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Sample records for ethical dilemmas presented

  1. Learning from Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Mark D.

    1987-01-01

    Reports analysis of 60 case studies of ethical dilemmas faced by experiential educators. Identifies issues which enhance likelihood of moral dilemmas: funding, residential programming, and risk-taking. Exposes need for a professional "code of ethics." (NEC)

  2. Ethical dilemmas in pharmacy.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, W

    1988-01-01

    Results of surveys in which pharmacy students and pharmacists responded to ethical dilemmas are discussed. Respondents indicated a high level of concern about patient welfare and patient rights in dilemmas involving conflicts with socio-economic issues, and with peers and physicians. Conflicts that might arise as the roles of pharmacists change and the health-care systems evolve are also discussed. PMID:3351881

  3. Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Maria; Fischer, Jerome M.; House, Sean G.

    2003-01-01

    In a random survey of counselors working with socioracial minority clients (N=256), multicultural ethical dilemmas were rated according to frequency encountered and significance. Comparisons of counselors' ratings of multicultural ethical dilemmas determined specific dilemmas relevant to counselors in various professional settings. (Contains 33…

  4. Ethical Dilemmas in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicastro, Mary L.

    This paper presents an introduction to higher education models of ethical orientation and a series of exercises that were part of a workshop on ethics given by the Small Business Institute Directors' Association (SBIDA). Three models of ethical orientation include a self-interest orientation, with the professor solely concerned with his…

  5. Ethical Dilemmas for School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denig, Stephen J.; Quinn, Terrence

    2001-01-01

    Schools are ethical organizations. The daily schedule of educational administrators is filled with ethical dilemmas and moral decisions. As reflective practitioners, school leaders know that the decisions that are made and the values that underlie those decisions are filled with moral implications for the entire school community. In this paper,…

  6. Conflict resolution strategies: when ethical dilemmas evolve into conflict.

    PubMed

    Broom, C

    1991-01-01

    In critical care, ethical dilemmas arise when all duties, rights, and goals cannot be satisfied by the alternatives that are available. Conflicts evolve from ethical dilemmas due to differences in how nurses, physicians, administrators, and patients or families who are involved in a clinical situation assign priorities or interpret roles and responsibilities. This author presents strategies for critical care nurses to use to resolve conflicts that arise in relation to ethical dilemmas.

  7. Ethical dilemmas in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Carol A; McDonald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Veterinarians frequently encounter situations that are morally charged and potentially difficult to manage. Situation involving euthanasia, end-of-life care, economics, and inadequate provision of care create practical and moral dilemmas. Ethical tension may be attributable to differences in beliefs regarding the moral value of animals, client and veterinary responsibilities, and deciding what is best for an animal. Veterinarians can employ communication skills used in medical situations to explore the reasons underpinning ethical dilemmas and to search for solutions with clients, staff, and colleagues. PMID:17162119

  8. Ethical dilemmas in clerkship rotations.

    PubMed

    Myers, Michael F; Herb, Alice

    2013-11-01

    A sound clinical education should include the opportunity for medical students to engage in a spirited and informed discussion with faculty about the ethical challenges they will undoubtedly face. Unfortunately, in many medical schools today this goal is thwarted by many factors, including denial that a problem exists, relentless system overload, unprofessional behavior, breakdown in communication, and inertia. What is worse is that this problem is not new, and the fallout is not insignificant. Another potential contributing factor is burnout, which is well documented in a high percentage of medical students, residents, and faculty, and two of its most serious consequences are patient dissatisfaction and medical error.The authors draw on hundreds of student reflections on ethical dilemmas submitted during classroom exercises to examine persistent themes. They posit that classroom and didactic teaching is not enough to enable students to face ethical dilemmas. The authors call for a major culture change in medical education: "buy in" from top administration, especially the dean (and associate/assistant deans), chairs of all departments, and clerkship and residency training directors; the appointing of an ombudsperson and/or ethicist to oversee and resolve issues as they arise; instructional workshops and materials to enhance and impart skills for all teachers; remediation or retiring of errant faculty; and ongoing research and dialogue between and among medical centers about novel solutions. PMID:24072128

  9. Thinking About Ethical Dilemmas in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Pharmacy students and pharmacists surveyed on ethical dilemmas in pharmacy practice indicated a high degree of concern over patient welfare. The major area of disagreements was on economic concerns. The ethical dilemmas in pharmacy practice survey is appended. (Author/MLW)

  10. Ethical Dilemmas: A Model to Understand Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Millwater, Jan; Cranston, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values-laden. Because of this, teachers face ethical dilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision-making model that helps to explain…

  11. A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Suzie

    2006-04-01

    Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems.

  12. A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Suzie

    2006-04-01

    Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems. PMID:16556920

  13. Teachers' Ethical Dilemmas: What Would You Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholz, Jessica L.; Keller, Cassandra L.; Brady, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Educators will face a variety of ethical and moral dilemmas throughout their teaching careers; however, they do not have a common board that governs its members' ethical behavior. Instead, there are numerous educational organizations that have written their own specific codes for ethical behavior. The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) has…

  14. Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, A; Van Audenhove, C

    2005-08-01

    Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care is the focus of this article. The dilemmas are derived from a discussion of the results of a qualitative research project that took place in five countries of the European Union. The different stakeholders are confronted with the following dilemmas: community care versus hospital care (clients); a life with care versus a life without care (informal carers); stimulation of the client toward greater responsibility versus protection against such responsibility (professionals); budgetary control versus financial incentives (policy makers), and respect for the client versus particular private needs (neighbourhood residents). These dilemmas are interpreted against the background of a value based ethical model. This model offers an integral approach to the dilemmas and can be used to determine policy. The dilemmas are discussed here as the result of conflicting values-namely autonomy and privacy, support and safety, justice and participation, and trust and solidarity.

  15. Refusal of treatment: an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kraft, M R

    1999-03-01

    When a patient with a new spinal cord injury (SCI) refuses all care, the treatment team struggles with an ethical dilemma. The issues of patients' rights and autonomy are in conflict with the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. Thomasma (1978) recommended a model useful in addressing situations in which values are in conflict. This model for an ethical workup is applied retrospectively to review a specific clinical case. The need to recognize and respect as many ethical principles as possible is identified as useful in reaching some acceptable resolution of an ethical dilemma. PMID:10347538

  16. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  17. Grades and Graduation: An Ethical Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmonowicz, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This case was written for use in courses dealing with school administration, philosophy of education, or ethics in educational leadership. It deals with the ethical dilemma of an assistant principal at a low-performing, urban high school. Caught between a principal and a teacher who have different views on plagiarism, the assistant principal must…

  18. Ethical dilemmas in workplace health promotion.

    PubMed

    Allegrante, J P; Sloan, R P

    1986-05-01

    In less than a decade, workplace health promotion programs designed to promote employee health and help reduce the high cost of health insurance premiums paid by business and industry have proliferated. Notwithstanding the latent benefits and cost savings that corporate management expects to gain from the investment in such programs, it is argued that workplace health promotion is not without potential misuse and that its goals and methods ought not to be above ethical scrutiny. Drawing on earlier work, we discuss how workplace health promotion may pose ethical problems related to social justice, protection of privacy, and social control. The attendant moral dilemmas for the professional whose responsibility it is to develop and implement such programs are also presented.

  19. Designing and Introducing Ethical Dilemmas into Computer-Based Business Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…

  20. Ethical dilemma: voluntarily stopping eating and drinking.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Cynthia Kellam; Godkin, Jennie; Robinson, Ruthie

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional support is an ethical/legal dilemma that healthcare providers must face when dealing with the elderly population of patients in critical care units. As nurses we have the responsibility to consider the issues concerning this topic. The debate concerning the issue of nutritional support, implications to terminate treatment, and fears concerning liability have shifted the decision-making process from the intensive care bedside to the courtroom. Hence, nurses must face this dilemma daily. This article utilizes a case study approach, explores legal issues, discusses ethical guidelines, and identifies techniques for conflict resolution. PMID:14734899

  1. Dilemmas of Educational Ethics: Cases and Commentaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira, Ed.; Fay, Jacob, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Educators and policy makers confront challenging questions of ethics, justice, and equity on a regular basis. Should teachers retain a struggling student if it means she will most certainly drop out? Should an assignment plan favor middle-class families if it means strengthening the school system for all? These everyday dilemmas are both utterly…

  2. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Rushworth M.; Born, Patricia L.

    1999-01-01

    Ethical teaching dilemmas generally fit four patterns: individual versus community, truth versus loyalty, short-term versus long-term, and justice versus mercy. Research discloses five core shared values: compassion, honesty, fairness, responsibility, and respect. When choosing among end-, rule-, and care-based resolution approaches, teachers'…

  3. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  4. The analysis and resolution of ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps no other field of medicine illustrates the ethical dilemmas occasioned by the explosion of technology more than neurology. Many dilemmas which at first appear to be ethical, however, are actually biotechnical, informational, or interpersonal in nature. For those which are, indeed, ethical, a review of existing information and acquisition of additional data can often serve to identify the proper response. When the optimal course of action remains unclear, the comprehensive, structured approach described in this chapter is both philosophically rigorous and clinically relevant. It takes into account a variety of critical considerations - including rights, duties, consequences, virtues, and similar cases - while utilizing both inductive and deductive methods. The end result is the "least bad" of available options, or, at the very least, a practical response which preserves future options and avoids crucial mistakes.

  5. Ethical Dilemmas Associated with Self-Disclosure in Student Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…

  6. Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching and Nursing: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2010-01-01

    This article explores a cross-occupational approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas by comparing teaching and nursing. Findings indicate more shared patterns of ethical dilemmas (such as caring for needs for others versus following formal codes) than dilemmas specific to teaching (e.g., advancing universal values versus advancing knowledge) or…

  7. Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Results of a survey asking public school counselors in Virginia to indicate their most common and most challenging ethical dilemmas are presented. Ninety-two school counselors reported that the most common and challenging ethical dilemmas included those involving student confidentiality, dual relationship with faculty, parental rights, and acting…

  8. Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

  9. Moral Dilemmas and the Concept of Value in Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the consideration of value is necessary to understand moral dilemmas in engineering ethics. First, the author shows that moral dilemmas are not fully understood in engineering ethics and argues that it is due to the lack of understanding of value. Second, the author considers the concept of value from the viewpoint of ‘desirability’ . Finally, three suggestions for improving engineering ethics in the understanding of moral dilemmas are made.

  10. Ethical dilemmas in journal publication.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Olubukola; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2012-01-01

    Physicians often face tremendous pressures and incentives to publish, sometimes leading to a compromise of ethical standards, either consciously or unconsciously. From the vantage of ethical authorship, we discuss what constitutes authorship; avoidance of ghost authorship; plagiarism, as well as self-plagiarism and duplicate publication; falsification; and fabrication. Editors also face ethical challenges, including how best to manage peer-review bias, to address reviewer tardiness, and to locate reviewers with appropriate expertise and professionalism. Editors need to deal with authors who fragment their work into multiple publications to enhance their curriculum vitae ("salami factor"), as well as to manage the financial benefits of advertising and to avoid conflicts of interest for the journal. Both authors and editors should be straightforward and principled throughout the publication process.

  11. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas Using the "Drifting Goals" Archetype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardoel, E. Anne; Haslett, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the system archetype "drifting goals" can be used in the classroom to explore ethical dilemmas. System archetypes provide a framework that shifts the focus from seeing ethical dilemmas as stemming solely from the acts of individuals to exploring the systemic structures that are responsible for generic patterns of…

  12. An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

    This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

  13. Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Michelann

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

  14. School District Superintendents' Response to Ethical Dilemmas: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouse, Fay Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas, situations involving a conflict between values or principles, often arise when employees of school districts violate laws or professional codes of behavior. Ethical dilemmas also occur when there are inequities in educational programming, resulting in missed opportunities for students. This qualitative study, conducted with the…

  15. Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

  16. Ethical and Value Dilemmas in Urban Management Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Theodore H.

    This module represents one portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. It focuses on the issue of ethics in urban management performance and is designed to demonstrate that ethical dilemmas are a personal, complex, everyday managerial problem, and to enlarge the range of ethical options…

  17. Ethical Dilemmas of Swedish School Leaders: Contrasts and Common Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Katarina; Johansson, Olof

    2007-01-01

    Being a skillful school leader presumes the competence to judge the ethical consequences of actions. This implies a need for all school agents to discover and analyze what values are at stake and, in turn, reconcile didactic rationality with ethical rationality. This article aims to explore ethical dilemmas in daily school practice, experienced…

  18. Ethical and legal dilemmas around termination of pregnancy for severe fetal anomalies: A review of two African neonates presenting with ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Chima, S C; Mamdoo, F

    2015-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, these technologies remain scarce in many African countries making diagnosis and counseling regarding TOP difficult. Ethical dilemmas such as women's autonomy rights may conflict with fetus' right to personhood, and doctor's moral obligations to society. In liberal jurisdictions, previable fetuses may not have legal rights of personhood; therefore, appropriate action would be to respect pregnant women's decisions regarding TOP. However, in countries with restrictive abortion laws the fetus maybe imbued with the right of personhood at conception, making TOP illegal and exposing doctors and patients to potential criminal prosecution. Birth of a severely disabled baby with independent legal rights creates further conflicts between parents and clinicians complicating healthcare decision-making. Irrespective of the maternal decision to accept or refuse TOP, the psychological and emotional impact of an impaired fetus or neonate, often lead to moral distress and posttraumatic stress reactions in parents. Doctors have legal and ethical obligations to provide an accurate antenatal diagnosis with full disclosure to enable informed decision making. Failure to provide timely or accurate diagnosis may lead to allegations of negligence with potential liability for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful life" following birth of severely disabled babies. Mismanagement of such cases also causes misuse of scarce healthcare resources in resource-poor countries. This paper describes ethical challenges in clinical management of two neonates born following declined and failed feticide for severe central nervous system anomalies with a critical appraisal of the relevant literature

  19. Ethical and legal dilemmas around termination of pregnancy for severe fetal anomalies: A review of two African neonates presenting with ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Chima, S C; Mamdoo, F

    2015-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, these technologies remain scarce in many African countries making diagnosis and counseling regarding TOP difficult. Ethical dilemmas such as women's autonomy rights may conflict with fetus' right to personhood, and doctor's moral obligations to society. In liberal jurisdictions, previable fetuses may not have legal rights of personhood; therefore, appropriate action would be to respect pregnant women's decisions regarding TOP. However, in countries with restrictive abortion laws the fetus maybe imbued with the right of personhood at conception, making TOP illegal and exposing doctors and patients to potential criminal prosecution. Birth of a severely disabled baby with independent legal rights creates further conflicts between parents and clinicians complicating healthcare decision-making. Irrespective of the maternal decision to accept or refuse TOP, the psychological and emotional impact of an impaired fetus or neonate, often lead to moral distress and posttraumatic stress reactions in parents. Doctors have legal and ethical obligations to provide an accurate antenatal diagnosis with full disclosure to enable informed decision making. Failure to provide timely or accurate diagnosis may lead to allegations of negligence with potential liability for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful life" following birth of severely disabled babies. Mismanagement of such cases also causes misuse of scarce healthcare resources in resource-poor countries. This paper describes ethical challenges in clinical management of two neonates born following declined and failed feticide for severe central nervous system anomalies with a critical appraisal of the relevant literature.

  20. Palliative and End-of-Life Ethical Dilemmas in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Debra L; MacMillan, Julia; dos Santos, Maiara Rogrigues; Bousso, Regina Szylit

    2015-01-01

    Critical care nurses and advanced practice registered nurses frequently face bioethical dilemmas in clinical practice that are related to palliative and end-of-life care. Many of these dilemmas are associated with decisions made concerning continuing, limiting, or withdrawing life-sustaining treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe common ethical challenges through case study presentations and discuss approaches that critical care nurses and advanced practice registered nurses in collaboration with the interdisciplinary team can use to address these challenges. Resources that may be helpful in managing ethical dilemmas are identified.

  1. Pharmaceutical gift giving: analysis of an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Stokamer, Charlene L

    2003-01-01

    When pharmaceutical companies market their products to, and through, healthcare professionals in hospitals and private practice, healthcare professionals face ethical dilemmas in their practice and their organizations. Pharmaceutical companies target nurse practitioners with prescribing privileges. The author describes the ethical dilemma faced by healthcare professionals when friendly salespeople offer tempting gifts. The article outlines cultural responses to gift giving and ethical issues surrounding healthcare professionals' responses to pharmaceutical marketing strategies. Nurse administrators need to acknowledge a growing threat to nursing integrity. Nurse administrators have the power to make and enforce ethical policies that prevent proprietary influences from clouding nursing judgment and contributing to the escalating costs of prescription medications.

  2. Ethical Leadership and Moral Literacy: Incorporating Ethical Dilemmas in a Case-­Based Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M.; Jenlink, Karen Embry

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine an ethical dilemma approach to case-based pedagogy for leadership preparation, which was used in a doctoral studies program. Specifically, the authors argue that preparing educational leaders for the ethical dilemmas and moral decision-making that define schools requires assessing current programs and pedagogical…

  3. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population. PMID:25185872

  4. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  5. "Living" Ethical Dilemmas for Researchers When Researching with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortari, Luigina; Harcourt, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore some of the ethical dilemmas that confront researchers when they seek to invite children's participation in research. It firstly tracks the historical landscape of ethical research and will examine the influence of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on participatory research with children.…

  6. "Bringing the Message Forward": Using Poetic Re-Presentation to Solve Research Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Researchers cannot always rely on traditional methods for solving research dilemmas. In a research project that explored the friendships and social relationships of four students with severe disabilities in four secondary schools in New Zealand, the author uses poetic re-presentation to solve several ethical and pragmatic research dilemmas. Within…

  7. Prolonging life: legal, ethical, and social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z

    2014-11-01

    The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.

  8. Prolonging life: legal, ethical, and social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z

    2014-11-01

    The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. PMID:25079490

  9. Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B.; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K.; da Cunha, André Campos; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family. PMID:24142323

  10. Commentary: The forensic report--an inevitable nexus for resolving ethics dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped.

  11. Commentary: The forensic report--an inevitable nexus for resolving ethics dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped. PMID:24051589

  12. Ethical Fairy Tales: Using Fairy Tales as Illustrative Ethical Dilemmas with Counseling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Kathryn L.; Malone, Stefanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…

  13. Ethical dilemmas in the biology undergraduate classroom: role-playing congressional testimony.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2014-12-01

    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience. PMID:25574284

  14. Ethical dilemmas in the biology undergraduate classroom: role-playing congressional testimony.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2014-12-01

    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience.

  15. Levinas's ethics as a basis of healthcare - challenges and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nordtug, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or the Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use

  16. Levinas's ethics as a basis of healthcare - challenges and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nordtug, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or the Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use

  17. A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, P

    2003-10-01

    Most moral dilemmas in medicine are analysed using the four principles with some consideration of consequentialism but these frameworks have limitations. It is not always clear how to judge which consequences are best. When principles conflict it is not always easy to decide which should dominate. They also do not take account of the importance of the emotional element of human experience. Virtue ethics is a framework that focuses on the character of the moral agent rather than the rightness of an action. In considering the relationships, emotional sensitivities, and motivations that are unique to human society it provides a fuller ethical analysis and encourages more flexible and creative solutions than principlism or consequentialism alone. Two different moral dilemmas are analysed using virtue ethics in order to illustrate how it can enhance our approach to ethics in medicine.

  18. Inclusivity and Moral Technology: Ethical Dilemmas in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Marnie

    1999-01-01

    Explores inclusive education and moral technology issues in the (Australian) English curriculum. Highlights issues of cultural diversity, culturally critical orientations to text in the postmodern classroom, and English teachers' ethical dilemmas when developing an inclusive curriculum. Discusses adolescents' reactions to short fiction collected…

  19. Ethical Dilemmas: The "Bread and Butter" of Educational Leaders' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Kimber, Megan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious…

  20. Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

  1. Teachers' Critical Incidents: Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore ethical dilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…

  2. The ethical dilemmas of aesthetic medicine: what every provider should consider.

    PubMed

    Spear, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of aesthetic medicine is embellishment and enhancement. As these procedures are elective in nature, media messages and misleading advertisements do influence those consumers seeking to improve or enhance their appearance. The role of provider demands that prudent guide these treatment options and not only succumb to patient demands. This article discusses the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and presents a framework to guide practice to enhance resolution of ethical dilemmas confronting the provider of aesthetic medicine.

  3. [Facing new ethical challenges and dilemmas].

    PubMed

    Belicza, B

    1997-01-01

    Considering the present health policy, health service and health care systems, health condition and health demands of the people, proclaimed priorities in biomedical scientific research in the Republic of Croatia, and expected health and disease status in the first decades of the 21st century, the author raises the question of sensitization of the Croatian physicians and the public to new ethical challenges. These questions are arousing attention in the world and Europe as one of the peculiarities mankind is facing in the midst of new scientific, technical and informatic possibilities, at the same time in the context of global impoverishment and restricted public funds, with existing or expected changes in the demographic structure and the life philosophy system of values. In democratic, pluralistic societies, the dimension of human rights is getting increasingly pronounced. This is reflected in the postulation of international, national or professional bioethical standards related to biomedical research, in the emphasis on the indisputable public right to actively make decisions by consensus mechanisms about goals, priorities and limits of individual and collective health care programmes, forms and levels of medical care in the national health service and obligatory health insurance system, as well as about ethical aspects of the relation doctor-patient, at the boundary of the interactions of doctor-patient-profession-individual-community-society relationships.

  4. Some ethical dilemmas faced by Jewish doctors during the Holocaust.

    PubMed

    Chelouche, Tessa

    2005-12-01

    The discourse on physicians and ethics in the Nazi regime usually refers to the violation of medical ethics by Nazi doctors who as a guild and as individuals applied their professional knowledge, training and status in order to facilitate murder and medical "experimentation". In the introduction to this article I will give a brief outline of this vast subject. In the main article I wish to bear witness to the Jewish physicians in the ghettos and the camps who tried to the best of their ability to apply their professional training according to ethical principles in order to prolong life as best as they could, despite being forced to exist and work under the most appalling conditions. These prisoner doctors were faced with impossible existential, ethical and moral dilemmas that they had not encountered beforehand. This paper addresses some of these ethical quandaries that these prisoner doctors had to deal with in trying to help their patients despite the extreme situations they found themselves in. This is an overview of some of these ethical predicaments and does not delve into each one separately for lack of space, but rather gives the reader food for thought. Each dilemma discussed deserves an analysis of its own in the context of professionalism and medical ethics today.

  5. Ethical dilemmas for physicians in time of war.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Fred

    2010-03-01

    During times of war, physicians are sometimes faced with the conflict of their professional duties to ensure the ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, patient autonomy, and self-determination, within the framework of the proper ethical conduct in the practice of medicine, and the obligation and duties placed upon the physician by the state in times of war. Many ethical dilemmas may occur for the physician on the battlefield or elsewhere in the war region, including the treatment of detainees and the priority of treating wounded enemy soldiers or civilians first. When physicians are faced with a conflict between following state or national policies and following international principles of humanitarian law and medical ethics, the physician should opt for the latter. Physicians should not participate in any way in human rights abuses of detainees or prisoners when deployed in a war zone. Physicians must maintain the principles and standards and ethical considerations of their noble profession at all times.

  6. The Genetic Counselor's Role in Managing Ethical Dilemmas Arising in the Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Balcom, Jessica R; Kotzer, Katrina E; Waltman, Lindsey A; Kemppainen, Jennifer L; Thomas, Brittany C

    2016-10-01

    Ethical dilemmas are encountered commonly in the setting of the clinical genetic testing laboratory due to the complexity of genetic testing and the number of relevant stakeholders involved in the genetic testing process. Based on their clinical training and role within the laboratory, genetic counselors are uniquely equipped to identify and facilitate management of ethical dilemmas. This paper reviews the historical context of ethical theory and its application to the field of genetic counseling. Theoretical and applied ethics are explored in the context of dilemmas arising in the laboratory setting, with a focus on the role of the laboratory genetic counselor in managing ethical dilemmas. Two illustrative case examples are provided. PMID:27103422

  7. The Genetic Counselor's Role in Managing Ethical Dilemmas Arising in the Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Balcom, Jessica R; Kotzer, Katrina E; Waltman, Lindsey A; Kemppainen, Jennifer L; Thomas, Brittany C

    2016-10-01

    Ethical dilemmas are encountered commonly in the setting of the clinical genetic testing laboratory due to the complexity of genetic testing and the number of relevant stakeholders involved in the genetic testing process. Based on their clinical training and role within the laboratory, genetic counselors are uniquely equipped to identify and facilitate management of ethical dilemmas. This paper reviews the historical context of ethical theory and its application to the field of genetic counseling. Theoretical and applied ethics are explored in the context of dilemmas arising in the laboratory setting, with a focus on the role of the laboratory genetic counselor in managing ethical dilemmas. Two illustrative case examples are provided.

  8. 77 FR 67380 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Ethical Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation Service: A Survey SUMMARY: Under the... Collection: Title: Ethical Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation Service: A... practices over the past year, and assess their experiences, if any, with their hospital...

  9. [Ethical dilemmas in public health care organizations].

    PubMed

    Pereda Vicandi, M

    2014-01-01

    Today you can ask if you can apply ethics to organizations because much of the greater overall impact decisions are not made by private individuals, are decided by organizations. Any organization is legitimate because it satisfies a need of society and this legitimacy depends if the organization does with quality. To offer a good service, quality service, organizations know they need to do well, but seem to forget that should do well not only instrumental level, must also make good on the ethical level. Public health care organizations claim to promote attitudes and actions based on ethics, level of their internal functioning and level of achievement of its goals, but increased awareness and analysis of its inner workings can question it. Such entities, for its structure and procedures, may make it difficult for ethical standards actually govern its operation, also can have negative ethical consequences at the population level. A healthcare organization must not be organized, either structurally or functionally, like any other organization that offers services. In addition, members of the organization can not simply be passive actors. It is necessary that operators and users have more pro-ethical behaviors. Operators from the professionalism and users from liability.

  10. [Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Schneider, Dulcinéia Ghizoni; Schneider, Nadir; dos Santos, Alessandra Ceci; Leal, Sandra Maria Cezar

    2013-03-01

    A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER) in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.

  11. Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the 'dual-use dilemma'. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research. PMID:19784453

  12. The treatability requirement in psychopathy: a new ethical dilemma?

    PubMed

    Millard, D W

    1984-06-01

    The Mental Health Act 1983 for England and Wales includes a treatability requirement, first introduced in the Mental Health (Amendment) Act 1982, that outlaws compulsory admission of a patient for treatment of "psychopathic disorder or mental impairment" unless "such treatment is likely to alleviate or prevent a deterioration of his condition." The author contends that this requirement raises a new ethical dilemma for psychiatry because of the uncertainty associated with predicting the outcome of psychopathic disorder.

  13. Multicentric Osteoid Osteoma Presenting a Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Bush, Lisabeth A; Gayle, Robert B; Berkey, Bryan D

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a relatively common benign tumor that was a diagnostic dilemma because of its atypical appearance in multiple imaging modalities. Our patient was a 22-year-old man who presented with complaint of three months of shin pain with running. The radiographically demonstrated sclerotic lesion in his right tibia initially was thought most likely to be a stress fracture, but on further evaluation, it had features that suggested a subacute osteomyelitis or Brodie's abscess with focal sequestra. It was in fact, biopsy proven to be an osteoid osteoma with multiple, closely adjacent nidi. Its elongate, multicentric, "string of beads" arrangement as well as its intramedullary location is uncommon and it was larger than normally expected. Because of the unusual presentation and appearance of this lesion it caused a diagnostic dilemma. This lesion was evaluated with a full spectrum of modalities including radiographs, CT, MRI, Technetium 99m-MDP bone scan and Indium-111 white blood cell scan. After biopsy achieved a definite diagnosis, this tumor was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation of all nidi in one session.

  14. Ethical dilemmas in forensic psychiatry: two illustrative cases

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Piyal; Gordon, Harvey; Adshead, Gwen; Irons, Ashley

    2007-01-01

    One approach to the analysis of ethical dilemmas in medical practice uses the “four principles plus scope” approach. These principles are: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non‐maleficence and justice, along with concern for their scope of application. However, conflicts between the different principles are commonplace in psychiatric practice, especially in forensic psychiatry, where duties to patients often conflict with duties to third parties such as the public. This article seeks to highlight some of the specific ethical dilemmas encountered in forensic psychiatry: the excessive use of segregation for the protection of others, the ethics of using mechanical restraint when clinically beneficial and the use of physical treatment without consent. We argue that justice, as a principle, should be paramount in forensic psychiatry, and that there is a need for a more specific code of ethics to cover specialised areas of medicine like forensic psychiatry. This code should specify that in cases of conflict between different principles, justice should gain precedence over the other principles. PMID:17526683

  15. Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Melinda

    Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

  16. A Survey of Current and Projected Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Michael T.; Cartwright, Brenda Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study surveyed current and projected ethical dilemmas of rehabilitation counselors. Method: As a mixed-methods approach, the study used both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results: Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 116 (55.0%) reported an ethical dilemma. Based on the descriptions, common themes involved roles…

  17. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  18. Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the “dual-use dilemma”. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research. PMID:19784453

  19. Ethical and legal dilemmas arising during predictive testing for adult-onset disease: the experience of Huntington disease.

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, M; Bloch, M; Kanani, S; Quarrell, O W; Theilman, J; Hedrick, A; Dickens, B; Lynch, A; Hayden, M

    1990-01-01

    The goal of predictive testing is to modify the risk for currently healthy individuals to develop a genetic disease in the future. Such testing using polymorphic DNA markers has had major application in Huntington disease. The Canadian Collaborative Study of Predictive Testing for Huntington Disease has been guided by major principles of medical ethics, including autonomy, beneficence, confidentiality, and justice. Numerous ethical and legal dilemmas have arisen in this program, challenging these principles and occasionally casting them into conflict. The present report describes these dilemmas and offers our approach to resolving them. These issues will have relevance to predictive-testing programs for other adult-onset disorders. PMID:1971997

  20. Ethical dilemmas in general hospitals: social workers' contribution to ethical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Landau, R

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-two hospital social workers, fourteen of them directors of social work services and eighteen direct practitioners, were interviewed about their perception of the factors influencing social workers' contribution to the resolution of ethical dilemmas in general hospitals in Israel. Findings revealed that while ethical decision-making in hospitals is an interdisciplinary process, social workers' contribution to the process is affected by rivalry between social workers and other members of the health team, personality differences, type of ward and the nature of the ethical dilemma. Participants of the study had quite a clear perception of their role and of the unique knowledge-base social work can offer, including knowledge of the individual and family life course, understanding and skills in coping with diseases, and systems thinking. In order to increase their influence in ethical decision-making, the hospital social workers felt they must put more effort into developing their relationships with the other professionals involved in ethical decision-making both by making themselves more indispensable and by making their contribution explicit through greater documentation of their activities. The findings also implied that in order to gain more power and be accepted as equal partners in multidisciplinary teams, hospital social workers should improve their communication skills when interacting with representatives of other heath care professions.

  1. Ethical dilemmas in today's nuclear medicine and radiology practice.

    PubMed

    Barron, Bruce J; Kim, E Edmund

    2003-11-01

    Throughout history, societies have developed their own codes of ethics, including those pertaining to the practice of medicine. In the United States, physicians have adopted a set of ethics based on religious values and historical teachings. We, as physicians, have been presented several codes of ethics, including the American Medical Association Code of Ethics and the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics. Over time, we have learned to appropriately apply these codes to our daily practice. With the advent of new technologies in imaging, we may lose sight as to the transfer of these principles to reflect current conditions. Recent history has shown a trend of new technology leading to potential misuse of this technology and further leading to stricter governmental regulations. It is the purpose of this review to give guidelines for dealing with new technologies, such as PET imaging, and we describe a radiologist's ethical responsibility in a doctor-patient relationship. A historical review of medical ethics will lead to discussions about various issues affecting radiologists and nuclear physicians. To be sure, not all ethical situations are black and white, and therefore there are many gray areas. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and are based on extension of already established rules of ethical conduct.

  2. Subtle ethical dilemmas in geriatric management and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Rosin, A J; van Dijk, Y

    2005-06-01

    Routine management of geriatric problems often raises ethical problems, particularly regarding autonomy of the old person. The carers or children may be unaware of the sensitivity of role reversal in dealing with the financial affairs; the need for a residential carer may compromise the old person's privacy. Attending a day centre confers much benefit, but one must understand the old person's resistance to change in the proposal of a new daily regimen. Similarly his or her autonomy must be the priority in planning for admittance to an old age home, and not the assumption that the family knows best. A common dilemma is the assessment of an old person's competency in decision making, either about management of his affairs, or regarding consent to treatment, or participation in research. Because cognitive capacity is not always identical with competency, meaningful tools have recently been developed in which the emphasis is on the specific situation to be investigated. PMID:15923486

  3. Ethical and Clinical Dilemmas in Using Psychotropic Medications During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kalfoglou, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 15 percent of women experience depression while pregnant or in the year following pregnancy. While antidepressants are usually effective and considered standard treatment for depression, concerns arise that what might be good for mom could be harmful for the baby. Medical evidence demonstrates that, on balance, treating mental illness with psychotropic medication along with talk therapy is in the best interest of both mother and baby; however, women may resist treatment because they overestimate the risks of medication and underestimate the risks of untreated mental illness. Clinicians can help address this perceived ethical dilemma and provide optimum care to their pregnant patients by collaborating with their patients on a treatment plan, informing them about the risks of untreated mental illness, and providing reassurance that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and many other psychotropic medications are appropriate care even if a woman is pregnant or breastfeeding. PMID:27322995

  4. Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Psychological Counsellors Working at Different Institutions and Their Attitudes and Behaviours as a Response to These Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolay Akfert, Serpil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ethical dilemmas experiencing by the counsellors who work at different conditions and what they do to solve these dilemmas as well as the obstacles they have to deal with while resolving the dilemmas. This is a qualitative study in which multi-state pattern was used. For this research, 40 counsellors…

  5. Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

  6. Resolving the ethical dilemma of nurse managers over chemically-dependent colleagues.

    PubMed

    Chiu, W; Wilson, D

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the nurse manager's role regarding chemically-dependent nurses in the workplace. The manager may intervene by: terminating the contract of the impaired colleague; notifying a disciplinary committee; consulting with a counselling committee; or referring the impaired nurse to an employee assistance programme. A dilemma may arise about which of these interventions is ethically the best. The ethical theories relevant to nursing involve ethical relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, Kohlberg's justice, and Gilligan's ethic of care. Nurse managers first need to understand these theories in order to clarify their own perceptions and attitudes towards chemical dependency, and then satisfactorily resolve this ethical dilemma. Education and social learning are routes to a better understanding of chemical dependency and to broadening the ethical dimensions of nurse managers.

  7. Comparing Two Training Strategies to Increase Competence in Solving Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jorge; Froehlic, Robert; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rejiester, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study examined which of two training models delivered through the internet led to better cultural competence in resolving ethical dilemmas with a sample of rehabilitation professionals. One type of training involved teaching a transcultural integrative model of ethical decision-making while the other training involved using the same…

  8. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  9. The Changes of Ethical Dilemmas in Palliative Care. A Lesson Learned from Comparison Between 1998 and 2013 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chih, An-Hsuan; Su, Peijen; Hu, Wen-Yu; Yao, Chien-An; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Lin, Yen-Chun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The current ethical dilemmas met by healthcare professionals were never compared with those 15 years ago when the palliative care system was newly developing in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to investigate the ethical dilemmas met by palliative care physicians and nurses in 2013 and compare the results with the survey in 1998. This cross-sectional study surveyed 213 physicians and nurses recruited from 9 representative palliative care units across Taiwan in 2013. The compared survey in 1998 studied 102 physicians and nurses from the same palliative care units. All participants took a questionnaire to survey the "frequency" and "difficulty" of 20 frequently encountered ethical dilemmas, which were grouped into 4 domains by factor analysis. The "ethical dilemma" scores were calculated and then compared across 15 years by Student's t tests. A general linear model analysis was used to identify significant factors relating to a high average "ethical dilemma" score in each domain. All of the highest-ranking ethical dilemmas in 2013 were related to insufficient resources. Physicians with less clinical experience had a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in clinical management. Physicians with dissatisfaction in providing palliative care were associated a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in communication. Nurses reported higher "ethical dilemma" scores in all items of resource allocation in 2013. Further analysis confirmed that, in 2013, nurses had a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in resource allocation after adjustment for other relating factors. Palliative care nursing staff in Taiwan are more troubled by ethical dilemmas related to insufficient resources than they were 15 years ago. Training of decision making in nurses under the framework of ethical principles and community palliative care programs may improve the problems. To promote the dignity of terminal cancer patients, long-term fundraising plans are recommended for countries in which the

  10. The Changes of Ethical Dilemmas in Palliative Care. A Lesson Learned from Comparison Between 1998 and 2013 in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chih, An-Hsuan; Su, Peijen; Hu, Wen-Yu; Yao, Chien-An; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Lin, Yen-Chun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The current ethical dilemmas met by healthcare professionals were never compared with those 15 years ago when the palliative care system was newly developing in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to investigate the ethical dilemmas met by palliative care physicians and nurses in 2013 and compare the results with the survey in 1998. This cross-sectional study surveyed 213 physicians and nurses recruited from 9 representative palliative care units across Taiwan in 2013. The compared survey in 1998 studied 102 physicians and nurses from the same palliative care units. All participants took a questionnaire to survey the "frequency" and "difficulty" of 20 frequently encountered ethical dilemmas, which were grouped into 4 domains by factor analysis. The "ethical dilemma" scores were calculated and then compared across 15 years by Student's t tests. A general linear model analysis was used to identify significant factors relating to a high average "ethical dilemma" score in each domain. All of the highest-ranking ethical dilemmas in 2013 were related to insufficient resources. Physicians with less clinical experience had a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in clinical management. Physicians with dissatisfaction in providing palliative care were associated a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in communication. Nurses reported higher "ethical dilemma" scores in all items of resource allocation in 2013. Further analysis confirmed that, in 2013, nurses had a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in resource allocation after adjustment for other relating factors. Palliative care nursing staff in Taiwan are more troubled by ethical dilemmas related to insufficient resources than they were 15 years ago. Training of decision making in nurses under the framework of ethical principles and community palliative care programs may improve the problems. To promote the dignity of terminal cancer patients, long-term fundraising plans are recommended for countries in which the

  11. Ethical Dilemmas in Pediatric and Adolescent Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Cristie M.; Falcone, Tatiana; Caplan, Rochelle; Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Jares, Kristine; Ford, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To date only a very narrow window of ethical dilemmas in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have been explored. Numerous distinct ethical dilemmas arise in diagnosing and treating pediatric and adolescent patients with PNES. Important ethical values at stake include trust, transparency, confidentiality, professionalism, autonomy of all stakeholders and justice. In order to further elucidate the ethical challenges in caring for this population, an ethical analysis of the special challenges faced in four specific domains is undertaken: (1) conducting and communicating a diagnosis of PNES; (2) advising patients about full transparency and disclosure to community including patients’ peers; (3) responding to requests to continue anti-epileptic drugs; and (4) managing challenges arising from school policy and procedure. An analysis of these ethical issues is essential for the advancement of best care practices that promote the overall well-being of patients and their families. PMID:25022823

  12. Live surgery at conferences - Clinical benefits and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Philip-Watson, Joanna; Khan, Shahid A A; Hadjipavlou, Marios; Rane, Abhay; Knoll, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Live surgical broadcasts (LSBs) are becoming increasingly popular in urological conferences. These activities can provide excellent training opportunities, as they allow the audience to view an operation conducted by world-renowned surgeons, and have the ability to interact with them in real time. However, several ethical considerations have been raised with this practice, which the participating surgeons and conference organisers must appreciate and address carefully. In this article we highlight the ethical considerations related to LSBs and advise on how these should be addressed. We also present the latest recommendations made by the European Association of Urology Live Surgery Committee and discuss alternatives to LSB.

  13. Mandatory counseling for gamete donation recipients: ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Benward, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Mental health professionals have engaged in mandatory pretreatment counseling and assessment of patients seeking treatment at IVF programs in the United States since the 1980s. At present, most recipient patients undergoing IVF with egg or embryo donation in the United States are required to meet with a mental health professional for one pretreatment session. Mandatory counseling of gamete recipients is fraught with ethical questions for the mental health professional. Attention to issues of autonomy, confidentiality, role clarity, along with self-evaluation and openness with the patient can help lessen the impact of these ethical challenges. PMID:26235569

  14. Live surgery at conferences - Clinical benefits and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Philip-Watson, Joanna; Khan, Shahid A A; Hadjipavlou, Marios; Rane, Abhay; Knoll, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Live surgical broadcasts (LSBs) are becoming increasingly popular in urological conferences. These activities can provide excellent training opportunities, as they allow the audience to view an operation conducted by world-renowned surgeons, and have the ability to interact with them in real time. However, several ethical considerations have been raised with this practice, which the participating surgeons and conference organisers must appreciate and address carefully. In this article we highlight the ethical considerations related to LSBs and advise on how these should be addressed. We also present the latest recommendations made by the European Association of Urology Live Surgery Committee and discuss alternatives to LSB. PMID:26019946

  15. Dilemmas in military medical ethics since 9/11.

    PubMed

    Howe, Edmund G

    2003-06-01

    The attack on the United States by terrorists on 9/11 and the war with Iraq have raised new ethical questions for the military and for military physicians (Herman 2002; Elshtain 2003). How and when attacks may occur now is less predictable. Planes have been hijacked, and persons dressed as civilians may carry bombs to blow themselves and others up. These dangers pose an increased threat, and, thus, there is a need for new defensive measures. How far these measures should go is, however, greatly open to debate. One of the most difficult ethical question raised for the military and military doctors by these developments is what interrogation methods are permissable when questioning captured terrorists. The licitness of different interrogation practices is, however, only one of the ethical problems potentially encountered by military physicians now having to treat terrorists and POWs. The following discussion presents the major concerns regarding this and other issues. PMID:14570019

  16. Qualitative analysis of healthcare professionals' viewpoints on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Brian S; Shank, Gary; Carlson, Jestin N; Venkat, Arvind

    2015-03-01

    Ethics consultation is a commonly applied mechanism to address clinical ethical dilemmas. However, there is little information on the viewpoints of health care providers towards the relevance of ethics committees and appropriate application of ethics consultation in clinical practice. We sought to use qualitative methodology to evaluate free-text responses to a case-based survey to identify thematically the views of health care professionals towards the role of ethics committees in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. Using an iterative and reflexive model we identified themes that health care providers support a role for ethics committees and hospitals in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas, that the role should be one of mediation, rather than prescription, but that ultimately legal exposure was dispositive compared to ethical theory. The identified theme of legal fears suggests that the mediation role of ethics committees is viewed by health care professionals primarily as a practical means to avoid more worrisome medico-legal conflict.

  17. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas. PMID:25242639

  18. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas.

  19. Dilemmas in mandatory reporting of domestic violence: carative ethics in emergency rooms.

    PubMed

    Mayer, B

    1998-01-01

    Laws are clear when it comes to reporting child abuse, elder abuse, or maltreatment of the disabeled; however, the fuzzy area of domestic violence, or injury to women by their husbands or intimates, puzzles the system ethically and legally. Experts are divided on the issue of mandatory reporting of domestic violence by health care professionals. As exemplified by the Florida law, the crux of the problem may be twofold. First, the law requires reporting of certain incidents that are ambiguously defined. Second, reporting may be mandatory without the patient's consent. Many experts in the field of domestic violence suggest that mandated reporting by health care workers is not in the best interests of the victims; it may lead to more violence and increase the victim's reluctance to get needed health care. This victim vulnerability creates ethical dilemmas in the emergency department, often the first outside contact after a violent incident. This paper examines the implications of reporting applied to emergency practice in the context of basic ethical standards. The application of mandatory reporting laws to competent adult victims presents questions related to nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, and a variety of contextual issues that arise from these main ethical domains.

  20. Dilemmas in mandatory reporting of domestic violence: carative ethics in emergency rooms.

    PubMed

    Mayer, B

    1998-01-01

    Laws are clear when it comes to reporting child abuse, elder abuse, or maltreatment of the disabeled; however, the fuzzy area of domestic violence, or injury to women by their husbands or intimates, puzzles the system ethically and legally. Experts are divided on the issue of mandatory reporting of domestic violence by health care professionals. As exemplified by the Florida law, the crux of the problem may be twofold. First, the law requires reporting of certain incidents that are ambiguously defined. Second, reporting may be mandatory without the patient's consent. Many experts in the field of domestic violence suggest that mandated reporting by health care workers is not in the best interests of the victims; it may lead to more violence and increase the victim's reluctance to get needed health care. This victim vulnerability creates ethical dilemmas in the emergency department, often the first outside contact after a violent incident. This paper examines the implications of reporting applied to emergency practice in the context of basic ethical standards. The application of mandatory reporting laws to competent adult victims presents questions related to nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, and a variety of contextual issues that arise from these main ethical domains. PMID:10197004

  1. Ethical dilemmas in geosciences. We can ask, but, can we ans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Philosophy tries to provide rules and principles enabling us to solve the ethical dilemmas we face in a wide sense, and, also, in particular fields as (geo)sciences. One alleged goal of ethics is to figure out how to solve ethical dilemmas. But, is it possible to solve such dilemmas? And what can we do if we cannot? An ethical dilemma is a problem that offers an alternative between two or more solutions, none of which proves to be fully acceptable in practice. Dilemmas arise because of conflict between the rightness or wrongness of the actions/means and the goodness or badness of the consequences/ends. They involve an apparent conflict between moral imperatives, in which to follow one would result in violating another. Can a geoscientist answer those dilemmas that appear in the exercise of his/her profession? Always? In some cases? Not at all? What if we cannot? Have we? As geoscientists, we hold the knowledge (our scientific principles), not perfect, thus fallible, and always subject to changes and improvements. If we have to do what is right, based on our principles, despite potentially bad consequences, then we have to be sure that the principle is an absolute true. But, are our scientific principles such a true? Deontological theories may deny that consequences are of any concern, provided the intention was a good one. However, if our principles are not perfect (and we know that): can we answer in one or other direction to geoethical dilemmas in good faith? Although, if a geoscientist action does usually go for the best consequences, sometimes bad consequences may be accepted. But, who have to decide to accept the bad consequences? If ethical dilemmas with a conflict between means and ends cannot simply be solved by a geoscientist, where is our duty? If there is no real solution to the conflict of the right with the good, in the sense that a solution usually seems to be expected, what has to be our professional attitude? When we have duties of omission and when

  2. Interesting clinical presentation of anterior knee pain causing diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Samer S; Balasubramanian, S; Teanby, D

    2009-09-01

    A diverse variety of lesions may occasionally occur in the patella. In this case report, we are presenting an interesting case of anterior knee pain in middle aged gentleman. Initial investigations including Magnetic Resonance Imaging not showed any abnormality. Due to prolonged continued pain he had bone scan and MRI, which confirmed the diagnosis of Brodie's abscess. We are presenting this case of Brodie's abscess of the patella causing diagnostic dilemma because of its rarity.

  3. Beneficence versus respect for autonomy: an ethical dilemma in social work practice.

    PubMed

    Sasson, S

    2000-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are an integral part of the practitioner's reality and impact upon the quality of care provided to the resident. The establishment of ethical principles aims to guide the worker through difficult scenarios involving morals, values and beliefs. Often, these precepts contradict one another and are strongly bound to the practitioner's and the resident's standpoints. The ethical principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy pose a conflict in judgment regarding an elderly woman's care in an 816-bed long term care facility. The contributing parties to the conflict are the medical staff, social worker and the resident. The ethical dilemma will be analyzed according to the utilitarian and deontological theories. Resolution to the conflict is offered at the conclusion. PMID:14628757

  4. "Bridge over Troubled Water": Phenomenologizing Filipino College Deans' Ethical Dilemmas in Academic Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catacutan, Maria Rosario G.; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological study intends to capture and describe Filipino college deans' lived experiences of ethical dilemmas as they carry out their work as administrators. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews and following Collaizzi's method, data was collected and subjected to cool and warm analyses yielding a set of themes and sub-themes that…

  5. Ethical Dilemmas of Child Abuse Reporting: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNair, Rebecca R.

    1992-01-01

    Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…

  6. Survey of the frequency and perceived stressfulness of ethical dilemmas encountered in UK veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, C E M; McKeegan, D E F

    2012-01-01

    The scale of the ethical challenges faced by veterinary surgeons and their perceived stressful consequences were investigated via a short questionnaire, completed by 58 practising veterinary surgeons. Respondents were asked to report how frequently they faced ethical dilemmas, and to rate on a simple numerical scale (zero to 10) how stressful they found three common scenarios. Fifty seven per cent of respondents reported that they faced one to two dilemmas per week, while 34 per cent stated they typically faced three to five dilemmas per week. The three scenarios provided were all rated as highly stressful with 'client wishing to continue treatment despite poor animal welfare' rated as the most stressful (median 9). The female veterinary surgeons gave two of the scenarios significantly higher stress ratings than the male veterinary surgeons. Stress ratings were not influenced by number of years in practice (which ranged from one to more than 25 years). The results show that veterinary surgeons regularly face ethical dilemmas and that they find these stressful. This has implications for the wellbeing of veterinary surgeons and supports the case for increased provision of training and support, especially for those who entered the profession before undergraduate ethics teaching was widely available. PMID:22084032

  7. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace: A New Focus for Career Development. ERIC Digest No. 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    The diverse, multicultural population that constitutes today's work force faces ethical dilemmas on the job that bring pressures to protect their own or their company's interests, at the risk of losing their personal integrity. Employers and vocational and career development personnel are recognizing the need for decision-making and…

  8. Ethical Tensions and Dilemmas Experienced in a Northern Ugandan Social Work Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical tensions and dilemmas that arose for 2 U.S. social work students during an 8-month international clinical internship in northern Uganda. These students encountered cultural differences related to issues of confidentiality, autonomy, and self-determination. Student experiences were analyzed using the cultural…

  9. Researching Transformation at a South African University--Ethical Dilemmas in the Politics of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Salma

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the complexity of researching institutional culture and the ethical dilemmas posed in representing staff according to race and gender, drawing on three qualitative studies undertaken at a previously white South African university between 2000 and 2007. During the research process, issues of representation became a concern…

  10. Teaching Social Work Students to Resolve Ethical Dilemmas in Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines findings from three focus groups conducted about resolving ethical dilemmas in the area of domestic violence. The study's findings point to the need to increase content on domestic violence throughout the social work curriculum and provide educational opportunities for field instructors and local professionals. Helping…

  11. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    Sexual harassment in the workplace poses something of an ethical dilemma for career guidance practice. This is because it is now known that about half of all working women in the UK are likely to be victims at some stage of their employment and that the effects on individuals are invariably negative and can be positively harmful. What, therefore,…

  12. On being ethical in unethical places: the dilemmas of South African clinical psychologists.

    PubMed

    Steere, J; Dowdall, T

    1990-01-01

    Practicing under the social and economic conditions created by apartheid, South African clinical psychologists face the task of questioning both the traditional values and the traditional social role of their profession. Dilemmas of trust, confidentiality, and professional competence highlight the limits of professional ethical codes.

  13. [How does Hinduism analyze an ethical clinical dilemma].

    PubMed

    Samtani B, Suraj; Jadue Z, Mariana; Beca I, Juan Pablo

    2009-11-01

    It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.

  14. Hidden ethical dilemmas in psychiatric residency training: the psychiatry resident as dual agent.

    PubMed

    Hoop, Jinger G

    2004-01-01

    In addition to learning about confidentiality, civil commitment, informed consent, and other ethical issues, psychiatry residents must deal with less visible ethical dilemmas that arise from the training process itself. Residents grapple with three inherent conflicting duties between their dual roles as physician and learner, as physician and supervisee, and as physician and employee of a training institution. These conflicts must be negotiated at a time of high stress, when residents are plagued with self-doubt, fear, fatigue, and other vulnerabilities that can lead good doctors to make ethically dubious decisions. While such conflicts and stressors are common to residency training in most specialties, they may be heightened in psychiatric residency. This paper proposes a model for understanding covert elements of ethical decision making during psychiatric residency and recommends strategies training programs can use to help residents navigate an ethical minefield. PMID:15507552

  15. Dealing with Dave's Dilemmas: Exploring the Ethics of Pedagogic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Using an auto-ethnographic case study about a "day in the life" of a new professor as the basis for discussion, reports the reactions of newly-appointed and more-experienced academic staff toward ethical questions. Applying Forsyth's taxonomy of ethical ideology, found that experienced staff were more inclined toward a "situationist" position,…

  16. A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

    In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

  17. The Ethics of Asking: Dilemmas in Higher Education Fund Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Deni, Ed.

    This volume provides college and university development officers and administrators practical help with recognizing difficult ethical situations and discerning the correct ethical response. It can also serve as a guide for donors who wonder what's reasonable for them to expect from fund raisers. Section 1 contains chapters on the social and moral…

  18. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  19. Educational Context: Preparing Accounting Students to Identify Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the…

  20. If anthropology is global, then so are its ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews three personal situations of the author as a student: an NGO activist in the women's movement and a UN official working on women's health and tobacco. Each situation, the kinds of ethical issue posed and lessons for the future direction of ethics in anthropology are outlined. The paper argues that applied anthropology is embedded in the position of the field of anthropology within the politics of the State and that this defines the parameters of individual choice. Contradictions in ethical situations and decision-making are posed by changing from the distant observer to active involvement and these may not be resolved by logic alone. Furthermore, governance and defining global ethical standards such as for the behavior of the tobacco multinational corporations is a fascinating new realm for anthropological ethical resolve.

  1. Moral Dilemmas in a Military Context. a Case Study of a Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Baarle, Eva; Bosch, Jolanda; Widdershoven, Guy; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Moral competence is important for soldiers who have to deal with complex moral dilemmas in practice. However, openly dealing with moral dilemmas and showing moral competence is not always easy within the culture of a military organization. In this article, based on analysis of experiences during a train the trainer course on military ethics, we…

  2. Early Introduction to Professional and Ethical Dilemmas in a Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the effects of an early professional development series in a pharmaceutical care laboratory (PCL) course on first-year pharmacy students’ perceptions of the importance of professional attitudes and action. Design. Three hundred thirty-four first-year students enrolled in a PCL course participated in a new required learning activity centered on development of professional attitudes and behaviors. Students discussed situational dilemmas in pharmacy practice in small groups, highlighting application of the Oath of a Pharmacist and the Pharmacists’ Code of Ethics. Assessment. Students completed an optional questionnaire at the beginning and end of the semester to assess change in their attitudes and behaviors related to professionalism in pharmacy practice. Conclusion. While students entered their training with a strong appreciation for professionalism, they felt more confident in applying the Oath of a Pharmacist and the Pharmacists Code of Ethics to dilemmas in practice following the new learning activity. PMID:26889068

  3. Ethical dilemmas among dental professionals in Davangere city- a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, S G; Singla, Hitashi; Lawrence, Denzy; Veeresh, D J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the ethical problems faced by dental practitioners, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, College of Dental Sciences and private dental clinics in the city of Davangere. A questionnaire with close-ended questions on eight scenarios was administered to the 135 study participants. In the case of scenario 1, 81.4% of the participants said that the doctor had violated the principle of truthfulness. As for scenario 2, less than 50% of the participants replied that the doctor had breached ethical principles. In case scenario 3, 93% felt that the doctor should have taken the physician's opinion before extracting a tooth. Most dental practitioners faced ethical dilemmas because of the lack of awareness, and there is a need to introduce certain programmes to promote knowledge of ethics. PMID:27260818

  4. Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Settle, Peggy Doyle

    2014-03-01

    Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance.

  5. Ethical dilemmas in dysphagia management and the right to a natural death.

    PubMed

    Serradura-Russell, A

    1992-01-01

    Speech pathologists are at the forefront in dealing with the consequences of life-saving measures and the technological advances that promote survival. Many ethical dilemmas exist in the area of dysphagia management and these are often emphasized in the nursing home environment. A client's autonomy and ability to make informed decisions will invariably determine the role of the speech pathologist in making decisions or facilitating debate regarding eating and feeding status.

  6. The Changes of Ethical Dilemmas in Palliative Care A Lesson Learned from Comparison Between 1998 and 2013 in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chih, An-Hsuan; Su, Peijen; Hu, Wen-Yu; Yao, Chien-An; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Lin, Yen-Chun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The current ethical dilemmas met by healthcare professionals were never compared with those 15 years ago when the palliative care system was newly developing in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to investigate the ethical dilemmas met by palliative care physicians and nurses in 2013 and compare the results with the survey in 1998. This cross-sectional study surveyed 213 physicians and nurses recruited from 9 representative palliative care units across Taiwan in 2013. The compared survey in 1998 studied 102 physicians and nurses from the same palliative care units. All participants took a questionnaire to survey the “frequency” and “difficulty” of 20 frequently encountered ethical dilemmas, which were grouped into 4 domains by factor analysis. The “ethical dilemma” scores were calculated and then compared across 15 years by Student's t tests. A general linear model analysis was used to identify significant factors relating to a high average “ethical dilemma” score in each domain. All of the highest-ranking ethical dilemmas in 2013 were related to insufficient resources. Physicians with less clinical experience had a higher average “ethical dilemma” score in clinical management. Physicians with dissatisfaction in providing palliative care were associated a higher average “ethical dilemma” score in communication. Nurses reported higher “ethical dilemma” scores in all items of resource allocation in 2013. Further analysis confirmed that, in 2013, nurses had a higher average “ethical dilemma” score in resource allocation after adjustment for other relating factors. Palliative care nursing staff in Taiwan are more troubled by ethical dilemmas related to insufficient resources than they were 15 years ago. Training of decision making in nurses under the framework of ethical principles and community palliative care programs may improve the problems. To promote the dignity of terminal cancer patients, long-term fundraising plans are

  7. Legal, ethical, and financial dilemmas in electronic health record adoption and use.

    PubMed

    Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2011-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate several innovations capable of reforming health care. Despite their promise, many currently unanswered legal, ethical, and financial questions threaten the widespread adoption and use of EHRs. Key legal dilemmas that must be addressed in the near-term pertain to the extent of clinicians' responsibilities for reviewing the entire computer-accessible clinical synopsis from multiple clinicians and institutions, the liabilities posed by overriding clinical decision support warnings and alerts, and mechanisms for clinicians to publically report potential EHR safety issues. Ethical dilemmas that need additional discussion relate to opt-out provisions that exclude patients from electronic record storage, sale of deidentified patient data by EHR vendors, adolescent control of access to their data, and use of electronic data repositories to redesign the nation's health care delivery and payment mechanisms on the basis of statistical analyses. Finally, one overwhelming financial question is who should pay for EHR implementation because most users and current owners of these systems will not receive the majority of benefits. The authors recommend that key stakeholders begin discussing these issues in a national forum. These actions can help identify and prioritize solutions to the key legal, ethical, and financial dilemmas discussed, so that widespread, safe, effective, interoperable EHRs can help transform health care. PMID:21422090

  8. Ethical dilemmas for general practitioners under the UK new contract.

    PubMed

    Smith, L F; Morrissy, J R

    1994-09-01

    Possible distributive justice frameworks for providing health care by general practitioners are discussed. The ethical considerations before and after the recent changes to the British National Health Service are contrasted, with particular emphasis on a possible ethical divide that has been produced between fund-holding and non-fund-holding general practitioners. It is argued that general practitioners in non-fund-holding practices can continue as ethical advocates for their patients and distribute health care within an egalitarian framework. However, those in fund-holding practices may now be seen as interest advocates and may have to practise utilitarian distributive justice. Patient groups may be needed to ensure that these general practitioners are seen to act justly in the distribution of the health care resources for which they are now responsible.

  9. The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Polygraph interrogations are used by half of all surveyed juvenile sex offender (JSO) treatment programs in the United States. This is a distinctive and controversial practice that is rarely if ever used with other juvenile delinquent populations, and that is rarely used or is banned from JSO treatment programs in other countries. Clinical polygraphy is an ethically sensitive issue because it involves mental health therapists in involuntary coercive interrogations of minors. This article reviews core mental health professional ethics principles for juveniles. JSO polygraphy is used as an illustrative issue for applying human rights principles to a practice in light of its benefits, risks, and available alternatives. PMID:20944059

  10. Promises to Practice: Learning a PROactive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Mary Elizabeth; Steinbrunner, Ruth K.

    2007-01-01

    Learning to be PROactive, as the title of this article suggests, means Pooling one's knowledge, Reflecting respect, and Opening oneself to action. It recognizes early childhood educators' promises to their field of practice, based on widely held beliefs and principles. Educators can apply professional ethics to everyday problem solving and their…

  11. Accountability to Research Participants: Unresolved Dilemmas and Unravelling Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study of Romani Gypsy groups in England (1996-2000), along with data from follow-up work involving original and additional participants (2005-ongoing), this paper explores several ethical issues that arose. It traces developing relationships across a 13-year period, identifying the problems of attempting to…

  12. A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

  13. Exploring Some Ethical Dilemmas and Obligations of the Ethnographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ethical position of the ethnographer when encountering unethical activities. Ethnography affords a rich insight into cultures, often behind previously secure doors but it is also a demanding science. Our gatekeepers control our access and our relationships with them can determine our destiny. This paper offers an exchange…

  14. Teaching and Learning about Ethical Dilemmas in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Werner

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of ethics instruction in pharmacy practice argues that, because pharmacy students are still rapidly developing cognitively, faculty has an opportunity to help students mature and become socially conscious critical thinkers. The problem-solving process, dealing with alternative solutions, ambiguity, and flexible curriculum construction…

  15. An Analysis of School Superintendents' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Daniel Curtis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ethical responses to problematic school situations among public school superintendents nationwide. An additional goal was to compare responses of the proposed study with those of school superintendents in an earlier study (Fenstermaker, 1994) in order to determine whether there has been a significant change…

  16. Ethical dilemmas in medical humanitarian practice: cases for reflection from Médecins Sans Frontières.

    PubMed

    Sheather, Julian; Shah, Tejshri

    2011-03-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an independent medical humanitarian organisation working in over 70 countries. It has provided medical assistance for over 35 years to populations vulnerable through conflict, disease and inadequate health systems. Medical ethics define the starting point of the relationship between medical staff and patients. The ethics of humanitarian interventions and of research in conflict settings are much debated. However, less is known about the ethical dilemmas faced by medical humanitarian staff in their daily work. Ethical dilemmas can be intensified in humanitarian contexts by insecure environments, lack of optimum care, language barriers, potentially heightened power discrepancies between care providers and patients, differing cultural values and perceptions of patients, communities and medical staff. Time constraints, stressful conditions and lack of familiarity with ethical frameworks can prevent reflection on these dilemmas, as can frustration that such reflection does not necessarily provide instant solutions. Lack of reflection, however, can be distressing for medical practitioners and can reduce the quality of care. Ethical reflection has a central role in MSF, and the organisation uses ethical frameworks to help with clinical and programmatic decisions as well as in deliberations over operational research. We illustrate and discuss some real ethical dilemmas facing MSF teams. Only by sharing and seeking guidance can MSF and similar actors make more thoughtful and appropriate decisions. Our aim in sharing these cases is to invite discussion and dialogue in the wider medical community working in crisis, conflict or with severe resource limitations. PMID:21084354

  17. The Fossil Fuel Divestment Movement: An Ethical Dilemma for the Geosciences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, C. H.; Kammen, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    For over 200 years, fossil fuels have been the basis for an industrial revolution that has delivered a level of prosperity to modern society unimaginable during the previous 5000 years of human civilization. However, society's dependence on fossil fuels is coming to an end for two reasons. The first reason is because our fossil fuel reserves are running out, oil in this century, natural gas during the next century, and coal a few centuries later. The second reason is because fossil fuels are having a devastating impact on the habitability of our planet, disrupting our climate system and acidifying our oceans. So the question is not whether we will discontinue using fossil fuels, but rather whether we will stop using them before they do irreparable damage to the Earth's life-support systems. Within our geoscience community, climate scientists have determined that a majority of existing fossil fuel reserves must remain unburned if dangerous climate change and ocean acidification are to be avoided. In contrast, Exxon-Mobil, Shell, and other members of the fossil fuel industry are pursuing a business model that assumes all of their reserves will be burned and will not become stranded assets. Since the geosciences have had a long and mutually beneficial relationship with the fossil fuel industry, this inherent conflict between climate science and industrial interests presents an ethical dilemma for many geoscientists. This conflict is further heightened by the fossil fuel divestment movement, which is underway at over 400 college and university campuses around the world. This presentation will explore some of the ethical and financial issues being raised by the divestment movement from a geoscientist's perspective.

  18. The ethical dilemmas of the Oregon health plan.

    PubMed

    Burton, L

    1996-02-01

    Escalating health care costs place our country at an economic disadvantage in the world marketplace. Currently, a mixture of rationing methods in the health care system limits access to control costs. Federal and state moneys fund the state Medicaid programs. States on limited budgets often tighten eligibility to far below the poverty level; those with benefits get unlimited care and those without get none. The state of Oregon has a different idea: Medicaid covers everyone below the poverty level but limits services to those with the "best cost-to-benefit ratio." Many people consider the distribution and finance of health care an ethical issue. The Oregon plan raises some ethical concerns and several arguments. The federal government waived Title XIX of the Social Security Act to allow implementation of the plan. Many providers believe universal access is important; however, the drive to see more patients may limit visit time. PMID:8907784

  19. The ethical dilemma of embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Manzar, Nabeel; Manzar, Bushra; Hussain, Nuzhat; Hussain, M Fawwad Ahmed; Raza, Sajjad

    2013-03-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum.

  20. Bio-ethical dilemmas related to medical treatment in pre-modern Jewish society, as a portal for raising current ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Mack, Tamar Salmon; Shaham, Dorith; Marcus, Esther-Lee

    2013-09-01

    Real-life ethical issues that concern those engaged in medical practice existed and were discussed in earlier ages. It seems that many of the same dilemmas that we face today occupied our ancestors as well. An investigation of historical sources may be useful in showing earlier methods of coping with the dilemmas relating to health and illness. In this article we will present several such topics taken from the sources of Jewish society in pre-modern Europe. These sources served as the basis for a course given to medical students as part of the Medical Humanities track. The "raw materials" are historical, written Hebrew and Yiddish sources from Jewish society. Genres include Minute books, the huge corpus of Responsa, historical elegies written about epidemics, memoirs, and instruction books written by Jewish physicians. Profound bio-ethical issues can be found in historical sources. Main issues discussed are: physician's fees, obligations, and rights; personal characteristics expected of physicians; physician's obligations when his/her own life is endangered; medicalization of certain human conditions; and ideological questions regarding the relationship between traditional folk medicine and modern, academic medicine. The historical distance facilitates a freer discussion about distant people, while getting in touch with our own attitudes. PMID:24340482

  1. Students' responses to scenarios depicting ethical dilemmas: a study of pharmacy and medical students in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Henning, Marcus A; Malpas, Phillipa; Ram, Sanya; Rajput, Vijay; Krstić, Vladimir; Boyd, Matt; Hawken, Susan J

    2016-07-01

    One of the key learning objectives in any health professional course is to develop ethical and judicious practice. Therefore, it is important to address how medical and pharmacy students respond to, and deal with, ethical dilemmas in their clinical environments. In this paper, we examined how students communicated their resolution of ethical dilemmas and the alignment between these communications and the four principles developed by Beauchamp and Childress. Three hundred and fifty-seven pharmacy and medical students (overall response rate=63%) completed a questionnaire containing four clinical case scenarios with an ethical dilemma. Data were analysed using multiple methods. The findings revealed that 73% of the qualitative responses could be exclusively coded to one of the 'four principles' determined by the Beauchamp and Childress' framework. Additionally, 14% of responses overlapped between the four principles (multiple codes) and 13% of responses could not be coded using the framework. The subsequent subgroup analysis revealed different response patterns depending on the case being reviewed. The findings showed that when students are faced with challenging ethical dilemmas their responses can be aligned with the Beauchamp and Childress framework, although more contentious dilemmas involving issues of law are less easily categorised. The differences between year and discipline groups show students are developing ethical frames of reference that may be linked with their teaching environments and their levels of understanding. Analysis of these response patterns provides insight into the way students will likely respond in 'real' settings and this information may help educators prepare students for these clinical ethical dilemmas. PMID:27154898

  2. Patient rights, professional ethics, and situational dilemmas in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, J L

    1985-09-01

    Patient rights, professional ethics and situational dilemmas in mental health services are discussed in terms of their interrelationships, with a major focus on voluntary clients and community-based services. Vignettes are provided under the headings of: I. The rights to respect, dignity, and non-discrimination; II. The rights to appropriate treatment, to consent and to refuse; III. The rights to least restrictive, least intrusive intervention; IV. The rights to confidentiality of personal information, to consent to or refuse release of records, and the right to peruse personal records. The author stresses that the rights and responsibilities of various parties must be balanced to arrive at the best decisions.

  3. Futility and the care of surgical patients: ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Grant, Scott B; Modi, Parth K; Singer, Eric A

    2014-07-01

    Futility has been a contentious topic in medicine for several decades. Surgery in critical or end-of-life situations often raises difficult questions about futility. In this article, we discuss the definition of futility, methods for resolving futility disputes, and some ways to reframe the futility debate to a more fruitful discussion about the goals of care, better communication between surgeon and patient/surrogate, and palliative surgical care. Many definitions of futile therapy have been discussed. The most controversial of these is "qualitative futility" which describes a situation in which the treatment provided is likely to result in an unacceptable quality of life. This is an area of continued controversy because it has been impossible to identify universally held beliefs about acceptable quality of life. Many authors have described methods for resolving futility disputes, including community standards and legalistic multi-step due process protocols. Others, however, have abandoned the concept of futility altogether as an unhelpful term. Reframing the issue of futility as one of inadequate physician-patient communication, these authors have advocated for methods of improving communication and strengthening the patient-physician relationship. Finally, we discuss the utilization of consultants who may be of use in resolving futility disputes: ethics committees, palliative care specialists, pastoral care teams, and dedicated patient advocates. Involving these specialists in a futility conflict can help improve communication and provide invaluable assistance in arriving at the appropriate treatment decision.

  4. Newborn ethical dilemmas: intensive care and intermediate care nursing attitudes.

    PubMed

    Berseth, C L; Kenny, J D; Durand, R

    1984-06-01

    A self-administered questionnaire concerning various neonatal ethical issues was completed by 39 ICU and 36 intermediate care unit (INT) nurses. Guttman scale analysis indicated that ICU nurses were more reluctant than INT nurses to resuscitate certain high-risk newborn infants. Work experience and a stated religious preference accentuated an INT nurse's disinclination to resuscitate high-risk babies. ICU nurses were more likely than INT nurses to favor passive and active euthanasia. Further, ICU nurses were more likely than INT nurses to view termination of life support for a sick infant as a necessity. ICU nurses were less likely than INT nurses to favor physician intervention in the care of all acutely sick neonates. ICU and INT nurses agreed, however, that the decision to terminate a baby's life support should be made jointly by the child's parents and physicians. Although differences in ICU and INT nursing attitudes may reflect quantitative and qualitative differences in work experience, these findings suggest a common need for emotional support and continuing education programs for nurses who care for high-risk newborns.

  5. Pain medicine versus pain management: ethical dilemmas created by contemporary medicine and business.

    PubMed

    Loeser, John D; Cahana, Alex

    2013-04-01

    The world of health care and the world of business have fundamentally different ethical standards. In the past decades, business principles have progressively invaded medical territories, leading to often unanticipated consequences for both patients and providers. Multidisciplinary pain management has been shown to be more effective than all other forms of health care for chronic pain patients; yet, fewer and fewer multidisciplinary pain management facilities are available in the United States. The amazing increase in interventional procedures and opioid prescriptions has not led to a lessening of the burden of chronic pain patients. Ethical dilemmas abound in the treatment of chronic pain patients: many are not even thought about by providers, administrators, insurance companies, or patients. We call for increased pain educational experiences for all types of health care providers and the separation of business concepts from pain-related health care.

  6. Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; McDonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethical dilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n = 30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of “knowledge production” is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework

  7. Using Case Studies of Ethical Dilemmas for the Development of Moral Literacy: Towards Educating for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Hassinger, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on a case study, framed as an ethical dilemma. It serves as an illustration for the teaching of moral literacy, with a special emphasis on social justice. Design/methodology/approach: Initially, the paper provides a rationale for the inclusion of case studies, emphasizing moral problems in university…

  8. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  9. [Ethical dilemmas in medicine. The interruption of pregnancy in woman].

    PubMed

    Gual-Castro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates. To avoid this undesirable situation, it has been proposed to follow the established WHO guidelines and adopt national health policies to re-orientate population goals on life quality, gender equity, universal public health services, and to promote the new holistic concepts of reproductive and sexual health such as: family planning, use of anti-fertility methods, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and newborn health, peri- and post-menopausal women's health, and prevention, diagnosis, and opportune treatment of mammary, cervical-uterine, and ovarian cancers. Finally, it is recommended to revise our national health policies and existing laws on abortion de-penalization. PMID:27595258

  10. Virtue ethics - an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 1. Problems with contemporary medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-02-01

    The commonest practical model used in contemporary medical ethics is Principlism. Yet, while Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges in its attempt to provide a coherent and accepted system of moral analysis. This inevitably challenges the stability of such a consensus statement and makes it vulnerable to attack by competitors such as preference consequentialism. This two-part paper proposes an inclusive version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis.

  11. Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

    2013-01-01

    A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

  12. Comprehensive STD/HIV prevention education targeting US adolescents: review of an ethical dilemma and proposed ethical framework.

    PubMed

    Brown, E J; Simpson, E M

    2000-07-01

    Adolescents are increasingly at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prolonged latency period, sometimes in excess of five years, and the incubation period of up to 10 years before the manifestation of symptoms, may foster adolescents' false sense of invincibility and denial as they often do not see the devastating effects of the disease in their peers until they are older. In turn, their practice of safer sex may be hindered and thereby contribute to the escalation of this public health crisis among sexually active adolescents. Prevention-focused recommendations were made in the USA as a result of this crisis. Recommendations were made to: (1) include STD/HIV education in the curricula of grades kindergarten to 12; (2) increase to at least 75% the proportion of primary care and mental health professionals who provide age-appropriate STD/HIV prevention counselling to adolescents; and (3) expand HIV prevention services to include age-appropriate HIV education curricula for students in grades 4-12 in 95% of schools. Yet, in the USA, the provision of school-based comprehensive STD/HIV education has been difficult to achieve owing to certain limitations and, in some instances, legal action. These limitations include: limited student access; restricted content; and the implementation of sporadic and/or brief educational programmes. Given these recommendations and the fact that adolescents are acquiring STDs and HIV infections at increasing rates, and despite the limitations and legal actions, do health care professionals not have an ethical obligation to provide adolescents with comprehensive STD/HIV prevention education? This ethical dilemma will be discussed using the ethical decision-making principles of 'autonomy' and 'beneficence', and a decision-making model proposed by Thompson and Thompson, and by Chally and Loric.

  13. Shall I become a zombie? Stories of illness, ethical dilemmas and visions of society.

    PubMed

    Cattorini, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Three controversial ethical issues, among others, stir the debate in health care institutions, in medical associations, and in the whole society: the care of patients in persistent vegetative state, the regulation of artificial procreation, some individual requests for reshaping an healthy body. Dealing with these dilemmas, typical of advanced medical science and technological practice, implies not only balancing carefully the burdens and benefits for suffering persons, families, equipes, hospitals, cultural and religious communities, but also imaging and realizing new visions of a just society, of a beneficent (without paternalism) medicine and generally of a good life, where each moral agent could write in front of all and in worthy, convincing ways, the next chapter of the book of his/her own life. PMID:21560776

  14. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

    PubMed

    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.

  15. Advanced restorative dentistry - a problem for the elderly? An ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Murray, C G

    2015-03-01

    to cope with the operative demands and financial burden of resolving their deteriorating dental situation and so complex implant-born structures and precision removable prostheses should probably be avoided for those individuals contemplating entering a care situation. Therefore, the timing of the provision of complex dentistry poses an ethical dilemma. PMID:25762047

  16. Ethical dilemmas in choosing a healthful diet: vote with your fork!

    PubMed

    Nestle, M

    2000-11-01

    Dietary guidelines for health promotion and disease prevention in the USA recommend a consumption pattern based largely on grains, fruit and vegetables, with smaller amounts of meat and dairy foods, and even smaller amounts of foods high in fat and sugar. Such diets are demonstrably health promoting, but following them raises ethical issues related to the role of nutritionists in advising the public about healthful dietary choices, as well as to the role of the food industry in food production and marketing. In the USA a shift towards a more plant-based diet would affect the economic interests of producers of food commodities, food products and meals prepared outside the home; it would also affect the environment, food prices, trade with other countries (developing as well as industrialized) and relationships among the food industry, government agencies (domestic and international) and food and nutrition professionals. In a free-market economy any dietary choice has consequences for food producers. Thus, considerations of ethical dilemmas in choosing healthful diets suggest that food choices are political acts that offer opportunities for all parties concerned to examine the consequences of such choices and 'vote with forks'. PMID:11115798

  17. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  18. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Renita

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  19. 'I am in blood Stepp'd in so far...': ethical dilemmas and the sports team doctor.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Brian Meldan; McCarthy, Conor

    2010-02-01

    There are many ethical dilemmas that are unique to sports medicine because of the unusual clinical environment of caring for players within the context of a team whose primary objective is to win. Many of these ethical issues arise because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is distorted or absent. The emergence of a doctor-patient-team triad has created a scenario in which the team's priority can conflict with or even replace the doctor's primary obligation to player well-being. As a result, the customary ethical norms that provide guidelines for most forms of clinical practice, such as patient autonomy and confidentiality, are not easily translated in the field of sports medicine. Sports doctors are frequently under intense pressure, whether implicit or explicit, from management, coaches, trainers and agents, to improve performance of the athlete in the short term rather than considering the long-term sequelae of such decisions. A myriad of ethical dilemmas are encountered, and for many of these dilemmas there are no right answers. In this article, a number of ethical principles and how they relate to sports medicine are discussed. To conclude, a list of guidelines has been drawn up to offer some support to doctors facing an ethical quandary, the most important of which is 'do not abdicate your responsibility to the individual player.''I am in blood Stepp'd in so far that, should I wade no more, Returning would be as tedious as to go o'er' -Macbeth: Act III, Scene IV, William Shakespeare. PMID:19948531

  20. Ethical dilemmas, work-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress reactions of news journalists covering the terror attack in Norway in 2011.

    PubMed

    Backholm, Klas; Idås, Trond

    2015-04-01

    News journalists working on crisis-related assignments may experience dilemmas with regard to how to conduct their work without causing additional harm to first-hand victims. In this study, we investigated how exposure to journalistic ethical dilemmas during the Oslo/Utøya terror attack in 2011 and subsequent work-related guilt were related to the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Norwegian journalists (N = 371) covering the terror attack participated in a web-based survey 8-9 months after the incident. We found that females reported more ethical dilemmas during the assignment than males (n = 356, d = 0.51). We also found that being on the scene was not related to more exposure to dilemmas (n = 311, d = 0.01). Moreover, we discovered that work-related guilt had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between exposure to ethical dilemmas and severity of PTS reactions (n = 344, completely standardized indirect effect size = .11, 95% CI [.04, .19]. The results showed that exposure to ethical dilemmas may affect the development of long-term psychological impairment. We concluded that media organizations can prevent postcrisis impairment by preparing employees for possible exposure to dilemmas during crisis-related assignments.

  1. Ethical dilemmas, work-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress reactions of news journalists covering the terror attack in Norway in 2011.

    PubMed

    Backholm, Klas; Idås, Trond

    2015-04-01

    News journalists working on crisis-related assignments may experience dilemmas with regard to how to conduct their work without causing additional harm to first-hand victims. In this study, we investigated how exposure to journalistic ethical dilemmas during the Oslo/Utøya terror attack in 2011 and subsequent work-related guilt were related to the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Norwegian journalists (N = 371) covering the terror attack participated in a web-based survey 8-9 months after the incident. We found that females reported more ethical dilemmas during the assignment than males (n = 356, d = 0.51). We also found that being on the scene was not related to more exposure to dilemmas (n = 311, d = 0.01). Moreover, we discovered that work-related guilt had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between exposure to ethical dilemmas and severity of PTS reactions (n = 344, completely standardized indirect effect size = .11, 95% CI [.04, .19]. The results showed that exposure to ethical dilemmas may affect the development of long-term psychological impairment. We concluded that media organizations can prevent postcrisis impairment by preparing employees for possible exposure to dilemmas during crisis-related assignments. PMID:25864505

  2. Evaluation of Viewpoints of Health Care Professionals on the Role of Ethics Committees and Hospitals in the Resolution of Clinical Ethical Dilemmas Based on Practice Environment.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Brian S; Carlson, Jestin N; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2016-03-01

    We sought to evaluate whether health care professionals' viewpoints differed on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas based on practice location. We conducted a survey study from December 21, 2013 to March 15, 2014 of health care professionals at six hospitals (one tertiary care academic medical center, three large community hospitals and two small community hospitals). The survey consisted of eight clinical ethics cases followed by statements on whether there was a role for the ethics committee or hospital in their resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. Respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to express their degree of agreement with the premises posed. We used the ANOVA test to evaluate whether respondent views significantly varied based on practice location. 240 health care professionals (108-tertiary care center, 92-large community hospitals, 40-small community hospitals) completed the survey (response rate: 63.6 %). Only three individual queries of 32 showed any significant response variations across practice locations. Overall, viewpoints did not vary across practice locations within question categories on whether the ethics committee or hospital had a role in case resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. In this multicenter survey study, the viewpoints of health care professionals on the role of ethics committees or hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethics cases varied little based on practice location.

  3. Effects of brain lesions on moral agency: ethical dilemmas in investigating moral behavior.

    PubMed

    Christen, Markus; Müller, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the "brain produces behavior" is a guiding idea in neuroscience. It is thus of no surprise that establishing an interrelation between brain pathology and antisocial behavior has a long history in brain research. However, interrelating the brain with moral agency--the ability to act in reference to right and wrong--is tricky with respect to therapy and rehabilitation of patients affected by brain lesions. In this contribution, we outline the complexity of the relationship between the brain and moral behavior, and we discuss ethical issues of the neuroscience of ethics and of its clinical consequences. First, we introduce a theory of moral agency and apply it to the issue of behavioral changes caused by brain lesions. Second, we present a typology of brain lesions both with respect to their cause, their temporal development, and the potential for neural plasticity allowing for rehabilitation. We exemplify this scheme with case studies and outline major knowledge gaps that are relevant for clinical practice. Third, we analyze ethical pitfalls when trying to understand the brain-morality relation. In this way, our contribution addresses both researchers in neuroscience of ethics and clinicians who treat patients affected by brain lesions to better understand the complex ethical questions, which are raised by research and therapy of brain lesion patients.

  4. Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights Versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya.3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis) will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion. PMID:24847171

  5. Bedside resource stewardship in disasters: a provider's dilemma practicing in an ethical gap.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During disasters, clinicians may be forced to play dual roles, as both a provider and an allocator of scarce resources. At present, a clear framework to govern resource stewardship at the bedside is lacking. Clinicians who find themselves practicing in this ethical gap between clinical and public health ethics can experience significant moral distress. One provider describes her experience allocating an oxygen tank in the intensive care unit at a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Using a clinical vignette and reflective narrative she attempts to identify the factors that influenced her allocation decision, opening up the factors for commentary and debate by an ethicist. A better paradigm for the ethical care of patients during disasters is needed to better guide provider choices in the future.

  6. Seven Basic Steps to Solving Ethical Dilemmas in Special Education: A Decision-Making Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay R.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a seven-step framework for decision making to solve ethical issues in special education. The authors developed the framework from the existing literature and theoretical frameworks of justice, critique, care, and professionalism. The authors briefly discuss each theoretical framework and then describe the decision-making…

  7. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  8. Facing Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study of HR Managers' Perceptions of the Influences on Their Behavior and the Implications for Building an Ethical Culture in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMontagne, Ramona Marie

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with…

  9. [Involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community: legal and ethical dilemmas].

    PubMed

    Mitrossili, M

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the measure of involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community, not only with regard to human rights and more specifically those of persons with mental disorders, but also with regard to ethics and deontology in mental healthcare delivery service. In this light, the important role of informed consent in psychiatry with regard to the psychiatric act is examined. Informed consent of mental patients in treatment when they are in need of voluntary or involuntary hospitalization is further examined, while emphasis is being put on the case of involuntary treatment. The Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine (Convention of Οviedo), the European Convention of Human Rights, other documents of International Organizations (UN) and specialized national legislation (A. 2071/1992, Chapter vi, Greek law) constitute basic reference and interpretation points. The examination of consent and the demarcation of the exceptions are important issues that need to be approached. More particularly, our interest lies with the article 7 of the Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine, which specifically refers to the protection of person who suffers from a mental disorder. The opinion that informed consent in psychiatric treatment and involuntary treatment are concepts and processes which are distinct but not always mutually exclusive is enhanced. In any case, involuntary treatment causes major dilemmas as far as informed consent in the psychiatric act is concerned, as it raises issues that affect the autonomy of the person. Today, however, there are many factors which influence public politics towards the adoption of the measure of involuntary treatment within the community. How is it that this paradoxical link is legitimized and justified: involuntary treatment and community? The enactment of the above mentioned measure in many European and North American countries has created new paths in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. Nonetheless, it

  10. Everyday ethical dilemmas arising with electronic record use in primary care.

    PubMed

    Balka, Ellen; Tolar, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of electronic medical record systems (EMRs) into primary care settings alters work practices, introduces new challenges, and new roles. In the process of integrating an EMR into a primary care setting, clinic staff faced ethical challenges in their everyday work practices resulting from workarounds undertaken to compensate for a poor fit between system design and work practices, issues related to system access, and governance gaps. Examples of these issues are presented, and implications for system design are discussed.

  11. The "Other Voices" in Contemporary Ethical Dilemmas: The Value of the New Scholarship on Women in the Teaching of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll

    This paper indicates the need for women's studies ethics courses and the examination of student concepts of morality. It proposes the ethical study of social problems not usually considered in undergraduate classes and illustrates the importance of the study of historical perspectives and situational ethics in the teaching of complex contemporary…

  12. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliott, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one’s social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  13. Grounded for an ethical dilemma: disequilibrium in a commercial airline pilot.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Friedlander, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the case of a 41-year-old airline pilot with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who requests that his diagnosis not be disclosed to his commercial airline employer or his aviation medical examiner because it may result in the suspension of medical certification. The legal and ethical requirements for physicians reporting impaired pilots are discussed as well as practical recommendations for handling such situations. The argument is made that a physician's obligation to honor patient confidentiality should not take precedence over his or her duty to protect the safety and well-being of the airplane passengers and the general public. If the patient chooses not to self-report, a physician has an ethical obligation to report the patient's medical condition to the Federal Aviation Administration.

  14. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice.

  15. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umeora, OUJ; Chukwuneke, FN

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice. PMID:23634339

  16. The organizational context of ethical dilemmas: a role-playing simulation for the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Strosberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    The allocation of health care resources often requires decision makers to balance conflicting ethical principles. The resource-constrained intensive care unit (ICU) provides an ideal setting to study how decision makers go about their balancing act in a complex and dynamic environment. The author presents a role-playing simulation exercise which models ICU admission and discharge decision making. Designed for the class-room, the simulation engages a variety of ethical, managerial, and public policy issues including end-of-life decision making, triage, and rationing. The simulation is based on a sequence of scenarios or "decision rounds" delineating conditions in the ICU in terms of disposition of ICU patients, number of available ICU beds, prognoses of candidates for admission, and other physiological and organizational information. Students, playing the roles of attending physician, hospital administrator, nurse manager, triage officer, and ethics committee member, are challenged to reach consensus in the context of multiple power centers and conflicting goals. An organization theory perspective, incorporated into the simulation, provides insight on how decisions are actually made and stimulates discussion on how decision making might be improved.

  17. Evolving friendships and shifting ethical dilemmas: fieldworkers' experiences in a short term community based study in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Theobald, Sally J; Munywoki, Patrick K; Koech, Dorothy; Geissler, Wenzel P; Molyneux, Sassy C

    2013-04-01

    Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regularly visiting 47 participating households in their homes. The qualitative study documented how relationships between field workers and research participants were initiated, developed and evolved over the course of the study, the shifting dilemmas FWs faced and how they handled them. Even in this one case study, we see how the complex and evolving relationships between fieldworkers and study participants had important implications for consent processes, access to benefits and mutual understanding and trust. While the precise issues that FWs face are likely to depend on the type of research and the context in which that research is being conducted, we argue that appropriate support for field workers is a key requirement to strengthen ethical research practice and for the long term sustainability of research programmes. PMID:23433316

  18. Virtue ethics--an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 2. The case for inclusive virtue ethics.

    PubMed

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-03-01

    While Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges. This two-part paper proposes a version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. Part 2 examines the role of basic moral theory as the foundation to ethics and suggests how virtue theory can be used as a central framework for ethics while being inclusive of insights from deontology and consequentialism.

  19. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Slovenia: availability, ethical dilemmas and legislation

    PubMed Central

    Vrecar, Irena; Peterlin, Borut; Teran, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over the last few years, many private companies are advertising direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), mostly with no or only minor clinical utility and validity of tests and without genetic counselling. International professional community does not approve provision of DTC GT and situation in some EU countries has been analysed already. The aim of our study was to analyse current situation in the field of DTC GT in Slovenia and related legal and ethical issues. Materials and methods Information was retrieved through internet search, performed independently by two authors, structured according to individual private company and the types of offered genetic testing. Results Five private companies and three Health Insurance Companies offer DTC GT and it is provided without genetic counselling. Available tests include testing for breast cancer, tests with other health-related information (complex diseases, drug responses) and other tests (nutrigenetic, ancestry, paternity). National legislation is currently being developed and Council of Experts in Medical Genetics has issued an opinion about Genetic Testing and Commercialization of Genetic Tests in Slovenia. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia has signed the Additional protocol to the convention on human rights and biomedicine, concerning genetic testing for health purposes, DTC GT in Slovenia is present and against all international recommendations. There is lack of or no medical supervision, clinical validity and utility of tests and inappropriate genetic testing of minors is available. There is urgent need for regulation of ethical, legal, and social aspects. National legislation on DTC GT is being prepared. PMID:25672471

  20. Re-examining the basis for ethical dementia care practice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Louise; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth

    Ethical nursing practice is an important component of quality dementia care. To be ethically competent, and to acquire the language, knowledge and skills required to explore and resolve ethical dilemmas in practice, the nurse needs an understanding of ethics and of the theory behind ethical decision-making. Traditional theories of ethics and ethical principles are commonly used to explore the dilemmas faced in dementia care practice. While these theories remain influential in healthcare practice, more contemporary ethical theories are equally relevant to the examination of the ordinary and extraordinary ethical dilemmas that present in conditions such as dementia. In this article, the ethical considerations central to effective dementia care nursing will be examined.

  1. Workplace Literacy: Ethical Issues through the Lens of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folinsbee, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace…

  2. Beyond Avoidance and Secrecy: Using Students' Practice to Teach Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringel, Shoshana; Mishna, Faye

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a process-oriented approach to teaching ethical dilemmas to graduate social work students. The authors examine related empirical data and use classroom vignettes to illustrate their teaching methods. Several ethical dilemmas in different phases of clinical practice will be presented, including gift giving and receiving,…

  3. The ethics of non-sexual dual relationships: a dilemma for the rural mental health professional.

    PubMed

    Brownlee, K

    1996-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the issues that affect the rural mental health professional who wishes to maintain an ethical position with respect to non-sexual dual relationships. Although the ethical codes of professional regulating bodies provide general guidelines for professional conduct, they do not offer specific guidance for practical decision-making. Furthermore, there appear to be some contrasting opinions between the various ethical codes with respect to what would be considered unethical behavior in a non-sexual dual relationship. Alternative decision making models that may be of help to a rural practitioner for assessing the ethics of such a relationship are reviewed. PMID:8891415

  4. HIV/AIDS in Early Childhood Centers: The Ethical Dilemma of Confidentiality versus Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the privacy dilemma encountered by early childhood practitioners when they find out that a child in their program or one of the child's family members has HIV/AIDS. Provides general and specific guidelines regarding HIV/AIDS, describes universal precautions in child care settings, and delineates myths and facts about HIV/AIDS. (KB)

  5. The dilemma and reality of transplant tourism: an ethical perspective for liver transplant programs.

    PubMed

    Schiano, Thomas D; Rhodes, Rosamond

    2010-02-01

    Transplant programs are likely to encounter increasing numbers of patients who return after receiving an organ transplant abroad. These patients will require ongoing medical care to monitor their immunosuppression and to provide treatment when the need arises. Transplant societies have condemned transplantation with organs purchased abroad and with organs procured from executed prisoners in China. Nevertheless, transplant programs require guidance on how to respond to the needs of returning transplant tourists and to the needs of patients who may choose to become transplant tourists. This discussion presents a case that raised such issues in our program. It goes on to offer reasons for considering a program's responses in terms of the most relevant principles of medical ethics, namely beneficence and nonjudgmental regard.

  6. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident-An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina; Cristache, Corina Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur. PMID:27672458

  7. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur. PMID:27672458

  8. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur.

  9. 'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alison

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children.

  10. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention: The Case of Telephone Helpline Rescue Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…

  11. Faculty Ethics: New Dilemmas, New Choices. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt

    Faculty ethics are considered in relation to conflict of interest between academic work and nonacademic consulting jobs, confidentiality of research, the employment of faculty by intelligence agencies, and the need for self-regulation by the academic community. For faculty members who serve as consultants, ethical issues arise concerning the use…

  12. Ethical issues in pediatric life-threatening illness: dilemmas of consent, assent, and communication.

    PubMed

    Kunin, Howard

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of life-threatening illnesses in childhood is replete with ethical issues and with clinical issues that have ethical implications. The central issues are those involved with a child's participation in the decision-making process and with communication of information about the illness and treatments to children. This article examines the questions of patient autonomy and of parental responsibility and prerogative in the context of pediatric oncology. Included in this examination of the ethical dimensions of pediatric life-threatening illness is a discussion of the many related aspects involved, including medical, cultural, psychosocial, legal, and developmental. A multidimensional approach that considers the ways in which these multiple aspects interact with one another, and which focuses on establishing a strong working alliance between the health care team and the pediatric patient's family, can help to avoid or resolve potential ethical and clinical conflicts.

  13. Ethical considerations of human investigation in developing countries: the AIDS dilemma.

    PubMed

    Barry, M

    1988-10-20

    In the efforts to develop a vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), attention has focused on sub-Saharan Africa, where large populations at risk for HIV infection could be studied easily. Cross cultural bioethics must be examined to address the ethical implications and cultural obstacles of such research. Autonomy and informed consent are difficult to achieve in cultures with limited personal choice. In some cultures, individual personhood is secondary to social relationships in the tribe or village. Language barriers, illiteracy, and the lack of knowledge about modern science all make it difficult to adequately inform participants. While the Helsinki Declaration emphasizes that a subject's well-being takes precedence over the interests of science and society, health policy decisions in nonautonomous populations often place state interests over the individual. Political sensitivities have been aroused by attempts to attribute the origin of AIDS to western or central Africa, leading political controversy and discrimination against Africans. Foreign researchers often exclude African participation once they have obtained the body fluid samples for study. Without joint collaboration and education, human research in developing countries can easily become exploitative. Justice dictates that research subjects be chosen for scientific reasons, not due to easy availability or ability to be manipulated. In vaccine development, Africans should not experience a disproportionate amount of risk without an equal share in the benefits. Furthermore, malnutrition, malaria, tuberculosis, and many other diseases present more urgent health problems to the developing world than AIDS. The health care priorities of the developing nations must be considered. PMID:3173436

  14. Health Care Ethics: Dilemmas, Issues and Conflicts. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Annual Fall Workshop (6th, Indianapolis, Indiana, September 5-6, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prock, Valencia N., Ed.; And Others

    A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4) "Compassion, Technology & the…

  15. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  16. The Conceptual and Practical Ethical Dilemmas of Using Health Discussion Board Posts as Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Martin; Thomas, Bronwen; Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of people living with a long-term health condition are putting personal health information online, including on discussion boards. Many discussion boards contain material of potential use to researchers; however, it is unclear how this information can and should be used by researchers. To date there has been no evaluation of the views of those individuals sharing health information online regarding the use of their shared information for research purposes. Objective To explore the views of contributors to online diabetes discussion boards with regards to if (and how) they feel their contributions to boards should be used by health researchers. Methods A qualitative approach was employed using online semistructured asynchronous (email) interviews. Interpretative description methodology was used to assess the interview transcripts, and quotations were extracted and anonymized to support each theme. Results 26 interviews were carried out. Participants agreed that forum posts are in the public domain and that aggregated information could be freely used by researchers. This was agreed to be a good way of ensuring that the view of people living with diabetes is being heard in research. There was no consensus on the need for permission to use individual information, such as quotations, with some people happy for this to be freely used and others feeling that permission is necessary. Conclusions Participants acknowledged the dichotomy of having placed information into the public domain in an unrestricted way, with some interviewees also wanting to retain control of its use. The Internet is a new research location, and rather than trying to apply traditional ethical norms to this new genre, a new modus operandi is required. The authors propose introducing new norms for presenting research carried out with online discussion boards. PMID:23748147

  17. Ethical Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  18. Ethical and Epistemic Dilemmas in Knowledge Production: Addressing Their Intersection in Collaborative, Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Ronald David; Newman, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative community-based research can bring a range of benefits to universities, communities, and the public more broadly. A distinct virtue of collaborative community-based research is that it makes the ethical-epistemic intersections and challenges in research a focal point of its methodology. This makes collaborative community-based…

  19. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

  20. Ethical Issues in Covering Teen Suicide Stories: Deadly Dilemmas and Fatal Flaws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Susan

    A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…

  1. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, A.

    2001-01-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".1 Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues—which are often not acknowledged by commentators—that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). Key Words: World Bank • poverty • health • population • health economics • global ethics PMID:11479358

  2. Ethical and Epistemic Dilemmas in Empirically-Engaged Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines several ethical and epistemological issues that arise when philosophers conduct empirical research focused on, or in collaboration with, community groups seeking to bring about systemic change. This type of research can yield important policy lessons about effective community-driven reform and how to incorporate the voices of…

  3. An Ethical Exercise for the Social Studies Classroom: The Trolley Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sean M.; Byford, Jeffrey M.; Cox, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Trolley Problem as defined in this paper is a series, or continuation, of increasingly difficult ethical riddles successfully implemented in a classroom environment to spur complex, critical thinking and dialogue. The activity is designed upon the scenario of a runaway train with different and challenging choices, segueing neatly into group…

  4. On Tour with the "Accidental" Expert: Ethical Dilemmas of the Development Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Michael L.

    This paper explores Max Weber's study of the origins of the secularization of the Puritan work ethic and examines the hybridized category of secular science expert. The hybrid construct provides an opening for the critical analysis of the concrete activity of development from two perspectives, the structural and the individual. The individual…

  5. Caring for 'Very Important Patients'--Ethical Dilemmas and Suggestions for Practical Management.

    PubMed

    Alfandre, David; Clever, Sarah; Farber, Neil J; Hughes, Mark T; Redstone, Paul; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani

    2016-02-01

    The care of Very Important Patients (VIPs) is different from other patients because they may receive greater access, attention, and resources from health care staff. Although the term VIP is used regularly in the medical literature and is implicitly understood, in practice it constitutes a wide and heterogeneous group of patients that have a strong effect on health care providers. We define a VIP as a very influential patient whose individual attributes and characteristics (eg, social status, occupation, position), coupled with their behavior, have the potential to significantly influence a clinician's judgment or behavior. Physicians, celebrities, the politically powerful, and philanthropists, may all become VIPs in the appropriate context. The quality of care may be inferior because health care professionals may deviate from standard practices when caring for them. Understanding the common features among what may otherwise be very different groups of patients can help health care providers manage ethical concerns when they arise. We use a series of vignettes to demonstrate how VIPs behavior and status can influence a clinician's judgment or actions. Appreciating the ethical principles in these varied circumstances provides health care professionals with the tools to manage ethical conflicts that arise in the care of VIPs. We conclude each vignette with guidance for how health care providers and administrators can manage the ethical concern.

  6. Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…

  7. International Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Australian Managers: Implications for the Training and Development of Employees Working Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas…

  8. COVER It: A Comprehensive Framework for Guiding Students through Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…

  9. The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

  10. Pedagogical Ethical Dilemmas in a Responsive Evaluation of a Leadership Program for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Melissa; Preissle, Judith

    2010-01-01

    How do responsive evaluators provide input to program planners when competing ethical principles point to different choices of effective feedback? A team of three evaluators used participant observation, individual and focus group interviews, and analysis of documents to provide input on the development and outcome of a summer program for high…

  11. Assessing the Role of Business Faculty Values and Background in the Recognition of an Ethical Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Auken, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The author sought to determine whether business faculty values and background can discriminate between a yes or no response to the introduction of an ethically challenged product. The results reveal that two competing views of the enterprise (stakeholder vs. stockholder) along with a faculty member's departmental membership do discriminate in the…

  12. Learned Ethical Behavior: An Academic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, David E.; Capozzoli, Ernest A.; Rajamma, Rajasree K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyzed the reactions of various academic-level respondent groups to 14 short scenarios reflecting ethical dilemmas in higher education and research. As the authors hypothesized, groups differed in their views of the dilemmas presented. The results did not support a 2nd hypothesis predicting a linear relationship between academic…

  13. The Medical Ethics Curriculum in Medical Schools: Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course.

  14. The Medical Ethics Curriculum in Medical Schools: Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course. PMID:27333063

  15. Ethical Obligations in the Face of Dilemmas Concerning Patient Privacy and Public Interests: The Sasebo Schoolgirl Murder Case.

    PubMed

    Kadooka, Yasuhiro; Okita, Taketoshi; Asai, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    A murder case that had some features in common with the Tarasoff case occurred in Sasebo City, Japan, in 2014. A 15-year-old high school girl was murdered and her 16-year-old classmate was arrested on suspicion of homicide. One and a half months before the murder, a psychiatrist who had been examining the girl called a prefectural child consultation centre to warn that she might commit murder, but he did not reveal her name, considering it his professional duty to keep it confidential. Article 134 of the Japanese Criminal Law states that doctors should not disclose patient information obtained in clinical practice without a legitimate reason, but the Japanese Supreme Court has not specified what constitutes a legitimate reason. Mass media and commentators suggested that the murder could have been prevented if the psychiatrist had disclosed the girl's name to the authorities or had isolated her coercively in a psychiatric ward. However, the authors disagree with such claims. This article discusses obligations imposed on concerned individuals and third party members in cases involving ethical dilemmas regarding patient confidentiality and information disclosure. It is concluded that everyone should fulfill their obligations to prevent such tragedies and one should judge the appropriateness of others' actions based not on the consequences of their actions, but on the processes used to decide on a course of action and their commitment. It is necessary for us to establish a society in which concerned parties can do what they think is ethically best without fearing ungrounded charges. PMID:26833626

  16. Ethics committees in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Hogstel, Mildred O; Curry, Linda C; Walker, Charles A; Burns, Paulette G

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical ethical dilemmas occur in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), particularly in the absence of residents' advance directives. Ethics committees are required in hospitals and long-term care facilities accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), but many LTCFs do not have JCAHO accreditation. A survey of LTCFs in one county in a Southwestern state found that only 29% of those LTCFs responding had an organized ethics committee. This article discusses the purpose, membership, and meetings of an ethics committee in LTCFs. A sample process for resolving a biomedical ethical dilemma is presented. Nurses can initiate the development of an ethics committee using available resources or combining resources with other local LTCFs. The ethics committee should consider the education of all persons involved to facilitate resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas.

  17. Leadership Tensions and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Bill; Mulford, Bill; Kendall, Diana; Kendall, Lawrie

    2008-01-01

    Results from the Tasmanian Successful School Principal Project (SSPP) survey concur with the four major leadership tensions and dilemmas identified in a background literature review. These tensions and dilemmas relate to internal/external control, ethic of care/responsibility, and an emphasis on professional/personal as well as…

  18. Resolving ethical dilemmas in suicide prevention: the case of telephone helpline rescue policies.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Brian L; Weisstub, David N

    2010-04-01

    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to decide to die by suicide; U.S. helplines oblige emergency intervention during an attempt even against the caller's will. We analyze the effect of emergency rescue when there is high suicide risk but an attempt has not been initiated. We examine links between values and actions, needs for empirical evidence to guide practice, and propose vigorous dialogue about values in the gray zone of moral practice.

  19. Ethical dilemmas for house staff physicians. The care of critically ill and dying patients.

    PubMed

    Winkenwerder, W

    1985-12-27

    Winkenwerder describes a disagreement about proper management of a critically ill patient that arose during his tenure as a house staff physician. Despite the attending physician's consideration of the family's wishes and the best interests of the patient, the resident was uneasy with the decision to continue life-prolonging treatment and the role he was to play in implementing such procedures. The author argues that ethical decisions within the group of physicians caring for a patient, especially one who is terminally ill, are not always resolved to everyone's satisfaction. What then are the rights and duties of residents to refuse further participation in care? Winkenwerder suggests dealing with conflicts through recognizing value differences, increasing formal ethics teaching, using consultants, and maximizing communication among members of patient care teams.

  20. Ethical Dilemmas for Oocyte Donations: Slippery Slope for Conflicts of Interest.

    PubMed

    Tulay, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte donations have increased with improvements in oocyte cryopreservation procedures in recent years. Women with medical conditions that require chemotherapy or radiotherapy have begun to opt for oocyte cryo¬preservation prior to their treatment or to enroll in an oocyte donation program. Alternatively, some women apply for "third-party" oocyte donation programs for nonmedical reasons such as delayed childbearing. Although society seems to accept oocyte donations for medical reasons, it appears that there are still some moral issues surrounding nonmedical oocyte donations. In this review, the ethical aspects of oocyte donations and donors' perspectives are discussed. With developing technologies, the genetic screening of donors has expanded to include diseases. This review explores the ethical issues involved in genetic screening of gamete donors. PMID:27480775

  1. The use of pornographic materials by adolescent male cancer patients when banking sperm in the UK: legal and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A

    2007-09-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648

  2. The use of pornographic materials by adolescent male cancer patients when banking sperm in the UK: legal and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A

    2007-09-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined.

  3. Long-term care of the aged: ethical dilemmas and solutions.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, J L; Caron-Parker, L M

    1991-07-01

    This article identifies the need to rethink beliefs and assumptions about the bioethics of long-term care of elderly people. An unconventional way of conceptualizing autonomy is explored that may help occupational therapists support and maintain the independence of older frail and dependent persons. In addition, the partnership model of bioethics is introduced-that is, an ethical framework that makes partners of family members in health care decisions affecting the older adult. PMID:1928276

  4. Female genital mutilation: when a cultural practice generates clinical and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Gibeau, A M

    1998-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is of growing concern to health care providers in the United States and Canada as more women from countries where the procedure is practiced emigrate to North America. An introduction to the demographics of FGM, including prevalence rates, is a necessary antecedent for understanding the cultural rationales for this widespread practice. Considering the health consequences of this practice promotes questions about legal and ethical aspects of care as North Americans approach FGM from their own individual cultural frameworks.

  5. Ethical dilemmas in care for HIV infection among French general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Moatti, J P; Souville, M; Obadia, Y; Morina, M; Sebbah, R; Gamby, T; Gallais, H; Gastaut, J A

    1995-03-01

    A survey was carried out in May-June 1992, in the city of Marseille (South-Eastern France), to analyze attitudes towards ethical issues associated with the care of HIV-infected patients in a random sample of general practitioners (GPs) (telephone interviews; answer rate = 78.6%; n = 313). A total of 70.6% were consulted by HIV carriers and 48.9% regularly took care of these patients over the past year. Multi-dimensional analysis showed that support for HIV mandatory screening was related to lack of knowledge and experience with HIV infection, high perception of risks associated with HIV care, and the individual characteristics of GPs, such as religious beliefs and intolerance to uncertain situations. GPs with experience of regular care of HIV carriers had the same opinions than the rest of the sample about 'creation of specialized hospitals for AIDS patients' and similar attitudes toward HIV testing 'without patients' consent' or breaching of confidentiality of HIV diagnosis. Debates on ethical issues among GPs cannot be reduced to a simplistic division of a 'liberal group' highly involved in prevention and HIV care and a 'conservative' majority more or less inclined to stigmatize HIV-infected patients. Ambiguous messages on these issues from health authorities and professional ethical bodies may have very negative impacts on the attitudes of primary care physicians regarding the acceptability of HIV-infected patients.

  6. ETHICAL ASPECTS AND DILEMMAS OF PREPARING, WRITING AND PUBLISHING OF THE SCIENTIFIC PAPERS IN THE BIOMEDICAL JOURNALS

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    surrounding the reporting of COI that should be progressively overcome. Further actions are required to increase awareness of the importance of COI disclosure and to promote policies aimed to enhance transparency in biomedical research. In this article author discuss about important ethical dilemmas in preparing, writing and publishing of scientific manuscripts in biomedical journals. PMID:23322969

  7. Corporate management and clinical autonomy: the ethical dilemma in mental health.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B; Ward, P

    1997-01-01

    Funding constraints and management practices are increasing pressure on clinical autonomy within Australian mental health services. The introduction of total quality management, output-based funding and changes to public mental health policy have promoted business-like efficiency and increased control of resources. It is argued that such moves significantly circumscribe the discretionary authority that mental health professionals have previously enjoyed. This paper attempts to highlight the ethical and moral tension inherent with a corporate management approach, and calls for mental health services to acknowledge the value of intellectual capital, creativity and innovation.

  8. Brain Science of Ethics: Present Status and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Ryuta; Funane, Tsukasa; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in technologies for neuroscientific research enable us to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the human ethical sense. This article introduces several findings in "the brain science of ethics" obtained through "brain-observation" and "brain-manipulation" approaches. Studies over the past decade have revealed that several…

  9. `I Don't Even Have Time to be Their Friend!' Ethical Dilemmas in Ph.D. Supervision in the Hard Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-11-01

    This study focused on exploring students' and supervisors' perceptions of ethical problems in doctoral supervision in the natural sciences. Fifteen supervisors and doctoral students in one research community in the natural sciences were interviewed about their practices and experiences in the doctoral process and supervision. We explored to what extent doctoral students and supervisors experienced similar or different ethical challenges in the supervisory relationship and analyzed how the experiences of ethical dilemmas in supervision could be understood in light of the structure and practices of natural science research groups. The data were analyzed by theory-driven content analysis. Five ethical principles, namely non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, fidelity and justice, were used as a framework for identifying ethical issues. The results show that one major question that appears to underpin many of the emerging ethical issues is that the supervisors and students have different expectations of the supervisory role. The second important observation is that doctoral students primarily described their own experiences, whereas the supervisors described their activities as embedded in a system and elaborated on the causes and consequences at a system level.

  10. Ethical Considerations in Maintaining Confidentiality with Dangerous Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, J. Kelley

    This paper discusses ethical considerations involved in breach of confidentiality in counseling dangerous clients, i.e., those who have the potential to inflict bodily harm on others. The ethical basis for confidentiality is presented in a model for decision making in ethical dilemmas which encompasses three evaluative levels or tiers: ethical…

  11. Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section in Low Resource Settings: The Clinical and Ethical Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wanyonyi, Sikolia; Muriithi, Francis G

    2015-10-01

    Vaginal birth after Caesarean section (VBAC) has long been practised in low resource settings using unconventional methods. This not only poses danger to the woman and her baby, but could also have serious legal and ethical implications. The adoption of this practice has been informed by observational studies with many deficiencies; this is so despite other studies from settings in which the standard of care is much better that show that elective repeat Caesarean section (ERCS) may actually be safer than VBAC. This raises questions about whether we should insist on a dangerous practice when there are safer alternatives. We highlight some of the challenges faced in making this decision, and discuss why the fear of ERCS may not be justified after all in low resource settings. Since a reduction in rates of Caesarean section may not be applicable in these regions, because their rates are already low, the emphasis should instead be on adequate birth spacing and safer primary operative delivery.

  12. Legal consequences and ethical dilemmas of pain perception in persistent vegetative states.

    PubMed

    Rifkinson-Mann, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    "Persistent vegetative state" (PVS) describes brain-damaged patients who survive their injuries in a sleeplike, insensible state, with periodic awakenings. Due to technological advances, such individuals can sustain biological existence for prolonged periods of time. Their existence results in a dichotomy between the legal and medical interpretations of persistent vegetative states, giving rise to ethical conflicts. The author reviews the limitations in our understanding of what PVS signifies for the afflicted individual, and explores the conflicts arising from such limitations that may impact an individual's right to live or die. The author concludes that the medical community has yet to adopt consistent clinical criteria to diagnose PVS and that a universal standard for PVS is needed to avoid the abuse of vegetative individuals' rights.

  13. Ethical issues, dilemmas and controversies in 'cosmetic' or aesthetic dentistry. A personal opinion.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, M

    2012-04-27

    Stephen Hancocks' elegant editorial of 11 December 2011 raises interesting questions which deserve discussion. Most experienced dentists would agree that the less that is done to teeth for cosmetic reasons, the lesser are the risks of disappointment, failure of expectation, or threat of litigation. Yet there is an increasing number of cases where aesthetics are the primary concern for dentists and patients alike and some patients are consenting to treatment without being properly informed of the destructive nature of the procedures to their sound tooth tissue and structures to achieve the desired 'cosmetic' outcome. This raises ethical issues, as much of this overtreatment is unnecessarily destructive and goes against the healing and caring principles of the dental profession.

  14. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged.

  15. A code of ethics for health care ethics consultants: journey to the present and implications for the field.

    PubMed

    Tarzian, Anita J; Wocial, Lucia D

    2015-01-01

    For decades a debate has played out in the literature about who bioethicists are, what they do, whether they can be considered professionals qua bioethicists, and, if so, what professional responsibilities they are called to uphold. Health care ethics consultants are bioethicists who work in health care settings. They have been seeking guidance documents that speak to their special relationships/duties toward those they serve. By approving a Code of Ethics and Professional Responsibilities for Health Care Ethics Consultants, the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) has moved the professionalization debate forward in a significant way. This first code of ethics focuses on individuals who provide health care ethics consultation (HCEC) in clinical settings. The evolution of the code's development, implications for the field of HCEC and bioethics, and considerations for future directions are presented here.

  16. Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd

    2008-01-01

    It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

  17. Protest of doctors: a basic human right or an ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peaceful protests and strikes are a basic human right as stated in the United Nations’ universal declaration on human rights. But for doctors, their proximity to life and death and the social contract between a doctor and a patient are stated as the reasons why doctors are valued more than the ordinary beings. In Pakistan, strikes by doctors were carried out to protest against lack of service structure, security and low pay. This paper discusses the moral and ethical concerns pertaining to the strikes by medical doctors in the context of Pakistan. The author has carefully tried to balance the discussion about moral repercussions of strikes on patients versus the circumstances of doctors working in public sector hospitals of a developing country that may lead to strikes. Discussion Doctors are envisaged as highly respectable due to their direct link with human lives. Under Hippocrates oath, care of the patient is a contractual obligation for the doctors and is superior to all other responsibilities. From utilitarian perspective, doctors’ strikes are justifiable only if there is evidence of long term benefits to the doctors, patients and an improvement in service delivery. Despite that, it is hard to justify such benefits against the risks to the patients. Harms that may incur to the patients include: prolongation of sufferings, irreversible damage to health, delay in treatment, death, loss of work and waste of financial resources. In a system of socialized medicine, government owing to greater control over resources and important managerial decisions should assume greater responsibility and do justice to all stakeholders including doctors as well as patients. If a doctor is underpaid, has limited options for career growth and is forced to work excessively, then not only quality of medical care and ability to act in the best interests of patients is adversely affected, it may also lead to brain drain. Summary There is no single best answer against or

  18. Rubber dam application in endodontic practice: an update on critical educational and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H M A; Cohen, S; Lévy, G; Steier, L; Bukiet, F

    2014-12-01

    Proper isolation is an essential prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. This article aims to provide an update on the prevalence of rubber dam (RD) use, and the role of education along with attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) and patients towards the application of RD in endodontics. Critical ethical issues are also highlighted. Using certain keywords, an electronic search was conducted spanning the period from January 1983 to April 2013 to identify the available related investigations, and the pooled data were then analysed. The results show that although RD is the Standard of Care in endodontic practice, there is a clear discrepancy in what GDPs are taught in dental school and what they practice after graduation. There is little scientific evidence to support the application of RD; however, patient safety and clinical practice guidelines indicate that it is unnecessary and unethical to consider a cohort study to prove what is already universally agreed upon. A few clinical situations may require special management which should be highlighted in the current guidelines. This would pave the way for clear and straightforward universal guidelines.

  19. Does the Golem Feel Pain? Moral Instincts and Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Suffering and the Brain.

    PubMed

    Devor, Marshall; Rappaport, Isabelle; Rappaport, Z Harry

    2015-07-01

    Pain has variously been used as a means of punishment, extracting information, or testing commitment, as a tool for education and social control, as a commodity for sacrifice, and as a draw for sport and entertainment. Attitudes concerning these uses have undergone major changes in the modern era. Normative convictions on what is right and wrong are generally attributed to religious tradition or to secular-humanist reasoning. Here, we elaborate the perspective that ethical choices concerning pain have much earlier roots that are based on instincts and brain-seated empathetic responses. They are fundamentally a function of brain circuitry shaped by processes of Darwinian evolution. Social convention and other environmental influences, with their idiosyncrasies, are a more recent, ever-changing overlay. We close with an example in which details on the neurobiology of pain processing, specifically the question of where in the brain the experience of pain is generated, affect decision making in end-of-life situations. By separating innate biological substrates from culturally imposed attitudes (memes), we may arrive at a more reasoned approach to a morality of pain prevention. PMID:24766620

  20. Publishing Ethics and Predatory Practices: A Dilemma for All Stakeholders of Science Communication

    PubMed Central

    Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N.; Kitas, George D.

    2015-01-01

    Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles. PMID:26240476

  1. Publishing Ethics and Predatory Practices: A Dilemma for All Stakeholders of Science Communication.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N; Kitas, George D

    2015-08-01

    Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles.

  2. Medical geneticists confront ethical dilemmas: cross-cultural comparisons among 18 nations.

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, D C; Fletcher, J C; Mulvihill, J J

    1990-01-01

    To provide a basis for international discussion of ethical problems, we studied responses of medical geneticists in 18 countries to questionnaires about 14 clinical cases and five screening situations. Of 1,053 asked to participate, 677 (64%) responded. There was greater than or equal to 75% consensus on five cases involving (1) disclosure of (1) conflicting diagnostic findings, (2) disclosure of ambiguous results, (3) disclosure of controversial interpretations, (4) protection of mother's confidentiality in cases of false paternity, and (5) nondirective counseling about 45,X and XYY syndrome. A majority (51%-60%) would disclose the diagnosis to relatives at risk for Huntington disease or hemophilia A, against the patient's wishes; would disclose which parent carries a translocation causing Down syndrome; and would disclose XY genotype in a female. As reproductive options for patients with disorders not diagnosable prenatally, 84% would discuss artificial insemination by a donor, 66% would discuss in vitro fertilization with donor egg, and 46% would discuss surrogate motherhood. In all, 85% would perform prenatal diagnosis for (or would refer) parents who refuse abortion, 75% for maternal anxiety, and 42% for selection of fetal sex. Screening questions showed that 72% believed that workplace screening should be voluntary and that results should be confidential. PMID:2339711

  3. Body enhancement through female genital cosmetic surgery creates ethical and rights dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Cain, Joanna M; Iglesia, Cheryl B; Dickens, Bernard; Montgomery, Owen

    2013-08-01

    Female genital cosmetic surgery is surgery performed on a woman within a normal range of variation of human anatomy. The issues are heightened by a lack of long-term and substantive evidence-based literature, conflict of interest from personal financial gain through performing these procedures, and confusion around macroethical and microethical domains. It is a source of conflict and controversy globally because the benefit and harm of offering these procedures raise concerns about harmful cultural views, education, and social vulnerability of women with regard to both ethics and human rights. The rights issues of who is defining normal female anatomy and function, as well as the economic vulnerability of women globally, bequeath the profession a greater responsibility to ensure that there is adequate health and general education-not just among patients but broadly in society-that there is neither limitation nor interference in the decision being made, and that there are no psychological disorders that could be influencing such choices.

  4. Publishing Ethics and Predatory Practices: A Dilemma for All Stakeholders of Science Communication.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N; Kitas, George D

    2015-08-01

    Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles. PMID:26240476

  5. Polygrapher's dilemma or psychologist's chimaera: a reply to Furedy's logico-ethical considerations for psychophysiological practitioners and researchers.

    PubMed

    Honts, C R; Kircher, J C; Raskin, D C

    1995-12-01

    We respond to Furedy's article in this journal where he raised an issue he referred to as the "Polygrapher's dilemma" (Furedy, J.J. (1993) Int. J. Psychophysiol., 15: 263-267). Furedy claimed that the control question test, the most commonly applied psychophysiological detection of deception test, is inherently subjective and harmful to subjects in both the field and the laboratory. Fortunately, Furedy's arguments were based on inaccurate representations of the control question test and on flawed logic. To correct Furedy's misrepresentations, we present an accurate description of how the control question test is used and evaluated. We then examine the results of empirical research that address Furedy's concerns. Furedy's concerns are found to be lacking on almost all counts. Finally, we discuss the findings from several studies that Furedy failed to mention but are directly relevant to the issues he raised.

  6. Social and Ethical Issues. Paper Presentations: Session A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains nine papers from the social and ethical issues section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Attitudes of University Faculty Members toward Students with Disabilities" (Marie F. Kraska); "Attitude of Gaming…

  7. The medical-legal quandary of healthcare in capital punishment: an ethical dilemma for the anesthesia provider.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin W

    2008-12-01

    The case of Brase v Rees was presented before the US Supreme Court to consider the constitutionality of death by lethal injection as practiced in the state of Kentucky. The 3-drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride is a key aspect in question. Capital punishment conflicts with medical and nursing code of ethics preventing providers who are skilled at difficult intravenous (IV) access, assessment of appropriate sedation, and involvement without fear of disciplinary action. Therefore, untrained or undertrained personnel from the prison have been delegated these duties. Cases in which failure to establish or maintain IV access has led to executions lasting up to 90 minutes before the execution was complete. Participation by skilled medical personnel has been a debate between the medical and legal communities since the inception of lethal injection. Healthcare should reevaluate the ethical and moral principle of beneficence as the legal system attempts to evaluate the constitutionality of lethal injection. Can a nurse or doctor step out of the role of medical professional, use knowledge and skill to make death by lethal injection more humane, and not violate the ethical principle of "do no harm"?

  8. Ethical Issues in the Assessment and Treatment of a Rational Suicidal Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipe, Rosetta M.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that rational client's decision to commit suicide may present complex ethical issues for therapist. Presents and discusses three-month account of therapy with client, from perspective of ethical values and principles upon which assessment and treatment decisions were made, and complex ethical dilemmas encountered as therapist juxtaposed…

  9. The Prevent programme: an ethical dilemma for teachers as well as psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The UK government's Prevent programme affects professionals and the people who rely on their services across the public sector, particularly now that workers are legally bound to report their concerns about individuals they believe to be at risk of radicalisation. This article discusses the risks that the strategy presents to the work of teachers and the bonds of trusts between staff and students. PMID:27087992

  10. Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

    2008-01-01

    Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

  11. Who pays for providing spiritual care in healthcare settings? The ethical dilemma of taxpayers funding holistic healthcare and the first amendment requirement for separation of church and state.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Carla Jean Pease

    2009-12-01

    All US governmental, public, and private healthcare facilities and their staff fall under some form of regulatory requirement to provide opportunities for spiritual health assessment and care as a component of holistic healthcare. As often the case with regulations, these facilities face the predicament of funding un-reimbursable care. However, chaplains and nurses who provide most patient spiritual care are paid using funds the facility obtains from patients, private, and public sources. Furthermore, Veteran healthcare services, under the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), are provided with taxpayer funds from local, state, and federal governments. With the recent legal action by the Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. (FFRF) against the Veterans Administration, the ethical dilemma surfaces between taxpayers funding holistic healthcare and the first amendment requirement for separation of church and state. PMID:19890722

  12. Between Ideals and Practice: Journalism Students Facing Ethical Dilemmas in Online Newsroom Teaching--Lessons From Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberholst, Mads Kaemsgaard; Hartley, Jannie Møller; Olsen, Maria Bendix

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at journalism students' experiences in a course that simulates an online newsroom. On the basis of a quantitative survey and more qualitative reflections from the students, we explore the dilemmas that students experience "working" as online journalists and how these are related to broader issues of journalistic…

  13. Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

  14. Dilemmas in Medicine, 2nd Edition 1977. CEM Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undy, Harry, Ed.

    Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…

  15. A child in detention: dilemmas faced by health professionals.

    PubMed

    Zwi, Karen J; Herzberg, Brenda; Dossetor, David; Field, Jyotsna

    2003-09-15

    A 6-year-old child, held in detention with his parents pending the outcome of their application for refugee status, manifested psychological distress by repeated episodes of refusing to eat or drink. This case presented clinical and ethical dilemmas for health professionals who were constrained from acting in the child's best interests by government policy of mandatory detention. PMID:12964917

  16. ‘THEY SAY ISLAM HAS A SOLUTION FOR EVERYTHING, SO WHY ARE THERE NO GUIDELINES FOR THIS?’ ETHICAL DILEMMAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BIRTHS AND DEATHS OF INFANTS WITH FATAL ABNORMALITIES FROM A SMALL SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI MUSLIM COUPLES IN BRITAIN

    PubMed Central

    SHAW, ALISON

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685

  17. Engineering Practice and Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, William T.; Kline, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Offers ways of applying science and technology studies to the teaching of engineering ethics. Suggests modifications of both detailed case studies on engineering disasters and hypothetical, ethical dilemmas employed in engineering ethics classes. (Author/CCM)

  18. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma arising in an ectopic kidney simulating a retroperitoneal dermoid cyst: a rare tumour presenting as a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R; Kataria, K; Balasundaram, P; Karak, A K

    2013-06-01

    Primary mucinous cystic neoplasms are rare tumours of the kidney, with a very few case reports in the literature. They arise from metaplasia of renal pelvic urothelium. We describe here a 45-year-old male who presented with pain in the abdomen and a lump in the left iliac fossa for two months. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a large, complex, heterogenous mass in the central abdomen and left iliac fossa, suggesting the possibility of dermoid cyst. Excision of the mass showed an enlarged multicystic kidney filled with mucin, destruction of renal parenchyma and a small viable area of grey white tumour. Histopathology revealed a peripherally located mucinous cystadenocarcinoma arising in the background of chronic pyelonephritis and mucinous metaplasia. We report this case for the rarity of the lesion and the associated clinical and radiological diagnostic dilemma.

  19. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  20. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  1. Iconoclastic ethics.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1984-12-01

    Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life.

  2. Casuistry, care, compassion, and ethics data analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaul, A L

    1995-03-01

    Traditional approaches to descriptive ethics data analysis do not explicate the nature of ethical dilemmas in critical care and emergency nursing. Using sensitizing concepts of causes of nurse compassion, 168 stories of ethical dilemmas were categorized. They were analyzed from the theoretical perspective of an ethic of care using casuistry. Paradigm cases for each sensitizing concept were constructed. The nature of ethical dilemmas is in the disparity between actual and ideal nursing practice.

  3. A comparison between the ethics of justice and the ethics of care.

    PubMed

    Botes, A

    2000-11-01

    The parameters of the problem within which the principal aim of the present article will be addressed can be described as follows. When making ethical decisions there are different perspectives that health care professionals may use. This may lead to conflict and insufficient co-operation between the members of the health team. Two of these perspectives are the ethics of justice and the ethics of care. The ethics of justice constitutes an ethical perspective in terms of which ethical decisions are made on the basis of universal principles and rules, and in an impartial and verifiable manner with a view to ensuring the fair and equitable treatment of all people. The ethics of care, on the other hand, constitutes an ethical approach in terms of which involvement, harmonious relations and the needs of others play an important part in ethical decision-making in each ethical situation. To seek some sort of way of avoiding conflict and promoting a mutual understanding about ethical decisions in the health team, there is a need to examine the ethics of justice and ethics of care. In order to understand the ethics of justice and ethics of care, the purpose of this article is to compare the two ethical perspectives. It is argued that the ethics of justice and the ethics of care represent opposite poles. If the members of the health team were to use only one of these two perspectives in their ethical decision-making, certain ethical dilemmas would almost certainly remain unresolved. Both the fair and equitable treatment of all people (from the ethics of justice) and the holistic, contextual and need-centred nature of such treatment (from the ethics of care), ought therefore to be retained in the integrated application of the ethics of justice and the ethics of care.

  4. Collision between law and ethics: consent for treatment with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shields, J M; Johnson, A

    1992-01-01

    The dilemmas between legal obligations and ethical responsibilities can often create problems in clinical work. The treatment of minors, and particularly adolescents, can present special issues to the clinician that are becoming increasingly frequent and difficult. The issue of informed consent for treatment of adolescents raises serious questions for the clinical practitioner who is faced with both legal and ethical dilemmas in making decisions about treatment. There are an increasing number of cases where adolescents may seek treatment yet are in circumstances that preclude parental consent. This paper uses case material to illustrate some of the legal, ethical, and treatment considerations in the situation of adolescent treatment where parental consent is problematic.

  5. Identifying Unique Ethical Challenges of Indigenous Field-Workers: A Commentary on Alexander and Richman's "Ethical Dilemmas in Evaluations Using Indigenous Research Workers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nick L.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with nonindigenous workers, to what extent do unique ethical problems arise when indigenous field-workers participate in field studies? Three aspects of study design and operation are considered: data integrity issues, risk issues, and protection issues. Although many of the data quality issues that arise with the use of indigenous…

  6. Public health ethics: from foundations and frameworks to justice and global public health.

    PubMed

    Kass, Nancy E

    2004-01-01

    Ethics dilemmas have been present throughout the history of public health, and bioethics has devoted considerable attention to issues relevant to public health. Only recently, however, has public health ethics emerged as a recognized subfield of bioethics. Public health ethics requires that public health improvement come through just and respectful means. Bioethics in the future not only will take on more issues of public ethics, but will apply it extensive scholarship in distributive justice to questions of global public health.

  7. An interesting case of systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with hypercalcemia: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Gafor, Abdul Halim; Cader, Rizna Abdul; Das, Srijit; Masir, Noraidah; Wahid, Fadilah Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercalcemia is common in primary hyperparathyroidism malignancies and even in tuberculosis. Interestingly, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) rarely presents with hypercalcemia. Case Report: We describe an interesting case of SLE in a patient who was otherwise thought to have either tuberculosis or a malignancy. The patient initially presented with feeling unwell, with generalized lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion, and bilateral corneal calcium deposits secondary to severe hypercalcemia. The diagnosis of SLE was made based on positivity of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA, the presence of serositis, lymphadenopathy, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and constitutional symptoms. She was treated with steroids, with tremendous improvement in her general well-being, resolution of lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion, and normalization of her hemoglobin and serum calcium. The atypical presentation of SLE with hypercalcemia with pleural effusion is discussed. Conclusions: SLE should be one of the differential diagnoses in patients presenting with severe hypercalcemia. PMID:23569551

  8. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour of Extrapancreatic Origin Presenting as Mesenteric Cystic Mass: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Ghosh, Suman; Sarkar, Ranu

    2016-08-01

    Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour (SPT) is a rare and distinctive pancreatic exocrine neoplasm. Even Rarely, such primary SPT may originate from ectopic pancreatic tissues. We are hereby presenting one such unique case, where a 50-year-old female presented with pain and a mid-abdominal lump. Radiology revealed a well-defined outline located adjacent to the tail of pancreas. The excised mass was 19×14×7cm in dimension having zones of haemorrhage, necrosis and cystic spaces filled with necrotic debris. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of SPT. SPT originating in extrapancreatic location may mimic an ovarian cystic tumours or mesenteric cysts, its proper identification is crucial. PMID:27656450

  9. Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour of Extrapancreatic Origin Presenting as Mesenteric Cystic Mass: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Suman; Sarkar, Ranu

    2016-01-01

    Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour (SPT) is a rare and distinctive pancreatic exocrine neoplasm. Even Rarely, such primary SPT may originate from ectopic pancreatic tissues. We are hereby presenting one such unique case, where a 50-year-old female presented with pain and a mid-abdominal lump. Radiology revealed a well-defined outline located adjacent to the tail of pancreas. The excised mass was 19×14×7cm in dimension having zones of haemorrhage, necrosis and cystic spaces filled with necrotic debris. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of SPT. SPT originating in extrapancreatic location may mimic an ovarian cystic tumours or mesenteric cysts, its proper identification is crucial. PMID:27656450

  10. Multiple Abdominal Cocoons: An Unusual Presentation of Intestinal Obstruction and a Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Mohammad Zain; Dala-Ali, Benan; Ali, Shahanoor; Hashmi, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) or abdominal cocoon is a rare acquired condition with an unknown aetiology. It is characterized by encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrous membrane and can lead to intestinal obstruction. We present the case of a 42-year-old gentleman with a history of hepatitis C, tuberculosis, and previous abdominal surgery, who presented with subacute intestinal obstruction. Surgical exploration of the abdomen revealed that the entire contents were enclosed into three distinct sacs by a dense fibrous membrane. Excision of the sacs was performed followed by adhesiolysis. This is believed to be the first reported case of multiple cocoons within the abdominal cavity. The case is discussed with reference to the literature. PMID:25893128

  11. Ethical issues in end-of-life geriatric care: the approach of three monotheistic religions-Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam.

    PubMed

    Clarfield, A Mark; Gordon, Michael; Markwell, Hazel; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

    2003-08-01

    Ethical dilemmas pervade modern geriatric medicine. What is considered right or wrong will differ depending on, among other things, the patient's religion. The three Abrahamic monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity (its Catholic variant), and Islam all have carefully considered positions on medical ethics. Although much is held in common, there are significant differences. The authors present three clinical cases, each of which presents ethical dilemmas typical of geriatric care, especially at the end of life. On the basis of these scenarios, the normative ethical position of each religion is compared and contrasted. It is hoped that this approach will offer the geriatrician a useful approach to treating patients in an increasingly multicultural society.

  12. Erythromelalgia presenting with premature exfoliation of primary teeth: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Neeta; Alexander, Sherene; Wong, Peter; Cameron, Angus

    2012-01-01

    Erythromelalgia is an extremely rare neurovascular disorder, characterized by symptoms of red, hot, and painful extremities. There is considerable confusion regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of this condition, and the diagnosis is essentially a clinical one. This condition may occur in isolation or in association with other myeloproliferative disorders. Unfortunately, no therapy is effective consistently in managing the symptoms, although early diagnosis can aid in psychological counseling and minimizing the frequency and severity of the attacks. The purpose of this report was to describe the case of a child presenting with premature loss of primary teeth and the difficulties in determining the final diagnosis of erythromelalgia, which responded positively to low-grade aspirin therapy.

  13. Ethics: A Matter of Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Rosemary; Kudzma, Elizabeth

    1978-01-01

    Courses in theoretical ethics are unrelated to the moral delemmas that nurses encounter in practice, according to the authors. They present a method for moral education in nursing curricula utilizing seminars for dilemma discussion that can help students to progress in moral judgment. (MF)

  14. Social Media Use and Teacher Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Bitters, Todd A.; Falk, Thomas M.; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Teacher use of social networking sites such as Facebook has presented some ethical dilemmas for policy makers. In this article, we argue that schools are justified in taking action against teachers when evidence emerges from social networking sites that teachers are (a) doing something that is illegal, (b) doing something that reflects badly on…

  15. Present status of ethics committees of the medical schools in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takao

    1991-12-01

    Present features and functions of ethics committees in 80 Japanese medical schools were surveyed through inquiries to those institutes by the author. Seventy nine schools have already started their own committees in each campus by the end of 1990, and the remaining one is preparing for its start in near future. The major role of the ethics committee may be said to roughly correspond to that of the Institutional Review Boards (IRB) in the USA, although a role of the hospital ethics committee has been played in addition to its proper functions in many schools. Among many problems two major drawbacks seem necessary to be removed urgently. The first one is an inappropriate composition of the committee in the majority of schools. More members from the outside of the campus, younger generations, and female reviewers should be added to the committee. The second point is the essentially closed review systems in most schools. The process of the review has not been effectively opened to the public yet, even in case in which no privacy of the patients or volunteers appears in the discussion. Several schools are preparing for opening now and the situation will be improved gradually. It was fortunate that the ethics committees in Japanese medical schools were founded by wills and efforts of members of each campus without having any suggestions, recommendations, or orders from the national government or other officials.

  16. NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. Revised = Codigo de Conducta Etica. Revisada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethical dilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005…

  17. The Ethics of Legislative Life. A Report by the Hastings Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings Center, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY.

    Results of a two-year research project (1982-84) on Legislative and Representative Ethics are presented in this report, which analyzes the basic principles of legislative ethics, discusses the special dilemmas and obligations of legislators, and offers conclusions about future steps that could be taken to enhance public discussion and to reinforce…

  18. Ethical Concerns Raised by the Use of the Internet in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, A. Graham; Hartzel, Kathleen S.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines several major ethical and social concerns that face an institution in attempting to integrate "cyberspace" into its academic arena. Focuses on American universities, though the issues are relevant for all levels of education in all geographic areas. Discusses major ethical dilemmas that academic use of cyberspace may present. Identifies…

  19. Education and Training in Ethical Decision Making: Comparing Context and Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, David F.; Callanan, Gerard A.; Rotenberry, Paul F.; Oehlers, Peter F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a teaching methodology for improving the understanding of ethical decision making. This pedagogical approach is applicable in college courses and in corporate training programs. Design/methodology/approach: Participants are asked to analyze a set of eight ethical dilemmas with differing situational…

  20. Addressing Ethics and Technology in Business: Preparing Today's Students for the Ethical Challenges Presented by Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2008-01-01

    The ethical development of information systems is but one of those sensitive scenarios associated with computer technology that has a tremendous impact on individuals and social life. The significance of these issues of concern cannot be overstated. However, since computer ethics is meant to be everybody's responsibility, the result can often be…

  1. Connecting Past with Present: A Mixed-Methods Science Ethics Course and its Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Semendeferi, Ioanna; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Dcosta, Malcolm; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    We present a graduate science ethics course that connects cases from the historical record to present realities and practices in the areas of social responsibility, authorship, and human/animal experimentation. This content is delivered with mixed methods, including films, debates, blogging, and practicum; even the instructional team is mixed, including a historian of science and a research scientist. What really unites all of the course's components is the experiential aspect: from acting in historical debates to participating in the current scientific enterprise. The course aims to change the students' culture into one deeply devoted to the science ethics cause. To measure the sought after cultural change, we developed and validated a relevant questionnaire. Results of this questionnaire from students who took the course, demonstrate that the course had the intended effect on them. Furthermore, results of this questionnaire from controls indicate the need for cultural change in that cohort. All these quantitative results are reinforced by qualitative outcomes.

  2. Connecting Past with Present: A Mixed-Methods Science Ethics Course and its Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Semendeferi, Ioanna; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Dcosta, Malcolm; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    We present a graduate science ethics course that connects cases from the historical record to present realities and practices in the areas of social responsibility, authorship, and human/animal experimentation. This content is delivered with mixed methods, including films, debates, blogging, and practicum; even the instructional team is mixed, including a historian of science and a research scientist. What really unites all of the course's components is the experiential aspect: from acting in historical debates to participating in the current scientific enterprise. The course aims to change the students' culture into one deeply devoted to the science ethics cause. To measure the sought after cultural change, we developed and validated a relevant questionnaire. Results of this questionnaire from students who took the course, demonstrate that the course had the intended effect on them. Furthermore, results of this questionnaire from controls indicate the need for cultural change in that cohort. All these quantitative results are reinforced by qualitative outcomes. PMID:25688028

  3. Ethics, economics, and the erosion of physician authority: a leadership role for nurses.

    PubMed

    Rambur, B

    1998-06-01

    The emergence of managed care raises new concerns about the ethics of health care financing and its impact on service delivery. The current outcry, however, fails to recognize that American health care financing has presented serious ethical dilemmas for at least 50 years. What follows is a historic overview of American health care financing, contrasted with current challenges. The intersection between ethics, economics, professionalism, and public authority is explicated, with a critical leader/advocate role for nurses presented.

  4. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  5. The Evolution of Ethics.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Ethical issues and dilemmas span from conception to the grave. The interconnectedness of advocacy, ethics, and end of life/death with dignity are woven into this issue of the Professional Case Management journal. Case management is a critical member of the team when these discussions arise. And knowledge of the issues, along with legal, ethical, and professional codes, is highlighted. PMID:27231955

  6. Ethical issues and addiction.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Binta; Scheiner, Melissa; Campbell, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    The epidemic of substance abuse continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians nationwide. Although there is a tendency to simply associate drug abuse with poverty, the problem affects every social stratum gender and race; and pregnant women are no exception. Caring for pregnant, substance-using women and their infants presents complex legal and ethical issues. Debate is ongoing about whether criminal penalties should be imposed on women based solely on their use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. Furthermore, controversies persist about the rights and wishes of pregnant women versus the interests of their fetuses. For health professionals, conflict arises when the pregnant woman chooses behaviors that have the potential to harm the developing fetus. The ethical dilemma arises from competing autonomy-based and beneficence-based obligations to the maternal-fetal dyad. This chapter explores the ethics-based conflicts in the delivery of health care to drug abusing pregnant women.

  7. Ethical Concerns in School Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Wayne C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses ethical dilemmas inherent in the school setting that result from conflicts in counselor responsibilities to pupils, parents, and school. An ethical dilemma involving a pregnant student who is considering an abortion is described, and some possible counselor responses are discussed. (Author)

  8. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  9. Professional ethics. A case study of infusion nurse consultants.

    PubMed

    Adams, J

    2000-01-01

    As the healthcare system continues to reform, opportunities exist for infusion nurses to expand their practice into the business world. Traditionally, biomedical ethics have been used in nursing education as a framework for identifying and responding to ethical dilemmas. However, in the business world, professional ethics may be more subtle and insidious. A case study of ten infusion nurse consultants and their experiences with professional ethical issues is presented. Data were obtained using interviews, and content analysis revealed emergent themes of integrity and intuitive knowing with related categories.

  10. Teaching psychiatric ethics.

    PubMed

    Bloch, S

    1988-11-01

    In the last decade, we have witnessed a burgeoning of interest in ethical issues amongst psychiatrists. Teaching of the subject, however, remains at a rudimentary stage. Various approaches to such instruction are available, particularly modelling (students observe their experienced counterpart), the case method (examining specific clinical situations which involve a need for ethical decision-making), and the seminar approach (trainees are exposed to a core body of knowledge, mainly theoretical in nature). Faced with these different teaching models, the University of Oxford Department of Psychiatry has opted for a blend of all three approaches, which incorporates two goals: an increase in the trainees' sensitivity to the many intricate moral dilemmas facing the psychiatric profession; and their familiarity with salient concepts in moral philosophy which constitute a basis for ethical reasoning and which have a bearing on clinical practice. The teaching programme comprises the following: a pair of trainees prepares a presentation on an aspect of psychiatric ethics under the supervision of a senior psychiatrist. A moral philosopher assumes the role of discussant of the ethical problems raised by the trainees; this is followed by a general discussion. Topics have included involuntary hospitalization, dual loyalty, suicide, psychiatric diagnosis, and ethical issues in various spheres of psychiatric practice such as sex therapy, psychotherapy and child psychiatry. The approach has worked effectively and proved rewarding to all participants involved. PMID:3226351

  11. Ethical practice under fire: deployed physicians in the global war on terrorism.

    PubMed

    Sessums, Laura L; Collen, Jacob F; O'Malley, Patrick G; Jackson, Jeffery L; Roy, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    The Global War on Terrorism brings significant ethical challenges for military physicians. From Abu Ghraib to Guantanamo Bay, the actions of health care providers have come under considerable scrutiny. Military providers have dual roles as military officers and medical professionals, which have the potential to come into conflict. Often they are inadequately prepared to manage this conflict. We review pertinent historical precedents, applicable laws, ethical guidelines, and military regulations. We also present examples of ethical challenges deployed clinicians have faced and their ethical solution. Finally, we propose a practical strategy to educate physicians on how to manage complex ethical dilemmas in war time settings.

  12. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is." PMID:27164779

  13. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  14. Computer ethics and teritary level education in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, E.Y.W.; Davison, R.M.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper seeks to highlight some ethical issues relating to the increasing proliferation of Information Technology into our everyday lives. The authors explain their understanding of computer ethics, and give some reasons why the study of computer ethics is becoming increasingly pertinent. The paper looks at some of the problems that arise in attempting to develop appropriate ethical concepts in a constantly changing environment, and explores some of the ethical dilemmas arising from the increasing use of computers. Some initial research undertaken to explore the ideas and understanding of tertiary level students in Hong Kong on a number of ethical issues of interest is described, and our findings discussed. We hope that presenting this paper and eliciting subsequent discussion will enable us to draw up more comprehensive guidelines for the teaching of computer related ethics to tertiary level students, as well as reveal some directions for future research.

  15. [Psychiatry during National Socialism: historical knowledge, implications for present day ethical debates].

    PubMed

    Roelcke, V

    2010-11-01

    This contribution is a synthesis of the results of historical research on psychiatry during the Nazi period and some implications for present day debates in medical ethics. The focus is on three issues: the relationship between physicians and the state, the impact of eugenically and economically motivated health and social policies for psychiatry (e.g. forced sterilization, patient killing/euthanasia) and psychiatric research. Three myths are deconstructed: 1) that medical atrocities were imposed from above by Nazi politicians on apolitical physicians, 2) that mass sterilization and patient killing had nothing to do with contemporary state of the art of medical reasoning and practice and 3) that ethically unacceptable research on psychiatric patients had nothing to do with the contemporary state of the art of biomedical sciences. It is argued that the findings on these issues of Nazi medicine are not specific to Germany and the period between 1933 and 1945 but they were the extreme manifestations of some potential problems implicit in modern medicine in general.

  16. [The ethical approach applied to the TV series ER].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    The television series ER presents an opportunity to reflect on ethical dilemmas. This article discusses the example of an episode in which a patient suffering from an incurable disease, unable to express his views clearly, has a tracheotomy performed on him without the consent of the team or his health care proxy. PMID:23776983

  17. Authorship Ethics: Issues and Suggested Guidelines for the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thuy; Nguyen, Tuyen D.

    2006-01-01

    The authors review the literature and explore common ethical dilemmas related to publishing research. Varying standards are presented to assist professionals and students in their publication endeavors. Joint research collaboration in many graduate programs is encouraged and appears inevitable. Joint research activities may involve student-faculty…

  18. Moral Injury and the Ethics of Educational Injustice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Meira Levinson presents a case study of school personnel who must decide whether to expel a fourteen-year-old student for bringing marijuana onto campus. She uses the case to explore a class of ethical dilemmas in which educators are obligated to take action that fulfills the demands of justice but under conditions in which no…

  19. Ethics and Representation in Qualitative Studies of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Peter, Ed.; Kirsch, Gesa E., Ed.

    Reflecting on the practice of qualitative literacy research, this book presents 14 essays that address the most pressing questions faced by qualitative researchers today: how to represent others and themselves in research narratives; how to address ethical dilemmas in research-participant relations; and how to deal with various rhetorical,…

  20. Unraveling Ethics: Reflections from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…

  1. Brain resuscitation. Ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Omery, A; Caswell, D

    1989-03-01

    Brain resuscitation is the newest in a long line of treatment protocols that is designed to aid us in sustaining not just life, but quality life in the critical care setting. Like other, previously established protocols, it is not value free. Its implementation brings ethical considerations that must be addressed. If the issues are not addressed, there is the real danger that the resulting moral dilemmas will overwhelm the nurse. In brain resuscitation, there are at least three ethical issues that must be recognized. These are the role of resuscitation in the life process, allocation of scarce resources, and participation in research. To address these issues, nurses will have to be aware of the ethical principle and/or perspectives involved. For some of these issues, the solutions will have to come from nursing's national organizations, such as the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Other solutions presented will require the nurse to come to an individual decision regarding the ethics of brain resuscitation. The journey to the conclusion of this discussion will end with disappointment for those who sought an algorhythm or decision tree with which to make definitive decisions in regard to ethical decisions about brain resuscitation. To have assumed that such an absolute discussion in regard to the ethical perspectives related to brain resuscitation is possible or even desirable would have been to deny the moral/ethical responsibilities of the nurse who practices in a critical care setting. While these ethical responsibilities can be overwhelmingly burdensome, they can also be opportunities. They can be positive opportunities for our health care colleagues, our patients, and ourselves. PMID:2803694

  2. The Prisoner's Dilemma: Introducing Game Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Doug J.; Miller, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1950, the Prisoner's Dilemma has intrigued economists and amused fans of mathematics. It presents a situation in which two players acting to their own advantage do not do as well together as two players whose actions oppose their individual interests--hence, the dilemma. Variations of the Prisoner's Dilemma have appeared in diverse…

  3. The Language Dilemma: Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teboul, J. C. Bruno

    2002-01-01

    Presents the case study involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…

  4. Ethical Dilemmas Relating to the Management of a Newborn with Down Syndrome and Severe Congenital Heart Disease in a Resource-Poor Setting.

    PubMed

    Edwin, Ama K; Edwin, Frank; McGee, Summer J

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making regarding treatment for newborns with disabilities in resource-poor settings is a difficult process that can put parents and caregivers in conflict. Despite several guidelines that have helped to clarify some of the medical decision-making in Ghana, there is still no clear consensus on the specific moral criteria to be used. This article presents the case of a mother who expressed her wish that her child with Down syndrome should not have been resuscitated at birth. It explores the ethical issues at stake in both her misgivings about the resuscitation and her unwillingness to consider surgical repair of an atrioventricular (AV) canal defect. Knowing that children born with Down syndrome are able to pursue life's goals, should our treatment of complete AV canal defect in such children be considered morally obligatory, even in resource-poor settings like Ghana? PMID:26752583

  5. Ethical issues in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Digiovanni, Laura M

    2010-06-01

    Obstetricians must become comfortable addressing the ethical issues involved in clinical obstetrics and therefore must have an understanding of the key elements of clinical medical ethics. Balancing the principles of medical ethics can guide clinicians toward solutions to ethical dilemmas encountered in the care of pregnant women. The purpose of this article is to review the ethical foundations of clinical practice, recognize the ethical issues obstetricians face every day in caring for patients, and facilitate decision making. This article discusses the relevant ethical principles, identifies unique features of obstetrical ethics, examines ethical principles as they apply to pregnant patient and her fetus, and thereby, provides a conceptual framework for considering ethical issues and facilitating decision making in clinical obstetrics.

  6. Measuring Quality in Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Sally E; Oppenlander, Jane; Dahlke, Jacob M; Meyer, Gordon J; Williford, Eva M; Macauley, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    For all of the emphasis on quality improvement-as well as the acknowledged overlap between assessment of the quality of healthcare services and clinical ethics-the quality of clinical ethics consultation has received scant attention, especially in terms of empirical measurement. Recognizing this need, the second edition of Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation1 identified four domains of ethics quality: (1) ethicality, (2) stakeholders' satisfaction, (3) resolution of the presenting conflict/dilemma, and (4) education that translates into knowledge. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to directly measure all of these domains. Here we describe the quality improvement process undertaken at a tertiary care academic medical center, as well as the tools developed to measure the quality of ethics consultation, which include post-consultation satisfaction surveys and weekly case conferences. The information gained through these tools helps to improve not only the process of ethics consultation, but also the measurement and assurance of quality. PMID:27333066

  7. [The unclear status of the fetus is an ethical dilemma. Neonatal care can save the fetus when abortion is still legally possible].

    PubMed

    Persson, I

    1990-05-01

    A striking situation occasionally occurs in Swedish hospitals: a fetus survives late abortion and then all available intensive care resources are employed to keep it alive. The law permits free abortion through the 18th week of pregnancy, but with permission from the social service authorities, the limit for abortion can be stretched to the end of the 22nd week. At the same time it is possible to save the life of a premature birth down to the 23rd or 24th week. The development of a neonatal advanced care is based upon the assumption that it is desirable to save the life of a human fetus no matter how young it may be. At the same time, legislation which legitimizes free abortion up to a certain period of time expresses the view that the life of the fetus up through that time possesses little or no real value. A recent report by a government commission on the individuality of the pregnant woman and the fetus should have dealt with this ambivalence but did not. One possible way out of this dilemma is for society to take an active role in offering the woman economic compensation for bearing the child to term with a view toward giving it up for adoption. The commission's report compromised in not presenting this alternative as an official suggestion because it is too unpopular politically. The result is that tens of thousands of humans in Sweden every year are denied a chance for normal life because the public allows itself to be represented by politicians who lack the courage or the insight to accept the moral consequences of this decision.

  8. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  9. What makes a problem an ethical problem? An empirical perspective on the nature of ethical problems in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Braunack-Mayer, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    Whilst there has been considerable debate about the fit between moral theory and moral reasoning in everyday life, the way in which moral problems are defined has rarely been questioned. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with 15 general practitioners (GPs) in South Australia to argue that the way in which the bioethics literature defines an ethical dilemma captures only some of the range of lay views about the nature of ethical problems. The bioethics literature has defined ethical dilemmas in terms of conflict and choice between values, beliefs and options for action. While some of the views of some of the GPs in this study about the nature of their ethical dilemmas certainly accorded with this definition, other explanations of the ethical nature of their problems revolved around the publicity associated with the issues they were discussing, concern about their relationships with patients, and anxiety about threats to their integrity and reputation. The variety of views about what makes a problem a moral problem indicates that the moral domain is perhaps wider and richer than mainstream bioethics would generally allow. Key Words: Empirical ethics • general practice • qualitative research PMID:11314166

  10. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    PubMed

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  11. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  12. Towards Professionalism: Ethical Perspectives of Israeli Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to gain a better understanding of teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas and roles. Qualitative data were collected by interviewing 32 teachers in seven schools. Interviewees were asked to provide detailed descriptions of ethical dilemmas they had encountered. The coding process focused on critical incidents…

  13. Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

  14. A Survey of Ethical Decision Making among Practicing School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nancy E.; Lyon, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Invesitgated 50 practicing school psychologists' preferred resolutions to ethical dilemmas. Results indicated general lack of consistency in both actions taken to resolve ethical dilemmas and reasons chosen to support such actions, regardless of respondents' sex, years of experience, self-reported hours of ethics training, frequency of…

  15. From cases to capacity? A critical reflection on the role of 'ethical dilemmas' in the development of dual-use governance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brett; Revill, James; Bezuidenhout, Louise

    2014-06-01

    The dual-use issue is often framed as a series of paralyzing 'dilemmas' facing the scientific community as well as institutions which support innovation. While this conceptualization of the dual-use issue can be useful in certain contexts (such as in awareness-raising and as part of educational activities directed at the scientific community) its usefulness is more limited when reflecting on the governance and politics of the dual-use issue. Within this paper, key shortcomings of the dilemma framing are outlined. It is argued that many of the issues raised in the most recent debates about 'dual-use' bird flu research remain unresolved. This includes questions about the trajectories of certain lines of research, as well as broader trends in the practice and governance of science. This leads to difficult questions about current approaches to the dual-use issue within the US, as well as internationally.

  16. Holding the present and future accountable to the past: history and the maturation of clinical ethics as a field of the humanities.

    PubMed

    McCullough, L B

    2000-02-01

    Clinical ethics, like bioethics more generally, until recently has tended to focus on the present and future, with little attention to the history of moral thought about health care that preceded bioethics. As a consequence, clinical ethics and bioethics lack maturity as fields of the humanities. The papers in this year's clinical ethics issue of the Journal put contemporary clinical ethics in critical dialogue with the past, making the former accountable to the latter. The six papers in this issue of the Journal are briefly described, with an emphasis on how they contribute to the maturation of clinical ethics as a field of the humanities. PMID:10732872

  17. Four Roles of Ethical Theory in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Magelssen, Morten; Pedersen, Reidar; Førde, Reidun

    2016-09-01

    When clinical ethics committee members discuss a complex ethical dilemma, what use do they have for normative ethical theories? Members without training in ethical theory may still contribute to a pointed and nuanced analysis. Nonetheless, the knowledge and use of ethical theories can play four important roles: aiding in the initial awareness and identification of the moral challenges, assisting in the analysis and argumentation, contributing to a sound process and dialogue, and inspiring an attitude of reflexivity. These four roles of ethical theory in clinical ethics consultation are described and their significance highlighted, while an example case is used as an illustration throughout. PMID:27471935

  18. Four Roles of Ethical Theory in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Magelssen, Morten; Pedersen, Reidar; Førde, Reidun

    2016-09-01

    When clinical ethics committee members discuss a complex ethical dilemma, what use do they have for normative ethical theories? Members without training in ethical theory may still contribute to a pointed and nuanced analysis. Nonetheless, the knowledge and use of ethical theories can play four important roles: aiding in the initial awareness and identification of the moral challenges, assisting in the analysis and argumentation, contributing to a sound process and dialogue, and inspiring an attitude of reflexivity. These four roles of ethical theory in clinical ethics consultation are described and their significance highlighted, while an example case is used as an illustration throughout.

  19. Genetic testing and counseling: selected ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Erlen, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    As science and technology in genetics continue to expand, complex ethical questions arise that require difficult decisions for all concerned. Rather than having ready-made answers, there may be only more challenging questions for patients, families, and healthcare professionals. These complicated questions may have no straightforward, correct answers, thus creating an ethical quandary. This article discusses some selected ethical issues that occur when patients are considering undergoing genetic testing and counseling, including respecting autonomy and the patient's right to decide, establishing patient-healthcare provider trust, and disclosing private information to others. Several strategies are presented that nurses can use as they assist patients and their families who are facing these challenging ethical dilemmas. PMID:17130767

  20. Genetic testing and counseling: selected ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Erlen, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    As science and technology in genetics continue to expand, complex ethical questions arise that require difficult decisions for all concerned. Rather than having ready-made answers, there may be only more challenging questions for patients, families, and healthcare professionals. These complicated questions may have no straightforward, correct answers, thus creating an ethical quandary. This article discusses some selected ethical issues that occur when patients are considering undergoing genetic testing and counseling, including respecting autonomy and the patient's right to decide, establishing patient-healthcare provider trust, and disclosing private information to others. Several strategies are presented that nurses can use as they assist patients and their families who are facing these challenging ethical dilemmas.

  1. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  2. When Ethics and Policy Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Bynum Blake; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores an ethical dilemma faced by a new junior high school principal. It is appropriate for use in all preparation course work, including the internship. Studies show that novice principal decision making differs from that of experienced principals in moral dilemmas, including following policy versus best interests of the…

  3. Ethical challenges of practicing in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Werth, James L; Hastings, Sarah L; Riding-Malon, Ruth

    2010-05-01

    Mental health professionals practicing in rural areas face ethical dilemmas different from those experienced by their urban counterparts and may find that the existing ethics literature and American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) ethics code not particularly helpful. We highlight parts of five standards from the APA ethics code to illustrate the dilemmas rural practitioners frequently confront and offer suggestions for how to handle them. We discuss competence, human relations, and confidentiality as specific areas and then examine assessment and therapy as broader situations in which dilemmas may occur. We use case examples to highlight complications that may arise in rural areas. PMID:20222121

  4. Six Perspectives in Search of an Ethical Solution: Utilising a Moral Imperative with a Multiple Ethics Paradigm to Guide Research-Based Theatre/Applied Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the International Drama in Education Research Institute (IDIERI) 2012 conference, practitioners in keynotes, presentations and workshops mentioned ethical dilemmas that arose in their work; wondering at times if they did the "right" thing. By addressing a moral imperative, practitioners can start to identify common ethical…

  5. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  6. Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

  7. Managing the conflict between individual needs and group interests--ethical leadership in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Shale, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge.

  8. Ethical issues in the conduct of longitudinal studies of addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christy K; White, William L

    2005-01-01

    Many complex ethical issues arise in the day-to-day conduct of longitudinal studies of addiction treatment. These issues are rooted, in part, in the sustained and potentially ambiguous relationship between research staff and study participants, the frequently changing clinical and legal status of study participants, the assertive methods required to generate high follow-up rates, and the numerous systems of care and control in which participants are involved. To identify common ethical issues that arise in such studies, the authors conducted individual and group interviews with seasoned members (case trackers, field trackers, interviewers, and supervisors) of the research team. The ethical dilemmas identified through these interviews fell into seven broad arenas: (1) informed consent for research participation, (2) confidentiality and information disclosure, (3) relationship boundaries between study participants and research staff, (4) duty to warn/report responsibilities, (5) questions of autonomy and privacy, (6) issues related to compensation for research participation, and (7) data integrity. Case studies that illustrate common ethical dilemmas within each of these seven areas are presented and discussed. Ethical dilemmas in the study of addiction treatment can be effectively managed via ethically informed research protocols, staff training in ethical decision-making, monitoring and supervision, and collective debriefing of critical events.

  9. Diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease: past, present and future ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Leuzy, A; Racine, E; Rosa-Neto, P

    2013-11-01

    There is great interest in the ethical issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias given the prevalence of AD and the evolving neuroscience landscape in matters of diagnoses and therapeutics. Much of the ethics discussion arises in the tension between the principle of not doing harm (principle of non-maleficence) in this vulnerable population and the development of effective treatments (principle of beneficence). Autonomy and capacity issues are also numerous, wide-ranging, and concern (1) day to day affairs such as driving safely and spending money wisely, (2) life-time events such as designating a legal representative in case of incapacity, making a will, (3) consenting to treatment and diagnostic procedures, (4) participating in research. The latter issue is particularly thorny and illustrates well the complexity of tackling concerns related to capacity. The impetus to protect AD patients has partly led to ethics regulation and policies making research on inapt patients more difficult because of stringent requirements for signed informed consent or for showing the value of the research to this specific patient population. New issues are arising that relate to earlier diagnosis using biomarkers and (possibly soon) the use of drugs that modify disease progression. We here summarize and discuss the different ethical issues associated with AD from a historical perspective, with emphasis on diagnostic and treatments issues.

  10. Virtue Ethics and the Narrative Identity of American Librarianship 1876 to Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, John Timothy Freedom

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a means of reconciling the competing ideas of library and information science's identity, thereby strengthening professional autonomy. I make the case that developing a system of virtue ethics for librarianship would be an effective way to promote that reconciliation. The first step in developing virtue…

  11. 'Wicked' ethics: Compliance work and the practice of ethics in HIV research.

    PubMed

    Heimer, Carol A

    2013-12-01

    Using ethnographic material collected between 2003 and 2007 in five HIV clinics in the US, South Africa, Uganda, and Thailand, this article examines "official ethics" and "ethics on the ground." It compares the ethical conundrums clinic staff and researchers confront in their daily work as HIV researchers with the dilemmas officially identified as ethical issues by bioethicists and people responsible for ethics reviews and compliance with ethics regulations. The tangled relation between ethical problems and solutions invites a comparison to Rittel and Webber's "wicked problems." Official ethics' attempts to produce universal solutions often make ethics problems even more wickedly intractable. Ethics on the ground is in part a reaction to this intractability.

  12. Bioethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    Provides guidelines for classroom discussions of bioethical issues. Equipped with an ethical reasoning model, teachers can help to prepare students to make responsible decisions about science-related issues. (ZWH)

  13. "I Don't Even Have Time to Be Their Friend!" Ethical Dilemmas in Ph.D. Supervision in the Hard Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on exploring students' and supervisors' perceptions of ethical problems in doctoral supervision in the natural sciences. Fifteen supervisors and doctoral students in one research community in the natural sciences were interviewed about their practices and experiences in the doctoral process and supervision. We explored to what…

  14. Ethical issues in the management of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Sara

    2014-06-01

    The focus of this article is on clinical ethics issues in the thyroid disease context. Clinical ethics is a subspecialty of bioethics that deals with bedside ethical dilemmas that specifically involve the provider-patient relationship. Such issues include consent and capacity; weighing therapeutic benefits against risks and side-effects; innovative therapies; end of life care; unintended versus intentional harms to patients or patient populations; and healthcare access. This article will review core ethical principles for practice, as well as the moral and legal requirements of informed consent. It will then discuss the range of unique and universal ethical issues and considerations that present in the management of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer.

  15. Extrauterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumors presenting as primary lung carcinomas: morphologic and immunohistochemical features to resolve a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Sharyn N; Aghajanian, Carol; Moreira, Andre L; Soslow, Robert A

    2009-12-01

    Our objective was to describe the clinicopathologic features of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs) in a series of patients who presented with elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels and extrauterine lesions resembling primary lung carcinomas. Clinical and pathologic materials were reviewed and Shih and Kurman's diagnostic criteria were applied. Three parous women (38, 49, and 34 y of age) with elevated beta-hCG levels had nondiagnostic gynecologic evaluations, including negative dilation and curettage specimens. Imaging revealed isolated pulmonary lesions, 2 to 8.5 cm in size, resembling primary lung carcinomas. Two patients received multiagent chemotherapy consisting of etoposide, methotrexate, dactinomycin, alternating with cisplatin and etoposide, and all underwent pulmonary resection. Histologically, the cytologic features, epithelioid growth pattern, and hyaline-like material simulated the appearance of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, but overall, the histologic features along with the immunophenotype supported classification as ETT. Follow-up hysterectomy specimens were histologically normal. All 3 patients are alive and well. The rarity of ETT and its resemblance to squamous and pleomorphic carcinomas of lung have led to diagnostic difficulties. When reproductive-age women present with elevated beta-hCG levels, a pulmonary lesion, and no apparent intrauterine disease, primary pulmonary ETT should be considered. Correlating clinical indices with specific morphologic and immunohistochemical features can ensure diagnostic accuracy and appropriate treatment for favorable outcomes.

  16. Tuskegee Bioethics Center 10th anniversary presentation: "Commemorating 10 years: ethical perspectives on origin and destiny".

    PubMed

    Prograis, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    More than 70 years have passed since the beginning of the Public Health Service syphilis study in Tuskegee, Alabama, and it has been over a decade since President Bill Clinton formally apologized for it and held a ceremony for the Tuskegee study participants. The official launching of the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care took place two years after President Clinton's apology. How might we fittingly discuss the Center's 10th Anniversary and the topic 'Commemorating 10 Years: Ethical Perspectives on Origin and Destiny'? Over a decade ago, a series of writers, many of them African Americans, wrote a text entitled 'African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics'; their text was partly responsible for a prolonged reflection by others to produce a subsequent work, 'African American Bioethics: Culture, Race and Identity'. What is the relationship between the discipline of bioethics and African American culture? This and related questions are explored in this commentary.

  17. Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as a giant cervical mass: A clinical, radiological, histopathological dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Savardekar, Amey R.; Patra, Deviprasad; Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Ahuja, Chirag K.; Salunke, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typical aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are osteolytic, multicystic lesions with parietal sclerosis and blood-filled cysts. In rare instances, the cystic components may be completely absent. Such solid variants in ABC (s-ABC) exhibit a solid architecture; making the clinical, radiological, and histological differentiation from other solid bone tumors like osteosarcoma (especially giant cell rich osteosarcoma) and giant cell tumor, a difficult task. Case Report: We report the case of a 45–year-old male presenting with a giant solid cervical spine lesion. Histopathology revealed solid variant of ABC, even though the radiological and fine needle aspiration cytology studies pointed toward a giant cell tumor. Conclusion: We aim to discuss the clinical, radiological, and histological findings of solid ABC (a rare benign entity) vis-à-vis the common neoplastic entities of osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor. The histopathological nuisances in making the diagnosis of s-ABC are put forth, along with its impact on management of such giant bony spinal lesions. PMID:26005581

  18. Cultivating engineering ethics and critical thinking: a systematic and cross-cultural education approach using problem-based learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung

    2011-08-01

    In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering ethics within a cross-cultural context. Next, it presents a systematic model for designing an engineering ethics curriculum based on moral development theory and ethic dilemma analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data from students' oral and written work were collected and analysed to determine directions for improvement. The paper also presents results of an assessment of this interdisciplinary engineering ethics course. This investigation of a disaster is limited strictly to engineering ethics education; it is not intended to assign blame, but rather to spark debate about ethical issues.

  19. Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality.

  20. The ethics of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karasu, T B

    1980-12-01

    The author addresses the ethics of psychotherapy in terms of the interface between science and ethics, the goals of treatment, the therapeutic relationship, and special issues of confidentiality and therapist-patient sex. He considers the problems of multiple therapeutic modalities, dual allegiance of the therapist, the therapeutic use (and abuse) of power, and issues of dependency and suggests ways to maximize the clinician's exercise of ethical choices. Ethical dilemmas in psychotherapy are not entirely soluble; ultimately, the therapist, guided by his or her profession as a group, will be able to find answers to the complex problems that inevitably arise. PMID:7435705

  1. An ethical dilemma: malignant melanoma in a 51-year-old patient awaiting simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplantation for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kirby, L C; Banerjee, A; Augustine, T; Douglas, J F

    2016-07-01

    Malignant melanoma is a high-risk skin cancer that, in potential transplant recipients, is considered a substantial contraindication to solid organ transplantation due to significant risk of recurrence with immunosuppression. Current guidelines stipulate waiting between 3 and 10 years after melanoma diagnosis. However, in young patients with end-stage organ failure and malignant melanoma, complex ethical and moral issues arise. Assessment of the true risk associated with transplantation in these patients is difficult due to lack of prospective data, but an autonomous patient can make a decision that clinicians may perceive to be high risk. The national and worldwide shortage of available organs also has to be incorporated into the decision to maximize the net benefit and minimize the risk of graft failure and mortality. The incidence of malignant melanoma worldwide is increasing faster than that of any other cancer and continues to pose ethically challenging decisions for transplant specialists evaluating recipients for solid organ transplantation. PMID:27484276

  2. The challenges and ethical dilemmas of a military medical officer serving with a peacekeeping operation in regard to the medical care of the local population

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, J

    2005-01-01

    Medical Officers serving with their national contingents in peacekeeping operations are faced with difficult ethical decisions in regard to their obligations to the local civilian population. Such populations may be under-resourced in regard to medical care, and vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Though the medical officer may support the local medical services, he/she should never undermine these resources. Adopting a human rights approach and observing the requirements of ethical medicine, aids the doctor in prioritising his/her duties. At times there may be conflict with one's own military superiors. It is wise to discuss potential difficulties prior to setting out on the mission. Human rights abuses cannot be ignored. The medical officer has a duty to do his/her best to report their observations so as to prevent abuse or to bring it to an end. PMID:16199596

  3. The challenges and ethical dilemmas of a military medical officer serving with a peacekeeping operation in regard to the medical care of the local population.

    PubMed

    Tobin, J

    2005-10-01

    Medical Officers serving with their national contingents in peacekeeping operations are faced with difficult ethical decisions in regard to their obligations to the local civilian population. Such populations may be under-resourced in regard to medical care, and vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Though the medical officer may support the local medical services, he/she should never undermine these resources. Adopting a human rights approach and observing the requirements of ethical medicine, aids the doctor in prioritising his/her duties. At times there may be conflict with one's own military superiors. It is wise to discuss potential difficulties prior to setting out on the mission. Human rights abuses cannot be ignored. The medical officer has a duty to do his/her best to report their observations so as to prevent abuse or to bring it to an end. PMID:16199596

  4. Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

  5. The practical and ethical defects of surgical randomised prospective trials.

    PubMed Central

    Byer, A

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a strong criticism of the current enthusiasm for clinical randomised prospective studies in surgery. In the process, the author probes the 'intellectualism' or lack thereof in present day surgical attitudes. The subjects are examined against a framework of ethics and inescapable dilemmas. Ways of correcting the more obvious weaknesses are suggested. The manuscript is, and is meant to be, provocative and is particularly aimed at the academic audience served by this journal. PMID:6876104

  6. The ethics of withdrawing artificial food and fluid from terminally ill patients: an end-of-life dilemma for Japanese nurses and families.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Emiko; Davis, Anne J; Aiba, Toshiaki

    2002-01-01

    End-of-life issues have become an urgent problem in Japan, where people are among the longest lived in the world and most of them die while connected to high-technology medical equipment. This study examines a sensitive end-of-life ethical issue that concerns patients, families and nurses: the withdrawal of artificial food and fluid from terminally ill patients. A sample of 160 Japanese nurses, who completed a questionnaire that included forced-choice and open-ended questions, supported this act under only two specific conditions: if the patient requested it, and if it relieved the patient's suffering. They considered that the doctor's orders, the family's request, or the patient's advanced age did not ethically justify this act. A small number of people who had recently lost a relative took part in semistructured interviews focusing on their experiences of their terminally ill relatives being given artificial food and fluid. Ethical, social and cultural factors surrounding this issue are discussed. PMID:16010894

  7. Modeling Psychologists' Ethical Intention: Application of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ferencz-Kaddari, Michall; Shifman, Annie; Koslowsky, Meni

    2016-06-01

    At the core of all therapeutic and medical practice lies ethics. By applying an expanded Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior formulation, the present investigation tested a model for explaining psychologists' intention to behave ethically. In the pretest, dual relationships and money conflicts were seen as the most prevalent dilemmas. A total of 395 clinical psychologists filled out questionnaires containing either a dual relationship dilemma describing a scenario where a psychologist was asked to treat a son of a colleague or a money-focused dilemma where he or she was asked to treat a patient unable to pay for the service. Results obtained from applying the expanded Ajzen's model to each dilemma, generally, supported the study hypotheses. In particular, attitudes were seen as the most important predictor in both dilemmas followed by a morality component, defined here as the commitment of the psychologist to the patient included here as an additional predictor in the model. The expanded model provided a better understanding of ethical intention. Practical implications were also discussed. PMID:27199153

  8. Modeling Psychologists' Ethical Intention: Application of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ferencz-Kaddari, Michall; Shifman, Annie; Koslowsky, Meni

    2016-06-01

    At the core of all therapeutic and medical practice lies ethics. By applying an expanded Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior formulation, the present investigation tested a model for explaining psychologists' intention to behave ethically. In the pretest, dual relationships and money conflicts were seen as the most prevalent dilemmas. A total of 395 clinical psychologists filled out questionnaires containing either a dual relationship dilemma describing a scenario where a psychologist was asked to treat a son of a colleague or a money-focused dilemma where he or she was asked to treat a patient unable to pay for the service. Results obtained from applying the expanded Ajzen's model to each dilemma, generally, supported the study hypotheses. In particular, attitudes were seen as the most important predictor in both dilemmas followed by a morality component, defined here as the commitment of the psychologist to the patient included here as an additional predictor in the model. The expanded model provided a better understanding of ethical intention. Practical implications were also discussed.

  9. Resisting Ethical Paralysis: A Postmodern Critique of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Teresa

    Patricia Bizzell argues that inquiry into ethics and English studies is paralyzed by the view that "the imposition of ideological agendas...[is]...morally questionable," yet "our moral sensibility motivates us to promote particular ethic positions." The field is caught in this dilemma because its postmodern skepticism forces it to acknowledge that…

  10. [The Moral Deliberation: The Clinical Ethics Method. Presentation of a Paediatric Case].

    PubMed

    Atuesta, Juana; Vásquez, Pablo; Roa, Juan David; Acuña, Hilda

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making is one of the most difficult tasks of medical judgment, especially when cases involve paediatric patients with different cultural characteristics. It is the obligation of clinical ethics, taking the interdisciplinary approach as a tool to comprehensively analyse the clinical, social, cultural and legal aspects, among other topics, when choosing the treatment options that will be more beneficial for the patient. A clinical case, should enable this process of analysis and teamwork to be understood in practical way in order to address difficult medical problems.

  11. [The Moral Deliberation: The Clinical Ethics Method. Presentation of a Paediatric Case].

    PubMed

    Atuesta, Juana; Vásquez, Pablo; Roa, Juan David; Acuña, Hilda

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making is one of the most difficult tasks of medical judgment, especially when cases involve paediatric patients with different cultural characteristics. It is the obligation of clinical ethics, taking the interdisciplinary approach as a tool to comprehensively analyse the clinical, social, cultural and legal aspects, among other topics, when choosing the treatment options that will be more beneficial for the patient. A clinical case, should enable this process of analysis and teamwork to be understood in practical way in order to address difficult medical problems. PMID:27569017

  12. Ethical Considerations about EHR-Mediated Results Disclosure and Pathology Information Presented via Patient Portals.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kristina A; Smith, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) now include patient portals where patients can obtain clinical reports, including notes, radiology reports, and laboratory/anatomic pathology results. Although portals increase patient access to information, no guidelines have been developed for hospitals about appropriate delays in posting different types of pathology reports to the EHR. Delays exist as a matter of policy to allow physicians time to answer questions and provide emotional support when discussing sensitive results with patients. Some types of results are more sensitive than others, however, including results of cancer, genetic, and HIV testing. Ethical questions about patient access to test results online are discussed. PMID:27550567

  13. Ethics and the treatment of sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians in sex offender treatment programs always encounter the need to balance the best interests of sex offenders and the safety needs of the community. The protection of the community often takes primacy, resulting in violation of traditional mental health codes of ethics. These ethical dilemmas have generated debates in the academic community. To minimize ethical dilemmas, clinicians in sex offender treatment programs need to acknowledge the conflicts, adhere to safeguards, and thoughtfully address the challenges with profession-specific ethical values and codes. This article reviews ethical principles in relation to conceptualization of sex offenders and their assessment and treatment and research involving sex offenders.

  14. Ethical Issues in Family Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David M.

    For more than half a decade, the author edited a quarterly ethics column focusing on family work, first in the "International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors Newsletter" and later in "The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families." These columns responded to ethical dilemmas in family work submitted by…

  15. Ethics in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Regina L. Garza

    2009-01-01

    The blending of technology and education introduces ethical issues for colleges. In particular, those involved with online education may encounter unique dilemmas that have collegewide implications. In order for ethical decisions to be made in regard to online education, colleges must cultivate a culture of trust, define clearly the correct and…

  16. Ethics in independent nurse consulting: strategies for avoiding ethical quicksand.

    PubMed

    Creel, Eileen L; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2010-11-01

    Changes in health care have created a variety of new roles and opportunities for nurses in advanced practice. One of these changes is the increasing number of advanced practice nurses carrying out independent consultation. Differences in goals between business and health care may create ethical dilemmas for nurse consultants. The purpose of this article is to describe possible ethical pitfalls that nurse consultants may encounter and strategies to prevent or solve these dilemmas. Three themes related to nursing codes of ethics will be discussed: the duty to uphold human rights, the duty to fulfill commitments, and the duty to practice the profession competently. PMID:21097975

  17. Ethical issues in health-care inquiry: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Ignacio, Jeanette J; Taylor, Beverley Joan

    2013-02-01

    This paper is a discussion of the possible ethical dilemmas that may arise in both qualitative and quantitative research despite stringent methodological protocols. Three categories of ethical issues will be elaborated on, namely, researcher-participant relations, informed consent and confidentiality and privacy. These are of note because ethical dilemmas most often arise in these areas. Both qualitative and quantitative research types may thus present with problems associated with any, or a combination, of these categories. Methodological rigour will also be discussed as a vital component of any research study. Critics of the qualitative approach have often suggested that the innate lack of methodological rigour has resulted in the preponderance of ethical issues in qualitative studies. Qualitative studies, similar to quantitative studies, have mechanisms that guarantee rigour, quality and trustworthiness. These checks are at par with those of quantitative research but based on different criteria. Both types of research, then, can be considered equal in terms of methodological rigour, regardless of the nature. As no research approach can be perfectly free from threats of ethical issues, it is the researcher's responsibility to address these in ways that will be less harmful to the participants, bearing in mind ethical problems can arise at any time during the research endeavour.

  18. Ethical Issues in Professional Counseling, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Frederic, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume of 4 and 5 contain lessons that provide expert information on a variety of ethical issues in professional counseling. The lessons included in these volumes may be applied toward continuing education credits. Lessons in volume 4 are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural…

  19. Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2005-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

  20. Alternative Ethics in Employed Women's Household Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohs, Joanne Hoven

    1994-01-01

    Employed women are in a quandary between two ethics, equity and care, in relation to the household division of labor. Uses the frameworks of both Benhabib and Gilligan to explain the moral rationales that women use to prioritize the ethic of care and to articulate the ethical dilemmas of employed women. (LKS)

  1. Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

  2. Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based.

  3. Developing Ethical Knowledge in the Spirit of Judaism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethical dilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling…

  4. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  5. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  6. Ethics in Higher Education: Using Collective Experiences to Enhance New Professional Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzweiss, Peggy; Walker, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While ethical standards exist in higher education, they are often vague and do not identify the dilemmas new professionals are likely to encounter on the job. This article highlights results of a qualitative study identifying ethical dilemmas experienced by administrators in the field and compares results to the ethical framework developed by…

  7. [Ethical issues in health care of gender violence].

    PubMed

    Bugarín-González, R; Bugarín-Diz, C

    2014-01-01

    Gender violence is a health problem that occasionally gives rise to ethical dilemmas for the family doctor. One of the most important conflict is probably when a patient admits to being abused by her partner, but appeals to keep the information confidential, and refuses to present an injury report. There also other problematic situations. This essay attempts to reflect on these issues and help professionals in making decisions.

  8. Can one do good medical ethics without principles?

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The criteria for determining what it is to do good medical ethics are the quality of ethical analysis and ethical justifications for decisions and actions. Justifications for decisions and actions rely on ethical principles, be they the 'famous four' or subsidiary ethical principles relevant to specific contexts. Examples from clinical ethics, research ethics and public health ethics reveal that even when not stated explicitly, principles are involved in ethical justifications. Principles may come into conflict, however, and the resolution of an ethical dilemma requires providing good reasons for preferring one principle over another.

  9. Making the Right Choices: Ethical Judgments among Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyal, Ori; Berkovich, Izhak; Schwartz, Talya

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Scholars have adopted a multiple ethical paradigms approach in an attempt to better understand the bases upon which everyday ethical dilemmas are resolved by educational leaders. The aim of this study is to examine the ethical considerations in ethical judgments of aspiring principals. Design/methodology/approach: To examine the ethical…

  10. Reflective Ethical Inquiry: Preparing Students for Life. IDEA Paper #54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualters, Donna M.; McDaniels, Melissa; Cohen, Perrin

    2013-01-01

    Although universities often teach ethics courses, they do not always teach students how to apply ethical course content to ethical dilemmas they encounter on a day-to-day basis. The Awareness-Investigation-Responding (AIR) model of ethical inquiry bridges this gap by scaffolding the reflective process and empowering students to make more caring,…

  11. The Role of Communication in Organizations: Ethical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, John D., Jr.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a theoretical framework of ethics, power, and communication in the workplace, which provides a backdrop for viewing ethical decisions. Explains that business managers are often caught in a dilemma between job pressures and personal ethical codes. Proposes communication as a means of fostering more ethical organizational behavior. (SG)

  12. A Dilemmas Task for Eliciting Risk Propensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Juan; Narvaez, Maria; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Rubio, Victor J.; Santacreu, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Risk propensity (RP) is a trait characterized by an increased probability of engaging in behaviors that have some potential danger or harm but also provide an opportunity for some benefit. In the present study, a new RP task with several dilemmas was explored. Each dilemma includes the initial set plus successive approximations for estimating the…

  13. Ethical and legal issues in cross-system practice in India: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies allowing practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) to integrate into the mainstream of healthcare and also allowing practitioners of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy to perform medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) under the proposed amendment to the MTP bill have brought crosssystem practice into the limelight. We evaluate cross-system practice from its legal and ethical perspectives. Across judgments, the judiciary has held that cross-system practice is a form of medical negligence; however, it is permitted only in those states where the concerned governments have authorized it by a general or special order. Further, though a state government may authorize an alternative medicine doctor to prescribe allopathic medicines (or vice versa), it does not condone the prescription of wrong medicines or wrong diagnosis. Courts have also stated that prescribing allopathic medicines and misrepresenting these as traditional medicines is an unfair trade practice and not explaining the side-effects of a prescribed allopathic medicine amounts to medical negligence. Finally, the Supreme Court has cautioned that employing traditional medical practitioners who do not possess the required skill and competence to give allopathic treatment in hospitals and to let an emergency patient be treated by them is gross negligence. In the event of an unwanted outcome, the responsibility is completely on the hospital authorities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to abolish cross-system practice, invest in healthcare, and bring radical changes in health legislations to make right to healthcare a reality. PMID:27294458

  14. Ethical and legal issues in cross-system practice in India: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies allowing practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) to integrate into the mainstream of healthcare and also allowing practitioners of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy to perform medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) under the proposed amendment to the MTP bill have brought crosssystem practice into the limelight. We evaluate cross-system practice from its legal and ethical perspectives. Across judgments, the judiciary has held that cross-system practice is a form of medical negligence; however, it is permitted only in those states where the concerned governments have authorized it by a general or special order. Further, though a state government may authorize an alternative medicine doctor to prescribe allopathic medicines (or vice versa), it does not condone the prescription of wrong medicines or wrong diagnosis. Courts have also stated that prescribing allopathic medicines and misrepresenting these as traditional medicines is an unfair trade practice and not explaining the side-effects of a prescribed allopathic medicine amounts to medical negligence. Finally, the Supreme Court has cautioned that employing traditional medical practitioners who do not possess the required skill and competence to give allopathic treatment in hospitals and to let an emergency patient be treated by them is gross negligence. In the event of an unwanted outcome, the responsibility is completely on the hospital authorities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to abolish cross-system practice, invest in healthcare, and bring radical changes in health legislations to make right to healthcare a reality.

  15. A meaty matter. Pet diet and the vegetarian's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2013-09-01

    The present research examined pet ownership, current pet diet, and guilt associated with pet diet among a fairly large sample of non-meat-eaters (n=515). It specifically focused on the conflict that pits feeding one's pet an animal-based diet that may be perceived as best promoting their well-being with concerns over animal welfare and environmental degradation threatened by such diets, here labeled the vegetarian's dilemma. Questionnaire responses indicated that ethically motivated meat abstainers were more likely to own pets and owned more of them than those motivated by health concerns or a combination of ethical and health concerns. Vegans and those resisting meat on ethical grounds were more likely to feed their pet a vegetarian diet and expressed the greatest concerns over feeding their pet an animal-based diet. For vegans and ethical meat abstainers, it is suggested that questions concerning what to feed their pet approaches a tragic tradeoff contrasting two sacred values: protecting the well-being of their pets and protecting the well-being of other animals and the environment. For meat abstainers motivated by health concerns, this constitutes a relatively easy moral problem because the primary concern for such individuals is the health of their pet with less or no regard for other ramifications of the decision, i.e., harming other animals or the environment. PMID:23619313

  16. The nature of dilemmas in dialysis nurse practice.

    PubMed

    Wellard, S

    1992-08-01

    Dilemmas are a part of nurse practice. In situations where a problem potentially has two or more unsatisfactory resolutions, the nurse chooses which course of action to take. The decision to choose constitutes a dilemma. This study focuses on the dilemmas faced by nurses in dialysis units and the context in which they occur. A qualitative design was employed, using open interviews with eight nurses currently employed in dialysis nursing. This approach was taken in order to explore and gain in-depth understanding of the dilemmas in practice. Analysis reveals that dilemmas encountered in dialysis nursing emerge from conflicts in relationships with other people in the work environment. The dilemmas relate to the nurses' perception of the limited power they have in the determination of their practice. This powerlessness is reinforced by their perceived and real isolation from nurses working outside their area of practice. Traditionally, literature on dilemmas in nursing has focused on the development of ethical frameworks to guide practice and the resolution of dilemmas. However, the findings of this study suggest that if nurses are to deal with dilemmas effectively, both for the nurse and the patient, there must be an examination of the structural constraints affecting their practice. Models that are employed by nurses to guide practice must account for the structural elements in the work environment. PMID:1506546

  17. Exploiting loss?: ethical considerations, boundaries, and opportunities for the study of death and grief online.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Heather J; DeGroot, Jocelyn M

    More people are turning to the Internet to communicate about dying, death, and grief experiences. This theoretical article explores the ethical dilemmas, challenges, and opportunities presented to researchers interested in exploring how death and grief are communicated online. Weaving together the literatures of computer-mediated communication and thanatology (dying and death), we discuss the ways in which many common ethical dilemmas uniquely manifest related to death and grief. We also explore the emotional impact studying death and grief online has on researchers and the importance of thinking about researcher emotions on scholars who study these issues. We end with recommendations of how to move forward in the dialogue about ethics and studying death and grief online.

  18. Exploiting loss?: ethical considerations, boundaries, and opportunities for the study of death and grief online.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Heather J; DeGroot, Jocelyn M

    More people are turning to the Internet to communicate about dying, death, and grief experiences. This theoretical article explores the ethical dilemmas, challenges, and opportunities presented to researchers interested in exploring how death and grief are communicated online. Weaving together the literatures of computer-mediated communication and thanatology (dying and death), we discuss the ways in which many common ethical dilemmas uniquely manifest related to death and grief. We also explore the emotional impact studying death and grief online has on researchers and the importance of thinking about researcher emotions on scholars who study these issues. We end with recommendations of how to move forward in the dialogue about ethics and studying death and grief online. PMID:24968619

  19. Toward an horizon in design ethics.

    PubMed

    d'Anjou, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma.

  20. Toward an horizon in design ethics.

    PubMed

    d'Anjou, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma. PMID:19644771

  1. Simulation: a new approach to teaching ethics.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Margaret; Phillippi, Julia C; Collins, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    The importance of ethical conduct in health care was acknowledged as early as the fifth century in the Hippocratic Oath and continues to be an essential element of clinical practice. Providers face ethical dilemmas that are complex and unfold over time, testing both practitioners' knowledge and communication skills. Students learning to be health care providers need to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to negotiate complex situations involving ethical conflict. Simulation has been shown to be an effective learning environment for students to learn and practice complex and overlapping skills sets. However, there is little guidance in the literature on constructing effective simulation environments to assist students in applying ethical concepts. This article describes realistic simulations with trained, standardized patients that present ethical problems to graduate-level nurse-midwifery students. Student interactions with the standardized patients were monitored by faculty and peers, and group debriefing was used to help explore students' emotions and reactions. Student feedback postsimulation was exceedingly positive. This simulation could be easily adapted for use by health care education programs to assist students in developing competency with ethics.

  2. Emotional Support for Health Care Professionals: A Therapeutic Role for the Hospital Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    Chooljian, David M; Hallenbeck, James; Ezeji-Okoye, Stephen C; Sebesta, Robert; Iqbal, Hasan; Kuschner, Ware G

    2016-01-01

    Hospital ethics committees (HECs) are typically charged with addressing ethical disputes, conflicts, and dilemmas that arise in the course of patient care. HECs are not widely viewed as having a therapeutic role for health care professionals who experience psychological distress or anticipatory grief in the course of discharging professional duties. A case is presented in which an ethics consultation was requested, chiefly, to secure emotional support for health care professionals who had been asked by a patient to discontinue life-sustaining treatments. As the case demonstrates, HECs may be called upon to provide emotional support and reassurance to health care professionals who willingly carry out psychologically difficult actions, even though these actions may be ethically uncontroversial. In providing this service, the HEC may not necessarily engage in its customary activity of deliberating an ethics issue and resolving a conflict but may still provide valuable assistance, as in the case presented.

  3. Emotional Support for Health Care Professionals: A Therapeutic Role for the Hospital Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    Chooljian, David M; Hallenbeck, James; Ezeji-Okoye, Stephen C; Sebesta, Robert; Iqbal, Hasan; Kuschner, Ware G

    2016-01-01

    Hospital ethics committees (HECs) are typically charged with addressing ethical disputes, conflicts, and dilemmas that arise in the course of patient care. HECs are not widely viewed as having a therapeutic role for health care professionals who experience psychological distress or anticipatory grief in the course of discharging professional duties. A case is presented in which an ethics consultation was requested, chiefly, to secure emotional support for health care professionals who had been asked by a patient to discontinue life-sustaining treatments. As the case demonstrates, HECs may be called upon to provide emotional support and reassurance to health care professionals who willingly carry out psychologically difficult actions, even though these actions may be ethically uncontroversial. In providing this service, the HEC may not necessarily engage in its customary activity of deliberating an ethics issue and resolving a conflict but may still provide valuable assistance, as in the case presented. PMID:27462956

  4. The four principles: Can they be measured and do they predict ethical decision making?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The four principles of Beauchamp and Childress - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice - have been extremely influential in the field of medical ethics, and are fundamental for understanding the current approach to ethical assessment in health care. This study tests whether these principles can be quantitatively measured on an individual level, and then subsequently if they are used in the decision making process when individuals are faced with ethical dilemmas. Methods The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used as a tool for the measurement of the principles. Four scenarios, which involved conflicts between the medical ethical principles, were presented to participants who then made judgments about the ethicality of the action in the scenario, and their intentions to act in the same manner if they were in the situation. Results Individual preferences for these medical ethical principles can be measured using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This technique provides a useful tool in which to highlight individual medical ethical values. On average, individuals have a significant preference for non-maleficence over the other principles, however, and perhaps counter-intuitively, this preference does not seem to relate to applied ethical judgements in specific ethical dilemmas. Conclusions People state they value these medical ethical principles but they do not actually seem to use them directly in the decision making process. The reasons for this are explained through the lack of a behavioural model to account for the relevant situational factors not captured by the principles. The limitations of the principles in predicting ethical decision making are discussed. PMID:22606995

  5. Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

  6. Medical Ethics in the Next 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tiberius, Richard G.

    1979-01-01

    In the next 10-15 years most of the major ethical dilemmas facing family physicians will grow more acute. This is not to imply that things are getting worse. On the contrary, it is the simultaneous growth of miraculous methods and frightening risks that will make the dilemmas more acute. In the next 15-25 years, we will learn how to minimize the risks. Several major ethical dilemmas of medical practice are reviewed from this perspective. Finally, some issues are considered that do not fit this pattern and that have the potential to become a much greater challenge to humanity. PMID:11662581

  7. The Development of a Code of Ethics: An Online Classroom Approach to Making Connections between Ethical Foundations and the Challenges Presented by Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2010-01-01

    In today's organizations, ethical challenges relate to areas like fraud, right to privacy for consumers, social responsibility, and trade restrictions. For Information Technology (IT) specifically, these can translate to considerations on how technology is used to violate people's privacy, how automation leads to job reductions, or how management…

  8. Dilemmas in Quality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patry, Jean-Luc; Gastager, Angela

    2004-01-01

    A taxonomy of potential values conflicts in evaluations is presented. Basis is the distinction of types of conflict (aims vs. means conflicts; qualitative vs. quantitative conflicts). Six areas of values are discussed: the ethical, methodical, social and interactive, legal, economic, and personal values. The taxonomy of conflicts between these…

  9. Genetics and the interpersonal elaboration of ethics.

    PubMed

    Parker, M

    2001-09-01

    Confidentiality in genetic testing poses important ethical challenges to the current primacy of respect for autonomy and patient choice in health care. It also presents a challenge to approaches to decision-making emphasising the ethical importance of the consequences of health care decisions. In this paper a case is described in which respect for confidentiality calls both for disclosure and non-disclosure, and in which respect for patient autonomy and the demand to avoid causing harm each appear to call both for testing without consent, and testing only with consent. This creates problems not only for clinicians, families and patients, but also for those who propose clinical bioethics as a tool for the resolution of such dilemmas. In this paper I propose some practical ways in which ethical issues in clinical genetics and elsewhere, might be addressed. In particular I call for a closer relationship between ethics and communication in health care decision-making and describe an approach to the ethics consultation that places particular emphasis on the value of interpersonal deliberation in the search for moral understanding. I reach these conclusions through an analysis of the concept of 'moral development' in which I argue that the achievement of moral understanding is a necessarily intersubjective project elaborated by moral persons. PMID:11808679

  10. Sudden cardiac death: ethical considerations in the return to play.

    PubMed

    Piantanida, Nicholas A; Oriscello, Ralph G; Pettrone, Frank A; O'Connor, Francis G

    2004-04-01

    The team physician-athlete relationship prompts many basic questions in medical ethics. Return-to-play decisions form many of the core responsibilities facing team physicians, and occasionally these decisions can have overriding ethical dilemmas. Therefore, a structured ethical decision-making process is a valuable skill for every successful sports medicine physician. An ethical question is confronted here in a case presentation that weighs the risk of repeat sudden cardiac death and the potential for failed cardiac resuscitation against the athlete's interest to play competitive basketball. The article applies a four-step framework for ethical decision making in sports medicine. The important first step includes gathering medical information and understanding the preferences of the athlete. Step 2 brings together the decision-making stakeholders, the team physician as a member, to define ethical issues and apply ethical principles: beneficence, non-maleficence, and patient autonomy. Step 3 selects a course of action with unbiased analysis and arrives at a good choice that merits an action plan in step 4. This decision need not be perfect, but should reinforce the team physician's responsibilities to the athlete and center on the athlete's welfare.

  11. Evaluation Team Dynamics: Intragroup Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urias, David

    2009-01-01

    Ethical challenges associated with the relationships among members of an evaluative team/organization receive less attention. Examples of the kinds of ethical dilemmas that could occur within an evaluation team include an individual taking undeserved credit, transferring blame, making false promises, withholding information, breaching…

  12. Dodging Marshmallows: Simulations to Teach Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidman, Justin; Coombs, Dawan

    2016-01-01

    Students had just participated in an experiential learning exercise where they played dodgeball using marshmallows, but the unique context of the game introduced ethical dilemmas that integrated ethics education into a technical education classroom setting. Research shows that "Engineering curriculum and activities at the K-12 level should be…

  13. An Ethics Challenge for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet G.; Crews, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Ethical issues arise more often for school counselors than for those who work in other settings (Remley, 2002). The challenge of working not only with minors but also with other stakeholders including parents, teachers, school administrators, and community members sets the stage for potential legal and ethical dilemmas. Awareness and adherence to…

  14. Ecology, Ethics, and Responsibility in Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddock, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that working with marital and family problems complicates the concept of therapeutic responsibility. Discusses several societal contributors to ethical dilemmas in contemporary family therapy and summarizes an ecological framework for therapy on the basis of which a profile of the ethical family therapist is derived. (Author/NB)

  15. Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…

  16. Code of Ethics for Health Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Health Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Health Education's code of ethics for health educators provides a common set of values to guide health educators in resolving ethical dilemmas, focusing on responsibility to the public, to the profession, and to employers in delivering health education and in research and evaluation. (SM)

  17. Context-Sensitive Ethics in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry; Robillard, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Ethical codes and licensing rules provide foundational guidance for practicing school psychologists, but these sources fall short in their capacity to facilitate effective decision-making. When faced with ethical dilemmas, school psychologists can turn to decision-making models, but step-wise decision trees frequently lack the situation…

  18. Mentors' Ethical Perceptions: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to describe mentors' perceptions of their ethical dilemmas, the derived mentor roles, and the ethical guidelines suggested by mentors, with reference to previous studies exploring the mentors' multifaceted roles. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 mentors participated in a two-phase study: the mentors were…

  19. 'Medical ethics'--an alternative approach.

    PubMed Central

    Haldane, J J

    1986-01-01

    Contemporary medical ethics is generally concerned with the application of ethical theory to medico-moral dilemmas and with the critical analysis of the concepts of medicine. This paper presents an alternative programme: the development of a medical philosophy which, by taking as its starting point the two questions: what is man? and, what constitutes goodness in life? offers an account of health as one of the primary concepts of value. This view of the subject resembles that implied by ancient theories of goodness, and in later sections of the paper it is shown how Aristotle points us towards a coherent theory of human nature as psycho-physical, which overcomes the inadequacies of dualism and physicalist reductionism. What is on offer therefore, is the prospect of an integrated account of human nature and of what constitutes its flourishing: to be healthy is to be an active unity-of-parts in equilibrium. PMID:3761336

  20. Ethical difficulties in nursing, educational needs and attitudes about using ethics resources.

    PubMed

    Leuter, Cinzia; Petrucci, Cristina; Mattei, Antonella; Tabassi, Gianpietro; Lancia, Loreto

    2013-05-01

    Ethical difficulties arise in healthcare practices. However, despite extensive research findings that demonstrate that most nurses are involved in recurrent ethical problems, institutions are not always able to effectively support nursing care professionals. The limited availability of ethics consultation services and traditional nursing training fails to meet the frequent and strong requests by health workers to support their ethical dilemmas. A questionnaire was administered to 374 nurses attending a specialist training and a lifetime learning programme in Italy. The respondents reported a high frequency of ethically sensitive situations, and they described the poor development of ethics support and a scarcity of ethics training programmes. The results suggest the importance of promoting ethics services that include consultation and ethics training. A need for systematic ethics educational activities was identified for improving the capacity of nurses to manage ethical issues in patient care.

  1. Ethically Challenging Situations Reported by School Psychologists: Implications for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailor, A. Nichole; Jacob, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Practitioner-members of the National Association of School Psychologists (N = 208) completed questionnaires regarding their ethics training, preparedness, the types of ethical transgressions and dilemmas encountered in the previous year, and the strategies used to solve problems. Respondents who received multilevel training in ethics (ethics…

  2. Ethical Issues Relating to Living Organ Donation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Yang, T; Li, L; Ma, W

    2016-01-01

    Although great developments have been made in living organ donation, the ethical issues relating to living organ donation still face dilemmas in China. In this report, we discuss several ethical issues concerning living organ donation in China. It is argued that living organ donation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this report are carefully considered. PMID:27569914

  3. Commentary: compassion at the core of forensic ethics.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    In 1982, Dr. Alan Stone raised a central dilemma in ethics for forensic psychiatry that has prompted significant and important discussion of the concerns about twisting justice, prostituting the profession, and operating without adequate ethics guidelines in the course of our work. In presidential addresses to the membership of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL), Dr. Paul Appelbaum and Dr. Ezra Griffith have attempted to deal with Stone's challenges, the former by providing a theory of forensic ethics, the latter by advocating cultural formulation and narrative as the methodology of our work. In his present contribution, Dr. Griffith advances the idea of narrative to involve compassion for the subject of the evaluation. In so doing, he brings us to a far more satisfactory resolution of the dilemma described by Dr. Stone. The obligation to show compassion deserves to be at the core of any valuable statement of forensic ethics. The role of compassion in justice, as discussed, for example, by Simone Weil, warrants further interdisciplinary study.

  4. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

  5. [Basic concepts in biomedical ethics].

    PubMed

    Arn, Christof

    2009-08-01

    Starting with a complex clinical situation we introduce basic concepts of clinical ethics. We explain why well-defined terms are needed and demonstrate how these terms can be used as practical tools for approaching and resolving ethical dilemmas in a professional decision-making process. It will be outlined how the use of these terms may contribute to the understanding of the ways in which moral values are perceived and communication skills can be improved.

  6. Research with Children: Challenges and Dilemmas as an Insider Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye Won

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas raised by my own experience of researching an immigrant Korean child at an ethnic Sunday School where I taught. I review the ethical and methodological challenges raised in my interactions with the child as an insider researcher from the ways I approached consent forms through to interview…

  7. [Hospital clinical ethics committees].

    PubMed

    Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor

    2007-01-01

    The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethical dilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of

  8. Ethics in psychiatry: a view from the clinic.

    PubMed

    Hassenfeld, I N; Silver, R J

    1984-01-01

    Decisions and interventions made in the course of psychiatric practice often have important ethical dimensions. Issues such as confidentiality, freedom of information, the duty to warn, double agentry, the patient's rights to treatment, and to refuse treatment are often identified in the context of inpatient psychiatry. In the practice of ambulatory psychiatry these issues are more easily ignored and therefore less frequently considered. The authors present six cases seen in an outpatient clinic of a community mental health program which illustrate ethical dilemmas in the six areas listed above. Questions raised by the cases and the clinic's interventions are discussed. Consequences for the patients and the clinic of the ethical decisions made in these are explored.

  9. Ethical and Moral Decision Making: Praxis and Hermeneutics for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, Joan Quinn

    2011-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest in the inclusion of ethics as part of educators' training and interest in understanding the moral and ethical dimensions of educational practice. This research was designed to study the types of dilemmas school level leaders face, the characteristics of typical dilemmas, and the implications for leader…

  10. Clinical ethics committee.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J. G.; Lilford, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    An informal clinical ethics committee was set up to advise on ethical problems in prenatal diagnosis in Leeds. It was used twice in six months but was not called on again in the subsequent year, and we describe this experience. In North America similar committees are often used to advise on clinical moral dilemmas, and we review the published evidence from there and discuss some of the advantages and problems. Our committee's advice may have altered clinicians' actions considerably, but perhaps doctors in Britain are not yet ready to surrender this aspect of clinical autonomy. PMID:7549638

  11. The ethics committee in the nursing home. Results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Glasser, G; Zweibel, N R; Cassel, C K

    1988-02-01

    As the complexity, prevalence and visibility of ethical dilemmas in medical care of the elderly have grown, hospitals and nursing homes have attempted to develop mechanisms for responding to these difficult ethical issues. While it is known that many hospitals rely on education and advice provided by an ethics committee, little data exist on the responses of nursing homes, despite the unique nature of ethical issues in a long-term care setting. The present paper reports findings from a national survey of administrators of 4504 nursing homes in which mechanisms for handling ethical dimensions in patient care were investigated. Results from 29% of respondents reveal that few nursing homes have established ethics committees (2% of the sample) and that committee formation appears positively associated with facility size and religious affiliation. Committees that have been formed engage in policy review (81%), advisory case review (67%) and education (45%). Few committees include patients or their representatives as members, and few have the authority to make binding decisions (26%). While the most effective response to ethical issues in medical decision-making is being debated, standing committees provide one means to contribute to the quality of decision-making by patients, their family members and their physicians. However, broader inclusion of patient perspectives and education of members regarding ethical analysis are necessary precursors to effective functioning of ethics committees in long-term care. PMID:3339220

  12. An ethical dilemma: risk versus responsibility.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S

    1994-01-01

    1. In the psychiatric community, two highly profitable diagnoses currently are filling psychiatric hospitals: dissociative disorder and multiple personality disorder. Certainly these patients need help, and psychiatric nurses are well-qualified to plan their scope of care. However, when the hospital reported on in this article exploited these diagnoses by encouraging practices that extended lengths of stay and restricted patient's rights, the nurses were forced to speak out as advocates for the patients. 2. The dissociative disorder unit housed 10 patients billed at an intensive care unit rate of $1,200 per day. One patient's average fee per day was $1,560; multiply this by 10 patients, and the hospital received $15,600 per day from this unit alone. 3. Financial calculation is not what nurses are used to thinking about; indeed, it somehow seems unbefitting to link nursing care with any mention of monetary gain. Yet, this is exactly the sort of information that nurses must have in order to understand how hospital politics may influence their situation. PMID:8145195

  13. Ethical dilemma: is this elder abuse?

    PubMed

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2003-08-01

    Elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation are major problems today (Marshall, Benton, & Brazier, 2000). Most elder abuse occurs at home and is committed by spouses, children, or other family members. Abuse may go undetected until observant professionals intervene ( AOA, 1998). Sometimes the abuse is a continuation of existing dysfunctional family dynamics. More often, however, the abuse is a result of changes brought about by an older person's growing dependency and need for increased care. PMID:12917522

  14. Ethical dilemmas of medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Desai, Geetha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are common across health settings. These are defined as "physical symptoms that prompt sufferer to seek healthcare but remain unexplained after an appropriate medical evaluation". Expectedly, MUS are often associated with significant health-seeking behaviours that add to the burden on health resources. PMID:27260826

  15. Queer Teachers' Ethical Dilemmas regarding Queer Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Vanessa Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Although all teachers are expected to be "role models," discursive trajectories reaching back to the West's gay liberation pressure queer teachers to be role models in specific ways--by "coming out" and helping queer students out of their "time of difficulty." Paradoxically, discourses that construct children as innocent and queers-as-a-threat…

  16. OUTSOURCING ETHICAL DILEMMAS: REGULATING INTERNATIONAL SURROGACY ARRANGEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Fenton-Glynn, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that the English legislative regime is ineffective in regulating international surrogacy, particularly with regard to commercial payments. It suggests that if English law views surrogacy as exploitative, we have a responsibility to protect women both in England and abroad, and the only way to do so effectively is to create a domestic system of regulation that caters adequately for the demand in this country. This requires a system of authorisation for surrogacy before it is undertaken; ex-post facto examinations of agreements completed in other jurisdictions, after the child is already living with the commissioning parents, cannot be seen as an acceptable compromise, as authorisation will inevitably be granted in the child's best interests. PMID:26785890

  17. Large ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  18. Teaching Business Ethics: A Practical Guide and Case Studies. SBDC Professional Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Denis; Page, Laura V.

    This teaching guide is for instructors who wish to include a discussion of ethical dilemmas in their regular business seminars and workshops. It discusses why it is essential to teach ethics and how to do so. It reviews the format of specially annotated ethics cases that are designed to help teach business ethics and shows how to use them. These…

  19. Collection Development and Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the ethical dilemmas of library collection development through three specific examples related to scholarly communication, including the ongoing effort by publishers to use licensing contracts to abolish interlibrary loans for information in electronic format. Considers information needs of clients versus optimizing public access to…

  20. Using NAEYC's Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Notes that children biting other children is a serious health concern, because of the danger of infection. Explores the ethical dilemma of upholding child and family privacy while promoting home-center partnerships when one child is biting others. Offers viewpoints of parents, teachers, and center directors and reports the responses to this…

  1. Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Morris M.

    1991-01-01

    According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

  2. Placing ethics in the centre: negotiating new spaces for ethical research in conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Zwi, A B; Grove, N J; MacKenzie, C; Pittaway, E; Zion, D; Silove, D; Tarantola, D

    2006-01-01

    Issues of power and consent, confidentiality, trust, and benefit, risks to researchers, and potential harm to participants, are all contested when working with different cultures and within environments marked by violence and insecurity. Difficulty resolving these dilemmas may paralyse ethics committees, may fail to give the guidance sought by researchers, and will not help populations who are among the world's most vulnerable. Even where efforts are made to respond to ethical guidelines and to improve practice, considerable impediments are present in many developing countries, including lack of formal ethical review structures in unstable settings, lack of required skills, limited political and institutional recognition of ethical issues, competing interests, and limitations in clinical and research practice (Elsayed 2004, Macklin 2004). In conflict settings, these limitations are more marked, and the responsibilities of the researcher for ethical practice are greater, but the mechanisms for oversight are weaker. Moreover, the constant focus on vulnerabilities and problems, and the often almost total lack of recognition of strengths and resilience, can further disempower already exploited groups and individuals. The capacity of refugees and communities in conflict to take an active role in the research process is seldom acknowledged, and undermines the potential for more innovative research which can help generate the evidence for better policy and practice. PMID:19153911

  3. Ethics of responsibility in a multicultural context.

    PubMed

    Turoldo, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    Caring for patients from different cultural or religious backgrounds may create difficult ethical dilemmas for physicians. The article reviews four case histories, involving patients from the Navajo culture or the Christian Science Church, that highlight some of these ethical problems. It then discusses an "ethics of responsibility," which is based on and encompasses a variety of meanings of responsibility, including responsibility as recognition, as taking charge, as the ability to assess the consequences of one's actions, and as making a commitment. An ethics of responsibility provides a novel perspective for resolving ethical problems in medicine. PMID:20495256

  4. Developing and evaluating the GriefLink web site: processes, protocols, dilemmas and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sheila; Burgess, Teresa; Laven, Gillian; Bull, Michael; Marker, Julie; Browne, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Despite a profusion of recommendations regarding the quality of web sites and guidelines related to ethical issues surrounding health-related sites, there is little guidance for the design and evaluation of sites relating to loss and grief. This article, which addresses these deficiencies, results from a community consultation process of designing and evaluating a web site--GriefLink--for bereaved consumers and for the professionals who help them. It presents the literature review that informed the project, the recommendations for design and content, the lessons learned through the process itself, and the difficulties of evaluating the benefits of a grief-related web site. Some ethical and legal dilemmas in developing grief-related web sites are discussed and issues of design, content, process, evaluation, and general features are addressed, which may also be applied to other communication forms for loss and grief matters, such as the print media.

  5. Some ethical issues in technology transfer and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shine, Kenneth I.

    1995-10-01

    Health care systems all around the world are struggling to provide care in an era of limited resources. In an article entitled, 'Straight Talk About Rationing,' Arthur Kaplan reviews the work of the Swedish Commission designed to prioritize health care for that country. The commission identified three core principles that they felt should underlie decisions about priorities for health care. Those principles were (1) all human beings are equally valuable; (2) society must pay special attention to the needs of the weakest and most vulnerable; and (3) all other things being equal, cost efficiency in gaining the greatest return for the amount of money spent must prevail. These are three extremely useful principles which can be helpful to us as we consider many of the issues confronted in this country about the allocation of resources for health. I would like to consider three major issues. The first issue is the current evolving nature of health care and the ethical dilemmas that exist in the present system. In balancing increased access to care with decreasing cost, particularly in managed care, all of us are concerned about ethical issues. I would like to emphasize that the current system -- the system that we have lived with and is changing -- has inherent in it a series of ethical dilemmas. Secondly, I would like to consider issues related to productivity and its measurement in relation to technology. This relates to the third item in the Swedish Commission, which is the principle that we ought to spend money in the most cost-efficient way. Finally, I would like to discuss the dilemma of decision making about health and how that impacts upon the ethics of health care in the application of technology.

  6. Rattling the Cage: Moving beyond Ethical Standards to Ethical Praxis in Self-Study Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Robyn; Gervasoni, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The ethical practice underpinning self-study research has been addressed extensively in the literature of self-study of teacher education practices. Less attention has been paid to how researchers deal with ethical tensions and dilemmas when they arise unexpectedly during self-study research. In this article, we examine how the extrapolation and…

  7. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the

  8. The Roles, Duties, and Ethical Responsibilities of the Chief Financial Officer. Perspectives…Presenting Thought Leaders' Points of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Released in conjunction with the "Sustaining an Ethical Culture on Campus" webcast, this essay in the "Perspectives" series examines the complexities of the role of the chief financial officer. This white paper focuses on how the financial leader of an institution must balance technical knowledge along with stellar…

  9. Achieving collaboration in ethical decision making: strategies for nurses in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wocial, L D

    1996-01-01

    Ethical decision making is a process that combines justice and caring in moral reflection to select sound choices. Nurses and physicians often have different perspectives on how to resolve ethical dilemmas. Satisfactory resolution depends on overcoming conflict and achieving collaboration between members of the health care team. Conflict can occur on a number of different levels. For example, it can be between nurses, nurses and physicians or the entire health care team and the patient. This article helps prepare critical care nurses to handle ethical dilemmas in crisis situations by providing them with specific strategies that help promote collaboration in resolving ethical dilemmas. PMID:8715871

  10. Health promotion research: dilemmas and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Koelen, M; Vaandrager, L; Colomer, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse dilemmas and challenges in health promotion research, and to generate ideas for future development.
METHOD—The analysis is based on authors' experiences in working in the field of research and action in health promotion and on experiences of others as found in literature.
RESULTS—The assumptions underlying scientific research as based in the biomedical design are difficult to meet in community-based health promotion research. Dilemmas are identified in relation to the possibility of defining the independent and dependent variables beforehand and the intermingling of these variables (the intervention and outcome dilemma), the difficulty in quantifying the desired outcomes (the number dilemma), and the problem of diffusion of the programme to the control group (the control group dilemma).
CONCLUSION—Research in health promotion has specific reasons to reconsider the approach towards research, the selection of outcome variables, and research techniques. Strategies and methods to make activities and their outcomes clear are discussed and criteria to judge confidence and applicability of research findings are presented.


Keywords: health promotion research; research dilemmas; research challenges PMID:11238581

  11. Beyond a code of ethics: phenomenological ethics for everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Bruce; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    Physical therapy, like all health-care professions, governs itself through a code of ethics that defines its obligations of professional behaviours. The code of ethics provides professions with a consistent and common moral language and principled guidelines for ethical actions. Yet, and as argued in this paper, professional codes of ethics have limits applied to ethical decision-making in the presence of ethical dilemmas. Part of the limitations of the codes of ethics is that there is no particular hierarchy of principles that govern in all situations. Instead, the exigencies of clinical practice, the particularities of individual patient's illness experiences and the transformative nature of chronic illnesses and disabilities often obscure the ethical concerns and issues embedded in concrete situations. Consistent with models of expert practice, and with contemporary models of patient-centred care, we advocate and describe in this paper a type of interpretative and narrative approach to moral practice and ethical decision-making based on phenomenology. The tools of phenomenology that are well defined in research are applied and examined in a case that illustrates their use in uncovering the values and ethical concerns of a patient. Based on the deconstruction of this case on a phenomenologist approach, we illustrate how such approaches for ethical understanding can help assist clinicians and educators in applying principles within the context and needs of each patient.

  12. Ethical guidelines for orthopaedists and industry.

    PubMed

    Epps, Charles H

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade, there has been a gradual erosion of the ethical principles that guide relationships between physicians and industry. Two areas in which the decline has been most notable are gifts to physicians and the relationships of industry to educational and research activities. The gifts have become more valuable and industry representatives make gifts available under circumstances where frequently there is no educational program. Research support continues at a high level but researchers increasingly find themselves in positions that present conflicts of interest with the interests of patients who are research subjects. These changes have taken place during an era in which professionalism also has declined and physicians are losing control of their practices to government and to the corporate sector. A solution to this dilemma is suggested through strict adherence to the existing ethical principles by physicians and industry. Physicians must renew observance of professionalism and improve oversight and discipline. Medicine cannot impose restrictions on the pharmaceutical and manufacturing industries but can appeal to industry's leadership. Oversight and discipline also must govern marketing and sales representatives of industry. There must be an ethical common ground if a new physician and industry relationship is to succeed in producing a climate of mutual respect and higher ethics; patients will benefit and physicians and industry will regain the public trust.

  13. Ethical conflicts in placebo treatment.

    PubMed

    Elander, G

    1991-08-01

    In this paper the pros and cons of using placebo are discussed from the point of view of ethical theories and principles. The effects of placebo are exemplified by findings from previous studies, and an authentic case serves to illustrate ethical dilemmas arising both for the caregiver and the patient in conjunction with the use of placebo. Placebo treatment is discussed from deontological and utilitarianist points of view, and violation of the ethical principles, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, autonomy and truth-telling, are considered.

  14. Ethical clinical practice and sport psychology: when two worlds collide.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey L; Cogan, Karen D

    2006-01-01

    From their own practices, the authors offer insight into potential ethical dilemmas that may frequently develop in an applied psychology setting in which sport psychology is also being practiced. Specific ethical situations offered for the reader's consideration include confidentiality with coaches, administration, parents, and athlete-clients; accountability in ethical billing practices and accurate diagnosing; identification of ethical boundaries in nontraditional practice settings (locker room, field, rink, etc.); and establishment of professional competence as it relates to professional practice and marketing. PMID:17036422

  15. Ethics in perioperative practice--principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Kathryn

    2002-04-01

    Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this first of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the ANA code to their own area of practice, the author looks at the first statement, which emphasizes respect for people.

  16. Justice within social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, David A; Steel, Julie E; Woodell, Andria J; Bembenek, Alicia F

    2003-01-01

    The defining feature of social dilemma situations is the inherent conflict faced by those involved: should one act in his or her own individual best interest or sacrifice a measure of one's personal payoff to help maximize the joint payoff of the group as a whole? In such dilemmas, those making individualistic and defecting choices are always at a competitive advantage relative to those who choose to cooperate. One seemingly inevitable consequence of the resulting resource allocation asymmetry is that it must challenge and threaten the cooperator's sense of fairness and justice, and it is the reaction of those caught in social dilemmas to this injustice and unfairness that is the focus of this article. We examine how justice processes-distributive justice, procedural justice, restorative justice, and retributive justice-operate in social dilemmas. Within this examination, we consider ideas from classic and contemporary conceptual analyses of justice to provide a broader context within which to understand social dilemmas and the roles that justice plays as people strive to ensure fair outcomes for themselves and for others. We conclude with the proposal of a 4-stage, sequential model of justice in social dilemmas that posits groups move between the types of justice concerns when unfair and unsatisfactory outcomes (e.g., inequitable resource allocations, violations of agreed-on allocation rules, intentional and egregious exploitation of the group) cause members to "recognize the necessity" for change to ensure fair and just outcomes for all.

  17. Transfer effects between moral dilemmas: a causal model theory.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Alex; Waldmann, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Evaluations of analogous situations are an important source for our moral intuitions. A puzzling recent set of findings in experiments exploring transfer effects between intuitions about moral dilemmas has demonstrated a striking asymmetry. Transfer often occurred with a specific ordering of moral dilemmas, but not when the sequence was reversed. In this article we present a new theory of transfer between moral intuitions that focuses on two components of moral dilemmas, namely their causal structure and their default evaluations. According to this theory, transfer effects are expected when the causal models underlying the considered dilemmas allow for a mapping of the highlighted aspect of the first scenario onto the causal structure of the second dilemma, and when the default evaluations of the two dilemmas substantially differ. The theory's key predictions for the occurrence and the direction of transfer effects between two moral dilemmas are tested in five experiments with various variants of moral dilemmas from different domains. A sixth experiment tests the predictions of the theory for how the target action in the moral dilemmas is represented.

  18. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    PubMed

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  19. Ethical aspects of genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Carter, M A

    2001-07-01

    This article explores ethical concerns and emerging dilemmas associated with the proliferation of information resulting from the extraordinary advances in molecular genetics. It provides an overview of the ethical and legal challenges associated with predictive testing for inherited disease currently being addressed in the literature. Finally, it offers a framework of ethical principles that can be used to guide nurses and other practitioners in the appropriate application of research findings to the clinical practice setting. The ethical guidelines of self-determination, benefit-burden ratio, and justice promulgated in The Belmont Report are interpreted in the new context of predictive genetic testing. The author concludes by discussing how to balance the technical imperative to advance genetic knowledge for the sake of human health with the ethical imperative to preserve the fundamental rights and liberties of both individuals and communities who are its recipients.

  20. An Ethics Study: Implications of Knowledge for School Counselor Candidates, School Counseling Supervisors, Practicing School Counselors and Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julia S.; Bingeman, Brittany A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses a survey conducted to examine knowledge of ethics in school counselor candidates. Students in school counseling practicum and internship classes indicated their familiarity with ethical codes and ethical decision making-models and responded to items pertaining to ethical dilemmas. Areas of concern to counselor educators…

  1. Contingencies of Reinforcement in a Five-Person Prisoner's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Rachlin, Howard

    2004-01-01

    As in studies of self-control, a tit-for-tat contingency in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game creates a conflict between maximization of local and global reinforcement. The present experiments examine this conflict in a multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game. Versus tit for tat, cooperation corresponds to self-control; defection, always immediately…

  2. Forensic implications and medical-legal dilemmas of maternal versus fetal rights.

    PubMed

    Mohaupt, S M; Sharma, K K

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the issue of fetal rights from primarily a legal perspective, with consideration of morals and professional ethics. The practice of medicine is fraught with numerous bioethical dilemmas. These dilemmas often leave the physician wondering if he has made the correct decision. A physician's morals and professional ethics may influence his or her decision in resolving bioethical dilemmas. The case example is a 34-year-old female with a 41-week intra-uterine pregnancy. The mother was refusing induction of labor. Without the labor induction, the fetus may die. Despite this risk, the mother desired to pursue a vaginal delivery. The AMA's ethics state that a competent, pregnant mother's wishes should prevail and the court should not be involved unless there are unusual circumstances. The mother in the case example was competent and informed consent was provided. Case law does not specifically address the dilemma of the case example. However, there is case law regarding court-ordered cesarean sections which reveals different opinions. The difference in court opinion encompasses the relative degree of weight given to the fetus's right to be born healthy and alive versus the mother's privacy rights. Some courts describe this "balancing test," whereas others state that the mother's privacy rights prevail unless there are exceptional circumstances, which will be extremely rare. The fetus has acquired rights in other areas of the law; for example, abolishment of the intra-family immunity doctrine and the definition of murder in most states. In considering the legal arena of fetal versus maternal rights, a decision tree is presented to assist physicians in assessing cases of a pregnant mother refusing medical treatment. There is no precise demarcation in assessing fetal and maternal rights. The greater the degree of fetal viability, the greater degree of fetal rights. Consideration must also be given to the relative degree of invasiveness to

  3. The ethics of life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Small, Robin

    2002-08-01

    Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive--our expectation of further life--and the other negative--the loss of potential life brought about by death. The most common method of determining this loss, by counting only the period of time between death and some particular age, implies that those who die at ages not far from that one are regarded as losing very little potential life, while those who die at greater ages are regarded as losing none at all. This approach has methodological advantages but ethical disadvantages, in that it fails to correspond to our strong belief that anyone who dies is losing some period of life that he or she would otherwise have had. The normative role of life expectancy expressed in the 'fair innings' attitude arises from a particular historical situation: not the increase of life expectancy in modern societies, but a related narrowing in the distribution of projected life spans. Since life expectancy is really a representation of existing patterns of mortality, which in turn are determined by many influences, including the present allocation of health resources, it should not be taken as a prediction, and still less as a statement of entitlement. PMID:12956176

  4. Ethical considerations in bioengineering research.

    PubMed

    Naurato, Nicolas; Smith, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical science and engineering have made rapid advancements in the field of medicine over the past few decades. New ethical problems arising from this technology are influencing biomedical research more and more. It is disturbing that bioengineering professionals have had relatively little contact with moral and legal theory in light of these developments and particularly since they represent the forefront of new medical innovations. The objective of this communication is to introduce the study of bioethics and the use of principlism when examining bioengineering problems and dilemmas. Specific examples derived from actual proceedings, such as the Baltimore case, will alert scientists to the importance of misconduct in academic society. Cases will be used to illustrate how tools learned in this presentation are applied to analyze bioethical issues. New technology has a large social impact and is setting the standard of care for treatment. The health care system continually relies on researchers to produce improvements in patient therapy. Society will increasingly expect scientists to be morally responsible for the research they perform and uphold those virtues that ensure good ethical conduct. PMID:12724954

  5. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Allon N.

    2016-01-01

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics. PMID:27101218

  6. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Allon N

    2016-01-01

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics. PMID:27101218

  7. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Allon N

    2016-04-19

    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  8. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis presenting as thoracic mass causing obstruction of the superior and inferior vena cava in an immunocompetent patient: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Bunkar, Moti lal; Takhar, Rajendra Prasad; Arya, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a disease of immunocompromised patients, but its prevalence is increasing in immunocompetent persons. Patients usually present with non-specific symptoms, sometimes consistent with bronchopneumonia. We discuss the case of a 19-year-old boy who presented with constitutional respiratory symptoms along with signs of obstruction of the superior and inferior vena cava. A chest radiograph was suggestive of a thoracic mass raising suspicion of bronchogenic carcinoma/ benign mass, sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, but a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis was established. The patient showed excellent clinico-radiological improvement with administration of voriconazole. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis may also present with atypical findings and should be considered in differentials when investigating a case even if the patient does not have a risk factor. PMID:26506978

  9. Different views on ethics: how animal ethics is situated in a committee culture.

    PubMed

    Ideland, M

    2009-04-01

    Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions.

  10. The obstetric dilemma: an ancient game of Russian roulette, or a variable dilemma sensitive to ecology?

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Stock, Jay T

    2012-01-01

    The difficult birth process of humans, often described as the "obstetric dilemma," is commonly assumed to reflect antagonistic selective pressures favoring neonatal encephalization and maternal bipedal locomotion. However, cephalo-pelvic disproportion is not exclusive to humans, and is present in some primate species of smaller body size. The fossil record indicates mosaic evolution of the obstetric dilemma, involving a number of different evolutionary processes, and it appears to have shifted in magnitude between Australopithecus, Pleistocene Homo, and recent human populations. Most attention to date has focused on its generic nature, rather than on its variability between populations. We re-evaluate the nature of the human obstetric dilemma using updated hominin and primate literature, and then consider the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to variability in its magnitude. Both maternal pelvic dimensions and fetal growth patterns are sensitive to ecological factors such as diet and the thermal environment. Neonatal head girth has low plasticity, whereas neonatal mass and maternal stature have higher plasticity. Secular trends in body size may therefore exacerbate or decrease the obstetric dilemma. The emergence of agriculture may have exacerbated the dilemma, by decreasing maternal stature and increasing neonatal growth and adiposity due to dietary shifts. Paleodemographic comparisons between foragers and agriculturalists suggest that foragers have considerably lower rates of perinatal mortality. In contemporary populations, maternal stature remains strongly associated with perinatal mortality in many populations. Long-term improvements in nutrition across future generations may relieve the dilemma, but in the meantime, variability in its magnitude is likely to persist.

  11. A primer on dental ethics: Part I. Kknowing about ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    The field of dental ethics has matured to the point where it is worthwhile to summarize it. An overview is presented of the methods commonly used to present ethics in dental schools. The three most popular approaches to ethical theory are normative principles (good rules), virtue ethics (good people), and utilitarian views (good outcomes). Each of these approaches has advantages, and each is incomplete. The general problem of converting ethical knowledge to moral conduct will be presented in a subsequent essay. PMID:17585735

  12. Syphilis and human experimentation from World War II to the present: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.

    PubMed

    Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valenti, X; González-López, E; López-Muñoz, F

    2014-11-01

    Even after the Nuremberg code was published, research on syphilis often continued to fall far short of ethical standards. We review post-World War II research on this disease, focusing on the work carried out in Guatemala and Tuskegee. Over a thousand adults were deliberately inoculated with infectious material for syphilis, chancroid, and gonorrhea between 1946 and 1948 in Guatemala, and thousands of serologies were performed in individuals belonging to indigenous populations or sheltered in orphanages. The Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by the US Public Health Service, took place between 1932 and 1972 with the aim of following the natural history of the disease when left untreated. The subjects belonged to a rural black population and the study was not halted when effective treatment for syphilis became available in 1945. PMID:24461955

  13. Syphilis and human experimentation from World War II to the present: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.

    PubMed

    Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valenti, X; González-López, E; López-Muñoz, F

    2014-11-01

    Even after the Nuremberg code was published, research on syphilis often continued to fall far short of ethical standards. We review post-World War II research on this disease, focusing on the work carried out in Guatemala and Tuskegee. Over a thousand adults were deliberately inoculated with infectious material for syphilis, chancroid, and gonorrhea between 1946 and 1948 in Guatemala, and thousands of serologies were performed in individuals belonging to indigenous populations or sheltered in orphanages. The Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by the US Public Health Service, took place between 1932 and 1972 with the aim of following the natural history of the disease when left untreated. The subjects belonged to a rural black population and the study was not halted when effective treatment for syphilis became available in 1945.

  14. The Hermaphrodite's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Leonard, J L

    1990-12-01

    Given sexual conflict, mating encounters between simultaneous hermaphrodites will conform to a new, conditional, non-zero sum game of strategy, the Hermaphrodite's Dilemma; special cases of which include Prisoner's Dilemma and Game of Chicken. The model predicts that hermaphrodite mating systems will be based on reciprocation with cheating in a preferred sexual role. This model suggests that study of hermaphrodite mating systems will provide direct evidence for the existence of sexual conflict and suggests that sexual conflict may act to stabilize hermaphroditism through such mating systems. PMID:2292885

  15. Ethics in Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, F. J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of recent approaches to management and examines the ethical implications of using these approaches. Applies elements of these innovative systems to three cases that are both managerially and ethically complex. Claims that new processes must be developed to address ethical issues as part of all management decisions. (RJM)

  16. Ethics for Online Intermediaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Donna B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Explores ethical issues for online searchers that are exacerbated by the searcher's gatekeeper function--searcher competence, searcher bias, inaccurate search results, misuse of search results by client, and privacy and confidentiality. A model for ethical decision making is presented and a list of guidelines for ethical conduct is suggested. (EJS)

  17. Obstetric dilemma on the most appropriate management of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in pregnancy: seventh case presentation, literature review and new insight.

    PubMed

    Di Gangi, Stefania; Bertin, Martina; Noventa, Marco; Cagnin, Annachiara; Cosmi, Erich; Gizzo, Salvatore

    2015-02-01

    Prion diseases (PDs) are fatal neurological disorders that are thought to be caused by the accumulation of an altered variant of a benign, widely expressed protein (PrPC) into a distinct pathological conformation(s) (PrPSc). The PDs are so rare but lethal pathologies that need an early diagnosis to adequately support the infected patient. A maternal-fetal transmission during pregnancy has been supposed to be on the basis of animal studies, but till now the effective vertical transmission in humans has not been proved. We present a case of infected pregnant woman with a peculiar pregnancy course and outcome. We also provided a systematic literature review to find the best obstetrical management of women affected by prionic disease during pregnancy. The available data underline the potential risk of prenatal and postnatal transmission of the disease but do not permit to define the exact molecular mechanism of transmission, the best follow-up and recommendations that are useful in both obstetrical and neonatal practice. At present awaiting for further clarifications about this topic, it is mandatory to personalize the management of this rare pregnancy complication according to the maternal-fetal well-being status.

  18. Education for Entry into Practice: An Ethical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Joanne D.

    1996-01-01

    Issues of practice, licensure, and education for associate and bachelor's degree nursing indicate a lack of consensus. The perspective of an ethic of care highlights moral dilemmas that must be resolved because the current state of nursing education and practice is ethically dubious. (SK)

  19. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Adults in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines practical problems encountered in mentoring adult learners in higher education through stories of ethical dilemmas. Each incident illustrates the power that mentors possess and the ethical challenges of using this power to help or hurt proteges. Each example addresses an aspect of such power; the power to remove oneself as a…

  20. Integration and Exchange: How Executive MBA Students Envision Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

    2013-01-01

    Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics…

  1. Blueprint of Skills, Concepts for Media Ethics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how a course in journalism ethics can integrate theory and practice while giving an accurate description of the profession and an overview of its unique ethical dilemmas. Notes that such a course helps students develop skills, analyze concepts and theories, and critically evaluate the profession. (SR)

  2. Best Interests of the Student: An Ethical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; O'Brien, G. Michaele

    2004-01-01

    Shapiro and Stefkovich in their 2001 book on ethics propose a framework for examining ethical dilemmas. At the heart of this conceptualization is "the best interests of the student." Yet a review of the literature reveals this term is interpreted broadly and few systematic attempts have been made to define it. In response to this lack of clarity,…

  3. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  4. CRIS Case Study Materials in Ethical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanning, James R.

    Designed for secondary-level classroom discussion, these materials contain nine, short case studies of ethical dilemmas. The cast studies focus mainly on incidents and issues relevant to high school students. Discussion questions for each case study require students to examine the case, discuss the issue, and make an ethical decision about how…

  5. The dilemma of evaluating a continuous murmur in a patient of aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva and coronary cameral fistula presenting with supraventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Yashasvi; Chugh, Sanjay; Chugh, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    A 39-year-old hypothyroid woman on thyroxine replacement therapy presented with an unresolving episode of palpitations (narrow-complex tachycardia). Clinical examination, after reversion to normal sinus rhythm revealed a precordial continuous murmur. Initial transthoracic echocardiogram showed an unruptured aneurysm of left sinus of Valsalva (LSOV), however, because a continuous murmur could not be explained by this condition, a repeat colour Doppler study was made, revealing a communicating tract from the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and terminating in the right atrium (RA). A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed an aneurysmal LMCA and LSOV, with similar colour Doppler findings. A further CT scan and coronary angiogram confirmed a coronary cameral fistula opening into RA. In conclusion, the relevance of a diligent clinical examination and imaging after conversion to normal sinus rhythm in picking up such anomalies cannot be over-emphasised, as previous routine echocardiograms on the same patient had been reported as normal. PMID:25568273

  6. A Contingency Model for Ethical Decision-Making by Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James; Walker, Keith

    2009-01-01

    While numerous philosophical essays offer speculative explanations of how persons should make ethical decisions, empirical investigations of the phenomenon of ethical decision-making are limited to just a few studies in the discipline of business management. This investigation focused on the ethical dilemmas confronted by educators, with emphasis…

  7. Information Ethics: The Duty, Privilege, and Challenge of Educating Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Toni; Almagno, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the history and evolution of information ethics at the University of Pittsburgh and describes a course that was developed in the School of Information Sciences that includes the need for moral instruction and ethical reflection, resolving moral dilemmas, and ethical issues in librarianship, information technology, and management.…

  8. Examining Moral Judgment and Ethical Decision-Making in Information Technology Managers and Their Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahand, Assadullah

    2010-01-01

    Growing incidences of corporate ethical misconducts have revived the debate over ethical reasoning and moral development of corporate managers. The role of information technology (IT) in the ethical dilemmas is becoming more evident as virtual environments become increasingly popular, organizations adopt digital form of record keeping, and the…

  9. Communicating Effectively to Resolve Ethical Concerns: The Role of School Psychology Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olley, Rivka I.

    2010-01-01

    It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethical dilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…

  10. Ethics: A Bridge for Studying the Social Contexts of Professional Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speck, Bruce W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)

  11. Ethics in the Business School Curriculum: A Challenge for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jang B.

    1990-01-01

    The development of business ethics as a field of study was accelerated by major business scandals and the subsequent appeal to business schools to produce graduates with a high level of ethical awareness. The most critical dilemma stems from introducing instruction in ethical values to institutions accustomed to teaching economic values. (Author)

  12. A Need to Know: An Ethical Decision-Making Model for Research Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Holmes, Elizabeth K.

    2008-01-01

    When faced with a morally charged situation, individuals engage in an ethical decision-making process to resolve the ethical dilemma. This paper outlines a model that describes the steps in the ethical decision-making process and identifies situational factors, collectively termed moral intensity, which may influence this process. The use of a…

  13. Rewriting the future? Biomedical advances and legal dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Belinda

    2006-02-01

    Developments in medical science have sparked public debate about the legal and ethical implications of new technologies. Within these debates a number of distinct discourses are evident, including discourses about the positive and negative implications of technological advances, the influence of globalisation on regulatory choice, and the challenges of articulating common values in a pluralistic society. This article argues that an understanding of these discourses is an essential part of understanding the nature of contemporary regulatory dilemmas.

  14. Marginal capacity: the dilemmas faced in assessment and declaration.

    PubMed

    Ho, V

    1995-01-15

    Ontario is adopting informed-consent legislation that reflects increasing emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination. Capacity assessment and declaration by physicians and other health care professionals are pivotal under the new legislation. While grossly capable or incapable patients provide few management difficulties, marginally capable patients provide a challenge for physicians who must assess capacity, and decisions concerning them emphasize the ethical dilemma involved in any declaration of incapacity. Our 1994 Logie Medical Ethics Essay first-prize winner, Vincent Ho, examines the issues that clinicians must consider when assessing marginally capable patients.

  15. Authenticity or autonomy? When deep brain stimulation causes a dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Felicitas

    2013-12-01

    While deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease has typically raised ethical questions about autonomy, accountability and personal identity, recent research indicates that we need to begin taking into account issues surrounding the patients' feelings of authenticity and alienation as well. In order to bring out the relevance of this dimension to ethical considerations of DBS, I analyse a recent case study of a Dutch patient who, as a result of DBS, faced a dilemma between autonomy and authenticity. This case study is meant to point out the normatively meaningful tension patients under DBS experience between authenticity and autonomy.

  16. Systems ethics and the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Clements, C D

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the current conclusions in medical ethics which have followed the 1969-1970 Medical Ethics Discontinuity, a break that challenged the Hippocratic way of thinking about ethics. The resulting dislocations in quality of care and the medical value system are discussed, and an alternative medical ethics is offered: Systems Ethics. A methodology for a Systems Ethics analysis of cases is presented and illustrated by the case of a physician-assisted suicide. The advantages, both theoretical and clinical, of a Systems Ethics approach to medicine, which is an expansion of the Hippocratic tradition in medical ethics, are developed. Using Systems Ethics, it is possible to avoid the dangers of legalism, bureaucratic ethics, utilitarian cost cutting, and "political correctness" in medical ethics.

  17. Dilemmas in Teaching Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Chris; Martin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    There is a burgeoning amount of research into happiness and greatly increased popular attention, so it seems logical to add a course on happiness to the university curriculum. We encountered, in developing and running such a course, a number of dilemmas that the topic of happiness makes especially acute. Should the teacher remain separate from the…

  18. Jeb Stewart's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedo, Kelli M.; Dickerson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This case study creates a dilemma that many school districts face. Public education is under-funded. Principals are expected to be the instructional leaders and are held accountable for student achievement. Is it appropriate then for public schools to have local businesses as benefactors when teaching personnel are involved? The conflict between…

  19. The Dewey Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt the library world is in a dilemma about Dewey, but the system is hardly dead. In his 2007 book, Everything Is Miscellaneous, David Weinberger said bluntly, "It can't be fixed." In spite of that, Dewey is currently the most widely used classification system in the world, employed in 138 countries by over 200,000 libraries. But the…

  20. Dilemmas and Discarded Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Joyce A.

    2009-01-01

    Women are challenged most by cultural norms, particularly sex-role norms, religious and political ideologies, and gender-structured opportunities that favor men. Although some stereotypes have loosened a bit, dilemmas remain for women who aspire to fill school district leadership positions. The author's predicament is not unique. It is something…

  1. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  2. Medical ethics contributes to clinical management: teaching medical students to engage patients as moral agents

    PubMed Central

    Caldicott, Catherine V; Danis, Marion

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In order to teach medical students to engage more fully with patients, we offer ethics education as a tool to assist in the management of patient health issues. METHODS We propose that many dilemmas in clinical medicine would benefit by having the doctor embark on an iterative reasoning process with the patient. Such a process acknowledges and engages the patient as a moral agent. We recommend employing Kant’s ethic of respect and a more inclusive definition of patient autonomy drawn from philosophy and clinical medicine, rather than simply presenting dichotomous choices to patients, which represents a common, but often suboptimal, means of approaching both medical and moral concerns. DISCUSSION We describe how more nuanced teaching about the ethics of the doctor–patient relationship might fit into the medical curriculum and offer practical suggestions for implementing a more respectful, morally engaged relationship with patients that should assist them to achieve meaningful health goals. PMID:19250356

  3. Ethical Issues in Clinical Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Linda L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four papers on ethical issues in physical education clinical settings are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Teaching" (L. Bain); (2) "Ethics in Professional Advising and Academic Counseling of Graduate Students" (G. Roberts); (3) "Ethical Issues in Clinical Services" (R. Singer); and (4) a reaction to the three previous papers by Bonnie Berger.…

  4. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  5. Incorporating cultural issues in education for ethical practice.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, Susan; Klotz, Linda

    2007-07-01

    The population of most non-dominant ethnic groups in the USA is growing dramatically. Faculty members are challenged to develop curricula that adequately prepare our future nurses. An increased focus on clinical ethics has resulted from the use of sophisticated technology, changes in health care financing, an increasing elderly population and the shift of care from inpatient to outpatient settings. Nurses frequently face situations demanding resolution of ethical dilemmas involving cultural differences. Nursing curricula must include content on both ethics and cultural sensitivity. Active student participation is an important element providing a foundation for ethical practice. A proposed educational format was introduced with graduating baccalaureate students. In a pilot study, curricular content on cultural sensitivity and ethical practice was taught in separate modules. Students were then asked to identify and problem solve an ethical dilemma involving patients and professional caregivers from vastly different cultures. Course faculty members provided discussion questions to guide the students' thinking. PMID:17562728

  6. The ethical practice of psychotherapy: easily within our reach.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jeffrey E

    2008-05-01

    Psychotherapists confront a myriad of ethical dilemmas as they endeavor to provide effective services. This issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session on Ethics in Psychotherapy provides psychotherapists with thoughtful reviews, case examples, and practical guidance in the major areas of ethics. Following this brief introduction, the subsequent seven articles cover Informed consent; confidentiality, privilege, and their limits; treatment of minors and their families; business matters of practice (e.g., money, fees, bartering, advertising); clinical competence and scope of practice; boundaries and nonsexual multiple relationships; and termination and abandonment. This issue is designed to promote ethical practice, to provide guidance on common ethical dilemmas, and to prevent ethical challenges before they occur.

  7. Balancing ethical quandaries with scientific rigor: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Pallikkathayil, L; Crighton, F; Aaronson, L S

    1998-08-01

    Traditional ethical concerns in research tend to focus on serious misconduct such as fabricating data and gross violations of informed consent. In this two-part article, we focused on some of the less serious and more subtle ethical quandaries, inherent and common in most social science research. It is our thesis that these issues are important and warrant more attention and careful thought than they have been accorded in the scientific literature and, perhaps, by investigators at large. In Part 2, we provided examples of how we, and others, dealt with some of these issues in actual studies. However, we also must emphasize the individual and reflective nature of confronting ethical issues in research. We found many benefits in using a team approach to address ethical dilemmas during implementation of our studies. Doing so kept everyone honest with themselves and each other, shared the burden of responsibility among team members for the decisions made, maximized the use of team members' strengths, and led to much better resolutions of the issues from both a scientific and an ethical perspective. Maintaining scientific rigor while balancing and deliberating about the ethical implications of decisions is a challenge for all research teams. It requires learning how to be vigilant and responsive when faced with the many subtle, but ever-present, scientific and ethical quandaries encountered when doing what is often assumed to be nonthreatening social research. There are no fixed, prescriptive rules for what to do in every study. Rather, a reflective process, considering the specific issues of each unique study, is required. PMID:9686526

  8. Making an Ethical Decision: A Utilitarian Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)

  9. Ethical Issues in School Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriya, Dafna

    2006-01-01

    School art therapists face numerous ethical dilemmas, from referrals to therapy, through privacy, safety and predictability in the art therapy room, to the need to balance cooperation with the educational staff and its expectations of shared information with loyalty to the patient. Breach of confidentiality also has legal implications. The…

  10. [Mental health film festival and ethics].

    PubMed

    Simonnet, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The mental health film festival is based on the respect of the patient as a subject and is a place where psychic suffering can be expressed. As a film is destined to be shown, there is a dilemma between the aesthetic and the therapeutic aspects and, it's in this link that the ethical dimension concerned by this kind of activity takes place.

  11. Critical Ethnography, Ethics, and Work: Rearticulating Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Argues that a cultural materialist perspective on the work of critical ethnography in composition studies can provide a useful framework that accounts for and can help to resolve some of the significant ethical dilemmas to which recent critiques of critical ethnography in composition have pointed. Describes recent critiques of ethnography in…

  12. E-Mail and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…

  13. Intertwining Psychiatry Residency Training and Ethics in the College Setting.

    PubMed

    Sondheimer, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    An ethical responsibility exists, currently unaddressed, for mandated psychiatry residency training with college student populations. Such training brings numerous potential benefits, including exposure to specific disorders and administrative structures. As well, individual cases pose ethical dilemmas unique to this developmental stage, which segues seamlessly from that of adolescence. Relevant case illustrations are employed. Likewise, psychiatric education oversight bodies are urged to fulfill their ethical obligations to provide pertinent training.

  14. How Large Is the Role of Emotion in Judgments of Moral Dilemmas?

    PubMed

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Moral dilemmas often pose dramatic and gut-wrenching emotional choices. It is now widely accepted that emotions are not simply experienced alongside people's judgments about moral dilemmas, but that our affective processes play a central role in determining those judgments. However, much of the evidence purporting to demonstrate the connection between people's emotional responses and their judgments about moral dilemmas has recently been called into question. In the present studies, we reexamined the role of emotion in people's judgments about moral dilemmas using a validated self-report measure of emotion. We measured participants' specific emotional responses to moral dilemmas and, although we found that moral dilemmas evoked strong emotional responses, we found that these responses were only weakly correlated with participants' moral judgments. We argue that the purportedly strong connection between emotion and judgments of moral dilemmas may have been overestimated. PMID:27385365

  15. How Large Is the Role of Emotion in Judgments of Moral Dilemmas?

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Moral dilemmas often pose dramatic and gut-wrenching emotional choices. It is now widely accepted that emotions are not simply experienced alongside people’s judgments about moral dilemmas, but that our affective processes play a central role in determining those judgments. However, much of the evidence purporting to demonstrate the connection between people’s emotional responses and their judgments about moral dilemmas has recently been called into question. In the present studies, we reexamined the role of emotion in people’s judgments about moral dilemmas using a validated self-report measure of emotion. We measured participants’ specific emotional responses to moral dilemmas and, although we found that moral dilemmas evoked strong emotional responses, we found that these responses were only weakly correlated with participants’ moral judgments. We argue that the purportedly strong connection between emotion and judgments of moral dilemmas may have been overestimated. PMID:27385365

  16. The ethics curriculum for doctor of nursing practice programs.

    PubMed

    Peirce, Anne Griswold; Smith, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    Ethical questions dealt with by nurses who have Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degrees include traditional bioethical questions, but also business and legal ethics. Doctorally prepared nurses are increasingly in positions to make ethical decisions rather than to respond to decisions made by others. The traditional master's-degree advanced practice nursing curriculum does not address the extended expertise and decision-making skills needed by DNP practitioners as they face these new types of ethical dilemmas. We propose that a curricular framework that addresses clinical, research, business, and legal ethics is needed by all DNP students.

  17. Aesthetic/Cosmetic surgery and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N

    2008-11-01

    Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethical dilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words. PMID:18820963

  18. Aesthetic/Cosmetic surgery and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N

    2008-11-01

    Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethical dilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words.

  19. [A separation of public health ethics from medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Schröder, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Until now there are only a few approaches in the German-speaking realm to establish an explicit ethical framework for moral issues of public health--although a need for public health ethics in times of SARS and avian flu is obvious. One deficit of the discussion so far is that there is no systematic separation of medical ethics and public health ethics. Thus, the core and interdisciplinary focus of public health is often not met. However, to frame discussions of moral issues within a specific public health ethics framework seems to be fruitful. This paper deals with the conceptual differences of medical ethics and public health ethics. The discussion helps both applied ethical discourses to sharpen their focus and strengthen their appeal. The author develops and presents a conceptual and normative frame for public health ethics and offers a concise set of ethical principles for the discussion of moral challenges in public health.

  20. Information Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martha Montague

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on information ethics in scholarly and professional literature. Computer ethics, cyberethics, and the philosophies of information and information technology are also discussed. The recent use of the term global information ethics, suggesting the unification of many concerns common to information ethics, computer ethics, and cyberethics, is…