the Center for Toxic Oil Syndrome and Rare Diseases [CISATER

    PubMed

    Martín-Arribas, M C; Posada, M; Terracini, B; Carballo, F; Abaitua, I

    2003-01-01

    This Field Note aims to make known the decisions taken by the Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III for Toxic Oil Syndrome regarding the secondary use of research specimens in biological research when informed consent is lacking. This is a common concern in the field of biomedical research. After debating the ethical suitability of the secondary use of these samples, our main conclusion is that researchers conducting prospective studies should expressly solicit written informed consent from participants in the study about i) whether there will or could be any secondary use of the samples and, if so, ii) whether such secondary use would be conditional on the type of research.

  13. Model for integrated management of quality, labor risks prevention, environment and ethical aspects, applied to R&D&I and production processes in an organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. R.; Torres, F.; Yoldi, V.; Arcega, F.; Plaza, I.

    2012-04-01

    It is proposed an integrated management model for an organization. This model is based on the continuous improvement Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle and it intends to integrate the environmental, risk prevention and ethical aspects as well as research, development and innovation projects management in the general quality management structure proposed by ISO 9001:2008. It aims to fulfill the standards ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OSHAS 18001, SGE 21 y 166002.

  14. Ethical aspects of genome diversity research: genome research into cultural diversity or cultural diversity in genome research?

    PubMed

    Ilkilic, Ilhan; Paul, Norbert W

    2009-03-01

    The goal of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was to reconstruct the history of human evolution and the historical and geographical distribution of populations with the help of scientific research. Through this kind of research, the entire spectrum of genetic diversity to be found in the human species was to be explored with the hope of generating a better understanding of the history of humankind. An important part of this genome diversity research consists in taking blood and tissue samples from indigenous populations. For various reasons, it has not been possible to execute this project in the planned scope and form to date. Nevertheless, genomic diversity research addresses complex issues which prove to be highly relevant from the perspective of research ethics, transcultural medical ethics, and cultural philosophy. In the article at hand, we discuss these ethical issues as illustrated by the HGDP. This investigation focuses on the confrontation of culturally diverse images of humans and their cosmologies within the framework of genome diversity research and the ethical questions it raises. We argue that in addition to complex questions pertaining to research ethics such as informed consent and autonomy of probands, genome diversity research also has a cultural-philosophical, meta-ethical, and phenomenological dimension which must be taken into account in ethical discourses. Acknowledging this fact, we attempt to show the limits of current guidelines used in international genome diversity studies, following this up by a formulation of theses designed to facilitate an appropriate inquiry and ethical evaluation of intercultural dimensions of genome research.

  15. Ethical Issues in the Use of Animal Models for Tissue Engineering: Reflections on Legal Aspects, Moral Theory, Three Rs Strategies, and Harm-Benefit Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Gabriel R; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Liguori, Tácia T de Aquinas; Moreira, Luiz Felipe P; Harmsen, Martin C

    2017-09-05

    Animal experimentation requires a solid and rational moral foundation. Objective and emphatic decision-making and protocol evaluation by researchers and ethics committees remain a difficult and sensitive matter. This article presents three perspectives that facilitate a consideration of the minimally acceptable standard for animal experiments, in particular, in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine. First, we review the boundaries provided by law and public opinion in America and Europe. Second, we review contemporary moral theory to introduce the Neo-Rawlsian contractarian theory to objectively evaluate the ethics of animal experiments. Third, we introduce the importance of available reduction, replacement, and refinement strategies, which should be accounted for in moral decision-making and protocol evaluation of animal experiments. The three perspectives are integrated into an algorithmic and graphic harm-benefit analysis tool based on the most relevant aspects of animal models in TE. We conclude with a consideration of future avenues to improve animal experiments.

  16. To know or not to know? Integrating ethical aspects of genomic healthcare in the education of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov

    2015-01-01

    Novel possibilities for employing genetic testing as part of the diagnostic process for a wide variety of diseases and conditions are emerging almost every day. This development brings prospects of more efficient treatment and prevention of serious and often lethal conditions. However, it also raises ethical questions concerning the issue of knowing or not knowing about our genetic make-up. Thus, as techniques for genetic testing are increasingly employed, demands on health professionals are changing. Health professionals must be able to inform and guide patients, and therefore they need knowledge and competencies related to both the technical and the ethical dimensions of genetic testing. This paper explores the requirements of the general education of health professionals if this need for ethics is acknowledged. It is suggested that it is important to include both an individualised and a societal ethical perspective to the development of genomic healthcare and that a key concept in doing so is 'professional reflectivity'. Employing one concrete example of teaching, this concept of reflectivity is operationalised in the health educational setting at the bachelor's level with a special focus on biomedical laboratory science, and three key concepts are developed: Gap sensitive interaction, professional humility, and contextual awareness. Additionally, anchored ethical dialog is explored as an instructional design that may support the development of reflectivity among health professionals. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Do we still need human embryonic stem cells for stem cell-based therapies? Epistemic and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kristina; Hermerén, Göran

    2011-11-01

    While scientific community disagrees about similarities and differences between human embryonic stem (hES) cells and human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells, some politicians embrace translational hiPS cell research as a replacement for translational hES cell research. We examine the ethical relevance of the main differences between hES and hiPS cell-based therapies and discuss whether, given the current state of knowledge, certain differences are essential. We discuss whether well-founded preferences can be made in hypothetical scenarios with varying levels of patient safety, treatment efficacy, treatment accessibility and ethical controversy.

  18. To Know or Not to Know? Integrating Ethical Aspects of Genomic Healthcare in the Education of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov

    2015-01-01

    Novel possibilities for employing genetic testing as part of the diagnostic process for a wide variety of diseases and conditions are emerging almost every day. This development brings prospects of more efficient treatment and prevention of serious and often lethal conditions. However, it also raises ethical questions concerning the issue of…

  19. To Know or Not to Know? Integrating Ethical Aspects of Genomic Healthcare in the Education of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov

    2015-01-01

    Novel possibilities for employing genetic testing as part of the diagnostic process for a wide variety of diseases and conditions are emerging almost every day. This development brings prospects of more efficient treatment and prevention of serious and often lethal conditions. However, it also raises ethical questions concerning the issue of…

  20. Ethics in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

    2014-01-01

    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  1. [Strategy for technical evaluation in radiation oncology: methodological and ethical aspects, the French society for radiation oncology's opinion].

    PubMed

    Chauvet, B; Mornex, F; Mahé, M-A

    2014-10-01

    Evidence-based medicine is a paradigm founded on a hierarchy of research design, accepted as a dogma. Applied to radiation oncology, and specifically to radiotherapy technical comparisons, evidence-based medicine implies methodological and ethical problems. The concept of "incremental" evolution and the dosimetric evidence are proposed as an acceptable alternative to comparative clinical trials if total dose, time, fractionation, and target volumes are not modified. For other situations, either randomized comparative trials or observational studies are needed. When randomized comparative trials are not possible, observational studies, whose validity can be enhanced by appropriate methodology, must be considered as a valid method. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-02-08

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.

  3. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

  4. Promoting the social value of research in Kenya: Examining the practical aspects of collaborative partnerships using an ethical framework

    PubMed Central

    Lairumbi, Geoffrey Mbaabu; Molyneux, Sassy; Snow, Robert W.; Marsh, Kevin; Peshu, Norbert; English, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The ethics of research continue to attract considerable debate, particularly when that research is sponsored by partners from the North and carried out in the South. Ethical research should contribute to social value in the country where research is being carried out, but there is significant debate around how this might be achieved and who is responsible. The literature suggests that researchers might employ two inter-related strategies to maximise social value: collaborative partnerships with policy makers and communities from the outset of research, and dissemination of research results to participants, policy makers and implementers once the research is over. These areas have received relatively little empirical attention. In this study, we carried out 40 in-depth interviews to explore the role of collaborative partnerships in health research priority setting, and the way in which research findings are disseminated to aid policy making and implementation in Kenya. Interviewees included policy makers, researchers, policy implementers and representatives of organisations funding health reforms in Kenya. Two policy issues were drawn upon as tracers wherever possible: (1) the introduction of Artemesinin- based Combination Therapies (ACTs), an anti-malarial treatment policy; and (2) Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) vaccine for the prevention of pneumococcal diseases among children. The findings point to significant gaps in the ‘research to policy to practice’ pathway, particularly for national research institutions with a focus on clinical/biomedical research. These gaps reflect poorly effective partnerships among stakeholders and limit the potential social value of much research. While more investment is needed to establish strong structures for promoting and directing collaboration and partnership, how to target this investment is not entirely clear, especially in the context of the considerable power of the global health agenda and the research financing tied to

  5. Schizophrenia patients' and psychiatrists' perspectives on ethical aspects of symptom re-emergence during psychopharmacological research participation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Nguyen, Khanh P; Geppert, Cynthia M A; Rogers, Melinda K; Roberts, Brian B

    2003-12-01

    Study designs involving medication-free intervals have become the subject of controversy in the current dialogue on the ethics of serious mental-illness research. Schizophrenia patients ( n=59; response rate 75%; 48% inpatients) and psychiatrists ( n=70; response rate 83%) responded to ten questions about a hypothetical scenario in which a schizophrenia study participant experienced the re-emergence of serious symptoms during the "wash-out" phase of a psychopharmacological trial. Patients provided their personal views, and psychiatrists gave their personal views and made predictions as to how schizophrenia patients in general would respond. Schizophrenia patients and psychiatrists judged the hypothetical protocol as moderately harmful. Both expressed relatively low likelihood of willingness to participate in the study, given this potential outcome. Schizophrenia patients and psychiatrists found the decision fairly easy. Psychiatrists underestimated the level of harm and overestimated the difficulty of the decision as perceived by schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia patients acknowledged that the offer of money and request by their doctor or family would increase the likelihood of their participation, and psychiatrists accurately predicted these responses. In hypothetical decisions about the symptomatic study participant, 38% of patients and 39% of psychiatrists said they would allow him to leave the hospital. A majority of both groups (63% and 52%, respectively) indicated that medication should be given despite the study participant's objection. Psychiatrists incorrectly predicted this response, expecting instead that most schizophrenia patients would support the discharge request and few would support involuntary administration of medication. Patients and psychiatrists offered similar reasons for participation decisions but differed in their strategies for handling the situation. These findings suggest potential strengths of decisionally capable schizophrenia

  6. Legislative and ethical aspects of introducing new technologies in medical care for senior citizens in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Kacetl, Jaroslav; Maresova, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The majority of developed countries are currently experiencing demographic aging. The most frequently expressed concerns related to the changing age structure are the increased costs of social and medical care, a lack of labor force in the job market, and financial sustainability of the pension system. These concerns are often based on the pessimistic view of population aging. This view understands aging as a prolonged period of illness and suffering. On the other hand, optimists believe that a longer life span is a result of increased quality of life and better health care. The quality of life may be improved not only by medicaments, but also by rapidly developing area of medical devices, which allow better care for seniors in many areas. Aim This contribution aims to assess the legislative environment and ethical questions related to the use of medical devices, especially medical devices, in medical care for senior citizens. Methods The methods used in this study are literature reviews of legislative and ethical environment in the European Union (EU) and the US. Results Main findings of this study result from assessing the state of medical device regulations in Europe and the US. Namely, the US regulation seems to be better arranged, which is probably due to the fact that there is only one responsible body – the US Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for all medical device regulations. On the other hand, in the EU, talks about new legislation are led by ministers from all the EU member states and it may take a long time before all the EU countries come to an agreement. PMID:27499618

  7. Am I my brother's (or customer's or tenant's) keeper? Economic and ethical aspects to the California Supreme Court's struggle with the issue of landowner's standard of care.

    PubMed

    Hodson, T J; Englander, F; Englander, V

    2001-07-01

    The Supreme Court of California has ruled on several cases involving the question of to what extent a possessor of land is liable for the harm to customers or tenants occurring when a third party commits a criminal act against the customers or tenants present on the land. This paper reviews the historical development of this aspect of negligence law and analyzes the ethical and economic efficiency implications of ascribing legal responsibility for such crimes to: a) local government, b) the possessor of land, c) the customer, and d) the criminal. For example, is there an effort by the judicial system to substitute deterrence from criminal acts provided by possessors of land (i.e., specific deterrence) for the general deterrence traditionally provided through the use of police powers by local government? Analysis indicates that specific deterrence may be more effective in changing the location of criminal acts than in reducing the level of criminal activities. Also, the expense of complying with the legal responsibilities of protecting customers and clients may be especially high in high-crime, low-income areas, thus forcing commercial establishments to move or go out of business. Thus, we have a troubling tradeoff: compensating individual crime victims in a high-crime area could ultimately deprive the residents of basic economic opportunities.

  8. "I never expected that it would happen, coming to ask me such questions":Ethical aspects of asking children about violence in resource poor settings.

    PubMed

    Devries, Karen M; Child, Jennifer C; Elbourne, Diana; Naker, Dipak; Heise, Lori

    2015-11-11

    International epidemiological research into violence against children is increasing in scope and frequency, but little has been written about practical management of the ethical aspects of conducting such research in low and middle-income countries. In this paper, we describe our study procedures and reflect on our experiences conducting a survey of more than 3,700 primary school children in Uganda as part of the Good Schools Study, a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-based violence prevention intervention. Children were questioned extensively about their experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional violence from a range of different perpetrators. We describe our sensitisation and consent procedures, developed based on our previous research experience and requirements for our study setting. To respond to disclosures of abuse that occurred during our survey, we describe a referral algorithm developed in conjunction with local services. We then describe our experience of actually implementing these procedures in our 2012 survey, based on reflections of the research team. Drawing on 40 qualitative interviews, we describe children's experiences of participating in the survey and of being referred to local child protection services. Although we were able to implement much of our protocol in a straightforward manner, we also encountered major challenges in relation to the response of local services to children's disclosures of violence. The research team had to intervene to ensure that children were provided with appropriate support and that our ethical obligations were met. In resource poor settings, finding local services that can provide appropriate support for children may be challenging, and researchers need to have concrete plans and back-up plans in place to ensure that obligations can be met. The merits of mandatory reporting of children's disclosures to local services need to be considered on a case by case basis-in some places this has the

  9. Ethics for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  10. [Suicide - ethical and juridical aspects].

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paul

    2015-10-01

    This paper discusses the phenomenon of suicidality with regard to patient autonomy on the one hand and the obligation of medical professionals to provide support and treatment on the other hand. The continuation of a broad debate on these issues within the whole of society is mandatory also in the future. Suicide and assisted suicide are topics with high relevance for medicine in general and for psychiatry in particular. They can, however, not be handled by medical specialists alone.

  11. Blackballing: Professional and Ethical Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Publications Research Service, Washington, DC.

    Commentaries concerning the objective selection of scientists by their peers for membership in professional organizations and institutes are presented in this article published in the USSR. The case of negative balloting on L. S. Salyamon at the Learned Council of the Soviet Scientific Research Institute of Oncology is the main concern. An…

  12. Fieldwork and Cooperative Learning in Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loui, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration in professional ethics, describes in detail the distinctive aspects of two University of Illinois ethics courses (Engineering Ethics and Professional Ethics), and discusses the pedagogical value of the collaborative fieldwork assignment in both courses. (EV)

  13. Ethics Training: Facing the Tough Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of ethics in business: recent trends in business, definitions of ethics, ways of applying the Golden Rule, management's role, educating people to think about ethics differently, beyond ethics training, making standards clear and sticking to them, and the belief that people want to do the right thing. (CT)

  14. [Ethics, science and utilitarianism].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T

    1997-11-01

    We begin this article with the distinction between Deontology, Moral and Ethics. We also review the concept and the relevance of Bioethics, as the "science of survival", and as part of Ethics, a section of Philosophy. We tried to answer two further questions considering the role of Science in orienting Ethics, or the possible place of utilitarianism in controlling Ethics. The author discusses some new aspects of the doctor/patient relationship, and their evolution in the last 100 years, as well as the relations between patients and Health care institutions. Some ethical problems were also raised related to the beginning and the end of life. Finally the author reflects on the difficulties of defining ethical concepts in the near future.

  15. [Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell use and commercial umbilical cord blood stem cell banking. Ethical reflections on the occasion of the regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Virt, G

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products also includes therapies with human embryonic stem cells. The use of these stem cells is controversially and heavily discussed. Contrary to the use of adult stem cells, medical and ethical problems concerning the use of human embryonic stem cells persists, because this use is based on the destruction of human life at the very beginning. The regulation foresees, therefore, subsidiarity within the European Member States. Although there are no ethical problems in principle with the use of stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, there are social ethical doubts with the banking of these stem cells for autologous use without any currently foreseeable medical advantage by commercial blood banks. Also in this case subsidiarity is valid.

  16. Ethical aspects of participation in the database of genotypes and phenotypes of the National Center for Biotechnology Information: the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Experience.

    PubMed

    Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Shapira, Iuliana; Deshields, Teressa; Kroetz, Deanna; Friedman, Paula; Spears, Patricia; Collyar, Deborah E; Shulman, Lawrence N; Dressler, Lynn; Bertagnolli, Monica M

    2012-10-15

    The rapid pace of genetics research, coupled with evolving standards for informed consent, can create ethical challenges regarding future use of tissue or information from completed clinical trials. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Oncology Cooperative Group was faced with an ethical dilemma regarding sharing genetic data from a completed genome-wide association study (GWAS) that was conducted as part of a large, multicenter breast cancer clinical trial with a national database: the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes National Center for Biotechnology Information (dbGaP). The CALGB Ethics Committee conducted a series of multidisciplinary meetings and teleconferences involving patient advocates, bioethicists, clinical researchers, and clinical oncologists to evaluate the ethical issues raised by this case and to identify lessons for improving informed consent to future genetics research in oncology trials. The Ethics Committee recommended that GWAS data be provided to dbGaP consistent with documented consent for future use of tissue among trial participants. Ethical issues, including adequacy of informed consent to future research, limitations of privacy in modern genetics research, the potential impact of population-based genetics research on health disparities, and recontact of research participants for clinical care or further research, were identified as major ethical considerations in this area. Although modern standards for informed consent should not prohibit research or sharing of data consistent with participant's intent and the public interest, there is an urgent need for national consensus on the appropriate use of archived tissue and standardized informed consent for future research among cancer clinical trial participants. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  17. Acquiring New Information While Retaining Old Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Victor

    1977-01-01

    Cites several examples of research studies in which medical as well as ethical considerations affected the treatments prescribed. The ethical versus the statistical aspects of drug testing are also discussed. (CP)

  18. From evidence-based to hope-based medicine? Ethical aspects on conditional market authorization of and early access to new cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Lars; Liliemark, Jan

    2017-08-01

    There is a strong patient demand for early access to potentially beneficial cancer drugs. In line with this authorization agencies like the European Medicines Agency are providing drugs with conditional market authorisation based on positive interim analyses. This implies that drugs are used with insecure evidence of efficacy and adverse side-effects. Several authors have pointed to ethical problems with such a system but up to date no indepth ethical analysis of this system is found which is the aim of this article. Drawing of the four generally accepted principles of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, respect for autonomy and justice the ethical pros and cons of conditional market authorisation are analysed. From the perspective of beneficence and non-maleficence it is found that the main problem is not risk of adverse side-effects to patients, but rather risk of less beneficial outcomes than what can be expected which could change incentives for patients' choice of treatment. This is also related to the extent to which patients might make an autonomous choice, especially taking into account problematic psychological attitudes and biases in medical decision-making. However, the main problem is related to justice and an equitable distribution of scarce health-care resources given the opportunity cost of drugs treatment. When using resources on cancer treatments which later might be found to be less efficacious than was first expected, other patients (in and outside the cancer field) are deprived of potentially more beneficial treatments even though their needs might be equally or more severe. At the same time, demanding more evidence has an ethical cost to patients in terms of depriving them of potential benefits in terms of reduced mortality and morbidity. In order to handle these ethical conflicts further research and analyses are required and it is suggested that pricing strategies and information requirements are alternatives to be further explored

  19. Preventive ethics: addressing ethics quality gaps on a systems level.

    PubMed

    Foglia, Mary Beth; Fox, Ellen; Chanko, Barbara; Bottrell, Melissa M

    2012-03-01

    Preventive ethics (PE) is a key component of IntegratedEthics (IE), an innovative model developed by the Veterans Health Administration (VA)'s National Center for Ethics in Health Care which establishes a comprehensive, systematic, integrated approach to ethics in health care organizations. Since early 2008, IE has been implemented throughout all 153 medical centers and 21 regional networks within the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. A STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO ETHICS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: PE employs a systematic, step-by-step process improvement approach called Identify an issue, Study the issue, Select a strategy, Undertake a plan, Evaluate and adjust, and Sustain and spread. After the ethics quality gap is described, a measureable and achievable improvement goal based on the gap is developed. One of the most challenging aspects of describing an ethics quality gap is to establish an appropriate ethical standard on which to base the operational definition of best ethics practice. PRACTICAL STEPS TO DEVELOPING A PREVENTIVE ETHICS FUNCTION: Within the VA's IE model, PE is situated as a subcommittee of the IE council, which is chaired by the facility director (equivalent to a hospital chief executive officer) and oversees all aspects of the organization's ethics program, including ethical leadership, ethics consultation, and PE. Each VA medical center is required to have a PE team led and managed by a PE coordinator and may need to address ethics issues across the full range of health care ethics domains. The VA's IE model establishes a robust conceptual framework, along with concrete tools and resources, to integrate PE concepts into the day-to-day operations of a health care organization and is directly transferrable to other health care organizations and systems.

  20. Ethical issues in publication.

    PubMed

    Hamblet, J L

    1996-04-01

    Nurses usually publish to disseminate pertinent information and research findings. Their articles and textbooks promote quality patient care and sound professional practice. Nurses may also publish to meet requirements for academic promotion and professional advancement. Ethical issues play a part in any phase of writing for publication. Veracity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence are four of the ethical principles that pertain to aspects of authorship, peer review, and research in publication.

  1. The current state of clinical ethics and healthcare ethics committees in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Meulenbergs, T; Vermylen, J; Schotsmans, P

    2005-01-01

    Ethics committees are the most important practical instrument of clinical ethics in Belgium and fulfil three tasks: the ethical review of experimental protocols, advising on the ethical aspects of healthcare practice, and ethics consultation. In this article the authors examine the current situation of ethics committees in Belgium from the perspective of clinical ethics. Firstly, the most important steps which thus far have been taken in Belgium are examined. Secondly, recent opinion by the Belgian Advisory Committee on Bioethics with regard to ethics committees is presented and the activities of Belgian ethics committees are discussed. Finally, the option to bring research ethics and clinical ethics under the roof of just one committee is criticised using a pragmatic and a methodological argument. Concomitantly, the authors build an argument in favour of the further development of ethics consultation. PMID:15923477

  2. Ethical aspects of informed consent for the collection, preservation and use of cells and tissues in biological banks for research purposes.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the current and proposed requirements for informed consent for research with biological samples. The establishment of biobanks and the capabilities of collecting, storing, and using cells and tissues for research purposes have noticeably grown. With new abilities come new challenges to ethical questions of consent, specifically concerning genetic information, and unanticipated usage. This paper summarizes these issues in the context of levels of informed consent, subject risk, individual vs. societal benefits, anonymity, legal consensus.

  3. Some ethical aspects of xenotransplantation in light of the proposed European directive on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes.

    PubMed

    Jorqui-Azofra, M; Romeo-Casabona, C M

    2010-01-01

    Unlike what has happened in other times, society in general and especially the scientific community has become aware that animals share our sensitivity to pain and the capacity to suffer. In this regard, it is generally accepted that animals must be protected from all types of abuse. In fact, it is unavoidable today that animals used in scientific experiments enjoy the maximum degree of protection and well-being. This view is based on an ecocentric notion of living matter as opposed to the traditional anthropocentric approach because it has become evident that ethics should not be limited to those belonging to the same species. Likewise, there is a broad consensus-with the exception of members of certain animal protection groups-regarding the need to experiment with animals, when no alternative methods (AM) are available, given that the current state of scientific knowledge still does not allow for this type of experimentation to be entirely abolished. Nevertheless, we must keep in mind that not every scientific procedure in which animals are used is legitimate. On one side of the scale that symbolizes the legislation in this field, we find the weight of science and safety, and on the other side, the weight of ethics. In this article we have reviewed some of the main ethical criteria that serve as a basis to balance the scale, in other words, to guide and legalize animal experimentation in the field of xenotransplantation (XT). To that end, we take into account the current revisions made to the European Directive regarding the welfare of animals used in scientific procedures (86/609/EEC), in order to reflect, in turn, on the following issue: where is European institutional ethics headed on this issue? Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Research ethics in dissertations: ethical issues and complexity of reasoning.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, S; Ross, S N; Fridlund, B

    2010-07-01

    Conducting ethically sound research is a fundamental principle of scientific inquiry. Recent research has indicated that ethical concerns are insufficiently dealt with in dissertations. To examine which research ethical topics were addressed and how these were presented in terms of complexity of reasoning in Swedish nurses' dissertations. Analyses of ethical content and complexity of ethical reasoning were performed on 64 Swedish nurses' PhD dissertations dated 2007. A total of seven ethical topics were identified: ethical approval (94% of the dissertations), information and informed consent (86%), confidentiality (67%), ethical aspects of methods (61%), use of ethical principles and regulations (39%), rationale for the study (20%) and fair participant selection (14%). Four of those of topics were most frequently addressed: the majority of dissertations (72%) included 3-5 issues. While many ethical concerns, by their nature, involve systematic concepts or metasystematic principles, ethical reasoning scored predominantly at lesser levels of complexity: abstract (6% of the dissertations), formal (84%) and systematic (10%). Research ethics are inadequately covered in most dissertations by nurses in Sweden. Important ethical concerns are missing, and the complexity of reasoning on ethical principles, motives and implications is insufficient. This is partly due to traditions and norms that discount ethical concerns but is probably also a reflection of the ability of PhD students and supervisors to handle complexity in general. It is suggested that the importance of ethical considerations should be emphasised in graduate and post-graduate studies and that individuals with capacity to deal with systematic and metasystematic concepts are recruited to senior research positions.

  5. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.

  6. Teaching Medical Ethics during Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Henry S.

    1989-01-01

    Three reasons for teaching medical ethics during residency are presented. Key ethical concepts to be addressed include moral aspects of medical practice, obtaining informed consent, dealing with incompetent patients and those who refuse treatment, knowing when to withhold or disclose clinical information, and using medical resources properly. (MSE)

  7. Situating Ethics in Games Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…

  8. Teaching Medical Ethics during Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Henry S.

    1989-01-01

    Three reasons for teaching medical ethics during residency are presented. Key ethical concepts to be addressed include moral aspects of medical practice, obtaining informed consent, dealing with incompetent patients and those who refuse treatment, knowing when to withhold or disclose clinical information, and using medical resources properly. (MSE)

  9. Suffering, compassion and 'doing good medical ethics'.

    PubMed

    de Zulueta, Paquita C

    2015-01-01

    'Doing good medical ethics' involves attending to both the biomedical and existential aspects of illness. For this, we need to bring in a phenomenological perspective to the clinical encounter, adopt a virtue-based ethic and resolve to re-evaluate the goals of medicine, in particular the alleviation of suffering and the role of compassion in everyday ethics.

  10. Developments in Communication Ethics: The Ethics Commission, Code of Professional Responsibilities, Credo for Ethical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    Traces aspects of the evolution of interest in ethical issues by the National Communication Association (NCA), the effort to develop a Professional Code, and the development of the Credo for Ethical Communication adopted by the NCA Legislative Council November 6, 1999. Includes a copy of the Credo. (NH)

  11. [Gene therapy and ethics].

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Rehmann-Sutter, C

    1995-01-10

    Gene therapy represents a new strategy to treat human disorders. It was originally conceived as a cure for severe monogenetic disorders. Since its conception, the spectrum of possible application for gene therapy has been to include the treatment of acquired diseases, such as various forms of cancer and some viral infections, most notably human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus. Since somatic gene therapy does not cause substantially new ethical problems, it has gained broad approval. This is by no means the case with germ-line gene therapy. Practically all bodies who were evaluating the related ethical aspects wanted to ban its medical application on grounds of fundamental and pragmatic considerations. In this review, practical and ethical views concerning gene therapy are summarized which were presented at the "Junitagung 1994" of the Swiss Society for Biomedical Ethics in Basle.

  12. Ethical Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  13. Ethical Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  14. The Ethics of Doing Ethics.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-02-01

    Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher's integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our decisions as to which issues we label as "ethical" may have unintended and potentially harmful social consequences. It can be argued that ethicists have an obligation to make positive contributions to society, but the practical implications of such an obligation are not easily identified. This article provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in research into ethics and in the application of such research. It ends with a list of ten practical proposals for how these issues should be dealt with.

  15. [Medical ethics as professional ethics].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ivo

    2012-09-25

    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.

  16. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  17. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  18. [Ethics and investigation].

    PubMed

    Zavala, Salomón; Alfaro-Mantilla, Julio

    2011-12-01

    The authors make a critical evaluation of the ethical aspects of research based on their experience as university teachers and members of Ethics Committees. They invite to the discussion on topics that they consider polemic. They begin by mentioning the regulatory role of the International and Local Ethical Norms and of the Ethics Committees. They comment on the position of South American bioethicists regarding the so-called ethical "double standard" and on the liberalization of the use of the placebo. They criticize the damage that the system of patents causes on low- resources patients, as well as the lack of interest in the development of new medications to treat neglected diseases or those diseases which are only prevalent in poor countries, and the excessive length of the Informed Consents. They finish giving their opinion about the distribution of the clinical trials among the researchers, the problems that affect the Ethics Committees and some contents of the Regulation of Clinical Trials of the National Institute of Health.

  19. Teaching Business Ethics after the Financial Meltdown: Is It Time for Ethics with a Sermon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.

    2010-01-01

    Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business…

  20. The "Subject of Ethics" and Educational Research OR Ethics or Politics? Yes Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical context for research into "the subject of ethics" in terms of how students come to see themselves as self-reflective actors. I maintain that the "subject of ethics," or ethical subjectivity, has been overlooked as a necessary aspect of creating politically transformative spaces in education. At…

  1. Teaching Business Ethics after the Financial Meltdown: Is It Time for Ethics with a Sermon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.

    2010-01-01

    Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business…

  2. Toward a Conceptualization of the Content of Psychosocial Screening in Living Organ Donors: An Ethical Legal Psychological Aspects of Transplantation Consensus.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sohal Y; Duerinckx, Nathalie; van der Knoop, Marieke M; Timmerman, Lotte; Weimar, Willem; Dobbels, Fabienne; Massey, Emma K; Busschbach, Jan J J V

    2015-11-01

    Across Europe, transplant centers vary in the content of the psychosocial evaluation for eligible living organ donors. To identify whether a common framework underlies this variation in this evaluation, we studied which psychosocial screening items are most commonly used and considered as most important in current psychosocial screening programs of living organ donors. A multivariate analytic method, concept mapping, was used to generate a visual representation of the "psychosocial" screening items of living kidney and liver donors. A list of 75 potential screening items was derived from a systematic literature review and sorted and rated for their importance and commonness by multidisciplinary affiliated health care professionals from across Europe. Results were discussed and fine-tuned during a consensus meeting. The analyses resulted in a 6-cluster solution. The following clusters on psychosocial screening items were identified, listed from most to least important: (1) personal resources, (2) motivation and decision making, (3) psychopathology, (4) social resources, (5) ethical and legal factors, and (6) information and risk processing. We provided a conceptual framework of the essential elements in psychosocial evaluation of living donors which can serve as a uniform basis for the selection of relevant psychosocial evaluation tools, which can be further tested in prospective studies.

  3. Ethics and the University. Professional Ethics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael

    This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics…

  4. Ethics in biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.

  5. Clinical ethics committee.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J. G.; Lilford, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    An informal clinical ethics committee was set up to advise on ethical problems in prenatal diagnosis in Leeds. It was used twice in six months but was not called on again in the subsequent year, and we describe this experience. In North America similar committees are often used to advise on clinical moral dilemmas, and we review the published evidence from there and discuss some of the advantages and problems. Our committee's advice may have altered clinicians' actions considerably, but perhaps doctors in Britain are not yet ready to surrender this aspect of clinical autonomy. PMID:7549638

  6. Randomized Controlled Trials in Pregnancy: Scientific and Ethical Aspects Exposure to different opioid medications during pregnancy in an intra-individual comparison

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Annemarie; Jagsch, Reinhold; Jones, Hendree; Arria, Amelia; Leitich, Harald; Rohrmeister, Klaudia; Aschauer, Constantin; Winklbaur, Berndadette; Bäwert, Andjela; Fischer, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    ethical boundaries, psychopharmacological treatment during pregnancy must be addressed as an integral part of clinical research projects in order to optimize treatment for women and neonates. PMID:21438938

  7. Randomized controlled trials in pregnancy: scientific and ethical aspects. Exposure to different opioid medications during pregnancy in an intra-individual comparison.

    PubMed

    Unger, Annemarie; Jagsch, Reinhold; Jones, Hendree; Arria, Amelia; Leitich, Harald; Rohrmeister, Klaudia; Aschauer, Constantin; Winklbaur, Berndadette; Bäwert, Andjela; Fischer, Gabriele

    2011-07-01

    Chronic medical conditions such as opioid dependence require evidence-based treatment recommendations. However, pregnant women are under-represented in clinical trials. We describe the first within-subject comparison of maternal and neonatal outcomes for methadone- versus buprenorphine-exposed pregnancies. Although methadone is the established treatment of pregnant opioid-dependent women, recent investigations have shown a trend for a milder neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) under buprenorphine. However, it is not only the choice of maintenance medication that determines the occurrence of NAS; other factors such as maternal metabolism, illicit substance abuse and nicotine consumption also influence its severity and duration and represent confounding factors in the assessment of randomized clinical trials. CASE SERIES DESCRIPTION: Three women who were part of the European cohort of a randomized, double-blind multi-center trial with a contingency management tool [the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) study], each had two consecutive pregnancies and were maintained on either methadone or buprenorphine for their first and then the respective opposite, still-blinded medication for their second pregnancy. Birth measurements, the total neonatal abstinence score, the total amounts of medication used to treat NAS and the days of NAS treatment duration were assessed. Both medications were effective and safe in reducing illicit opioid relapse and avoiding preterm labor. Methadone maintenance yielded to a significantly higher neonatal birth weight. Data patterns suggest that buprenorphine exposure was associated with lower neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) scores. Findings from this unique case series are consistent with earlier reports using between-group analyses. Buprenorphine has the potential to become an established treatment alternative to methadone for pregnant opioid-dependent women. Under special consideration of ethical boundaries

  8. How to responsibly acknowledge research work in the era of big data and biobanks: ethical aspects of the Bioresource Research Impact Factor (BRIF).

    PubMed

    Howard, Heidi Carmen; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Mabile, Laurence; Houeland, Gry; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2017-09-25

    Currently, a great deal of biomedical research in fields such as epidemiology, clinical trials and genetics is reliant on vast amounts of biological and phenotypic information collected and assembled in biobanks. While many resources are being invested to ensure that comprehensive and well-organised biobanks are able to provide increased access to, and sharing of biomedical samples and information, many barriers and challenges remain to such responsible and extensive sharing. Germane to the discussion herein is the barrier to collecting and sharing bioresources related to the lack of proper recognition of researchers and clinicians who developed the bioresource. Indeed, the efforts and resources invested to set up and sustain a bioresource can be enormous and such work should be easily traced and properly recognised. However, there is currently no such system that systematically and accurately traces and attributes recognition to those doing this work or the bioresource institution itself. As a beginning of a solution to the "recognition problem", the Bioresource Research Impact Factor/Framework (BRIF) initiative was proposed almost a decade and a half ago and is currently under further development. With the ultimate aim of increasing awareness and understanding of the BRIF, in this article, we contribute the following: (1) a review of the objectives and functions of the BRIF including the description of two tools that will help in the deployment of the BRIF, the CoBRA (Citation of BioResources in journal Articles) guideline, and the Open Journal of Bioresources (OJB); (2) the results of a small empirical study on stakeholder awareness of the BRIF and (3) a brief analysis of the ethical dimensions of the BRIF which allow it to be a positive contribution to responsible biobanking.

  9. Quality of Judgment and Deciding Rightness: Ethics and Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, David

    1985-01-01

    Challenges certain theoretical assumptions underlying educational administration. Demands critical thinking about ethical aspects, particularly the relationship between "quality of judgement" and "deciding rightness." Proposes an ethics program for school administrators incorporating values reflected in schools as a social…

  10. Ethical Dilemmas in Disaster Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ozge Karadag, C; Kerim Hakan, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses. PMID:23285411

  11. Medical ethics and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, G B S

    2009-01-01

    Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.

  12. Devotion, Diversity, and Reasoning: Religion and Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Dahnke, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    Most modern ethicists and ethics textbooks assert that religion holds little or no place in ethics, including fields of professional ethics like medical ethics. This assertion, of course, implicitly refers to ethical reasoning, but there is much more to the ethical life and the practice of ethics-especially professional ethics-than reasoning. It is no surprise that teachers of practical ethics, myself included, often focus on reasoning to the exclusion of other aspects of the ethical life. Especially for those with a philosophical background, reasoning is the most patent and pedagogically controllable aspect of the ethical life-and the most easily testable. And whereas there may be powerful reasons for the limitation of religion in this aspect of ethics, there are other aspects of the ethical life in which recognition of religious belief may arguably be more relevant and possibly even necessary. I divide the ethical life into three areas-personal morality, interpersonal morality, and rational morality-each of which I explore in terms of its relationship to religion, normatively characterized by the qualities of devotion, diversity, and reasoning, respectively.

  13. "Ethics Shock."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knefelkamp, L. Lee

    1990-01-01

    Four books focusing on ethical issues in collegiate sports are reviewed: "Paterno by the Book,""Personal Fouls,""Never Too Young to Die: The Death of Len Bias," and "Rules of the Game: Ethics in College Sport." The themes of academic standards, student responsibility, the coach's role and responsibilities,…

  14. Research Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  15. Internet Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmans, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the issue of ethical use of the Internet in schools, and suggests that by devising and implementing acceptable use policies, and providing students with a set of ethical guidelines, schools and libraries can deal with the situation before it becomes a problem. Discusses and the need for parents to be included in policy formation and to…

  16. Iconoclastic ethics.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1984-12-01

    Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life.

  17. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity

  18. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness).

  19. Personal Ethics versus Professional Ethics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Colorado Springs, Colo.: Navpress, 1978). 2. Quoted in Andrew Stark, “What’s the Matter with Business Ethics?” Harvard Business Review , May–June 1993...39. 3. Ibid., 40. 4. Kenneth R. Andrews, “Ethics in Practice,” Harvard Business Review , September–October 1989, 99. 5. Quoted in Perspective: A

  20. Ethics in medical curriculum; Ethics by the teachers for students and society.

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, Karuna

    2009-07-01

    There are many ethical issues involved in the practice of modern medicine. It can be a simple one-on-one issue with complex ramifications. The training of medical ethics should be a continuous process. The ideal time to introduce ethics is a subject of many debates. Though it has to be introduced during the undergraduate curriculum, it requires reinforcing during specialty training also. The teaching of medical ethics can utilize various methodologies. There should be a proper evaluation of the ethical aspects learned.

  1. Transplant Ethics.

    PubMed

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.

  2. Ethics fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  3. Ethical Issues for an Editorial Board: "Kairaranga"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2008-01-01

    With academic journals, we think of the ethical aspects of the research contained in the articles rather than with the journal itself. However, journal editing has its own set of ethical concerns, which this article addresses. One is ensuring that the anonymity of institutions and participants, in research and the reporting of practice, is…

  4. Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

  5. Ethical and Legal Responsibilities of Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Robert E.

    In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, each profession is reviewing its ethical practices. This paper assists in this renewal by citing the code of ethical standards of APGA; reviewing the laws of the State of Nevada regarding privileged communications; and covering the legal aspects which relate to counseling situations. (Author)

  6. Ethical Orientations for Understanding Business Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III

    1990-01-01

    Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)

  7. Business as Usual: Business Students' Conceptions of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Anna; Taylor, Paul; Petocz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing debate about how best to teach ethics to students in business, that is, how best to help them to develop the ethical aspects of their future profession. This debate has covered whether to teach ethics, what to teach and whether it has any effect on students' views or future behaviour. For the most part, the views of the…

  8. Trends in the development of medical ethics in the USSR.

    PubMed

    Tsaregorodtsev, G I; Ivanyushkin AYa

    1989-06-01

    The study of professional ethics has a long tradition in the Soviet Union; medical ethics is a code of conduct as well as an academic discipline. The paper discusses the ethical issues in intensive care, the definition of death, abortion, euthanasia, and the moral aspects of medical mistakes.

  9. Is Teaching Ethics "Making" or "Doing"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodpaster, Kenneth E.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the problems of evaluating the outcomes of college ethics courses. Three aspects of moral education which cause problems are discussed. Journal available from The Hastings Center, 360 Broadway, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY 10706. (AM)

  10. Is Teaching Ethics "Making" or "Doing"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodpaster, Kenneth E.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the problems of evaluating the outcomes of college ethics courses. Three aspects of moral education which cause problems are discussed. Journal available from The Hastings Center, 360 Broadway, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY 10706. (AM)

  11. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST.

  12. Deinstitutionalization in Greece: Ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M

    2008-10-01

    The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family.

  13. [Public health, genetics and ethics].

    PubMed

    Kottow, Miguel H

    2002-10-01

    Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics.

  14. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life‐threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  15. [Assisted suicide - medical, legal, and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Bosshard, G

    2012-02-01

    Unlike in most European countries, assisted suicide is not illegal in Switzerland. The number of assisted suicides procured by right-to-die organisations such as Exit or Dignitas has sharply increased in the last twenty years. Central part of the doctor's involvement is the prescription of a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital. In doing so, the doctor has to apply to the rules of medical due care. A proper examination of the patient is required, who must be informed about his diagnosis, about the expected prognosis, and about different treatment options. Verification of the patient's decisional capacity is crucial. In general, a staff member of the organisation but not the doctor is present during suicide. Following death, the assisted suicide has to be reported to the police as an extraordinary death case.

  16. Writing a Scientific Paper III. Ethical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2011-07-01

    The main theme of this paper is truthful communication of scientific results. Therefore, concepts of truth, error, quality and value are elaborated. The following bibliometric parameters are explained: the journal impact factor, the journal cited half-life, and the journal immediacy index, as well as paper counts, citation rates, citation index and the Hirsch index. These bibliometric indices and indicators are illustrated with examples derived from bibliometric analyses of the astronomical literature. Scientific misconduct in the broadest sense is discussed by category: researcher misconduct, author misconduct, referee and grant-reviewer misconduct. But also publisher misconduct, editorial misconduct and mismanagement, and research supervisor misbehavior are dealt with. The overall signatures of scientific misconduct are focused on, as well as the causes and the cures. This is followed by a Section devoted to whistleblowing. The biases of bibliometric indices, and the use and abuse of bibliometrics are illustrated. Moreover, suggestions for remediating the present defective system of bibliometric measurement and evaluation are worked out. Finally, the hopes and concerns of our students - either expressed during or after the lectures, or through subsequent private contacts - are passed on.

  17. Environmental and Ethical Aspects of International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    Well-intentioned U.S. immigration policy has two ill effects in that it encourages the belief that emigration can relieve overpopulation in third-world countries, maintaining high fertility rates, and it results in U.S. domestic population growth that threatens employment opportunities and the environment. (SLD)

  18. Environmental and Ethical Aspects of International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    Well-intentioned U.S. immigration policy has two ill effects in that it encourages the belief that emigration can relieve overpopulation in third-world countries, maintaining high fertility rates, and it results in U.S. domestic population growth that threatens employment opportunities and the environment. (SLD)

  19. Irrationality: psychological, ethical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A

    1999-01-01

    A definition and a concise classification of irrational mentality and behaviour is proposed in the paper. The basic goal is to reveal the psychological mechanisms of inducing irrational individual and group behaviour by certain social agents. An attempt is made to apply the methodology of self-organization theory to the analysis of psychic equilibrium. The inducing of irrational behaviour is qualified as a crime against the freedom of the individual. In view of its grave social consequences a plea for its serious legal treatment is made.

  20. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  1. Ethics in Distance Education: Developing Ethical Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Deb

    2001-01-01

    Examines the changing world of education through distance education and discusses the need for ethics in distance education. Explains how to ethically develop policy for distance education, including Internet ethics, good practices guidelines, and involving faculty. (LRW)

  2. Ethical considerations in biomedical research: a personal view.

    PubMed

    Dahlöf, Carl

    2013-06-01

    Ethical considerations are made when an experiment is planned and take a regulatory system of moral principles into account. Ethical considerations should first and foremost be made in order to protect the individual subject/animal from being exposed to any unethical and perhaps even illegal intervention and to ensure that the experimental conditions used are appropriate. The main role of research ethics committees is to assess the scientific and ethical aspects of submitted protocols and follow up the trial until its closure.

  3. [Ethics and research].

    PubMed

    Schnaider, Taylor Brandão

    2008-01-01

    This research explains ethics aspects of experiments in animals and human beings. It is considered to be a very important issue because it focuses on the mental, spiritual, social and physical well being of humans, without forgetting the animal rights. The majority of the international health research codes mentions that human research must be based on previous laboratory animal testing or on scientific evidences. The author is reviewing the ethics concepts in humans and animal testing. He refers to the international policies for medical research on human beings, Helsinki Declaration, 8.080 and 8.142 of the 1990 federal law, 9.974 of the 1995 federal law and also to the 196/96 Health Department Resolution. Then, a historical retrospective is drawn about the first attempt to establish regulation on animal testing, which happened in the mid of the 19th Century, in London. He also emphasizes that some of the criteria used at that time remains up to the present. The first ethics commission in animal testing was established in Sweeden in 1979 and in the United States in 1984. In Brazil, the ethics animal testing committees were established in the early 90s. Since May 1979, there is the 6.638 Federal Law which establishes regulations for the practice of animal use in research or teaching. This law is still waiting to be enforced. In addition to it, there are some drafts being analyzed by the Congress to regulate the use of animal for the purpose of teaching and researching. Finally the policies adopted by the Brazilian College of Animal Experiments are presented by the author. The professors, post-graduates, residents and medical students , as well as other students from health related courses enrolled in human and animal testing researches must be aware of ethics principles aiming to protect researchers, research subjects and the animals selected for scientific work.

  4. Teaching Ethical Issues in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    This paper presents a study that investigates the teaching and learning aspects of controversial issues in science education. Teaching ethical issues is mandatory for science teachers in England; however, teachers may experience difficulties in exploring contemporary issues in science due to rapid and unpredictable changes. The study carries an…

  5. In a Dimension of Height: Ethics in the Education of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Aparna Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Ethics penetrates every aspect of Western education. Many of its dominant narratives-- education as salvation, as progress, as panacea, and as liberation, for example--are infused with the ethical. Educators are compelled by ethical callings; in fact, education as the call of the ethical informs the singular and collective identities of educators.…

  6. In a Dimension of Height: Ethics in the Education of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Aparna Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Ethics penetrates every aspect of Western education. Many of its dominant narratives-- education as salvation, as progress, as panacea, and as liberation, for example--are infused with the ethical. Educators are compelled by ethical callings; in fact, education as the call of the ethical informs the singular and collective identities of educators.…

  7. Methods and Tools for Ethical Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis; Kostrzewa, Agata; Laaksoharju, Mikael

    The objectives of the tutorial are to provide knowledge of basic ethical, psychological and organizational theories that are relevant to consider ethical aspects during design and use of IT systems; knowledge and skills about handling and solving ethical problems in connection with design and use of IT-systems; and skills in using questionnaires, surveys, interviews and the like in connection with software development and IT-use. It contains lectures, workshop and exercises; use of special tools to identify and consider IT ethical issues during planning, construction, installation and use of IT systems; and group exercises where the participants train their ethical skills on IT ethical conflicts and problems. Intended participants are system developers, purchasers, usability experts, academics, HCI teachers.

  8. Why ethics should be part of health technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn Morten

    2008-01-01

    From the heydays of HTA in the 1970s, it has been argued that ethics should be a part of HTA. Despite more than 30 years with repeated intentions, only few HTA reports include ethical analysis, and there is little agreement on methods for integrating ethics. This poses the question of why it is so important to integrate ethics in HTA? The article analyzes ten arguments for making ethics part of HTA. The validity of the arguments depend on what we mean by "integrating," "ethics," and "HTA." Some of the counterarguments explain why it has taken so long to integrate ethics in HTA and why there are so many ethical approaches. Nevertheless, some of the arguments for making ethics part of HTA appear to be compelling. Health care is a moral endeavor, and the vast potential of technology poses complex moral challenges. A thorough assessment of technology would include reflection on these moral aspects. Ethics provides such a moral reflection. Health technology is a way to improve the life of human individuals. This involves questions of what "the good life" is, and hence ethical issues. Trying to ignore such questions may inflict with the moral foundation of health care: to help people. Additionally, HTA is an evaluation, and as such also a reflection on values. Hence, there is a profound affinity between HTA and ethics. Accordingly, ethics cannot be "integrated" in HTA as ethics is already a constitutive part of HTA. However, ethics can be acknowledged and emphasized.

  9. Engineering ethics beyond engineers' ethics.

    PubMed

    Basart, Josep M; Serra, Montse

    2013-03-01

    Engineering ethics is usually focused on engineers' ethics, engineers acting as individuals. Certainly, these professionals play a central role in the matter, but engineers are not a singularity inside engineering; they exist and operate as a part of a complex network of mutual relationships between many other people, organizations and groups. When engineering ethics and engineers' ethics are taken as one and the same thing the paradigm of the ethical engineer which prevails is that of the heroic engineer, a certain model of the ideal engineer: someone both quite individualistic and strong enough to deal with all the moral challenges that could arise. We argue that this is not the best approach, at least today in our interrelated world. We have achieved a high degree of independence from nature by means of technology. In exchange for this autonomy we have become increasingly tied up with very complex systems to which we constantly delegate new tasks and powers. Concerns about safety keep growing everywhere due to the fact that now we have a sensitive awareness of the huge amount of power we are both consuming and deploying, thus, new forms of dialogue and consensus have to be incorporated at different levels, in different forums and at different times. Within these democratic channels of participation not just the needs and interests, but also the responsibilities and mutual commitments of all parties should be taken into account.

  10. Institutional ethics review of clinical study agreements.

    PubMed

    DuVal, G

    2004-02-01

    Clinical Study Agreements (CSAs) can have profound effects both on the protection of human subjects and on the independence of investigators to conduct research with scientific integrity. Sponsors, institutions, and even investigators may fail to give adequate attention to these issues in the negotiation of CSAs. Despite the key role of CSAs in structuring ethically important aspects of research, they remain largely unregulated and unreviewed for adherence to ethical norms. Academic institutions routinely enter into research contracts that fail to meet adequate ethical standards. This is a failing that can have serious consequences. Accordingly, it is necessary that some independent body have the authority both to review research contracts for compliance with norms of subject protection and ethical integrity, and to reject studies that fail to meet ethical standards. Such review should take place prior to the start of research, not later. Because of its expertise and authority, the institutional ethics review board (IRB or REB) is the appropriate body to undertake such review. Much recent commentary has focused on contractual restrictions on the investigator's freedom to publish research findings. The Olivieri experience, and that of other investigators, has brought freedom of publication issues into sharp focus. Clinical study agreements also raise a number of other ethical issues relating to human subjects and research integrity, however, including disclosures relating to patient safety, data analysis and reporting, budget, confidentiality, and premature termination of the study. This paper describes the ethical issues at stake in structuring such agreements and suggests ethical standards to guide institutional ethics review.

  11. Ethical Ideology and Cultural Orientation: Understanding the Individualized Ethical Inclinations of Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brent

    2009-01-01

    As today's marketing graduates formally enter the business profession, they are expected to demonstrate the fruits of their ethics-intensive education. Hence, their professors and future bosses may call upon these graduates to discern and deal with ethical situations that affect various aspects of company and consumer relations. However, students…

  12. On Change of Concepts: From Teacher's Occupational Ethics to Professional Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Chuan-bao

    2006-01-01

    The transition from experience-based teachers to expertise-based ones has marked a significant phase in the history of human education. The conceptive transition from the general "occupational ethics" of teachers to "professional ethics" is actually an important aspect of the transition from experience-based to expertise-based…

  13. Court of Ethics: Teaching Ethics and Ageing by Means of Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Israel

    2007-01-01

    Technological and scientific developments, progress in the discipline of gerontology, and an ageing population mean that we now have to contend with previously unknown ethical problems. Therefore, the teaching of ethics is an essential element of a comprehensive education in gerontology. This article discusses the unique aspects of gerontology…

  14. Court of Ethics: Teaching Ethics and Ageing by Means of Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Israel

    2007-01-01

    Technological and scientific developments, progress in the discipline of gerontology, and an ageing population mean that we now have to contend with previously unknown ethical problems. Therefore, the teaching of ethics is an essential element of a comprehensive education in gerontology. This article discusses the unique aspects of gerontology…

  15. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePlus

    ... donate an organ to a sick relative? Your personal health information: who has access to your records? Patient rights: Do you have the right to refuse treatment? When you talk with your doctor, is it ethical for her to withhold information from you or your family?

  16. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  17. Ethical Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, John M.

    1970-01-01

    Eight key areas suggested for discussion by the APA and APGA as bases for formulation of ethical standards are: (1) leader qualifications; (2) limits on procedure; (3) confidentiality of group participants; (4) participant selection; (5) informed consent of participants; (6) freedom of client to withdraw; (7) safeguards for participants against…

  18. Ethical Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael; Posavac, Emil; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    1999-01-01

    The article and commentary in this special section consider the ethical implications of a remark by an employee in a business being evaluated that employees have been advised to make the program look good. Explores the implications for the evaluation and its usefulness. (SLD)

  19. Evolution of Ethics in Clinical Research and Ethics Committee

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilay Kanti; Sil, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Ethics are the moral values of human behavior and the principles which govern these values. The situation becomes challenging for a doctor when he assumes the role of researcher. The doctor-researcher has to serve both the roles and at times the zeal of an investigator has the potential to cloud the morality of the physician inside. It is very important to realize that exploiting the faith of patients is an offence that tantamount to a crime. Medical science is one discipline where the advancement of knowledge is hugely guided by research and mankind has benefitted from many experiments. However benefit and risk are the two faces of the same coin. Various unethical human experiments made us realize that the whims of researchers need to be reined and led to the evolution of the first guidelines for researcher, the Nuremberg code. Thereafter the Good Clinical Practice guidelines serve as the guiding doctrine of clinical research. The principles of ethics rest on the four pillars of autonomy, beneficence, justice, non-maleficence and recently two more pillars are added which includes, confidentiality and honesty. Ethics committees serve as a guardian of these principles. The multidisciplinary Ethics Committee ensures a competent review of the ethical aspects of the project proposal submitted and does it free from any bias or external influence. Ethical review of clinical trial applications follows a decentralized process in India, and requires Ethics Committee approval for each trial site. All Ethics committees have to be registered with Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) without which they cannot approve any clinical trial protocol and has come into effect from 25th February 2013. PMID:28794547

  20. Evolution of Ethics in Clinical Research and Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilay Kanti; Sil, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Ethics are the moral values of human behavior and the principles which govern these values. The situation becomes challenging for a doctor when he assumes the role of researcher. The doctor-researcher has to serve both the roles and at times the zeal of an investigator has the potential to cloud the morality of the physician inside. It is very important to realize that exploiting the faith of patients is an offence that tantamount to a crime. Medical science is one discipline where the advancement of knowledge is hugely guided by research and mankind has benefitted from many experiments. However benefit and risk are the two faces of the same coin. Various unethical human experiments made us realize that the whims of researchers need to be reined and led to the evolution of the first guidelines for researcher, the Nuremberg code. Thereafter the Good Clinical Practice guidelines serve as the guiding doctrine of clinical research. The principles of ethics rest on the four pillars of autonomy, beneficence, justice, non-maleficence and recently two more pillars are added which includes, confidentiality and honesty. Ethics committees serve as a guardian of these principles. The multidisciplinary Ethics Committee ensures a competent review of the ethical aspects of the project proposal submitted and does it free from any bias or external influence. Ethical review of clinical trial applications follows a decentralized process in India, and requires Ethics Committee approval for each trial site. All Ethics committees have to be registered with Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) without which they cannot approve any clinical trial protocol and has come into effect from 25th February 2013.

  1. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    PubMed

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  2. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  3. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  4. [Health care resource allocation in Chile. Ethical considerations in decision making].

    PubMed

    Bedregal, Paula; Leal, Viviana; Lavados, Manuel; Lafuente, Montserrat; Chomali, Fernando; Ardiles, Jorge; Martínez, Javiera; Boeusseu, Marie-Charlotte

    2002-02-01

    The inclusion of ethical aspects in the world health care reform is currently being discussed. To analyze the ethical component of health care decision making in Chile. A qualitative analysis of interviews with 4 health service directors, 4 public hospital directors and 1 sub director. Inquiries to 16 public hospital ethics committees, about importance of ethical components in decision making, role of ethics committees in financial issues and the feasibility of incorporation explicit ethical considerations in decision making. There is an absence of explicit ethical criteria in decision making. There is little participation of directors in these issues and lack of information. Although ethical aspects are considered relevant, they are not taken into account. Ethics committees are mostly dedicated to evaluate research protocols. The community is not mentioned as a relevant actor in decision making about resource allocation. Health service directors and all health care personnel should be trained in bioethics. These aspects should be incorporated to their daily work.

  5. Ethics in American Health 1: Ethical Approaches to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  6. Ethics in American health 1: ethical approaches to health policy.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-10-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy.

  7. The Ethic of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  8. The Ethic of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  9. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  10. Biomedical ethics.

    PubMed

    Walters, LeRoy

    1985-10-25

    An overview is provided of bioethical issues recently under discussion in the United States. Six topics dominated the field in 1984 and early 1985: human gene therapy; in vitro fertilization and research with human embryos; appropriate care for dying patients, both adults and newborns; organ transplantation; resource allocation and payment for health care services; and the role of hospital ethics committees in medical decision making. Walters focuses on three of these topics: (1) the issuing of standards for somatic-cell gene therapy; (2) developments in the death and dying arena, including state living will legislation, the emergence of a viewpoint that artificial nutrition and hydration are not qualitatively different from respiratory life-support systems, and federal efforts to regulate appropriate treatment for handicapped newborns; and (3) the growing support among medical organizations for hospital ethics committees.

  11. Teaching Ethics in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes arguments for and against teaching ethics within science education, and clarifies what might be the several aims of teaching ethics in science. Discusses how ethics instruction might be incorporated into the science curriculum. (Contains 120 references.) (WRM)

  12. Focus on Teaching: Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Rebecca B.; Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that business today is concerned with the translation and application of ethical principles into everyday business life. Offers a list of Web sites on ethics and business ethics at various colleges and universities. (SR)

  13. Focus on Teaching: Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Rebecca B.; Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that business today is concerned with the translation and application of ethical principles into everyday business life. Offers a list of Web sites on ethics and business ethics at various colleges and universities. (SR)

  14. Surgical innovation: the ethical agenda

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Marike L.; Carrière, Michelle E.; Bredenoord, Annelien L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present article was to systematically review the ethics of surgical innovation and introduce the components of the learning health care system to guide future research and debate on surgical innovation. Although the call for evidence-based practice in surgery is increasingly high on the agenda, most surgeons feel that the format of the randomized controlled trial is not suitable for surgery. Innovation in surgery has aspects of, but should be distinguished from both research and clinical care and raises its own ethical challenges. To answer the question “What are the main ethical aspects of surgical innovation?”, we systematically searched PubMed and Embase. Papers expressing an opinion, point of view, or position were included, that is, normative ethical papers. We included 59 studies discussing ethical aspects of surgical innovation. These studies discussed 4 major themes: oversight, informed consent, learning curve, and vulnerable patient groups. Although all papers addressed the ethical challenges raised by surgical innovation, surgeons hold no uniform view of surgical innovation, and there is no agreement on the distinction between innovation and research. Even though most agree to some sort of oversight, they offer different alternatives ranging from the formation of new surgical innovation committees to establishing national registries. Most agree that informed consent is necessary for innovative procedures and that surgeons should be adequately trained to assure their competence to tackle the learning curve problem. All papers agree that in case of vulnerable patients, alternatives must be found for the informed consent procedure. We suggest that the concept of the learning health care system might provide guidance for thinking about surgical innovation. The underlying rationale of the learning health care system is to improve the quality of health care by embedding research within clinical care. Two aspects of a learning health

  15. Who regulates ethics in the virtual world?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Seemu; Lomash, Hitashi; Bawa, Seema

    2015-02-01

    This paper attempts to give an insight into emerging ethical issues due to the increased usage of the Internet in our lives. We discuss three main theoretical approaches relating to the ethics involved in the information technology (IT) era: first, the use of IT as a tool; second, the use of social constructivist methods; and third, the approach of phenomenologists. Certain aspects of ethics and IT have been discussed based on a phenomenological approach and moral development. Further, ethical issues related to social networking sites are discussed. A plausible way to make the virtual world ethically responsive is collective responsibility which proposes that society has the power to influence but not control behavior in the virtual world.

  16. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okonta, Patrick I.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

  17. Ethics in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Young; Kim, Ju-Ock

    2015-07-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is the most common place to die. Also, ethical conflicts among stakeholders occur frequently in the ICU. Thus, ICU clinicians should be competent in all aspects for ethical decision-making. Major sources of conflicts are behavioral issues, such as verbal abuse or poor communication between physicians and nurses, and end-of-life care issues including a lack of respect for the patient's autonomy. The ethical conflicts are significantly associated with the job strain and burn-out syndrome of healthcare workers, and consequently, may threaten the quality of care. To improve the quality of care, handling ethical conflicts properly is emerging as a vital and more comprehensive area. The ICU physicians themselves need to be more sensitive to behavioral conflicts and enable shared decision making in end-of-life care. At the same time, the institutions and administrators should develop their processes to find and resolve common ethical problems in their ICUs.

  18. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Patrick I

    2014-05-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  19. Theoretical aids in teaching medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Kottow, M H

    1999-01-01

    Medical ethics could be better understood if some basic theoretical aspects of practices in health care are analysed. By discussing the underlying ethical principles that govern medical practice, the student should also become familiar with the notion that medical ethics is much more than the external application of socially accepted moral standards. Professions in general and medicine in particular have internal values that command their moral virtuosity at the same time as their technical excellence. Three examples where clinical practice can be clearly shown to require an ethical analysis are given: medical praxiology illustrates the motives, means and aims of physicians and patients; clinical decision-making as a practical syllogism that reaches prescriptive conclusions based on medical knowledge and the patient's wishes/intentions. Finally, diagnostics as an ethical bayesian approach is discussed, where the patient informedly decides the benefits and risks of further testing.

  20. The Army Ethic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    ethical thought. The final major school of ethical thought centers on virtue ethics. First laid out in the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle , the...ethics focus on determining the right actions, virtue ethics puts the question of character at the center of the discussion. Aristotle asserts there...virtues as a reasonable balance between two extremes.48 Aristotle goes on to describe the golden mean by using the virtue of courage as an example

  1. Ethics Literacy and "Ethics University": Two Intertwined Models for Public Involvement and Empowerment in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Strech, Daniel; Hirschberg, Irene; Meyer, Antje; Baum, Annika; Hainz, Tobias; Neitzke, Gerald; Seidel, Gabriele; Dierks, Marie-Luise

    2015-01-01

    Informing lay citizens about complex health-related issues and their related ethical, legal, and social aspects (ELSA) is one important component of democratic health care/research governance. Public information activities may be especially valuable when they are used in multi-staged processes that also include elements of information and deliberation. This paper presents a new model for a public involvement activity on ELSA (Ethics University) and evaluation data for a pilot event. The Ethics University is structurally based on the "patient university," an already established institution in some German medical schools, and the newly developed concept of "ethics literacy." The concept of "ethics literacy" consists of three levels: information, interaction, and reflection. The pilot project consisted of two series of events (lasting 4 days each). The thematic focus of the Ethics University pilot was ELSA of regenerative medicine. In this pilot, the concept of "ethics literacy" could be validated as its components were clearly visible in discussions with participants at the end of the event. The participants reacted favorably to the Ethics University by stating that they felt more educated with regard to the ELSA of regenerative medicine and with regard to their own abilities in normative reasoning on this topic. The Ethics University is an innovative model for public involvement and empowerment activities on ELSA theoretically underpinned by a concept for "ethics literacy." This model deserves further refinement, testing in other ELSA topics and evaluation in outcome research.

  2. Towards disability ethics: a social science perspective.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rhonda; Sullivan, Martin

    2003-06-01

    In the social sciences, debates about the discursive and material constitution of subjectivity and identity no longer appear to be at loggerheads. This has important implications for how we are to construct a framework for thinking about disability ethics. Following recent inroads in disability theory and in the sociology of ethics, we would argue that one of the aims of a disability ethics is not to view disability exclusively as a question of impairment, but to reclaim the social aspects of impairment in conjunction with the embodied aspects of disability. We would also suggest that the social and cultural construction of impairment, or abnormal corporeality, cannot be considered apart from the moral and existential relations that exist between disabled and non-disabled persons. The question we want to raise in this discussion is whether thinking disability ethics through a bioethics framework is adequate to this task.

  3. Ethics consultation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D F; Hoyt, J W

    1996-01-01

    This article comprehensively addresses the composition, role, and functions of a hospital ethics committee (HEC). HECs are of particular interest to critical care specialists because they often participate in or lead such committees, extending their commitment to communication and caring beyond the borders of the intensive care unit (ICU). This article also demonstrates that a well-run ICU in a hospital with a strong HEC automatically will include many of the services that the HEC normally would provide, without the need for HEC assistance.

  4. The Ethics of Sports Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert J; Reider, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the background and foundations of ethics in research. Some important documents and codes are mentioned, such as The Belmont Report and the International Conference of Harmonisation. Some influential historical events involving research ethics are recounted. The article provides a detailed discussion of the Declaration of Helsinki, which is considered the international standard for guidelines in medical research ethics. The most salient features of the Declaration are described and related to orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. Some of the most controversial aspects of the Declaration are discussed, which helps examine contentious areas of research in sports medicine.

  5. Normativity unbound: liminality in palliative care ethics.

    PubMed

    Braude, Hillel

    2012-04-01

    This article applies the anthropological concept of liminality to reconceptualize palliative care ethics. Liminality possesses both spatial and temporal dimensions. Both these aspects are analyzed to provide insight into the intersubjective relationship between patient and caregiver in the context of palliative care. Aristotelian practical wisdom, or phronesis, is considered to be the appropriate model for palliative care ethics, provided it is able to account for liminality. Moreover, this article argues for the importance of liminality for providing an ethical structure that grounds the doctrine of double effect and overcomes the impasse of phronesis in the treatment of the terminally ill.

  6. Teaching ethics using popular songs: feeling and thinking.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2008-01-01

    A connection has long been made between music and moral education. Recent discussions have focused on concerns that certain lyrics can lead to acceptance of violence, suicide, inappropriate views of women, and other unethical behaviour. Debate over whether such connections exist at least illustrates that popular songs engage listeners with ethical issues; this arises from the unique blend of emotional and cognitive reactions to music. And while the emotional side of ethics has received less attention than other aspects of ethics, it is important and music can be a powerful and unique tool to introduce the emotional aspects of ethics. Music appeals to almost everyone. Throughout history songs have rallied people to action and drawn people into deeper reflection. Music engages our emotions, our imagination and our intellect. Students already spend many hours listening to songs, some of which address ethical issues; it is thus an ideal pedagogic aid in teaching subjects like ethics. This article will discuss how carefully selected songs can encourage thoughtful reflection and critical thinking about ethical issues: a number of specific examples will be described, along with a discussion of the general practicalities of using popular songs in teaching ethics and a demonstration of how students learn to listen critically and actively reflect on the ethical messages they receive. The enjoyment of music helps to engage students with ethics and its relevance for their lives and careers. This article aims to share some of the excitement and enthusiasm that popular songs have brought to my teaching of ethics.

  7. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  8. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  9. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  10. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  11. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  12. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  13. Ethical breakdowns.

    PubMed

    Bazerman, Max H; Tenbrunsel, Ann E

    2011-04-01

    Companies are spending a great deal of time and money to install codes of ethics, ethics training, compliance programs, and in-house watchdogs. If these efforts worked, the money would be well spent. But unethical behavior appears to be on the rise. The authors observe that even the best-intentioned executives may be unaware of their own or their employees' unethical behavior. Drawing from extensive research on cognitive biases, they offer five reasons for this blindness and suggest what to do about them. Ill-conceived goals may actually encourage negative behavior. Brainstorm unintended consequences when devising your targets. Motivated blindness makes us overlook unethical behavior when remaining ignorant would benefit us. Root out conflicts of interest. Indirect blindness softens our assessment of unethical behavior when it's carried out by third parties. Take ownership of the implications when you outsource work. The slippery slope mutes our awareness when unethical behavior develops gradually. Be alert for even trivial infractions and investigate them immediately. Overvaluing outcomes may lead us to give a pass to unethical behavior. Examine good outcomes to ensure they're not driven by unethical tactics.

  14. [The ethics of dental records].

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, P M

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights five aspects of necessary record-keeping in practices: ethicolegal requirements, confidentiality and disclosure, risk management and consent, accounts and practice management, and forensic functions. Patient records therefore have ethical, moral, legal and management implications. Unfortunately, they are often underestimated or ignored by practitioners. In the light of increasing litigation and disciplinary hearings, it is necessary to remind practitioners that every clinical action also contains an administrative component which has to fulfill many requirements.

  15. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs.

  16. Developing medical ethics in China's reform era.

    PubMed

    Ip, Po-Keung

    2005-05-01

    The paper gives an analytical synopsis of the problem of developing medical ethics in the early half of the 1990s in China, as perceived by Chinese scholars and medical professionals interested in medical ethics. The views captured and analyzed here were expressed in one of the two major journals on medical ethics in China: Chinese Medical Ethics. The economic reform unleashed profound changes in Chinese society, including in the medical field, creating irregularities and improprieties in the profession. Furthermore, the market reform also created new values that were in tension with existing values. In this transitional period, Chinese medical ethicists saw the need to rebuild medical morality for the new era. Using the code of conduct promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Health in 1989 as a basis, assessment and education aspects of the institutionalization of medical ethics are discussed. In addition to institutional problems of institutionalising ethics, there are philosophical and methodological issues that are not easy to solve. After all, to institutionalize medical ethics is no easy task for a country as old and as big as China. Chinese medical ethicists seem ready to confront these difficulties in their effort to develop medical ethics in Reform China.

  17. Ethics as an important determinant of success of orthopaedic dental care for debilitated and elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Schwartzseid, E E

    1989-01-01

    Ethical aspects of orthopaedic dental care for debilitated and elderly patients--the most complex and the least studied aspects of dentistry--are discussed here. Many articles on dental ethics, as a rule, do not cover the essential ethical aspects of orthopaedic care for the elderly or cover them only partially without reflecting on the problem at large. Understanding of the problem may help to provide more efficient dental care for the elderly population thus improving their quality of life.

  18. Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation and Ethical Considerations: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Petropanagos, Angel

    2017-03-28

    Testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP) aims to preserve the future option of genetic reproduction for prepubescent cancer patients who are at risk of infertility as a result of their cancer therapies. This technology is experimental and currently only offered in the research context. As TTCP moves towards becoming more widely available, it is imperative that healthcare providers recognize the complex ethical issues surrounding this technology. This scoping review study identifies and assesses the range and depth of ethical concerns related to this testicular tissue cryopreservation technology. At present, no such scoping review of ethical concerns exists in the TTCP literature. The forty-three full-text articles included in this study yielded twenty-two different ethical considerations discussed in relation to TTCP. It was observed that these ethical considerations fit within a mainstream Principlism approach to bioethics. Accordingly, there are ethical gaps in the TTCP literature that can be identified with alternative moral lenses. In particular, it was found that ethical concerns related to context and relational aspects of identity were absent in nearly all ethical examinations of TTCP. Furthermore, only 9 per cent of articles reviewed in this study focused primarily on the ethics of TTCP, thus demonstrating a need for further in depth ethical analyses of this technology. The results of this study are important for supporting the ethical provision of TTCP and can contribute to policy and guideline development. The findings of this study demonstrate the need for greater depth and diversity in analyses of ethical considerations related to this technology.

  19. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  20. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters."

  1. The ethics of biodefense.

    PubMed

    King, Nicholas B

    2005-08-01

    This essay reviews major areas of ethical debate with regard to biodefense, focusing on cases in which biodefense presents ethical problems that diverge from those presented by naturally-occurring outbreaks of infectious disease. It concludes with a call for ethicists to study not only the ethical issues raised in biodefense programs, but also the ethics of biodefense more generally.

  2. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  3. Shaping an ethical workplace.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, S M

    1998-12-01

    Ethical choices in business are often troublesome because business ethics are not simply an extension of personal ethics. Moral standards learned from private experiences may not translate to the business world. This article analyzes choices in the workplace and offer suggestions to move toward more ethical business practices.

  4. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    PubMed

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  5. Preparedness: medical ethics versus public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Swain, Geoffrey R; Burns, Kelly A; Etkind, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Medical ethics generally applies to individual interactions between physicians and patients. Conversely, public health ethics typically applies to interactions between an agency or institution and a community or population. Four main principles underlie medical ethics: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. By contrast, public health ethical principles address issues such as interdependence, community trust, fundamentality, and justice. In large part because of the significant community-level effects of public health issues, medical ethics are suboptimal for assessing community-level public health interventions or plans-especially in the area of emergency preparedness. To be effective, as well as ethical, public health preparedness efforts must address all of the core principles of public health ethics.

  6. Ethics in Nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Tinkle, Sally S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary As the science and technology of nanomedicine speed ahead, ethics, policy, and the law struggle to catch up. It is important to proactively address the ethical, social and regulatory aspects of nanomedicine to minimize its adverse impacts on the environment and public health and to avoid a public backlash. At present, the most significant concerns involve risk assessment, risk management of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), and risk communication in clinical trials. Though in vivo animal experiments and ex vivo laboratory analyses can increase our understanding of the interaction of ENM in biological systems, they cannot eliminate all of the uncertainty surrounding the exposure of a human subject to nanomedicine products in clinical trials. Significant risks can still materialize after a product has cleared the Phase I hurdle and is in Phase II or III clinical trial. Furthermore, as the use of ENM in nanomedicine increases, questions of social justice, access to health care and the use of nanotechnology for physical enhancement become increasingly important. PMID:17716179

  7. 'What is professional ethics?'.

    PubMed

    Brecher, Bob

    2014-03-01

    The very term 'professional ethics' is puzzling with respect to what both 'professional' and 'ethics' might mean. I argue (1) that professionalism is ambiguous as to whether or not it is implicitly committed to ethical practice; (2) that to be 'professionally' ethical is at best ambiguous, if not in fact bizarre; and (3) that, taken together, these considerations suggest that professional ethics is something to be avoided rather than lauded.

  8. Clinical ethics revisited

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Peter A; Pellegrino, Edmund D; Siegler, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective on clinical ethics problems. PMID:11346456

  9. Principled leadership in public health: integrating ethics into practice and management.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Melnick, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Public health officials frequently face ethical tensions and conflicting obligations when making decisions and managing health departments. Leadership requires an ongoing approach to ethics that focuses on two dimensions of practice: the professional relationships of officials developed over time with their communities and the ethical aspects of day-to-day public health activities. Education and competencies in ethics may be helpful in practice, by providing, at a minimum, frameworks and ethical principles to help structure analysis, discussion, and decision making in health departments and with community stakeholders. Such a "practical ethics" approach in public health practice begins with a focus on public health values and an agency mission statement and integrates ethics throughout the organization by, for example, setting performance measures based on them. Using a case in emergency preparedness, this article describes ways in which ethical frameworks and the Code of Ethics can be used as tools for education and to integrate ethics into agency activities and programs.

  10. Undergraduate healthcare ethics education, moral resilience, and the role of ethical theories.

    PubMed

    Monteverde, Settimio

    2014-06-01

    This article combines foundational and empirical aspects of healthcare education and develops a framework for teaching ethical theories inspired by pragmatist learning theory and recent work on the concept of moral resilience. It describes an exemplary implementation and presents data from student evaluation. After a pilot implementation in a regular ethics module, the feasibility and acceptance of the novel framework by students were evaluated. In addition to the regular online module evaluation, specific questions referring to the teaching of ethical theories were added using simple (yes/no) and Likert rating answer formats. At the Bern University of Applied Sciences, a total of 93 students from 2 parallel sub-cohorts of the bachelor's program in nursing science were sent the online survey link after having been exposed to the same modular contents. A total of 62% of all students participated in the survey. The survey was voluntary and anonymous. Students were free to write their name and additional comments. Students consider ethical theories-as taught within the proposed framework-as practically applicable, useful, and transferable into practice. Teaching ethical theories within the proposed framework overcomes the shortcomings described by current research. Students do not consider the mutually exclusive character of ethical theories as an insurmountable problem. The proposed framework is likely to promote the effectiveness of healthcare ethics education. Inspired by pragmatist learning theory, it enables students to consider ethical theories as educative playgrounds that help them to "frame" and "name" the ethical issues they encounter in daily practice, which is seen as an expression of moral resilience. Since it does not advocate a single ethical theory, but is open to the diversity of traditions that shape ethical thinking, it promotes a culturally sensitive, ethically reflected healthcare practice. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Sensing as an Ethical Dimension of Teacher Professionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edling, Silvia; Frelin, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to theoretically discuss how teacher professionality, as an aspect of teacher professionalism, can be understood in relation to the notion of sensing within the "ethics of alterity" and the "ethics of dissensus," both of which express a desire to contest the various forms of violence in society.…

  12. Faculty's Perceptions of Teaching Ethics and Leadership in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSagheer, Abdullah; Al-Sagheer, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper addressed the faculty's perception of engineering ethics and leadership training. The study looks into the present state of and methodologies for teaching engineering ethics and leadership and aims to determine the faculty's perception of an identified gap in this aspect of engineering education. Engineering education has strong ethics…

  13. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Adults in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines practical problems encountered in mentoring adult learners in higher education through stories of ethical dilemmas. Each incident illustrates the power that mentors possess and the ethical challenges of using this power to help or hurt proteges. Each example addresses an aspect of such power; the power to remove oneself as a…

  14. Faculty's Perceptions of Teaching Ethics and Leadership in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSagheer, Abdullah; Al-Sagheer, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper addressed the faculty's perception of engineering ethics and leadership training. The study looks into the present state of and methodologies for teaching engineering ethics and leadership and aims to determine the faculty's perception of an identified gap in this aspect of engineering education. Engineering education has strong ethics…

  15. Ethical Dilemmas in Administrative Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the dimensions of ethics in administrative practice, identifies some of the characteristic circumstances that frequently precipitate ethical dilemmas, and suggests strategies for addressing ethical dilemmas. (Author)

  16. Academic ethical awareness among undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ok-Hee; Hwang, Kyung-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Academic ethical awareness is an important aspect especially for nursing students who will provide ethical nursing care to patients in future or try to tread the path of learning toward professional acknowledgement in nursing scholarship. The purpose of this study was to explore academic ethical awareness and its related characteristics among undergraduate nursing students. This study commenced the survey with cross-sectional, descriptive questions and enrolled convenient samples of 581 undergraduate nursing students from three universities in South Korea. It was investigated with structured questionnaires including general characteristics and academic ethical awareness related. Ethical considerations: This study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at National University. Academic ethical awareness was the highest regarding behaviors violating the respect or confidentiality of patients and cheating on exams, while it was the lowest for inappropriate behaviors in class. From the result of general characteristics difference, male students showed higher score than female students in relative; first-year students showed higher score than other year students; the higher score was rated from students who were highly satisfied with their major than the other not satisfied with their major; and students with low academic stress showed higher ethical awareness score than persons with higher stress. Personal behaviors were rated with low ethical awareness in relative, but items related to public rules and actual effects on patients or others were rated with higher score. Nursing satisfaction and academic stress are main factors on ethical awareness. To improve overall ethical awareness level of nursing students, it is required to provide more education about the importance of personal behaviors in class and need to improve the understanding of how it will be connected with future situation and effect.

  17. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  18. Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…

  19. Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…

  20. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  1. Educating about biomedical research ethics.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Bratislav; Stankovic, Mirjana

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the global and worsening problem of research misconduct as it relates to bio-medico-legal education. While research misconduct has serious legal implications, few adequate legal remedies exist to deal with it. With respect to teaching, research ethics education should be mandatory for biomedical students and physicians. Although teaching alone will not prevent misconduct, it promotes integrity, accountability, and responsibility in research. Policies and law enforcement should send a clear message that researchers should adhere to the highest standards of ethics in research. It is vital that researchers and physicians understand basic aspects of law and the legal system in order to develop understanding of the medico-legal issues not just in the legal context, but with a sound grounding in ethics, social and theoretical contexts so that they can practice good medicine. Routine and holistic research ethics education across the curriculum for medical students and resident physicians, and continuing medical education for practicing doctors, are probably the best ways to accomplish this goal.

  2. What are applied ethics?

    PubMed

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  3. If Ethics Committees were Designed for Ethnography.

    PubMed

    Tolich, Martin; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2006-06-01

    WHERE DID THE ETHICS REVIEW PROCESS go wrong for qualitative research, and how can we make it right, or at least better? This paper begins with an excerpt from an ethnography of attempting to attend an ethics review-related workshop, which exemplifies that the ethics-review process is based on epistemological assumptions aligned with positivistic research, and does not fit the qualitative research process. We suggest that a new format for ethics review, based on assumptions associated with qualitative research and ethnography, might be a better fit. In this model the researcher becomes the expert and the committee the learner or ethnographer. In this process the ethics review process is guided by four core open-ended questions that facilitate a fuller and richer exchange of information. The second part of this paper presents strategies that may lessen the risks associated with the unknown or emergent aspects of qualitative research. These strategies include a dual consent process and the co-opting of journal editors or thesis review boards to review ethical considerations prior to publication or sign off, and a renewed focus of ethics training.

  4. Clarifying perspectives: Ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care.

    PubMed

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2016-06-01

    Childhood cancer care involves many ethical concerns. Deciding on treatment levels and providing care that infringes on the child's growing autonomy are known ethical concerns that involve the whole professional team around the child's care. The purpose of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' experiences of participating in ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care. Data collection by observations, individual interviews, and individual encounters. Data analysis were conducted following grounded theory methodology. Healthcare professionals working at a publicly funded children's hospital in Sweden participated in ethics case reflection sessions in which ethical issues concerning clinical cases were reflected on. The children's and their parents' integrity was preserved through measures taken to protect patient identity during ethics case reflection sessions. The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Consolidating care by clarifying perspectives emerged. Consolidating care entails striving for common care goals and creating a shared view of care and the ethical concern in the specific case. The inter-professional perspectives on the ethical aspects of care are clarified by the participants' articulated views on the case. Different approaches for deliberating ethics are used during the sessions including raising values and making sense, leading to unifying interactions. The findings indicate that ethical concerns could be eased by implementing ethics case reflection sessions. Conflicting perspectives can be turned into unifying interactions in the healthcare professional team with the common aim to achieve good pediatric care. Ethics case reflection sessions is valuable as it permits the discussion of values in healthcare-related issues in childhood cancer care. Clarifying perspectives, on the ethical concerns, enables healthcare professionals to reflect on the most reasonable and ethically defensible care for the child

  5. Basic care, bodily knowledge and feminist ethics.

    PubMed

    Malmsten, K

    2000-01-01

    Within medical schools and within research concerning the ethical questions of health care, basic care and its allied participants have not been stressed enough. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the practice of basic care and some moral problems in connection to this practice. Basic care is the care-provider's providing assistance for patients with bodily dysfunction. The relationships between patient and care-provider in basic care have many substantial similarities with other close social relationships. Thus, the interactive relationships in basic care are an important matter of public concern. Seen from an ethical perspective, its significance due to the welfare-aspects of society is obvious. Patients and professionals in basic care have together a unique knowledge about the meaning of being. Ethics is much more than following theories, rules, and principles and this article presents an alternative to the dominant approaches of health care ethics.

  6. Ethics Hype?

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    There has been growing concern about the phenomenon of science hype, the tendency to exaggerate the value or near-future application of research results. Although this is a problem that touches every area of biomedicine, the topic of genetics seems to be particularly prone to enthusiastic predictions. The world has been told for over two decades-by the media, researchers, politicians, and the biotech industry-that a genome-driven health care revolution is just around the corner. And while the revolution never seems to arrive, the hopeful rhetoric continues. It has been suggested that this unrelenting "genohype" is having a range of adverse social consequences, including misleading the public and hurting the long-term legitimacy of the field. While we need more good data on the nature and magnitude of these possible harms, few would argue with the proposition that sustained science hype is a bad thing. We all benefit from robust science and accurate public representations of biomedical research. But, to date, there has been very little consideration of the degree to which the scholarship on the related ethical, legal, and social issues has been hyped. Are the conclusions from ELSI scholarship also exaggerated?

  7. Winding roads and faded signs: ethical decision making in a postmodern world.

    PubMed

    Coverston, C; Rogers, S

    2000-09-01

    We are living in an era, sometimes referred to as "postmodern," exemplified by complex change related to vast increases in information and technology and exposure to diverse people and ideas. Society as a whole is experiencing dissonance in solving ethical dilemmas, and nurses' ethical dilemmas are never far removed from the social context in which nurses practice. This article explores aspects of postmodernism that complicate ethical decision making. It is hoped that this discussion may aid nurses in understanding how world values, especially those of postmodernism, complicate ethical decision making in health care. Suggestions melding aspects of the postmodern with traditional approaches to ethical decision making are presented.

  8. Ethics: A Theory of Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    This book review characterizes Robert Veatch's A Theory of Medical Ethics as a "third-generation" treatise that looks beyond case- and issue-oriented analysis to develop the theoretical bases of a "true system of medical ethics." Veatch proposes a "draft medical ethical covenant" based on a "triple contract" model, in which the moral principles of contract keeping, autonomy, honesty, avoiding killing, and justice govern the physician's relationship to both individual patients and society.

  9. Ethics and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Clever, Sarah L; Edwards, Kelly A; Feudtner, Chris; Braddock, Clarence H

    2001-01-01

    Ethics education aims to train physicians to identify and resolve ethical issues. To address ethical concerns, physicians may need to confront each other. We surveyed medical students to determine if their comfort challenging members of their ward teams about ethical issues varies by specialty and what attributes of students and their teams contributed to that comfort. Compared to other specialties, students felt significantly less comfortable challenging team members about ethical issues on surgery and obstetrics/gynecology. We suggest that ethics education must address the atmosphere on ward teams and give students skills to help them speak out despite their discomfort.

  10. Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership

    PubMed Central

    Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes. PMID:23346028

  11. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  12. Ethical Sensitivity in Nursing Ethical Leadership: A Content Analysis of Iranian Nurses Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Esmaelzadeh, Fatemeh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considering that many nursing actions affect other people’s health and life, sensitivity to ethics in nursing practice is highly important to ethical leaders as a role model. Objective: The study aims to explore ethical sensitivity in ethical nursing leaders in Iran. Method: This was a qualitative study based on the conventional content analysis in 2015. Data were collected using deep and semi-structured interviews with 20 Iranian nurses. The participants were chosen using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. In order to increase the accuracy and integrity of the data, Lincoln and Guba's criteria were considered. Results: Fourteen sub-categories and five main categories emerged. Main categories consisted of sensitivity to care, sensitivity to errors, sensitivity to communication, sensitivity in decision making and sensitivity to ethical practice. Conclusion: Ethical sensitivity appears to be a valuable attribute for ethical nurse leaders, having an important effect on various aspects of professional practice and help the development of ethics in nursing practice. PMID:28584564

  13. Reproductive health and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2007-10-01

    Individuals' reproductive choices are private matters, but sexual conduct and pregnancy impose significant public health burdens. Ethical principles of public health are distinguishable from principles applied in modern bioethics. Bioethical principles have been developed at the clinical or microethical level, affecting relations among individuals, whereas pubic health ethics applies at the population-based or macroethical level. Resolution of issues, for instance of consent to healthcare interventions and preservation of privacy, is different in public health practice from in clinical medicine. Public health aspects of human reproduction concern reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in resource-poor countries, and the contribution to high rates of each of unsafe abortion, most prevalent where abortion laws are restrictive. Further aspects of public health ethics concern limited access to contraceptive services, the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, causes of infertility, especially due to STIs, and responses to each of these concerns.

  14. Ethics and the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    Relationships between the pharmaceutical industry and the medical profession enhance the potential for physicians to become involved in conflicts of interest. Whether or not these rise to a level that violates standards of medical ethics depends on the degree to which they detract from the quality of health care and its cost, the objectivity of research, and the profession's integrity. This paper explores those issues from two perspectives--the micro-level of the medical profession and the macro-level of society. Practices and policies that affect varied aspects of the interaction between the pharmaceutical industry and the medical profession--such as education, research and marketing--are discussed. The reader is asked to reflect on the ethics of issues raised; the author offers suggestions for mitigating conflicts of interest and, in turn, the potential for unethical medical care.

  15. Ethics in the classroom: a reflection on integrating ethical discussions in an introductory course in computer programming.

    PubMed

    Smolarski, D C; Whitehead, T

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent approaches to introducing students in a beginning computer science class to the study of ethical issues related to computer science and technology. This consists of three components: lectures on ethics and technology, in-class discussion of ethical scenarios, and a reflective paper on a topic related to ethics or the impact of technology on society. We give both student reactions to these aspects, and instructor perspective on the difficulties and benefits in exposing students to these ideas.

  16. Meeting report: Fifth International Conference on Ethical Issues in Biomedical Engineering.

    PubMed

    El-Gendi, Hebah; Saha, Subrata

    2009-01-01

    Ethical issues in biomedical engineering is a crucial topic that must be addressed. In the spring of 2009, attendees from various professions attended a conference regarding ethical issues at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. Abstracts representing distinct aspects of the engineering and biotechnology fields and associated ethical concerns were presented. The event featured a debate that engaged participants and panel members in intriguing ethical discussions, and concluded with a social banquet.

  17. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  18. [Mental health film festival and ethics].

    PubMed

    Simonnet, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The mental health film festival is based on the respect of the patient as a subject and is a place where psychic suffering can be expressed. As a film is destined to be shown, there is a dilemma between the aesthetic and the therapeutic aspects and, it's in this link that the ethical dimension concerned by this kind of activity takes place.

  19. Libraries and the Ethics of Censorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of literature pertaining to the subject of censorship in modern libraries. It interrogates the literature in terms of the ethical debates informing much of the contemporary academic writing on this subject. A multi-pronged approach to the subject is adopted. The review includes evaluations of the relevant aspects of…

  20. Exploring the Ethical Implications of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a potentially exciting opportunity to use technology to realise many of the long-promised benefits of universal higher education. While there are many positive aspects to the MOOCs on offer and in development, there are also significant ethical concerns arising from various initiatives. These include…

  1. Exploring the Ethical Implications of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a potentially exciting opportunity to use technology to realise many of the long-promised benefits of universal higher education. While there are many positive aspects to the MOOCs on offer and in development, there are also significant ethical concerns arising from various initiatives. These include…

  2. Libraries and the Ethics of Censorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of literature pertaining to the subject of censorship in modern libraries. It interrogates the literature in terms of the ethical debates informing much of the contemporary academic writing on this subject. A multi-pronged approach to the subject is adopted. The review includes evaluations of the relevant aspects of…

  3. Ethnicity, Ethics, and the Deaf-World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan

    2005-01-01

    This article is concerned with ethical aspects of the relations between language minorities using signed languages (called the Deaf-World) and the larger societies that engulf them. The article aims to show that such minorities have the properties of ethnic groups, and that an unsuitable construction of the Deaf-World as a disability group has…

  4. Ethical Issues in Bereavement Research: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Alicia Skinner

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for the conduct of ethical research are reviewed and applied to the field of thanatology. Unique aspects of bereavement studies are identified and are discussed in the context of socially sensitive research. Topics include: freedom for subjects to withdraw from research, consideration of risks and benefits, and the qualifications of…

  5. Ethical Issues in Bereavement Research: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Alicia Skinner

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for the conduct of ethical research are reviewed and applied to the field of thanatology. Unique aspects of bereavement studies are identified and are discussed in the context of socially sensitive research. Topics include: freedom for subjects to withdraw from research, consideration of risks and benefits, and the qualifications of…

  6. Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Abelardo; Siemens, George

    2014-01-01

    The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as…

  7. Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Abelardo; Siemens, George

    2014-01-01

    The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as…

  8. Ethnicity, Ethics, and the Deaf-World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan

    2005-01-01

    This article is concerned with ethical aspects of the relations between language minorities using signed languages (called the Deaf-World) and the larger societies that engulf them. The article aims to show that such minorities have the properties of ethnic groups, and that an unsuitable construction of the Deaf-World as a disability group has…

  9. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  10. Persuasion as Ethical Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1985-01-01

    States that teachers should help students understand in practical terms how to recognize good ethical persuasion and to understand when even distinguished, honest, and moral writers might need to resort to "unfair ethical persuasion." (EL)

  11. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  12. Ethical issues in cloning.

    PubMed

    Satris, S

    2000-01-01

    There is great public concern with the ethics of human cloning. This paper briefly examines some of what I identify as pseudo-problems or myths associated with cloning, and some of the more substantial ethical concerns.

  13. [Toward a practical ethic].

    PubMed

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.

  14. Nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: a longitudinal study of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gaudine, Alice; Thorne, Linda

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed.

  15. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  16. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics.

  17. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  18. A study of the ethics of induced abortion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Um, Y R

    1999-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the ethical aspects of induced abortion from the viewpoint of Korean women, and to compare and contrast their ethical considerations and values with the views of western ethical scholars. The two extremes of ethical arguments about induced abortion are pro-life and pro-choice. However, the Korean women who participated in this study showed that conflicting ethical values were raised between the principle of caring and the sanctity of life or the principle of respect for the person, not between the right of self-determination and the sanctity of life. The results of the study suggest that it would be better to include the viewpoints of women in any ethical discussion on abortion in order for ethicists and health professionals to understand more fully the dimensions of moral clinical problems and be in a better position to discuss them in a practical manner.

  19. Scoring Ethically in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donna Mae.

    1988-01-01

    This article suggests ways in which coaches, through their coaching and behavior, may preserve, encourage, or improve the integrity and ethics of sports. If coaches model ethical behavior, fans and players may exhibit it as well. Suggestions for promoting sports ethics are given. (JL)

  20. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  1. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  2. The Character of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A person is ethical or moral in doing an act if the individual acted freely; acted according to his or her duty, not for self-interest; and actively performed an ethical act. Lists the qualities of a leader from an ethical perspective. (MLF)

  3. [Ethical problems in perinatology].

    PubMed

    Koppe, J G

    1989-08-01

    Ethical problems in the neonatal period and in the unborn baby are discussed. The different categories of babies where ethical problems arise are summarized and ethical values, reasons for justification and the question of who decides are discussed. Medical strategies nowadays used in different countries are presented and a procedure is described how to make a decision to stop or not to start treatment.

  4. Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  5. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  6. Ethics and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references. (MES)

  7. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  8. Ethics across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matchett, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    All colleges teach ethics across their undergraduate curricula, yet relatively few institutions do so deliberately. That is, few colleges make explicit attempts to coordinate or integrate the various ethical lessons their students might be learning. This does not mean that most colleges are bad for students' ethical development; research shows…

  9. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  10. Ethics and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references. (MES)

  11. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  12. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  13. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  14. Clarifying the Ethical Tendency in Education for Sustainable Development Practice: A Wittgenstein-Inspired Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohman, Johan; Ostman, Leif

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the debate about the moral and ethical aspects of education for sustainable development by suggesting a clarification of ethics and morals through an investigation of how these aspects appear in educational practice. The ambition is both to point to the normative dangers of education for sustainable development…

  15. The ethics of research.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2013-01-01

    All healthcare disciplines acknowledge that research should be ethical. Formal research inquiry methods and processes are embedded with ethical concepts. For the nurse researcher, the significance of living an ethos of straight thinking is important for the expansion of disciplinary knowledge and fortifying the integrity of the discipline. Ethical notions surrounding the scientific merit, integrity, and the protection of human subjects are of paramount concern to the discipline as the never-ending quest to produce evidence for nurse practice is emphasized. Potential implications for the ethics of nursing research from a humanbecoming ethical perspective is explored.

  16. Unesco's Global Ethics Observatory

    PubMed Central

    Have, H ten; Ang, T W

    2007-01-01

    The Global Ethics Observatory, launched by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization in December 2005, is a system of databases in the ethics of science and technology. It presents data on experts in ethics, on institutions (university departments and centres, commissions, councils and review boards, and societies and associations) and on teaching programmes in ethics. It has a global coverage and will be available in six major languages. Its aim is to facilitate the establishment of ethical infrastructures and international cooperation all around the world. PMID:17209103

  17. Oops, what about ethics?

    PubMed

    Oladimeji, O; Isaakidis, P; Zachariah, R; Hinderaker, S G; Koghali, M; van Griensven, J; Harries, A D; Edginton, M E

    2013-09-21

    Ethics approval of research studies is essential for the protection and rights of study subjects, whether this is for prospective research or record reviews. This article shares a painful lesson learned from a field experience where the appropriate steps for obtaining ethics approval were not followed by a young researcher. This researcher had embarked on an operational research project, but had omitted to seek ethics approval from a local ethics committee. Young researchers, particularly from low- and middle-income countries, need to learn about the importance and value of ethics.

  18. Phronesis in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    McGee, G

    1996-12-01

    This essay argues that while we have examined clinical ethics quite extensively in the literature, too little attention has been paid to the complex question of how clinical ethics is learned. Competing approaches to ethics pedagogy have relied on outmoded understandings of the way moral learning takes place in ethics. It is argued that the better approach, framed in the work of Aristotle, is the idea of phronesis, which depends on a long-term mentorship in clinical medicine for either medical students or clinical ethics students. Such an approach is articulated and defended.

  19. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  20. Ethical religion in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Torry, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    Religion is increasingly significant in UK society, and is highly significant for many patients and primary care practitioners. An important task for the practitioner is to ensure that the place of religion in the patient/practitioner relationship is treated with the same ethical seriousness as every other aspect of that relationship. The article finds the ‘four principles of biomedical ethics’ to be applicable, and recent GMC guidelines to be consistent with the four principles. The article applies the four principles to the particular case of practitioners wearing religious symbolism. PMID:28811838

  1. Issues in biomedical ethics.

    PubMed

    Vevaina, J R; Nora, L M; Bone, R C

    1993-12-01

    Bioethics is the discipline of ethics dealing with moral problems arising in the practice of medicine and the pursuit of biomedical research. Physicians may confront ethical dilemmas regularly in their individual relationships with patients and in institutional and societal decisions on health care policy. Ethical problem solving requires the application of certain ethical rules and principles to specific situations. Although ethical theories differ, certain ethical rules and principles appear consistently. These include nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for individual autonomy, confidentiality, and justice. This article discusses some of the ethical issues that arise in clinical practice, including informed consent, do-not-resuscitate orders, noninitiation and termination of medical therapy, genetic intervention, allocation of scarce health resources, and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some of these problems require ethical analysis at the bedside; others require physician involvement on a broader level. Perspectives on the different ethical issues are presented; however, absolute answers to these ethical dilemmas are not provided. Interpretation of the ethical principles and the application of these principles to each clinical situation demands the thoughtful attention of the practitioner.

  2. Radiology and Ethics Education.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess medical ethics knowledge among trainees and practicing radiologists through an online survey that included questions about the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics. Most survey respondents reported that they had never read the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics or the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics (77.2% and 67.4% of respondents, respectively). With regard to ethics education during medical school and residency, 57.3% and 70.0% of respondents, respectively, found such education to be insufficient. Medical ethics training should be highlighted during residency, at specialty society meetings, and in journals and online resources for radiologists.

  3. Ethical Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Victoroff, Michael S.

    1985-01-01

    The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

  4. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  5. Possibilities of Engineering Ethics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Junya

    This paper discusses the possibilities of teaching engineering ethics in universities. This is based on the teaching experience of a newly developed course that has been introduced to the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Fukui, since April 2004. Entitled “ethics for engineers”, the course targeted senior-level students and makes use of a newly written textbook that emphasizes social aspects of science and technology. To encourage students to think and form their own opinions with regards to their role as engineers in a modern technological society, the book is complemented by other materials such as videos, newspaper articles and some other relevant books. Students are also encouraged to write reports that reflect their own opinion on subjects such as what kind of engineers they intend to be, or what do ethics mean to them? The paper will conclude by giving a course evaluation including students' response, highlighting valuable experiences and stating the importance of further developing this topic in engineering education.

  6. Nursing Ethics: A Lifelong Commitment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Jeschke, E Ann

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the health-care context as well as the roles and responsibilities of nurses have drastically changed. Leaders in nursing around the world recognize that the health-care system is stressed and the well-being of the nursing workforce plagued by the pressures and challenges it faces in everyday practice. We do not intend to make a strong normative argument for why nursing ethics education should be done in a certain way, but instead show from where we have come and to where we can go, so that educators are positioned to address some of the current shortcomings in ethics education. Our goal is to provide an illustration of ethics education as an interwoven, ongoing, and essential aspect of nursing education and professional development. By developing professional identity as character, we hope that professional nurses are given the skills to stand in the face of adversity and to act in a way that upholds the core competencies of nursing. Ultimately, health-care organizations will thrive because of the support they provide nurses and other health-care professionals.

  7. Ethical perspectives on health technology assessment.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk

    2004-01-01

    This study analyses why ethical aspects play a minor role in health technology assessment (HTA) studies, even when comprehensive approaches of technology assessment are advocated. Technology is often regarded as a value-neutral tool. At the same time, bioethics is dominated by an engineering model. Ethical contributions to evaluation of medical technology should go beyond issues of application in clinical practice and focus also on the definition of problems, the demarcation of technical and nontechnical issues, and the morally problematic implications of technologies.

  8. Facial transplants: current situation and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2015-01-01

    The first transplantation of a face from a cadaver was performed in 2005, since when about thirty have been performed globally. The technique is now beginning to appear in Italy. Face transplants are performed exclusively on persons who have suffered devastating lesions to the face. The ethical problems involved are very considerable, particularly where personal identity is concerned. The case records reveal surprisingly positive outcomes regarding both clinical follow-up and functional recovery, as well as psychological aspects and social integration. Thus, while early documents addressing the ethical issues involved in facial transplants were somewhat cautious or even unfavourable on the subject of this technique, a positive approach is now more prevalent.

  9. Empirical ethics and its alleged meta-ethical fallacies.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob; Gordijn, Bert

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the concept of empirical ethics as well as three meta-ethical fallacies that empirical ethics is said to face: the is-ought problem, the naturalistic fallacy and violation of the fact-value distinction. Moreover, it answers the question of whether empirical ethics (necessarily) commits these three basic meta-ethical fallacies.

  10. [The Christian ethic and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Hourton, J

    1991-03-01

    The Catholic Church and the Christian faith in general have been accused of a history of sexual repression and denunciation of the dangers of all expressions of sexuality as well as of neglecting sex education within religious education. This work seeks to analyze the apparent conflict between Christian ethics and the experience of modern sexuality, and discusses the response of Christian ethics to the conflict. Beginning at the Renaissance and for the entire modern epoch, a moral system that might be called secularized has confronted that of the Church; it has been more liberal, utilitarian, and hedonistic in sexual matters. In the course of becoming more permissive, human sexuality like so many other aspects of modern culture has lost most of its sacred character. The sexual sphere in modern cultural and moral development is 1 of the aspects in which morals and customs are most distanced from religious influence. Despite the great sexual permissiveness of the mass media and the culture at large, adolescents and youth of today do not appear to have advanced any closer to a general state of happiness. Sexuality today--despite whatever sex education is available--is still enveloped in the same ignorance, feat, complexes, and conflicts as ever. The youth of today should have access to better sex education, they should be liberated from both religious taboos that impede health sexual adjustment and from the sexual permissiveness celebrated in much of the mass media. Teachers and moralists should engage in a dialogue in which the problem of sex education is examined in its complexity in order to identify elements of an improved process that would lead to a true humanization. An ethics that goes beyond the permissiveness of the present is needed, but it should not be based on fear of AIDS, fear of pregnancy, or any other fears or threats. A positive secular ethics moved by natural motivations and a Christian ethics motivated by faith in the love of God should appear

  11. Is mandatory research ethics reviewing ethical?

    PubMed

    Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary

    2013-08-01

    Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen.

  12. Teaching Ethics in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewan, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the literature regarding the teaching of ethics in medical schools. Defines medical ethics and attempts to determine the scope of medical ethics teaching. Discusses ways medical ethics could be taught and how that teaching can be assessed. Calls for increased attention into the teaching of medical ethics. (TW)

  13. Teaching Ethics in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewan, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the literature regarding the teaching of ethics in medical schools. Defines medical ethics and attempts to determine the scope of medical ethics teaching. Discusses ways medical ethics could be taught and how that teaching can be assessed. Calls for increased attention into the teaching of medical ethics. (TW)

  14. [Professional ethics of physicians].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    Socrates is considered the great classic moralist, although he was not the first to take care of man and morality. Aristotle instituted ethics as an autonomous science and clearly defined its fields, its methods and its purposes, formulating the concept of "happy medium". In the Aristotelian methodology we find traces of Hippocrates, who believed that the physician must always consider the peculiar aspects and that the individual characteristics' determinations can be reached by sensitivity. Once these particularities have been proved, the physician must rely on the "happy medium". Only Stoics could discover, and gradually elaborate, the concept of natural law. Apparently they were the first to establish the classic distinction between the theorical or ideal morality and the practical morality, which is accessible to all people. They refused to compare wisdom, entirely turned inward, with the medical art, which does not constitute an aim by itself. Modern authors assert that, with stoicism, the notion we can denominated wisdom's humanism rised. Today it is admitted that "medicine is more than simply learning medical data.... Physicians must have a wisdom learned from human finitude. They will need this wisdom to tackle the health care policy debates in the next decades". This would be a major cultural undertaking.

  15. Navigating the Legal and Ethical World of Overseas Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Karla Jo

    1998-01-01

    Referring to Iowa contract law, reviews ethical and legal aspects of overseas employment contracts signed by educators at recruitment fairs. Iowa Department of Education guidelines state the following aspects of a good contract: it is in writing; it states the salary, pay periods, benefits, and dates of employment; it lists special conditions and…

  16. Excellence: The Importance of Vision and Work Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the topic of excellence and shares key aspects of excellence that he has found to be true in his life's journey. He discusses two elements of excellence, namely (1) "vision"; and (2) "work ethic", and describes some characteristics of each element. Three aspects: (1) interpersonal skills; (2) initiative; and (3)…

  17. The normative background of empirical-ethical research: first steps towards a transparent and reasoned approach in the selection of an ethical theory.

    PubMed

    Salloch, Sabine; Wäscher, Sebastian; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2015-04-04

    Empirical-ethical research constitutes a relatively new field which integrates socio-empirical research and normative analysis. As direct inferences from descriptive data to normative conclusions are problematic, an ethical framework is needed to determine the relevance of the empirical data for normative argument. While issues of normative-empirical collaboration and questions of empirical methodology have been widely discussed in the literature, the normative methodology of empirical-ethical research has seldom been addressed. Based on our own research experience, we discuss one aspect of this normative methodology, namely the selection of an ethical theory serving as a background for empirical-ethical research. Whereas criteria for a good ethical theory in philosophical ethics are usually related to inherent aspects, such as the theory's clarity or coherence, additional points have to be considered in the field of empirical-ethical research. Three of these additional criteria will be discussed in the article: (a) the adequacy of the ethical theory for the issue at stake, (b) the theory's suitability for the purposes and design of the empirical-ethical research project, and (c) the interrelation between the ethical theory selected and the theoretical backgrounds of the socio-empirical research. Using the example of our own study on the development of interventions which support clinical decision-making in oncology, we will show how the selection of an ethical theory as a normative background for empirical-ethical research can proceed. We will also discuss the limitations of the procedures chosen in our project. The article stresses that a systematic and reasoned approach towards theory selection in empirical-ethical research should be given priority rather than an accidental or implicit way of choosing the normative framework for one's own research. It furthermore shows that the overall design of an empirical-ethical study is a multi-faceted endeavor which has to

  18. Nursing and genetics: applying the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Robbie

    2005-01-01

    A professional code of ethics is essential for behaviors to be reinforced in any discipline. The American Nurses Association (ANA) has established a code of ethics for nurses to use as a framework for making ethical decisions with all aspects of health care delivered to the public. With the explosion of genetic discoveries, nurses and clients are facing new ethical dilemmas. It is important for nurses to understand how to use the ANA Code of Ethics when faced with the many complexities of ethical issues involving genetics and health care. This article illustrates how the ANA Code of Ethics can be applied in nursing practice to establish professional behaviors related to ethical issues and genetics.

  19. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics.

  20. Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Virtues and humanitarian ethics.

    PubMed

    Löfquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional.

  2. Dismembering the ethical physician

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, S J

    2006-01-01

    Physicians may experience ethical distress when they are caught in difficult clinical situations that demand ethical decision making, particularly when their preferred action may contravene the expectations of patients and established authorities. When principled and competent doctors succumb to patient wishes or establishment guidelines and participate in actions they perceive to be ethically inappropriate, or agree to refrain from interventions they believe to be in the best interests of patients, individual professional integrity may be diminished, and ethical reliability is potentially compromised. In a climate of ever‐proliferating ethical quandaries, it is essential for the medical community, health institutions, and governing bodies to pursue a judicious tension between the indispensable regulation of physicians necessary to maintain professional standards and preserve public safety, and the support for “freedom of conscience” that principled physicians require to practise medicine in keeping with their personal ethical orientation. PMID:16597808

  3. Ethics: A Selected Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Light of American Law. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1955. (JF423 C3) 53. Callahan, Daniel , and Bok, Sissela, eds. Ethics Teaching in Higher...Educa- tion. New York: Plenum Press, 1980. (BJ66 E84) 54. Callahan, Daniel , and Engelhardt, H. Tristram, eds. The Roots of Ethics: . Science, Religion...Missouri Press, 1966. (JX1416 C18) -" 56. Caplan, Arthur L., and Callahan, Daniel , eds. Ethics in Hard Times. New York: Plenum Press, 1981. (JA79 E825

  4. Teaching Ethics to Engineers: A Socratic Experience.

    PubMed

    Génova, Gonzalo; González, M Rosario

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present the authors' experience of teaching a course in Ethics for Engineers, which has been delivered four times in three different universities in Spain and Chile. We begin by presenting the material context of the course (its place within the university program, the number of students attending, its duration, etc.), and especially the intellectual background of the participating students, in terms of their previous understanding of philosophy in general, and of ethics in particular. Next we set out the objectives of the course and the main topics addressed, as well as the methodology and teaching resources employed to have students achieve a genuine philosophical reflection on the ethical aspects of the profession, starting from their own mindset as engineers. Finally we offer some results based on opinion surveys of the students, as well as a more personal assessment by the authors, recapitulating the most significant achievements of the course and indicating its underlying Socratic structure.

  5. Symbiotic empirical ethics: a practical methodology.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Like any discipline, bioethics is a developing field of academic inquiry; and recent trends in scholarship have been towards more engagement with empirical research. This 'empirical turn' has provoked extensive debate over how such 'descriptive' research carried out in the social sciences contributes to the distinctively normative aspect of bioethics. This paper will address this issue by developing a practical research methodology for the inclusion of data from social science studies into ethical deliberation. This methodology will be based on a naturalistic conception of ethical theory that sees practice as informing theory just as theory informs practice - the two are symbiotically related. From this engagement with practice, the ways that such theories need to be extended and developed can be determined. This is a practical methodology for integrating theory and practice that can be used in empirical studies, one that uses ethical theory both to explore the data and to draw normative conclusions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. [Care between ethics, work and political].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Down to the roots, the ethics of care have stood up a "different voice". Building on Carol Gilligan's works, the concept was developed widely in opposition with the rational and universalist aspect of Kant's moral philosophy. However, it also appears that this vision of care runs counter sets the three other main dominant moral theories, ie, utilitarism, John Rawls' procedural ethics and the Aristotelian virtue ethics. We may assert that the care theory presents itself as a contextualized moral theory aiming at taking into account others' vulnerability, in a practical way. Hence, the general term of "care" may encompass the notions of "help", "support" and "healing process", which, in France, for have often been opposed for varied reasons--historical, economical, psychological, professional etc... Switching from a moral position to a professional and practical activity, the concept of care has now undeniably taken on now a social and political dimension.

  7. Science, ethics and war: a pacifist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited.

  8. Ethics in age estimation of unaccompanied minors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Kvaal, S I; Willems, G

    2012-11-30

    Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors. (2) Since most age estimation investigations are based on medical examination, the four basic principles of biomedical ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, non-malevolence, justice. (3) The use of medicine for non treatment purposes. (4) How age estimates with highest accuracy in age prediction can be obtained. Ethical practice in age estimation of unaccompanied minors is achieved when different but related aspects are searched, evaluated, weighted in importance and subsequently combined. However this is not always feasible and unanswered questions remain.

  9. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  10. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  11. Ethics in managed care.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, J A; Sharfstein, S S

    2000-06-01

    The current era of managed costs and care create ethical dilemmas based on economic constraints and incorporation of principles of distributive justice. Traditional ethical concerns related to confidentiality, conflicts of interest, double agentry, and honesty are complicated by interference in the doctor-patient relationship caused by intrusive utilization management. National health reform must take these issues seriously to ensure that the "cure" promised by such reform efforts is not worse than the disease. The challenge for psychiatrists is to adapt to these constraints without losing site of traditional medical ethical positions. Once the ethics become diseased, no cure may exist at all.

  12. Methodologies for clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Drane, J F

    1990-01-01

    Truly professional medical ethics requires a methodology that generates both moral discernment and consistently right judgments. In this article the author briefly reviews difficulties involved in ethical decision-making, the historical development of casuistry, and four ethical methodologies employed in clinical medicine today. These latter, which are outlined and compared, are as follows: the methodology developed by David Thomasma in the 1960s and 1970s; one created by Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade; another developed by the author; and the Bochum Protocol authored by Hans-Martin Sass et al. of the Bochum Center for Medical Ethics in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  13. Introducing ethics to chemistry students in a "Research Experiences for Undergraduates" (REU) program.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    A three-day ethics seminar introduced ethics to undergraduate environmental chemistry students in the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The seminar helped students become sensitive to and understand the ethical and values dimensions of their work as researchers. It utilized a variety of resources to supplement lectures and class discussion on a variety of issues. Students learned about the relevance of ethics to research, skills in moral reasoning, and the array of ethical issues facing various aspects of scientific research. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Engineering Practice and Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, William T.; Kline, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Offers ways of applying science and technology studies to the teaching of engineering ethics. Suggests modifications of both detailed case studies on engineering disasters and hypothetical, ethical dilemmas employed in engineering ethics classes. (Author/CCM)

  15. Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.

    2001-01-01

    Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

  16. How physicians face ethical difficulties: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, S; Hull, S; DuVal, G; Danis, M

    2005-01-01

    integrity of the group of people who participated in the decisions. These efforts sometimes reinforced ethical goals, such as following patients' wishes or their best interests, but they sometimes competed with them. The goals of avoiding conflict, obtaining assistance, and protecting the respondent's integrity and that of the group of decision makers could also compete with each other. Conclusion: In resolving ethical difficulties in medical practice, internists entertained competing goals that they did not always successfully achieve. Additionally, the means employed were not always the most likely to achieve those aims. Understanding these aspects of ethical decision making in medical practice is important both for physicians themselves as they struggle with ethical difficulties and for the ethics consultants who wish to help them in this process. PMID:15634746

  17. Ethics and Leadership: Integration or Disharmony

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    ethical theories and ethics in war, provides a summary of the three important ethical theories ( utilitarianism , rule- based ethical ...practical merit: utilitarianism , rule- based ethical systems, and virtue ethics . Utilitarian Ethics Utilitarian acts are defined as morally right... utilitarian ethics certainly can be applied to justify some restrictions on the conduct of warfare.23 According to this theory, the solution to

  18. Philosophy of technology and macro-ethics in engineering.

    PubMed

    Son, Wha-Chul

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to diagnose and analyze the gap between philosophy of technology and engineering ethics and to suggest bridging them in a constructive way. In the first section, I will analyze why philosophy of technology and engineering ethics have taken separate paths so far. The following section will deal with the so-called macro-approach in engineering ethics. While appreciating the initiative, I will argue that there are still certain aspects in this approach that can be improved. In the third, fourth, and fifth sections, I will point out three shortcomings of engineering ethics in terms of its macro-level discourse and argue that a number of certain insights taken from the study of philosophy of technology could be employed in overcoming those problems. In the concluding section, a final recommendation is made that topics of philosophy of technology be included in the curriculum of engineering ethics.

  19. Improving our application of the health education code of ethics.

    PubMed

    Marks, Ray; Shive, Steven E

    2006-01-01

    The Health Education Code of Ethics was designed to provide a framework of shared values within which health education might be practiced. However, an informal survey conducted on a limited sample in November 2004 indicated that ethics and how to apply the code are topics not readily taught formally within all health education programs. There is, however, an expressed interest among health educators in understanding the code and its application. Because of the immense import of ethics, affecting responsible professional conduct at all levels, this article is designed to introduce the topic to health education practitioners who have had little formal exposure to ethics curricula, as well as to faculty who would like to teach this subject. The authors specifically review several resources that might be especially helpful in fostering a better understanding of this essential but often underestimated aspect of health education practice and research, namely, its ethical application.

  20. Ethics of randomized clinical trials and the 'ALARA' approach.

    PubMed

    Zwitter, M

    1999-01-01

    A balanced discussion on the ethics of randomized clinical trials should not be based on a single ethical aspect such as respect for the patient's autonomy. Rather, the analysis should consider the four ethical principles--respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice--as applicable to all groups of persons concerned. We present the ethical benefits and costs of the present practice of randomized clinical trials for four groups: patients involved in clinical trials, patients not involved in trials, participating physicians and society. The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) approach is then introduced and practical measures to achieve a positive balance between ethical benefits and costs of randomized trials are proposed.

  1. Consensus statements on occupational therapy ethics related to driving.

    PubMed

    Slater, Deborah Yarett

    2014-04-01

    As part of an expert panel convened to examine evidence and practice related to diverse aspects of driving evaluation and rehabilitation, consensus statements were developed on ethics. This paper provides context for the ethical obligation of practitioners to assess and make recommendations about the ability of clients to safely perform the activity of driving. It highlights key articles from the literature as well as principles from the Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics and Ethics Standards (2010). The statements support the importance of identifying impairments affecting driving, which could result in harm to the client as well as to the public. The ethical and professional obligation of practitioners to evaluate, make recommendations, and possibly report and/or refer to a driver rehabilitation specialist for further services is reinforced.

  2. Supporting ethical competence of nurses during recruitment and performance reviews - the role of the nurse leader.

    PubMed

    Poikkeus, Tarja; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Katajisto, Jouko

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how nurse leaders support the ethical competence of nurses during recruitment and performance reviews. Ethical competence of nurses refers to ethical behaviour and action requiring ethical knowledge and reflection. Nurse leaders have a key role in supporting the ethical competence of nurses, but little is known about just how this should be done. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed statistically. The target sample consisted of nurse leaders (n = 198) from two university hospitals in two healthcare districts in Finland. Nurse leaders support the ethical competence of nurses more often during performance reviews than during recruitment. During recruitment, nurse leaders ensure the ethical behaviour and knowledge of nurses to varying degrees. During performance reviews, nurse leaders ensure that nurses meet the requirements for collegiality and comply with ethical guidelines and that they do so according to nursing values and principles. There seems to be a need to examine and improve support for the ethical competence of nurses, both during recruitment and performance reviews. Future priorities should include a focus on supporting the ethical knowledge, reflection and behaviour of nurses. An important aspect in terms of supporting the ethical competence of nurses has to do with the ethical knowledge and education of nurse leaders and organisational policies or recommendations for ethical support. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Ethical foundations of institutional psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Cano, N

    2006-01-01

    The idea behind this work is to have an ethical examination of the institutional psychotherapy movement which has long influenced French public psychiatry and which has progressively, since the 80s, been subject to growing doubts. In the first part, institutional psychotherapy is presented. It is a model for theoretical development and practice in psychiatric care. It came into being just following the end of the Second World War at the same time as modern medical ethics. Its principles come on the one hand, from recognition of asylums' pathogenic effects--which led to the crushing of the patient's being--and on the other, through recognition of the uniqueness of each person and the subjectivity of mental suffering. These elements gave rise to creativity within the world of medicine and, in the sector, generated the science of psychiatry which advocated for continuity in care (both inpatient and outpatient) and preventive work directed at the population. This movement called for the use of the institution in its dynamic aspect which promotes exchanges and allows patients to situate or resituate themselves in historic and symbolic dimensions. It privileges a high level of transversality, maximum communication, favouring speaking out loud and responsibility. It requires a permanent analysis of the institutional counter transference (emotional reactions of the caregivers involved, their interrelations and the social and material organization of the institution) which determines the therapeutic action itself. THEORICAL BASIS: In a second part, its theoretical foundations and its practice shall be investigated in light of the guiding concepts of medical ethics (justice, autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance). Institutional psychotherapy responds to the need for justice by considering the patient as a whole and by conceiving each patient as being like oneself despite the differences (associated with the mode of hospitalization, the social or diagnostic category). The

  4. Ethical challenges in neonatal intensive care nursing.

    PubMed

    Strandås, Maria; Fredriksen, Sven-Tore D

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal nurses report a great deal of ethical challenges in their everyday work. Seemingly trivial everyday choices nurses make are no more value-neutral than life-and-death choices. Everyday ethical challenges should also be recognized as ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to investigate which types of ethical challenges neonatal nurses experience in their day-to-day care for critically ill newborns. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews. Phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis was applied to interpret the data. Six nurses from neonatal intensive care units at two Norwegian hospitals were interviewed on-site. The study is designed to comply with Ethical Guidelines for Nursing Research in the Nordic Countries and the Helsinki declaration. Findings suggest that nurses experience a diverse range of everyday ethical challenges related to challenging interactions with parents and colleagues, emotional strain, protecting the vulnerable infant, finding the balance between sensitivity and authority, ensuring continuity of treatment, and miscommunication and professional disagreement. A major finding in this study is how different agents involved in caring for the newborn experience their realities differently. When these realities collide, ethical challenges arise. Findings suggest that acting in the best interests of the child becomes more difficult in situations involving many agents with different perceptions of reality. The study presents new aspects which increases knowledge and understanding of the reality of nursing in a neonatal intensive care unit, while also demanding increased research in this field of care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Reflections: ethics and the recombinant DNA debate.

    PubMed

    Robb, J W

    1982-01-01

    This essay is an attempt to apply a mode of ethical reflection to questions related to the recombinant DNA debate. The author suggests that adequate ethical analysis must include at least five aspects of a moral situation 1) the nature of the act itself; 2) consequences that result from an action or decision; 3) civil and criminal laws; 4) moral principles; and 5) motivation or intention. This paradigm for analysis is applied to the recombinant DNA scene, particularly as these factors relate to 1) risks vs benefits; 2) laws and regulations; 3) the marketplace; and 4) human genetic intervention. The analysis does not provide answers to these vexing questions, but attempts to raise the consciousness level of the reader concerning significant ethical issues. Undergirding the discussion is the humanistic theme of the primacy of the concern for the public good, and that freedom of inquiry can only survive in a socially conscious context. Fear of the unknown is no reason for prohibiting DNA research, but since the stakes are high as new developments emerge that pertain to the genetic restructuring of the human species, the author suggests that caution and responsible judgment are mandatory. Since ethics is concerned with ideal moral judgments, and applied ethics relates to the real world in which we function, the demand for clear and careful thought concerning the short-term and long-term consequences of our work is a primary ingredient of what it means to be responsible. In the final analysis, ethical responsibility rests on the individual; without a sense of personal integrity and what that implies about oneself and society, blatant opportunism can easily become the generally accepted mode of behavior and decision. If this occurs, traditional ethical concerns become irrelevant.

  6. What is data ethics?

    PubMed

    Floridi, Luciano; Taddeo, Mariarosaria

    2016-12-28

    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations-the interactions among hardware, software and data-rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'.

  7. What is data ethics?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations—the interactions among hardware, software and data—rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The ethical impact of data science’. PMID:28336805

  8. Crucial contextual attributes of nursing leadership towards a care ethics.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin; Stenberg, Maja

    2017-06-01

    It is of importance to understand and communicate caring ethics as a ground for qualitative caring environments. Research is needed on nursing attributes that are visible in nursing leadership since it may give bases for reflections related to the patterns of specific contexts. The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of crucial attributes in nursing leadership toward an ethical care of patients in psychiatric in-patient settings. The design of the study was descriptive and qualitative with a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Participants and research context: The study comprised focus group interviews with nurses working in indoor psychiatric care who participated after giving informed consent. Ethical considerations: Since the topic and informants are not labeled as sensitive and subject to ethical approval, it is not covered by the ethics committee's aim and purpose according to Swedish law. However, careful procedures have been followed according to ethics expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki. When identifying the thematic structures, analysis resulted in three major themes: To supply, including the following aspects: to supply evidence, to supply common space, and to supply good structures; To support, including the following aspects: to be a role model, to show appreciation and care, and to harbor; To shield, including the following aspects: to advocate, to emit non-tolerance of unethical behavior, and to reprove. Leadership is challenging for nurses and plays an important role in ethical qualitative care. These findings should not be understood as a description about nurse manager's role, which probably has different attributes and more focus on an organizational level. Making the understanding about crucial attributes explicit, the nurse may receive confirmation and recognition of crucial attributes for ethical care in order to move toward an ethical care.

  9. The task of nursing ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Melia, K M

    1994-01-01

    This paper raises the questions: 'What do we expect from nursing ethics?' and 'Is the literature of nursing ethics any different from that of medical ethics?' It is suggested that rather than develop nursing ethics as a separate field writers in nursing ethics should take a lead in making the patient the central focus of health care ethics. The case is made for empirical work in health care ethics and it is suggested that a good way of setting about this is to ask practising nurses about the real ethical problems they encounter. PMID:8035446

  10. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  11. A programme for nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Smith, S J; Davis, A J

    1985-01-01

    This article defines nursing ethics and its place within the disciplines of ethics and nursing. The current endeavours of nursing ethics are identified as: revising codes, assisting nurses to reason ethically, and establishing the nurse's role in ethical decision-making regarding ethical issues, particular clients, and society's definition of health and illness. The authors then propose the further development of nursing ethics to examine critically the ethical dimensions of nursing practice with regards to its theories, diagnostic categories, diagnostic procedures, treatment goals and treatment procedures.

  12. Legal and ethical issues in research

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Camille; Han, Nian-Lin Reena; Sng, Ban Leong

    2016-01-01

    Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Relevant original publications (The Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences/World Health Organisation International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Association of Medical Editors Recommendations on Publication Ethics Policies, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, CoSE White Paper, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use-Good Clinical Practice) form the literature that are relevant to the ethical and legal aspects of conducting research that researchers should abide by when conducting translational and clinical research. Researchers should note the major international guidelines and regional differences in legislation. Hence, specific ethical advice should be sought at local Ethics Review Committees. PMID:27729698

  13. Systems ethics and the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Clements, C D

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the current conclusions in medical ethics which have followed the 1969-1970 Medical Ethics Discontinuity, a break that challenged the Hippocratic way of thinking about ethics. The resulting dislocations in quality of care and the medical value system are discussed, and an alternative medical ethics is offered: Systems Ethics. A methodology for a Systems Ethics analysis of cases is presented and illustrated by the case of a physician-assisted suicide. The advantages, both theoretical and clinical, of a Systems Ethics approach to medicine, which is an expansion of the Hippocratic tradition in medical ethics, are developed. Using Systems Ethics, it is possible to avoid the dangers of legalism, bureaucratic ethics, utilitarian cost cutting, and "political correctness" in medical ethics.

  14. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  15. A Garden of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    2016-01-01

    Annemarie Roeper and Leta Hollingworth are the ethical bedrock of the field of gifted education. Though they never met, their legacies are intertwined. They gave us a child-centered perspective, in which ethical development plays a pivotal role. This article traces the similarities of their philosophies, exploring the life experiences that may…

  16. The Ethics behind Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    The normative elements underlying efficiency are more complex than generally portrayed and rely upon ethical frameworks that are generally absent from classroom discussions. Most textbooks, for example, ignore the ethical differences between Pareto efficiency (based on voluntary win-win outcomes) and the modern Kaldor-Hicks efficiency used in…

  17. Ethics by Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirk, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Research from the Schools of Integrity project identified openness, honesty, relationship-building, and constant rigorous reflection as key elements in schools that successfully balance academic rigor with ethical development. To translate these findings into the public school setting, the Institute for Global Ethics spoke to six secondary school…

  18. Ethics and Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    In the US, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) recommends the study of ethics so that students acquire "an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility". For the most part, teaching of the subject relies upon the use of scenarios--both hypothetical and "real"--and open discussion framed by the codes. These…

  19. Levinas: Ethics or Mystification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    The metaphysical ethics of Levinas appeals to many philosophers of education because it seems to promise ethics and social justice without recourse to moral norms, "totalising" political systems or religious belief. However, the notion that the subject can be detached from its worldly being--that one can posit a primordial metaphysical…

  20. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  1. Ethics of Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William S.

    Ethical concepts, when taught, should be operational and placed in context. Applying the operational criterion is tough enough in a single culture; however, in a course in intercultural communication, difficulties are multiplied. The teacher of an intercultural communication classroom should embrace the position that many ethical principles are…

  2. Modular Approach for Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  3. Ethics and the Nonprofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Toni; Hudspeth, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The American nonprofit sector is large, effective and influential, but with influence comes responsibility. Ethical lapses, whether real or perceived, can draw the attention of regulators and the public, leading to financial and reputational damage that can impair an organization's ability to carry out its mission. Written ethics and compliance…

  4. Ethics Commission Member's Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sue Spayth

    1988-01-01

    Presents a National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Ethics Commission member's comments and suggestions about how early childhood educators can best make sound decisions about the ethical dilemma of the welfare of the child and the confidentiality of its divorced parents. (BB)

  5. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  6. Ethics and Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    In the US, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) recommends the study of ethics so that students acquire "an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility". For the most part, teaching of the subject relies upon the use of scenarios--both hypothetical and "real"--and open discussion framed by the codes. These…

  7. Cultivating an Ethical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starratt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Often the school is left as an institution seemingly ethically neutral, leaving untouched questions about whether the school itself is a site of injustice toward both educators and children. Springing from his well-known "Building an Ethical School", Robert J. Starratt now looks more closely at the educational leader's responsibility to ensure…

  8. Ethics by Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirk, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Research from the Schools of Integrity project identified openness, honesty, relationship-building, and constant rigorous reflection as key elements in schools that successfully balance academic rigor with ethical development. To translate these findings into the public school setting, the Institute for Global Ethics spoke to six secondary school…

  9. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  10. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  11. Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  12. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

    The American Sociological Association's code of ethics for sociologists is presented. For sociological research and practice, 10 requirements for ethical behavior are identified, including: maintaining objectivity and integrity; fully reporting findings and research methods, without omission of significant data; reporting fully all sources of…

  13. Sociobiology, Dogma, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berghe, Pierre L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes ways in which sociobiology can throw some light on the study of ethics, including recognition of the fact that human behavior, culture, and ethics do not exist in a biological vacuum. Topics discussed are sociobiology as ideology, culture and genes, and enlightened self interest. For journal availability, see SO 505 653. (Author/DB)

  14. Ethics in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    The issues of ethics in the university and the role of higher education in society are addressed. Distinctions are made between legal behavior and ethical behavior, and the question of how the university needs to balance the two in order to fulfill its unique role in society while it simultaneously strives to reside and survive within it is…

  15. Is Business Ethics Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamental, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming…

  16. [Ethical dilemmas in health].

    PubMed

    Boléo-Tomé, J

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to speak of ethic dilemmas in a society that has relativism as the oficial philosophical and political doctrine, i.e., stable values and behavior references, are denied, both in health care and in any other area of human knowledge. In the field of medical sciences it is even pretended to pass from the observational methodology to a field of manipulation and manipulability. It is the very Ethic that is presented as a dilemma. In these conditions one needs to know the lines of thought that are defended, to replace and make disappear the stable ethic references: ecletism, historicism, scientificism, pragmatism, and nihilism itself, that lead to the 'new ethic paradigm', that has created by itself a pseudo-spirituality. The truth is we are adrift in the 'Ethic of Convenience' which changes according to the majorities. In this setting the way to go is to rediscover the abandoned ethic values: only with an objective ethic, with sound references and foundations, it is possible to re-establish and perfect the patient-physician relationship, for a better social health. And this begins with the ethic problem of human life.

  17. A Garden of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    2016-01-01

    Annemarie Roeper and Leta Hollingworth are the ethical bedrock of the field of gifted education. Though they never met, their legacies are intertwined. They gave us a child-centered perspective, in which ethical development plays a pivotal role. This article traces the similarities of their philosophies, exploring the life experiences that may…

  18. Ethics a la Dilbert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Ethics Challenge Game (developed by Lockheed Martin Corp. and free to educators), which is a board game based on the Dilbert comic strip character that provides realistic scenarios for discussion of ethical behavior in various business/workplace situations. Describes the game, offers comments on faculty reactions after playing the…

  19. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  20. Sociobiology, Dogma, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berghe, Pierre L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes ways in which sociobiology can throw some light on the study of ethics, including recognition of the fact that human behavior, culture, and ethics do not exist in a biological vacuum. Topics discussed are sociobiology as ideology, culture and genes, and enlightened self interest. For journal availability, see SO 505 653. (Author/DB)

  1. The Ethics behind Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    The normative elements underlying efficiency are more complex than generally portrayed and rely upon ethical frameworks that are generally absent from classroom discussions. Most textbooks, for example, ignore the ethical differences between Pareto efficiency (based on voluntary win-win outcomes) and the modern Kaldor-Hicks efficiency used in…

  2. The Ethical Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  3. Care Ethics in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Candice L.

    2003-01-01

    Difficulties with current models of ethics education (correct reasoning, virtue theory, directive moral education) include emphasis on reward/punishment and a presumptive bias toward abstract reasoning. Teaching a care-based ethics would promote a fuller notion of mature moral agents and broaden the school climate beyond compliance. (Contains 19…

  4. Brain death: recent ethical and religious considerations in Iran.

    PubMed

    Akrami, S M; Osati, Z; Zahedi, F; Raza, M

    2004-12-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran has a long history of medicine. The principles derived from core Islamic teachings provide a comprehensive moral, ethical, and legal framework for the practice of medicine. The issue of brain death has significant impact on the procurement of organs from cadavers. It is a major subject of debate and interest to bioscientists, legal experts, religious scholars, and the general public. Laws related to the ethical and legal aspects of cadaver organ donation from the brain dead have not been defined in many Muslim countries. This report presents recent advances in Iranian law with regard to the ethics of organ transplantation and the definition of brain death.

  5. Childhood obesity: a framework for policy approaches and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kersh, Rogan; Stroup, Donna F; Taylor, Wendell C

    2011-09-01

    Although obesity rates among US children have increased during the past 3 decades, effective public policies have been limited, and the quest for workable solutions raises ethical questions. To address these concerns, in 2010, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation convened an expert panel to consider approaches to the ethics problems related to interventions for childhood obesity. On the basis of recommendations from the expert panel, we propose frameworks for policy approaches and ethical aspects of interventions and evaluation. We present these frameworks in the context of other papers in this collection and make recommendations for public health practice.

  6. Myths, magic and reality in nursing ethics: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Tschudin, V

    1998-01-01

    Ethics, especially in nursing, tends to be surrounded by myths and ideas that have more in common with magic than reality. This article argues from quotes of two medieval men, Thomas Aquinas and Meister Eckhart, that ethical behaviour among nurses is not something difficult or far-fetched, but something immediate, everyday, and often very simple. The more weighty ethical dilemmas are not diminished by this. Aspects of justice, compassion and courage are discussed from the point of view of relationships with clients and colleagues, and the need for (helpful) myths is stressed.

  7. The institutional turn in professional ethics.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis F

    1999-01-01

    The traditional ideal in which professionals alone or in small groups serve their patients and clients in accord with a public-spirited goal is giving way to practice in which professionals serve in organizations that value mainly their expertise and expect them to act in accord with the organization's goals. The study of professional ethics has not kept pace with this trend and, as a result, has neglected the institutional aspects of ethical problems. I focus attention on these aspects by considering a case that raises 2 problems that are particularly relevant in the context in which professionals now practice: the problem of representation (whom does the professional act for) and the problem of authority (who has the right to make the policy for the institution).

  8. Ethics in Online Publications.

    PubMed

    Vervaart, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Journals have been publishing the results of scientific investigations since the founding of Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Since then we have witnessed a massive expansion in the number of journals to the point that there are now approximately 28,000 active, peer reviewed journals collectively publishing more than 1.8 million articles per year. Before the mid-1990s, these journals were only available on paper but by the end of the 20th century, most journals had moved to online platforms. Online publication has also served as the impetus for the move to 'open-access' to the information contained in journals. The fact that a publication is 'on-line' and 'open-access' does not negate the responsibility of the author and the publisher to publish in an ethical way. [1] The document produced by the IFCC Ethics Task Force (TF-E) on publication ethics states that 'Ethics in Science at its broadest level encompasses research ethics, medical ethics, publication ethics, conflicts of interest, ethical responsibilities as educator, plus many other areas.' Thus publication ethics is a continuum from the first step of research design through to the information being read by the reader. In general terms 'publication ethics' includes the ethical behaviour of the authors in writing and submitting a scientific manuscript to a publisher for the purpose of publication, thus any discussion of publication ethics must include the role of the authors, referees, publisher and reader and the issues of authorship (and the use of 'ghosts'), plagiarism, duplicate publication (including in different languages), image manipulation (particularly in the era of digitisation), and conflict of interest [2]. To aid the authors, and others involved in the process of publication, a number of resources are now available particularly those from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) [3] and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) [4]. More recently the issue of 'publisher ethics' has

  9. UNESCO's activities in ethics.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk A M J

    2010-03-01

    UNESCO is an intergovernmental organization with 193 Member States. It is concerned with a broad range of issues regarding education, science and culture. It is the only UN organisation with a mandate in science. Since 1993 it is addressing ethics of science and technology, with special emphasis on bioethics. One major objective of the ethics programme is the development of international normative standards. This is particularly important since many Member States only have a limited infrastructure in bioethics, lacking expertise, educational programs, bioethics committees and legal frameworks. UNESCO has recently adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The focus of current activities is now on implementation of this Declaration. Three activities are discussed that aim at improving and reinforcing the ethics infrastructure in relation to science and technology: the Global Ethics Observatory, the Ethics Education Programme and the Assisting Bioethics Committees project.

  10. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals.

  11. The varying ethical attitudes towards resuscitation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Baskett, Peter J F; Lim, Andy

    2004-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the varying attitudes in Europe towards ethical aspects of resuscitation in Europe. The ethics of resuscitation is a key discussion topic in the European Resuscitation Council Advanced Life Support (ALS) course. A questionnaire was sent to all leading ALS course directors in 20 European countries. All completed the questionnaire. The results were compiled in March 2004. Views were sought on the following ethical aspects:When not to attempt resuscitation Active euthanasia When to abandon resuscitation efforts The diagnosis of death by non physicians Permission for relatives to be with the patient during resuscitation if they wish Teaching on the recently dead Breaking bad news Results: The results reveal a considerable variation in the interpretation of ethical dilemmas within European countries. It is interesting to note that the results do not necessarily conform to traditional beliefs in the characteristic differences between Northern and Southern Europe. The Mediterranean countries do not all have the same attitudes, any more than the Nordic or Central European countries share the same views. There remains a widespread divergence of views on ethical aspects of resuscitation with the countries of Europe that are largely unpredictable according to commonly perceived national characteristics. The trend over the past 6 years is towards a more permissive attitude. For many ethical questions there can be no clear and correct didactic answers.

  12. Pharmacy ethics: evaluation pharmacists’ ethical attitude

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Pooneh Salari; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Asghari, Fariba

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in pharmacy practice from prescription dispensing to more patient-centered relationship intensifies the necessity of clinical decision-making. Pharmacists’ knowledge as well as ethical reasoning affects their clinical decision-making. Unfortunately in Iran pharmacy ethics did not develop along with medical ethics and special considerations are of major importance. The study was designed to evaluate pharmacists’ attitude toward some principles of bioethics. A cross-sectional survey was performed on a sample of Iranian pharmacists attended in continuous education programs in 2010. Based on the pharmacists’ attitude toward common ethical problems, 9 Likert-type scale scenarios were designed. A thousand pharmacists were surveyed and 505 questionnaires were filled. For the whole questionnaire the strongly disagree answer was the most ethical answer. On a scale from 1–5 on which 5=strongly disagree, the total score of pharmacists ethical attitude was 17.69 ± 3.57. For easier analysis we considered the score of 1 for agree and strongly agree answers, score of 2 for neutral answers and score of 3 for disagree and strongly disagree answers. The total score in confidentiality for all participants was 4.15 ± 1.45 out of 9, in autonomy 6.25 ± 1.85 out of 9, in non-maleficence 5.14 ± 1.17 out of 6 and in justice was 2.27 ± 0.89 out of 3, however there was no significant difference between men and women in the total score and the score of each theme. The older participants (> 40 years) significantly had lower total score (P< 0.05) as well as the score of each theme (P< 0.05), except for non-maleficence. The work experience showed impact on the pharmacists’ attitude toward autonomy and the participants with more than 5 years work experience significantly obtained lower score in this theme. Compiling ethical guidelines and improving pharmacy ethics curriculum is highly critical to provide the best pharmaceutical care and to make clinical decisions in

  13. Pharmacy ethics: evaluation pharmacists' ethical attitude.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Pooneh Salari; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Asghari, Fariba

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in pharmacy practice from prescription dispensing to more patient-centered relationship intensifies the necessity of clinical decision-making. Pharmacists' knowledge as well as ethical reasoning affects their clinical decision-making. Unfortunately in Iran pharmacy ethics did not develop along with medical ethics and special considerations are of major importance. The study was designed to evaluate pharmacists' attitude toward some principles of bioethics. A cross-sectional survey was performed on a sample of Iranian pharmacists attended in continuous education programs in 2010. Based on the pharmacists' attitude toward common ethical problems, 9 Likert-type scale scenarios were designed. A thousand pharmacists were surveyed and 505 questionnaires were filled. For the whole questionnaire the strongly disagree answer was the most ethical answer. On a scale from 1-5 on which 5=strongly disagree, the total score of pharmacists ethical attitude was 17.69 ± 3.57. For easier analysis we considered the score of 1 for agree and strongly agree answers, score of 2 for neutral answers and score of 3 for disagree and strongly disagree answers. The total score in confidentiality for all participants was 4.15 ± 1.45 out of 9, in autonomy 6.25 ± 1.85 out of 9, in non-maleficence 5.14 ± 1.17 out of 6 and in justice was 2.27 ± 0.89 out of 3, however there was no significant difference between men and women in the total score and the score of each theme. The older participants (> 40 years) significantly had lower total score (P< 0.05) as well as the score of each theme (P< 0.05), except for non-maleficence. The work experience showed impact on the pharmacists' attitude toward autonomy and the participants with more than 5 years work experience significantly obtained lower score in this theme. Compiling ethical guidelines and improving pharmacy ethics curriculum is highly critical to provide the best pharmaceutical care and to make clinical decisions in critical

  14. Ethical Awareness and Ethical Orientation of Turkish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…

  15. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  16. Ethics Centers' Activities and Role in Promoting Ethics in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safatly, Lise; Itani, Hiba; El-Hajj, Ali; Salem, Dania

    2017-01-01

    In modern and well-structured universities, ethics centers are playing a key role in hosting, organizing, and managing activities to enrich and guide students' ethical thinking and analysis. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the goals, activities, and administration of ethics centers, as well as their role in promoting ethical thinking…

  17. Vocational Ethics. Toward the Development of an Enabling Work Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pamela F.; Coady, William T.

    This manual is intended to provide vocational educators with a rational for teaching vocational ethics, a framework for understanding the development of an enabling work ethic, and practical suggestions for teaching vocational ethics in the classroom. The first section discusses the importance of vocational ethics as an area of inquiry focusing on…

  18. Ethical Awareness and Ethical Orientation of Turkish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…

  19. Teaching Behavioral Ethics: Overcoming the Key Impediments to Ethical Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the ethical decision-making process and why individuals fail to act ethically, the aim of this article is to explore what are seen as the key impediments to ethical behavior and their pedagogical implications. Using the ethical decision-making process proposed by Rest as an overarching framework, the article examines the…

  20. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    PubMed

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical