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Sample records for ethics controversies deliberative

  1. Assessing the public's views in research ethics controversies: deliberative democracy and bioethics as natural allies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Scott Y H; Wall, Ian F; Stanczyk, Aimee; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    In a liberal democracy, policy decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging. The issues may not be widely familiar and they may involve complex scientific, legal, historical, and ethical dimensions. Traditional surveys risk eliciting superficial and uninformed opinions that may be of dubious quality for policy formation. We argue that the theory and practice of deliberative democracy (DD) is especially useful in overcoming such inadequacies. We explain DD theory and practice, discuss the rationale for using DD methods in research ethics, and illustrate in depth the use of a DD method for a longstanding research ethics controversy involving research based on surrogate consent. The potential pitfalls of DD and the means of minimizing them as well as future research directions are also discussed.

  2. Assessing the Public’s Views in Research Ethics Controversies: Deliberative Democracy and Bioethics as Natural Allies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Scott Y. H.; Wall, Ian F.; Stanczyk, Aimee; Vries, Raymond De

    2010-01-01

    In a Liberal Democracy, Policy Decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging. The issues may not be widely familiar and they may involve complex scientific, legal, historical, and ethical dimensions. Traditional surveys risk eliciting superficial and uninformed opinions that may be of dubious quality for policy formation. We argue that the theory and practice of deliberative democracy (DD) is especially useful in overcoming such inadequacies. We explain DD theory and practice, discuss the rationale for using DD methods in research ethics, and illustrate in depth the use of a DD method for a long-standing research ethics controversy involving research based on surrogate consent. The potential pitfalls of DD and the means of minimizing them as well as future research directions are also discussed. PMID:19919315

  3. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, DELIBERATIVE PROCESS, AND ETHICALLY CONTESTED ISSUES.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Norman; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare technology assessment (HTA) aims to support decisions as to which technologies should be used in which situations to optimize value. Because such decisions will create winners and losers, they are bound to be controversial. HTA, then, faces a dilemma: should it stay away from such controversies, remaining a source of incomplete advice and risking an important kind of marginalization, or should it enter the controversy? The question is a challenging one, because we lack agreement on principles that are fine grained enough to tell us what choices we should make. In this study, we will argue that HTA should take a stand on ethical issues raised by the technology that is being investigated. To do so, we propose adding a form of procedural justice to HTA to arrive at decisions that the public can regard as legitimate and fair. A fair process involves deliberation about the reasons, evidence, and rationales that are considered relevant to meeting population-health needs fairly. One important way to make sure that there is real deliberation about relevant reasons is to include a range of stakeholders in the deliberative process. To illustrate how such deliberation might work, we use the case of cochlear implants for deaf children.

  4. Introducing Ethics Using Structured Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wareham, David; Elefsiniotis, Takis P.; Elms, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method of introducing ethics to a second-year class of civil engineering students. The method, known as a "structured controversy", takes the form of a workshop where the students assume the identity of stakeholders having an interest in a proposed development in an environmentally sensitive region. The instructor…

  5. Introducing Ethics Using Structured Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wareham, David; Elefsiniotis, Takis P.; Elms, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method of introducing ethics to a second-year class of civil engineering students. The method, known as a "structured controversy", takes the form of a workshop where the students assume the identity of stakeholders having an interest in a proposed development in an environmentally sensitive region. The instructor…

  6. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation—deliberative public bioethics—into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bioethics offers both a how and where. Using the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program as an example of effective incorporation of deliberative processes to integrate ethics into public health policy, we examine how deliberative public bioethics can integrate both public health and bioethics perspectives into three areas of public health practice: research, education, and health policy. We then offer recommendations for future collaborations that integrate deliberative methods into public health policy and practice. PMID:26843669

  7. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Karen M; Lee, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation--deliberative public bioethics--into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bioethics offers both a how and where. Using the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program as an example of effective incorporation of deliberative processes to integrate ethics into public health policy, we examine how deliberative public bioethics can integrate both public health and bioethics perspectives into three areas of public health practice: research, education, and health policy. We then offer recommendations for future collaborations that integrate deliberative methods into public health policy and practice.

  8. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  9. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  10. Epistemic Authority and Genuine Ethical Controversies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Adam James

    2017-02-03

    In 'Professional Hubris and its Consequences', Eric Vogelstein claims that 'that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics'. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion - that professional organisations should not take such stances - is blocked. He or others must instead look to establish that the reasons against stance-taking on genuine ethical controversies are more compelling than those for it: plausibly a more challenging task.

  11. Addressing ethical challenges at the intersection of pharmacogenomics and primary care using deliberative consultations.

    PubMed

    Longo, Cristina; Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; O'Doherty, Kieran; Bartlett, Gillian

    2016-11-01

    Primary care physicians will play a central role in the successful implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx); however, important challenges remain. We explored the perspectives of stakeholders on key challenges of the PGx translation process in primary care using deliberative consultations. Primary care physicians, patients and policy-makers attended deliberations, where they discussed four ethical questions raised by PGx research and implementation in the primary care context. Stakeholders voiced skepticism regarding PGx funding, commercialization, regulation, maintenance of an equal access healthcare system and restructuring of health research incentives and priorities in the public sector. Deliberants developed governing principles for a PGx-specific charter of ethics, aiming to protect the interests of patients, and outlined recommendations for the future of PGx in primary care.

  12. Controversy of the year. Biomedical ethics on the front burner.

    PubMed

    2000-12-22

    CONTROVERSY OF THE YEAR: Biomedical Ethics on the Front Burner It was a hot year for debates over research ethics. Controversy erupted in late 1999 after the death of 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger in a gene-therapy clinical trial at the University of Pennsylvania. Because Penn and one of its clinicians had a financial stake in a gene-therapy company, questions about potential conflicts of interest arose at once.

  13. Controversies in nursing ethics: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Olsen, D P

    1992-09-01

    The author critiques the dialectic between justice-based ethics and an ethic of caring from a historical perspective (by analogy with the dialectic between agape and friendship). Justice-based ethics have been problematic for nursing because of the decontextualized approach. The ethic of caring is problematic because caring, being contextual, is particularistic and therefore can be based on morally irrelevant factors, such as liking. There is a tradition of writing which seeks to reconcile the particularistic obligations of friendship with the moral duty to all others equally. Ideas from the following authors are reviewed for relevance to nursing: Aristotle, Aelred of Rievaulx, Augustine, John Cassian, Cicero, George Berkeley, Immanuel Kant, Michel de Montaigne, Jeremy Taylor and Max Weber. The authors concludes by noting that both sides of the dialectic are synthesized in the lived experience of individuals. A synthesis in thought is called for on this basis.

  14. Ethical controversies in public solicitations for organs.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linda

    2008-07-01

    The increased shortage of organs for transplantation has led to a widening of the living donor pool and to innovations in how and where people seek living donors. Transplant programs are being asked to reconsider practice in light of new situations. Public solicitations for organs have grown as people have become more desperate to find organs. The expansion of the media, particularly the Internet, into our everyday lives has offered an additional method for the dissemination of information and requests for organs. This article discusses public solicitations from living kidney donors, examines the ethical issues therein, and makes suggestions as to how transplant teams might consider addressing this issue.

  15. Measuring biotechnology employees' ethical attitudes towards a controversial transgenic cattle project: the ethical valance matrix.

    PubMed

    Small, Bruce H; Fisher, Mark W

    2005-01-01

    What is the relationship between biotechnology employees' beliefs about the moral outcomes of a controversial transgenic research project and their attitudes of acceptance towards the project? To answer this question, employees (n=466) of a New Zealand company, AgResearch Ltd., were surveyed regarding a project to create transgenic cattle containing a synthetic copy of the human myelin basic protein gene (hMBP). Although diversity existed amongst employees' attitudes of acceptance, they were generally: in favor of the project, believed that it should be allowed to proceed to completion, and that it is acceptable to use transgenic cattle to produce medicines for humans. These three items were aggregated to form a project acceptance score. Scales were developed to measure respondents' beliefs about the moral outcomes of the project for identified stakeholders in terms of the four principles of common morality (benefit, non-harm, justice, and autonomy). These data were statistically aggregated into an Ethical Valence Matrix fo the project. The respondents' project Ethical Valence Scores correlated significantly with their project acceptance scores (r=0.64, p<0.001), accounting for 41% of the variance in respondents' acceptance attitudes. Of the four principles, non-harm had the strongest correlation with attitude to the project (r=0.59), followed by benefit and justice (both r=0.54), then autonomy (r=0.44). These results indicate that beliefs about the moral outcomes of a research project, in terms of the four principles approach, are strongly related to, and may be significant determinants of, attitudes to the research project. This suggests that, for employees of a biotechnology organization, ethical reasoning could be a central mechanism for the evaluation of the acceptability of a project. We propose that the Ethical Valence Matrix may be used as a tool to measure ethical attitudes towards controversial issues, providing a metric for comparison of perceived

  16. Ethical controversies in organ donation after circulatory death.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    The persistent mismatch between the supply of and need for transplantable organs has led to efforts to increase the supply, including controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD). Controlled DCD involves organ recovery after the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and the declaration of death according to the cardiorespiratory criteria. Two central ethical issues in DCD are when organ recovery can begin and how to manage conflicts of interests. The "dead donor rule" should be maintained, and donors in cases of DCD should only be declared dead after the permanent cessation of circulatory function. Permanence is generally established by a 2- to 5-minute waiting period. Given ongoing controversy over whether the cessation must also be irreversible, physicians should not be required to participate in DCD. Because the preparation for organ recovery in DCD begins before the declaration of death, there are potential conflicts between the donor's and recipient's interests. These conflicts can be managed in a variety of ways, including informed consent and separating the various participants' roles. For example, informed consent should be sought for premortem interventions to improve organ viability, and organ procurement organization personnel and members of the transplant team should not be involved in the discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment or the declaration of death. It is also important to emphasize that potential donors in cases of DCD should receive integrated interdisciplinary palliative care, including sedation and analgesia.

  17. The ethics of policy writing: how should hospitals deal with moral disagreement about controversial medical practices?

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, E

    2005-01-01

    Every healthcare organisation (HCO) enacts a multitude of policies, but there has been no discussion as to what procedural and substantive requirements a policy writing process should meet in order to achieve good outcomes and to possess sufficient authority for those who are asked to follow it. Using, as an example, the controversy about patient's refusal of blood transfusions, I argue that a hospital wide policy is preferable to individual decision making, because it ensures autonomy, quality, fairness, and efficiency. Policy writing for morally controversial medical practices needs additional justification compared to policies on standard medical practices and secures legitimate authority for HCO members by meeting five requirements: all parties directed by the policy are represented; the deliberative process encompasses all of the HCO's obligations; the rationales for the policy are made available; there is a mechanism for criticising, and for evaluating the policy. PMID:16199594

  18. Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavis, Timothy M.

    This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

  19. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  20. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  1. Sexual modification therapies: ethical controversies, philosophical disputes, and theological reflections.

    PubMed

    Howsepian, A A

    2004-01-01

    Knowing, either by the light of natural reason or by the light of Christian revelation, that homosexuality is a disordered condition is not sufficient for its being ethically permissible to direct self-identified homosexual persons toward just any treatment that aims to modify sexual orientation. For example, such an undertaking would be morally impermissible in cases where the available "treatments" are known to be both futile and potentially damaging to persons undertaking them. I, therefore, introduce this edition of Christian Bioethics by reflecting on (a) the position of homosexuality in our current psychiatric nosology, (b) problems with drawing causal inferences from the outcomes of psychotherapy studies, and (c) the advantages and disadvantages of appealing to traditional categories of sexual orientation in this discussion, all with an eye toward more deeply elucidating core ethical concerns involving the intentional psychotherapeutic modification of sexual orientation.

  2. Cloning controversies: an overview of the science, ethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R

    2005-01-01

    Man's quest for knowledge is boundless. It is because of this quest and his untiring efforts to acquire it, that we have made such tremendous breakthroughs in the fields of science and medicine. Vaccines for hitherto incurable diseases, genetic engineering, and the correction of congenital and hereditary diseases are a few of these. With the successful cloning of 'Dolly', 'Molly' and 'Polly' we are now standing at the threshold of another major breakthrough--human cloning. However, are we ethically, morally and politically mature enough to 'go all the way' in a purely scientific manner, for the benefit of the human kind? A review of the scientific, ethical and political events in this field may be pertinent in trying to answer this important question.

  3. Examining the ethical and social issues of health technology design through the public appraisal of prospective scenarios: a study protocol describing a multimedia-based deliberative method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The design of health technologies relies on assumptions that affect how they will be implemented, such as intended use, complexity, impact on user autonomy, and appropriateness. Those who design and implement technologies make several ethical and social assumptions on behalf of users and society more broadly, but there are very few tools to examine prospectively whether such assumptions are warranted and how the public define and appraise the desirability of health innovations. This study protocol describes a three-year study that relies on a multimedia-based prospective method to support public deliberations that will enable a critical examination of the social and ethical issues of health technology design. Methods The first two steps of our mixed-method study were completed: relying on a literature review and the support of our multidisciplinary expert committee, we developed scenarios depicting social and technical changes that could unfold in three thematic areas within a 25-year timeframe; and for each thematic area, we created video clips to illustrate prospective technologies and short stories to describe their associated dilemmas. Using this multimedia material, we will: conduct four face-to-face deliberative workshops with members of the public (n = 40) who will later join additional participants (n = 25) through an asynchronous online forum; and analyze and integrate three data sources: observation, group deliberations, and a self-administered participant survey. Discussion This study protocol will be of interest to those who design and assess public involvement initiatives and to those who examine the implementation of health innovations. Our premise is that using user-friendly tools in a deliberative context that foster participants’ creativity and reflexivity in pondering potential technoscientific futures will enable our team to analyze a range of normative claims, including some that may prove problematic and others that may

  4. Examining the ethical and social issues of health technology design through the public appraisal of prospective scenarios: a study protocol describing a multimedia-based deliberative method.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Pascale; Gauthier, Philippe; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Miller, Fiona A; Fishman, Jennifer R; Hivon, Myriam; Vachon, Patrick

    2014-06-21

    The design of health technologies relies on assumptions that affect how they will be implemented, such as intended use, complexity, impact on user autonomy, and appropriateness. Those who design and implement technologies make several ethical and social assumptions on behalf of users and society more broadly, but there are very few tools to examine prospectively whether such assumptions are warranted and how the public define and appraise the desirability of health innovations. This study protocol describes a three-year study that relies on a multimedia-based prospective method to support public deliberations that will enable a critical examination of the social and ethical issues of health technology design. The first two steps of our mixed-method study were completed: relying on a literature review and the support of our multidisciplinary expert committee, we developed scenarios depicting social and technical changes that could unfold in three thematic areas within a 25-year timeframe; and for each thematic area, we created video clips to illustrate prospective technologies and short stories to describe their associated dilemmas. Using this multimedia material, we will: conduct four face-to-face deliberative workshops with members of the public (n=40) who will later join additional participants (n=25) through an asynchronous online forum; and analyze and integrate three data sources: observation, group deliberations, and a self-administered participant survey. This study protocol will be of interest to those who design and assess public involvement initiatives and to those who examine the implementation of health innovations. Our premise is that using user-friendly tools in a deliberative context that foster participants' creativity and reflexivity in pondering potential technoscientific futures will enable our team to analyze a range of normative claims, including some that may prove problematic and others that may shed light over potentially more valuable

  5. Medical students and controversial ethical issues: results from the multicenter study SBRAME.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; de Oliveira, Leandro Romani; Leite, José Roberto; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero

    2014-12-15

    Medical students(MS) will face ethical issues throughout their lives as doctors. The present study aims to investigate medical students' opinions on controversial ethical issues and factors associated with these opinions. SBRAME (Spirituality and Brazilian Medical Education) is a multicenter study involving 12 Brazilian medical schools with 5950 MS. Participants completed a questionnaire that collected information on socio-demographic data, medical schools characteristics, religious beliefs and opinions on controversial ethical issues. Of all MS, 3630 participated in the survey (61.0%). The sample was 53.8% women and the mean age was 22.5 years. In general, most MS have no objections to prescription of birth control (90.8%), adult stem cell use (87.5%), embryonic stem cell use (82.0%) and abortion for genetic reasons (51.2%). Approximately half of students have no objections to human cloning (47.3%), 45.7% to withdrawal of artificial life support, 41.4% to euthanasia and 23.3% to abortion for failed contraception. Socio-demographic data such as age, gender and income had little influence on MS opinions. On the other hand, medical schools characteristics (number of medical students in the university, year of medical school foundation, location of the university and type of university) and religious aspects (religious affiliation, religious attendance, non-organizational religiousness and intrinsic religiousness) were highly correlated with their opinions. In general, MS with more supportive opinions on controversial ethical issues were less religious and from non-traditional (newer), urban, public and bigger universities. The current study reveals MS have different opinions regarding controversial ethical issues. Noteworthy, these opinions seem to be shaped more by university characteristics and religious beliefs than socio-demographic data.

  6. Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brewster, David

    2011-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies.

  7. Is there an ethical obligation to disclose controversial risk? A question from the ACCORD Trial.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Joseph P; Ford, Paul J; Patton, Dana J; Stewart, Douglas O

    2014-01-01

    Researchers designing a clinical trial may be aware of disputed evidence of serious risks from previous studies. These researchers must decide whether and how to describe these risks in their model informed consent document. They have an ethical obligation to provide fully informed consent, but does this obligation include notice of controversial evidence? With ACCORD as an example, we describe a framework and criteria that make clear the conditions requiring inclusion of important controversial risks. The ACCORD model consent document did not include notice of prior trials with excess death. We develop and explain a new standard labeled risk in equipoise. We argue that our approach provides an optimal level of integrity to protect the informational needs of the reasonable volunteers who agree to participate in clinical trials. We suggest language to be used in a model consent document and the informed consent discussion when such controversial evidence exists.

  8. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life

    PubMed Central

    Haeny, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA’s Ethics Code or current research. PMID:25342876

  9. Deliberative Democracy and stem cell research in New York State: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2009-03-01

    Many states in the U.S. have adopted policies regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research in the last few years. Some have arrived at these policies through legislative debate, some by referendum, and some by executive order. New York has chosen a unique structure for addressing policy decisions regarding this morally controversial issue by creating the Empire State Stem Cell Board with two Committees--an Ethics Committee and a Funding Committee. This essay explores the pros and cons of various policy arrangements for making public policy decisions about morally controversial issues in bioethics (as well as other issues) through the lens of Deliberative Democracy, focusing on the principles of reciprocity, publicity, and accountability. Although New York's unique mechanism potentially offers an opportunity to make policy decisions regarding a morally controversial subject like hESC research in accord with the principles of Deliberative Democracy, this essay demonstrates its failure to do so in actual fact. A few relatively simple changes could make New York's program a real model for putting Deliberative Democracy into practice in making policy decisions regarding controversial bioethical issues.

  10. Future issues in transplantation ethics: ethical and legal controversies in xenotransplantation, stem cell, and cloning research.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Robyn S

    2008-07-01

    With little prospect of developing a sufficient supply of human transplantable organs to meet the large and growing demand, attention has turned to xenotransplantation, as well as stem cell and cloning research, as possible approaches for alleviating this allograft shortage. This article explores ethical and legal issues that surround developments in these fields.

  11. Ethical considerations in biobanks: how a public health ethics perspective sheds new light on old controversies.

    PubMed

    Virani, Alice Hawkins; Longstaff, Holly

    2015-06-01

    Biobanks, collections of biospecimens with or without linked medical data, have increased dramatically in number in the last two decades. Their potential power to identify the underlying mechanisms of both rare and common disease has catalyzed their proliferation in the academic, medical, and private sectors. Despite demonstrated public support of biobanks, some within the academic, governmental, and public realms have also expressed cautions associated with the ethical, legal, and social (ELSI) implications of biobanks. These issues include concerns related to the privacy and confidentiality of data; return of results and incidental findings to participants; data sharing and secondary use of samples; informed consent mechanisms; ownership of specimens; and benefit sharing (i.e., the distribution of financial or other assets that result from the research). Such apprehensions become amplified as more researchers seek to pursue national and cross-border collaborations between biobanks. This paper provides an overview of two of the most contentious topics in biobank literature - informed consent and return of individual research results or incidental findings - and explores how a public health ethics lens may help to shed new light on how these issues may be best approached and managed. Doing so also demonstrates the important role that genetic counselors can play in the ongoing discussion of ethically appropriate biobank recruitment and management strategies, as well as identifies important areas of ongoing empirical research on these unresolved topics.

  12. Urban sprawl, smart growth, and deliberative democracy.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2010-10-01

    Urban sprawl is an increasingly common feature of the built environment in the United States and other industrialized nations. Although there is considerable evidence that urban sprawl has adverse affects on public health and the environment, policy frameworks designed to combat sprawl-such as smart growth-have proven to be controversial, making implementation difficult. Smart growth has generated considerable controversy because stakeholders affected by urban planning policies have conflicting interests and divergent moral and political viewpoints. In some of these situations, deliberative democracy-an approach to resolving controversial public-policy questions that emphasizes open, deliberative debate among the affected parties as an alternative to voting-would be a fair and effective way to resolve urban-planning issues.

  13. Urban Sprawl, Smart Growth, and Deliberative Democracy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Urban sprawl is an increasingly common feature of the built environment in the United States and other industrialized nations. Although there is considerable evidence that urban sprawl has adverse affects on public health and the environment, policy frameworks designed to combat sprawl—such as smart growth—have proven to be controversial, making implementation difficult. Smart growth has generated considerable controversy because stakeholders affected by urban planning policies have conflicting interests and divergent moral and political viewpoints. In some of these situations, deliberative democracy—an approach to resolving controversial public-policy questions that emphasizes open, deliberative debate among the affected parties as an alternative to voting—would be a fair and effective way to resolve urban-planning issues. PMID:20724685

  14. Ethical controversies at end of life after traumatic brain injury: defining death and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Souter, Michael; Van Norman, Gail

    2010-09-01

    Death is more than a mere biological occurrence. It has important legal, medical, and social ramifications that make it imperative that those who are responsible for determination of death be accurate and above suspicion. The medical and legal definitions of death have evolved to include consideration of such concepts as loss of integration of the whole organism, loss of autonomy, and loss of personhood. Development of the concept of brain death coincided with advances in medical technology that facilitated artificial ventilation and organ transplantation. More recently, the process of "timed" death with subsequent organ donation (controlled donation after cardiac death transplantation) has raised controversial questions having to do with the limits of treatments that facilitate organ transplant but might hasten death, and the duration of cardiac arrest necessary for declaration of death and the commencement of organ procurement. In this review, we discuss the background and ethical ramifications of the concepts of brain death, and of controversies involved in controlled donation after cardiac death organ transplantation.

  15. The Views of Clergy Regarding Ethical Controversies in Care at the End of Life.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Michael J; Sullivan, Adam; Smith, Patrick T; Zaidi, Danish; Mitchell, Christine; Tulsky, James A; Sulmasy, Daniel; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Balboni, Tracy A

    2017-08-14

    While religion often informs ethical judgments, little is known about the views of American clergy regarding controversial end-of-life ethical issues including allowing to die and physician-aid in dying or physician-assisted suicide (PAD/PAS). To describe the views of U.S. clergy concerning allowing to die and PAD/PAS. A survey was mailed to 1665 nationally representative clergy between 8/2014 to 3/2015 (60% response rate). Outcome variables included beliefs about whether the terminally ill should ever be "allowed to die" and moral/legal opinions concerning PAD/PAS. Most U.S. clergy are Christian (98%). Clergy agreed that there are circumstances in which the terminally ill should be "allowed to die" (80%). A minority agreed that PAD/PAS was morally (28%) or legally (22%) acceptable. Mainline/Liberal Christian clergy were more likely to approve of the morality (56%) and legality (47%) of PAD/PAS, in contrast to all other clergy groups (6%-17%). Greater end-of-life medical knowledge was associated with moral disapproval of PAD/PAS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.51; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.19), p=0.03). Those reporting distrust in healthcare were less likely to oppose legalization of PAD/PAS (AOR 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99, p<0.02). Religious beliefs associated with disapproval of PAD/PAS, included "life's value is not tied to the patient's quality of life" (AOR 2.12; 95% CI, 0.1.49 to 3.03, p<0.001) and "only God numbers our days" (AOR 2.60; 95% CI, 1.77 to 3.82, p<0.001). Most U.S. clergy approve of "allowing to die" but reject the morality or legalization of PAD/PAS. Respectful discussion in public discourse should consider rather than ignore underlying religious reasons informing end-of-life controversies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Professional Hubris and its Consequences: Why Organizations of Health-Care Professions Should Not Adopt Ethically Controversial Positions.

    PubMed

    Vogelstein, Eric

    2016-05-01

    In this article, I argue that professional healthcare organizations such as the AMA and ANA ought not to take controversial stances on professional ethics. I address the best putative arguments in favor of taking such stances, and argue that none are convincing. I then argue that the sort of stance-taking at issue has pernicious consequences: it stands to curb critical thought in social, political, and legal debates, increase moral distress among clinicians, and alienate clinicians from their professional societies. Thus, because there are no good arguments in favor of stance-taking and at least some risks in doing so, professional organizations should refrain from adopting the sort of ethically controversial positions at issue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens—Why such controversy?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been available for almost a decade, but widespread adoption of vaccine administration has been problematic for multiple reasons. Many countries (over 100) have adopted vaccine programs for females and an increasing number of countries are extending the indications to include males between the ages of 9-26. There still seems to be controversy surrounding these universal vaccination programs as well as some ethical and practical concerns regarding the administration of a vaccine for diseases that are associated with sexual contact in both sexes, especially during the early adolescent years. Objective The objective was to provide a review of the available literature so pediatric and adult urologists may be more aware of the issues related to HPV vaccination in order to more effectively counsel patients and parents regarding the risks, benefits, and public health issues regarding HPV vaccination. This topic is especially relevant to pediatric urologists who see patients in the target age group for the HPV vaccine. There has been an explosion of literature regarding HPV vaccination programs and the relative difficulty in adopting the vaccine series with a completion rate of under 50% of patients in the recommended age ranges for vaccination. Methods Articles were obtained from an extensive Medline literature search (1998-present) to evaluate the current HPV vaccination regimens for teenagers with special emphasis on the urologically focused disease burden. Results The adoption of universal

  18. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens-Why such controversy?

    PubMed

    White, Mark Donald

    2014-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been available for almost a decade, but widespread adoption of vaccine administration has been problematic for multiple reasons. Many countries (over 100) have adopted vaccine programs for females and an increasing number of countries are extending the indications to include males between the ages of 9-26. There still seems to be controversy surrounding these universal vaccination programs as well as some ethical and practical concerns regarding the administration of a vaccine for diseases that are associated with sexual contact in both sexes, especially during the early adolescent years. The objective was to provide a review of the available literature so pediatric and adult urologists may be more aware of the issues related to HPV vaccination in order to more effectively counsel patients and parents regarding the risks, benefits, and public health issues regarding HPV vaccination. This topic is especially relevant to pediatric urologists who see patients in the target age group for the HPV vaccine. There has been an explosion of literature regarding HPV vaccination programs and the relative difficulty in adopting the vaccine series with a completion rate of under 50% of patients in the recommended age ranges for vaccination. Articles were obtained from an extensive Medline literature search (1998-present) to evaluate the current HPV vaccination regimens for teenagers with special emphasis on the urologically focused disease burden. The adoption of universal HPV vaccination has been difficult

  19. Ethical and professional conduct of medical students: review of current assessment measures and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Boon, K; Turner, J

    2004-01-01

    As medical education increasingly acknowledges the importance of the ethical and professional conduct of practitioners, and moves towards more formal assessment of these issues, it is important to consider the evidence base which exists in this area. This article discusses literature about the health needs and problems experienced by medical practitioners as a background to a review of the current efforts in medical education to promote ethical conduct and develop mechanisms for the detection and remediation of problems. PMID:15082823

  20. Extracorporeal life support: utilization, cost, controversy, and ethics of trying to save lives.

    PubMed

    Crow, Sheri; Fischer, Anne C; Schears, Raquel M

    2009-09-01

    Since the first successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in 1972, ECMO's role in the management of respiratory and circulatory collapse continues to be refined and debated. Randomized clinical trials aimed at establishing efficacy and patient selection criteria have been fraught with ethical challenges. Growing concerns over rising health care costs require that careful evaluations of cost, utilization, and ethical issues surrounding heroic life-saving interventions such as ECMO are undertaken. Continued analyses of ECMO's place in the medical management of respiratory and circulatory failure will help ensure that ECMO is used for not only prolonging life but also for providing a chance for "quality of life" following recovery from near-fatal illnesses.

  1. Distributed Deliberative Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio-García, Juan A.; Díaz-Agudo, Belén; González-Sanz, Sergio; Sanchez, Lara Quijano

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of most successful applied AI technologies of recent years. Although many CBR systems reason locally on a previous experience base to solve new problems, in this paper we focus on distributed retrieval processes working on a network of collaborating CBR systems. In such systems, each node in a network of CBR agents collaborates, arguments and counterarguments its local results with other nodes to improve the performance of the system's global response. We describe D2ISCO: a framework to design and implement deliberative and collaborative CBR systems that is integrated as a part of jcolibritwo an established framework in the CBR community. We apply D2ISCO to one particular simplified type of CBR systems: recommender systems. We perform a first case study for a collaborative music recommender system and present the results of an experiment of the accuracy of the system results using a fuzzy version of the argumentation system AMAL and a network topology based on a social network. Besides individual recommendation we also discuss how D2ISCO can be used to improve recommendations to groups and we present a second case of study based on the movie recommendation domain with heterogeneous groups according to the group personality composition and a group topology based on a social network.

  2. Louis Pasteur: a controversial figure in a debate on scientific ethics.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2002-04-01

    Louis Pasteur long has been heralded as the "father of modern hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine," despite early controversies regarding his findings and methodology. A recently published biography, however, has shed new light on both Pasteur's scientific acumen and integrity. Reactions to this portrayal have been mixed. This article provides an overview of Pasteur's life and the debate regarding his scientific discoveries and honesty that has ensued for more than 100 years, with insights gained from both supporters and critics of the new biography by Gerald L. Geison.

  3. Human embryonic stem cell research: an ethical controversy in the US & Germany.

    PubMed

    Waite, Lee; Nindl, Gabi

    2003-01-01

    Stem cells refer to a broad class of cells with potential for prolonged self-renewal and the potential to differentiate. Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from a fertilized human egg, before it has been implanted into a womb. Recently published research has used human embryos, produced by in-vitro fertilization for clinical purposes, to develop lines of pluripotent human ES cells. This review discusses the legal status and ethical implications of ES cell research with special attention paid to the situation in the USA and Germany.

  4. Applying a research ethics committee approach to a medical practice controversy: the case of the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib.

    PubMed

    James, M J; Cleland, L G

    2004-04-01

    The new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, the COX-2 inhibitors, have been commercially successful to the point of market dominance within a short time of their launch. They attract a price premium on the basis that they are associated with fewer adverse gastric events than traditional anti-inflammatory drugs. This marketing continues even though a pivotal safety study with one of the COX-2 inhibitors, rofecoxib, showed a significant increase in myocardial infarction with rofecoxib use compared with a traditional anti-inflammatory drug. This finding has led to a series of publications containing pooled analyses of existing data that both support and refute the possibility of increased cardiovascular risk with COX-2 inhibitors. These medical journal publications have served to obfuscate rather than provide guidance for medical practitioners. Consideration of a research ethics committee approach to this issue suggests that it would deal with the controversy in a straightforward manner-namely, it would simply inform research participants of the trial results with rofecoxib. The certainty of this research ethics committee approach raises the issue of whether it should be applied in normal medical practice outside of the research environment. A consideration of the legal tests for disclosure of information suggests that therapeutic medical practice should mirror that within the research environment, in this case.

  5. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research--a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Dhai, A; Moodley, J; McQuoid-Mason, D J; Rodeck, C

    2004-11-01

    Therapeutic embryonic stem cell research raises a number of ethical and legal issues. The promised benefits are new and important knowledge of human embryological development, gene action, and the production of transplantable tissue and organs that could be effective in reversing or curing currently irreversible disease processes. However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of reproductive cloning, and that promises made too early could lead to false hope among sick patients. It also raises the question of intellectual and actual property rights in human cell lines and the techniques by which they are produced. Review of legal systems internationally reveals that there is no global consensus on therapeutic embryonic stem cell research. Legal considerations are very much influenced by ethical deliberations on the moral status of the embryo. The South African parliament is promulgating legislation permitting therapeutic cloning, thereby demonstrating a commitment by the state to act in the best interests of patients and of regenerative medicine.

  6. Epistocracy for online deliberative bioethics.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Giuseppe; Mameli, Matteo; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The suggestion that deliberative democratic approaches would suit the management of bioethical policymaking in democratic pluralistic societies has triggered what has been called the "deliberative turn" in health policy and bioethics. Most of the empirical work in this area has focused on the allocation of healthcare resources and priority setting at the local or national level. The variety of the more or less articulated theoretical efforts behind such initiatives is remarkable and has been accompanied, to date, by an overall lack of method specificity. We propose a set of methodological requirements for online deliberative procedures for bioethics. We provide a theoretical motivation for these requirements. In particular, we discuss and adapt an "epistocratic" proposal and argue that, regardless of its merits as a general political theory, a more refined version of its normative claims can generate a useful framework for the design of bioethical forums that combine maximal inclusiveness with informed and reasonable deliberation.

  7. Stem cell transplantation therapy: controversy over ethical issues and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Romano, Gaetano

    2004-12-01

    The possibility of regenerating tissues would provide an effective therapeutic tool for the treatment of many pathological conditions, including neurological diseases, spinal cord injuries, cardiopathies, diabetes, hematological illnesses and genetic disorders. While stem cells may have the potential of regenerating a variety of tissues, as indicated by a number of groundbreaking but preliminary reports, ethical issues and safety considerations seem to preclude the use of human embryonic stem cells in the clinical setting. Adult stem cells might circumvent the issues posed by embryonic stem cells, although the potential plasticity of adult stem cells is under scrutiny because of many conflicting and contradictory reports in the field of stem cell research. Indeed, many aspects of the biology of stem cells are still not known. In this respect, stem cell biologists have to address several pressing issues. A better understanding of stem cell biology would almost certainly allow for the establishment of efficient and reliable cell transplantation experimental programs in the clinic.

  8. Ethical issues, dilemmas and controversies in 'cosmetic' or aesthetic dentistry. A personal opinion.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, M

    2012-04-27

    Stephen Hancocks' elegant editorial of 11 December 2011 raises interesting questions which deserve discussion. Most experienced dentists would agree that the less that is done to teeth for cosmetic reasons, the lesser are the risks of disappointment, failure of expectation, or threat of litigation. Yet there is an increasing number of cases where aesthetics are the primary concern for dentists and patients alike and some patients are consenting to treatment without being properly informed of the destructive nature of the procedures to their sound tooth tissue and structures to achieve the desired 'cosmetic' outcome. This raises ethical issues, as much of this overtreatment is unnecessarily destructive and goes against the healing and caring principles of the dental profession.

  9. Deliberative Communication: A Pragmatist Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to make use of later works of Habermas in the field of education. The theme, developed out of the pragmatic tradition, is that of deliberative communication as a central form of activity in schools. This implies a displacement of traditional teaching and learning as the central form of activity to the creation of meaning through…

  10. Deliberative Democratic Evaluation in Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hreinsdottir, Anna Magnea; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the merit of using deliberative democratic evaluations is studied in light of ten questions asked by House and Howe, which defined the approach and raise issues of interests, representation, and choice of stakeholders, power balances and procedures for controlling them, participation, reflection and deliberation. Suggestions by…

  11. Deliberative Democratic Evaluation in Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hreinsdottir, Anna Magnea; Davidsdottir, Sigurlina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the merit of using deliberative democratic evaluations is studied in light of ten questions asked by House and Howe, which defined the approach and raise issues of interests, representation, and choice of stakeholders, power balances and procedures for controlling them, participation, reflection and deliberation. Suggestions by…

  12. Predictors of Physician Recommendation for Ethically Controversial Medical Procedures: Findings from an Exploratory National Survey of American Muslim Physicians.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Sundus; Ghannam, Obadah; Watson, Sydeaka; Padela, Aasim I

    2016-04-01

    Physician religiosity can influence their ethical attitude toward medical procedures and can thereby impact healthcare delivery. Using a national survey of American Muslim physicians, we explored the association between physician recommendation of three controversial medical procedures--tubal ligation, abortion, and porcine-based vaccine--and their (1) religiosity, (2) utilization of bioethics resources, and (3) perception of whether the procedure was a medical necessity and if the scenario represented a life threat. Generally, multivariate models found that physicians who read the Qur'an more often as well as those who perceived medical necessity and/or life threat had a higher odds recommending the procedures, whereas those who sought Islamic bioethical guidance from Islamic jurists (or juridical councils) more often had a lower odds. These associations suggest that the bioethical framework of Muslim physicians is influenced by their reading of scripture, and the opinions of Islamic jurists and that these influences may, paradoxically, be interpreted to be in opposition over some medical procedures.

  13. Ethics.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  14. Communicating risks and benefits about ethically controversial topics: the case of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, Holly; McDonald, Michael; Bailey, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Many are supportive of approaches that incorporate lay citizens into policy making and risk management decisions. However, a great deal of learning must first take place about how citizen engagement for controversial topics is best accomplished. Online risk communication efforts are increasing in popularity but there is little empirical evidence accrued to demonstrate the effectiveness of such methods. The intention of our overall study is to create a powerful method for in-depth two-way communication with the public and expert communities about complex and sensitive issues at the heart of stem cell (SC) research. The fundamental objective is to raise awareness of SC science with lay citizens by fostering more holistic or "all things considered" ethical judgments. Our risk communication study demonstrates that lay citizens are both interested in, and capable of learning about, complex scientific issues provided the right tools are used to convey information and assess understanding. Our results show that it is worth the time and effort for SC researchers to continue posting podcasts and FAQ's about their work for non-expert communities to view. In addition, despite having increased our participants' risk perceptions about induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell research, almost all were very supportive of this type of research in Canada by the end of the survey. In other words, participants understood that this research did in fact pose some risks and learned a great deal about both the risks and benefits of iPS cell research, and still thought this research was worthwhile to pursue.

  15. Scientific and religious controversies about the beginning of human life: the relevance of the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient.

    PubMed

    Kurjak, Asim; Carrera, Jose Maria; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we show that the question, "When does human life begin?", is not one question, but three. The first question is, "When does human biological life begin?", and is a scientific question. A brief review of embryology is provided to answer this question. The second question is, "When do obligations to protect human life begin?", and is a question of general theological and philosophical ethics. A brief review of major world religions and philosophy is provided to answer this question but has no settled answer and therefore involves irresolvable controversy. The third question is, "How should physicians respond to disagreement about when obligations to protect human life begin?" and is a question for professional medical ethics. A review of the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient is provided to answer this question. Physicians should manage the irresolvable controversy surrounding the second question by appealing to the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient. It is philosophically sound, respectful of all religious traditions and the personal convictions of patients and physicians alike, and clinically applicable.

  16. Blueprint for a deliberative public forum on biobanking policy: were theoretical principles achievable in practice?

    PubMed

    Molster, Caron; Maxwell, Susannah; Youngs, Leanne; Kyne, Gaenor; Hope, Fiona; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Public deliberation is recommended for obtaining citizen input to policy development when policies involve contested ethical dimensions, diverse perspectives on how to trade-off competing public interests and low public awareness of these perspectives. Several norms have been proposed for the design of deliberative methods. Evidence is scarce regarding whether such norms are achievable in practice. This paper refers to principles of deliberative democracy theory to describe a deliberative public forum on biobanking. Practical challenges and contextual facilitators of achieving deliberative ideals are discussed, along with factors that influenced use of the forum output in policy development. The forum ran for 4 days over two weekends in Perth, Western Australia. Key methodological features were socio-demographic stratification to randomly recruit a mini-public of citizens for discursive representation, provision of information inclusive of diverse perspectives and framed for difference, provision of a fair way for reasoning and collective decision making and adoption of processes to achieve publicity, accountability and independence from undue institutional influence. Most design principles were achieved in practice, with the fundamental exception of representativeness. Factors influencing these outcomes, and the use of deliberated outputs to develop policy, included institutional characteristics, the design involvement of deliberative experts and quality of the outputs when compared to other consultation methods. Public deliberations can achieve design ideals and influence (ethics-based) public health policy. The representation of 'hard to reach' citizens and their views needs further consideration, particularly as this relates to the procedural legitimacy of ethical analyses and the just inclusion of deliberative citizen advice within the broader policy-making process. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Deliberative Democracy and Adult Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcasson, Martin; Sprain, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Adult education programs should turn to the deliberative democracy movement in order to help their communities better address the "wicked problems" they face. The authors contend that due to the "wicked" nature of problems in the diverse democracies, communities must develop and sustain their capacity for deliberative democracy and collaborative…

  18. Deliberative Democracy and Adult Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcasson, Martin; Sprain, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Adult education programs should turn to the deliberative democracy movement in order to help their communities better address the "wicked problems" they face. The authors contend that due to the "wicked" nature of problems in the diverse democracies, communities must develop and sustain their capacity for deliberative democracy and collaborative…

  19. Deliberative Teaching: Effects on Students' Democratic Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Klas

    2015-01-01

    Since the early-2000s, deliberative democratic theory has influenced the debate on teaching. Proponents of deliberation in education have argued that deliberative communication as a teaching model enhances both subject knowledge and democratic virtues among students. However, empirical support for this assumption is weak. The aim of this article…

  20. Blueprint for a deliberative public forum on biobanking policy: were theoretical principles achievable in practice?

    PubMed Central

    Molster, Caron; Maxwell, Susannah; Youngs, Leanne; Kyne, Gaenor; Hope, Fiona; Dawkins, Hugh; O’Leary, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background:  Public deliberation is recommended for obtaining citizen input to policy development when policies involve contested ethical dimensions, diverse perspectives on how to trade‐off competing public interests and low public awareness of these perspectives. Several norms have been proposed for the design of deliberative methods. Evidence is scarce regarding whether such norms are achievable in practice. Purpose:  This paper refers to principles of deliberative democracy theory to describe a deliberative public forum on biobanking. Practical challenges and contextual facilitators of achieving deliberative ideals are discussed, along with factors that influenced use of the forum output in policy development. Method:  The forum ran for 4 days over two weekends in Perth, Western Australia. Key methodological features were socio‐demographic stratification to randomly recruit a mini‐public of citizens for discursive representation, provision of information inclusive of diverse perspectives and framed for difference, provision of a fair way for reasoning and collective decision making and adoption of processes to achieve publicity, accountability and independence from undue institutional influence. Results:  Most design principles were achieved in practice, with the fundamental exception of representativeness. Factors influencing these outcomes, and the use of deliberated outputs to develop policy, included institutional characteristics, the design involvement of deliberative experts and quality of the outputs when compared to other consultation methods. Conclusions:  Public deliberations can achieve design ideals and influence (ethics‐based) public health policy. The representation of ‘hard to reach’ citizens and their views needs further consideration, particularly as this relates to the procedural legitimacy of ethical analyses and the just inclusion of deliberative citizen advice within the broader policy‐making process. PMID

  1. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  2. The case of Robert Herrlinger: a unique postwar controversy on the ethics of the anatomical use of bodies of the executed during National Socialism.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Historical evidence shows that German anatomists used bodies of executed victims of the National Socialist (NS) regime for anatomical purposes. However, there has been little direct information on these anatomists' thoughts and motivations, and a public discussion of their activities and ethics only started in the late 1980s. The present study documents a unique postwar controversy surrounding the promotion of the anatomist and medical historian Robert Herrlinger at the university of Würzburg in the late 1950s. This intramural debate had originally been mentioned by Goetz Aly in 1987. Herrlinger's files record his career as a representative of the discipline of medical history at the university of Würzburg from 1951 to 1960. He never worked there as an active anatomist. When the university senate applied for his appointment as full professor in 1957, the internist Ernst Wollheim, the pediatrician Joseph Ströder, and the psychiatrist Heinrich Scheller strongly opposed this move in a dissenting opinion based on Herrlinger's anatomical work on bodies of executed NS-victims. They claimed that he lacked the moral prerequisites required in a teacher of medical ethics. A highly controversial debate followed and was remarkable for addressing most of the questions of the ethical and political attitudes and responsibilities of anatomists in NS-Germany that are still being discussed today and are relevant for modern anatomy. It was also significant that Wollheim, Ströder and Scheller objected to Herrlinger in his role as a medical historian, not as an anatomist. The senate finally rejected the dissenting opinion and Herrlinger was promoted.

  3. Deliberative Pedagogy in a Nonmajors Biology Course: Active Learning That Promotes Student Engagement with Science Policy and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weasel, Lisa H.; Finkel, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Deliberative democracy, a consensus model of decision making, has been used in real-life policy making involving controversial, science-related issues to increase citizen participation and engagement. Here, we describe a pedagogical approach based on this model implemented in a large, lecture-based, nonmajors introductory biology course at an…

  4. Deliberative Pedagogy in a Nonmajors Biology Course: Active Learning That Promotes Student Engagement with Science Policy and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weasel, Lisa H.; Finkel, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Deliberative democracy, a consensus model of decision making, has been used in real-life policy making involving controversial, science-related issues to increase citizen participation and engagement. Here, we describe a pedagogical approach based on this model implemented in a large, lecture-based, nonmajors introductory biology course at an…

  5. How the Pernkopf controversy facilitated a historical and ethical analysis of the anatomical sciences in Austria and Germany: a recommendation for the continued use of the Pernkopf atlas.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2006-03-01

    Eduard Pernkopf's Topographical Anatomy of Man has been a widely used standard work of anatomy for over sixty years. International inquiries about the National Socialist (NS) political background of Eduard Pernkopf and the use of bodies of NS victims for the atlas were first directed at the University of Vienna in 1996. A public discussion about the further use of the book followed and led to the creation of the Senatorial Project of the University of Vienna in 1997. This historical research project confirmed the strong NS affiliation of Pernkopf and revealed the delivery of at least 1,377 bodies of executed persons to the Anatomical Institute of Vienna during the NS time. The possible use of these bodies as models cannot be excluded for up to half of the approximately 800 plates in the atlas. In addition tissue specimens from NS victims were found and removed from the collections of the Viennese Medical School and received a burial in a grave of honor. The Pernkopf controversy facilitated the historical and ethical analysis of the anatomical sciences in Austria and Germany during the NS regime. The continued use of the Pernkopf atlas is not only justifiable but desirable as a tool in the teaching of anatomy, history, and ethics.

  6. The 2015 Pediatric Endocrine Society Ethics Symposium: Controversies Regarding 'Gender Verification' of Elite Female Athletes - Sex Testing to Hyperandrogenism.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Jill L; Genel, Myron

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the Pediatric Endocrine Society's Ethics Symposium held in April 2015 at the annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies is provided by the panel moderators with a summary of efforts by international athletic governing bodies over several decades to 'verify' the eligibility of athletes to compete in female only events, culminating in the hyperandrogenism policies that were the focus of the panel debate. This history was extensively reviewed in the symposium's opening presentation by Alan Rogol, in collaboration with Lindsay Pieper. Two sharply divergent views were then conveyed. David Allen's, in support, is provided in his article which follows. The opposing case, provided by Katrina Karkazis, is extensively summarized herein and reflected in her Science essay with Rebecca Jordan-Young which appeared shortly after the meeting. The subsequent ruling by the international Court of Arbitration for Sport to suspend the hyperandrogenism rule is noted with some speculation regarding the implications if it is upheld.

  7. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Methods Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Each forum demonstrated stakeholders’ capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around ‘equity’ and ‘patient responsibility’, culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Conclusions Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical

  8. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  9. The Critique of Deliberative Discussion. A Response to "Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backer, David I.

    2017-01-01

    My response to Samuelsson's (2016) recent essay offers a different paradigm with which to think about education, deliberative discussion and democracy. I call this paradigm the critique of deliberative discussion. Following Ruitenberg's application of Mouffe's critiques of deliberative democracy to education, the critique of deliberative…

  10. Deliberative Theory in Education, Business, and Macroergonomics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Deborah E.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the nature of deliberative theory and examines how it arises in theories of improvement in business and related activities. Deliberation plays a key role in organizational design and high-involvement ergonomics. The concept could be easily applied to educational settings. Those closest to problems should solve them. Contains 47…

  11. Teaching for a Strong, Deliberative Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Across the U.S.A, everyday citizens, civic leaders, policy makers, and educators are experimenting with inclusive, deliberative approaches to addressing social, economic, and political issues. Some academics and civic leaders describe this renewal in citizen engagement as a movement, a significant, transformative shift in the way we interact with…

  12. Teaching for a Strong, Deliberative Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Across the U.S.A, everyday citizens, civic leaders, policy makers, and educators are experimenting with inclusive, deliberative approaches to addressing social, economic, and political issues. Some academics and civic leaders describe this renewal in citizen engagement as a movement, a significant, transformative shift in the way we interact with…

  13. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    PubMed

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis.

  14. Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The theory of deliberative democracy places public deliberations at the heart of democracy. In order to participate in democratic deliberations, citizens need certain skills, attitudes, and values. Within the field of education for deliberative democracy, it is assumed that these are learned through participation in democratic deliberation. Thus,…

  15. Deliberative Democracy, Participation, and OECD Peer Reviews of Environmental Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Markku

    2006-01-01

    Deliberative democracy has attracted increasing attention in political science and has been suggested as a normative ideal for evaluation. This article analyzes to what extent evaluations carried out in a highly government-driven manner can nevertheless contribute to deliberative democracy. This potential is examined by taking the Organisation for…

  16. Seeking Common Ground: Deliberative Democracy and Sustainable Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Drew; Clinehens, Brad

    Public deliberation, sometimes called deliberative democracy, offers alternatives to what are often adversarial governmental debates and hearings. This paper provides a case example of applying the deliberative democracy process to development issues and an analysis of data comparing the effectiveness of the process for creating a consensus for…

  17. Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The theory of deliberative democracy places public deliberations at the heart of democracy. In order to participate in democratic deliberations, citizens need certain skills, attitudes, and values. Within the field of education for deliberative democracy, it is assumed that these are learned through participation in democratic deliberation. Thus,…

  18. Deliberative public participation and hexachlorobenzene stockpiles.

    PubMed

    Carson, Lyn

    2009-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the quality of citizen involvement in relation to the governance of industrial risks. Specifically, it explores the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) case relative to best practice public participation, which is consistent with deliberative democratic theory. The case could be judged a public participation failure given that the community committee in combination with the corporate sponsor was unable to agree on a mutually acceptable technological pathway. This stalemate might have been attributable in part to the time spent on the task of review. A diligent participation working party could have created a much more effective public participation plan, grounded in the core values of professional public participation practice.

  19. Fuzzy Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm (FHDRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarmadi, Hengameth

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to introduce a new concept for incorporating fuzzy sets in hybrid deliberative/reactive paradigm. After a brief review on basic issues of hybrid paradigm the definition of agent-based fuzzy hybrid paradigm, which enables the agents to proceed and extract their behavior through quantitative numerical and qualitative knowledge and to impose their decision making procedure via fuzzy rule bank, is discussed. Next an example performs a more applied platform for the developed approach and finally an overview of the corresponding agents architecture enhances agents logical framework.

  20. Using deliberative techniques to engage the community in policy development

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Judy; Hartz-Karp, Janette; Watson, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper examines work in deliberative approaches to community engagement used in Western Australia by the Department of Planning and Infrastructure and other planning and infrastructure agencies between 2001 and 2005, and considers whether the techniques could be applied to the development of health policy in Australia. Results Deliberative processes were used in WA to address specific planning and infrastructure problems. Using deliberative techniques, community participants contributed to joint decision making and policy development. Outcomes from deliberative processes were seriously considered by the Minister and used to influence policy decisions. In many cases, the recommendations generated through deliberative processes were fully adopted by the Minister. Conclusion The experiences in WA demonstrate that deliberative engagement processes can be successfully implemented by government and can be used to guide policy. The techniques can be adapted to suit the context and issues experienced by a portfolio, and the skills required to conduct deliberative processes can be fostered amongst the portfolio's staff. Health policy makers may be able to learn from the experiences in WA, and adopt approaches to community engagement that allow for informed deliberation and debate in the community about the future of Australia's health system. PMID:18631378

  1. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  2. Deliberative engagement: an inclusive methodology for exploring professionalization.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Jeffrey; Simpson, Christy

    2012-09-01

    Early on in the development of Practicing Healthcare Ethicists Exploring Professionalization (PHEEP), the founding members recognized the need to address and meet two important goals: (1) the creation of a dynamic, rigorous process to support the exploratory work, and (2) the establishment of the means--deliberative engagement--to generate and justify the substantive content of professionalization-related products, such as practice standards and position statements. Drawing from social justice and deliberative democracy conceptions and insights (among others), the authors identify and describe the core elements of the "process scaffolding" and "deliberative means" that inform PHEEP's deliberative engagement methodology. The paper demonstrates how these process and substantive features have been meaningfully instantiated in the decision making framework established by PHEEP for its use in the development of professionalization-related products by Canadian practicing healthcare ethicists.

  3. Brand name versus generic drugs: the ethical quandary in caring for our sophisticated patients while trying to reduce health-care costs: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics are the values and guidelines that govern decisions made in medical practice. Four prima facie moral principles can serve as a framework to help physicians analyze problems and make ethical decisions: (1) respect for autonomy, (2) beneficence, (3) non-maleficence, and (4) justice. With the cost of health care rising, all parties involved in the delivery of health care need to work to reduce costs, while continuing to provide quality care to our patients. One mechanism to reduce costs is to increase utilization of generic medications in daily practice, but there are many ethical issues inherent in utilizing brand name versus generic medications in dermatology. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Ethic of Expediency: Classical Rhetoric, Technology, and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Stephen B.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that the ethic of expediency in Western culture, which Aristotle first used systematically in the "Politics," was rhetorically embraced by the Nazi regime and combined with science and technology to form the "moral basis" of the holocaust. Suggests that the ethic of expediency enables deliberative rhetoric and gives…

  5. Controversy at Love Canal.

    PubMed

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  6. Transmuting Common Substances: The Cold Fusion Controversy and the Rhetoric of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Brad; Stratman, James F.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the relationship among forensic, deliberative, and epideictic modes of rhetoric in the cold fusion controversy. Shows the interactions between three modes of rhetoric. Examines the ways in which the modes have shaped the emerging scientific consensus. Supports Robert Sanders' contention that rhetorical practices interact with scientific…

  7. Transmuting Common Substances: The Cold Fusion Controversy and the Rhetoric of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Brad; Stratman, James F.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the relationship among forensic, deliberative, and epideictic modes of rhetoric in the cold fusion controversy. Shows the interactions between three modes of rhetoric. Examines the ways in which the modes have shaped the emerging scientific consensus. Supports Robert Sanders' contention that rhetorical practices interact with scientific…

  8. [Cloning - controversies].

    PubMed

    Twardowski, T; Michalska, A

    2001-01-01

    Cloning of the human being is not only highly controversial; in the opinion of the authors it is impossible - we are not able to reproduce human behaviour and character traits. Reproduction through cloning is limited to personal genome resources. The more important is protection of genomic characteristics as private property and taking advantage of cloning for production of the human organs directly or through xenotransplants. In this paper we present the legislation related to cloning in Poland, in the European Union and other countries. We also indicate who and why is interested in cloning.

  9. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  10. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  11. Development of stem cells from umbilical cord blood and blood banking: "non-controversial" and "free of political and ethical debate"?

    PubMed

    Skene, Loane

    2012-03-01

    Opponents of human embryo research have understandably welcomed pluripotent stem cells being derived from body cells including cells from umbilical cords after childbirth. The cord would otherwise be discarded and embryos are not destroyed. However, there are other ethical, legal and political issues in cord blood collection, whether for the child's future use, or a public blood bank. Information and consent procedures may be misleading. Some parents have false hopes about potential outcomes. The right of access to stored blood and other benefits is sometimes uncertain for children and their families. Private stem cell repositories may compete with public ones. People may want to impose conditions on donation. Quality control may be an issue.

  12. Emotion and Deliberative Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Cummins, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a) decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b) the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a “greater good” outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian (“yes”) decisions, but contrary to the model’s predictions, (a) vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b) violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say “no.” Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether “yes” or “no” constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model’s predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results

  13. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  14. In Defense of a Deliberative Democratic Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2013-01-01

    Political divides in our democracy are ever-widening. Deliberative democratic civics education provides a new way for civics education to prepare students for a democracy that addresses the diversity in moral perspectives that have created the divides in a more constructive way. Civics education traditionally has been tied to aggregative theories…

  15. Integrating Deliberative Justice Theory into Social Work Policy Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Deliberation that upholds the social work values of justice and inclusion is an essential component of the policy-making process; yet most social welfare policy curricula focus instead on the goals of distributive justice. This article presents a model that demonstrates how deliberative justice can be easily incorporated into beginning level…

  16. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  17. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  18. Citing Our Premises: Toward a Deliberative View of Academic Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Monika P.

    Prominent contemporary theories of academic argument are based upon jurisprudential models where argument is analogous to forensic discourse. Yet the implications of classical notions of testimony and the rhetorical function of citation make academic argument more a deliberative activity than the forensic one suggested by contemporary theorists.…

  19. In Defense of a Deliberative Democratic Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2013-01-01

    Political divides in our democracy are ever-widening. Deliberative democratic civics education provides a new way for civics education to prepare students for a democracy that addresses the diversity in moral perspectives that have created the divides in a more constructive way. Civics education traditionally has been tied to aggregative theories…

  20. Evaluating deliberative dialogues focussed on healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Boyko, Jennifer A; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre

    2014-12-17

    Deliberative dialogues have recently captured attention in the public health policy arena because they have the potential to address several key factors that influence the use of research evidence in policymaking. We conducted an evaluation of three deliberative dialogues convened in Canada by the National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy in order to learn more about deliberative dialogues focussed on healthy public policy. The evaluation included a formative assessment of participants' views about and experiences with ten key design features of the dialogues, and a summative assessment of participants' intention to use research evidence of the type that was discussed at the dialogue. We surveyed participants immediately after each dialogue was completed and again six months later. We analyzed the ratings using descriptive statistics and the written comments by conducting a thematic analysis. A total of 31 individuals participated in the three deliberative dialogues that we evaluated. The response rate was 94% (N = 29; policymakers (n = 9), stakeholders (n = 18), researchers (n = 2)) for the initial survey and 56% (n = 14) for the follow-up. All 10 of the design features that we examined as part of the formative evaluation were rated favourably by all participant groups. The findings of the summative evaluation demonstrated a mean behavioural intention score of 5.8 on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Our findings reinforce the promise of deliberative dialogues as a strategy for supporting evidence-informed public health policies. Additional work is needed to understand more about which design elements work in which situations and for different issues, and whether intention to use research evidence is a suitable substitute for measuring actual behaviour change.

  1. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however.

  2. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy.

    PubMed

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy M; Abelson, Julia; Thornton, Hazel; Barratt, Alexandra; Entwistle, Vikki A; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Salkeld, Glenn; Glasziou, Paul

    2013-03-20

    Cancer screening is widely practiced and participation is promoted by various social, technical, and commercial drivers, but there are growing concerns about the emerging harms, risks, and costs of cancer screening. Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are important and people need time to understand and consider the relevant issues. Information derived from such deliberations can provide important guidance to cancer screening policies: citizens' values are made explicit, revealing what really matters to people and why. Policy makers can see what informed, rather than uninformed, citizens would decide on the provision of services and information on cancer screening. Caveats can be elicited to guide changes to existing policies and practices. Policies that take account of citizens' opinions through a deliberative democracy process can be considered more legitimate, justifiable, and feasible than those that don't.

  3. Bioethics and deliberative democracy: five warnings from Hobbes.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Griffin

    2006-06-01

    Thomas Hobbes is one of the most ardent and thoroughgoing opponents of participatory democracy among Western political philosophers. Though Hobbes's alternative to participatory democracy-assent by subjects to rule by an absolute sovereign-no longer constitutes a viable political alternative for Westerners, his critique of participatory democracy is a potentially valuable source of insight about its liabilities. This essay elaborates five theses from Hobbes that stand as cogent warnings to those who embrace participatory democracy, especially those (such as most bioethicists) advocating for deliberative democracy based on a rational consensus model. In light of these warnings, the author suggests an alternative, modus vivendi approach to deliberative democracy that would radically alter the current practice of bioethics.

  4. Community Engagement for Big Epidemiology: Deliberative Democracy as a Tool

    PubMed Central

    McWhirter, Rebekah E.; Critchley, Christine R.; Nicol, Dianne; Chalmers, Don; Whitton, Tess; Otlowski, Margaret; Burgess, Michael M.; Dickinson, Joanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Public trust is critical in any project requiring significant public support, both in monetary terms and to encourage participation. The research community has widely recognized the centrality of public trust, garnered through community consultation, to the success of large-scale epidemiology. This paper examines the potential utility of the deliberative democracy methodology within the public health research setting. A deliberative democracy event was undertaken in Tasmania, Australia, as part of a wider program of community consultation regarding the potential development of a Tasmanian Biobank. Twenty-five Tasmanians of diverse backgrounds participated in two weekends of deliberation; involving elements of information gathering; discussion; identification of issues and formation of group resolutions. Participants demonstrated strong support for a Tasmanian Biobank and their deliberations resulted in specific proposals in relation to consent; privacy; return of results; governance; funding; and, commercialization and benefit sharing. They exhibited a high degree of satisfaction with the event, and confidence in the outcomes. Deliberative democracy methodology is a useful tool for community engagement that addresses some of the limitations of traditional consultation methods. PMID:25563457

  5. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, reproductive freedom, and deliberative democracy.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Colin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper I argue that the account of deliberative democracy advanced by Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson (1996, 2004) is a useful normative theory that can help enhance our deliberations about public policy in morally pluralistic societies. More specifically, I illustrate how the prescriptions of deliberative democracy can be applied to the issue of regulating non-medical uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), such as gender selection. Deliberative democracy does not aim to win a philosophical debate among rival first-order theories, such as libertarianism, egalitarianism or feminism. Rather, it advances a second-order analysis that strives to help us determine what would constitute a reasonable balance between the conflicting fundamental values that arise in the context of regulating PGD. I outline a theoretical model (called the Reasonable Genetic Intervention Model) that brings these issues to the fore. Such a model incorporates the concern for both procedural and substantive principles; and it does so in way that takes provisionality seriously.

  6. Community engagement for big epidemiology: deliberative democracy as a tool.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Rebekah E; Critchley, Christine R; Nicol, Dianne; Chalmers, Don; Whitton, Tess; Otlowski, Margaret; Burgess, Michael M; Dickinson, Joanne L

    2014-11-20

    Public trust is critical in any project requiring significant public support, both in monetary terms and to encourage participation. The research community has widely recognized the centrality of public trust, garnered through community consultation, to the success of large-scale epidemiology. This paper examines the potential utility of the deliberative democracy methodology within the public health research setting. A deliberative democracy event was undertaken in Tasmania, Australia, as part of a wider program of community consultation regarding the potential development of a Tasmanian Biobank. Twenty-five Tasmanians of diverse backgrounds participated in two weekends of deliberation; involving elements of information gathering; discussion; identification of issues and formation of group resolutions. Participants demonstrated strong support for a Tasmanian Biobank and their deliberations resulted in specific proposals in relation to consent; privacy; return of results; governance; funding; and, commercialization and benefit sharing. They exhibited a high degree of satisfaction with the event, and confidence in the outcomes. Deliberative democracy methodology is a useful tool for community engagement that addresses some of the limitations of traditional consultation methods.

  7. Social incentives improve deliberative but not procedural learning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gorlick, Marissa A.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits are seen across tasks where learning depends on asocial feedback processing, however plasticity has been observed in some of the same tasks in social contexts suggesting a novel way to attenuate deficits. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests this plasticity is due to a deliberative motivational shift toward achieving well-being with age (positivity effect) that reverses when executive processes are limited (negativity effect). The present study examined the interaction of feedback valence (positive, negative) and social salience (emotional face feedback – happy; angry, asocial point feedback – gain; loss) on learning in a deliberative task that challenges executive processes and a procedural task that does not. We predict that angry face feedback will improve learning in a deliberative task when executive function is challenged. We tested two competing hypotheses regarding the interactive effects of deliberative emotional biases on automatic feedback processing: (1) If deliberative emotion regulation and automatic feedback are interactive we expect happy face feedback to improve learning and angry face feedback to impair learning in older adults because cognitive control is available. (2) If deliberative emotion regulation and automatic feedback are not interactive we predict that emotional face feedback will not improve procedural learning regardless of valence. Results demonstrate that older adults show persistent deficits relative to younger adults during procedural category learning suggesting that deliberative emotional biases do not interact with automatic feedback processing. Interestingly, a subgroup of older adults identified as potentially using deliberative strategies tended to learn as well as younger adults with angry relative to happy feedback, matching the pattern observed in the deliberative task. Results suggest that deliberative emotional biases can improve deliberative learning, but have no effect on procedural

  8. Commentary: The Anatomy of Controversy: Freedom and Responsibility for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jack L.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the biology teacher in American schools and colleges is discussed with regard to the social, political, and economic implications of new discoveries in science. Controversial ethical issues related to teaching human genetics are presented. (SA)

  9. Scientific Argumentation and Deliberative Democracy: An Incompatible Mix in School Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erduran, Sibel; Kaya, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates how deliberative democracy is related to argumentation in school science. We use examples of political models of deliberative democracy to synthesize implications for argumentation in science teaching and learning. Some key questions guided our approach: How does democratic deliberation work and how does it relate to…

  10. Matters of Success: A Deliberative Polling Approach to the Study of Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tucker; Kenney, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a recent study they carried out at a mid-sized state university that used a polling method called deliberative polling. This type of polling differs from conventional polling in that respondents are polled before and after a deliberative session in which they discuss issues based on pertinent and…

  11. Deliberative Democracy and Emotional Intelligence: An Internal Mechanism to Regulate the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Deliberative democracy, it is claimed, is essential for the legitimisation of public policy and law. It is built upon an assumption that citizens will be capable of constructing and defending reasons for their moral and political beliefs. However, critics of deliberative democracy suggest that citizens' emotions are not properly considered in this…

  12. Deliberative Democracy and Emotional Intelligence: An Internal Mechanism to Regulate the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Deliberative democracy, it is claimed, is essential for the legitimisation of public policy and law. It is built upon an assumption that citizens will be capable of constructing and defending reasons for their moral and political beliefs. However, critics of deliberative democracy suggest that citizens' emotions are not properly considered in this…

  13. Scientific Argumentation and Deliberative Democracy: An Incompatible Mix in School Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erduran, Sibel; Kaya, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates how deliberative democracy is related to argumentation in school science. We use examples of political models of deliberative democracy to synthesize implications for argumentation in science teaching and learning. Some key questions guided our approach: How does democratic deliberation work and how does it relate to…

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment Under the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act: Deliberative Democracy in Canada's North?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sinclair, A. John; Mitchell, Bruce

    2008-07-01

    We consider the extent to which the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act (MVRMA) provides an opportunity for deliberative democracy to emerge within the context of resource management in Canada’s North. The focus is on the extent to which the tenets of deliberative democracy are exercised in the environmental assessment (EA) of the Snap Lake diamonds project. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with assessment participants, and a review of documentation surrounding the EA process, and the case study. Results combined four principles of deliberative democracy: generality, autonomy, power neutrality, and ideal role taking. The EA conducted under the MVRMA can serve as a deliberative process, as illustrated by opportunities for dialogue, access to different perspectives, and learning outcomes. However, many of these positive results occurred through nonmandated technical sessions. The absence of participant funding also limits the deliberative potential of the MVRMA.

  15. Researching safety culture: deliberative dialogue with a restorative lens.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Elisiane; Oelke, Nelly D; Marck, Patricia Beryl; Dall'agnol, Clarice Maria

    2017-10-01

    Safety culture is a key component of patient safety. Many patient safety strategies in health care have been adapted from high-reliability organizations (HRO) such as aviation. However, to date, attempts to transform the cultures of health care settings through HRO approaches have had mixed results. We propose a methodological approach for safety culture research, which integrates the theory and practice of restoration science with the principles and methods of deliberative dialogue to support active engagement in critical reflection and collective debate. Our aim is to describe how these two innovative approaches in health services research can be used together to provide a comprehensive effective method to study and implement change in safety culture. Restorative research in health care integrates socio-ecological theory of complex adaptive systems concepts with collaborative, place-sensitive study of local practice contexts. Deliberative dialogue brings together all stakeholders to collectively develop solutions on an issue to facilitate change. Together these approaches can be used to actively engage people in the study of safety culture to gain a better understanding of its elements. More importantly, we argue that the synergistic use of these approaches offers enhanced potential to move health care professionals towards actionable strategies to improve patient safety within today's complex health care systems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Including the public in pandemic planning: a deliberative approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Against a background of pandemic threat posed by SARS and avian H5N1 influenza, this study used deliberative forums to elucidate informed community perspectives on aspects of pandemic planning. Methods Two deliberative forums were carried out with members of the South Australian community. The forums were supported by a qualitative study with adults and youths, systematic reviews of the literature and the involvement of an extended group of academic experts and policy makers. The forum discussions were recorded with simultaneous transcription and analysed thematically. Results Participants allocated scarce resources of antiviral drugs and pandemic vaccine based on a desire to preserve society function in a time of crisis. Participants were divided on the acceptability of social distancing and quarantine measures. However, should such measures be adopted, they thought that reasonable financial, household and psychological support was essential. In addition, provided such support was present, the participants, in general, were willing to impose strict sanctions on those who violated quarantine and social distancing measures. Conclusions The recommendations from the forums suggest that the implementation of pandemic plans in a severe pandemic will be challenging, but not impossible. Implementation may be more successful if the public is engaged in pandemic planning before a pandemic, effective communication of key points is practiced before and during a pandemic and if judicious use is made of supportive measures to assist those in quarantine or affected by social isolation measures. PMID:20718996

  17. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity

  18. Research ethics consultation: ethical and professional practice challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services.

  19. Research Ethics Consultation: Ethical and Professional Practice Challenges and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Richard R.; Taylor, Holly A.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Boyle, Mary M.; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include: assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: 1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, 2) managing sensitive information, and 3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  20. Critical Rhetorics of Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Kent A.; Sloop, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Responds to two articles in the same issue of this journal regarding a controversy over the African Burial Ground in New York City. Raises a third set of questions, arguing that investigations of rhetorics of controversy can also include investigations of the rhetorics of incommensurability, investigating the development of logics and…

  1. The possibility of a universal declaration of biomedical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hedayat, K M

    2007-01-01

    Statements on issues in biomedical ethics, purporting to represent international interests, have been put forth by numerous groups. Most of these groups are composed of thinkers in the tradition of European secularism, and do not take into account the values of other ethical systems. One fifth of the world's population is accounted for by Islam, which is a universal religion, with more than 1400 years of scholarship. Although many values are held in common by secular ethical systems and Islam, their inferences are different. The question, “Is it possible to derive a truly universal declaration of biomedical ethics?” is discussed here by examining the value and extent of personal autonomy in Western and Islamic biomedical ethical constructs. These constructs are then tested vis‐à‐vis the issue of abortion. It is concluded that having a universal declaration of biomedical ethics in practice is not possible, although there are many conceptual similarities and agreements between secular and Islamic value systems, unless a radical paradigm shift occurs in segments of the world's deliberative bodies. The appellation “universal” should not be used on deliberative statements unless the ethical values of all major schools of thought are satisfied. PMID:17209104

  2. Hill & Knowlton's Two Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Presents arguments for and against the acceptance, in 1990, of two controversial client accounts by the public relations agency Hill & Knowlton. Examines the ethical implications of both accounts and concludes that whatever ethical infractions may have occurred reflect the agency's dominant public relations practices, not necessarily the "greedy…

  3. Some Ethical Considerations Regarding Scholarly Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Gordon; Mallory, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Discusses ethical considerations and possible censorship that can accompany technological advances in the transmission of information among scholars. Topics addressed include academic ethics and academic library ethics; peer review and scholarly communication; controversies and the selection of library materials; academic whistle blowers; and…

  4. From Deliberative Democracy to Communicative Democracy in the Classroom. A Response to "Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weasel, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This response to Samuelsson's typology for assessing deliberative democracy in classroom discussions views his analysis through an equity lens. It offers Young's model of communicative democracy as a resource and argues that incorporating that model's emphasis on greeting, rhetoric, and storytelling into the typology can help to promote more…

  5. Deliberative Engagement Methods for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Morain, Stephanie R; Whicher, Danielle M; Kass, Nancy E; Faden, Ruth R

    2017-04-03

    There is growing emphasis on eliciting and incorporating stakeholder perspectives into health research and public policy development. The deliberative engagement session (DES) method provides one approach to elicit informed preferences from patients and other stakeholders on policy issues. DES involves day-long interaction with participants, including short plenary presentations followed by small group discussion. While interest in DES methods is expanding, practical guidance for researchers on this method remains limited. In this paper, we describe the DES method and its contemporary relevance for health policy research, illustrate how to conduct a DES using an example of a recent patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) study with which we were involved, and discuss strengths and challenges of using this approach. DES methods generate rich data, reduce the risk of eliciting uniformed preferences or non-attitudes, and increase the likelihood of eliciting informed, reflective preferences. However, they are resource-intensive, and thus generally require trading away a larger, more representative sample. Despite these limitations, the DES method, when carefully designed, is well-suited for engaging stakeholders in research on complex health policy issues.

  6. Defining a Good Death: A deliberative democratic view.

    PubMed

    Raisio, Harri; Vartiainen, Pirkko; Jekunen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts to define a good death have been recorded in the academic literature. In most of these attempts, the methods used have been surveys, interviews, and focus groups. These methods have yielded important information, but they have failed to provide an opportunity for public deliberation, whereby people engage collectively with an issue, consider it from all sides, and struggle to understand it. We believe that a well-orchestrated public deliberation could contribute to defining a good death. We gathered data from four deliberative forums implemented in Finland in November 2013. The results paint a picture that differs from those painted by the previous research, which focused mainly on individual and idealized views of a good death. Our findings have brought to light the messy reality of a good death. Deliberation elicited the concern that society could not provide a good death for all and in the process highlighted the lack of proper palliative care and the dominant role of healthcare professionals in defining a good death. Participants also came to terms with the inherent complexity of dying well and gained a better understanding of the challenges related to providing a good death via euthanasia. Their perspectives broadened, proving that defining a good death is a dynamic process rather than a static one.

  7. Deliberative and intuitive risk perceptions as predictors of colorectal cancer screening over time

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Ramos, Marcel; Li, Yuelin; Holland, Susan; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M. Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Cancer risk perceptions may involve intuitions – including both affect as well as gut-level thoughts about risk – and deliberative risk magnitudes. Yet, little research has examined the potentially diverse relations between risk perceptions and behavior across time. A highly diverse primary care sample (N=544, aged ≥50) was utilized to compare how deliberative and intuitive perceptions of risk relate to chart-confirmed colorectal cancer screening at cross-sectional and prospective time points. At baseline, deliberative and intuitive risk perceptions were negatively associated with chart-confirmed colorectal cancer screening adherence in bivariable but not multivariable analyses. Among those who were non-adherent with colorectal cancer screening at baseline, deliberative and intuitive risk perceptions were positively associated with prospective uptake of chart-confirmed colorectal cancer screening adherence at 12-months in bivariable analyses; only deliberative risk perceptions remained significant in the multivariable model. This study indicates that diverse risk perceptions are differentially important for screening at different time points. PMID:26280754

  8. Coding Ethical Decision-Making in Research.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, David J; Van Valey, Thomas; Fuqua, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents methods and challenges attendant on the use of protocol analysis to develop a model of heuristic processing applied to research ethics. Participants are exposed to ethically complex scenarios and asked to verbalize their thoughts as they formulate a requested decision. The model identifies functional parts of the decision-making task: interpretation, retrieval, judgment and editing and seeks to reliably code participant verbalizations to those tasks as well as to a set of cognitive tools generally useful in such work. Important difficulties in the reliability and external validity of measurement are evaluated and a small set of illustrative data is used in support of that discussion. Results indicate that both intuitive emotional but also more deliberative cognition is present which is consistent with work in related literatures in expertise and in neuropsychology. Finally, the theoretical and practical potential of the approach is elaborated, particularly through links to a framing in Aristotelian ethics.

  9. Informing public health policy through deliberative public engagement: perceived impact on participants and citizen-government relations.

    PubMed

    Molster, Caron; Potts, Ayla; McNamara, Beverley; Youngs, Leanne; Maxwell, Susannah; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative public engagement has been proposed for policy development, where issues are complex and there are diverse public perspectives and low awareness of competing issues. Scholars suggest a range of potential outcomes for citizens and government agencies from involvement in such processes. Few studies have examined outcomes from the perspective of citizen participants in deliberative processes. To examine participant perceptions of their involvement in and outcomes of a deliberative engagement exercise. A case study using semistructured interviews was conducted with participants following a deliberative forum on biobanking. From their involvement in the deliberative exercise, participants described transformations in their knowledge and beliefs about the policy issues. They reported being more informed to the extent of having confidence to educate others and effectively contribute to public policy development. They had developed greater trust in government policymakers who they believed would take reasonable account of their recommendations. We conclude that the participants were satisfied with the outcomes of the deliberative public engagement process and viewed it as an effective means of citizen involvement in public policy development. Particularly for citizens who participate in deliberative processes, such processes may promote active citizenship, empower citizens to undertake representative and educative roles, and improve relations between citizens and government agencies. Actions taken by policymakers subsequent to the deliberative exercise, whereby the majority of citizen recommendations were incorporated in the policy developed, may have contributed to participants holding sustained levels of trust in the commissioning government agency.

  10. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2016-04-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Emotion regulation and risk taking: predicting risky choice in deliberative decision making.

    PubMed

    Panno, Angelo; Lauriola, Marco; Figner, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Only very recently has research demonstrated that experimentally induced emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) affect risky choice (e.g., Heilman et al., 2010). However, it is unknown whether this effect also operates via habitual use of emotion regulation strategies in risky choice involving deliberative decision making. We investigated the role of habitual use of emotion regulation strategies in risky choice using the "cold" deliberative version of the Columbia Card Task (CCT; Figner et al., 2009). Fifty-three participants completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003) and--one month later--the CCT and the PANAS. Greater habitual cognitive reappraisal use was related to increased risk taking, accompanied by decreased sensitivity to changes in probability and loss amount. Greater habitual expressive suppression use was related to decreased risk taking. The results show that habitual use of reappraisal and suppression strategies predict risk taking when decisions involve predominantly cognitive-deliberative processes.

  12. The controversial sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    1993-01-01

    The sun serves as an important test case for a variety of problems related to stellar structure and evolution as well as fundamental physics. The sun also influences the terrestrial environment through its varied outputs. These two aspects of the solar interior combine to generate a surprising level of controversy for such an inherently simple star. I review three topics each of which is the subject of some degree of controversy: 1) the solar neutrino problem, 2) the status of modeling and observational efforts to understand the solar cycle of activity, and 3) observational efforts to detect and identify solar g-modes.

  13. The vibrating string controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Gerald F.; Crummett, William P.

    1987-01-01

    In the mid-1700s a debate raged between Jean d'Alembert, Leonhard Euler, and Daniel Bernoulli concerning the proper solution to the classical wave equation. This controversy was partially solved by Lagrange and, more conclusively, by Fourier (50 years later) and it provides an interesting case study for the role of mathematics in the modeling of physical phenomena. Of particular note in this debate, was the meaning of boundary conditions. The controversy is summarized from the point of view of this mathematical physics perspective.

  14. Respondents as Interlocutors: Translating Deliberative Democratic Principles to Qualitative Interviewing Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curato, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The epistemic interview is a conversational practice, which aims to generate knowledge by subjecting respondents' beliefs to dialectical tests of reasons. Developed by Svend Brinkmann, this model draws inspiration from Socratic dialogues where the interviewer asks confronting questions to press respondents to articulate the normative bases of…

  15. Respondents as Interlocutors: Translating Deliberative Democratic Principles to Qualitative Interviewing Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curato, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The epistemic interview is a conversational practice, which aims to generate knowledge by subjecting respondents' beliefs to dialectical tests of reasons. Developed by Svend Brinkmann, this model draws inspiration from Socratic dialogues where the interviewer asks confronting questions to press respondents to articulate the normative bases of…

  16. The Choice Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.

    Issues in school choice--constitutionality, feasibility, equity, and educational productivity--are examined in this book. The controversy requires an ongoing analysis of the origins of the school-choice movement, the kinds of plans proposed and implemented, their educational and social consequences, and the philosophical assumptions underlying the…

  17. A Rhetoric of Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kendall R.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by exploring the concept of controversy within a theoretical framework which does not presume the existence of a public sphere. Suggests an alternative perspective based on the intersection of moments of opportunity and specific sites of discourse. Applies this…

  18. Students' Conceptions of Controversial Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; Nelson, J. Ron

    1992-01-01

    Five boys and five girls each in grades one through six (n=60 students) asked controversial questions in interviews, recognized the lack of social consensus on the controversial topics and made subtle distinctions between controversial and noncontroversial topics. Implications for discussion of controversial issues in the classroom are discussed.…

  19. Negotiating Gene Therapy: Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2004-01-01

    According to research, students often perceive the ethical implications of issues such as genetic engineering, but sometimes they are not equipped to handle multiple perspectives and articulate well-reasoned positions. A modified jigsaw activity, appropriate for secondary and introductory college biology classes, that introduces students to human…

  20. Negotiating Gene Therapy: Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2004-01-01

    According to research, students often perceive the ethical implications of issues such as genetic engineering, but sometimes they are not equipped to handle multiple perspectives and articulate well-reasoned positions. A modified jigsaw activity, appropriate for secondary and introductory college biology classes, that introduces students to human…

  1. Lyme disease: why the controversy?

    PubMed

    Beaman, M H

    2016-12-01

    Some Australians have become convinced of the existence of locally acquired Lyme disease (LD). The history of LD, since its recognition in the early 1970s, is reviewed as a model for investigative approaches to unknown syndromes. Australian Management Guidelines for LD include the requirement for diagnostic testing by National Association of Testing Authorities-accredited laboratories using Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed tests, which result in the efficient diagnosis of LD in overseas travellers. Despite this, patients who have not left Australia pay many thousands of dollars for non-specialist consultations and testing at overseas laboratories. Unproven long-term therapy with multiple antibiotics has resulted in serious complications, including allergies, line sepsis, pancreatitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Studies have shown that LD vectors are not found in Australia, and Lyme Borrelia has not been found in Australian vectors, animals or patients with autochthonous illnesses. I propose that (i) A non-controversial name for the chronic syndrome should be adopted, 'Australian Multisystem Disorder'. (ii) Research funding should enable the development of a consensus case definition and studies of the epidemiology of this syndrome with laboratory investigations to identify an aetiology and surrogate markers of disease. Prospective, randomised treatment studies could then be undertaken using ethical protocols. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities.

  3. Teaching Controversial Materials: Teaching about the Nuclear Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Describes difficulties encountered in presenting a college course on nuclear weapons and disarmament. Maintains that such courses must strive for a fuller historical account of the arms race, in addition to stressing the humanistic and ethical questions involved. Warns that controversy will arise and concludes that even blind anger is preferable…

  4. Teaching Controversial Materials: Teaching about the Nuclear Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Describes difficulties encountered in presenting a college course on nuclear weapons and disarmament. Maintains that such courses must strive for a fuller historical account of the arms race, in addition to stressing the humanistic and ethical questions involved. Warns that controversy will arise and concludes that even blind anger is preferable…

  5. Ethics in American health 2: an ethical framework for health system reform.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-10-01

    I argue that an ethical vision resting on explicitly articulated values and norms is critical to ensuring comprehensive health reform. Reform requires a consensus on the public good transcending self-interest and narrow agendas and underpinning collective action for universal coverage. In what I call shared health governance, individuals, providers, and institutions all have essential roles in achieving health goals and work together to create a positive environment for health. This ethical paradigm provides (1) reasoned consensus through a joint scientific and deliberative approach to judge the value of a health care intervention; (2) a method for achieving consensus that differs from aggregate tools such as a strict majority vote; (3) combined technical and ethical rationality for collective choice; (4) a joint clinical and economic approach combining efficiency with equity, but with economic solutions following and complementing clinical progress; and (5) protection for disabled individuals from discrimination.

  6. Ethics in American Health 2: An Ethical Framework for Health System Reform

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    I argue that an ethical vision resting on explicitly articulated values and norms is critical to ensuring comprehensive health reform. Reform requires a consensus on the public good transcending self-interest and narrow agendas and underpinning collective action for universal coverage. In what I call shared health governance, individuals, providers, and institutions all have essential roles in achieving health goals and work together to create a positive environment for health. This ethical paradigm provides (1) reasoned consensus through a joint scientific and deliberative approach to judge the value of a health care intervention; (2) a method for achieving consensus that differs from aggregate tools such as a strict majority vote; (3) combined technical and ethical rationality for collective choice; (4) a joint clinical and economic approach combining efficiency with equity, but with economic solutions following and complementing clinical progress; and (5) protection for disabled individuals from discrimination. PMID:18703448

  7. Controversies in dengue pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Scott B

    2012-01-01

    Research into the pathogenesis of dengue fever has exploded over the last half-century, with issues that were considered simple becoming more complex as additional data are found. This has led to the development of a number of controversies that are being studied across the globe and debated in the literature. In this paper, the following six controversies are analysed and, where possible, resolved: the 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is not useful; DHF is not significantly associated with secondary dengue infection; DHF results from infection with a ‘virulent’ dengue virus; DHF is owing to abnormal T-cell responses; DHF results from auto-immune responses; and DHF results from direct infection of endothelial cells. PMID:22668442

  8. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    PubMed

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  9. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting.

  10. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    PubMed

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  11. Preparing Students for a Diverse, Deliberative Democracy: College Diversity Experiences and Informed Citizenship after College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Nida; Bowman, Nicholas A.; Park, Julie J.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: The role of race in the university continues to be a contentious issue. Proponents of college diversity often cite the importance of fostering a diverse and deliberative democratic society, but the link between student experiences and postcollege citizenship has received limited attention. Purpose/Objective: This study explores…

  12. The Aims, Methods, and Effects of Deliberative Civic Education through the National Issues Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastil, John; Dillard, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the goals, methods, and effects of four current deliberative civic education programs, with an in-depth analysis of one: the National Issues Forums (NIF). Shows that NIF can bolster participants' political self-efficacy, refine their political judgments, broaden their political conversation networks, and reduce their conversational…

  13. Deliberative Democracy and Intelligent Design: The Ruling in "Kitzmiller v. Dover"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtt, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Federal District Court decision in "Kitzmiller v. Dover" halted a school board's attempts to introduce an "intelligent design" account of human origins into science classrooms as an alternative to evolution. The judge's opinion judged the Board members' actions by implicit standards of deliberative democratic discourse, which this article…

  14. The Aims, Methods, and Effects of Deliberative Civic Education through the National Issues Forums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastil, John; Dillard, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the goals, methods, and effects of four current deliberative civic education programs, with an in-depth analysis of one: the National Issues Forums (NIF). Shows that NIF can bolster participants' political self-efficacy, refine their political judgments, broaden their political conversation networks, and reduce their conversational…

  15. Deliberative Democratic Evaluation: Successes and Limitations of an Evaluation of School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.; Ashcraft, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly characterizes a "deliberative democratic" approach to program evaluation, recounts its application to the evaluation of school choice policy in the Boulder Valley School District, and describes the results and recommendations of the evaluation. It then assesses the evaluation in terms of its role in stimulating…

  16. Performance as Pedagogy: Children's Trust and the Negotiation of Subjectivities in the Context of Deliberative Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauver, Jennifer; Zhao, Xiaoying; Kobe, Jessica F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine children's (aged 9-11) experience of deliberative dialogue in which they sought to reach consensus around a shared problem with their peers. Through analysis of pre- and post-task interviews as well as videotapes of the sessions, we explore the pedagogical nature of children's engagement. In light of shifting trust…

  17. Assessing Affective and Deliberative Decision-Making: Adaptation of the Columbia Card Task to Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Viola, Thiago W; Veiga, Eduardo; Bortolotto, Vanessa; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2015-11-20

    The ability to predict reward and punishment is essential for decision-making and the ability to learn about an ever-changing environment. Therefore, efforts have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying decision-making, especially regarding how affective and deliberative processes interact with risk behavior. To adapt to Brazilian Portuguese the Columbia Card Task (CCT) and investigate affective and deliberative processes involved in decision-making. This study had two main phases: (1) a transcultural adaptation and (2) a pilot study. The feedback manipulation among the three conditions of CCT had an effect on the risk-taking level (p < .005, ES = .201). In addition, the feedback manipulation among the three conditions of CCT had an effect on the information use at both the individual and group levels. Further, a linear regression suggested that the use of information, indicated by the advantageous level of the scenarios, predict the number of cards chosen R 2 = .029, p < .001, accounting for 17% of the variance. The Brazilian CCT performs well and is a versatile method for the assessment of affective and deliberative decision-making under risk according to different feedback manipulation scenarios. This study goes further, comparing electrodermal activity during hot and warm conditions and addressing an advantageous level index analysis to asses deliberative processing.

  18. The Role of Deliberative Decision Making, Parenting, and Friends in Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Jennifer M.; Crockett, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors that jeopardize their futures. Although adolescent risk-taking has long been attributed to faulty decision making, surprisingly little research has directly examined this link. This study examined the role of deliberative decision making (the tendency to consider options and consequences before making a…

  19. Deliberative Democracy and Intelligent Design: The Ruling in "Kitzmiller v. Dover"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtt, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Federal District Court decision in "Kitzmiller v. Dover" halted a school board's attempts to introduce an "intelligent design" account of human origins into science classrooms as an alternative to evolution. The judge's opinion judged the Board members' actions by implicit standards of deliberative democratic discourse, which this article…

  20. From consultation to deliberation? Tracing deliberative norms in EIA frameworks in Swedish roads planning

    SciTech Connect

    Isaksson, Karolina; Richardson, Tim; Olsson, Krister

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of deliberative norms in the framework for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in roads planning in Sweden. The more specific question is how this framework has responded to the shift towards more deliberative approaches to planning and decision making, advocated in planning theory and policy literature over the last decade. The analysis, which compares the current framework and guidance with an earlier iteration, identifies a shift towards deliberation; deliberative norms are present, and even dominate recent guidance. However, an instrumental norm permeates both the former and the current guidance, suggesting that even as a language of consultation is replaced by one of deliberation, the intention remains to secure and legitimise a smooth development pathway. Evidence from interviews with professionals working in the Swedish EIA system highlights the difficulties of navigating these uncertainties in practice. By opening up critical analysis of deliberative norms as they shape the conditions for practice, this study contributes to the continuous development of planning practice, by supporting a more normatively reflexive approach to framework-design.

  1. The role of deliberative decision making, parenting, and friends in adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer M; Crockett, Lisa J

    2011-12-01

    Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors that jeopardize their futures. Although adolescent risk-taking has long been attributed to faulty decision making, surprisingly little research has directly examined this link. This study examined the role of deliberative decision making (the tendency to consider options and consequences before making a decision) and social contextual variables (parenting and friend influences) in alcohol and drug use, risky sex, and delinquency. Participants were 7,748 adolescents (50% female) in grades 7-11 from the Add Health dataset (M age = 14.87, SD = 1.54). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that deliberative decision making and contextual variables were associated with risk behavior concurrently and 1 year later. Furthermore, deliberative decision making interacted with social contextual variables in some models, indicating that deliberative decision making may be especially important in certain contexts. These findings suggest that both cognitive and social factors need to be considered to explain adolescents' decisions to engage in risk behavior.

  2. Controversies in Gender Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the author's thoughts on gender diagnosis controversies during his tenure at the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and the ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. The work summarizes some of the published conclusions of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 revision processes regarding three particular controversies: (1) stigma versus access to care; (2) the retention of a child gender diagnosis; and (3) the treatment of prepubescent transgender children. Both the DSM and ICD work groups decided that despite the stigma associated with a diagnosis, retaining an adolescent and adult gender diagnosis is necessary to maintain access to care. As for the child gender diagnosis, given the heterogeneity of this clinical population and that gender dysphoria does not persist in most children, a child diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (DSM) and Gender Incongruence (ICD) should be retained to facilitate ongoing evaluation and management in childhood while acknowledging the uncertainty of the outcome. The treatment of extremely gender variant prepubescent children remains a controversial subject since some underlying assumptions of the treating clinicians are a matter of opinion rather than of empirical data.

  3. Stock options, tax credits or employment contracts please! The value of deliberative public disagreement about human tissue donation.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Heather L

    2011-07-01

    'Deliberative democracy' is increasingly popular globally, as a means of securing public engagement with emerging health technologies and democratizing their governance. Architects of deliberative 'mini-publics' have tended, however, to privilege consensus within deliberation and the generation of 'action commitments' within a 'decisional context', despite widespread critique. Less attention has been paid to the phenomenon of persistent disagreement within constructed deliberative fora. This paper addresses this lacuna, performing a narrative analysis of four days of deliberation within one small group of demographically diverse public participants at the BC Biobank Deliberation (Vancouver, Canada, 2007). It reveals the value of listening to persistent deliberative disagreements. First, this paper argues that disagreements enable identification of deliberation and evaluation of its quality. Second, they generate insight into the deliberative process and the discursive means through which consensus can be achieved. Third, persistent deliberative disagreements can be creative of innovative governance solutions. In the case of the BC Biobank Deliberation, disagreements about compensation for biobank donors generated a range of suggestions for mediating between donor rights, corporate interests and societal needs--from tissue sample rentals to donor tax credits--suggestions that are unique to the existing academic and policy literature. Finally, this paper argues that practitioners should present persistent disagreements to public and policy audiences as an 'output' of deliberative democracy events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Ethics of Dialogue: Bakhtin and Levinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealon, Jeffrey T.

    1997-01-01

    Examines crucial differences between E. Levinas and M. M. Bakhtin in an attempt to construct an ethics for the postmodern subject and to offer an angle of intervention into the current debates, especially the "social constructivism versus essentialism" controversy. (TB)

  5. Addressing Controversies in Science Education: A Pragmatic Approach to Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, David; Bilica, Kimberly; Capps, John

    2008-01-01

    Science education controversies typically prove more intractable than those in scientific research because they involve a wider range of considerations (e.g., epistemic, social, ethical, political, and religious). How can educators acknowledge central issues in a controversy (such as evolution)? How can such problems be addressed in a way that is…

  6. Controversies on clitoroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding the current state of knowledge of the anatomic and physiologic features of the female clitoris was conducted. Based on this evaluation, operations on the clitoris were reviewed. The anatomic and physiologic reconstruction problems of surgical techniques for female pseudohermaphroditism that have previously been reported were reviewed. The author suggests that clitoroplasty is essential for patients with ambiguous genitalia, but the decision regarding the correct procedure, taking into account anatomic and physiologic success, can be controversial. This may be because of unclear anatomic and physiologic definitions, even for healthy people. As a temporary solution, more conservative procedures for maximally effective treatment are suggested. PMID:22164197

  7. Controversy on chloroplast origins.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, P J; Penny, D; Hendy, M D; Howe, C J; Beanland, T J; Larkum, A W

    1992-04-20

    Controversy exists over the origins of photosynthetic organelles in that contradictory trees arise from different sequence, biochemical and ultrastructural data sets. We propose a testable hypothesis which explains this inconsistency as a result of the differing GC contents of sequences. We report that current methods of tree reconstruction tend to group sequences with similar GC contents irrespective of whether the similar GC content is due to common ancestry or is independently acquired. Nuclear encoded sequences (high GC) give different trees from chloroplast encoded sequences (low GC). We find that current data is consistent with the hypothesis of multiple origins for photosynthetic organelles and single origins for each type of light harvesting complex.

  8. Exxon Valdez controversy revived

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-26

    Four years after its occurrence rocked the petroleum industry and revitalized the US environmental movement, the Exxon Valdez tanker oil spill off Alaska continues to stir controversy. Conflicting reports abound over whether there is long term damage to the Prince William Sound ecosystem resulting from the March 24, 1989, spill. Government scientists at recent conferences disclosed studies they contend show long term, significant damage to the sound. Exxon this month launched a counteroffensive, disclosing results of studies it funded that it claims show no credible scientific evidence of long term damage. At the same time, the company blasted as flawed the government's data on assessing environmental damage to the sound and charged that test samples from the sound were mishandled. Meantime, Prince William Sound still shows lingering effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. But recovery has been so rapid that there is more controversy over how to use $900 million in natural resource recovery funds that Exxon paid than over how badly species are suffering. The paper describes Exxon's studies; faulty data; lingering damage; and an update on tanker safety.

  9. Controversies in Cardioembolic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Benjamin S.; Kent, David M

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Cardioembolic (CE) stroke mechanisms account for a significant number of ischemic strokes however the true burden is likely underestimated. It is critically important to identify patients with CE strokes since these individuals have high recurrence rates and represent a subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy in the form of anticoagulation or device based treatments. Current guidelines offer recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of these patients however important questions remain. Appropriate cardiac testing in the setting of CE must be individualized and the optimal duration of electrocardiographic monitoring to rule out atrial fibrillation (AF) is unclear. So too, risk stratification tools for AF remain understudied and there is controversy about which anticoagulant agents are most appropriate. Lastly, important potential CE sources of stroke such as PFO have garnered significant attention recently and debate regarding how to treat these patients remains. In this review we discuss some of the important controversies in diagnosing and treating patients with possible CE stroke, pointing to areas where future research might be particularly valuable. PMID:25398426

  10. The breast implant controversy.

    PubMed

    Cook, R R; Harrison, M C; LeVier, R R

    1994-02-01

    The breast implant issue is a "bad news/good news" story. For many women with implants, the controversy has caused a fair degree of anxiety which may or may not be resolved as further information becomes available. It has also taken its toll on Dow Corning. Whole lines of medical products have been eliminated or are being phase out. The development of new medical applications has been terminated. As a consequence, employees have lost their jobs. What the effect will be on the biomedical industry as a whole remains to be seen (11). While silicones have been an important component in various medical devices, it is likely that other materials can be used as replacements. However, suppliers of non-silicone materials are also reevaluating their role in this market. For example, Du Pont, the nation's largest chemical company, has determined that the unpredictable and excessive costs of doing business with manufacturers of implantable medical devices no longer justifies the unrestricted sale of standard raw materials into this industry. Other companies are quietly following suit. On the up side, it is possible that the research being driven by this controversy will result in a greater understanding of the immunologic implications of xenobiotics, of the importance of nonbiased observations, of the need for ready access to valid data sets, and of the opportunity for valid scientific information to guide legal decisions. Only time will tell.

  11. The bellerophont controversy revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, J.A.; Rollins, H.B.

    2000-01-01

    An old controversy reestablished itself in the late 1970s and early 1980s that focused on the systematic placement of the enigmatic Bellerophontoidea (informally, "bellerophonts"), a group of planispirally coiled, wholly fossil molluscs. The controversy embraced three fundamental concepts that are based on different philosophical interpretations of shell form, muscle scar patterns, and other preserved shell features: 1) all bellerophonts were monoplacophorans; 2) all bellerophonts were gastropods; and 3) some bellerophonts were monoplacophorans and some were gastropods. A review of the main issues appearing in the literature since the early 1980s indicates that these three philosophical divisions still exist and, indeed, have become entrenched. An examination of the relevant anatomical and shell features of recent gastropods and monoplacophorans, and comparison with preserved features in enigmatic fossil forms, convinces us that the bellerophontoideans and the coiled and high-domed "monoplacophorans" (Cyclomya) were gastropods. Only the flattened, spoon-and cap-shaped monoplacophorans (Tergomya) were true monoplacophorans. We present a hypothetical scheme for the morphological diversification of gastropods from early monoplacophorans that could account for Cyclomya, Bellerophontoidea, Patellogastropoda, and Prosobranchia.

  12. Ethics and the pediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E; Caniano, Donna A; Fecteau, Annie H

    2007-01-01

    Care of infants and children with life-impairing or life-threatening congenital and acquired disorders often raises ethical concerns for pediatric surgeons. The purpose of this survey was to determine the level of interest in clinical ethics and how respondents would manage ethical dilemmas within several clinical case scenarios. A 12-item validated questionnaire developed by the Ethics and Advocacy Committee was provided for the American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA; www.eapsa.org) members on the organizational website. General categories of questions included informed consent, patient privacy, and what constitutes research. The survey was completed by 235 of the 825 APSA members; a response rate of 28.4%. The majority (62%) were in academic practice, 22% had additional education or an advanced degree in ethics, and 11% were members of a hospital ethics committee. There was a clear majority response for seven questions. Topics generating the most controversy included the impact of consent by minors, decision making in the neurologically devastated child, what constitutes research in pediatric surgery, the use of interpreters for consent, and patient privacy. Respondents chose a well-referenced manuscript as the preferred modality for ethics education of the APSA members. Pediatric surgeons have a general interest in clinical ethics as it relates to the care of their patients. An important mission of the Ethics and Advocacy Committee can be to provide education that gives guidance and knowledge to the members of APSA on timely topics in surgical ethics.

  13. Leadership of risk decision making in a complex, technology organization: The deliberative decision making model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaming, Susan C.

    2007-12-01

    The continuing saga of satellite technology development is as much a story of successful risk management as of innovative engineering. How do program leaders on complex, technology projects manage high stakes risks that threaten business success and satellite performance? This grounded theory study of risk decision making portrays decision leadership practices at one communication satellite company. Integrated product team (IPT) leaders of multi-million dollar programs were interviewed and observed to develop an extensive description of the leadership skills required to navigate organizational influences and drive challenging risk decisions to closure. Based on the study's findings the researcher proposes a new decision making model, Deliberative Decision Making, to describe the program leaders' cognitive and organizational leadership practices. This Deliberative Model extends the insights of prominent decision making models including the rational (or classical) and the naturalistic and qualifies claims made by bounded rationality theory. The Deliberative Model describes how leaders proactively engage resources to play a variety of decision leadership roles. The Model incorporates six distinct types of leadership decision activities, undertaken in varying sequence based on the challenges posed by specific risks. Novel features of the Deliberative Decision Model include: an inventory of leadership methods for managing task challenges, potential stakeholder bias and debates; four types of leadership meta-decisions that guide decision processes, and aligned organizational culture. Both supporting and constraining organizational influences were observed as leaders managed major risks, requiring active leadership on the most difficult decisions. Although the company's engineering culture emphasized the importance of data-based decisions, the uncertainties intrinsic to satellite risks required expert engineering judgment to be exercised throughout. An investigation into

  14. Ethical issues in infertility.

    PubMed

    Serour, Gamal I; Serour, Ahmed G

    2017-03-01

    Infertility is a global medico-socio-cultural problem with gender-based suffering particularly in developing countries. Conventional methods of treatment for infertility do not usually raise ethical concerns. However, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has initiated considerable ethical debate, disagreement, and controversy. There are three ethical principles that provide an ethical basis for ART: the principle of liberty, principle of utility, and principle of justice. Medical ethics are based on the moral, religious, and philosophical ideas and principles of the society and are influenced by economics, policies, and law. This creates tension between the principles of justice and utility, which can result in disparity in the availability of and access to ART services between the rich and the poor. The moral status of the embryo is the key for all the ethical considerations and law regarding ART in different societies. This has resulted in cross-border ART. Conscientious objection of healthcare providers should not deprive couples from having access to a required ART service.

  15. ETHICAL MODELS OF PHYSICIAN--PATIENT RELATIONSHIP REVISITED WITH REGARD TO PATIENT AUTONOMY, VALUES AND PATIENT EDUCATION.

    PubMed

    Borza, Liana Rada; Gavrilovici, Cristina; Stockman, René

    2015-01-01

    The present paper revisits the ethical models of patient--physician relationship from the perspective of patient autonomy and values. It seems that the four traditional models of physician--patient relationship proposed by Emanuel & Emanuel in 1992 closely link patient values and patient autonomy. On the other hand, their reinterpretation provided by Agarwal & Murinson twenty years later emphasizes the independent expression of values and autonomy in individual patients. Additionally, patient education has been assumed to join patient values and patient autonomy. Moreover, several authors have noted that, over the past few decades, patient autonomy has gradually replaced the paternalistic approach based on the premise that the physician knows what is best for the patient. Neither the paternalistic model of physician-patient relationship, nor the informative model is considered to be satisfactory, as the paternalistic model excludes patient values from decision making, while the informative model excludes physician values from decision making. However, the deliberative model of patient-physician interaction represents an adequate alternative to the two unsatisfactory approaches by promoting shared decision making between the physician and the patient. It has also been suggested that the deliberative model would be ideal for exercising patient autonomy in chronic care and that the ethical role of patient education would be to make the deliberative model applicable to chronic care. In this regard, studies have indicated that the use of decision support interventions might increase the deliberative capacity of chronic patients.

  16. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  17. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  18. Ethical issues and addiction.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Binta; Scheiner, Melissa; Campbell, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    The epidemic of substance abuse continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians nationwide. Although there is a tendency to simply associate drug abuse with poverty, the problem affects every social stratum gender and race; and pregnant women are no exception. Caring for pregnant, substance-using women and their infants presents complex legal and ethical issues. Debate is ongoing about whether criminal penalties should be imposed on women based solely on their use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. Furthermore, controversies persist about the rights and wishes of pregnant women versus the interests of their fetuses. For health professionals, conflict arises when the pregnant woman chooses behaviors that have the potential to harm the developing fetus. The ethical dilemma arises from competing autonomy-based and beneficence-based obligations to the maternal-fetal dyad. This chapter explores the ethics-based conflicts in the delivery of health care to drug abusing pregnant women.

  19. Ethics of vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

    2011-10-01

    Ethical issues are present at each stage in the vaccine product life cycle, the period extending from the earliest stages of research through the eventual design and implementation of global vaccination programs. Recent developments highlight fundamental principles of vaccine ethics and raise unique issues for ongoing vaccination activities worldwide. These include the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination campaign, renewed attention to the potential global eradication of polio, and the ongoing evaluation of vaccine risk controversies, most notably the alleged link between childhood vaccines and autism. These cases present ethical challenges for public health policy-makers, scientists, physicians, and other stakeholders in their efforts to improve the health of individuals, communities, and nations through vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deliberative Assessment of Surrogate Consent in Dementia Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Scott Y. H.; Uhlmann, Rebecca A.; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Knopman, David S.; Kim, H. Myra; Damschroder, Laura; Beattie, Elizabeth; Struble, Laura; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Background Research involving incapacitated persons with dementia involves complex scientific, legal, and ethical issues, making traditional surveys of layperson views regarding the ethics of such research challenging. We therefore assessed the impact of democratic deliberation (DD)—involving balanced, detailed education and peer deliberation—on the views of those responsible for persons with dementia. Methods 178 community-recruited caregivers or primary decision-makers for persons with dementia were randomly assigned to either an all-day DD session group or a control group. Educational materials used for the DD session were vetted for balance and accuracy by an interdisciplinary advisory panel. We assessed the acceptability of family surrogate consent for dementia research (‘surrogate-based research’ or SBR) from a societal policy perspective as well as from the more personal perspectives of deciding for a loved one or for oneself (surrogate and self perspectives), assessed at baseline, immediately post-DD session, and a month after DD date, for 4 research scenarios of varying risk-benefit profiles. Results At baseline, a majority in both DD and control groups supported a policy of family consent for dementia research for all research scenarios. The support for a policy of family consent for SBR increased for the DD group, but not for the control group; the change in the DD group was maintained one month later. In the DD group, there were transient changes in attitudes from surrogate or self perspectives; in the control group, there were no changes from baseline in attitude toward surrogate consent from any perspective. Conclusions Intensive, balanced, and accurate education along with peer deliberation provided by democratic deliberation leads to a sustained increase in support for a societal policy of family consent for dementia research among those responsible for dementia patients. PMID:20188635

  1. Challenging the 'view from nowhere': citizen reflections on specialist expertise in a deliberative process.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gail; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents analysis of citizen encounters with specialists in a deliberative process, called Deliberative Mapping, which explored options for addressing the shortage of organs for transplantation in the UK. There is a rich theoretical literature about the extent to which citizens are competent to question the knowledge claims of specialists in complex decision-making processes, suggesting the trustworthiness of scientific expertise will depend on the qualities of social interaction in face-to-face dialogue, but little empirical analysis of specific encounters. This paper presents evidence of how citizens located specialist expertise in making judgements about the legitimacy and credibility of specialist knowledge claims, in ways that reflect differences in epistemic procedures valued by the panels of men and women in this process.

  2. Citizens' Perspectives on Disinvestment from Publicly Funded Pathology Tests: A Deliberative Forum.

    PubMed

    Street, Jackie M; Callaghan, Peta; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Hiller, Janet E

    2015-12-01

    Deliberative forums can be useful tools in policy decision making for balancing citizen voice and community values against dominant interests. To describe the use of a deliberative forum to explore community perspectives on a complex health problem-disinvestment. A deliberative forum of citizens was convened in Adelaide, South Australia, to develop criteria to support disinvestment from public funding of ineffective pathology tests. The case study of potential disinvestment from vitamin B12/folate pathology testing was used to shape the debate. The forum was informed by a systematic review of B12/folate pathology test effectiveness and expert testimony. The citizens identified seven criteria: cost of the test, potential impact on individual health/capacity to benefit, potential cost to society, public good, alternatives to testing, severity of the condition, and accuracy of the test. The participants not only saw these criteria as an interdependent network but also questioned "the authority" of policymakers to make these decisions. Coherence between the criteria devised by the forum and those described by an expert group was considerable, the major differences being that the citizens did not consider equity issues and the experts neglected the "cost" of social and emotional impact of disinvestment on users and the society. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Deliberative dialogues as a mechanism for knowledge translation and exchange in health systems decision-making.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Lavis, John N; Abelson, Julia; Dobbins, Maureen; Carter, Nancy

    2012-12-01

    Models that describe the key features and intended effects of specific knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) interventions are much less prominent than models that provide a more general understanding of KTE. Our aim was to develop a model in order to describe the key features and intended effects of deliberative dialogues used as a KTE strategy and to understand how deliberative dialogues can support evidence-informed policymaking. By using critical interpretive synthesis, we identified 17 papers representing four fields of enquiry and integrated our findings into a model. The key features described in the model are: 1) an appropriate (i.e., conducive to the particular dialogue) meeting environment; 2) an appropriate mix of participants; and, 3) an appropriate use of research evidence. These features combine to create three types of intended effects: 1) short-term individual-level; 3) medium-term community/organizational-level; and, 3) long-term system-level. The concept of capacity building helps to explain the relationship between features and effects. The model is a useful contribution to the KTE field because it is a practical tool that could be used to guide the development and evaluation of deliberative dialogues in order to understand more about achieving particular outcomes in relation to specific issues or contexts.

  4. Teaching Ethical Issues in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    This paper presents a study that investigates the teaching and learning aspects of controversial issues in science education. Teaching ethical issues is mandatory for science teachers in England; however, teachers may experience difficulties in exploring contemporary issues in science due to rapid and unpredictable changes. The study carries an…

  5. Photoprotection: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, K; Osmola-Mańkowska, A; Lodyga, M; Polańska, A; Mazur, M; Adamski, Z

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Avoiding the sun, skin protection through the use of protective clothing and protective filters are currently the most effective methods of sunscreen provided that they are suitably used. In addition, discussed are controversial issues such as the toxicity of zinc used in sunscreen preparations and the potential for deficiency of vitamin D3 in relation with the application of strict photoprotection. The study has also addressed issues concerning the most recent lines of research in the exploration of modern methods of photoprotection both local and systemic, such as with the use of photolyase or examination of various enzymes repairing damage after sun exposure, as well as the promising future in photoprotection technology.

  6. Radon Treatment Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

    2006-01-01

    In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

  7. Nutrigenomics: A controversy

    PubMed Central

    Pavlidis, Cristiana; Patrinos, George P.; Katsila, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is an emerging science which investigates a certain area of nutrition that uses molecular tools to search access and understand the several responses obtained through a certain diet applied between individual and population groups. The increased need for the use of personalised nutrition in patients is increasing and research is being made on its possible effects. However, research on nutrigenomics and in particular, obesity is still ongoing. Following a current metanalysis on thirty-eight nutrigenomics genes, it seems that a definite association between the genes usually examined in nutrigenomics testing and several diet-related diseases is lacking, even though there is a limited number of studies associating them. In 2014, literature search results in a great number of studies on several polymorphisms. This heterogeneity could only show the way towards new research aims. Nutrigenomics was born due to the need to move from Epidemiology and Physiology to Molecular Biology and Genetics. Currently, there are steps that need to be considered in order for nutrigenomics to be applied: the genes, the gene/protein network, and the strategy towards the determination of the nutrients' influence on gene/protein expression. It is certainly an interesting evolving science with many areas to be investigated further and from different perspectives, as it involves ethics, medicine, genetics and nutrition. PMID:26937350

  8. Nutrigenomics: A controversy.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Cristiana; Patrinos, George P; Katsila, Theodora

    2015-03-01

    Nutrigenomics is an emerging science which investigates a certain area of nutrition that uses molecular tools to search access and understand the several responses obtained through a certain diet applied between individual and population groups. The increased need for the use of personalised nutrition in patients is increasing and research is being made on its possible effects. However, research on nutrigenomics and in particular, obesity is still ongoing. Following a current metanalysis on thirty-eight nutrigenomics genes, it seems that a definite association between the genes usually examined in nutrigenomics testing and several diet-related diseases is lacking, even though there is a limited number of studies associating them. In 2014, literature search results in a great number of studies on several polymorphisms. This heterogeneity could only show the way towards new research aims. Nutrigenomics was born due to the need to move from Epidemiology and Physiology to Molecular Biology and Genetics. Currently, there are steps that need to be considered in order for nutrigenomics to be applied: the genes, the gene/protein network, and the strategy towards the determination of the nutrients' influence on gene/protein expression. It is certainly an interesting evolving science with many areas to be investigated further and from different perspectives, as it involves ethics, medicine, genetics and nutrition.

  9. Ethics and Childhood Vaccination Policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Kristin S; Sturm, Lynne A; Zimet, Gregory D; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-02-01

    Childhood immunization involves a balance between parents' autonomy in deciding whether to immunize their children and the benefits to public health from mandating vaccines. Ethical concerns about pediatric vaccination span several public health domains, including those of policymakers, clinicians, and other professionals. In light of ongoing developments and debates, we discuss several key ethical issues concerning childhood immunization in the United States and describe how they affect policy development and clinical practice. We focus on ethical considerations pertaining to herd immunity as a community good, vaccine communication, dismissal of vaccine-refusing families from practice, and vaccine mandates. Clinicians and policymakers need to consider the nature and timing of vaccine-related discussions and invoke deliberative approaches to policy-making.

  10. Ethics and Childhood Vaccination Policy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Lynne A.; Zimet, Gregory D.; Meslin, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood immunization involves a balance between parents’ autonomy in deciding whether to immunize their children and the benefits to public health from mandating vaccines. Ethical concerns about pediatric vaccination span several public health domains, including those of policymakers, clinicians, and other professionals. In light of ongoing developments and debates, we discuss several key ethical issues concerning childhood immunization in the United States and describe how they affect policy development and clinical practice. We focus on ethical considerations pertaining to herd immunity as a community good, vaccine communication, dismissal of vaccine-refusing families from practice, and vaccine mandates. Clinicians and policymakers need to consider the nature and timing of vaccine-related discussions and invoke deliberative approaches to policymaking. PMID:26691123

  11. Controversial ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Meredith; Eddleman, Keith

    2004-03-01

    This article has reviewed a few of the more controversial findings in the field of obstetric ultrasound. For each one evidence-based strategies for the management of affected pregnancies have been suggested, derived from what the authors believe is the best information available. In some cases, this information is very limited, which can make counseling these patients extremely difficult. Some physicians find using specific likelihood ratios helpful in these complex discussions. An example of the relative likelihood ratios for several markers of trisomy 21 is illustrated in Table 10. Although the management of each of the findings discussed in this article is different, a few generalizations can be made. To begin with, the detection of any abnormal finding on ultrasound should prompt an immediate detailed ultrasound evaluation of the fetus by someone experienced in the diagnosis of fetal anomalies. If there is more than one abnormal finding on ultrasound, if the patient is over the age of 35, or if the multiple marker screen is abnormal, an amniocentesis to rule out aneuploidy should be recommended. Of the six ultrasound findings reviewed here, the authors believe that only echogenic bowel as an isolated finding confers a high enough risk of aneuploidy to recommend an amniocentesis in a low-risk patient. The other findings in isolation in a low-risk patient seem to confer only a modest increased risk of aneuploidy, if any, and this risk is certainly less than the risk of unintended loss from amniocentesis. Wherever possible, modifiers of this risk, such as maternal age, history, and first and second multiple marker screening, should be used to define more clearly the true risk of aneuploidy. As obstetric ultrasound moves forward, particularly into the uncharted waters of clinical use of three- and four-dimensional ultrasound, one can expect a whole new crop of ultrasound findings with uncertain clinical significance. Clinicians are well advised to await well

  12. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  13. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  14. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  15. Youth Violence. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskup, Michael D., Ed.; Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores many social, political, and economic controversies, presenting the discussions in debate format. This volume focuses on youth violence. As youth violence escalates, concern grows over the safety of the neighborhoods, the victims of violence, and the future of violent youths themselves. The 35 selections in…

  16. Gain-of-Function Research: Ethical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Gain-of-function (GOF) research involves experimentation that aims or is expected to (and/or, perhaps, actually does) increase the transmissibility and/or virulence of pathogens. Such research, when conducted by responsible scientists, usually aims to improve understanding of disease causing agents, their interaction with human hosts, and/or their potential to cause pandemics. The ultimate objective of such research is to better inform public health and preparedness efforts and/or development of medical countermeasures. Despite these important potential benefits, GOF research (GOFR) can pose risks regarding biosecurity and biosafety. In 2014 the administration of US President Barack Obama called for a "pause" on funding (and relevant research with existing US Government funding) of GOF experiments involving influenza, SARS, and MERS viruses in particular. With announcement of this pause, the US Government launched a "deliberative process" regarding risks and benefits of GOFR to inform future funding decisions-and the US National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) was tasked with making recommendations to the US Government on this matter. As part of this deliberative process the National Institutes of Health commissioned this Ethical Analysis White Paper, requesting that it provide (1) review and summary of ethical literature on GOFR, (2) identification and analysis of existing ethical and decision-making frameworks relevant to (i) the evaluation of risks and benefits of GOFR, (ii) decision-making about the conduct of GOF studies, and (iii) the development of US policy regarding GOFR (especially with respect to funding of GOFR), and (3) development of an ethical and decision-making framework that may be considered by NSABB when analyzing information provided by GOFR risk-benefit assessment, and when crafting its final recommendations (especially regarding policy decisions about funding of GOFR in particular). The ethical and decision-making framework

  17. Stem cell research as innovation: expanding the ethical and policy conversation.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Research using human embryonic stem cells raises an array of complex ethical issues, including, but by no means limited to, the moral status of developing human life. Unfortunately much of the public discussion fails to take into account this complexity. Advocacy for liberal and conservative positions on human embryonic stem cell research can be simplistic and misleading. Ethical concepts such as truth-telling, scientific integrity, and social justice should be part of the debate over federal support for human embryonic stem cell research. Moreover, the debate should be conducted in accord with principles of deliberative democracy, including respect for people holding competing views.

  18. [Ethical aspects of embryonic stem cell research].

    PubMed

    Kostka, U

    2002-11-01

    Research using embryonic stem cells raises a variety of ethical questions, which will be explored in this article. At the core of the ethical controversy is the question of the status of the embryo and its availability for research. A range of countries have approved the use of "supernumerous" embryos from in-vitro fertilization. But ethical problems also arise in reproduction medicine, the informed consent of affected couples, and the targeted production of embryos and egg cell donation for research. The author discuss some of these neglected issues and develops suggestions for comprehensive ethical reflection.

  19. Assessing the quality of a deliberative democracy mini-public event about advanced biofuel production and development in Canada.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, Holly; Secko, David M

    2016-02-01

    The importance of evaluating deliberative public engagement events is well recognized, but such activities are rarely conducted for a variety of theoretical, political and practical reasons. In this article, we provide an assessment of the criteria presented in the 2008 National Research Council report on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making (NRC report) as explicit indicators of quality for the 2012 'Advanced Biofuels' deliberative democracy event. The National Research Council's criteria were selected to evaluate this event because they are decision oriented, are the products of an exhaustive review of similar past events, are intended specifically for environmental processes and encompass many of the criteria presented in other evaluation frameworks. It is our hope that the results of our study may encourage others to employ and assess the National Research Council's criteria as a generalizable benchmark that may justifiably be used in forthcoming deliberative events exploring different topics with different audiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The ASTUTE Health study protocol: Deliberative stakeholder engagements to inform implementation approaches to healthcare disinvestment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Governments and other payers are yet to determine optimal processes by which to review the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of technologies and procedures that are in active use within health systems, and rescind funding (partially or fully) from those that display poor profiles against these parameters. To further progress a disinvestment agenda, a model is required to support payers in implementing disinvestment in a transparent manner that may withstand challenge from vested interests and concerned citizens. Combining approaches from health technology assessment and deliberative democratic theory, this project seeks to determine if and how wide stakeholder engagement can contribute to improved decision-making processes, wherein the views of both vested and non-vested stakeholders are seen to contribute to informing policy implementation within a disinvestment context. Methods/design Systematic reviews pertaining to illustrative case studies were developed and formed the evidence base for discussion. Review findings were presented at a series of deliberative, evidence-informed stakeholder engagements, including partisan (clinicians and consumers) and non-partisan (representative community members) stakeholders. Participants were actively facilitated towards identifying shared and dissenting perspectives regarding public funding policy for each of the case studies and developing their own funding models in response to the evidence presented. Policy advisors will subsequently be invited to evaluate disinvestment options based on the scientific and colloquial evidence presented to them, and to explore the value of this information to their decision-making processes with reference to disinvestment. Discussion Analysis of the varied outputs of the deliberative engagements will contribute to the methodological development around how to best integrate scientific and colloquial evidence for consideration by policy advisors. It may contribute to

  1. Biobank Participation and Returning Research Results: Perspectives from a Deliberative Engagement in South Side Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Amy A.; Halverson, Colin; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2011-01-01

    To be respectful of the public, biobank guiding principles and operations should be responsive to and inclusive of the values and beliefs of their participants. In an effort to increase knowledge and inform institutional policies, we conducted a deliberative engagement of individuals from two healthcare facilities in South Side Chicago that serve different socioeconomic communities to consider biobank policies regarding return of research results. We recruited primary caregivers of children receiving care at either a Federally Qualified Health Center or a university-based practice to attend two full-day deliberative engagement sessions, which included four educational presentations followed by focus group discussions. Surveys were administered to assess attitudes before and after the engagement, and an evaluation was conducted to assess the deliberative engagement process. All 45 participants self-identified as African American. Focus group themes included: 1) overall interest in biobank participation, broad consent, and recontact; 2) root causes of distrust and potential biobank strategies to facilitate trust; 3) perceived positive and negative aspects of receiving research results; and 4) strong interest in receiving and managing their children’s research results. Survey data indicated the same degree of interest in receiving results about themselves as about their children. Pre- and post-session findings showed mainly non-significant attitudinal changes in level of interest in biobank participation and return of research results, although there was a decrease in level of concern regarding identification from research data. Our findings reveal shared community insights important in facilitating relationships and policy discussions between biobank researchers and research participants. PMID:22438108

  2. Ethical Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  3. Ethical Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  4. Weaving meanings from the deliberative process of collegiate management in nursing.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2014-01-01

    to understand the meanings of the collegiate deliberations attributed by its members on an undergraduate nursing course. Grounded Theory, interviews being held with 30 participants, making up 4 sample groups, between January and June 2012, in a public higher education institution. 5 categories emerged, indicating the phenomenon and weaving the paradigmatic model: Understanding the experience of the complex relationships and interactions in the deliberations of collegiate management in nursing: intertwining divergences, convergences, dialogs, collectivities and diversities. This deliberative process presents various meanings involving discussion, and divergent, convergent and complementary positions, through dialog, commitment and negotiation. the deliberations in the collegiate of nursing, intertwining dialogs, collectivities and diversities, mold the complex relational fabrics.

  5. Moving knowledge about family violence into public health policy and practice: a mixed method study of a deliberative dialogue.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Kothari, Anita; Wathen, C Nadine

    2016-04-21

    There is a need to understand scientific evidence in light of the context within which it will be used. Deliberative dialogues are a promising strategy that can be used to meet this evidence interpretation challenge. We evaluated a deliberative dialogue held by a transnational violence prevention network. The deliberative dialogue included researchers and knowledge user partners of the Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network and was incorporated into a biennial full-team meeting. The dialogue included pre- and post-meeting activities, as well as deliberations embedded within the meeting agenda. The deliberations included a preparatory plenary session, small group sessions and a synthesizing plenary. The challenge addressed through the process was how to mobilize research to orient health and social service systems to prevent family violence and its consequences. The deliberations focused on the challenge, potential solutions for addressing it and implementation factors. Using a mixed-methods approach, data were collected via questionnaires, meeting minutes, dialogue documents and follow-up telephone interviews. Forty-four individuals (all known to each other and from diverse professional roles, settings and countries) participated in the deliberative dialogue. Ten of the 12 features of the deliberative dialogue were rated favourably by all respondents. The mean behavioural intention score was 5.7 on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree), suggesting that many participants intended to use what they learned in their future decision-making. Interviews provided further insight into what might be done to facilitate the use of research in the violence prevention arena. Findings suggest that participants will use dialogue learnings to influence practice and policy change. Deliberative dialogues may be a viable strategy for collaborative sensemaking of research related to family violence prevention, and other public health

  6. Controversies in Parotid Defect Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tamplen, Matthew; Knott, P Daniel; Fritz, Michael A; Seth, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the parotid defect is a complex topic that encompasses restoration of both facial form and function. The reconstructive surgeon must consider facial contour, avoidance of Frey syndrome, skin coverage, tumor surveillance, potential adjuvant therapy, and facial reanimation when addressing parotid defects. With each defect there are several options within the reconstructive ladder, creating controversies regarding optimal management. This article describes surgical approaches to reconstruction of parotid defects, highlighting areas of controversy.

  7. The Ethics of Doing Ethics.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-02-01

    Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher's integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our decisions as to which issues we label as "ethical" may have unintended and potentially harmful social consequences. It can be argued that ethicists have an obligation to make positive contributions to society, but the practical implications of such an obligation are not easily identified. This article provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in research into ethics and in the application of such research. It ends with a list of ten practical proposals for how these issues should be dealt with.

  8. [Medical ethics as professional ethics].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ivo

    2012-09-25

    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.

  9. Toward Relational Practices for Enabling Knowledge-to-Action in Health Systems: The Example of Deliberative Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, Katrina; Caxaj, Susana

    2017-02-06

    Despite widespread emphasis on evidence-informed decision making in health care, there remain persistent challenges in actualizing this ideal. An integrated strategy to knowledge translation can help bridge perspectives across sectors, communities, and organizations, and bridge the "knowledge-to-action" gap. One such strategy is a deliberative dialogue method. Deliberative dialogue has unique potential to mobilize partnered changes and improvements across health care, and we believe, is most salient when enacted relationally through practices of relational engagement and relational accountability. Drawing from our own scholarship, we reflect on how these practices can help establish both processes and outcomes that can affect meaningful change.

  10. Ethics in reproductive genetics.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J C; Evans, M I

    1992-12-01

    Ethics in reproductive genetics comprise descriptive ethics and normative ethics. Ethical problems before prenatal diagnosis involve genetic counseling and informed consent for the choice patients must make. Prenatal diagnosis using amniocentesis is controversial. An international survey of geneticists showed that 25% would do prenatal diagnosis for sex selection, and 17% would refer the couple elsewhere. Hungary (60%), India (37%), the US (34%), Canada (30%), Greece (29%), and Sweden (28%) would do prenatal diagnosis. The statistical incidence of positive findings after prenatal diagnosis does not exceed 4% of all cases when most couples choose abortion. Respect for parental choice and for nondirective counseling was supported in responses to 3 cases in the international survey that also had disclosure dilemmas included with abortion choices. 84% of respondents would be nondirective for XYY and 88% for XO. In India, Hungary, Turkey, and Norway, 46%, 40%, 40%, and 33%, respectively, would advise aborting an XO (Turner) fetus. A survey of 737 genetics and obstetricians and ethicists and clergy showed acceptability of abortion in singleton pregnancies and in twins associated strongly with the trimester of pregnancy, indication for selective termination, and fetal number. Prior group review of risks and benefits of experimental fetal therapy, case selection for experimental fetal therapy, the optimal informed-consent process for fetal therapy, twin pregnancies, refusal of proven fetal therapy, the lack of federal support for research in fetal diagnosis (preimplantation embryo diagnosis) and therapy, and sources of a moral obligation are also addressed. The Belmont Report on the ethics of biomedical research in the US proposed ethical principles to guide research with human subjects including the fetus: respect for parsons, beneficence, and justice.

  11. Views on the Efficacy and Ethics of Punishment: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    Punishment-based interventions are among the most controversial treatments in the applied behavior analysis literature. The controversy concerns both the efficacy and the ethics of punishment. Five hundred randomly selected members of the Association for Behavior Analysis were sent a survey concerning their views on the efficacy and ethics of…

  12. Ethics and the University. Professional Ethics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael

    This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics…

  13. Value Assessment Frameworks for HTA Agencies: The Organization of Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes.

    PubMed

    Baltussen, Rob; Paul Maria Jansen, Maarten; Bijlmakers, Leon; Grutters, Janneke; Kluytmans, Anouck; Reuzel, Rob P; Tummers, Marcia; der Wilt, Gert Jan van

    2017-02-01

    Priority setting in health care has been long recognized as an intrinsically complex and value-laden process. Yet, health technology assessment agencies (HTAs) presently employ value assessment frameworks that are ill fitted to capture the range and diversity of stakeholder values and thereby risk compromising the legitimacy of their recommendations. We propose "evidence-informed deliberative processes" as an alternative framework with the aim to enhance this legitimacy. This framework integrates two increasingly popular and complementary frameworks for priority setting: multicriteria decision analysis and accountability for reasonableness. Evidence-informed deliberative processes are, on one hand, based on early, continued stakeholder deliberation to learn about the importance of relevant social values. On the other hand, they are based on rational decision-making through evidence-informed evaluation of the identified values. The framework has important implications for how HTA agencies should ideally organize their processes. First, HTA agencies should take the responsibility of organizing stakeholder involvement. Second, agencies are advised to integrate their assessment and appraisal phases, allowing for the timely collection of evidence on values that are considered relevant. Third, HTA agencies should subject their decision-making criteria to public scrutiny. Fourth, agencies are advised to use a checklist of potentially relevant criteria and to provide argumentation for how each criterion affected the recommendation. Fifth, HTA agencies must publish their argumentation and install options for appeal. The framework should not be considered a blueprint for HTA agencies but rather an aspirational goal-agencies can take incremental steps toward achieving this goal.

  14. The participatory vulnerability scoping diagram - deliberative risk ranking for community water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, Peter D.; Yarnal, Brent; Coletti, Alex; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards and climate change present growing challenges to community water system (CWS) managers, who are increasingly turning to vulnerability assessments to identify, prioritize, and adapt to risks. Effectively assessing CWS vulnerability requires information and participation from various sources, one of which is stakeholders. In this article, we present a deliberative risk-ranking methodology, the participatory vulnerability scoping diagram (P-VSD), which allows rapid assessment and integration of multiple stakeholder perspectives of vulnerability. This technique is based on methods of deliberative risk evaluation and the vulnerability scoping diagram. The goal of the methodology is to engage CWS managers and stakeholders collectively to provide qualitative contextual risk rankings as a first step in a vulnerability assessment. We conduct an initial assessment using a case study of CWS in two U.S. counties, sites with broadly similar exposures but differences in population, land use, and other social sensitivity factors. Results demonstrate that CWS managers and stakeholders in the two case study communities all share the belief that their CWS are vulnerable to hazards but differ in how this vulnerability manifests itself in terms of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of the system.

  15. Deliberative tools for meeting the challenges of water planning in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Poh-Ling; Bowmer, Kathleen H.; Mackenzie, John

    2012-12-01

    SummaryAustralian governments have set an ambitious policy agenda for reform. By 2010, water plans were to have provided for the return of all overallocated or overused systems to environmentally sustainable levels of extraction, however, many communities do not yet have full confidence in water plans or their processes. In two national research projects we developed practical tools for transparent and engaging processes to build confidence in water planning. We observe that inherent politicised risks in water planning mean that current methods of public participation, such as information giving and allowing written submissions, are 'safer' and more easily managed. The next article in this special issue sets out the methodology including performance indicators for the tools that we used in the research. To demonstrate their role in building community confidence using best available science we trialled tools which included agent-based participatory modelling, deliberative multi-criteria evaluation, social impact assessment, and groundwater visualisation models. The suite of 'good-practice' tools, including Indigenous engagement, is fully described in the following articles of this special issue. Evaluations show deliberative processes have much to offer when applied to questions that have been developed collaboratively and formulated carefully to allow implementation of findings. Interactive tools and those which have high visual impact are consistently rated highly by all sectors of the community, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous, and also by water planners. These results have implications for water planning internationally especially where science is contested, social values are uncertain, and communities are diverse.

  16. Mapping the ethical landscape of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Philip; Gough, Clair

    2012-12-01

    This article describes a method of scoping for potential ethical contentions within a resource constrained research environment where actor participation and bottom-up analysis is precluded. Instead of reverting to a top-down analytical structure, a data-led process is devised. This imitates a bottom-up analytic structure in the absence of the direct participation of actors, culminating in the construction of a map of the ethical landscape; a high-resolution ethical matrix of coded interpretations of various actors' ethical framings of the technology. Despite its limitations, which are discussed, the map can subsequently support the identification of areas where ethical contentions may be raised. Here, the method is described with reference to the construction and analysis of a map of the ethical landscape of carbon capture and storage technology. Taken as a preliminary stage of a larger study, it can support the design and initiation of more sophisticated analyses which may integrate stronger bottom-up participation and facilitate a reflective, deliberative process amongst actors.

  17. [Can we accept medical progress without progress in ethics?].

    PubMed

    Benaroyo, Lazare

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid 20th century progress in biomedical science has been punctuated by the emergence of bioethics which has fashioned the moral framework of its application to both research and clinical practice. Can we, however, consider the advent of bioethics as a form of progress marking the advances made in biomedical science with an adequate ethical stamp? The argument put forward in this chapter is based on the observation that, far from being a mark of progess, the development of bioethics runs the risk of favouring, like modern science, a dissolution of the links that unite ethics and medicine, and so of depriving the latter of the humanist dimensions that underlie the responsibilities that fall to it. Faced with this possible pitfall, this contribution proposes to envisage as a figure of moral progress, consubstantial with the development of biomedical science, an ethical approach conceived as a means of social intervention which takes the first steps towards an ethics of responsibility integrating the bioethical perspective within a hermeneutic and deliberative approach. By the yardstick of a prudential approach, it would pay particular attention to the diverse sources of normativity in medical acts. It is suggested that this ethical approach is a source of progress insofar as it constitutes an indispensable attitude of watchfulness, which biomedical science can lean on as it advances, with a view to ensuring that the fundamental link uniting ethics and medicine is maintained.

  18. Giving Power Its Due: The Powerful Possibilities and the Problems of Power with Deliberative Democracy and English Language Learners. A Response to "Deliberative Democracy in English-Language Education: Cultural and Linguistic Inclusion in the School Community"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of deliberation with English Language Learners presents possibilities to both improve language learning, but also expand the potential for civics education for all students. In particular, this response examines the issue of power to extend Liggett's (2014) arguments for using deliberative democracy with English Language Learners and…

  19. Giving Power Its Due: The Powerful Possibilities and the Problems of Power with Deliberative Democracy and English Language Learners. A Response to "Deliberative Democracy in English-Language Education: Cultural and Linguistic Inclusion in the School Community"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of deliberation with English Language Learners presents possibilities to both improve language learning, but also expand the potential for civics education for all students. In particular, this response examines the issue of power to extend Liggett's (2014) arguments for using deliberative democracy with English Language Learners and…

  20. Impairments of spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing co-occur, yet dissociate, in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Robyn; Flynn, Michaela; Connaughton, Emily; Brüne, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Evidence of impairment in explicit mentalizing in people with schizophrenia has inspired interventions to improve awareness of others' mental states in these individuals. Less is known of implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia, with current findings mixed. We sought to resolve previous inconsistencies using Heider & Simmel's (H&S) classic animation to elicit spontaneous mentalizing and examined relations between spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing. Forty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 27 general-community controls completed two explicit theory-of-mind (TOM) tasks and then described the H&S animation (to elicit spontaneous social attributions about emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviours), before and after an instruction to think of the shapes as people. Accuracy of basic and social facts and frequencies of personification and different mental-state terms were recorded. Explicit TOM performance was impaired in patients. Patients also generated fewer social (but not basic) facts than controls to describe the H&S animation, and used less mental-state language, before, and even more so, after the 'people' instruction, despite that both groups had used more personification terms after the 'people' instruction. Measures of explicit and spontaneous mentalizing contributed independently to discriminating between groups. Patients respond less to the bottom-up signals of agency that ought normally to elicit spontaneous social attributions, even when cued to think of the stimuli as people, and the stimuli depict emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviour. That impairments of spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing dissociate in schizophrenia suggests that training deliberative mentalizing may not be enough; interventions to improve spontaneous mentalizing are also needed. Findings People with schizophrenia were less likely than controls to spontaneously attribute causal mental states when viewing dynamic signals of emotionally driven and

  1. Ethical aspects of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Bendelow, Gillian

    2010-11-01

    To review recent literature around the controversial diagnosis of personality disorder, and to assess the ethical aspects of its status as a medical disorder. The diagnostic currency of personality disorder as a psychiatric/medical disorder has a longstanding history of ethical and social challenges through critiques of the medicalization of deviance. More recently controversies by reflexive physicians around the inclusion of the category in the forthcoming revisions of International Classification of Diseases and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifications reflect the problems of value-laden criteria, with the diagnostic category being severely challenged from within psychiatry as well as from without. The clinical diagnostic criteria for extremely value-laden psychiatric conditions such as personality disorder need to be analyzed through the lens of values-based medicine, as well as through clinical evidence, as the propensity for political and sociolegal appropriation of the categories can render their clinical and diagnostic value meaningless.

  2. Deliberative Communication Goes to College: The "Deliberation Forum" Project as a Democratic Agent of Empowerment for Communication Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malka, Vered

    2016-01-01

    A new field of research has developed over the last few decades, called "Deliberative Communication". It focuses on the potential contribution of public deliberations to strengthening the foundations of democracy and the promotion of social-political goals and objectives. The current research focuses on a unique case study, the…

  3. Listening to Customers: How Deliberative Polling Helped Build 1,000 MW of New Renewable Energy Projects in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, R. L.; Guild, W.; Thomas, D. L.; Swezey, B. G.

    2003-06-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, eight Texas electric utilities polled their customers to determine what energy options they preferred to meet future electric requirements. The Deliberative Polls(TM) combined telephone surveys with town meetings where customers learned more about energy choices and discussed energy issues with each other and with panels of experts. After deliberating, they responded to the initial survey again, this time on the basis of their informed opinions. Customers changed their opinions substantially based on the information they gained during the town meetings. The results were unanticipated by either the utilities or their regulators--both entities changed their level of interest in and commitment to renewables and efficiency as a result of what they heard from customers. Subsequent to the Deliberative Polls, utilities and independent suppliers have made substantial investments in new renewable energy-based generation projects. And in 1999, the Texas Legislature included a renewable portfolio standard in the state's electricity restructuring law. All told, more than 1,000 MW of new renewables capacity has been developed in Texas since the deliberative polling events. The important contribution of the deliberative polls was to provide a measurement of what is important to those most affected by energy resource decisions--the public.

  4. Deliberative Communication Goes to College: The "Deliberation Forum" Project as a Democratic Agent of Empowerment for Communication Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malka, Vered

    2016-01-01

    A new field of research has developed over the last few decades, called "Deliberative Communication". It focuses on the potential contribution of public deliberations to strengthening the foundations of democracy and the promotion of social-political goals and objectives. The current research focuses on a unique case study, the…

  5. Affective and Deliberative Processes in Risky Choice: Age Differences in Risk Taking in the Columbia Card Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figner, Bernd; Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Wilkening, Friedrich; Weber, Elke U.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated risk taking and underlying information use in 13- to 16- and 17- to 19-year-old adolescents and in adults in 4 experiments, using a novel dynamic risk-taking task, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). The authors investigated risk taking under differential involvement of affective versus deliberative processes with 2 versions of…

  6. Dermal fillers: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dermal fillers have been used for decades in soft tissue augmentation. Currently, filler implementation is among the most common minimally invasive procedures for rejuvenation and body sculpturing. There is a broad variety of filler materials and products. Despite immense experience, a number of controversies in this topic exist. Some of these controversies are addressed in this review, for example, who should perform filler injections, the difference between permanent and nonpermanent fillers, the off-label use of liquid silicone, and the role of pain reduction. Implementation of guidelines and restriction of filler use by trained physicians can improve safety for patients. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical ethics and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, G B S

    2009-01-01

    Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.

  8. Surveying Students about Controversial Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Because of school districts' interest in best serving the health needs of students, many choose to administer surveys addressing controversial topics. Administering such surveys in a voluntary and anonymous manner may help reduce conflict. Methods: This is a review of 2 recent federal court of appeals decisions regarding surveying…

  9. Elementary 72 - The Great Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsop, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the controversy about the discovery of element 72, involving Urbain's isolation of celtium, Dauvillier's reexamination of celtium samples, and Coster and Hevesy's announcement of the existence of hafnium. Indicates that the Copenhagen workers are finally accredited for the element discovery in their x-ray spectral studies. (CC)

  10. Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A., Ed.; Taylor, Dalmas A., Ed.

    Dialogue and research on racism since the mid-1970s have yielded increased controversy over the theories, foundation, and continued existence of racism. The chapters presented in this book provide various divergent views of what constitutes racism and frameworks for reducing it. The following chapters (and their authors) are included: (1)…

  11. Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A., Ed.; Taylor, Dalmas A., Ed.

    Dialogue and research on racism since the mid-1970s have yielded increased controversy over the theories, foundation, and continued existence of racism. The chapters presented in this book provide various divergent views of what constitutes racism and frameworks for reducing it. The following chapters (and their authors) are included: (1)…

  12. Teaching Controversial Issues of Bioethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    Many teachers avoid controversial topics because they do not want to upset students or parents, do not know appropriate instructional strategies, and fail to recognize the importance of motivating students through placing science in its relevant context. An example is provided for use in a methods course for helping future high school teachers to…

  13. Teacher Quality, Controversy, and NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter-Magee, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB)--the sweeping federal law that requires all schools that receive federal Title I dollars to be held strictly accountable for student outcomes--is the most discussed education reform effort in the past half century. One of the many controversial and vexing elements of the law, especially among teachers, teacher unions,…

  14. Embracing Controversy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannard, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Discussing controversial topics such as stem cell research is a great way for students to build scientific understanding, enhance communication skills, and develop an appreciation for civic decision making. Tackling a topic such as stem cells at the middle level, however, can be a challenge because most young adolescents see the world in black and…

  15. Embracing Controversy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannard, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Discussing controversial topics such as stem cell research is a great way for students to build scientific understanding, enhance communication skills, and develop an appreciation for civic decision making. Tackling a topic such as stem cells at the middle level, however, can be a challenge because most young adolescents see the world in black and…

  16. Controversial Curriculum? Ask the Community!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Involving communities in the process of curriculum development may not be novel, but it seems lacking with regard to controversial issues such as lessons on diverse family structures, homosexuality, and other special situations. Disparity in values and convictions can lead one person to support a decision, while another person might hold an…

  17. Drug Testing: A National Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Karen; Thompson, Judith R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses some of the controversies and illustrates the historical background of drug testing and what the different drug tests are. Also outlines some national statistics and opinions on drug testing and the results of a survey taken of a Louisiana population dealing with this issue. (NB)

  18. Surveying Students about Controversial Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Because of school districts' interest in best serving the health needs of students, many choose to administer surveys addressing controversial topics. Administering such surveys in a voluntary and anonymous manner may help reduce conflict. Methods: This is a review of 2 recent federal court of appeals decisions regarding surveying…

  19. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depew, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race,…

  20. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  1. Controversial Curriculum? Ask the Community!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Involving communities in the process of curriculum development may not be novel, but it seems lacking with regard to controversial issues such as lessons on diverse family structures, homosexuality, and other special situations. Disparity in values and convictions can lead one person to support a decision, while another person might hold an…

  2. The Controversy around Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Abul; Ray, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century. Proponents of black history believe it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue it is dishonest, divisive, and lacks academic credibility and rigor.…

  3. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTON, THOMAS B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES WITH REGARD TO SELECTED CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY THE FOCUS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERN AND ACTION. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE AND PURPOSES OF THE POLICIES, THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUES ON…

  4. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depew, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race,…

  5. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  6. Academic Controversy: A Cooperative Way to Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and explain a cooperative learning technique, Academic Controversy (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1996), also known as Cooperative Controversy, Structured Controversy and Structured Academic Controversy, that has potential for use in intercultural education and has support in both research and theory.…

  7. The Academic Controversy Technique: Towards Cooperative Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explain a cooperative learning technique, Academic Controversy (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1996), also known as Cooperative Controversy, Structured Controversy and Structured Academic Controversy, that has potential for use in education and other areas, and has support in both research and theory.…

  8. Using Audience Response Systems to Encourage Student Engagement and Reflection on Ethical Orientation and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheletto, Melinda J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an audience response system (ARS) to engage students in classroom discussions concerning sensitive and controversial topics (e.g., business ethics), assess student's ethical orientation and conduct in unethical behaviors, and encourage reflection on their personal level of ethicality. Students used ARS devices…

  9. Protecting Persons in Family Therapy Research: An Overview of Ethical and Regulatory Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Harry I.; Harkness, Jennifer L.; Smith, Angela L.; Markowski, Edward Mel

    2003-01-01

    Family therapists are expected to engage in ethical and responsible research, while maintaining rigorous ethical standards and adhering to federal regulations that require protection for research participants. We present a short historical overview of the significant events and ethical controversies leading to the formulation of current…

  10. Medical ethics in the media.

    PubMed

    Raman, Usha

    2009-01-01

    The mass media function both as reflector and a shaper of a society's attitudes and values and as such represent a forum within which one may understand and influence public opinion. While questions of medical ethics may be largely confined to academic and scientific spaces, their importance to society at large cannot be denied, and how issues of medical ethics play out--if at all--in the media could tell us how society understands and processes these questions. This paper uses the techniques of framing analysis and textual analysis to examine how the print media, represented by two major Indian newspapers, cover medical ethics. The study looked at all articles related to medical research over a three-month period (January-March 2007) and considered how the story was framed, what were the key threads followed, and the dominant themes focused on. The ethical frame is notable by its absence, even in articles related to controversial themes such as drug research and genetics. Discussion of ethics appears to be problematic given the adherence to traditional "news values" when covering science and medicine. The research community and the media need to pay more attention to explicitly focusing on ethics in their interactions.

  11. The Ethics of Sports Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert J; Reider, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the background and foundations of ethics in research. Some important documents and codes are mentioned, such as The Belmont Report and the International Conference of Harmonisation. Some influential historical events involving research ethics are recounted. The article provides a detailed discussion of the Declaration of Helsinki, which is considered the international standard for guidelines in medical research ethics. The most salient features of the Declaration are described and related to orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. Some of the most controversial aspects of the Declaration are discussed, which helps examine contentious areas of research in sports medicine.

  12. The healing philosopher: John Locke's medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Short, Bradford William

    2004-01-01

    This article examines a heretofore unexplored facet of John Locke's philosophy. Locke was a medical doctor and he also wrote about medical issues that are controversial today. Despite this, Locke's medical ethics has yet to be studied. An analysis of Locke's education and his teachers and colleagues in the medical profession, of the 17th century Hippocratic Oath, and of the reaction to the last recorded outbreak of the bubonic plague in London, shines some light on the subject of Locke's medical ethics. The study of Locke's medical ethics confirms that he was a deontologist who opposed all suicide and abortion through much of pregnancy.

  13. "Ethics Shock."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knefelkamp, L. Lee

    1990-01-01

    Four books focusing on ethical issues in collegiate sports are reviewed: "Paterno by the Book,""Personal Fouls,""Never Too Young to Die: The Death of Len Bias," and "Rules of the Game: Ethics in College Sport." The themes of academic standards, student responsibility, the coach's role and responsibilities,…

  14. Research Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  15. Internet Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmans, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the issue of ethical use of the Internet in schools, and suggests that by devising and implementing acceptable use policies, and providing students with a set of ethical guidelines, schools and libraries can deal with the situation before it becomes a problem. Discusses and the need for parents to be included in policy formation and to…

  16. Iconoclastic ethics.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1984-12-01

    Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life.

  17. Formal Consistency Verification of Deliberative Agents with Respect to Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Jaime; deAntonio, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show a method that is able to detect inconsistencies in the reasoning carried out by a deliberative agent. The agent is supposed to be provided with a hybrid Knowledge Base expressed in a language called CCR-2, based on production rules and hierarchies of frames, which permits the representation of non-monotonic reasoning, uncertain reasoning and arithmetic constraints in the rules. The method can give a specification of the scenarios in which the agent would deduce an inconsistency. We define a scenario to be a description of the initial agent s state (in the agent life cycle), a deductive tree of rule firings, and a partially ordered set of messages and/or stimuli that the agent must receive from other agents and/or the environment. Moreover, the method will make sure that the scenarios will be valid w.r.t. the communication protocols in which the agent is involved.

  18. Analyzing Data Generated Through Deliberative Dialogue: Bringing Knowledge Translation Into Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, Katrina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Cole, Donald C

    2015-11-01

    Deliberative dialogue (DD) is a knowledge translation strategy that can serve to generate rich data and bridge health research with action. An intriguing alternative to other modes of generating data, the purposeful and evidence-informed conversations characteristic of DD generate data inclusive of collective interpretations. These data are thus dialogic, presenting complex challenges for qualitative analysis. In this article, we discuss the nature of data generated through DD, orienting ourselves toward a theoretically grounded approach to analysis. We offer an integrated framework for analysis, balancing analytical strategies of categorizing and connecting with the use of empathetic and suspicious interpretive lenses. In this framework, data generation and analysis occur in concert, alongside engaging participants and synthesizing evidence. An example of application is provided, demonstrating nuances of the framework. We conclude with reflections on the strengths and limitations of the framework, suggesting how it may be relevant in other qualitative health approaches. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Weaving meanings from the deliberative process of collegiate management in nursing1

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2014-01-01

    Objective to understand the meanings of the collegiate deliberations attributed by its members on an undergraduate nursing course. Method Grounded Theory, interviews being held with 30 participants, making up 4 sample groups, between January and June 2012, in a public higher education institution. Result 5 categories emerged, indicating the phenomenon and weaving the paradigmatic model: Understanding the experience of the complex relationships and interactions in the deliberations of collegiate management in nursing: intertwining divergences, convergences, dialogs, collectivities and diversities. This deliberative process presents various meanings involving discussion, and divergent, convergent and complementary positions, through dialog, commitment and negotiation. Conclusion the deliberations in the collegiate of nursing, intertwining dialogs, collectivities and diversities, mold the complex relational fabrics. PMID:26107835

  20. [Deliberative participation of citizens in the prioritisation debate: what is their contribution?].

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Sabine; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    The German debate on prioritisation in medicine is getting well under way. This development has raised the question of which substantial and procedural criteria should be used to guide fair and legitimate prioritisation. It seems to be obvious that in a pluralist, democratic society citizens should be involved in such a discussion. But which is the adequate method, and what is the potential of citizen participation? In this paper we compare the results of a regional citizens' conference on prioritisation in medicine with various European reports on principles and criteria for prioritisation, and thereby aim to identify the conference members'contributions to the German debate on prioritisation criteria. The results of this exemplary deliberative event can provide hints towards the general potential of discursive participation. (As supplied by publisher).

  1. Public perceptions of pandemic influenza resource allocation: a deliberative forum using Grid/Group analysis.

    PubMed

    Docter, Stynke P; Street, Jackie; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; van der Wilt, Gert-Jan

    2011-08-01

    The emergence of virulent avian influenza A subtypes with potential to evolve into novel human subtypes prompted directives from the World Health Organisation recommending that countries prepare for a pandemic. In response the Australian government developed the Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza (AHMPPI), which includes strategies to contain and/or manage a pandemic. To implement these strategies successfully, community compliance is necessary. Our qualitative study investigated, through a deliberative forum, the extent to which the antiviral drug and vaccine allocation of the AHMPPI corresponds with community views about the priority groups. We used Mary Douglas' Grid/Group analysis to analyse the results, which suggested that the AHMPPI's allocation strategy corresponds well with community views with both based on a hierarchical structure. There are some differences concerning community involvement in the decision process and information provision to the public, for which our study provides recommendations.

  2. Integrating Research and Practice: Distractions, Controversies, and Options for Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Integrating practice and research is vital in all helping professions in order to offer the most ethical, evidence-informed interventions to clients. This article describes some avoidable distractions that hinder integration, discusses controversies related to integration, and describes options for moving forward, including making wasted resources…

  3. Integrating Research and Practice: Distractions, Controversies, and Options for Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Integrating practice and research is vital in all helping professions in order to offer the most ethical, evidence-informed interventions to clients. This article describes some avoidable distractions that hinder integration, discusses controversies related to integration, and describes options for moving forward, including making wasted resources…

  4. Palliative sedation: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Miccinesi, Guido; Caraceni, Augusto; Maltoni, Marco

    2017-07-12

    Palliative sedation (PS), the medical act of decreasing a patient's awareness to relieve otherwise intractable suffering, is considered by some commentators to be controversial because of its consequences on residual survival and/or quality of life, and to be inappropriate for treating pure existential suffering. We will argue that PS must be always proportional, i.e. controlling refractory symptoms while keeping the loss of personal values (communication, affective relationships, care relationship) as low as possible, and that imminence of death is necessary too, from an ethical point of view, if a deep and continuous sedation (DCS) is proposed. Moreover, in case of pure existential suffering DCS should only be considered after repeated trials of respite sedation. The use of progressive consent and advance care planning to share the decision with the patient and to involve the family in the decision process as much as the patient desires is another ethical aspect to be pursued. Producing, implementing and sustaining guidelines at the higher scientific and professional level promise to help in improving both clinical and ethical aspects of the practice of PS.

  5. Data science ethics in government.

    PubMed

    Drew, Cat

    2016-12-28

    Data science can offer huge opportunities for government. With the ability to process larger and more complex datasets than ever before, it can provide better insights for policymakers and make services more tailored and efficient. As with all new technologies, there is a risk that we do not take up its opportunities and miss out on its enormous potential. We want people to feel confident to innovate with data. So, over the past 18 months, the Government Data Science Partnership has taken an open, evidence-based and user-centred approach to creating an ethical framework. It is a practical document that brings all the legal guidance together in one place, and is written in the context of new data science capabilities. As part of its development, we ran a public dialogue on data science ethics, including deliberative workshops, an experimental conjoint survey and an online engagement tool. The research supported the principles set out in the framework as well as provided useful insight into how we need to communicate about data science. It found that people had a low awareness of the term 'data science', but that showing data science examples can increase broad support for government exploring innovative uses of data. But people's support is highly context driven. People consider acceptability on a case-by-case basis, first thinking about the overall policy goals and likely intended outcome, and then weighing up privacy and unintended consequences. The ethical framework is a crucial start, but it does not solve all the challenges it highlights, particularly as technology is creating new challenges and opportunities every day. Continued research is needed into data minimization and anonymization, robust data models, algorithmic accountability, and transparency and data security. It also has revealed the need to set out a renewed deal between the citizen and state on data, to maintain and solidify trust in how we use people's data for social good.This article is part

  6. The controversial world of sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Dang, Weiwei

    2014-06-01

    The controversy around sirtuins and their functions in aging has drawn in the past few years as much attention, if not more, from the scientific community and the public as they did when first proposed as the key conserved aging regulators in eukaryotes. With some of the basic observations on sirtuin longevity promoting functions being questioned in popular model systems, researchers are wondering if this family of conserved enzymes still holds strong potential as therapeutic targets. This review examines the several controversial issues around sirtuins and their functions in aging, calorie restriction, as well as age-related diseases in light of recent studies in mammalian systems and discusses whether modulators of sirtuins still hold the secret of life.:

  7. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways.

    PubMed

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient.

  8. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  9. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-03-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  10. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-02-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  11. Controversies in neurosciences critical care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tiffany R; Naval, Neeraj S; Carhuapoma, J Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Neurocritical care is an evolving subspecialty with many controversial topics. The focus of this review is (1) transfusion thresholds in patients with acute intracranial bleeding, including packed red blood cell transfusion, platelet transfusion, and reversal of coagulopathy; (2) indications for seizure prophylaxis and choice of antiepileptic agent; and (3) the role of specialized neurocritical care units and specialists in the care of critically ill neurology and neurosurgery patients.

  12. Personal Ethics versus Professional Ethics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Colorado Springs, Colo.: Navpress, 1978). 2. Quoted in Andrew Stark, “What’s the Matter with Business Ethics?” Harvard Business Review , May–June 1993...39. 3. Ibid., 40. 4. Kenneth R. Andrews, “Ethics in Practice,” Harvard Business Review , September–October 1989, 99. 5. Quoted in Perspective: A

  13. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  14. Invisible Theatre, Ethics, and the Adult Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstow, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    This article probes the ethics of one of the more controversial as well as exciting forms of adult education--the mode of theatre of the oppressed called "invisible theatre". Looking at claims made by practitioners--Augusto Boal's especially--and drawing on concrete theatre pieces, the author asks: What are invisible theatre's claims to…

  15. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  16. The Ethics of Prayer in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weld, Chet; Eriksen, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Spirituality has become increasingly important in counseling, with prayer being the spiritual intervention of choice for Christian counselors. The controversial nature of including prayer in counseling requires careful consideration of ethical issues. This article addresses the intersection of spiritual interventions, particularly prayer, with…

  17. The reason for having a code of pharmaceutical ethics: Spanish Pharmacists Code of Ethics.

    PubMed

    Barreda Hernández, Dolores; Mulet Alberola, Ana; González Bermejo, Diana; Soler Company, Enrique

    2017-05-01

    The pharmacist profession needs its own code of conduct set out in writing to serve as a stimulus to pharmacists in their day-to-day work in the different areas of pharmacy, in conjunction always with each individual pharmacist´s personal commitment to their patients, to other healthcare professionals and to society. An overview is provided of the different codes of ethics for pharmacists on the national and international scale, the most up-to-date code for 2015 being presented as a set of principles which must guide a pharmacutical conduct from the standpoint of deliberative judgment. The difference between codes of ethics and codes of practice is discussed. In the era of massive-scale collaboration, this code is a project holding bright prospects for the future. Each individual pharmacutical attitude in practicing their profession must be identified with the pursuit of excellence in their own personal practice for the purpose of achieving the ethical and professional values above and beyond complying with regulations and code of practice. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2017. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethics and mental illness research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  19. Deliberative Rhetoric and Forensic Stasis: Reconsidering the Scope and Function of an Ancient Rhetorical Heuristic in the Aftermath of the Thomas/Hill Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullman, George L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the second confirmation hearing of Judge Clarence Thomas as it concerned the reception of Professor Anita Hill's comments. Argues that the application of forensic stasis in a situation where the evidence could not fit the forensic pattern virtually guaranteed the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas. Suggests that forensic stasis is not…

  20. Transplant Ethics.

    PubMed

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.

  1. Ethics fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  2. [Ethical aspects of uterus transplantation].

    PubMed

    Chmel, Roman; Nováčková, Marta; Pastor, Zlatko; Matěcha, Jan; Čekal, Miloš; Froněk, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Uterus transplantation is an experimental treatment method with an ambition to become accepted treatment modality for women with absolute uterine factor infertility. The only legal alternative for these women to get parenthood is adoption which is accepted by most world societies and countries. Surrogate pregnancy is connected with many medical, ethical, legal, religious and social controversies in the great part of the world.Donors (in living donation), recipients, partners and also unborn children must be incorporated into the analysis of ethical risks and benefits of uterus transplantation. The main ethical risks for the recipient are surgery, immunosuppression, pregnancy and delivery. All the potential recipients have to be advised about further ethical issues like organ rejection, infection, side effects of the drugs, unsatisfactory fertilization and different complications during pregnancy.Uterus procurement in donor takes longer time than in standard hysterectomy due to preparation of uterine arteries and veins. Vessels with 2 mm diameter and their anatomical collision with ureter are connected with higher peroperative risk of uneventful surgical complications. Ethical issues might be connected with the uterus procurement in dead brain donors identically.The deliveries after uterus transplantation are fruitful but the risk of preterm delivery and immaturity of the newborns cannot be underestimated as well.

  3. Structured Controversy: A Case Study Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Introduces a dynamic form of the case instruction method that involves debate and compromise. Discusses two versions of structured controversy and presents an example of structured controversy that involves the use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. (JRH)

  4. Structured Controversy: A Case Study Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Introduces a dynamic form of the case instruction method that involves debate and compromise. Discusses two versions of structured controversy and presents an example of structured controversy that involves the use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. (JRH)

  5. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, it’s integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities

  6. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed.

  7. Ethical Orientations for Understanding Business Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III

    1990-01-01

    Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)

  8. Reflection as a Deliberative and Distributed Practice: Assessing Neuro-Enhancement Technologies via Mutual Learning Exercises (MLEs).

    PubMed

    Zwart, Hub; Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Eduard, Peter; Krabbenborg, Lotte; Laursen, Sheena; Revuelta, Gema; Toonders, Winnie

    2017-01-01

    In 1968, Jürgen Habermas claimed that, in an advanced technological society, the emancipatory force of knowledge can only be regained by actively recovering the 'forgotten experience of reflection'. In this article, we argue that, in the contemporary situation, critical reflection requires a deliberative ambiance, a process of mutual learning, a consciously organised process of deliberative and distributed reflection. And this especially applies, we argue, to critical reflection concerning a specific subset of technologies which are actually oriented towards optimising human cognition (neuro-enhancement). In order to create a deliberative ambiance, fostering critical upstream reflection on emerging technologies, we developed (in the context of a European 7(th) Framework Programme project on neuro-enhancement and responsible research and innovation, called NERRI) the concept of a mutual learning exercise (MLE). Building on a number of case studies, we analyse what an MLE involves, both practically and conceptually, focussing on key aspects such as ambiance and expertise, the role of 'genres of the imagination' and the profiles of various 'subcultures of debate'. Ideally, an MLE becomes a contemporary version of the Socratic agora, providing a stage where multiple and sometimes unexpected voices and perspectives mutually challenge each other, in order to strength-en the societal robustness and responsiveness of emerg-ing technologies.

  9. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists ‘open up’ appraisal of geoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth’s climate system, known collectively as ‘geoengineering’, have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely ‘close down’ upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first ‘upstream’ appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately ‘open up’ to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic–deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens’ and the specialists’ deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  10. The evolution of controversial issues.

    PubMed

    King, P

    1994-04-01

    The controversial issues concerning the differences of opinion about the validity of Melanie Klein's theory and technique did not arise suddenly when members of the Viennese Society joined the British Psycho-Analytical Society, before the outbreak of the Second World War. In this paper, I describe briefly the socio-historical, administrative and institutional background out of which these scientific divergences evolved alongside other issues concerned with how long members should hold office in the British Psycho-Analytical Society and therefore be in a position to influence the scientific disagreements and training policy in the Society. These causes for concern among members, which were discussed at five business meetings, are then summarised: they relate to differences of opinion with regard to Melanie Klein's contributions to psychoanalysis, the need for revision of the rules of the Society and the type of training in psychoanalysis that should be offered to candidates. Finally, proposals for different ways of exploring and perhaps dealing with these issues are discussed, including the decision to hold formal scientific discussions of Klein's point of view, once a month. These meetings are now referred to as the 'Controversial Discussions'.

  11. Ethics in Distance Education: Developing Ethical Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Deb

    2001-01-01

    Examines the changing world of education through distance education and discusses the need for ethics in distance education. Explains how to ethically develop policy for distance education, including Internet ethics, good practices guidelines, and involving faculty. (LRW)

  12. How to depolarise the ethical debate over human embryonic stem cell research (and other ethical debates too!).

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Nicolas; Peterson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The contention of this paper is that the current ethical debate over embryonic stem cell research is polarised to an extent that is not warranted by the underlying ethical conflict. It is argued that the ethical debate can be rendered more nuanced, and less polarised, by introducing non-binary notions of moral rightness and wrongness. According to the view proposed, embryonic stem cell research--and possibly other controversial activities too--can be considered 'a little bit right and a little bit wrong'. If this idea were to become widely accepted, the ethical debate would, for conceptual reasons, become less polarised.

  13. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  14. The Controversy over Controversies: A Plea for Flexibility and for "Soft-Directive" Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Spencer Smith, D.

    2014-01-01

    A controversy rages over the question of how should controversial topics be taught. Recent work has advanced the "epistemic criterion" as the resolution to this controversy. According to the epistemic criterion, a matter should be taught as controversial when contrary views can be entertained on the matter without the views being…

  15. Evaluation of two methods of deliberative participation of older people in food-policy development.

    PubMed

    Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique Maria

    2007-08-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation study of two deliberative methods of public participation of the "hard-to-reach" in food-policy development--the citizens' workshop and the citizens' jury. The participation was conducted on a live food-policy topic (food retailing) and the specific hard-to-reach group of older people was recruited. The evaluation of the two methods was based on an assessment of the participants' and observers' perceptions of the processes and outcomes of the methods, against a set of evaluation criteria, spanning both the individual and group level of analysis. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental, between groups, pre- and post-participation design. The study showed that the properties of the methods alone, such as availability of extra information, had little impact on both satisfaction with the process and the actual task outcomes. It further emphasised the importance of group debate for the perceived satisfaction with the process and the subjective outcomes of the event. The study illustrated that the high level of process satisfaction was not contemporaneous with the perceived impact of participation, such as its perceived influence of policy decision-making, suggesting that the relationship between participation outcomes (i.e. impact of participation) and processes was a complex one. It is argued here that this relationship should be considered in the light of identity processes and the context of public participation.

  16. Complexity and conundrums. Citizens' evaluations of potentially contentious novel food technologies using a deliberative discourse approach.

    PubMed

    Greehy, Gráinne M; McCarthy, Mary B; Henchion, Maeve M; Dillon, Emma J; McCarthy, Sinéad N

    2013-11-01

    This research considers the processes involved in the formation of attitudes by citizens on potentially contentious novel food technologies (NFTs). Observations of one-to-one deliberative discourses between food scientists and citizens, during which they discussed these technologies, form the basis of this enquiry. This approach enables an exploration of how individuals construct meaning around as well as interpret information about the technologies. Thematic analysis identifies key features that provide the frameworks for citizens' evaluations. How individuals make sense of these technologies is shaped by their beliefs, values and personal characteristics; their perceptions of power and control over the development and sale of NFT related products; and, the extent to which these products are relevant to their personal lives. Internal negotiations between these influences are evident, and evaluations are based on the relative importance of each influence to the individual. Internal conflicts and tensions are associated with citizens' evolving evaluative processes, which may in turn present as attitude ambivalence and instability. Many challenges are linked with engaging with the general public about these technologies, as levels of knowledge, understanding and interest vary.

  17. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy.

    PubMed

    DuBroff, Robert; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-07-26

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) and the true effect of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular, whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently, the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes, cancer, and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary, we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD.

  18. Acute Kidney Injury: Controversies Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kenneth; Dogra, Gursharan; Boudville, Neil; Pinder, Mary; Lim, Wai

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the epidemiology of AKI specifically in relation to recent changes in AKI classification and revisits the controversies regarding the timing of initiation of dialysis and the use of peritoneal dialysis as a renal replacement therapy for AKI. In summary, the new RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI have facilitated more uniform diagnosis of AKI and clinically significant risk stratification. Regardless, the issue of timing of dialysis initiation still remains unanswered and warrants further examination. Furthermore, peritoneal dialysis as a treatment modality for AKI remains underutilised in spite of potential beneficial effects. Future research should be directed at identifying early reliable biomarkers of AKI, which in conjunction with RIFLE/AKIN classifications of AKI could facilitate well-designed large randomised controlled trials of early versus late initiation of dialysis in AKI. In addition, further studies of peritoneal dialysis in AKI addressing dialysis dose and associated complications are required for this therapy to be accepted more widely by clinicians. PMID:21660314

  19. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  20. Engineering ethics beyond engineers' ethics.

    PubMed

    Basart, Josep M; Serra, Montse

    2013-03-01

    Engineering ethics is usually focused on engineers' ethics, engineers acting as individuals. Certainly, these professionals play a central role in the matter, but engineers are not a singularity inside engineering; they exist and operate as a part of a complex network of mutual relationships between many other people, organizations and groups. When engineering ethics and engineers' ethics are taken as one and the same thing the paradigm of the ethical engineer which prevails is that of the heroic engineer, a certain model of the ideal engineer: someone both quite individualistic and strong enough to deal with all the moral challenges that could arise. We argue that this is not the best approach, at least today in our interrelated world. We have achieved a high degree of independence from nature by means of technology. In exchange for this autonomy we have become increasingly tied up with very complex systems to which we constantly delegate new tasks and powers. Concerns about safety keep growing everywhere due to the fact that now we have a sensitive awareness of the huge amount of power we are both consuming and deploying, thus, new forms of dialogue and consensus have to be incorporated at different levels, in different forums and at different times. Within these democratic channels of participation not just the needs and interests, but also the responsibilities and mutual commitments of all parties should be taken into account.

  1. Ethical issues in pandemic planning.

    PubMed

    Torda, Adrienne

    2006-11-20

    In the event of an influenza pandemic, many ethical issues will arise in terms of health risks, resource allocation, and management decisions. Planning decisions may be controversial, such as rationing of antivirals, resource allocation (including hospital beds and vaccinations), occupational risk, rostering of staff, responsibilities of health care workers, quarantine measures, and governance issues. A clear ethical framework is needed to enable understanding of the decision-making process and optimise acceptance of decisions by health care workers and other members of an affected community. Planning decisions need to start being examined now, and will require input from a broad group of experts: health care providers, infrastructure managers, lawyers, ethicists, public health physicians, and community members. The process will need to be open, honest and dynamic.

  2. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePlus

    ... donate an organ to a sick relative? Your personal health information: who has access to your records? Patient rights: Do you have the right to refuse treatment? When you talk with your doctor, is it ethical for her to withhold information from you or your family?

  3. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  4. Ethical Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, John M.

    1970-01-01

    Eight key areas suggested for discussion by the APA and APGA as bases for formulation of ethical standards are: (1) leader qualifications; (2) limits on procedure; (3) confidentiality of group participants; (4) participant selection; (5) informed consent of participants; (6) freedom of client to withdraw; (7) safeguards for participants against…

  5. Ethical Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael; Posavac, Emil; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    1999-01-01

    The article and commentary in this special section consider the ethical implications of a remark by an employee in a business being evaluated that employees have been advised to make the program look good. Explores the implications for the evaluation and its usefulness. (SLD)

  6. The Parkfield Stress Drop Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, R. E.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Nadeau et al. (1995) found that the seismicity on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield is highly clustered. Individual clusters consist of a sequence of near periodically repeating small earthquakes of similar seismic moment. Nadeau and Johnston (1998) compared the moments and timing of these repeating earthquakes (Mw < 2), and some larger events, with the surface creep rate on the fault to estimate the slip and stress drop (Δ σ ). They obtained conventional values (0.1 to 10 MPa) for the larger earthquakes, but Δ σ increased with decreasing Mw to extremely high values (> 1000 MPa) for the small earthquakes (Mw < 2). Such values are just about physically possible, but they are much higher than those estimated by seismic methods for small earthquakes elsewhere (e. g. Abercrombie 1995). These controversial high Δ σ estimates have sparked a number of theoretical and laboratory studies (e. g. Sammis & Rice 2000, Anooshepoor & Brune 2001, Beeler 2001) aimed at investigating whether the observations could result from earthquakes with more normal Δ σ occurring within the unusual tectonic setting at Parkfield. Lane & Nadeau (2000, 2002) considered whether localized patches of high Δ σ would be resolvable by standard seismic methods. However, to date nobody has used seismic methods to determine source parameters for these controversial small earthquakes at Parkfield. We use closely located earthquakes of different sizes (for example, the sub-clusters of cluster CL14, Nadeau et al., 1995, Mw-0.2 to 1), recorded on the HRSN borehole network to analyse the source parameters. The smaller earthquakes are used as empirical Green's functions to resolve source processes of the larger events. Preliminary results from the earthquakes in cluster CL14 result in a source dimension of about 25 m and Δ σ of about 1 MPa for the Mw1 earthquakes, assuming that rupture velocity is the same as that for large earthquakes. We also resolve source-time functions for these earthquakes at

  7. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  8. [Amalgam allergy and amalgam controversy].

    PubMed

    Lübbe, J; Wüthrich, B

    1996-04-20

    Safety concerns regarding dental amalgam have been voiced ever since its introduction 150 years ago. As most people have amalgam fillings, the issue has received extensive coverage in the lay as well as the medical medical media. This has led to confusion about the terms amalgam allergy, mercury burden and intoxication, and amalgam disease, an understanding of which is crucial in consideration of this controversy. Allergy to amalgam is rare and should be investigated by a specialist, as diagnosis may result in a decision to remove dental amalgam. Dental amalgam is the most important source of mercury burden in the general population. Occupational exposure to mercury within established exposure limits reaches levels much higher without evidence of intoxication. However, mercury released from dental amalgam induces measurable organ effects. Amalgam disease has been introduced as a term to identify patients who typically ascribe a variety of symptoms to their amalgam fillings. Current literature lacks sound evidence of a role for amalgam in human disease other than allergy.

  9. [Controversy on treatments for gliomas].

    PubMed

    Nomura, K

    1998-09-01

    Gliomas are representative primary malignant brain tumors, and with such tumors it is difficult to define the advanced stage. If the advanced stage indicates no curability by surgery alone, most gliomas would belong to this criterion because of their poor prognosis without any completely effective treatment. In this sense, no one could show a standard therapy to treat these unfortunate patients, for example, patients with glioblastoma, they could permit only 1 year survived even they had any applicable treatments to the lesions, these days. Treatment for low-grade gliomas has been most controversial for a long time, and no standard treatments have been determined so far. In this paper, as the treatment of low-grade gliomas it was intended to report what must be done for this patient and the present results of opinion survey for the treatment of gliomas which was done to professors of 80 institutes, from schools of medicine at all universities and medical colleges in Japan. For high-grade gliomas, some effectiveness of radiation therapy was disclosed as well as chemotherapy from recent papers. Gene therapy was also discussed briefly, its present status and future.

  10. [Sex "addiction": compulsion and controversy].

    PubMed

    Souza y Machorro, Mario

    2002-10-01

    Modern occidental society often distorts and, in some cases, ignores healthy concepts regarding sexuality. Besides, It not always considers this, to be mental health or to represent an expression of whole health. Such ambivalence towards sex and the sexual is located between the limits of the sacred and erotic, both associated to taboos and their transgression. Since the last century, the current "neosexual" revolution intents to dismantle old patterns in favor of the dissociation of human sexual sphere, the dispersion of sexual fragments towards individualism and intimate relationships diversification. Within such context, "addiction" to sex and the sexual, as a compulsive conduct, represents on one side a clinical reality each time better observed and diagnosed, where the importance of family history is recognized, as well as individual psychopathology, and marital life, in its etiology and also for its treatment and prevention. On the other hand, it has not been classified in the mental health catalogues as it is not considered, meanwhile, as the problem is been maintained, the co-morbidity and its consequences multiply, and the controversy continues.

  11. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  12. The HPV vaccine mandate controversy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Gillian; Malow, Robert M; Zimet, Gregory D

    2007-12-01

    In this editorial we address the controversies surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry mandate legislation, but differentiate between the mandate debate and issues specific to the vaccine itself. Our goal is not to take a stand in favor of or opposed to mandates, but rather to critically examine the issues. We discuss the following arguments against HPV vaccine school-entry requirements: 1. The public health benefit of mandated HPV vaccination is not sufficient to warrant the intrusion on parental autonomy; 2. A vaccine that prevents a non-casually transmitted infection should not be mandated; 3. Opt-out provisions are inherently unfair to parents who oppose HPV vaccination; 4. Limited health care dollars should not be directed toward cervical cancer prevention; and 5. The vaccine is expensive and potential problems with supply suggest that mandates should not be implemented until insurance coverage and supply issues are resolved. Next, we critically evaluate the following critiques of HPV vaccination itself: 1. Giving girls HPV vaccine implies tacit consent to engage in sexual activity; 2. Giving girls this vaccine will confer a false sense of protection from sexually transmitted infections and will lead to sexual disinhibition; 3. Children already have too many vaccinations on the immunization schedule; 4. Long-term side effects of HPV vaccine are unknown; 5. The vaccine's enduring effectiveness is unknown and booster shots may be required; and 6. It is wrong to only target girls with HPV vaccine; boys should be vaccinated as well.

  13. Methods of legitimation: how ethics committees decide which reasons count in public policy decision-making.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kyle T

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, liberal democratic societies have struggled with the question of how best to balance expertise and democratic participation in the regulation of emerging technologies. This study aims to explain how national deliberative ethics committees handle the practical tension between scientific expertise, ethical expertise, expert patient input, and lay public input by explaining two institutions' processes for determining the legitimacy or illegitimacy of reasons in public policy decision-making: that of the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the United States' American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). The articulation of these 'methods of legitimation' draws on 13 in-depth interviews with HFEA and ASRM members and staff conducted in January and February 2012 in London and over Skype, as well as observation of an HFEA deliberation. This study finds that these two institutions employ different methods in rendering certain arguments legitimate and others illegitimate: while the HFEA attempts to 'balance' competing reasons but ultimately legitimizes arguments based on health and welfare concerns, the ASRM seeks to 'filter' out arguments that challenge reproductive autonomy. The notably different structures and missions of each institution may explain these divergent approaches, as may what Sheila Jasanoff (2005) terms the distinctive 'civic epistemologies' of the US and the UK. Significantly for policy makers designing such deliberative committees, each method differs substantially from that explicitly or implicitly endorsed by the institution.

  14. Involving citizens in the ethics of biobank research: informing institutional policy through structured public deliberation.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Hawkins, Alice K; Burgess, Michael M

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports on the design, implementation, and results of a structured public deliberation on human tissue biobanking conducted in Vancouver, Canada, in 2009. This study builds on previous work on the use of deliberative democratic principles and methods to engage publics on the social and ethical implications of human tissue biobanking. In a significant refinement of methods, we focus on providing public input to institutional practice and governance of biobanks using a tailored workbook structure to guide participants' discussion. Our focus is on the local context and practices of a particular institution, the BC BioLibrary. However, elements of both the methodological innovations and the ethical guidance implied by our findings are generalisable for biobanking internationally. Recommendations from the deliberative forum include issues of informed consent, privacy protections, collection of biospecimens, governance of biobanks, and how to manage the process of introduction between biobanks and potential donors. Notable findings include public support for research use of anonymised un-consented tissue samples when these come from archived collections, but lack of support when they are collected prospectively.

  15. Medical ethics in pediatric critical care.

    PubMed

    Orioles, Alberto; Morrison, Wynne E

    2013-04-01

    Ethically charged situations are common in pediatric critical care. Most situations can be managed with minimal controversy within the medical team or between the team and patients/families. Familiarity with institutional resources, such as hospital ethics committees, and national guidelines, such as publications from the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, or Society of Critical Care Medicine, are an essential part of the toolkit of any intensivist. Open discussion with colleagues and within the multidisciplinary team can also ensure that when difficult situations arise, they are addressed in a proactive, evidence-based, and collegial manner.

  16. Will cell reprogramming resolve the embryonic stem cell controversy? A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2011-07-19

    In the past few years, relatively straightforward laboratory techniques have been developed to reprogram normal body cells to enter an embryonic stem cell-like state. Not only do these induced pluripotent stem cells hold great medical promise--perhaps greater than that of embryonic stem cells--but they also have escaped the ethical controversy in which the latter is mired. This article examines how cell reprogramming is likely to transform regenerative and reproductive medicine and highlights some of the medical, moral, and political hurdles that it faces. It also argues that induced pluripotent stem cells are more ethically problematic than most people believe and that cell reprogramming will not solve the stem cell controversy but complicate it further.

  17. Addressing controversies in science education: a pragmatic approach to evolution education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, David; Bilica, Kimberly; Capps, John

    2008-09-01

    Science education controversies typically prove more intractable than those in scientific research because they involve a wider range of considerations (e.g., epistemic, social, ethical, political, and religious). How can educators acknowledge central issues in a controversy (such as evolution)? How can such problems be addressed in a way that is ethically sensitive and intellectually responsible? Drawing in part on pragmatic philosopher John Dewey, our solution is politically proactive, philosophically pragmatic, and grounded in research. Central to our proposal is (1) steps toward creating a philosophical “total attitude” that is democratic, imaginative, and hypothetical; (2) a deeper understanding of how scientific theories can be pragmatically true; and (3) an assessment of differing pedagogical approaches for teaching evolution in the classroom.

  18. Community recommendations on biobank governance: Results from a deliberative community engagement in California.

    PubMed

    Dry, Sarah M; Garrett, Sarah B; Koenig, Barbara A; Brown, Arleen F; Burgess, Michael M; Hult, Jen R; Longstaff, Holly; Wilcox, Elizabeth S; Madrigal Contreras, Sigrid Karina; Martinez, Arturo; Boyd, Elizabeth A; Dohan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    United States-based biorepositories are on the cusp of substantial change in regulatory oversight at the same time that they are increasingly including samples and data from large populations, e.g. all patients in healthcare system. It is appropriate to engage stakeholders from these populations in new governance arrangements. We sought to describe community recommendations for biorepository governance and oversight using deliberative community engagement (DCE), a qualitative research method designed to elicit lay perspectives on complex technical issues. We asked for stakeholders to provide input on governance of large biorepositories at the University of California (UC), a public university. We defined state residents as stakeholders and recruited residents from two large metropolitan areas, Los Angeles (LA) and San Francisco (SF). In LA, we recruited English and Spanish speakers; in SF the DCE was conducted in English only. We recruited individuals who had completed the 2009 California Health Interview Survey and were willing to be re-contacted for future studies. Using stratified random sampling (by age, education, race/ethnicity), we contacted 162 potential deliberants of whom 53 agreed to participate and 51 completed the 4-day DCE in June (LA) and September-October (SF), 2013. Each DCE included discussion among deliberants facilitated by a trained staff and simultaneously-translated in LA. Deliberants also received a briefing book describing biorepository operations and regulation. During the final day of the DCE, deliberants voted on governance and oversight recommendations using an audience response system. This paper describes 23 recommendations (of 57 total) that address issues including: educating the public, sharing samples broadly, monitoring researcher behavior, using informative consent procedures, and involving community members in a transparent process of biobank governance. This project demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining meaningful input on

  19. The Impact of Deliberative Strategy Dissociates ERP Components Related to Conflict Processing vs. Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Christopher M.; Holroyd, Clay B.

    2012-01-01

    We applied the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to investigate the involvement of two neuromodulatory systems in learning and decision making: The locus coeruleus–norepinephrine system (NE system) and the mesencephalic dopamine system (DA system). We have previously presented evidence that the N2, a negative deflection in the ERP elicited by task-relevant events that begins approximately 200 ms after onset of the eliciting stimulus and that is sensitive to low-probability events, is a manifestation of cortex-wide noradrenergic modulation recruited to facilitate the processing of unexpected stimuli. Further, we hold that the impact of DA reinforcement learning signals on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) produces a component of the ERP called the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The N2 and the FRN share a similar time range, a similar topography, and similar antecedent conditions. We varied factors related to the degree of cognitive deliberation across a series of experiments to dissociate these two ERP components. Across four experiments we varied the demand for a deliberative strategy, from passively watching feedback, to more complex/challenging decision tasks. Consistent with our predictions, the FRN was largest in the experiment involving active learning and smallest in the experiment involving passive learning whereas the N2 exhibited the opposite effect. Within each experiment, when subjects attended to color, the N2 was maximal at frontal–central sites, and when they attended to gender it was maximal over lateral-occipital areas, whereas the topology of the FRN was frontal–central in both task conditions. We conclude that both the DA system and the NE system act in concert when learning from rewards that vary in expectedness, but that the DA system is relatively more exercised when subjects are relatively more engaged by the learning task. PMID:22493568

  20. Multi-horizon reactive and deliberative path planning for autonomous cross-country navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Karl C.; Morgenthaler, Matt K.

    2004-09-01

    As part of the Raptor system developed for DARPA's PerceptOR program, three path planning methods have been integrated together in the framework of a command-arbitration based architecture. These methods combine reactive and deliberative elements, performing path planning within different planning horizons. Short range path planning (< 10 m) is done by a module called OAradials. OAradials is purely reactive, evaluating arcs corresponding to possible steering commands for the proximity of discrete obstacles, abrupt elevation changes, and unsafe slope conditions. Medium range path planning (<30 m) is performed by a module called Biased Random Trees - Follow Path (BRT-FP). Based on LaValle and Kuffner's rapidly exploring random trees planning algorithm, BRT-FP continuously evaluates the local terrain map in order to generate a good path that advances the robot towards the next intermediate waypoint in a user-specified plan. A pure-pursuit control algorithm generates candidate steering commands intended to keep the robot on the generated path. Long range path planning is done by the Dynamic Planner (DPlanner) using Stentz' D* algorithm. Use of D* allows efficient exploitation of prior terrain data and dynamic replanning as terrain is explored. Outputs from DPlanner generate intermediate goal points that are fed to the BRT-FP planner. A command-level arbitration scheme selects steering commands based on the weighted sum of the steering preferences generated by the OAradials and BRT-FP path planning behaviors. This system has been implemented on an ATV platform that has been actuated for autonomous operation, and tested on realistic cross-country terrain in the context of the PerceptOR program.

  1. Community recommendations on biobank governance: Results from a deliberative community engagement in California

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Barbara A.; Brown, Arleen F.; Burgess, Michael M.; Hult, Jen R.; Longstaff, Holly; Wilcox, Elizabeth S.; Madrigal Contreras, Sigrid Karina; Martinez, Arturo; Boyd, Elizabeth A.; Dohan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    United States-based biorepositories are on the cusp of substantial change in regulatory oversight at the same time that they are increasingly including samples and data from large populations, e.g. all patients in healthcare system. It is appropriate to engage stakeholders from these populations in new governance arrangements. We sought to describe community recommendations for biorepository governance and oversight using deliberative community engagement (DCE), a qualitative research method designed to elicit lay perspectives on complex technical issues. We asked for stakeholders to provide input on governance of large biorepositories at the University of California (UC), a public university. We defined state residents as stakeholders and recruited residents from two large metropolitan areas, Los Angeles (LA) and San Francisco (SF). In LA, we recruited English and Spanish speakers; in SF the DCE was conducted in English only. We recruited individuals who had completed the 2009 California Health Interview Survey and were willing to be re-contacted for future studies. Using stratified random sampling (by age, education, race/ethnicity), we contacted 162 potential deliberants of whom 53 agreed to participate and 51 completed the 4-day DCE in June (LA) and September-October (SF), 2013. Each DCE included discussion among deliberants facilitated by a trained staff and simultaneously-translated in LA. Deliberants also received a briefing book describing biorepository operations and regulation. During the final day of the DCE, deliberants voted on governance and oversight recommendations using an audience response system. This paper describes 23 recommendations (of 57 total) that address issues including: educating the public, sharing samples broadly, monitoring researcher behavior, using informative consent procedures, and involving community members in a transparent process of biobank governance. This project demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining meaningful input on

  2. The Impact of Deliberative Strategy Dissociates ERP Components Related to Conflict Processing vs. Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Warren, Christopher M; Holroyd, Clay B

    2012-01-01

    We applied the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to investigate the involvement of two neuromodulatory systems in learning and decision making: The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (NE system) and the mesencephalic dopamine system (DA system). We have previously presented evidence that the N2, a negative deflection in the ERP elicited by task-relevant events that begins approximately 200 ms after onset of the eliciting stimulus and that is sensitive to low-probability events, is a manifestation of cortex-wide noradrenergic modulation recruited to facilitate the processing of unexpected stimuli. Further, we hold that the impact of DA reinforcement learning signals on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) produces a component of the ERP called the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The N2 and the FRN share a similar time range, a similar topography, and similar antecedent conditions. We varied factors related to the degree of cognitive deliberation across a series of experiments to dissociate these two ERP components. Across four experiments we varied the demand for a deliberative strategy, from passively watching feedback, to more complex/challenging decision tasks. Consistent with our predictions, the FRN was largest in the experiment involving active learning and smallest in the experiment involving passive learning whereas the N2 exhibited the opposite effect. Within each experiment, when subjects attended to color, the N2 was maximal at frontal-central sites, and when they attended to gender it was maximal over lateral-occipital areas, whereas the topology of the FRN was frontal-central in both task conditions. We conclude that both the DA system and the NE system act in concert when learning from rewards that vary in expectedness, but that the DA system is relatively more exercised when subjects are relatively more engaged by the learning task.

  3. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  4. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  5. Engaging civil society through deliberative dialogue to create the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives.

    PubMed

    Mulvale, Gillian; Chodos, Howard; Bartram, Mary; MacKinnon, Mary Pat; Abud, Manon

    2014-12-01

    Citizen engagement through deliberative dialogue is increasingly being used to address 'wicked problems' in policy-making, such as the development of national mental health policy. In 2012, the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a national organization funded by and operating at arm's length from the federal government, released the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives (Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2012). Despite much-needed reform, Canada, unlike most other industrialized countries, had never previously developed a national Mental Health Strategy (the Strategy). This was due to a mix of policy factors, including a federalist system of government where primary responsibility for healthcare resides with provincial and territorial governments and a highly diverse set of stakeholder groups with diverging core ideas for mental health reform that were rooted in deeply held value differences. In this case study, we review the essential role that engagement of civil society played in the creation of the Strategy, beginning with the efforts to create a national body to shine the light on the need for mental health reform in Canada, followed by the development of a framework of specific goals based on core principles to guide the development of the Strategy, and ultimately, the creation of the Strategy itself. We discuss the various approaches to civil society engagement in each step of this process and focus in particular on how deliberative approaches helped build trust and common ground amongst stakeholders around complex, and often contentious, issues. The nature and outcomes of the deliberative processes including the key tensions between different stakeholder perspectives and values are described. We close by highlighting the lessons learned in a process that culminated with a Strategy that received strong endorsement from stakeholders across Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada (2012). Changing Directions

  6. The gene-splicing wars: Reflections on the recombinant DNA controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Zilinskas, R.A.; Zimmerman, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Controversial questions of safety and ethics have surrounded use of recombinant DNA techniques from the beginning. This book takes a historical perspective on the issue, examining the public policy, political, and international aspects of the debate and presenting the views of scientists, industry, and the press. It emphasizes how lessons learned from the experience can be used to cope with similar issues in the future.

  7. [Controversies over heel pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, J

    2013-02-01

    Article whose content was exposed in the workshops of the GNEAUPP Congress, held in Seville in November2012, and which refers to ulcers by pressure on the heels as a location exposed to the analysis. A pressure ulcer is a lesion located in skin I underlying tissue usually over a bone prominence, as a result of the pressure, or pressure in combination with the shears. A number of contributing factors or confounding factors are also associated with ulcers by pressure; the importance of these factors still not been elucidated. The heels are next to the sacred area, parts of the body that most frequently presents ulcers by pressure, The importance of the predisposing factors for ulcers in the sacral area as humidity has been studied in recent years, but in heels, remains one of the most important locations in the extremities, which entails adverse outcomes such as amputation in persons with comorbid diseases like Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The incidence of ulcers on heels in patients with DM and without it, is approximately 19-32%. Everything and be a problem associated with elderly people and chronic pathologies, in acute patients are a problem that this underrated, but not devoid of controversy. In hospitals of treble in 2006, the NPUAP encrypted the incidence of UPPin heels in a 43%; in one systematic review conducted by Reddy et al. (2006) puts revealed that 60% of pressure ulcers is produced. The problem of the UPP in heels is present in all the areas of intervention and particularly in paediatric units intensive care, where the first localization it is the occipital area followed by the heels.

  8. Ethical boundary-work in the infertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy; Jacoby, Ann; Gabbay, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Infertility practice and reproductive technologies are generally seen as 'controversial' areas of scientific inquiry that raise many complex ethical issues. This paper presents a qualitative study that considered how clinicians constructed the role of the 'ethical' in their everyday practice. We use the concept of ethical boundary-work to develop a theory of 'settled' and 'controversial' morality to illuminate how infertility clinicians drew boundaries between different conceptions of the role ethics played in their practice. An attention to areas of settled morality, usually rendered invisible by their very nature, enables us to see how clinicians manage the 'ethical' in their practice. We argue that by creating a space of 'no-ethics' in their practice--part of a settled morality that does not require articulation--the informants re-appropriate an area of their practice from 'outside' influences and control. Bringing these elements to light can help 'outsiders' to challenge and question these distinctions and therefore bring additional perspectives to debates over morality in the infertility clinic. Illuminating the everyday ethical concerns of infertility clinicians can help direct ethical thinking towards these practical concerns, as well as to more abstract debates.

  9. The Ethic of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  10. The Ethic of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  11. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  12. Biomedical ethics.

    PubMed

    Walters, LeRoy

    1985-10-25

    An overview is provided of bioethical issues recently under discussion in the United States. Six topics dominated the field in 1984 and early 1985: human gene therapy; in vitro fertilization and research with human embryos; appropriate care for dying patients, both adults and newborns; organ transplantation; resource allocation and payment for health care services; and the role of hospital ethics committees in medical decision making. Walters focuses on three of these topics: (1) the issuing of standards for somatic-cell gene therapy; (2) developments in the death and dying arena, including state living will legislation, the emergence of a viewpoint that artificial nutrition and hydration are not qualitatively different from respiratory life-support systems, and federal efforts to regulate appropriate treatment for handicapped newborns; and (3) the growing support among medical organizations for hospital ethics committees.

  13. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  14. Teachers, Classroom Controversy, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulconer, Tracy; Freeman, Ayesha Coning

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between teachers, classroom controversy and the media. It also features the story of Ayesha, who coincidentally is one of the authors of this article. Ayesha's story is a social studies teacher's bad dream featuring one of her worst fears: (1) public criticism; and (2) controversy over something that has…

  15. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  16. "Mysticism" in Quantum Mechanics: The Forgotten Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a "mystical" hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s--birth of quantum theory--and concluding…

  17. "Mysticism" in Quantum Mechanics: The Forgotten Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a "mystical" hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s--birth of quantum theory--and concluding…

  18. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  19. Teachers, Classroom Controversy, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulconer, Tracy; Freeman, Ayesha Coning

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between teachers, classroom controversy and the media. It also features the story of Ayesha, who coincidentally is one of the authors of this article. Ayesha's story is a social studies teacher's bad dream featuring one of her worst fears: (1) public criticism; and (2) controversy over something that has…

  20. Salivary Gland Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2017-03-01

    This current review focuses on current concepts and controversies for select key salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. Rather than the traditional organization of benign and malignant tumors, this review is structured around select key topics: biphasic tumors, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and the controversy surrounding polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin.

  1. Get Controversial! Edgy Novels for Older Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Clark, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This article is a discussion of authors and controversial novels that should be on the top of library media specialists' reading list if they work with high-school-age teens. "Controversial" is not a dirty word, it is an enticement! The goal of library media specialists is to get teens who may be burned out with reading due to incentive programs…

  2. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  3. Get Controversial! Edgy Novels for Older Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Clark, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This article is a discussion of authors and controversial novels that should be on the top of library media specialists' reading list if they work with high-school-age teens. "Controversial" is not a dirty word, it is an enticement! The goal of library media specialists is to get teens who may be burned out with reading due to incentive programs…

  4. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  5. If It's Controversial, Why Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soley, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Reveals that teaching about controversial issues increases students' self-confidence and interest in civic participation. Asserts that the current proliferation of social problems combined with exploitative media coverage necessitates civil and objective study of controversial issues. Includes several examples of, and approaches to, teaching about…

  6. Teaching about NAFTA Using Academic Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Eileen M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a teaching strategy called "constructive controversy" where students are required to argue both the pro and con positions concerning a controversial current topic. Describes students' response to a class using this method to examine the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Student response was generally favorable. (MJP)

  7. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  8. Teaching about NAFTA Using Academic Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Eileen M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a teaching strategy called "constructive controversy" where students are required to argue both the pro and con positions concerning a controversial current topic. Describes students' response to a class using this method to examine the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Student response was generally favorable. (MJP)

  9. Feel Free to Change Your Mind. A Response to "The Potential for Deliberative Democratic Civic Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Walter Parker responds to Hanson and Howe's article, extending their argument to everyday classroom practice. He focuses on a popular learning activity called Structured Academic Controversy (SAC). SAC is pertinent not only to civic learning objectives but also to traditional academic-content objectives. SAC is at once a discourse structure, a…

  10. Deciding What Is a Controversial Issue: A Case Study of Social Studies Curriculum Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camicia, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    Frame analysis was used to examine how competing stakeholders framed a sixth grade curriculum controversy over whether the WWII internment of Japanese Americans should be categorized as a controversial issue. Teachers and administrators in a northwestern U.S. school claimed that the internment was clearly wrong and not controversial, but these…

  11. Moral and ethical issues in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Straughan, R

    2000-04-01

    Plant biotechnology has recently become the focus of heated controversy and media attention, particularly in the UK. The most obvious concerns have centred upon the possible effects of the technology on the environment and on human health, but a broader and more fundamental set of considerations has also been evident in much of the debate, these are usually referred to as 'moral' or 'ethical' concerns.

  12. How the public responded to the Schiavo controversy: evidence from letters to editors.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Karczewska, Marta; Seidler, Matthew; Amaram, Rakesh; Illes, Judy

    2010-09-01

    The history and genesis of major public clinical ethics controversies is intimately related to the publication of opinions and responses in media coverage. To provide a sample of public response in the media, this paper reports the results of a content analysis of letters to editors published in the four most prolific American newspapers for the Schiavo controversy. Opinions expressed in the letters sampled strongly supported the use of living wills and strongly condemned public attention to the case as well as political interventions. Letters tended to be against withdrawal of life support, proxy consent and associated procedures as well as against court decisions and legal procedures. In comparison with reports written by journalists, letters to editors contained fewer controversial claims about Schiavo''s neurological condition and behavioural repertoire but similar loaded language to describe withdrawal of life support. Distinct public discourses can be encountered in different stakeholders suggesting complex and extensive pluralism even within the media.

  13. Teaching Ethics in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes arguments for and against teaching ethics within science education, and clarifies what might be the several aims of teaching ethics in science. Discusses how ethics instruction might be incorporated into the science curriculum. (Contains 120 references.) (WRM)

  14. Focus on Teaching: Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Rebecca B.; Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that business today is concerned with the translation and application of ethical principles into everyday business life. Offers a list of Web sites on ethics and business ethics at various colleges and universities. (SR)

  15. Focus on Teaching: Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Rebecca B.; Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that business today is concerned with the translation and application of ethical principles into everyday business life. Offers a list of Web sites on ethics and business ethics at various colleges and universities. (SR)

  16. Promoting an ethic of engagement in pediatric palliative care research.

    PubMed

    Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; Bartlett, Gillian; Longo, Cristina; Crimi, Laura; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Jabado, Nada; Ells, Carolyn

    2015-10-16

    This paper defends the ethical and empirical significance of direct engagement with terminally ill children and adolescents in PPC research on health-related quality of life. Clinical trials and other forms of health research have resulted in tremendous progress for improving clinical outcomes among children and adolescents diagnosed with a life-threatening illness. Less attention has been paid, however, to engaging this patient population directly in studies aimed at optimizing health-related quality of life in PPC. Though not restricted to care at the end of life, PPC--and by extension PPC research--is in part dependent on recognizing the social complexities of death and dying and where health-related quality of life is a fundamental element. To explore these complexities in depth requires partnership with terminally ill children and adolescents, and acknowledgement of their active social and moral agency in research. Principles of pediatric research ethics, theoretical tenets of the "new sociology of the child(hood)," and human rights codified in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) underpin the position that a more engagement-centered approach is needed in PPC research. The ethics, sociologies and human rights of engagement will each be discussed as they relate to research with terminally ill children and adolescents in PPC. Qualitative method(ologies) presented in this paper, such as deliberative stakeholder consultations and phenomenology of practice can serve as meaningful vehicles for achieving i) participation among terminally ill children and adolescents; ii) evidence-bases for PPC best practices; and iii) fulfillment of research ethics principles. PPC research based on direct engagement with PPC patients better reflects their unique expertise and social epistemologies of terminal illness. Such an approach to research would strengthen both the ethical and methodological soundness of HRQoL inquiry in PPC.

  17. Ethical issues in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Elkins, T E

    1988-06-01

    Prenatal diagnosis raises complex ethical issues not only in terms of individual decision making, but also in the development of clinical services and the formulation of public policy regarding access and funding. The motivation behind prenatal diagnosis is generally to provide the family with information regarding the pregnancy so that the outcome can be improved or, in the case of severely affected pregnancies, a decision can be made about pregnancy termination. Although many of the ethical issues involved in prenatal diagnosis and treatment overlap those common to all types of diagnostic procedures, the former situation is complicated by controversy about the moral status of the fetus and the use of selective abortion as a form of treatment. While there is general agreement that pregnancy termination after the 2nd trimester can be justified if the fetus is afflicted with a condition that is incompatible with postnatal survival or characterized by the virtual absence of cognitive functioning, the disposition of a fetus afflicted with a non-life-threatening physical or mental disability (e.g., Down's syndrome) is more controversial. An additional concern is that women with positive screening test results may choose elective abortion rather than undergo a definitive work-up. The issue of maternal versus fetal rights is perhaps the single most controversial dilemma. Here, the basic ethical dilemma is the conflict between respecting maternal autonomy versus acting beneficently toward the fetus. As a general rule, the more invasive the medical technique and the less certain the benefit to the fetus (e.g., laparotomy), the more difficult it is to make a convincing argument for forced interventions involving the mother's body. Situations in which compelling arguments can be made for forced interventions against the will of the mother are those where an otherwise healthy infant will die without immediate intervention or failure to perform a procedure will result in the

  18. [Issues of the practical value of ethics in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Liubarskiene, Zita

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the "Journal of Medical Ethics" published an article where prominent medical specialists stated that medical ethics, as a teaching and a theory, has no practical value. The article was based on the physicians' clinical experience and view that the theory of ethics has little in common with its application in daily practice and provides generalized guidelines for behavior, but is ineffective in decision-making in individual cases. At the same time, when describing conflict situations in healthcare, Lithuanian public press raises the role of ethics to the absolute and states that the lack or violation of ethics is the sole cause of all problems in healthcare, and there would be no problems if physicians behaved morally. From the viewpoint of an ethics professional, both controversial opinions deserve attention, and this paper is devoted to the analysis of these opinions. Ethical collisions and conflicts emerging in providing healthcare are not signs of the helplessness of medical ethics. Both viewpoints - the one disclaiming the role of medical ethics and the one attributing the absolute role to medical ethics - are equally erroneous. Decisions of the society and physicians are aggravated by health policy and the organization of healthcare in the country, as well as by a concrete individual's level of ethical thinking, worldview, and knowledge. Sometimes ethical collisions arise when there is a conflict among ethical principles themselves, and healthcare specialists have to decide which principle should be given priority. There are cases where setting priorities is impossible, and one has to admit that one single specialist is unable to solve the problem without his/her colleagues' assistance. Collective and collegial professionals' work helps to solve such ethical collisions.

  19. The Army Ethic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    ethical thought. The final major school of ethical thought centers on virtue ethics. First laid out in the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle , the...ethics focus on determining the right actions, virtue ethics puts the question of character at the center of the discussion. Aristotle asserts there...virtues as a reasonable balance between two extremes.48 Aristotle goes on to describe the golden mean by using the virtue of courage as an example

  20. The unique ethical challenges of the bogus pipeline methodology: let the data speak.

    PubMed

    Aguinis, H; Handelsman, M M

    1997-04-01

    Sigall (1997) asserted that the bogus pipeline (BPL) methodology is not a uniquely deceptive technique and, therefore, does not pose unique ethical challenges for social psychology researchers. We argue that empirical research is needed to clarify the controversial issue of the ethics of using the BPL. Results of such a research program will provide guidance for researchers as well as institutional review boards regarding conditions under which the use of the BPL may or may not be ethically justified.

  1. [Organ transplantation. Questions in the interface of ethics and anthropology].

    PubMed

    Birnbacher, D

    2014-08-01

    In the field of organ transplantation medical ethics is confronted with a number of problems where the particular difficulty lies in the fact that ethical and anthropological questions interpenetrate. This article discusses two of these problems in this interface both of which are highly controversial: the real or apparent contradiction between the dead-donor rule and the traditional definition of death and the real or apparent contradiction between the ethical desirability of harvesting organs from non-heart beating donors and the irreversibility of brain death.

  2. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  3. Ethics consultation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D F; Hoyt, J W

    1996-01-01

    This article comprehensively addresses the composition, role, and functions of a hospital ethics committee (HEC). HECs are of particular interest to critical care specialists because they often participate in or lead such committees, extending their commitment to communication and caring beyond the borders of the intensive care unit (ICU). This article also demonstrates that a well-run ICU in a hospital with a strong HEC automatically will include many of the services that the HEC normally would provide, without the need for HEC assistance.

  4. Adult Age Differences in Dual Information Processes: Implications for the Role of Affective and Deliberative Processes in Older Adults' Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ellen; Hess, Thomas M; Västfjäll, Daniel; Auman, Corinne

    2007-03-01

    Age differences in affective/experiential and deliberative processes have important theoretical implications for judgment and decision theory and important pragmatic implications for older-adult decision making. Age-related declines in the efficiency of deliberative processes predict poorer-quality decisions as we age. However, age-related adaptive processes, including motivated selectivity in the use of deliberative capacity, an increased focus on emotional goals, and greater experience, predict better or worse decisions for older adults depending on the situation. The aim of the current review is to examine adult age differences in affective and deliberative information processes in order to understand their potential impact on judgments and decisions. We review evidence for the role of these dual processes in judgment and decision making and then review two representative life-span perspectives (based on aging-related changes to cognitive or motivational processes) on the interplay between these processes. We present relevant predictions for older-adult decisions and make note of contradictions and gaps that currently exist in the literature. Finally, we review the sparse evidence about age differences in decision making and how theories and findings regarding dual processes could be applied to decision theory and decision aiding. In particular, we focus on prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) and how prospect theory and theories regarding age differences in information processing can inform one another. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  5. Requiem for Liberalism: The Therapeutic and Deliberative Functions of Nostalgic Appeals in Edward Kennedy's Address to the 1980 Democratic National Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depoe, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the emotion of nostalgia and the strategies and functions of nostalgic rhetorical appeals in order to analyze Edward Kennedy's major policy address during the 1980 Democratic national convention. Suggests that Kennedy used nostalgic appeals to serve therapeutic and deliberative functions. (KEH)

  6. Using the Hearst Text: Fundamentals of Parliamentary Law and Procedure, Second Edition: The Rules for Deliberative Assemblies. The National Parliamentary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joan E.

    The instructor of a course entitled "Leadership in Meetings" used as a textbook of "Fundamentals of Parliamentary Law and Procedure, Second Edition: The Rules for Deliberative Assemblies," sponsored by the William Randolph Hearst Foundation. Despite a strong endorsement of the text, the instructor had some reservations. For…

  7. Musings on genome medicine: is there hope for ethical and safe stem cell therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Rao, Mahendra; Condic, Maureen L

    2009-07-14

    Although most stem cell therapy has been non-controversial, therapy based on pluripotent stem cells has raised both ethical and safety concerns. Despite these concerns, the use of cells derived from pluripotent stem cells has recently been approved for clinical trials. We suggest that recent advances in the field have provided avenues to develop pluripotent cells that raise far fewer ethical concerns. Moreover, advances in cell sorting, gene modification and screening have allowed the development of safer therapeutic approaches. Continued advances in this rapidly evolving field are likely to allow therapy to be delivered in a safe and effective manner without socially divisive ethical controversy in the not-so-distant future.

  8. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  9. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  10. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  11. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  12. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  13. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  14. Ethical breakdowns.

    PubMed

    Bazerman, Max H; Tenbrunsel, Ann E

    2011-04-01

    Companies are spending a great deal of time and money to install codes of ethics, ethics training, compliance programs, and in-house watchdogs. If these efforts worked, the money would be well spent. But unethical behavior appears to be on the rise. The authors observe that even the best-intentioned executives may be unaware of their own or their employees' unethical behavior. Drawing from extensive research on cognitive biases, they offer five reasons for this blindness and suggest what to do about them. Ill-conceived goals may actually encourage negative behavior. Brainstorm unintended consequences when devising your targets. Motivated blindness makes us overlook unethical behavior when remaining ignorant would benefit us. Root out conflicts of interest. Indirect blindness softens our assessment of unethical behavior when it's carried out by third parties. Take ownership of the implications when you outsource work. The slippery slope mutes our awareness when unethical behavior develops gradually. Be alert for even trivial infractions and investigate them immediately. Overvaluing outcomes may lead us to give a pass to unethical behavior. Examine good outcomes to ensure they're not driven by unethical tactics.

  15. Sorting Out the Video Game Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Pam

    1983-01-01

    This article looks at the controversy over video games; arguments for and against them are offered, along with a list of regulations in force around the country and nine important factors agencies should consider before leasing the machines. (JM)

  16. The CEQ Annual Report: Controversial Chapters Withheld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Walter G., III

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the content of the third Annual Report and discusses the controversy concerning the withholding'' of chapters concerning the energy crisis, recycling, and the pollution of the Delaware River Valley. Possible political motivations are discussed. (AL)

  17. Controversial Issues within Biology: Enriching Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a senior high school biology lesson concerned with organ transplantation. Discusses the teacher's rationale and techniques for using controversial issues in science teaching. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/WRM)

  18. Sorting Out the Video Game Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Pam

    1983-01-01

    This article looks at the controversy over video games; arguments for and against them are offered, along with a list of regulations in force around the country and nine important factors agencies should consider before leasing the machines. (JM)

  19. Anti-aging cosmetics: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Celem, Livia Ribeiro; Ramos-e-Silva, Stella; Fucci-da-Costa, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    The authors review ageing in its extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, as well as the therapies available for improving its effects, and present some of the facts and controversies related to anti-aging cosmetics.

  20. Antidote to Controversy? Responses to Carolyn Henly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Mary Ella; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides four practicing teachers' written responses to Carolyn Henly's article entitled "Reader Response Theory as Antidote to Controversy: Teaching "The Bluest Eye," which appears in the same issue. (HB)

  1. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  2. Psychologists abandon the Nuremberg ethic: concerns for detainee interrogations.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth S; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of 9-11, the American Psychological Association, one of the largest U.S. health professions, changed its ethics code so that it now runs counter to the Nuremberg Ethic. This historic post-9-11 change allows psychologists to set aside their ethical responsibilities whenever they are in irreconcilable conflict with military orders, governmental regulations, national and local laws, and other forms of governing legal authority. This article discusses the history, wording, rationale, and implications of the ethical standard that U.S. psychologists adopted 7 years ago, particularly in light of concerns over health care professionals' involvement in detainee interrogations and the controversy over psychologists' prominent involvement in settings like the Guantánamo Bay Detainment Camp and the Abu Ghraib prison. It discusses possible approaches to the complex dilemmas arising when ethical responsibilities conflict with laws, regulations, or other governing legal authority.

  3. Controversies in Persistent (Chronic) Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 300 000 new cases of Lyme disease occur each year in the United States and that 10% to 20% of these patients will remain symptomatic despite receiving appropriate antibiotic therapy. Many elements of the disease are poorly understood and have generated considerable controversy. This paper discusses the medical controversies related to posttreatment manifestations and their potential impact on infusion nurses. PMID:27755213

  4. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  5. Crossing Lines in Parent Relationships: Perception, Reality, Ethics, and Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonehouse, Anne; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a story that shows the complex roles and professionalism of staff, describing ethics and fairness and the ways biases can affect relationships and perceptions. It also presents how professional staff can cross the line in a parent-child relationship. This article describes some controversial issues regarding staff's…

  6. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  7. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  8. Children's Television Advertising: An Ethical Morass for Business and Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Peter B.

    Differing ethical approaches increase the confusion of the controversy over children's television advertising between the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and representatives of marketing and broadcasting. Marketers and broadcasters base the argument for the status quo on teleologic (situational accommodation) grounds; namely, the competitive nature…

  9. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  10. Children's Television Advertising: An Ethical Morass for Business and Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Peter B.

    Differing ethical approaches increase the confusion of the controversy over children's television advertising between the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and representatives of marketing and broadcasting. Marketers and broadcasters base the argument for the status quo on teleologic (situational accommodation) grounds; namely, the competitive nature…

  11. Utilizing Codes of Ethics in Health Professions Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahnke, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Codes of ethics abound in health care, the aims and purposes of which are multiple and varied, from operating as a decision making tool to acting as a standard of practice that can be operational in a legal context to providing a sense of elevated seriousness and professionalism within a field of practice. There is some doubt and controversy,…

  12. Utilizing Codes of Ethics in Health Professions Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahnke, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Codes of ethics abound in health care, the aims and purposes of which are multiple and varied, from operating as a decision making tool to acting as a standard of practice that can be operational in a legal context to providing a sense of elevated seriousness and professionalism within a field of practice. There is some doubt and controversy,…

  13. The revised APTA code of ethics for the physical therapist and standards of ethical conduct for the physical therapist assistant: theory, purpose, process, and significance.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Laura Lee; Hiller, Peggy

    2010-05-01

    In June 2009, the House of Delegates (HOD) of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) passed a major revision of the APTA Code of Ethics for physical therapists and the Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant. The revised documents will be effective July 1, 2010. The purposes of this article are: (1) to provide a historical, professional, and theoretical context for this important revision; (2) to describe the 4-year revision process; (3) to examine major features of the documents; and (4) to discuss the significance of the revisions from the perspective of the maturation of physical therapy as a doctoring profession. PROCESS OF REVISION: The process for revision is delineated within the context of history and the Bylaws of APTA. FORMAT, STRUCTURE, AND CONTENT OF REVISED CORE ETHICS DOCUMENTS: The revised documents represent a significant change in format, level of detail, and scope of application. Previous APTA Codes of Ethics and Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant have delineated very broad general principles, with specific obligations spelled out in the Ethics and Judicial Committee's Guide for Professional Conduct and Guide for Conduct of the Physical Therapist Assistant. In contrast to the current documents, the revised documents address all 5 roles of the physical therapist, delineate ethical obligations in organizational and business contexts, and align with the tenets of Vision 2020. The significance of this revision is discussed within historical parameters, the implications for physical therapists and physical therapist assistants, the maturation of the profession, societal accountability and moral community, potential regulatory implications, and the inclusive and deliberative process of moral dialogue by which changes were developed, revised, and approved.

  14. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  15. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters."

  16. The ethics of biodefense.

    PubMed

    King, Nicholas B

    2005-08-01

    This essay reviews major areas of ethical debate with regard to biodefense, focusing on cases in which biodefense presents ethical problems that diverge from those presented by naturally-occurring outbreaks of infectious disease. It concludes with a call for ethicists to study not only the ethical issues raised in biodefense programs, but also the ethics of biodefense more generally.

  17. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  18. Shaping an ethical workplace.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, S M

    1998-12-01

    Ethical choices in business are often troublesome because business ethics are not simply an extension of personal ethics. Moral standards learned from private experiences may not translate to the business world. This article analyzes choices in the workplace and offer suggestions to move toward more ethical business practices.

  19. Recovering ethics after 'technics': developing critical text on technology.

    PubMed

    Marck, P B

    2000-01-01

    Much modern science and ethics debate is on high-profile problems such as animal organ transplantation, genetic engineering and fetal tissue research, in discourse that assumes technical tones. Other work, such as narrative ethics, expresses the failed promise of technology in the vivid detail of human experience. However, the essential nature of contemporary technology remains largely opaque to our present ethical lens on health care and on society. The limited controversies of modern science and ethics perpetuate 'technics', a technical, problem-solving mindset that fails to grapple successfully with the complexity of technology. A critical dialectic between practice and scholarship widens the ethical conversation in nursing to consider technology as an ongoing set of daily and fundamental moral choices on how we live. Critical text on technology recovers ethics from the limits of technics, and assists nurses to develop an inherent knowledge of technology that is needed to provide ethical care in a technological world. There are overlooked ethical challenges in the mundane, everyday routine activities of professional practice, and these have gone largely unexamined. Ethical behavior is not the display of one's moral rectitude in times of crisis. It is the day-to-day expression of one's commitment to other persons and the ways in which human beings relate to one another in their daily interactions.

  20. Business Ethics 101 for the biotech industry.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Biotechnology companies face ethical challenges of two distinct types: bioethical challenges faced on account of the nature of work in the life sciences, and corporate ethical challenges on account of their nature as commercial entities. The latter set of challenges has received almost no attention at all in the academic literature or media. This paper begins to remedy that lacuna, examining ethical issues that arise specifically on account of the status of biotech companies as commercial entities. The focus here is on three representative issues: product safety, corporate social responsibility, and corporate governance. It is argued that each of these issues poses particular ethical challenges for companies in the biotech sector. In the area of product safety, it is noted that biotech companies face particular challenges in determining what counts as a "safe" product, given the contentious nature of what might count as a "harm" in the biotech field. In the area of corporate social responsibility, the adoption of a "stakeholder approach" and an attempt to manage the social consequences of products pose special challenges for biotech companies. This is due to the enormous range of groups and individuals claiming to have a stake in the doings of such companies, and the trenchant controversies over just what the social consequences of various biotechnologies might be. In the area of corporate governance, biotech companies need to seek out and follow best practices regarding the ways in which information, authority, and influence flow between a company's shareholders, managers, and Board of Directors, if they are to avoid duplicating the ethical and financial scandal that brought down ImClone. An important meta-issue, here--one that renders each of these corporate ethical challenges more vexing--is the difficulty of finding the appropriate benchmarks for ethical corporate behavior in a field as controversial, and as rapidly evolving, as biotechnology. Three

  1. Preparedness: medical ethics versus public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Swain, Geoffrey R; Burns, Kelly A; Etkind, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Medical ethics generally applies to individual interactions between physicians and patients. Conversely, public health ethics typically applies to interactions between an agency or institution and a community or population. Four main principles underlie medical ethics: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. By contrast, public health ethical principles address issues such as interdependence, community trust, fundamentality, and justice. In large part because of the significant community-level effects of public health issues, medical ethics are suboptimal for assessing community-level public health interventions or plans-especially in the area of emergency preparedness. To be effective, as well as ethical, public health preparedness efforts must address all of the core principles of public health ethics.

  2. Manufacturing mistrust: issues in the controversy regarding foster children in the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Jacquelyn

    2009-12-01

    The use of foster children as subjects in the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials has been the subject of media controversy, raising a range of ethical and social dimensions. Several unsettled issues and debates in research ethics underlie the controversy and the lack of consensus among professional researchers on these issues was neither adequately appreciated nor presented in media reports. These issues include (1) the tension between protecting subjects from research risk while allowing them access to the possible benefits of research; (2) the blurring of the potentially conflicting roles of investigator and physician and the boundaries between research and therapy; (3) the adequacy of Institutional Review Board oversight; and (4) trust and the relationships among physicians, investigators and industry. The media controversy about the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials can be seen as a means of "manufacturing mistrust" in health care, research and social services that have not always met the needs and expectations of the public. In an era of emerging infections, it is critical to the public's health that people understand the role of rigorous and ethical research in the development of safe and effective care. Investigators, journalists and the public need to become knowledgeable about major ethical issues in the conduct of research in order to engage in dialogue about balancing research risks and benefits and to be able to distinguish fact from distortion in an era of multiple and rapid transmission of information.

  3. Another Look at Controversial Issues and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Controversial issues should be taught in school. Charles Bailey's and R.F. Dearden's opinions of what makes an issue controversial are critiqued. Bailey accounts for controversial issues in behavioral terms; Dearden advances an epistemic account. (RM)

  4. 'What is professional ethics?'.

    PubMed

    Brecher, Bob

    2014-03-01

    The very term 'professional ethics' is puzzling with respect to what both 'professional' and 'ethics' might mean. I argue (1) that professionalism is ambiguous as to whether or not it is implicitly committed to ethical practice; (2) that to be 'professionally' ethical is at best ambiguous, if not in fact bizarre; and (3) that, taken together, these considerations suggest that professional ethics is something to be avoided rather than lauded.

  5. Clinical ethics revisited

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Peter A; Pellegrino, Edmund D; Siegler, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective on clinical ethics problems. PMID:11346456

  6. Contrasting Controversies: Fracking and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Zabel, I. H. H.; Ross, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing (commonly known as "fracking") is highly controversial. So is global warming, and the two issues are closely related, but the natures of these two controversies have substantial and important differences. Building upon years of experience in teaching and developing resources and strategies for teaching about evolution and climate change, staff at the Paleontological Research Institution have engaged in public outreach and educator professional development to help nurture understanding of fracking and the broader energy system. How are these controversies similar to and different from one another, and how should understanding these similarities and differences inform educational programming (and about how you talk about these issues with your Uncle Fred at the family holiday dinner?). It is nearly universally agreed amongst scientists who study climate that changes now underway are real and human caused, and are posing or likely to pose very serious problems for humanity. Scientists who study slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing agree that it causes environmental damage, but there is no consensus as to whether fracking causes more or less harm (e.g., among different kinds of environment harm, across different temporal and spatial scales, and among different social contexts) than other ways of producing energy on a large scale. In other words, the basic tenets of climate change are not a matter of scientific controversy, though the implications for policy making obviously remain politically controversial, while fracking is an issue of both scientific and political controversy. Without advocating for or against fracking, we help audiences disentangle scientific and political issues, better understand the energy resources used in their own communities, and consider issues of scale, systems, and complexity. We will compare and contrast the overlapping controversies surrounding climate change and fracking and highlight

  7. [Participatory potential and deliberative function: a debate on broadening the scope of democracy through the health councils].

    PubMed

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon the relation between democracy and health councils. It seeks to analyze the councils as a space for broadening the scope of democracy. First, some characteristics and principles of the liberal democratic regime are presented, with an emphasis on the minimalist and procedural approach of decision-making. The fragilities of the representative model and the establishment of new relations between the Government and society are then discussed in light of the new social grammar and the complexity of the division between governmental and societal responsibilities. The principles of deliberative democracy and the idea of substantive democracy are subsequently presented. Broadening the scope of democracy is understood not only as the guarantee of civil and political rights, but also especially, of social rights. Lastly, based on discussion of the participation and deliberation categories, the health councils are analyzed as potential mechanisms for broadening the scope of democracy.

  8. Transforming Practice with Older People through an Ethic of Care

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lizzie; Barnes, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relevance of deliberative practices framed by feminist care ethics to social work practice with older people. It draws on two connected projects which brought together older people: practitioners and academics. The first was a participatory research project in which the significance of care to well-being in old age emerged. The second was a knowledge exchange project which generated learning resources for social care practice based on the research findings of the first project. Here we analyse selected transcripts of recordings from meetings of both projects to consider the ways that discussions about lived experiences and everyday lives demonstrate care through this dialogue. Using this analysis, we propose that care ethics can be useful in transforming relationships between older people and those working with them through the creation of hybrid spaces in which ‘care-full deliberation’ can happen. We argue that such reflective spaces can enable transformative dialogue about care and its importance to older people and offer a counterbalance to the procedurally driven environments in which much social work practice takes place and can support practice more attuned to the circumstances and concerns of older people. PMID:27559205

  9. Ethical Dilemmas in Administrative Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the dimensions of ethics in administrative practice, identifies some of the characteristic circumstances that frequently precipitate ethical dilemmas, and suggests strategies for addressing ethical dilemmas. (Author)

  10. Dr. Robert G. Heath: a controversial figure in the history of deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Christen M; Baker, Cordell M; Glenn, Chad A; Conner, Andrew K; Sughrue, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    The history of psychosurgery is filled with tales of researchers pushing the boundaries of science and ethics. These stories often create a dark historical framework for some of the most important medical and surgical advancements. Dr. Robert G. Heath, a board-certified neurologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, holds a debated position within this framework and is most notably remembered for his research on schizophrenia. Dr. Heath was one of the first physicians to implant electrodes in deep cortical structures as a psychosurgical intervention. He used electrical stimulation in an attempt to cure patients with schizophrenia and as a method of conversion therapy in a homosexual man. This research was highly controversial, even prior to the implementation of current ethics standards for clinical research and often goes unmentioned within the historical narrative of deep brain stimulation (DBS). While distinction between the modern practice of DBS and its controversial origins is necessary, it is important to examine Dr. Heath's work as it allows for reflection on current neurosurgical practices and questioning the ethical implication of these advancements.

  11. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  12. Development and Implementation of Science and Technology Ethics Education Program for Prospective Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Hyang-yon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2014-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a science and technology (ST) ethics education program for prospective science teachers, (2) to examine the effect of the program on the perceptions of the participants, in terms of their ethics and education concerns, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the program design. The program utilized problem-based learning (PBL) which was performed as an iterative process during two cycles. A total of 23 and 29 prospective teachers in each cycle performed team activities. A PBL-based ST ethics education program for the science classroom setting was effective in enhancing participants' perceptions of ethics and education in ST. These perceptions motivated prospective science teachers to develop and implement ST ethics education in their future classrooms. The change in the prospective teachers' perceptions of ethical issues and the need for ethics education was greater when the topic was controversial.

  13. Ways forward in public scientific controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Carroll, Mike

    2010-04-01

    Public scientific controversies are considered in a defined but fairly general form, essentially where there is uncertainty and divided scientific opinion. General considerations are exemplified in the case of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from both power supply and mobile phones and other telecoms systems. Characteristics of scientific evaluation and dialogue are discussed. The concept of scientific plausibility is examined and a system of degrees of plausibility is suggested. The paper argues for using graded systems of evaluation in various respects where imposing an inappropriate dichotomy may otherwise make controversies worse. Recognising a plurality of scientifically valid evaluations is recommended and may help to foster public trust in science. Specific steps are suggested for scientists in EMF controversies.

  14. Calling controversy: assessing synthetic biology's conflict potential.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Helge; Hampel, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Will synthetic biology elicit controversies similar to those of genetically modified crops before? Maybe, but where exactly are the analogies, and how can we gain substantial insights rather than mere guesses? We argue that as well as the intrinsic properties of the technologies at stake, the context of their implementation is decisive. To assess mechanisms of past and potential controversies, an investigative tool is presented. The Gate Resonance model, derived from older models of societal conflict, allows the identification of key elements of conflict generating processes. In monitoring the developing debate on synthetic biology using this model, analogies to the case of genetically modified crops appear less convincing. So far, there are only few indications that a controversy is imminent.

  15. The controversy of cranial bone motion.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J S; Witt, P L

    1997-08-01

    Cranial bone motion continues to stimulate controversy. This controversy affects the general acceptance of some intervention methods used by physical therapists, namely, cranial osteopathic and craniosacral therapy techniques. Core to these intervention techniques is the belief that cranial bone mobility provides a compliant system where somatic dysfunction can occur and therapeutic techniques can be applied. Diversity of opinion over the truth of this concept characterizes differing viewpoints on the anatomy and physiology of the cranial complex. Literature on cranial bone motion was reviewed for the purpose of better understanding this topic. Published research overall was scant and inconclusive. Animal and human studies demonstrate a potential for small magnitude motion. Physical therapists should carefully scrutinize the literature presented as evidence for cranial bone motion. Further research is needed to resolve this controversy. Outcomes research, however, is needed to validate cranial bone mobilization as an effective treatment.

  16. Newspaper coverage of the breast implant controversy.

    PubMed

    Powers, A

    1999-01-01

    Newspaper coverage of the silicone breast implant controversy from 1992 through 1996 was analyzed to determine whether women in the United States were provided with a fair and balanced account. The paper also addressed whether or not Dow Corning's public relations campaign impacted newspaper coverage. All stories from the New York Times, the Chicago Tribune and the Wall Street Journal were analyzed. Findings suggested that early coverage of the controversy focused on the health risks of silicone breast implants while later coverage focused on the financial situations of the implant manufacturers. The most-interviewed sources were spokespersons for the implant manufacturers, while the least-interviewed sources were women with implants. The findings suggested that reporting patterns were influenced by the public relations efforts of the implant manufacturer, raising questions concerning the coverage of health care controversies involving large corporations seeking refuge from litigation.

  17. [Neuroethics and bioethics--implications of Balkanization controversy].

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Chiaki

    2009-01-01

    There have been considerable disputes the positioning of neuroethics as a new field since its emergence in 2002. It is the novelty of the neuroethical issues and the necessity for updated moral approaches to them that leading exponents of neuroethics have emphasized; advances in neurosciences have created an entirely new field of moral inquiries that the conventional bioethics had never noticed. Futher, as neuroethics embraces the subdivision of ethics in neuroscience, it should take precedence over bioethics, which depends on the fundamental moral concepts without questioning their bases. Many bioethicists have squarely opposed these insistences and thereby detected the claim of neuroethics exceptionalism: the asserted newness of issues comes mainly from the ignorance of exponents of this new field regarding accumulated bioethical inquiries, so that the overlapping concerns between bioethics and neuroethics are passed on to the future by them. Moreover, bioethicists point out that the recent tendency of Balkanization in the field of bioethics could endanger the integrity of moral investigations. Subfields of bioethics, such as geneethics, neuroethics, nanoethics and so on, originate consecutively, entail wastage of valuable time and money, and increase the risk of fragmentizing moral considerations in an inconsistent way. By reviewing this controversy between neuroethics and bioethics, I argue that the relevant scientific investigations and technologies, which have appeared to promote the proliferation of bioethical sub-disciplines to date, are beginning to converge into 1 complex that demands not the division into subspecialities but the novel integration of bioethical inquiries: it is time to attempt the unification of bioethical applied ethics for moral considerations regarding nano-bio-info-cogno convergent technologies.

  18. What are applied ethics?

    PubMed

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  19. Endoscope Reprocessing: Update on Controversial Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Several issues concerning endoscope reprocessing remain unresolved based on currently available data. Thus, further studies are required to confirm standard practices including safe endoscope shelf life, proper frequency of replacement of some accessories including water bottles and connecting tubes, and microbiological surveillance testing of endoscopes after reprocessing. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of newer technology that allows automated cleaning and disinfection is one such controversial issue. In addition, there are no guidelines on whether delayed reprocessing and extended soaking may harm endoscope integrity or increase the bioburden on the external or internal device surfaces. In this review, we discuss the unresolved and controversial issues regarding endoscope reprocessing. PMID:26473115

  20. 'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-07-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a 'mystical' hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s—birth of quantum theory—and concluding with Erwin Schrödinger's lectures published as 'Mind and Matter'. Becoming aware of the issues at stake can help us understand the historical, philosophical and cultural background from which today's physics emerged.

  1. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.

  2. Ethics Hype?

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    There has been growing concern about the phenomenon of science hype, the tendency to exaggerate the value or near-future application of research results. Although this is a problem that touches every area of biomedicine, the topic of genetics seems to be particularly prone to enthusiastic predictions. The world has been told for over two decades-by the media, researchers, politicians, and the biotech industry-that a genome-driven health care revolution is just around the corner. And while the revolution never seems to arrive, the hopeful rhetoric continues. It has been suggested that this unrelenting "genohype" is having a range of adverse social consequences, including misleading the public and hurting the long-term legitimacy of the field. While we need more good data on the nature and magnitude of these possible harms, few would argue with the proposition that sustained science hype is a bad thing. We all benefit from robust science and accurate public representations of biomedical research. But, to date, there has been very little consideration of the degree to which the scholarship on the related ethical, legal, and social issues has been hyped. Are the conclusions from ELSI scholarship also exaggerated?

  3. Ethics: A Theory of Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    This book review characterizes Robert Veatch's A Theory of Medical Ethics as a "third-generation" treatise that looks beyond case- and issue-oriented analysis to develop the theoretical bases of a "true system of medical ethics." Veatch proposes a "draft medical ethical covenant" based on a "triple contract" model, in which the moral principles of contract keeping, autonomy, honesty, avoiding killing, and justice govern the physician's relationship to both individual patients and society.

  4. Ethics and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Clever, Sarah L; Edwards, Kelly A; Feudtner, Chris; Braddock, Clarence H

    2001-01-01

    Ethics education aims to train physicians to identify and resolve ethical issues. To address ethical concerns, physicians may need to confront each other. We surveyed medical students to determine if their comfort challenging members of their ward teams about ethical issues varies by specialty and what attributes of students and their teams contributed to that comfort. Compared to other specialties, students felt significantly less comfortable challenging team members about ethical issues on surgery and obstetrics/gynecology. We suggest that ethics education must address the atmosphere on ward teams and give students skills to help them speak out despite their discomfort.

  5. What Should I Do with My Life? An Interview with Will Crouch on the Ethics of Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions college students face. However, little academic work exists to help students evaluate the ethical implications of different career paths. This interview with Will Crouch, an Oxford University student, explores his controversial work on the ethics of career choice. He argues that to pursue a…

  6. What Should I Do with My Life? An Interview with Will Crouch on the Ethics of Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions college students face. However, little academic work exists to help students evaluate the ethical implications of different career paths. This interview with Will Crouch, an Oxford University student, explores his controversial work on the ethics of career choice. He argues that to pursue a…

  7. Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership

    PubMed Central

    Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes. PMID:23346028

  8. Does medical education erode medical trainees' ethical attitude and behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Neda

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg’s and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard. PMID:28050246

  9. Does medical education erode medical trainees' ethical attitude and behavior?

    PubMed

    Yavari, Neda

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg's and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard.

  10. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  11. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by…

  12. Controversy Swirls Over Comparable Worth Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes a workshop held to analyze the typical arguments for and against comparable worth, assess the practicality of implementing comparable worth should it become law, project the future direction of the controversy, and offer suggestions to employers regarding how to cope with this evolving employment concept. (Author/MLF)

  13. Controversial Therapies: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The article offers guidelines to educators evaluating controversial therapies and applies them to four such therapies: tinted lenses as a cure for dyslexia; orthomolecular treatments for learning disabilities; pharmaceutical intervention for dyslexia; and visual training for children with learning disabilities. (DB)

  14. A Decision Model for Locating Controversial Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumphrey, Anthony J.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Locating controversial public facilities, such as highways or airports, that generate significant public opposition requires a more sophisticated methodology than the traditional least cost" procedures for minimizing physical costs. Two models--a short-run political placation" model and a long-run welfare distribution" model--evaluate the…

  15. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  16. Controversial Art in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Bobby

    This document examines the events surrounding a controversial art exhibit that was held at Santa Fe Community College (SFCC), Gainesville, Florida, in 2002. The author asks the following questions: (1) What is the role of the arts on a community college campus? (2) What are a community college arts program's responsibilities to the Fine Arts and…

  17. Courting Controversy: How to Build Interdisciplinary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jackie; Reynolds, Terry Deal

    1993-01-01

    By focusing on a polluted river and a visit to a rural Tennessee town, sixth-grade students from suburban Asheville, North Carolina, learned more about this controversy than many of their well-informed parents and teachers. Steps for creating similar interdisciplinary thematic units are described, along with the benefits of team teaching and…

  18. Controversies in the Mental Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Edwin L.; Cramer, Stanley H.

    This book discusses elements of six major areas of controversy which occur between different types of helping professionals. Theme 1 involves identity for the mental health professions. Questions are addressed related to the professional status of various mental health occupations, and who among them shall provide mental health services. Theme 2…

  19. Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid; Staiger, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written as an editorial to a collection of original articles on apraxia of speech (AOS) in which some of the more recent advancements in the understanding of this syndrome are discussed. It covers controversial issues concerning the theoretical foundations of AOS. Our approach was motivated by a change of perspective on…

  20. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  1. Bones of Contention: Teaching Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Dealing with contentious issues is a part of living in a democracy. Controversies in the classroom range from discussions of fairness regarding playground rules to the rules of "just war." Understanding that there are multiple and often competing viewpoints is a prerequisite to being an informed and effective citizen. Teaching students to define…

  2. Controversies in Pediatric Sports Medicine (Commentary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Paul G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses controversial issues that have arisen in children's sports, including infant exercise programs, trampolines, amenorrhea in the adolescent athlete, coed contact sports, and sport participation by children with Down Syndrome. Policy statements are included from the American Academy of Pediatrics. (JD)

  3. Controversy, Trials, and Crime--Oh My!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…

  4. Lindane in forestry: a continuing controversy

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Koerber

    1976-01-01

    Use of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide lindane to control bark beetles is controversial. Differences of opinion persist, even among knowledgeable entomologists, on whether use is justified in view of potentially harmful side effects. Effectiveness of lindane treatments, as employed in preventing tree mortality from bark beetles, is also in question. In seven...

  5. Federal Judge Orders Showing of Controversial Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a recent court decision in Nebraska regarding the cancellation of a controversial film on the University of Nebraska campus. The film was cancelled after a state senator threatened to close the theater if the movie was shown. The lawsuit alleged the university violated the First Amendment in cancelling the film; the judge ruled for the…

  6. Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid; Staiger, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written as an editorial to a collection of original articles on apraxia of speech (AOS) in which some of the more recent advancements in the understanding of this syndrome are discussed. It covers controversial issues concerning the theoretical foundations of AOS. Our approach was motivated by a change of perspective on…

  7. Teaching Controversial Issues in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith M.; Hoffman, Alan J.

    The design of a methods course offered at Georgia State University to prepare social studies teachers for dealing with controversial issues in the middle school or secondary social studies classroom is presented. The course focuses on identification, selection, an analysis of an issue as well as the requirement that the student develop some method…

  8. Controversy, Trials, and Crime--Oh My!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…

  9. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by…

  10. Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-04-15

    This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

  11. 30 CFR 282.7 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 282.7 Section 282.7 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR General §...

  12. 30 CFR 281.9 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 281.9 Section 281.9 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER...

  13. 30 CFR 281.9 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 281.9 Section 281.9 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.9...

  14. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  15. Controversial Novels and Censorship in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, John Stuart

    The legal history of censorship in general in the United States as well as the legal context in particular of the censorship of novels from schools is discussed. This thesis deals with four novels which have aroused substantial controversy when taught in the schools. The novels are: "The Catcher in the Rye," by J. D. Salinger, "The Adventures of…

  16. Teaching Controversial Issues in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith M.; Hoffman, Alan J.

    The design of a methods course offered at Georgia State University to prepare social studies teachers for dealing with controversial issues in the middle school or secondary social studies classroom is presented. The course focuses on identification, selection, an analysis of an issue as well as the requirement that the student develop some method…

  17. Science, Politics, and the IQ Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyderman, Mark; Rothman, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    The controversy over intelligence testing is more often influenced by political considerations than empirical research. A survey of 1,020 experts found that a majority agree that (1) intelligence can be defined; (2) heredity plays a role in individual and group IQ differences; and (3) intelligence testing in schools should continue at its present…

  18. Evolution as a Controversial Issue: A Review of Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Although evolution has long been considered a controversial issue, little effort has been made to ensure that instructional approaches address the controversial nature of the issue. A framework for understanding the nature of controversy and some defining characteristics of controversial issues are provided. In light of this framework evolution is…

  19. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  20. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  1. Persuasion as Ethical Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1985-01-01

    States that teachers should help students understand in practical terms how to recognize good ethical persuasion and to understand when even distinguished, honest, and moral writers might need to resort to "unfair ethical persuasion." (EL)

  2. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  3. Ethical issues in cloning.

    PubMed

    Satris, S

    2000-01-01

    There is great public concern with the ethics of human cloning. This paper briefly examines some of what I identify as pseudo-problems or myths associated with cloning, and some of the more substantial ethical concerns.

  4. [Toward a practical ethic].

    PubMed

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.

  5. Our Way to Understand the World: Darwin's Controversial Inheritance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Salomon, Michael

    Shortly after he had completed the first draft of his theory of evolution in 1844, Charles Darwin wrote to his friend Joseph Hooker, the botanist, that publishing the theory seemed to him "like confessing a murder" (Glaubrecht 2009, p. 161). Right from the beginning, Darwin was aware of the far-reaching impact his theory would have. And this was probably one of the main reasons for his postponing the publication of his ideas for such a long time. After the completion of the 230 page text in 1844, it was another 15 years (!) before his famous book On the Origin of Species was published. Since that time 150 years have passed, but the theory of evolution is as controversial as ever. Darwin's dangerous idea is still putting many traditional world views through some very hard tests. This is the central theme to which I have devoted the following thoughts. I have divided my study into three parts: I shall start by shedding some light on the conflict between Darwin's challenging idea and traditional (Christian) beliefs, a conflict that has lasted till this very day. In the second part, I want to focus on the ideological abuse of the theory of evolution. The third and final part introduces Julian Huxley's concept of 'evolutionary humanism', which links Darwin's scientific inheritance with a distinctly humanist ethic.

  6. A deliberative framework to identify the need for real-life evidence building of new cancer drugs after interim funding decision.

    PubMed

    Leung, Leanne; de Lemos, Mário L; Kovacic, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Background With the rising cost of new oncology treatments, it is no longer sustainable to base initial drug funding decisions primarily on prospective clinical trials as their performance in real-life populations are often difficult to determine. In British Columbia, an approach in evidence building is to retrospectively analyse patient outcomes using observational research on an ad hoc basis. Methods The deliberative framework was constructed in three stages: framework design, framework validation and treatment programme characterization, and key informant interview. Framework design was informed through a literature review and analyses of provincial and national decision-making processes. Treatment programmes funded between 2010 and 2013 were used for framework validation. A selection concordance rate of 80% amongst three reviewers was considered to be a validation of the framework. Key informant interviews were conducted to determine the utility of this deliberative framework. Results A multi-domain deliberative framework with 15 assessment parameters was developed. A selection concordance rate of 84.2% was achieved for content validation of the framework. Nine treatment programmes from five different tumour groups were selected for retrospective outcomes analysis. Five contributory factors to funding uncertainties were identified. Key informants agreed that the framework is a comprehensive tool that targets the key areas involved in the funding decision-making process. Conclusions The oncology-based deliberative framework can be routinely used to assess treatment programmes from the major tumour sites for retrospective outcomes analysis. Key informants indicate this is a value-added tool and will provide insight to the current prospective funding model.

  7. Ethical and legal aspects in teaching students of medicine.

    PubMed

    Wlasienko, Pawel

    2005-01-01

    Due to the rapid advances in medical technology, medical students are now being faced with increasingly complex and unparalleled ethical and practical dilemmas during their training. The new and future challenges of high-tech medicine demand improvements in current medical education, not only by meeting the needs of students through humanized training programs, but also by involving them in finding solutions to the ethical and legal quandaries they encounter. Today's students of medical universities must acquire knowledge and understanding of the ethical and legal issues relevant to the practice of medicine, and we have to do everything possible to introduce these students to the current discussions on more or less controversial ethical and legal topics. Although final answers may not be found, the very discussion, argumentation, and awakening of students' interest should become an essential part of the core curriculum of every doctor.

  8. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  9. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics.

  10. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  11. Ripped from the Headlines: Using Current Events and Deliberative Democracy to Improve Student Performance in and Perceptions of Nonmajors Biology Courses.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Heather N

    2016-12-01

    Despite the importance of scientific literacy, many foundational science courses are plagued by low student engagement and performance. In an attempt to improve student outcomes, an introductory biology course for nonscience majors was redesigned to present the course content within the framework of current events and deliberative democratic exercises. During each instructional unit of the redesigned course, students were presented with a highly publicized policy question rooted in biological principles and currently facing lawmakers. Working in diverse groups, students sought out the information that was needed to reach an educated, rationalized decision. This approach models civic engagement and demonstrates the real-life importance of science to nonscience majors. The outcomes from two semesters in which the redesign were taught were compared with sections of the course taught using traditional pedagogies. When compared with other versions of the same course, presenting the course content within a deliberative democratic framework proved to be superior for increasing students' knowledge gains and improving students' perceptions of biology and its relevance to their everyday lives. These findings establish deliberative democracy as an effective pedagogical strategy for nonmajors biology.

  12. Ripped from the Headlines: Using Current Events and Deliberative Democracy to Improve Student Performance in and Perceptions of Nonmajors Biology Courses†

    PubMed Central

    Tinsley, Heather N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of scientific literacy, many foundational science courses are plagued by low student engagement and performance. In an attempt to improve student outcomes, an introductory biology course for nonscience majors was redesigned to present the course content within the framework of current events and deliberative democratic exercises. During each instructional unit of the redesigned course, students were presented with a highly publicized policy question rooted in biological principles and currently facing lawmakers. Working in diverse groups, students sought out the information that was needed to reach an educated, rationalized decision. This approach models civic engagement and demonstrates the real-life importance of science to nonscience majors. The outcomes from two semesters in which the redesign were taught were compared with sections of the course taught using traditional pedagogies. When compared with other versions of the same course, presenting the course content within a deliberative democratic framework proved to be superior for increasing students’ knowledge gains and improving students’ perceptions of biology and its relevance to their everyday lives. These findings establish deliberative democracy as an effective pedagogical strategy for nonmajors biology. PMID:28101264

  13. Scoring Ethically in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donna Mae.

    1988-01-01

    This article suggests ways in which coaches, through their coaching and behavior, may preserve, encourage, or improve the integrity and ethics of sports. If coaches model ethical behavior, fans and players may exhibit it as well. Suggestions for promoting sports ethics are given. (JL)

  14. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  15. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  16. The Character of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A person is ethical or moral in doing an act if the individual acted freely; acted according to his or her duty, not for self-interest; and actively performed an ethical act. Lists the qualities of a leader from an ethical perspective. (MLF)

  17. [Ethical problems in perinatology].

    PubMed

    Koppe, J G

    1989-08-01

    Ethical problems in the neonatal period and in the unborn baby are discussed. The different categories of babies where ethical problems arise are summarized and ethical values, reasons for justification and the question of who decides are discussed. Medical strategies nowadays used in different countries are presented and a procedure is described how to make a decision to stop or not to start treatment.

  18. Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  19. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  20. Ethics and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references. (MES)

  1. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  2. Ethics across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matchett, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    All colleges teach ethics across their undergraduate curricula, yet relatively few institutions do so deliberately. That is, few colleges make explicit attempts to coordinate or integrate the various ethical lessons their students might be learning. This does not mean that most colleges are bad for students' ethical development; research shows…

  3. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  4. Ethics and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references. (MES)

  5. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  6. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  7. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  8. Rehabilitation: disability ethics versus Peter Singer.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Gary W; Sobsey, Dick

    2003-08-01

    This commentary discusses utilitarian bioethics currently articulated by Peter Singer, one of the most widely known bioethicists of the 21st century. His controversial concepts of personhood and replaceability have important implications for people with disabilities, caregivers, and rehabilitation in general. Singer suggests that people with severe disabilities should not be considered persons and therefore have no rights or status in ethical issues. In addition, he argues that, although some people with less severe disabilities qualify as persons, their potential quality of life is significantly compromised by disability and therefore it may be ethically desirable to eliminate them so that their resources can be used for someone with superior potential. We reject these ideas, and suggest that those involved in rehabilitation carefully consider these ideas because they imply that rehabilitation is an immoral act unless it results in full and typical function.

  9. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research.

  10. Palliative sedation versus euthanasia: an ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk; Welie, Jos V M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the ethical debate concerning palliative sedation. Although recent guidelines articulate the differences between palliative sedation and euthanasia, the ethical controversies remain. The dominant view is that euthanasia and palliative sedation are morally distinct practices. However, ambiguous moral experiences and considerable practice variation call this view into question. When heterogeneous sedative practices are all labeled as palliative sedation, there is the risk that palliative sedation is expanded to include practices that are actually intended to bring about the patients' death. This troublesome expansion is fostered by an expansive use of the concept of intention such that this decisive ethical concept is no longer restricted to signify the aim in guiding the action. In this article, it is argued that intention should be used in a restricted way. The significance of intention is related to other ethical parameters to demarcate the practice of palliative sedation: terminality, refractory symptoms, proportionality, and separation from other end-of-life decisions. These additional parameters, although not without ethical and practical problems, together formulate a framework to ethically distinguish a more narrowly defined practice of palliative sedation from practices that are tantamount to euthanasia. Finally, the article raises the question as to what impact palliative sedation might have on the practice of palliative care itself. The increasing interest in palliative sedation may reemphasize characteristics of health care that initially encouraged the emergence of palliative care in the first place: the focus on therapy rather than care, the physical dimension rather than the whole person, the individual rather than the community, and the primacy of intervention rather than receptiveness and presence.

  11. [Clinical trials: vulnerability and ethical relativism].

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Research in human beings is an important chapter of medical ethics. In recent years, investigation has been taken over by profit driven corporations that must guarantee the medical and commercial application of results. This new model of investigation has generated conflicts of interest in doctor-patient, researcher-subject relationship. The inevitable debate and media reaction has led. These trials of controversial design to regions of the globe where the vulnerability of the populations continues to allow their undertaking. This article includes a historical perspective on experimentation in human beings and the conditions that led to its regulation: the Nuremberg CODE, followed by the Helsinky Declaration in its different versions, and the Belmont Report, that defend the subject according to the ethic of principles used in western medicine. There is then a review of the attempts to change international regulation to reintroduce clinical trials with placebo--which since 1996 is only permitted where there are no therapeutic or diagnostic methods--on populations that would otherwise have no access to treatment. This then leads on to the issue of double standards in medical investigation defended by many investigators and some official entities. The article concludes that it may be prudent to allow local ethical commissions to approve deviation from the established norm if such is necessary to resolve urgent questions of health in the country, but it is unacceptable that any such emergency is used as a reason to reduce the ethical prerequisites, in clinical trials. It also concludes that true urgency is in making available to all who need it the effective products already in existence. Furthermore, that the acceptance of ethical relativism can result in the exploitation of vulnerable third world populations for research programmes that cannot be undertaken in their sponsoring countries due to the ethical restrictions in place.

  12. The ethics of research.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2013-01-01

    All healthcare disciplines acknowledge that research should be ethical. Formal research inquiry methods and processes are embedded with ethical concepts. For the nurse researcher, the significance of living an ethos of straight thinking is important for the expansion of disciplinary knowledge and fortifying the integrity of the discipline. Ethical notions surrounding the scientific merit, integrity, and the protection of human subjects are of paramount concern to the discipline as the never-ending quest to produce evidence for nurse practice is emphasized. Potential implications for the ethics of nursing research from a humanbecoming ethical perspective is explored.

  13. Unesco's Global Ethics Observatory

    PubMed Central

    Have, H ten; Ang, T W

    2007-01-01

    The Global Ethics Observatory, launched by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization in December 2005, is a system of databases in the ethics of science and technology. It presents data on experts in ethics, on institutions (university departments and centres, commissions, councils and review boards, and societies and associations) and on teaching programmes in ethics. It has a global coverage and will be available in six major languages. Its aim is to facilitate the establishment of ethical infrastructures and international cooperation all around the world. PMID:17209103

  14. Oops, what about ethics?

    PubMed

    Oladimeji, O; Isaakidis, P; Zachariah, R; Hinderaker, S G; Koghali, M; van Griensven, J; Harries, A D; Edginton, M E

    2013-09-21

    Ethics approval of research studies is essential for the protection and rights of study subjects, whether this is for prospective research or record reviews. This article shares a painful lesson learned from a field experience where the appropriate steps for obtaining ethics approval were not followed by a young researcher. This researcher had embarked on an operational research project, but had omitted to seek ethics approval from a local ethics committee. Young researchers, particularly from low- and middle-income countries, need to learn about the importance and value of ethics.

  15. Phronesis in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    McGee, G

    1996-12-01

    This essay argues that while we have examined clinical ethics quite extensively in the literature, too little attention has been paid to the complex question of how clinical ethics is learned. Competing approaches to ethics pedagogy have relied on outmoded understandings of the way moral learning takes place in ethics. It is argued that the better approach, framed in the work of Aristotle, is the idea of phronesis, which depends on a long-term mentorship in clinical medicine for either medical students or clinical ethics students. Such an approach is articulated and defended.

  16. History of the cholesterol controversy in Britain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G R

    2009-02-01

    The lipid hypothesis, the concept that cholesterol plays a causal role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, has been the subject of a controversy which started in the 1950s, peaked in the 1970s and 80s and then subsided in the 1990s. It was finally resolved by the positive outcome of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study, the first of 14 prevention trials using statins which showed that lowering cholesterol reduced both cardiovascular events and total mortality. This commentary focuses primarily on the events and people involved in the cholesterol controversy in Britain. The foremost critics of the lipid hypothesis are now deceased but unfortunately for many of the patients with hypercholesterolaemia and coronary heart disease it took the best part of 50 years to disprove the sceptics. This brief account relates why it took so long.

  17. Cancer stem cells: controversies in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sarah K; Matsui, William

    2009-11-01

    Increasing data suggest that the initiation, relapse, and progression of human cancers are driven by specific cell populations within an individual tumor. However, inconsistencies have emerged in precisely defining phenotypic markers that can reliably identify these "cancer stem cells" in nearly every human malignancy studied to date. Multiple myeloma, one of the first tumors postulated to be driven by a rare population of cancer stem cells, is no exception. Similar to other diseases, controversy surrounds the exact phenotype and biology of multiple myeloma cells with the capacity for clonogenic growth. Here, we review the studies that have led to these controversies and discuss potential reasons for these disparate findings. Moreover, we speculate how these inconsistencies may be resolved through studies by integrating advancements in both myeloma and stem cell biology.

  18. Vitamin a: history, current uses, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M Shane

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin A is required for the proper functioning of many important metabolic and physiologic activities, including vision, gene transcription, the immune system and skin cell differentiation. Both excessive and deficient levels of vitamin A lead to poor functioning of many human systems. The biologically active form, retinoic acid, binds to nuclear receptors that facilitate transcription that ultimately leads to it's physiological effects. Retinoids are derivatives of vitamin A that are medications used to treat acne vulgaris, psoriasis, ichthyosis (and other disorders of keratinization), skin cancer prevention as well as several bone marrow derived neoplasias. Systemic retinoids are teratogenic and have to be prescribed with caution and close oversight. Other potential adverse events are controversial. These include the relationship of retinoid derivatives in sunscreens, their effects on bone mineral density, depression and suicidal ideation and inflammatory bowel disease. These controversies will be discussed in detail.

  19. Erythropoietin in bone - Controversies and consensus.

    PubMed

    Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Neumann, Drorit; Gabet, Yankel

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is the main hormone that regulates the production of red blood cells (hematopoiesis), by stimulating their progenitors. Beyond this vital function, several emerging roles have been noted for Epo in other tissues, including neurons, heart and retina. The skeletal system is also affected by Epo, however, its actions on bone are, as yet, controversial. Here, we review the seemingly contradicting evidence regarding Epo effects on bone remodeling. We also discuss the evidence pointing to a direct versus indirect effect of Epo on the osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell lineages. The current controversy may derive from a context-dependent mode of action of Epo, namely opposite skeletal actions during bone regeneration and steady-state bone remodeling. Differences in conclusions from the published in-vitro studies may thus relate to the different experimental conditions. Taken together, these studies indicate a complexity of Epo functions in bone cells.

  20. Controversy in Cancer of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Edward B.

    1979-01-01

    Cancer of the breast is a capricious disease. Until we know the etiology and can accurately appraise its extent we cannot give accurate prognosis and our therapy is often palliative. There are still controversies over the incidence and whether any true change has been made in mortality from the disease. The place of xeromammography in detecting cancer of the breast is still unsettled. When there are so many unknowns it is not remarkable that the best treatment is so controversial. Each form of therapy has advantages and disadvantages; at present we are unable to predict with accuracy which patient will benefit most from which regimen. We need adequate numbers of patients in properly controlled studies to draw conclusions from reports on the course and therapy of such a variable disease. PMID:21297754