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Sample records for ethnic minority adolescents

  1. Intragroup Contact and Anxiety Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Considering Ethnic Identity and School Diversity Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Everyday interactions with same-racial/ethnic others may confer positive benefits for adolescents, but the meaning of these interactions are likely influenced by individual differences and larger structural contexts. This study examined the situation-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and anxiety symptoms among a diverse sample of 306 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (Mage = 14 years; 66 % female), based on (1) individual differences in ethnic identity centrality and (2) developmental histories of transitions in diversity between elementary, middle, and high school. The results indicated that at the level of the situation, when adolescents interacted with more same-ethnic others, they reported fewer anxiety symptoms. Further, for adolescents who had experienced a transition in school diversity, the positive benefits of contact with same-ethnic others was only conferred for those who felt that their ethnicity was very important to them. The importance of examining individual differences within larger developmental histories to understand the everyday experiences of ethnic minority adolescents are discussed. PMID:24951944

  2. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  3. Ethnic Composition of School Classes, Majority-Minority Friendships, and Adolescents' Intergroup Attitudes in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…

  4. Ethnic Composition of School Classes, Majority-Minority Friendships, and Adolescents' Intergroup Attitudes in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…

  5. Suicidal ideation in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, D D; Smit, J H; van Balkom, A J L M; van Ameijden, E; Saharso, S

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and explored the vulnerability to suicidal ideation across several ethnic minority versus ethnic majority adolescents in the city of Utrecht in The Netherlands. Exploratory analyses were conducted on a dataset obtained from the Municipal Health Services in Utrecht. We examined whether ethnic minority adolescents are at risk for suicidal ideation because of a family background of migration, social-economic position and certain family factors, which influence psychological constellations. We found that levels of suicidal ideation among adolescents of Turkish background were significantly higher than in both majority and other minority adolescents, The Turkish adolescents at risk for suicidal ideation reported that they do not enjoy being at home with their families. Psychological factors, in particular lack of self-pride and the idea of not becoming successful in life, appeared to be important, as well as feelings of loneliness. Suicidal ideation was not found equally across all ethnic minority groups. A history of migration, ethnic minority status, or low socioeconomic status were not sufficient to explain the variation across ethnicities. Our results suggest that specific social-cultural factors, contextualized in the individual and located in the family environment, are relevant in explaining the disproportionate rates for Turkish adolescents in Utrecht.

  6. General Self-Esteem of Adolescents from Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands and the Reflected Appraisal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    1988-01-01

    Examined lack of differences in general self-esteem between adolescents of ethnic minorities and Dutch adolescents, focusing on reflected appraisal process. Found significant relationship between general self-esteem and perceived evaluation of family members (and no such relationship with nonfamily members) for ethnic minority adolescents;…

  7. Psychological Disidentification with the Academic Domain Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents in The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, M.; Thijs, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Among ethnic minority group adolescents, experiences with discrimination and prejudice in school settings are thought to lead to a defensive detachment of the self from the school domain. That is, these adolescents may disengage their self-feelings from their academic performances causing the academic self to become a less important…

  8. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  9. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  10. Stress, Self-Esteem, Hope, Optimism, and Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…

  11. Stress, Self-Esteem, Hope, Optimism, and Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…

  12. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  13. Body Dissatisfaction and Physical Development among Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne; Ammon, Natalie Y.; Bellmore, Amy D.; Graham, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and adjustment, and the role physical development plays in this association, in an ethnically diverse sample of over 1100 urban, ninth grade boys and girls (M age = 14). More similarities than differences were found across ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Latino,…

  14. Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychological disidentification with the academic domain among ethnic minority adolescents in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2004-03-01

    Among ethnic minority group adolescents, experiences with discrimination and prejudice in school settings are thought to lead to a defensive detachment of the self from the school domain. That is, these adolescents may disengage their self-feelings from their academic performances causing the academic self to become a less important part of global self-worth. However, there is limited empirical evidence for this assumption and the existing research is on African American students. To examine among ethnic minority adolescents in the Netherlands the hypothesis that under conditions of perceived discrimination minority group members tend to psychologically disengage their self-feelings from educational performance. Study 1 was conducted among 161 Turkish students between 13 and 16 years of age. The sample in Study 2 consisted of 112 Turkish participants of 11 and 12 years of age. Two questionnaire studies were conducted and participants responded to questions on perceived academic performance, academic self-esteem, global self-worth and perceived discrimination in school. In both studies, academic self-esteem mediated the relationship between perceived educational performance and feelings of global self-worth. More importantly, perceived discrimination in school moderated the relationship between academic self-esteem and global self-worth. Discrimination did not moderate the relationship between academic performance and academic self-esteem. The results indicate that for ethnic minorities perceived discrimination in school can lead to psychological disidentification from the academic domain whereby global self-worth is less based on performances and competencies in the academic domain.

  16. Sexual risk behavior and STI health literacy among ethnic minority adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14-18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991-2010.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-11-24

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7-18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48-1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20-1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37-1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34-1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades.

  18. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991–2010

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-peng; Pan, Chen-wei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7–18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48–1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20–1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37–1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34–1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades. PMID:27881845

  19. Ethnic Minority Status and Body Image Dissatisfaction: A Scoping Review of the Child and Adolescent Literature.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Melissa; Couturier, Jennifer; Georgiades, Katholiki; Wahoush, Olive; Jack, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    To systematically summarize the literature examining ethnic minority status and body image dissatisfaction (BID) among children and adolescents living in Canada and the United States. Literature was identified by entering search terms into six electronic databases and through an electronic hand search of key research journals. Eligible sources were those published between 1946 and November 2012, conducted within Canada or the United States, included ethnic minority children or adolescents (<19 years), and measured BID through self-report. Synthesis of the sources followed the principles of thematic and content analysis (Vaismoradi et al. in Nurs Health Sci 15:398-405, 2013). A total of 33 sources were included in our scoping synthesis; spanning from 1991 to 2011. No results emerged from Canada. Evidence from the United States is equivocal. The literature is plagued by inconsistent nomenclature and inadequate attention to issues of measurement, sex and gender. A more robust evidence-base requires advanced methods to examine the intersection of ethnicity, sex and gender on BID among children and adolescents.

  20. Ethnic identity, perceived support, and depressive symptoms among racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2015-01-01

    Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role of nativity status (U.S. born vs. foreign born) was examined in these associations. Participants were 9th and 10th graders (N = 341; 141 foreign born and 200 U.S. born, from Asian, Latino(a), and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds), attending an urban high school. Consistent with previous research, ethnic identity was negatively associated with depressive symptomatology in the overall sample. Nativity status did not moderate the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms. Among the sociodemographic factors examined, only gender was associated with depressive symptoms, with girls reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with boys. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the degree of depressive symptomatology between U.S.-born and foreign-born adolescents, and perceived social support was not associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of gender and ethnic identity in mental health and, more broadly, the complexity of social location in mental health outcomes among U.S.-born and foreign-born immigrant-origin adolescents. Implications for research and interventions with immigrant-origin adolescents are discussed.

  1. Less Socially Engaged? Participation in Friendship and Extracurricular Activities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggesting…

  2. Less Socially Engaged? Participation in Friendship and Extracurricular Activities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggesting…

  3. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  4. Supporting Minority Ethnic Children and Adolescents with Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Difficulties in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The author addresses the mental health needs of ethnic minority children and young people in the United Kingdom and the services that are provided to support them. The author discusses the complex and distinctive pattern of ethnic minority distribution in the United Kingdom, along with a consideration of what is known about the mental health of…

  5. How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

  6. How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

  7. Parentification, substance use, and sex among adolescent daughters from ethnic minority families: the moderating role of monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Guided by structural family systems theory, this study explored the relationship between parentification and adolescent daughters' sexual risk engagement and substance use. We also explored how adolescent reports of parental monitoring moderated the relationship between parentification and adolescent risk. Data were from a cross-sectional, cross-generational study of 176 mother-daughter dyads from low-income, inner-city, ethnic minority families. In this sample, which included a subset of mothers with HIV, parental physical symptoms were associated with slightly higher levels of parentification. Parentification was associated with adolescent daughters' intention to have sex (but not substance use) in a direction opposite to prediction. Higher parentification was associated with lower intention to have sex. Parental monitoring did not moderate relationships between parentification and adolescent risk. These findings highlight that despite the negative influence hypothesized in structural family systems theory, parentification was not associated with risk engagement of high-risk adolescent daughters in ethnic minority families with low income. © 2013 FPI, Inc.

  8. Cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children and adolescents from ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Mc Manus, V; Savage, E

    2010-09-01

    Both diabetes and asthma are increasingly being recognized as health problems for ethnic groups. Because of cultural differences, ethnicity is reported to be a risk factor for poorer quality in health care, disease management and disease control. Ethnic groups are at risk for poorer quality of life and increased disease complications when compared with non-ethnic counterparts living in the same country. There is little known about how culture is addressed in interventions developed for ethnic groups. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic minority groups. A total of 92 records were identified that were potentially relevant to this review following which, 61 papers were excluded. The full texts of remaining papers (n= 31) were then read independently by both authors, and agreement was reached to exclude a further 27 papers that did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of four papers were eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that despite growing concerns about health disparities between ethnic and non-ethnic groups in relation to both asthma and diabetes in childhood, there has been little effort to develop cultural specific interventions for ethnic groups. By systematically reviewing asthma and diabetes interventions we have highlighted that few interventions have been developed from a cultural perspective. There are a limited number of interventions published that add knowledge on the specific elements of intervention that is needed to effectively and sensitively educate other cultures. More work is required into identifying which strategies or components of cultural interventions are most effective in achieving positive health outcomes for children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic groups.

  9. Working with Culture: Psychotherapeutic Interventions with Ethnic Minority Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Luis A., Ed.; Koss-Chioino, Joan D., Ed.

    This book presents essays concerning culturally responsive psychotherapeutic interventions for specific problems commonly experienced by ethnic-minority youth. Each essay offers case examples, along with a clinical how-to approach for dealing with problems such as cross-racial foster care, gang involvement, child abuse, and substance abuse. Essays…

  10. Factors associated with HPV awareness among mothers of low-income ethnic minority adolescent girls in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Beth A; Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Sanchez, Leah; Nonzee, Narissa J; Chang, L Cindy; Taylor, Victoria M; Bastani, Roshan

    2015-01-03

    Among caregivers of adolescent girls, awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with vaccine uptake. Little is known, however, about the predictors of HPV awareness among low-income ethnic minority groups in the U.S. The purpose of this study is to understand demographic factors associated with HPV awareness among low-income, ethnic minority mothers in Los Angeles County. We conducted a cross-sectional study of caregivers of adolescent girls through the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health Office of Women's Health's hotline. The majority of the participants were foreign-born (88%), one quarter lacked a usual source of care, and one quarter lacked public or private health insurance for their daughter. We found that one in three participants had never heard of HPV or the vaccine. Mothers that were unaware of HPV were significantly more likely to conduct the interview in a language other than English and to lack health insurance for their daughters. HPV vaccine awareness was much lower in our caregiver sample (61%) than in a simultaneous national survey of caregivers (85%). The associations between lack of awareness and use of a language other than English, as well as lack of health insurance for their daughter indicate the need for HPV vaccine outreach efforts tailored to ethnic minority communities in the U.S. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors associated with HPV awareness among mothers of low-income ethnic minority adolescent girls in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Beth A.; Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Sanchez, Leah; Nonzee, Narissa J.; Chang, L. Cindy; Taylor, Victoria M.; Bastani, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Among caregivers of adolescent girls, awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with vaccine uptake. Little is known, however, about the predictors of HPV awareness among low-income ethnic minority groups in the U.S. The purpose of this study is to understand demographic factors associated with HPV awareness among low-income, ethnic minority mothers in Los Angeles County. We conducted a cross-sectional study of caregivers of adolescent girls through the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health Office of Women’s Health’s hotline. The majority of the participants were foreign-born (88%), one quarter lacked a usual source of care, and one quarter lacked public or private health insurance for their daughter. We found that one in three participants had never heard of HPV or the vaccine. Mothers that were unaware of HPV were significantly more likely to conduct the interview in a language other than English and to lack health insurance for their daughters. HPV vaccine awareness was much lower in our caregiver sample (61%) than in a simultaneous national survey of caregivers (85%). The associations between lack of awareness and use of a language other than English, as well as lack of health insurance for their daughter indicate the need for HPV vaccine outreach efforts tailored to ethnic minority communities in the U.S. PMID:25434792

  12. Minority Ethnic Adolescents' Wellbeing: Child Rearing Practices and Positive Family Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochieng, Bertha M. N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines Black adolescents' experiences and views on the interrelationships between their families' parenting practices and their wellbeing. Method: The material is drawn from a community-based qualitative study on the health and wellbeing experiences of Black African families and adolescents. A total of 53 adolescents of…

  13. Minority Ethnic Adolescents' Wellbeing: Child Rearing Practices and Positive Family Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochieng, Bertha M. N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines Black adolescents' experiences and views on the interrelationships between their families' parenting practices and their wellbeing. Method: The material is drawn from a community-based qualitative study on the health and wellbeing experiences of Black African families and adolescents. A total of 53 adolescents of…

  14. An Examination of Culturally Relevant Stressors, Coping, Ethnic Identity, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…

  15. Access to and Interest in Using Smartphone Technology for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Ethnic Minority Adolescents and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    St George, Sara M; Delamater, Alan M; Pulgaron, Elizabeth R; Daigre, Amber; Sanchez, Janine

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of parent and adolescent interest in using smartphone technology for type 1 diabetes (T1D) management is needed prior to developing technology-based interventions for ethnic minorities. This study examined access to and interest in technology-based programs for T1D in primarily Hispanic adolescents and their parents. During a scheduled clinic visit, adolescents with T1D (n = 50; 52% female; 13.6 ± 2.0 years old; 74% Hispanic; hemoglobin A1c = 8.9 ± 1.7%) and their parents (n = 49; 54% household income <$49,000) completed brief self-report surveys. Adolescents reported having access to the Internet (98%) and their own smartphones (86%). Thirty-seven percent reported using smartphone applications (apps) for their diabetes care, with 88% reporting carbohydrate counting as its primary function. Although most participants reported high/moderate interest in diabetes-specific apps, girls were more likely than boys to endorse high interest in apps to calculate and track insulin doses. A greater proportion of parents than of adolescents expressed high interest in apps to track glucose, count carbohydrates, calculate insulin doses, track insulin use, and receive diabetes-related reminders. A greater proportion of parents than of adolescents also endorsed interest in a program that combined Internet use with smartphone apps. Results suggest ethnic minority adolescents with T1D across a range of income levels have access to smartphones. Although most parents expressed high interest in diabetes-specific apps, there was greater variability in adolescent interest. Understanding barriers and facilitators to the use of smartphone apps for diabetes care in ethnic minority adolescents may increase their interest in and ultimate adoption of this technology.

  16. Stress-Related Growth in Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Measurement Structure and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Allison A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Aldridge, Arianna A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress-related growth is defined as the perception or experience of deriving benefits from encountering stressful circumstances and, thus, has been identified as a protective factor against stress. The current study revised and subsequently validated scores on an existing measure of stress-related growth in a sample of racial/ethnic minority…

  17. Socio-ecological correlates of mental health among ethnic minorities in areas of political conflict: a study of Druze adolescents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Natour, Miras

    2014-04-01

    Children and youths living in areas of political conflict are at increased risk of mental health problems, but little is known about psychosocial adjustment among ethnic minorities living in war-afflicted settings. This cross-sectional study used an ecological approach to investigate the unique contributions of child, family/social, and minority related factors as well as traumatic exposure and perceived discrimination to the mental health of 167 Druze adolescents in Northern Israel. Outcome measures included participants' self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Adolescents reported high indirect exposure, moderate discrimination, strong ethnic identity and high religious involvement. Regression analyses showed that female gender, number of traumatic events, and perceived discrimination were associated with more severe mental health outcomes. In addition, low social support and high religious involvement predicted increased PTSD symptom severity, while stronger ethnic identity was associated with less emotional and behavioral problems. Findings are discussed in terms of the cultural characteristics of the Druze community and highlight the need to consider additional stressors, such as discrimination, when working with ethnic minority youth in conflict zones.

  18. Perceived Neighborhood Risk as a Predictor of Drug Use among Urban Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Moderating Influences of Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Miller, Nicole L.; Ifill-Williams, Michelle; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the moderating influences of psychosocial functioning on the relation between perceived neighborhood risk and alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in inner-city, ethnic minority youths. Neighborhood risk uniquely predicted alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; however, some relations were qualified by level of psychosocial functioning.…

  19. Direct and indirect violence exposure: relations to depression for economically disadvantaged ethnic minority mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan Dushyant; Wiesner, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to violence remains a considerable public health problem for adolescents in the United States. This cross-sectional study examined relative associations between exposure to violence in 3 different contexts (home, school, community) and depressive symptoms, using data from 233 11th-graders (predominantly economically disadvantaged Hispanic and African American students). Analyses examined the effects of victimization and witnessing violence in each context and those of cumulative violence exposure across contexts on depression, controlling for other risk factors. Both victimization and witnessing violence at home significantly predicted depression. Violence exposure in school and neighborhood was unrelated to the outcome. Witnessing violence was slightly more effective in predicting depression than victimization. Cumulative violence exposure was significantly related to depression in a linear fashion.

  20. Exploring Alcohol-Use Behaviors Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents: Intersections With Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Results. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths. PMID:24328614

  1. A Qualitative Study of Cognitive, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Challenges Associated With Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes in Ethnic Minority Parents and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    St George, Sara M; Pulgarón, Elizabeth R; Ferranti, Dina; Agosto, Yaray; Toro, Maria I; Ramseur, Kevin C; Delamater, Alan M

    2017-04-01

    Purpose The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to explore cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial challenges associated with having and/or parenting an adolescent with pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) from the perspectives of ethnic minority parents and adolescents. Methods Ethnic minority (79.2% non-Hispanic black, 29.6% Hispanic) adolescents (n = 14, 78.6% female, 14.7 ± 1.9 years) and their parents (n = 13, 100% female) participated in either individual family interviews or multifamily focus group sessions. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded by a team of 4 raters. QSR NVivo 10 was used to perform a content analysis and to extract coded adolescent and parent responses. Results Six themes corresponding to 3 broad categories (cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial challenges) emerged. Regarding cognitive challenges, families described difficulties learning about a new disease and managing youth knowledge deficits and/or superficial knowledge. In terms of behavioral challenges, parents and adolescents discussed ongoing difficulties with making and maintaining positive youth health behavior changes as well as with ensuring regimen adherence. Finally, managing youth emotions related to diabetes and navigating social relationships with peers and other family members around the disclosure of T2D were the primary psychosocial challenges to emerge. Conclusions Directions for future research include developing and evaluating brief family interventions and adolescent psychosocial screening measures. Recommendations for clinical practice include increasing family knowledge of T2D, enhancing parenting skills for managing youth behavior change, and conducting routine psychosocial screening during follow-up clinic visits.

  2. Recruitment Strategies and the Retention of Obese Urban Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Clinical Trials: The FIT Families Project, Michigan, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah A.; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; Marshall, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The successful recruitment and retention of participants is integral to the translation of research findings. We examined the recruitment and retention rates of racial/ethnic minority adolescents at a center involved in the National Institutes of Health Obesity Research for Behavioral Intervention Trials (ORBIT) initiative by the 3 recruitment strategies used: clinic, informatics, and community. Methods During the 9-month study, 186 family dyads, each composed of an obese African American adolescent and a caregiver, enrolled in a 6-month weight-loss intervention, a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. We compared recruitment and retention rates by recruitment strategy and examined whether recruitment strategy was related to dyad baseline characteristics. Results Of the 186 enrolled families, 110 (59.1%) were recruited through clinics, 53 (28.5%) through informatics, and 23 (12.4%) through community. Of those recruited through community, 40.4% enrolled in the study, compared with 32.7% through clinics and 8.2% through informatics. Active refusal rate was 3%. Of the 1,036 families identified for the study, 402 passively refused to participate: 290 (45.1%) identified through informatics, 17 (29.8%) through community, and 95 (28.3%) through clinics. Recruitment strategy was not related to the age of the adolescent, adolescent comorbidities, body mass index of the adolescent or caregiver, income or education of the caregiver, or retention rates at 3 months, 7 months, or 9 months. Study retention rate was 87.8%. Conclusion Using multiple recruitment strategies is beneficial when working with racial/ethnic minority adolescents, and each strategy can yield good retention. Research affiliated with health care systems would benefit from the continued specification, refinement, and dissemination of these strategies. PMID:25695260

  3. Bullying and victimization among adolescents: the role of ethnicity and ethnic composition of school class.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, Miranda H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between ethnicity, peer-reported bullying and victimization, and whether these relationships were moderated by the ethnic composition of the school classes. Participants were 2386 adolescents (mean age: 13 years and 10 months; 51.9% boys) from 117 school classes in the Netherlands. Multilevel analyses showed that, after controlling for the ethnic composition of school class, ethnic minority adolescents were less victimized, but did not differ from the ethnic majority group members on bullying. Victimization was more prevalent in ethnically heterogeneous classes. Furthermore, the results revealed that ethnic minority adolescents bully more in ethnically heterogeneous classes. Our findings suggest that, in order to understand bullying and victimization in schools in ethnically diverse cultures, the ethnic background of adolescents and the ethnic composition of school classes should be taken into account.

  4. Conceptualization of sexual partner relationship steadiness among ethnic minority adolescent women: implications for evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions.

    PubMed

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral interventions for sexual risk reduction have been less successful among ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than among other adolescent populations. African American and Mexican American adolescent women (ages 14-18 years, n = 548) self-reported sexual partner relationship steadiness and sexual risk behaviors via semi-structured interviews at study entry. Descriptive and bivariate analyses compared sexual risk behaviors by sexual partner relationship steadiness. Steady and unsteady relationships were conceptualized differently. Steady relationships included emotional or financial support, sexual communication, greater relationship importance, unintended pregnancy, and perceived monogamy during break-ups. Unsteady relationships were unpredictable, including sex with ex-steady partners and friends with benefits, lack of mutual respect, and poor sexual communication. Modification of sexual risk reduction interventions including conceptualizations of risk by context of sexual partner relationship status is recommended to enhance efficacy among minority adolescent women with STI or history of abuse. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development.

  6. A Mosaic of America's Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellows, Donald Keith

    In this approach to an understanding of America's ethnic minorities, the most important concern is with the interaction between these various culture groups and the dominant, white society. Six of America's principal ethnic minorities have been considered: blacks, Mexicans, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, and Puerto Ricans. In each case the same…

  7. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    PubMed

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Ethnic Minority Representation in Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed chairpersons of 476 counselor education programs to determine ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. Compared to population statistics, Asian Americans were found to be underrepresented as both students and faculty. (JAC)

  9. Ethnic Minority Representation in Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed chairpersons of 476 counselor education programs to determine ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. Compared to population statistics, Asian Americans were found to be underrepresented as both students and faculty. (JAC)

  10. Indochinese Refugees: An Emerging Ethnic Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kenneth A.; Hendricks, Glenn L.

    This paper examines the extent to which educational and other institutions of the dominant society are shaping the ethnic self-identity of Indochinese refugees. It is argued that an institutionally-defined ethnic self-identity is being imposed on the Indochinese as a precondition for consideration as a minority group in United States society.…

  11. By whose standard? The affective implications of ethnic minorities' comparisons to ethnic minority and majority referents

    PubMed Central

    LEACH, COLIN WAYNE; SMITH, HEATHER J.

    2007-01-01

    In a ‘diary’ study, we examined the frequency and affective implications of 34 ethnic minority students' comparisons to other ethnic minorities or to members of a high-status ethnic majority (i.e., European-Americans). Participants made more frequent comparisons to ethnic majority than ethnic minority referents, although neither type of comparison tended to be perceived in terms of group membership (see also Smith & Leach, 2004). Comparisons to ethnic majority referents did not alter participants' positive affect even where they suggested poor future prospects in status-relevant domains. In contrast, comparisons to fellow ethnic minorities led to increased positive affect when they suggested a future prospect of improvement. We discuss the conceptual and practical implications of social comparison in the context of group status. PMID:17330149

  12. Ethnic Minority Human Resourcs in Psychology Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L., Comp.; And Others

    Minority members of the American Psychological Association (APA) who have expressed a desire to serve as professional resources are listed in this directory. Individuals are identified under one of four broad categories of ethnic minority groups: American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific American, Black/Afro American, and Hispanic. Within each…

  13. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  14. Ethnic minority energy conference: report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The report of a 1977 energy conference sponsored by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People summarizes the basic concern that US energy policy was not addressing the importance of full employment or the impact of rising energy costs on the poor. Conference speakers spoke of the social and economic changes that are needed if minorities are to participate in the economics of the technological age. These include better educational opportunities and cooperation between civil rights groups and energy planners. Other topics were venture opportunities for minorities in energy-related fields and opportunities for minority advocacy and energy efficiency actions.

  15. Ethnic density in school classes and adolescent mental health

    PubMed Central

    Vollebergh, Wilma; van Dorsselaer, Saskia

    2009-01-01

    Objective The present study set out to examine the association between ethnic composition of school classes and prevalence of internalising and externalising problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority students. Methods Data were derived from the Dutch 2002 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional study with a total of 5,730 adolescents, aged 11–18 and attending secondary school, of which 931 belong to ethnic minority groups. The data were analysed using a multilevel regression model. Results The study revealed that, after taking individual characteristics like age, gender, educational level and family affluence into account, ethnic minority students on average report higher levels of externalising but not internalising problems. Ethnic density on the level of school classes modified this difference, as a negative association between the proportion ethnic minority students in class and externalising problem behaviour was found, but only for ethnic minority students. No effect of ethnic composition was found with respect to internalising problem behaviour. Conclusion The data revealed that ethnic minority students report higher levels of externalising problem behaviour, but only in classes with a minority of ethnic minority students and not in classes with a culturally diverse composition. This points towards a possible beneficial effect of a more culturally diverse environment for minority students. Majority students appeared to be insensitive for the ethnic density effect. Future studies should investigate the role of the ethnic composition of the school class more in-depth. PMID:19655079

  16. Academic and Career Expectations of Ethnic Minority Youth in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Francis; Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ku, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Based on social-cognitive career theory (SCCT), we explore how ethnic identity, parental occupation, efficacy in learning Chinese, and learning experience relate to ethnic minority adolescents' academic and career expectations. The participants are 632 Southeast Asian adolescents in Hong Kong. In accordance with SCCT, structural equation modeling…

  17. Academic and Career Expectations of Ethnic Minority Youth in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Francis; Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ku, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Based on social-cognitive career theory (SCCT), we explore how ethnic identity, parental occupation, efficacy in learning Chinese, and learning experience relate to ethnic minority adolescents' academic and career expectations. The participants are 632 Southeast Asian adolescents in Hong Kong. In accordance with SCCT, structural equation modeling…

  18. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  19. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the extrinsic…

  20. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the extrinsic…

  1. Is All Classroom Conduct Equal?: Teacher Contact with Parents of Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Parental involvement is a key ingredient in the educational success of students and an integral component of involvement is teacher-parent communication. One body of research finds that minority immigrant parents face barriers in interacting with schools, and communicate less with schools than native-born White parents.…

  2. Is All Classroom Conduct Equal?: Teacher Contact with Parents of Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Parental involvement is a key ingredient in the educational success of students and an integral component of involvement is teacher-parent communication. One body of research finds that minority immigrant parents face barriers in interacting with schools, and communicate less with schools than native-born White parents.…

  3. A longitudinal examination of early adolescence ethnic identity trajectories.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cindy Y; Stormshak, Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Early adolescence is marked by transitions for adolescents, and is also a time for identity exploration. Ethnic identity is an essential component of youths' sense of self. In this study we examined the trajectories of ethnic identity for adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds during a 4-year period. Six latent class trajectories were identified in the study: the majority of adolescents (41.8%) displayed growth in ethnic identity over 4 years, followed by 30.1% whose high levels of ethnic identity remained stable, then by those who experienced moderate decreases in ethnic identity (10.8%). Another class of adolescents (7.3%) showed significant declines in ethnic identity level, followed by 5.5% of adolescents with significant increases, and finally by 4.5% of adolescents with low stable levels of ethnic identity during this developmental period. The classes differed by ethnicity, and adolescents with increasing high levels of ethnic identity reported better parent-child relationships. Findings and implications are discussed.

  4. An Application of Ecological Theory to Ethnic Identity Formation among Biethnic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    A body of literature has increased our understanding of ethnic identity formation among ethnic minorities, but there remains a dearth of research focused on the ethnic identity formation of biethnic adolescents. Biethnic adolescents are likely to have unique experiences related to ethnicity that significantly alter the course of their ethnic…

  5. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, problem behaviors, and mental health among minority urban youth.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Staras, Stephanie A S; O'Mara, Ryan J; Livingston, Melvin D; Komro, Kelli A

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceived frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and associations with high-risk behaviors/conditions among adolescents. With surveys from 2490 racial/ethnic minority adolescents primarily with low socioeconomic status, we used regression analysis to examine associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol use, marijuana use, physical aggression, delinquency, victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual behaviors). Most adolescents (73%) experienced racial/ethnic discrimination and 42% of experiences were 'somewhat-' or 'very disturbing.' Adolescents reporting frequent and disturbing racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk of all measured behaviors, except alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who experienced any racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk for victimization and depression. Regardless of intensity, adolescents who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at least occasionally were more likely to report greater physical aggression, delinquency, suicidal ideation, younger age at first oral sex, unprotected sex during last intercourse, and more lifetime sexual partners. Most adolescents had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination due to their race/ethnicity. Even occasional experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination likely contribute to maladaptive behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Prevention and coping strategies are important targets for intervention.

  6. Ethnic Identity of Minority No-Fee Preservice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shuhan; Li, Ling; Yalikunjiang, Aisige; Tao, Xunyu; Li, Quan; Gong, Siyuan

    2013-01-01

    This study used a questionnaire to survey ethnic identity among 329 ethnic minority no-fee preservice students at Southwest University. The results indicated that: (1) Ethnic minority no-fee students have a relatively strong sense of identity with both their ethnicity and the Chinese nation, and the correlation between the two is positive. Their…

  7. Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S.; Cumsille, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by…

  8. Underdiagnosis and Referral Bias of Autism in Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; El Bouk, Saloua; Boussaid, Wafaa; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (1) the distribution of ethnic minorities among children referred to autism institutions and (2) referral bias in pediatric assessment of autism in ethnic minorities. It showed that compared to the known community prevalence, ethnic minorities were under-represented among 712 children referred to autism institutions. In…

  9. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Moncher, Michael S; Parms, Clifford A; Orlandi, Mario A; Schinke, Steven P; Miller, Samuel O; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects' attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions.

  10. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Moncher, Michael S.; Parms, Clifford A.; Orlandi, Mario A.; Schinke, Steven P.; Miller, Samuel O.; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects’ attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions. PMID:17387376

  11. Meeting the needs of minority ethnic communities.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, E

    1996-01-01

    Concentrating on exotica and cultural differences merely allows commissioners and providers to ignore general health needs and blame the communities themselves when they receive poor quality services. We now have to move forward if we are to achieve an improvement in their health care. We are not talking of an insignificant minority, but nearly one in 10 of all children. Clearly real differences in health needs do exist, for example haemoglobinopathy associated illness; these need to be addressed and adequate provision made. It is in meeting the general needs of minority ethnic children that we face the greatest challenge. These are no different to those of the white ethnic majority. However, meeting them may require different--sometimes radically different--response strategies on behalf of both purchasers and providers of health care to children, supported by appropriate training, audit, and research. PMID:8787438

  12. [Mental health problems in ethnic minority groups].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.

  13. The Development of Ethnic Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Seidman, Edward; Allen, LaRue; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The development of ethnic identity is a critical facet of adolescence, particularly for adolescents of color. In order to examine the developmental trajectory of ethnic identity, African American, Latino American, and European American early and middle adolescents (N=420) were assessed over 3 years. Two components of ethnic identity were…

  14. Financial Education in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…

  15. Counseling utilization by ethnic minority college students.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Lisa K; Draper, Matthew; Barón, Augustine

    2005-08-01

    Although multicultural awareness in counseling has risen substantially in the last decade, little research has examined counseling utilization and outcomes for ethnic minorities on university campuses. A sample of 1,166 African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Latino help-seeking university students from over 40 universities nationwide filled out the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ45) at the first and last therapy sessions. Caucasian students attended significantly more sessions than all other groups. Greatest distress was found at intake in Asian American students, followed by Latino, African American, and Caucasian students. All groups appeared to benefit from therapy, as noted by a decrease in symptomatology, but none of the groups met the criteria for clinically significant change for the OQ45. Implications for therapists working with minority clients are discussed.

  16. Ethnic awareness, prejudice, and civic commitments in four ethnic groups of American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance A; Syvertsen, Amy K; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S; Cumsille, Patricio

    2009-04-01

    The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by African- and Arab-Americans. Parental admonitions against discrimination were heard by all but African Americans, Latinos and those who reported prejudice heard that it could pose a barrier. Adolescents' beliefs that America is an equal opportunity society were negatively associated with experiences of discrimination and African-Americans were least likely to believe that the government was responsive to the average person. With respect to civic goals, all youth endorsed patriotism but ethnic minorities and ethnically aware youth were more committed to advocating for their ethnic group and European-Americans were less committed than were African Americans to improving race relations.

  17. Ethnicity and Adolescent Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    Argues that out-of-school factors have enormous, perhaps decisive, influence on student achievement and examines the role ethnicity, parents, peers, and culture play in student attitudes and academic performance. Findings are presented based on survey data gathered from 20,000 high school students over a 3-year period. (GR)

  18. Beliefs about Justification for Knowing When Ethnic Majority and Ethnic Minority Students Read Multiple Conflicting Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strømsø, Helge Ivar; Bråten, Ivar; Anmarkrud, Øistein; Ferguson, Leila E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of justification for knowing beliefs in learning and comprehension when ethnic majority and ethnic minority students from the same school classes read five conflicting documents on the scientific issue of sun exposure and health. Results showed that the more ethnic minority students trusted scientific authorities and the less…

  19. The Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon; Osler, Audrey; Hill, John

    2005-01-01

    This article critically analyses the extent to which the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant (EMAG) has been successful in meeting its core objective of raising the achievement of minority ethnic groups who are at risk of underachieving. The article provides an historical analysis of the Grant, sets the Grant within the context of the Labour…

  20. Ethnic and Minority Studies Review. Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Norman, Ed.; Copps, Jane, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    This document is the first issue of the University of Wisconsin System "Ethnic and Minority Studies Review," which represents an effort to bring to the attention of the people of Wisconsin and elsewhere an awareness of the work that is being done in the area of ethnic and minority and women's studies, especially within Wisconsin, along with…

  1. Ethnic Minority Graduates: Differences by Degrees. Report 309.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, H.; And Others

    The employment outcomes and career progress of ethnic minority members who graduated from four United Kingdom universities in 1993 were compared to those of their white counterparts. A final matched sample of 272 graduates (half were members of ethnic minorities) was achieved by filtering an initial sample of 3,421 graduates. Additional data were…

  2. Relating Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Attitudes toward Treating Minority Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Mehta, Vivek

    2001-01-01

    The attitudes of medical students of Indian decent (N=150) toward treating minority clients and using alternative therapies were assessed in relationship to the students' ethnic identity, acculturation, and self-concept. Students with strong ethnic identity and acculturation were more likely to treat minority patients and use alternative…

  3. Ethnic Minorities' Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    PubMed

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Irish Post-Primary Students' Attitudes towards Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tormey, Roland; Gleeson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The changing ethnic make-up of Irish society has impacted upon schools. Existing, largely qualitative studies have highlighted mixed attitudes towards ethnic minorities. Literature has also focused on the role of the state in articulating a discourse that shapes school-level responses to minorities. This paper critiques the idea of a unitary state…

  5. On Psychology of Ethnic Identity and Behavioral Tendency of Ethnic Minority College Students in Southwest China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Huiying; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Peifeng; Fan, Fenghui

    2008-01-01

    In China, ethnic identity refers to both one's own ethnic identity and the identity of the Chinese nation. It is of great significance not only to individuals' mental health and full play of psychological functions but also to ethnic solidarity and regional and national stability. On the whole, ethnic minority college students in the Southwestern…

  6. Methodological Challenges in Treatment Outcome Research With Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anna S.; Chang, Doris F.; Okazaki, Sumie

    2015-01-01

    Treatment outcome research focused on ethnic minorities is critically needed to eliminate mental health disparities. Because the conduct of treatment outcome research with ethnic minorities is difficult and complex, we discuss key challenges and present some methodological options suited to provide answers to specific types of questions. We focus first on the randomized clinical trial (RCT) paradigm, reviewing specific challenges facing investigators conducting ethnically inclusive trials. We then highlight the promise of other methods of inquiry to expand the science on mental health treatment with ethnic minorities. PMID:21058823

  7. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Mental Health and Suicidality Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72 691. Results. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Conclusions. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes. PMID:24825217

  9. Mental health and suicidality among racially/ethnically diverse sexual minority youths.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Wendy B; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-06-01

    We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72,691. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes.

  10. Ethnic minorities' racial attitudes and contact experiences with white people.

    PubMed

    Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the relationship between ethnic minorities' racial attitudes and their intergroup contact experiences with White people. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors demonstrate that the more negative the racial attitudes held by ethnic minorities, the less positive their interactions are with White friends and roommates. With a daily report methodology, Study 2 revealed that ethnic minorities' racial attitudes predicted the decline in the quality of their intergroup contact experiences over a 3-week period. In Study 3, the authors examined a possible mechanism underlying the relationship between racial attitudes and intergroup contact, as well as the influence of ethnic minorities' racial attitudes on White participants' experiences in intergroup contact settings. The authors discuss the findings in terms of the importance of examining ethnic minorities' attitudes in research on intergroup relations. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Ethnic Differences in Attributions and Treatment Expectancies for Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Klein, Jesse B.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; Tonev, Simon; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Martinovich, Zoran; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Rezac, Amy J.; Jones, Jennifer; March, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest that ethnicity and socioeconomic factors may relate to differences in treatment expectancies and the attributions made for emotional or behavioral problems. We examined ethnic differences in (1) parents’ attributions about the causes of adolescent behavioral and emotional problems and (2) treatment expectancies among 236 adolescent participants who enrolled in a 36-week randomized controlled trial for depression. Controlling for education and income, European American parents were more likely to endorse beliefs reflecting physical causes of depression than African American parents. There were no ethnic differences for beliefs reflecting external, familial, or community factors. Ethnic differences were observed in the treatment expectancies reported by parents, but not adolescents, with African American parents more likely than European Americans and Other minorities to endorse positive expectations for CBT. These findings may have implications for understanding discrepancies in mental health service use. PMID:19169367

  12. Peer Status in an Ethnic Context: Associations with African American Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Patrick F.; Cole, Daphne J.; Houshyar, Shadi; Lythcott, Mawiyah; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the association between ethnic identity centrality and peer status for African American adolescents who represented a sizable proportion, yet numerical minority within a high school context. Initial analyses indicated that a traditional sociometric nomination procedure did not adequately characterize peer status for…

  13. Multiple pathways to identification: exploring the multidimensionality of academic identity formation in ethnic minority males.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jamaal S

    2014-04-01

    Empirical trends denote the academic underachievement of ethnic minority males across various academic domains. Identity-based explanations for this persistent phenomenon describe ethnic minority males as disidentified with academics, alienated, and oppositional. The present work interrogates these theoretical explanations and empirically substantiates a multidimensional lens for discussing academic identity formation within 330 African American and Latino early-adolescent males. Both hierarchical and iterative person-centered methods were utilized and reveal 5 distinct profiles derived from 6 dimensions of academic identity. These profiles predict self-reported classroom grades, mastery orientation, and self-handicapping in meaningful and varied ways. The results demonstrate multiple pathways to motivation and achievement, challenging previous oversimplified stereotypes of marginalized males. This exploratory study triangulates unique interpersonal and intrapersonal attributes for promoting healthy identity development and academic achievement among ethnic minority adolescent males.

  14. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  15. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  16. Ethnicity and Adolescent Depression: Prevalence, Access to Services, and Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is more common among adolescents of ethnic minority backgrounds, who also are less likely to receive professional help. This article presents information about prevalence of depression and service use across ethnic groups, and then outlines several promising intervention programs that are designed for adolescents suffering from…

  17. Ethnic Issues in Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.

    The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…

  18. End-of-life care for ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Clark, David H

    2004-01-01

    Death and dying are profound events that bring into focus important ethical and medical questions for all patients, whatever their cultural background. For ethnic minority groups and their families, specific issues or barriers may arise related to culturally appropriate health care practices, cultural or religious differences, diverse health beliefs, and access to services for care and support during end-of-life conditions. National policy and local initiatives in both the United States and the United Kingdom support the development of services that address the care of ethnic minorities. This article examines end-of-life care for ethnic minority groups.

  19. [The prevalence of type 2-diabetes in ethnic minorities].

    PubMed

    Zander, Mette; Hansen, Caroline Raun; Koefoed, Birgitte Gade; Perrild, Hans

    2012-09-10

    In general, type 2 diabetes is more common among immigrants than among the inhabitants with a Western background. The higher prevalence among ethnic minorities is probably due to a complex correlation between genetic factors, diet, exercise, linguistic and cultural obstacles, low birthweight and high catch up weight as well as socio-economic factors. Ethnic minorities are heterogeneous, and individual initiatives within the different groups are needed. The evidence regarding the effect of initiatives targeted at ethnic minorities in Denmark is sparse. In future, clinically controlled studies in this field should be carried out.

  20. Ethnic identity and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Witkow, Melissa; Garcia, Carla

    2005-09-01

    The association of adolescents' ethnic identification with their academic attitudes and achievement was examined among a sample of 589 ninth-grade students from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Adolescents from all backgrounds chose a variety of ethnic labels to describe themselves, with those from Mexican, Chinese, and immigrant families incorporating more of their families' national origin and cultural background into their chosen ethnic labels. Nevertheless, the strength of adolescents' ethnic identification was more relevant to their academic adjustment than the specific labels that they chose, and it was most important for the extra motivation necessary for ethnic minority students to attain the same level of academic success as their European American peers.

  1. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens.

  2. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  3. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  4. The Work-Study Interface: Similarities and Differences between Ethnic Minority and Ethnic Majority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; de Meijer, Lonneke A.; Born, Marise Ph.; Severiens, Sabine E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work-study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work-study interface model, in which the work-related factors work-study congruence, job control, job demands, work hours, job…

  5. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  6. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  7. [Depressive disorders in ethnic minorities in the doctor's office].

    PubMed

    Veling, Wim; Blom, Marc B J; Hoek, H Wijbrand

    2013-01-01

    Doctors often find the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in non-Western ethnic minorities difficult. Not only do language and culture form barriers to understanding, the symptoms of these disorders can be expressed in unfamiliar ways. We describe three cases that illustrate how the clinical presentation of depression in ethnic minorities living in the Netherlands can differ from that of Dutch patients. While the core symptoms of depressive disorder are similar, ethnic minority patients exhibit somatic symptoms more frequently. On average, they also have more severe symptoms, more psychiatric comorbidity such as anxiety and psychosis; the illness is also more often complicated by a multitude of social problems. Improving the diagnosis and treatment of depression in ethnic minorities requires knowledge and the exploration of potential differences in symptom presentation and the patient's explanatory models of mental illness. Patients and physicians also need to discuss their mutual expectations, in order to reach a consensus about treatment goals.

  8. Protective Mechanisms for Depression among Racial/Ethnic Minority Youth: Empirical Findings, Issues, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah M; Wallander, Jan L; Cameron, Linda

    2015-12-01

    We (1) review empirical studies that report findings regarding putative protective mechanisms when exposed to risk of depression in African American and Hispanic adolescents; (2) identify key protective mechanisms for different risk contexts that garner empirical support; (3) synthesize the mechanisms identified as protective against depression among racial/ethnic minority adolescents; and (4) discuss improved methods for advancing understanding of resilience against depression in minority youth. The studies were selected from PsycINFO searches that met the following inclusion criteria: participants between 12 and 21 years of age, inclusions of racial/ethnic minority members, examining protection through an interaction with a risk factor, and outcome measures of depression, depressed mood, or depressive symptomatology. We found 39 eligible studies; 13 of which included multiple racial/ethnic groups. The following were supported as protective mechanisms, at least preliminarily, for at least one racial/ethnic group and in at least one risk context: employment, extracurricular activities, father-adolescent closeness, familism, maternal support, attending predominately minority schools, neighborhood composition, non-parent support, parental inductive reasoning, religiosity, self-esteem, social activities, and positive early teacher relationships. To investigate protective mechanisms more comprehensively and accurately across individual, social, and community levels of influence, we recommend incorporating multilevel modeling or multilevel growth curve analyses and large diverse samples.

  9. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Stanley J., Jr.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no "well-established" treatments were identified, "probably efficacious" or "possibly efficacious" treatments were found for ethnic minority…

  10. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification.

  11. Ethnic Minorities and Women at the University of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque.

    Information on ethnic minorities and women at the University of New Mexico is presented. Specialized programs that emphasize recruitment and retention of minority and women students and the amount of money associated with each program are listed. A breakdown by race, nationality, and sex of the 1977 entering freshman class is presented, and a…

  12. Career Development and Vocational Behavior of Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L., Ed.

    This book is designed as a resource for graduate students learning about counseling or counselors and psychologists who provide career counseling to racial and ethnic minorities or who do research with minority groups. The book is divided into sections on "Theory and Research,""Assessment and Intervention," and "Future…

  13. Confronting Ourselves: The White and Racial/Ethnic-Minority Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing

    1993-01-01

    Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1993) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Focuses on slow progress being made toward building bridges of trust and understanding. Asserts that, to move forward, both minority and majority researchers must make genuine and concerted effort to…

  14. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  15. Racial/Ethnic Minority Research in School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Margaret R. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed content of research published between 1975 and 1990 in "Journal of School Psychology,""Psychology in the Schools," and "School Psychology Review" in terms of racial/ethnic minority topics. In 225 studies containing minority information, African Americans were sampled most frequently, followed by Mexican Americans. Most samples were from…

  16. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  17. Emotional problems in preadolescents in Norway: the role of gender, ethnic minority status, and home- and school-related hassles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background "The gender gap" refers to a lifelong higher rate of emotional problems in girls, as compared to boys, that appears during adolescence. The gender gap is a well-replicated finding among older adolescents and is assumed to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. However, these cross-cultural studies have not investigated the gender gap in ethnic minorities but sampled ethnic majority adolescents in different countries. Some studies that investigated the gender gap across ethnic groups indirectly (by presenting emotional problem scores stratified by gender and ethnic group) indicate that the gender gap is less prominent or even absent among minorities. The aims of this study were to assess whether the gender gap is found in both majority and minority preadolescents, and to investigate whether a possible (gender and ethnic) group difference can be accounted for by differences in home or school hassles. Methods Participants were 902 preadolescent students (aged 10 to 12) from two cities in Norway. We collected self-report measures of emotional problems and home and school hassles. Using mediated moderation analysis we tested whether the interaction effect between gender and ethnic minority background on emotional problems was mediated by home or school hassles. Results The gender gap in emotional problems was restricted to ethnic majority preadolescents. School hassles but not home hassles accounted in part for this effect. Conclusions The absence of the gender gap among minority as opposed to majority preadolescents may indicate that social circumstances may postpone or hamper the emergence and magnitude of the gender gap in ethnic minority preadolescents. In this study, school hassles partly accounted for the combined gender and ethnic group differences on emotional problems. This indicates that school hassles may play a role in the higher levels of emotional problems in preadolescent minority boys and consequently the absence of a gender gap found in our minority

  18. Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Whitrow, Melissa J.; Harding, Seeromanie

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The relative contribution of body proportion and social exposures to ethnic differences in lung function has not previously been reported in the United Kingdom. Objectives: To examine ethnic differences in lung function in relation to anthropometry and social and psychosocial factors in early adolescence. Methods: The subjects of this study were 3,924 pupils aged 11 to 13 years, of whom 80% were ethnic minorities with satisfactory lung function measures. Data were collected on economic disadvantage, psychological well-being, tobacco exposure, height, FEV1, and FVC. Measurements and Main Results: The lowest FEV1 was observed for Black Caribbean/African children after adjusting for standing height (SH) (white boys: 2.475 L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.442–2.509; white girls: 2.449 L; 95% CI, 2.464–2.535]; Black Caribbean boys: −14% [95% CI, −16 to −12]; Black Caribbean girls: −13% [95% CI, −16 to −11]; Black African boys: −15% [95% CI, −17 to −13]; Black African girls: −17% [95% CI, −19 to −14]; Indian boys: −13% [95% CI, −16 to −11]; Indian girls: −11% [95% CI, −14 to −8]; Pakistani/Bangladeshi boys: −7% [95% CI, −9 to −5]; Pakistani/Bangladeshi girls: −9% [95% CI, −11 to −6]). Adjustment for upper body segment instead of SH achieved a further reduction in ethnic differences of 41 to 51% for children of Black African origin and 26 to 39% for the other groups. Overcrowding (boys) and poor psychological well-being (boys and girls) were independent correlates of FEV1, explaining up to a further 10% of ethnic differences. Similar patterns were observed for FVC. Social exposures were also related to height components. Conclusions: Differences in upper body segment explained more of the ethnic differences in lung function than SH, particularly among Black Caribbeans/African subjects. Social correlates had a smaller but significant impact. Future research needs to consider how differential development of

  19. Parents' School Satisfaction and Academic Socialization Predict Adolescents' Autonomous Motivation: A Mixed-Method Study of Low-Income Ethnic Minority Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; McClain, Shannon; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren A.; Hong, KyongJoo

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we used an explanatory sequential design to investigate the processes through which parental involvement influences adolescents' achievement motivation. One hundred twenty low-income urban parents and their sixth-grade adolescents completed questionnaires, and a subsample of 11 mothers and 11 adolescents were…

  20. Parents' School Satisfaction and Academic Socialization Predict Adolescents' Autonomous Motivation: A Mixed-Method Study of Low-Income Ethnic Minority Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran; Pahlke, Erin; McClain, Shannon; Marroquin, Yesenia; Blondeau, Lauren A.; Hong, KyongJoo

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we used an explanatory sequential design to investigate the processes through which parental involvement influences adolescents' achievement motivation. One hundred twenty low-income urban parents and their sixth-grade adolescents completed questionnaires, and a subsample of 11 mothers and 11 adolescents were…

  1. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  2. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  3. Minority (Ethnic) Studies in the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    The paper offers recommendations for an ethnic studies curriculum at the elementary school level which would be interdisciplinary in nature and integrate the basic skills of reading, writing, and critical thinking. In the social studies, for example, concepts of cultural diversity and universality can be presented in simple form in the early…

  4. Collective identity and wellbeing of Roma minority adolescents in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; van de Vijver, Fons

    2013-01-01

    In Europe and particularly in Bulgaria, Roma represent the largest low-status minority group that is subjected to marked public intolerance and discrimination. This study examined links among Roma (N = 207) and Bulgarian (N = 399) adolescents' ethnic, familial, and religious identities as salient identity aspects for their psychological wellbeing. Results indicated that, as expected, Roma youth reported lower levels of wellbeing than Bulgarian youth. The latter revealed a weaker religious identity than Roma youth, whereas no ethnic group differences emerged regarding Bulgarian or familial identity. Furthermore, we observed that collective identity was higher in older participants of both groups. Finally, a multigroup analysis using structural equation modeling showed that collective identity was a positive predictor of wellbeing for both Roma and Bulgarian adolescents. Findings demonstrated differences in salience as well as structural communalities regarding ways in which collective identity affects wellbeing of youth from two ethnically diverse communities.

  5. Negotiating candidacy: ethnic minority seniors' access to care.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    The 'Barriers to Access to Care for Ethnic Minority Seniors ' (BACEMS) study in Vancouver, British Columbia, found that immigrant families torn between changing values and the economic realities that accompany immigration cannot always provide optimal care for their elders. Ethnic minority seniors further identified language barriers, immigration status, and limited awareness of the roles of the health authority and of specific service providers as barriers to health care. The configuration and delivery of health services, and health-care providers' limited knowledge of the seniors' needs and confounded these problems. To explore the barriers to access, the BACEMS study relied primarily on focus group data collected from ethnic minority seniors and their families and from health and multicultural service providers. The applicability of the recently developed model of 'candidacy', which emphasises the dynamic, multi-dimensional and contingent character of health-care access to ethnic minority seniors, was assessed. The candidacy framework increased sensitivity to ethnic minority seniors' issues and enabled organisation of the data into manageable conceptual units, which facilitated translation into recommendations for action, and revealed gaps that pose questions for future research. It has the potential to make Canadian research on the topic more co-ordinated.

  6. Perspectives on ageing, later life and ethnicity: ageing research in ethnic minority contexts.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Maria; Norris, Meriel

    2015-05-01

    This special issue focuses broadly upon questions and themes relating to the current conceptualisations, representations and use of 'ethnicity' (and ethnic minority experiences) within the field of social gerontology. An important aim of this special issue is to explore and address the issue of 'otherness' within the predominant existing frameworks for researching those who are ageing or considered aged, compounded by the particular constructions of their ethnicity and ethnic 'difference'. The range of theoretical, methodological and empirical papers included in this collection provide some critical insights into particular facets of the current research agendas, cultural understandings and empirical focus of ethnic minority ageing research. The main emphasis is on highlighting the ways in which ethnic cultural homogeneity and 'otherness' is often assumed in research involving older people from ethnic minority backgrounds, and how wider societal inequalities are concomitantly (re)produced, within (and through) research itself - for example, based on narrowly defined research agendas and questions; the assumed age and/or ethnic differences of researchers vis-à-vis their older research participants; the workings of the formalised ethical procedures and frameworks; and the conceptual and theoretical frameworks employed in the formulation of research questions and interpretation of data. We examine and challenge here the simplistic categorisations and distinctions often made in gerontological research based around research participants' ethnicity, age and ageing and assumed cultural differences. The papers presented in this collection reveal instead the actual complexity and fluidity of these concepts as well as the cultural dynamism and diversity of experiences within ethnic groups. Through an exploration of these issues, we address some of the gaps in existing knowledge and understandings as well as contribute to the newly emerging discussions surrounding the use of

  7. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Serving Ethnic Minorities. Topical Paper 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcleroad, Fred F.; And Others

    Dedicated to the memory of Raymond E. Schultz, the essays in this monograph discuss the role of the community college in serving minority students. An introductory essay by Fred F. Harcleroad summarizes Schultz's contributions to community college education. John E. Roueche then discusses the provision of equal educational opportunity to…

  9. Ethnic minority participation in an East Midlands Sure Start.

    PubMed

    Avis, Mark; Chaudhary, Sarah

    2008-08-01

    This paper draws on evidence from a local Sure Start evaluation of low participation rates among ethnic minority families. It reflects national concerns regarding the low use of children's services among ethnic minority families. The evaluation aimed to improve understanding of the factors that affect families' participation in Sure Start services. A sample of 34 ethnic minority parents, six Sure Start outreach workers and four community workers from allied local agencies were interviewed in 2006. The interviews revealed an unexpected disparity between the views of the majority of the workers and those of local, Sure Start-eligible parents. The workers felt that the main factor discouraging participation was too little focus on multiculturalism. However, parents focused on practical barriers, concerns around age and the perceived indiscipline of some Sure Start families. Parents generally saw their own ethnic culture as being compatible with Sure Start values. While most workers viewed minority communities as having homogeneous needs, parents discussed the heterogeneity of' communities. .Ethnicity and cultural factors do not have a simple or straightforward impact on people's decisions over whether to access Sure Start services.

  10. Ethnic enclaves and middleman minorities: alternative strategies of immigrant adaptation?

    PubMed

    Cobas, J A

    1987-04-01

    This article examines 2 modes or strategies of immigrant adaptation: middleman minorities and ethnic enclaves. Although they have been discussed as if they were disjointed and mutually exclusive, the authors challenge this view. Middleman minorities 1) tend to be self-employed or to work for a coethnic, 2) are usually concentrated in small business, 3) tend to rely on the in-group for resources, and 4) fill a "status gap" in the receiving society. Ethnic enclaves depend on 3 features: 1) recent coethnic arrivals spend a tour of duty at the worst jobs, 2) coethnics provide ethnic entrepreneurs with consumer markets, 3) ethnic businesses rely on each other to supply their operating needs. Ethnic enclaves are concentrated and spatially identifiable. For this study, the authors collected data in a survey of the Cuban exile community of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The sample selection procedure yielded a total of 261 individuals, 220 of whom were interviewed. 10 predictions found in the middleman minority and ethnic enclave perspectives were checked against the researchers' data. 4 of these predictions are hld in common by both approaches: 1) eomployment in an ethnic enterprise increases subsequent chances of self-employment, 2) ethnic firms rely on the in-group for business resources, 3) coethnic workers represent an asset to the ethnic entrepreneur in that they occupy important positions requiring the employer's trust, and 4) there is business competition between locals and minority members. As predicted by the middleman strategy, Cuban businesses in Puerto Rico tend not to be immediately productive and there is no evidence of spatial concentration of these businesses. However, fitting the enclave approach, these firms do not dominate certain business lines, Cuban entrepreneurs do not appear to be sojourners, and they tend to have business backgrounds. The middleman perspective is supported in that some elements of the local elite favor Cuban exiles. Thus, there is no

  11. Initial Development of a New Measure of Minor Stress for Adolescents: The Adolescent Minor Stress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Steven C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nirelli, Liza M.; Patten, Christi A.; Friedrich, William N.; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to develop, standardize, and establish initial reliability and validity for the Adolescent Minor Stress Inventory (AMSI), a new measure of minor stress for adolescents. The AMSI improves upon existing adolescent stress measures in a number of important ways in that it does not emphasize school or classroom-based…

  12. Ethnicity and Bicultural Considerations in Psychology: Meeting the Needs of Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dalmas A.; Henry, J. Marilyn

    This paper summarizes the history, philosophy, and recruitment methodology of the American Psychological Association (APA) Minority Fellowship Program. The aim of the program is participation by ethnic minorities in the development of psychology, both as a practicing art and as a science. The APA received a training grant to provide fellowship…

  13. Mapping the Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with High Ethnic Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…

  14. Mapping the Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with High Ethnic Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…

  15. Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem, and Interpersonal Relationships among Multiethnic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Anda, Diane; Riddel, Valerie Anne

    1991-01-01

    Seventy Asian-white, black-white, and Latino-white adolescents reported having multiethnic identity and high degrees of acceptance and comfort in white majority and ethnic minority communities, peer relationships, and family relationships. Respondents had average self-esteem and preferred an ethnically diverse group of friends. Contains 26…

  16. HPV vaccination among ethnic minorities in the UK: knowledge, acceptability and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, L A V

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers a unique opportunity for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Studies suggest that knowledge and attitudes about the vaccine are likely to influence uptake. One limitation of most studies assessing HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes and acceptability is their under representation of ethnic minorities. It is important to ensure that our understanding of HPV knowledge and attitudes include all ethnic groups in the UK. This article reviews research that has considered knowledge, acceptability and attitudes about HPV and the HPV vaccine among ethnic minorities in the UK. Methods: Articles in Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO (January 2000–March 2010) were searched. Results: A total of 17 UK-based papers examined knowledge, attitudes or acceptability related to HPV vaccination in the ‘lay' population (parents, adolescents or the general population as opposed to health professionals) and reported findings by ethnicity. Conclusion: Findings seem to suggest lower awareness of HPV and lower acceptability of the vaccination, which could be important if they are reflected in uptake. More research is needed with ethnic minority groups, particularly in the context of the vaccination programme. PMID:21829204

  17. Ethnic Composition and Friendship Segregation: Differential Effects for Adolescent Natives and Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sanne; Van Tubergen, Frank; Maas, Ineke; McFarland, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Ethnically diverse settings provide opportunities for interethnic friendship but can also increase the preference for same-ethnic friendship. Therefore, same-ethnic friendship preferences, or ethnic homophily, can work at cross-purposes with policy recommendations to diversify ethnic representation in social settings. In order to effectively overcome ethnic segregation, we need to identify those factors within diverse settings that exacerbate the tendency toward ethnic homophily. Using unique data and multiple network analyses, the authors examine 529 adolescent friendship networks in English, German, Dutch, and Swedish schools and find that the ethnic composition of school classes relates differently to immigrant and native homophily. Immigrant homophily disproportionately increases as immigrants see more same-ethnic peers, and friendship density among natives has no effect on this. By contrast, native homophily remains relatively low until natives see dense groups of immigrants. The authors' results suggest that theories of interethnic competition and contact opportunities apply differently to ethnic majority and minority groups.

  18. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  19. Knowing and Understanding the Socially Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Staten W.

    This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…

  20. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  1. Black and Minority Ethnic Leaders in England: A Portrait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek; Sood, Krishan

    2006-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) leaders are greatly under-represented in English schools compared with the number of BME pupils. This paper reports the findings from research with BME leaders in 2004-2005 and links them to insights from a systematic literature review. The paper shows that BME teachers experience many barriers in developing their…

  2. Bridging Identities among Ethnic Minority Youth in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Drost, Christopher

    This digest examines the nature of multiple identities among ethnic minority youth and how youth bridge conflicting messages about cultural ways of being. It discusses how the school environment contributes to student internalization of various identities. Culturally diverse students often face contrasting notions of self because they must…

  3. Deaf Ethnic Minorities: Have They a Double Liability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod-Gallinger, Janet

    In an effort to ascertain whether being deaf and also being a member of an ethnic minority group engenders dual disadvantages, the educational, labor force participation, occupations, earnings, and socioeconomic status of adults with deafness (n=6430) were compared by race. Comparisons were also done with racial groups in the general population.…

  4. A Multicultural Countryside?: Ethnic Minorities in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Bruce; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews previous social science knowledge about non-English speaking background (NESB) immigrant communities in rural Australia with the aim of systematising what has been a diverse and fragmented literature. We propose a number of unifying themes which suggest the outlines of an emerging social science of ethnic minorities in rural…

  5. Counseling Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss in brief six racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States, in order to demonstrate how selected cultural variables may intrude in the counseling relationship. American Indians present such problems as language difficulties, taciturnity, and suspiciousness. In working with Americans of African…

  6. Serving the Underserved: Giftedness among Ethnic Minority and Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Stephanie

    1995-01-01

    Properly serving the needs of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged gifted youth requires early identification, enrichment programs, parental involvement, and specialized teacher training. Primary teachers must be able to identify children exhibiting gifted behaviors not showing up in testing. Profiles San Diego and New Jersey programs…

  7. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  8. Votes and Policies: Ethnic Minorities and the General Election 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Muhammad

    Surveys were conducted to present a picture of the participation of ethnic minorities in British elections. The surveys measured voter registration, knowledge and attitudes about issues, voting patterns in the 1979 General Election, candidates' attitudes about issues (especially race relations issues), and activities and election success of…

  9. Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities in the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The experience of immigrants and ethnic minorities in post-war Europe represents a significant silence in the history of education in Europe. Published research in the field on this theme is negligible in quantity, and is largely restricted to brief and narrative descriptions of policy changes that are organised around concepts of assimilation,…

  10. Knowing and Understanding the Socially Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Staten W.

    This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…

  11. Minority Ethnic Television in Los Angeles: A Multicultural Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, David L.

    1981-01-01

    The increase in the number of low-power television stations may have profound effects on the volatile nature of multicultural interactions in the United States. The author examines three stations and suggests ways in which television may be used in the education of minority ethnic audiences. (MW)

  12. Multicultural Hong Kong: Alternative New Media Representations of Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Liz; Nesterova, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities experience misrecognition, prejudice and discrimination in Hong Kong. In response to these challenges, multicultural education there aims to enable young people to recognize diversity in a more tolerant, open-minded way. Educators have been encouraged to not rely only on textbooks, but to include news and digital media…

  13. A Multicultural Countryside?: Ethnic Minorities in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Bruce; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews previous social science knowledge about non-English speaking background (NESB) immigrant communities in rural Australia with the aim of systematising what has been a diverse and fragmented literature. We propose a number of unifying themes which suggest the outlines of an emerging social science of ethnic minorities in rural…

  14. Impact of Racism on Ethnic Minority Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    A problem in ethnic minority mental health that can be solved in the foreseeable future is understanding how subtle and covert forms of racism affect psychological health of racial minorities. Although scientific psychology has generated a large body of literature on racial prejudice, stereotypes, intergroup attitudes, and racial bias and their often implicit and automatic nature, relatively little is known about the effects of these subtle racial bias on minority individuals. Following a selective review of recent developments in experimental psychology and multicultural psychology, I suggest some promising approaches and opportunities for future integration that would advance the field.

  15. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Family, Friends, and School Experiences on the Psychological Adjustment of Ethnic Minority, Low-SES Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe; Robinson, Melissa G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the influence over time of demographic variables and perceived family and friend support and school climate on changes in psychological adjustment among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Found a greater increase in self-esteem in students reporting more positive perceptions of school climate and,…

  16. Injury mortality among ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stirbu, I; Kunst, A E; Bos, V; van Beeck, E F

    2006-03-01

    To prepare a comprehensive overview of ethnic differences in injury related mortality in the Netherlands and to determine the role of area income and urbanisation degree. Data for the period 1995-2000 were obtained from the population and cause of death registries. Injury related death rates were compared for persons from Turkish, Moroccans, Surinamese, and Antillean/Aruban origin with rates for the native Dutch population. Compared with the native Dutch population, all ethnic minorities combined had an increased mortality for all injuries together (RR = 1.29). Ethnic minorities experienced a significantly higher risk of death from pedestrian accidents (RR = 1.87), drowning (RR = 2.58), poisoning (RR = 1.76), fire and scalds (RR = 1.95), and homicide (RR = 3.24). Mortality for cyclists (RR = 0.53) and motorcycle drivers (RR = 0.47) was significantly lower among ethnic minorities compared with the native Dutch. Adjustment for area income and urbanisation decreased the mortality risk difference for most of the non-traffic injuries, but showed a difference in risk for car driver and passenger accidents (RR = 1.37). Compared with the native Dutch inhabitants, Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban population had a higher risk of total injury mortality (RR = 1.33 and 1.53 respectively), while Turkish and Moroccans had increased risk only for selected conditions. Inequalities in injury mortality were the highest among children and young adults, but persisted in the age group above 50 years old. Ethnic differences in injury mortality in the Netherlands strongly depended on type of injury, ethnic group, sex, and age. Policies should be aimed at the prevention of high risk injuries among the most vulnerable ages and ethnic groups.

  17. Health-Promoting and Health-Compromising Behaviors among Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dawn K., Ed.; Rodrigue, James R., Ed.; Taylor, Wendell C., Ed.

    This book examines the importance of advocating healthy lifestyles among minority adolescents, who are at increased risk for particular health problems. The three central themes: highlight similarities and differences across diverse ethnic groups of adolescents while respecting their heterogeneity; emphasize innovative and culturally based…

  18. Health-Promoting and Health-Compromising Behaviors among Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dawn K., Ed.; Rodrigue, James R., Ed.; Taylor, Wendell C., Ed.

    This book examines the importance of advocating healthy lifestyles among minority adolescents, who are at increased risk for particular health problems. The three central themes: highlight similarities and differences across diverse ethnic groups of adolescents while respecting their heterogeneity; emphasize innovative and culturally based…

  19. Stereotype Threat and School Belonging in Adolescents from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…

  20. Intergroup Contact and Evaluations of Race-Based Exclusion in Urban Minority Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruck, Martin D.; Park, Henry; Killen, Melanie; Crystal, David S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a dearth of published research on the role of intergroup contact on urban US ethnic minority children's and adolescents' evaluations of racial exclusion. The current investigation examined these issues in a sample of low-income minority 4th, 7th, and 10th grade (N = 129, 60% female) African American and Latino/a students attending…

  1. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    PubMed Central

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not

  2. Academic identity formation and motivation among ethnic minority adolescents: the role of the "self" between internal and external perceptions of identity.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jamaal S; Banerjee, Meeta; Lauermann, Fani

    2014-01-01

    Identity is often studied as a motivational construct within research on adolescent development and education. However, differential dimensions of identity, as a set of internal values versus external perceptions of social belonging, may relate to motivation in distinct ways. Utilizing a sample of 600 African American and Latino adolescents (43% female; mean age = 13.9), the present study examines whether self-regulated learning (SRL) mediates two distinct dimensions of academic identity (i.e., value and belonging) and mastery orientation. This study also examines whether self-efficacy moderates the mediating role of SRL between identity and mastery. Results show evidence for moderated mediation between SRL and academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning played its strongest mediating role between belonging and mastery and for low-efficacy students specifically.

  3. Why Ethnic Minority Children Are More Likely to Drop out of School: A Cultural Capital Perspective--Evidence from Ethnic Minority Rural Communities in the Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baicai, Sun; Jingjian, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Using the data from a large-scale survey in Gansu province, China, the article explores the issue of school attendance among ethnic minority children from the perspective of cultural capital. We find that the rate of school attendance among ethnic minority children is substantially lower than that among ethnic Han children, but that ethnic…

  4. Why Ethnic Minority Children Are More Likely to Drop out of School: A Cultural Capital Perspective--Evidence from Ethnic Minority Rural Communities in the Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baicai, Sun; Jingjian, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Using the data from a large-scale survey in Gansu province, China, the article explores the issue of school attendance among ethnic minority children from the perspective of cultural capital. We find that the rate of school attendance among ethnic minority children is substantially lower than that among ethnic Han children, but that ethnic…

  5. Mental Health Diagnostic Considerations in Racial/Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Liang, June; Matheson, Brittany E.; Douglas, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Misdiagnoses of racial/ethnic minority youth’s mental health problems can potentially contribute to inappropriate mental health care. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review that focuses on current theory and empirical research in an attempt to answer the following two questions: 1) What evidence exists that supports or contradicts the idea that racial/ethnic minority youth’s mental health problems are misdiagnosed? 2) What are the sources of misdiagnoses? Articles were reviewed from 1967 to 2014 using PsychINFO, PubMed, and GoogleScholar. Search terms included “race”, “ethnicity”, “minority”, “culture”, “children”, “youth”, “adolescents”, “mental health”, “psychopathology”, “diagnosis”, “misdiagnosis”, “miscategorization”, “underdiagnosis”, and “overdiagnosis”. Seventy-two articles and book chapters met criteria and were included in this review. Overall, evidence was found that supports the possibility of misdiagnosis of ethnic minority youth’s emotional and behavioral problems. However, the evidence is limited such that it cannot be determined whether racial/ethnic differences are due to differences in psychopathology, mental health biases, and/or inaccurate diagnoses. Cultural and contextual factors that may influence misdiagnosis as well as recommendations for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27346929

  6. Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in childhood obesity prevalence by race and ethnicity and by socioeconomic status. They show how various environmental factors can have larger effects on disadvantaged and minority children than on their advantaged white peers-and thus contribute to disparities in obesity rates. The authors show, for example, that low-income and minority children watch more television than white, non-poor children and are potentially exposed to more commercials advertising high-calorie, low-nutrient food during an average hour of TV programming. They note that neighborhoods where low-income and minority children live typically have more fast-food restaurants and fewer vendors of healthful foods than do wealthier or predominantly white neighborhoods. They cite such obstacles to physical activity as unsafe streets, dilapidated parks, and lack of facilities. In the schools that low-income and minority children attend, however, they see opportunities to lead the way to effective obesity prevention. Finally, the authors examine several aspects of the home environment-breast-feeding, television viewing, and parental behaviors-that may contribute to childhood obesity but be amenable to change through targeted intervention. Kumanyika and Grier point out that policymakers aiming to prevent obesity can use many existing policy levers to reach ethnic minority and low-income children and families: Medicaid, the State Child Health Insurance Program, and federal nutrition "safety net" programs. Ultimately, winning the fight against childhood obesity in minority and low-income communities will depend on the nation's will to change the social and physical

  7. Minor consent and delivery of adolescent vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ford, Carol A; Skiles, Martha P; English, Abigail; Cai, Jianwen; Agans, Robert P; Stokley, Shannon; Markowitz, Lauri; Koumans, Emilia H

    2014-02-01

    To explore whether, and to what extent, minor consent influences adolescent vaccine delivery in the United States. A telephone survey was completed by 263 professionals with responsibilities for adolescent health care and/or vaccination in 43 states. Measures included perceived frequency of unaccompanied minor visits and perceived likelihood of vaccine delivery to unaccompanied minors in hypothetical scenarios that varied by adolescent age, vaccine type, visit type, and clinical setting. Among the 76 respondents most familiar with private primary care clinics, 47.1% reported perceptions that 17-year-old patients often present without a parent/legal guardian. Among the 104 respondents most familiar with public primary care clinics, 56.7% reported that 17-year-old patients often present alone. In response to hypothetical scenarios, approximately 30% of respondents familiar with private clinics and 50% of respondents familiar with public clinics reported perceptions that unaccompanied 17-year-old adolescents would not receive influenza, Tdap, or human papillomavirus vaccines during routine check-ups because they could not provide consent. Perceived likelihood of unaccompanied minors receiving vaccines when seen for confidential services in primary care, sexually transmitted disease, and Title X/family planning clinics varied significantly by vaccine type and clinical setting. On average, respondents reported that they would support minors having the ability to self-consent for vaccines at age 14. The inability of minors to consent for vaccines is likely one barrier to vaccination. Interventions to increase adolescent vaccination should consider strategies that increase the ability of unaccompanied minors, particularly older minors, to receive vaccines within the context of legal, ethical, and professional guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Disparities in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders for Ethnic/Racial Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegria, Margarita; Carson, Nicholas J.; Goncalves, Marta; Keefe, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health services and present recent data, focusing on services for substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid mental health disorders for children and adolescents. Method: A literature review was conducted of behavioral health services for minority youth. Articles…

  9. Disparities in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders for Ethnic/Racial Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegria, Margarita; Carson, Nicholas J.; Goncalves, Marta; Keefe, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health services and present recent data, focusing on services for substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid mental health disorders for children and adolescents. Method: A literature review was conducted of behavioral health services for minority youth. Articles…

  10. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class: A Nationally Random Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Lasgaard, Mathias; Walsh, Sophie; Stevens, Gonneke G W J M; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population. The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic diversity of the school classes and loneliness. The study adds novel and important findings to how ethnicity in a school class context, as opposed to ethnicity per se, influences adolescents' loneliness.

  11. An exploration of young ethnic minority males' beliefs about romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer L; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minority males experience a disproportionate prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Few studies have explored the beliefs that frame romantic relationships in which sexual behavior occurs. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of romantic relationships for young ethnic minority men who partner with adolescent women with high-risk sexual histories and the beliefs about romantic relationships that underlie these relationship choices. A phenomenologic approach was used. Two semi-structured interviews were completed with six Mexican American and two African American young adult males 19 to 26 years of age. Participants struggled to balance a desire to maintain physical and psychological closeness with partners with a desire to distance from partners in the face of unmet psychological needs. Recognition of how males struggle to balance getting needs met in romantic relationships will be necessary for the provision of culturally relevant care for males and their partners.

  12. Ethnic matching of clients and clinicians and use of mental health services by ethnic minority clients.

    PubMed

    Ziguras, Stephen; Klimidis, Steven; Lewis, James; Stuart, Geoff

    2003-04-01

    Research in the United States has indicated that matching clients from a minority group with clinicians from the same ethnic background increases use of community mental health services and reduces use of emergency services. This study assessed the effects of matching clients from a non-English-speaking background with bilingual, bicultural clinicians in a mental health system in Australia that emphasizes community-based psychiatric case management. In an overall sample of 2,935 clients served in the western region of Melbourne from 1997 to 1999, ethnic minority clients from a non-English-speaking background who received services from a bilingual, bicultural case manager were compared with ethnic minority clients who did not receive such services and with clients from an English-speaking background. The clients' engagement with three types of services-community care teams, psychiatric crisis teams, and psychiatric inpatient services-was assessed. Compared with ethnic minority clients who were not matched with a bilingual clinician, those who were matched generally had a longer duration and greater frequency of contact with community care teams and a shorter duration and lower frequency of contact with crisis teams. Clients born in Vietnam who were matched with a bilingual clinician had a shorter annual mean length of hospital stay and a lower annual mean frequency of hospital admission than Australian-born clients. The benefits of matching clients with psychiatric case managers on the basis of ethnic background include a lower level of need for crisis intervention and, for clients from some ethnic groups, fewer inpatient interventions. These Australian results support findings of the effectiveness of client-clinician ethnic matching in the United States.

  13. Language and Ethnic Identity of Minorities in Post-Soviet Russia: The Buryat Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khilkhanova, Erzhen; Khilkhanov, Dorji

    2004-01-01

    While the global ethnic revival, starting in the late 1960s, resulted in minorities' movements to maintain their ethnic identity closely connected with the revitalization of minority languages, the other ethnic identity pattern in relation to language can be identified from the perspective of a rarely discussed minority group-the Buryats. This…

  14. Minor Consent and Delivery of Adolescent Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Carol A.; Skiles, Martha P.; English, Abigail; Cai, Jianwen; Agans, Robert P.; Stokley, Shannon; Markowitz, Lauri; Koumans, Emilia H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore whether, and to what extent, minor consent influences adolescent vaccine delivery in the United States. Methods A telephone survey was completed by 263 professionals with responsibilities for adolescent health care and/or vaccination in 43 states. Measures included perceived frequency of unaccompanied minor visits and perceived likelihood of vaccine delivery to unaccompanied minors in hypothetical scenarios that varied by adolescent age, vaccine type, visit type, and clinical setting. Results Among the 76 respondents most familiar with private primary care clinics, 47.1% reported perceptions that 17-year-old patients often present without a parent/legal guardian. Among the 104 respondents most familiar with public primary care clinics, 56.7% reported that 17-year-old patients often present alone. In response to hypothetical scenarios, approximately 30% of respondents familiar with private clinics and 50% of respondents familiar with public clinics reported perceptions that unaccompanied 17-year-old adolescents would not receive influenza, Tdap, or human papillomavirus vaccines during routine check-ups because they could not provide consent. Perceived likelihood of unaccompanied minors receiving vaccines when seen for confidential services in primary care, sexually transmitted disease, and Title X/family planning clinics varied significantly by vaccine type and clinical setting. On average, respondents reported that they would support minors having the ability to self-consent for vaccines at age 14. Conclusions The inability of minors to consent for vaccines is likely one barrier to vaccination. Interventions to increase adolescent vaccination should consider strategies that increase the ability of unaccompanied minors, particularly older minors, to receive vaccines within the context of legal, ethical, and professional guidelines. PMID:24074605

  15. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Stanley J.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no well-established treatments were identified, probably efficacious or possibly efficacious treatments were found for ethnic minority youth with anxiety-related problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, conduct problems, substance use problems, trauma-related syndromes, and other clinical problems. In addition, all studies met either Nathan and Gorman's (2002) Type 1 or Type 2 methodological criteria. A brief meta-analysis showed overall treatment effects of medium magnitude (d = .44). Effects were larger when EBTs were compared to no treatment (d = .58) or psychological placebos (d = .51) versus treatment as usual (d = .22). Youth ethnicity (African American, Latino, mixed/other minority), problem type, clinical severity, diagnostic status, and culture-responsive treatment status did not moderate treatment outcome. Most studies had low statistical power and poor representation of less acculturated youth. Few tests of cultural adaptation effects have been conducted in the literature and culturally validated outcome measures are mostly lacking. Recommendations for clinical practice and future research directions are provided. PMID:18444061

  16. The Role of Ethnic Identity on Self-Esteem for Ethnic Minority Youth: A Brief Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    "Who am I?" "How do I fit in with others around me?" "How do I feel about my ethnicity?" Understanding the answers to these complex questions is part of a process that many individuals revisit throughout the course of their lives. This process becomes particularly salient during adolescence when youth gain the…

  17. The Role of Ethnic Identity on Self-Esteem for Ethnic Minority Youth: A Brief Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    "Who am I?" "How do I fit in with others around me?" "How do I feel about my ethnicity?" Understanding the answers to these complex questions is part of a process that many individuals revisit throughout the course of their lives. This process becomes particularly salient during adolescence when youth gain the…

  18. Ethnic Minorities in the Inner City; The Ethnic Dimension in Urban Deprivation in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Crispin

    The aim of the investigation reported in this volume was to examine the social needs of ethnic minority residents of urban areas, determine the extent to which they are similar to or are different from those of their indigenous counterparts in these areas, and explore the implications of these similarities and differences for the regeneration of…

  19. Longitudinal Reciprocal Relationships between Discrimination and Ethnic Affect or Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54% female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (Mage.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection–identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans. PMID:25963446

  20. Does intergenerational social mobility affect antagonistic attitudes towards ethnic minorities?

    PubMed

    Tolsma, Jochem; de Graaf, Nan Dirk; Quillian, Lincoln

    2009-06-01

    Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermarriage by using diagonal mobility models. We test several hypotheses derived from ethnic competition theory and socialization theory with data from the Social and Cultural Developments in The Netherlands surveys (SOCON, waves 1995, 2000, and 2005) and The Netherlands Kinship and Panel Study (NKPS, wave 2002). We find that the relative influence of social origin and social destination depends on the specific origin and destination combination. If one moves to a more tolerant social destination position, the influence of the social origin position is negligible. If on the other hand, one is socially mobile to a less tolerant social position, the impact of the origin on antagonistic attitudes is substantial and may even exceed the impact of the destination category. This confirms our hypothesis that adaptation to more tolerant norms is easier than adaptation to less tolerant norms. We find only meagre evidence for the hypothesis that downward mobility leads to frustration and consequently to more antagonistic attitudes.

  1. Perceptions of diverse educators regarding ethnic-minority deaf college students, role models, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Parasnis, Ila; Fischer, Susan D

    2005-01-01

    IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY, the researchers documented the perceptions of deaf and hearing ethnically diverse university faculty and staff regarding issues related to the education of ethnic-minority deaf college students. These experienced educators commented on the importance of ethnic-minority role models for deaf college students, the academic preparedness of ethnic-minority deaf students, these students' level of comfort on campus, and the success of institutional efforts to increase awareness regarding ethnic diversity. The insightful reflections of these diverse educators can be informative in improving the educational experience of ethnic-minority deaf students.

  2. Reproductive health disparities: a focus on family planning and prevention among minority women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haider, Sadia; Stoffel, Cynthia; Donenberg, Geri; Geller, Stacie

    2013-09-01

    Minority women and adolescent females of all races and ethnicities are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy in the United States. Adolescents also experience an additional proportion of the burden compared to other age groups, as 82% of pregnancies among women 19 years old and younger are unintended. Moreover, minority and adolescent mothers are at increased risk for having preterm deliveries, low birth weight infants, and other complications. Unintended pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in the United States, and prevention through family planning is urgently needed. This review presents an overview of the US demographics for unintended pregnancy among both minority and adolescent women and identifies current and past eüorts to reduce unintended pregnancy, specifically among minority and adolescent females, through contraception and family-planning programs.

  3. The family-study interface and academic outcomes: differences and similarities between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students.

    PubMed

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Born, Marise Ph; Severiens, Sabine E

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigated possible differences in the family-study interface between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students as an explanation for the poorer study results of ethnic minority students compared with those of majority students. We used a model for family-study conflict and facilitation derived from family-work and work-study models. This model held true for the full sample and both non-Western ethnic minority students (N = 342) and ethnic majority students (N = 1314) separately at a major Dutch university. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that ethnic minority students reported less study effort and earned lower grades compared with ethnic majority students. Regarding the family-study interface, ethnic minority students reported more family-study conflict than did ethnic majority students. No differences were found between the 2 groups in family-study facilitation. Ethnic minority students participated more in family activities and were more involved with their family than ethnic majority students. Levels of experienced family support were equal for both groups of students. Students who received more family social support reported less conflict and more facilitation. This latter finding held more strongly for majority students, resulting in more study effort and higher grades for this group. The results demonstrated the explanatory power of the family-study conflict and facilitation model for both groups.

  4. Ethnic density, health care seeking behaviour and expected discrimination from health services among ethnic minority people in England.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2013-07-01

    The health of ethnic minority people is reported to be poorer in areas of lower ethnic density. Based on this literature, higher rates of health seeking behaviours would be expected among ethnic minorities resident in neighbourhoods of lower ethnic density. Should health seeking not increase in areas of lower ethnic density, a possible explanation might be that ethnic minority people resident in these neighbourhoods are not accessing services for fear of racial discrimination. The present study examined this hypothesis using two nationally-representative surveys from England. Health seeking behaviour did not vary by ethnic density. Lower ethnic density was associated with increased reports of expected discrimination from services, but also with increased satisfaction with services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, J.T.; Gibbs, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14–19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions. PMID:26634221

  6. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, J T; Gibbs, J J

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14-19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions.

  7. Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: testing a minority family stress model.

    PubMed

    Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Yeniad, Nihal

    2013-12-01

    According to the family stress model (Conger & Donnellan, 2007), low socioeconomic status (SES) predicts less-than-optimal parenting through family stress. Minority families generally come from lower SES backgrounds than majority families, and may experience additional stressors associated with their minority status, such as acculturation stress. The primary goal of this study was to test a minority family stress model with a general family stress pathway, as well as a pathway specific to ethnic minority families. The sample consisted of 107 Turkish-Dutch mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children, and positive parenting was observed during a 7-min problem-solving task. In addition, mothers reported their daily hassles, psychological distress, and acculturation stress. The relation between SES and positive parenting was partially mediated by both general maternal psychological stress and maternal acculturation stress. Our study contributes to the argument that stressors specific to minority status should be considered in addition to more general demographic and family stressors in understanding parenting behavior in ethnic minority families.

  8. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported “ever had sex.” Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06–2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of “ever had sex”. For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of “ever had sex”. Conclusion A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills. PMID:27906980

  9. Receptivity to protobacco media and its impact on cigarette smoking among ethnic minority youth in California.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Cruz, Tess Boley; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, Carl Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents from different ethnic groups show different cigarette smoking prevalence rates, suggesting potential differences in receptivity to and influences from protobacco media. Understanding these differences will be helpful in tailoring smoking prevention and cessation programs for diverse adolescent populations in the United States. Data from cross-sectional surveys of 20,332 randomly sampled California boys and girls, 12-17 years of age, were analyzed. Results indicate that receptivity to protobacco media was lower among African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics than among White youth. There was a consistent dose-response relationship between receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking across ethnic groups. Having a cigarette brand preference was associated with the highest risk for cigarette smoking, having a favorite tobacco ad showed the lowest risk, while having received or being willing to use tobacco promotional items was associated with a moderate risk. After controlling for 13 covariates, the odds ratio for receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking was significant for Whites (RR = 1.38, p < 0.01) and Hispanics (RR = 1.46, p < 0.01), but not for African American (RR = 1.05, p > 0.05) and Asian American (RR = 1.17, p > 0.05) youth. African American, Asian American, and Hispanic adolescents have a lower level of receptivity to protobacco media than do Whites. The association between media receptivity and 30-day cigarette smoking exists for all four ethnic groups without controlling for other smoking predictor variables, but only for Hispanics and Whites when other variables are controlled. Protecting adolescents from protobacco advertising influences is an important element in tobacco control among ethnic minority youth.

  10. Ethnic and Racial Identity and Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, W. David; Hudley, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Identity is a major developmental task for adolescents, and the development of ethnic identity is a unique and significant developmental task for many adolescents. This article reviews theoretical and empirical literature that informs our understanding of the development of a positive ethnic identity, and the consequences for adolescent mental…

  11. Community Influence on Adolescent Obesity: Race/Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. Thulitha; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 20,000 adolescents (Add Health data), this study examined the influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity. Multilevel analyses revealed strong evidence for the unique influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity net of family characteristics. The prevalence of obesity is…

  12. Understanding suboptimal human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among ethnic minority girls.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Tsui, Jennifer; Chang, L Cindy; Marchand, Erica J; Taylor, Victoria M; Singhal, Rita

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines represents a breakthrough in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. However, little is known about vaccination uptake and correlates among low-income, ethnic minority, and immigrant populations in the U.S. who may benefit most from the vaccine. Telephone interviews (N = 490) were conducted in six languages between January and November 2009 among mothers of vaccine-eligible girls (ages 9-18) using the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Office of Women's Health service referral hotline. HPV and vaccine awareness, knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and daughter's vaccine receipt were assessed. The sample consisted of low-income, uninsured, ethnic minority, and immigrant women. Only 29% of daughters initiated the vaccine and 11% received all three doses. No ethnic differences were observed in initiation or completion rates. Ethnic differences were observed in HPV awareness, perceived risk, and other vaccine-related beliefs. The strongest predictor of initiation was vaccine awareness (OR = 12.00). Daughter's age and reporting a younger acceptable age for vaccination were positively associated with initiation. Mothers of unvaccinated girls reported lacking information about the vaccine to make a decision (66%) and not knowing where they could obtain the vaccine (74%). Vaccination rates in this sample were lower than state and national estimates, and were associated with low levels of vaccine awareness. Interventions, including culturally targeted messaging, may be helpful for enhancing HPV-vaccine knowledge, modifying vaccine-related beliefs and increasing uptake. Our findings provide valuable guidance for developing interventions to address suboptimal HPV vaccination in high-risk groups. ©2011 AACR

  13. Social capital, ethnic density and mental health among ethnic minority people in England: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Becares, Laia; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority people have been suggested to be healthier when living in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. Explanations behind the ethnic density effect propose that positive health outcomes are partially attributed to the protective and buffering effects of increased social capital on health. In fact, a parallel literature has reported increased levels of social capital in areas of greater ethnic residential diversity, but to date, no study in England has explored whether increased social capital mediates the relationship between protective effects attributed to the residential concentration of ethnic minority groups and health. We employ a mixed-methods approach to examine the association between ethnicity, social capital and mental health. We analyse geocoded data from the 2004 Health Survey for England to examine the association between (1) ethnic residential concentration and health; (2) ethnic residential concentration and social capital; (3) social capital and health; and (4) the mediating effect of social capital on the association between the residential concentration of ethnic groups and health. To further add to our understanding of the processes involved, data from a qualitative study of quality older ethnic minority people were be used to examine accounts of the significance of place of residence to quality of life. The association between ethnic density and social capital varies depending on the level of measurement of social capital and differed across ethnic minority groups. Social capital was not found to mediate the association between ethnic density and health. Structural differences in the characteristics of the neighbourhoods where different ethnic groups reside are reflected in the accounts of their daily experiences, and we observed different narratives of neighbourhood experiences between Indian and Caribbean respondents. The use of mixed methods provides an important

  14. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.

  15. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    PubMed

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  16. Examining minor and major depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramírez, Rafael; Chávez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, José

    2005-08-01

    Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR), Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Minor Depression (mDEP), an example of one of these categories, allows the inclusion of sub-threshold cases that fall below the diagnostic criteria of the five symptoms required for MDD. Minor depression in adolescence is important because it is significantly related to MDD in adulthood. The present study examines a number of risk factors, functional impairment, comorbidity and service utilization patterns associated with depression in community adolescents who met the DSM-IV criteria for mDEP and compares their profile to adolescents who met the criteria for MDD. Puerto Rican adolescents 11 to 17 years old were selected from an island-wide probability household sample of children ranging in age from 4 to 17. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule in Spanish (DISC IV), together with a structured protocol of risks and protective factors, and service utilization questionnaires were administered to primary caretakers and their children. Our findings indicate that youngsters with mDEP had significant impairment and used more mental health services than those with major depression. In addition, adolescents with mDEP had similar outcomes when compared to those meeting full criteria for MDD in terms of psychosocial correlates and comorbidity. The results, although not definitive, suggest a need for further research in order to determine the validity of the present DSM IV diagnostic criteria for mDEP in adolescents.

  17. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities. NCES 2007-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KewalRamani, Angelina; Gilbertson, Lauren; Fox, Mary Ann; Provasnik, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" examines the educational progress and challenges that racial and ethnic minorities face in the United States. This report shows that over time larger numbers of minorities have completed high school and continued their education in college. Despite these gains, progress…

  18. Cancer and ethnic minorities--the Department of Health's perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, V.

    1996-01-01

    With more than 160,000 deaths annually cancer is the second commonest cause of death in the UK. The little evidence available shows that black and minority ethnic people are experiencing an increase in cancer-related mortality. The Government's Health of the Nation report produced in 1993 by the Department of Health identifies key areas, including cancer, where improvements in mortality and morbidity could be achieved, and an essential element relates to the needs of black and minority ethnic people. It is, for example, now well recognised that in terms of screening, treatment and palliation, cancer services are not always accessible and sensitive to the needs of this section of the population. Beginning with a demographic backdrop this paper reviews the data on the occurrence of cancer and on access to services by this section of the population. Relevant initiatives funded by the Department of Health are highlighted and a summary of the information sources to enable health care purchasers and service providers to assess the needs of their local population has also been given. PMID:8782792

  19. The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in cigarette smoking in ethnic minority adults since the 1970s; in some groups levels are now similar to that of White British people. We aimed to examine the determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke in ethnic minority children. We hypothesised that exposure to secondhand smoke in children will vary across ethnic groups, but that the correlates of exposure would be similar to that of Whites. Methods The Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health sample comprises 3468 White United Kingdom and ethnic minority (Black Caribbean, Black African, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi) pupils aged 11-13 yrs. Outcome was saliva cotinine concentration. Explanatory variables collected by self-complete questionnaire included ethnicity, child reported household smoking and socio-economic circumstances. Data were analysed using linear regression models with a random intercept function. Results Ethnic minority children had lower saliva cotinine than Whites, partly explained by less smoking among parents. White and Black Caribbean children had higher cotinine levels if they lived in a household with a maternal smoker only, than with a paternal smoker only. Living in a lone compared to a dual parent household was associated with increased cotinine concentration of 45% (95%CI 5, 99%) in Whites, 27% (95%CI 5,53%) in Black Caribbeans and 21% (95%CI 1, 45%) in Black Africans after adjusting for household smoking status. Material disadvantage was a significant correlate only for White children (40% (95%CI 1, 94%) increase in cotinine in least compared to most advantaged group). Conclusions Ethnic minority children were less exposed to secondhand smoke than Whites, but the variations within groups were similarly patterned. These findings suggest that it is important not to be complacent about low smoking prevalence in some minority groups. PMID:20482885

  20. California's racial and ethnic minorities more adversely affected by asthma.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Babey, Susan H; Hastert, Theresa A; Brown, E Richard

    2007-02-01

    In California, nearly 2.8 million adults and children (8%) had active asthma in 2003. Of Californians with active asthma, 890,000 are children (ages 0-17) and 1.8 million are adults (age 18 and above). The prevalence of active asthma varies by racial and ethnic group, with racial and ethnic minority groups affected more adversely by asthma. They are more likely to go to the emergency department for asthma care, miss more school and work days because of asthma, and have poorer health status. They are also more likely to lack access to health care and to live in conditions associated with asthma exacerbations. Among California children, the prevalence of active asthma varies by racial and ethnic groups-with the highest prevalence among African Americans (17%) and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17%), followed by whites (10%), Latinos (7%) and Asians (7%; Exhibit 1). Among adults, American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest prevalence of active asthma (13%), followed by African Americans (10%), whites (9%), Asians (5%) and Latinos (5%). The National data similarly show that both African Americans and American Indians have higher current asthma prevalence rates than non- Hispanic whites.

  1. Disparities in treatment for substance use disorders and co-occurring disorders for ethnic/racial minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Margarita; Carson, Nicholas J.; Goncalves, Marta; Keefe, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health services and present recent data, focusing on services for substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid mental health disorders for children and adolescents. Method A literature review was conducted of behavioral health services for minority youth. Papers were included if specific comparisons in receipt of SUD services for youth were made by race or ethnicity. The review was organized following the Sociocultural Framework. Results Compared to non-Latino Whites with SUD, Black adolescents with SUD report receiving less specialty and informal care, while Latinos with SUD report less informal services. Potential mechanisms of racial and ethnic disparities were identified in: federal and economic health care policies and regulations; the operation of the health care system and provider organization; provider level factors; the environmental context; the operation of the community system; and patient level factors. Significant disparities reductions could be achieved by adoption of certain state policies and regulations that increase eligibility in public insurance. There is also a need to study how the organization of treatment services might lead to service disparities, particularly problems in treatment completion. Institutional and family characteristics linked to better quality of care should be explored. Since treatments appear to work well independent of race/ethnicity, translational research to bring evidence based care in diverse communities can bolster their effectiveness. Conclusions Our review suggests promising venues to reduce ethnic and racial disparities in behavioral health services for ethnic and racial minority youth. PMID:21156267

  2. The role of health insurance in improving health services use by Thais and ethnic minority migrants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand, a universal coverage health care scheme for Thai citizens and a foreign worker health insurance program for registered foreign workers have been implemented since 2001. This study uses the 2000-2004 panel data of the Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System to explore the role of health insurance in influencing the use of health care for Thai, Thai ethnic minority, and ethnic minority migrants from 2000 to 2004. The results show that health insurance plays a major role in improving the use of health care for ethnic groups, especially for Thai ethnic minorities. However, a gap still existed in 2004 between health insurance and health care use by ethnic minority migrants and by Thais. The results suggest that improving health insurance status for ethnic minority migrants should be encouraged to reduce the ethnic gap in the use of health care.

  3. Self-Esteem and the Evaluation of Ethnic Identity among Turkish and Dutch Adolescents in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    1990-01-01

    Reports results from a nationwide sample in the Netherlands examining effects of minority status on Turkish adolescents. Finds that Turkish ethnicity did not significantly lower self-esteem. Reveals that (for both groups) body image had the greatest impact on self-esteem. Reports ethnic identity was more salient to Turks' self-concept than to…

  4. Self-Esteem and the Evaluation of Ethnic Identity among Turkish and Dutch Adolescents in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    1990-01-01

    Reports results from a nationwide sample in the Netherlands examining effects of minority status on Turkish adolescents. Finds that Turkish ethnicity did not significantly lower self-esteem. Reveals that (for both groups) body image had the greatest impact on self-esteem. Reports ethnic identity was more salient to Turks' self-concept than to…

  5. Social Determinants of Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; McKinney, Molly A.; Braun, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Too many racial/ethnic minorities do not reach their full potential for a healthy and rewarding life. This paper addresses the social determinants that impact, either directly or indirectly, child and adolescent health disparities. Understanding the role social determinants play in the life course of health status can help guide educational…

  6. Ethnic minority elders: are they neglected in published geriatric psychiatry literature?

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit; Doe, Prosper; Deverill, Ksenia

    2008-10-01

    The population size of the elderly from ethnic minority groups in many developing countries is rapidly increasing. The authors perceived a paucity of publications in the geriatric psychiatry literature pertaining to ethnic minority elders. A study examining the proportion of research publications pertaining to ethnic minority elders in two leading geriatric psychiatry journals, International Psychogeriatrics and International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, was undertaken. The main findings were: (1) overall only 7.6% of the publications examined ethnic minority elders; (2) only 5.1% of publications were exclusively of ethnic minority elderly groups; and, (3) only 2.5% of publications included ethnic minority elderly groups in their overall sample. Findings from studies, such as epidemiological studies of risk factors for mental disorders in old age and randomized controlled studies of treatment interventions, which exclude ethnic minority elders, cannot be assumed to apply to these groups. Researchers, research institutions, funding organizations and policy-makers should acknowledge the rising numbers of ethnic minority elders and recognize the importance of using ethnic minority-specific research data in the planning of culturally sensitive services and mental health promotion programs.

  7. Implications of Ethnic Identity Exploration and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging for Intergroup Attitudes among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.; Wittig, Michele A.; Gadino, Brandy

    2009-01-01

    The present paper develops and tests two temporal models of the relationships among adolescents' ethnic identity exploration, ethnic identity affirmation and belonging, and attitudes toward their racial/ethnic ingroup and outgroups. Structural equation models for Euro-Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos revealed that all hypothesized…

  8. Health-related hindrance of personal goals of adolescents with cancer: The role of the interaction of race/ethnicity and income.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Lauren C; Barakat, Lamia P; Brumley, Lauren D; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the interaction of race/ethnicity and income to health-related hindrance (HRH) of personal goals of adolescents with cancer. Adolescents (N = 94) receiving treatment for cancer completed a measure of HRH, (including identification of personal goals, rating the impact of health on goal pursuit, and ratings of goal appraisals). The interaction of race/ethnicity and income on HRH was examined. Goal content and appraisal were compared by race/ethnic groups. The interaction between race/ethnicity and income was significant in predicting HRH, with HRH increasing for minority adolescents as income increases and HRH decreasing for white adolescents as income increases. Higher income minority adolescents reported the most goals. Low income minorities reported the least difficult goals. Goal content did not differ between groups. Sociodemographic factors contribute to HRH in adolescents with cancer. Structural and psychosocial support during treatment to maintain goal pursuit may improve psychosocial outcomes.

  9. Health-related hindrance of personal goals of adolescents with cancer: The role of the interaction of race/ethnicity and income

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Lauren C.; Barakat, Lamia P.; Brumley, Lauren D.; Schwartz, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the interaction of race/ethnicity and income to health-related hindrance (HRH) of personal goals of adolescents with cancer. Procedure Adolescents (N=94) receiving treatment for cancer completed a measure of HRH, (including identification of personal goals, rating the impact of health on goal pursuit, and ratings of goal appraisals). The interaction of race/ethnicity and income on HRH was examined. Goal content and appraisal were compared by race/ethnic groups. Results The interaction between race/ethnicity and income was significant in predicting HRH, with HRH increasing for minority adolescents as income increases and HRH decreasing for white adolescents as income increases. Higher income minority adolescents reported the most goals. Low income minorities reported the least difficult goals. Goal content did not differ between groups. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors contribute to HRH in adolescents with cancer. Structural and psychosocial support during treatment to maintain goal pursuit may improve psychosocial outcomes. PMID:24659300

  10. Researching mental health in minority ethnic communities: reflections on recruitment.

    PubMed

    Rugkåsa, Jorun; Canvin, Krysia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reflect on the recruitment of research participants to two related studies of experiences of mental health problems in Black and minority ethnic communities in the United Kingdom. A total of 65 people were recruited via three main strategies: the employment of bicultural recruiters, intensive information sharing about the studies, and work through local community groups. Three main issues seemed to affect recruitment: gatekeepers' attitudes, the (non)payment of participants, and reciprocal arrangements with local community groups. The type of strategy employed resulted in recruits with differing characteristics (although our sample was too small to draw generalizable conclusions). We conclude that to ensure that research participation is accessible to all, researchers must employ flexible recruitment methods that permit adaptation to specific needs arising out of health status, level of involvement with services, culture, and socioeconomic status. Systematic research into this part of the research process is needed.

  11. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  12. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  13. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  14. Diabetes in migrants and ethnic minorities in a changing World

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Luca; Caletti, Maria Turchese; Marchesini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    On a worldwide scale, the total number of migrants exceeds 200 million and is not expected to reduce, fuelled by the economic crisis, terrorism and wars, generating increasing clinical and administrative problems to National Health Systems. Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), and specifically diabetes, are on the front-line, due to the high number of cases at risk, duration and cost of diseases, and availability of effective measures of prevention and treatment. We reviewed the documents of International Agencies on migration and performed a PubMed search of existing literature, focusing on the differences in the prevalence of diabetes between migrants and native people, the prevalence of NCD in migrants vs rates in the countries of origin, diabetes convergence, risk of diabetes progression and standard of care in migrants. Even in universalistic healthcare systems, differences in socioeconomic status and barriers generated by the present culture of biomedicine make high-risk ethnic minorities under-treated and not protected against inequalities. Underutilization of drugs and primary care services in specific ethnic groups are far from being money-saving, and might produce higher hospitalization rates due to disease progression and complications. Efforts should be made to favor screening and treatment programs, to adapt education programs to specific cultures, and to develop community partnerships. PMID:26862371

  15. Ethnic Identity Formation during Adolescence: The Critical Role of Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Bhanot, Ruchi; Shin, Nana

    2006-01-01

    An ecological model of ethnic identity was examined among 639 adolescents of Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Salvadoran descent. Using structural equation modeling and, specifically, multiple group comparisons, findings indicated that familial ethnic socialization (FES) played a significant role in the process of ethnic identity…

  16. Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…

  17. Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…

  18. Emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms in a longitudinal study of sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of adolescents. The present study sought to examine whether deficits in emotion regulation could account for disparities in internalizing symptoms between sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents. Methods The present study utilized longitudinal data from a racially/ethnically diverse (68% non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino) community sample of 1,071 middle school students (ages 11–14). Results Adolescents who endorsed same-sex attraction evidenced higher rates of internalizing symptoms at both time points. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual minority adolescents exhibited greater deficits in emotion regulation (rumination and poor emotional awareness) than their heterosexual peers. Emotion regulation deficits in turn mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Conclusions The results demonstrate the importance of considering normative psychological processes in the development of internalizing symptomatology among sexual minority adolescents, and suggest emotion regulation deficits as specific targets of prevention and intervention efforts with this population. Future studies are needed to determine whether stigma-related stressors are responsible for emotion regulation deficits among sexual minority youth. PMID:18564066

  19. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Race-ethnic inequality and psychological distress: depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Brown, J Scott; Meadows, Sarah O; Elder, Glen H

    2007-11-01

    Social inequality is well established in the mental health of race-ethnic groups, but little is known about this disparity from adolescence to young adulthood. This study examined differences in trajectories of depressive symptoms across 4 race-ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians) using 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Latent trajectory analyses showed race-ethnic variations among both females and males. Stressors were significantly related to depressive symptoms for all study members, but they accounted for symptom trajectories only among Black males and minority females. Persistent differences in trajectories for Blacks and Whites showed parallel slopes that did not converge over time. Neither background characteristics nor social resources (i.e., social support) altered this gap. However, social support represents a potential equalizer of these race-ethnic differences, owing to the ubiquitous nature of its protective effects.

  1. Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic…

  2. Minority Rights and Majority Rule: Ethnic Tolerance in Romania and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Mary E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from national surveys of majority ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria examined the effects on tolerance toward minority groups of education, community ethnic composition, urbanism, age, gender, perceived threat to national security from the minority group's homeland, democratic values, and prevailing political ideology. Contains…

  3. The New Paradigm of Ethnic Minority Educational Research: Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Dong-ge; Huang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research and quantitative research have their own advantages, so mixed use both to improve scientific research. Too many Chinese Ethnic Minority Educational Research in qualitative research, and few use quantitative research, leading the results with many subjective factors. The reason is that selecting ethnic minority educational…

  4. Linguistic and Cultural Effects on the Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students: Some Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2016-01-01

    Established literature suggests that language problems lead to lower attainment levels in those subjects that are more language dependent. Also, language has been suggested as a main driver of ethnic minority attainment. We use an original dataset of 2,020 secondary school students to show that ethnic minority students in Cyprus underperform…

  5. Linguistic and Cultural Effects on the Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students: Some Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2016-01-01

    Established literature suggests that language problems lead to lower attainment levels in those subjects that are more language dependent. Also, language has been suggested as a main driver of ethnic minority attainment. We use an original dataset of 2,020 secondary school students to show that ethnic minority students in Cyprus underperform…

  6. Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic…

  7. Division 45: The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…

  8. The Use of Role Models to Improve Engagement of Ethnic Minority Students in Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an enquiry into whether role models in science have an effect on ethnic minority engagement and aspirations. It discusses whether incorporating scientists from across the globe into lessons could have a positive impact on ethnic minority and white pupils. Pupils at a Sheffield school were introduced to scientists from across…

  9. Double Jeopardy: The Children of Ethnic Minorities. Innocenti Occasional Papers. Child Rights Series, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavenhagen, Rodolfo

    This paper examines the state of current research on ethnic minorities and their children and discusses areas in which further study is needed so that effective policy guidelines may be developed within the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. A number of examples of ethnic minority situations are presented to…

  10. Reforming Lao Teacher Education to Include Females and Ethnic Minorities--Exploring Possibilities and Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Britt-Marie; Chounlamany, Kongsy; Khounphilaphanh, Bounchanh; Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article explores possibilities and constraints for the inclusion of female and ethnic minority students in Lao education in order to provide education for all. Females and ethnic minorities have traditionally been disadvantaged in Lao education and reforms for the inclusion of these groups are therefore welcome. The article provides rich…

  11. The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…

  12. Predicting Intention to Remain in College among Ethnic Minority and Nonminority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A.; Beil, Cheryl; Caplan, Robert D.

    1997-01-01

    Tests for equivalence models predicting ethnic minority and nonminority students' intentions to remain enrolled in college. Reports similarities and differences in the models for predicting commitment for ethnic minority and nonminority students. Notes limitations to the inferences that can be drawn from the study due to its methodology. (DSK)

  13. Residential Segregation and Birth Weight among Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel…

  14. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  15. Equal Opportunities or Affirmative Action? The Induction of Minority Ethnic Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.; McNamara, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Currently in the UK there is much pressure to increase the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority teachers, not only to respond to the continuing shortage, but to develop a teaching force that reflects the diversity in the UK population and provides role models for ethnic minority students. There is, however, little research on how ethnic…

  16. The Effects of Student Characteristics on Teachers' Judgment Accuracy: Disentangling Ethnicity, Minority Status, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Johanna; Südkamp, Anna; Möller, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' judgments of students' academic achievement are not only affected by the achievement themselves but also by several other characteristics such as ethnicity, gender, and minority status. In real-life classrooms, achievement and further characteristics are often confounded. We disentangled achievement, ethnicity and minority status and…

  17. The Use of Role Models to Improve Engagement of Ethnic Minority Students in Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an enquiry into whether role models in science have an effect on ethnic minority engagement and aspirations. It discusses whether incorporating scientists from across the globe into lessons could have a positive impact on ethnic minority and white pupils. Pupils at a Sheffield school were introduced to scientists from across…

  18. Division 45: The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…

  19. Double Jeopardy: The Children of Ethnic Minorities. Innocenti Occasional Papers. Child Rights Series, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavenhagen, Rodolfo

    This paper examines the state of current research on ethnic minorities and their children and discusses areas in which further study is needed so that effective policy guidelines may be developed within the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. A number of examples of ethnic minority situations are presented to…

  20. Residential Segregation and Birth Weight among Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel…

  1. Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys: Disparities by Sexual Orientation and Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Calzo, Jerel P; Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys as a function of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. We analyzed boys from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 6248; mean age = 16), a representative sample of US high school students. Lifetime prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse was dichotomized as never versus 1 or more times. Sexual minority boys reported elevated misuse compared with heterosexual boys, within each level of race/ethnicity. Black, Hispanic, and White sexual minority boys reported misuse at approximately 25%, 20%, and 9%, respectively. Sexual orientation health disparities in anabolic steroid misuse disproportionally affect Black and Hispanic sexual minority adolescent boys, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving these disparities.

  2. Exploratory Investigation of Drivers of Attainment in Ethnic Minority Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Lara A.; Koutsoubou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that ethnic minority learners in further education in England either under-achieve or are under-represented because they face various inhibitors connected to their ethnicity. Motivators may be in place, however, which increase attainment specifically for some ethnic groups. This exploratory study intends to examine what works and…

  3. The protective influence of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement for New Zealand Ma̅ori adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma̅ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3 measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Participants in the current study were 431 self-identified Ma̅ori (ages 10-15 years at Time 1). As expected, the variables of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and well-being were all positively related to each other. Results of a latent growth curve model showed that, following normative trends for adolescents of this age, well-being diminished over time for Ma̅ori youth; however, high levels of family connectedness were found to mitigate this general decline in well-being over time. Furthermore, in a longitudinal path analysis, ethnic engagement was found to exert a positive indirect effect on residualized Time 3 well-being through Time 2 ethnic identity. These findings indicate that the quality of family relationships and affiliation with one's ethnic group are important predictors of positive adjustment for Ma̅ori youth over time. These results are discussed in the context of positive youth development for ethnic minority and indigenous youth.

  4. Help-seeking behaviour for internalizing problems: perceptions of adolescent girls from different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Flink, Ilse Johanna Elisabeth; Beirens, Tinneke Monique Josef; Butte, Dick; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescent girls from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of internalizing problems (e.g. depression), only a small fraction seeks formal help for these problems. To enhance help-seeking for internalizing problems among ethnic minority adolescent girls, insight into their help-seeking behaviour is required. This study explored the perceptions of adolescent girls from different ethnic backgrounds regarding their help-seeking behaviour for internalizing problems. A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) was employed. Eight ethnic-specific FGDs were conducted with 50 adolescent girls of mostly Turkish (n=23), Moroccan (n=13), and Dutch (n=10) backgrounds recruited in Rotterdam, a multicultural city in the Netherlands. FGDs were conceptually framed within a help-seeking model, facilitated by a vignette and analysed using NVivo software. When describing the internalizing problems presented in the vignette, participants of non-Dutch FGDs tended to state the causes of the problems (e.g. lack of attention) whereas participants of Dutch FGDs mentioned the emotional state. Participants did not perceive the presented internalizing problems as severe. If participants were to face internalizing problems of their own, their decision to seek help would be hampered by negative attitudes towards professionals and school-based services. Particularly in non-Dutch FGDs the fear of parental and friend's reactions was identified as a barrier. Participants identified their mother and a good friend as primary sources of help. In this study, adolescent girls of Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch backgrounds had difficulty recognizing the severity of internalizing problems, and various barriers could hamper their decision to seek help. To enhance utilization of mental health services by youth, promoting a change in their attitudes towards mental health/school-based services is recommended. Guaranteeing confidentiality within school-based services, and training for

  5. Disparities in treatment for substance use disorders and co-occurring disorders for ethnic/racial minority youth.

    PubMed

    Alegria, Margarita; Carson, Nicholas J; Goncalves, Marta; Keefe, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    To review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health services and present recent data, focusing on services for substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid mental health disorders for children and adolescents. A literature review was conducted of behavioral health services for minority youth. Articles were included if specific comparisons in receipt of SUD services for youth were made by race or ethnicity. The review was organized according to a sociocultural framework. Compared with non-Latino Whites with SUD, Black adolescents with SUD reported receiving less specialty and informal care, and Latinos with SUD reported less informal services. Potential mechanisms of racial and ethnic disparities were identified in federal and economic health care policies and regulations, the operation of the health care system and provider organization, provider level factors, the environmental context, the operation of the community system, and patient level factors. Significant disparity decreases could be achieved by adoption of certain state policies and regulations that increase eligibility in public insurance. There is also a need to study how the organization of treatment services might lead to service disparities, particularly problems in treatment completion. Institutional and family characteristics linked to better quality of care should be explored. Because treatments appear to work well independent of race/ethnicity, translational research to bring evidence-based care in diverse communities can bolster their effectiveness. This review suggests promising venues to decrease ethnic and racial disparities in behavioral health services for ethnic and racial minority youth. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depressive symptoms among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a population based study in 23 European countries.

    PubMed

    Missinne, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2012-01-01

    European studies about ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms are scarce, show inconclusive results and are complicated by the discussion of what constitute (im)migrant and ethnic minority groups. Moreover, comparisons across countries are hampered by a lack of comparable measures of depressive symptoms. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of depressive symptoms among immigrants, ethnic minorities and natives in 23 European countries. Multilevel analyses are performed using data from the third wave of the European Social Survey (ESS-3). This dataset comprises information about 36,970 respondents, aged 21 years or older, of whom 13.3% immigrants and 6.2% ethnic minorities. Depressive symptoms were assessed with an 8-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Main determinants are immigrant status, socio-economic conditions and the experience of ethnic discrimination in the host country. The results show that immigrants and ethnic minorities do experience more depressive symptoms than natives in an essential part of the countries. Moreover, socio-economic conditions and the experience of ethnic discrimination are important risk factors. Immigrant status seems irrelevant, once the other risk factors are accounted for. Finally, immigrant and ethnic minority groups do not consist of the same individuals and therefore have different prevalence rates of depressive symptoms. The prevalence rates of depressive symptoms are higher for immigrant and ethnic minority groups in a substantial part of the European countries. A clear definition is indispensable for developing policies that address the right-targeted population.

  7. Individual differences in preferences for matched-ethnic mentors among high-achieving ethnically diverse adolescents in STEM.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K; Chemers, Martin M; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2012-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age = 15.82) attending a 4-week science education program. Cluster analyses indicated that at Time 1, underrepresented ethnic minorities were more often in the cluster defined by feelings of importance of having a matched-background mentor but not having much contact. Perceptions of contact increased over time for these students and were associated with increased feelings of identity as a science student. The results suggest the need for attending to individual differences in students' preferences for matched-background mentors.

  8. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested.

  9. Ethnicity and the experience of work: job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Miller, G V F; Travers, C J

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'.

  10. Rates, risk factors & methods of self harm among minority ethnic groups in the UK: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; McKenzie, Kwame; Rasul, Farhat

    2007-11-19

    Studies suggest that the rates of self harm vary by ethnic group, but the evidence for variation in risk factors has not been synthesised to inform preventive initiatives. We undertook a systematic literature review of research about self harm that compared at least two ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. 25 publications from 1765 titles and abstracts met our inclusion criteria. There was higher rate of self harm among South Asian women, compared with South Asian men and White women. In a pooled estimate from two studies, compared to their white counterparts, Asian women were more likely to self harm (Relative Risk 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1 to 1.8, p = 0.005), and Asian men were less likely to self harm (RR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7, p < 0.001). Some studies concluded that South Asian adults self-harm impulsively in response to life events rather than in association with a psychiatric illness. Studies of adolescents showed similar methods of self harm and interpersonal disputes with parents and friends across ethnic groups. There were few studies of people of Caribbean, African and other minority ethnic groups, few studies took a population based and prospective design and few investigated self harm among prisoners, asylum seekers and refugees. This review finds some ethnic differences in the nature and presentation of self harm. This argues for ethnic specific preventive actions. However, the literature does not comprehensively cover the UK's diverse ethnic groups.

  11. A Review of Culturally Targeted/Tailored Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Emerging racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use behaviors and resulting long-term health outcomes highlight the importance of developing culturally tailored/targeted tobacco prevention and cessation interventions. This manuscript describes the efficacy and the components of prevention and cessation interventions developed for minority adolescents. Methods: Thirteen studies focused on culturally tailoring and targeting tobacco prevention/cessation interventions were selected and information on intervention design (type, number of sessions), setting (school or community), theoretical constructs, culture-specific components (surface/deep structures), and treatment outcomes were extracted. Results: Of the 13 studies, 5 focused on prevention, 4 on cessation, and 4 combined prevention and cessation, and most of the studies were primarily school-based, while a few used community locations. Although diverse minority groups were targeted, a majority of the studies (n = 6) worked with Hispanic adolescents. The most common theoretical construct examined was the Social Influence Model (n = 5). The overall findings indicated that culturally tailoring cessation interventions did not appear to improve tobacco quit rates among minority adolescents, but culturally tailored prevention interventions appeared to produce lower tobacco initiation rates among minority adolescents than control conditions. Conclusions: The results of review suggest that there is a critical need to develop better interventions to reduce tobacco use among minority adolescents and that developing a better understanding of cultural issues related to both cessation and initiation of tobacco use among minority populations is a key component of this endeavor. PMID:22614548

  12. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-12-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (< 300% of the Federal Poverty Level), and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.

  13. Minority stress, ethnic identity, and depression among Latino/a college students.

    PubMed

    Arbona, Consuelo; Jimenez, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine among Latino/a college students the extent to which dimensions of minority stress related to ethnic group membership (college climate, academic achievement, ethnic discrimination, and intra-ethnic pressure stress) were uniquely associated with depression symptoms when general college stress was taken into account. The study also examined if ethnic identity moderated the relation of minority stress to depression symptoms. Participants were 309 Latino/a undergraduate students (53% women; 69% of Mexican descent) enrolled in a diverse, major research, urban, public university in the southwestern United States. Findings revealed that minority stress in the areas of academic concerns and negative perceptions of the campus climate contributed unique variance to depression symptoms when controlling for gender and students' general college stress. Ethnic identity did not moderate the relation of any of the minority stress dimensions to depression. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Counselling Ethnic Minorities: Does It Require Special Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shack, Sybil

    1978-01-01

    Ethnicity is an important part of Canadian life. There is no magic formula for counseling "ethnic" students. Ethnic differences create some problems, but add spice and color to Canadian classrooms. Knowledge, understanding, sensitivity, acceptance, and mutual trust help to dissipate the problems. (Author)

  15. Counselling Ethnic Minorities: Does It Require Special Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shack, Sybil

    1978-01-01

    Ethnicity is an important part of Canadian life. There is no magic formula for counseling "ethnic" students. Ethnic differences create some problems, but add spice and color to Canadian classrooms. Knowledge, understanding, sensitivity, acceptance, and mutual trust help to dissipate the problems. (Author)

  16. Racially and ethnically diverse schools and adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Strully, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to "work around" opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships or work around constraints from other groups' preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school.

  17. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    PubMed Central

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  18. Rap Music Use, Perceived Peer Behavior, and Sexual Initiation Among Ethnic Minority Youth.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Baker, Kimberly A; Markham, Christine; Baumler, Elizabeth; Swain, Honora; Emery, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that rap music use is associated with risky sexual behavior in ethnic minority youth; however, it is unknown whether rap music use impacts sexual initiation specifically and, if so, which factors mediate this impact. Thus, we investigated the longitudinal relationship between hours spent listening to rap music in seventh grade and sexual initiation in ninth grade. We also examined the role of perceived peer sexual behavior as a potential mediator of this relationship. We analyzed data from students (n = 443) enrolled in a school-based randomized controlled trial of a sexual health education curriculum collected at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Rap music use and perceived peer sexual behavior were assessed in seventh grade, whereas sexual initiation was assessed in ninth grade. Univariate, multivariate, and mediation analyses were conducted. At baseline, rap music use was significantly associated with race/ethnicity, parental music rules, and sexual behavior, but not with gender or parental education. Rap music use was a significant predictor of sexual initiation on univariate analysis but not multivariate analysis. Mediation analysis showed that the association between hours spent listening to rap music and sexual initiation was significantly mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. Rap music use in early adolescence significantly impacts sexual initiation in late adolescence, partially mediated by perceived peer sexual behavior. More research is needed to understand how rap music influences perceptions of peer sexual behavior, which, in turn, influence early sexual initiation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual orientation, minority stress, social norms, and substance use among racially diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; Goldbach, Jeremy T; Burgess, Claire; DiBello, Angelo M

    2017-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual peers to use substances. This study tested factors that contribute to sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents. Specifically, we examined how both minority stress (i.e., homophobic bullying) and social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) may account for sexual orientation disparities in recent and lifetime use of four substances: tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription drugs. A probability sample of middle and high school students (N=3012; aged 11-18 years old; 71.2% racial and ethnic minorities) using random cluster methods was obtained in a mid-size school district in the Southeastern United States. Sexual minority adolescents were more likely than heterosexual adolescents to use substances, experience homophobic bullying, and report higher descriptive norms for close friends and more permissive injunctive norms for friends and parents. While accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, multiple mediation models concurrently testing all mediators indicated that higher descriptive and more permissive injunctive norms were significant mediators of the associations between sexual orientation and recent and lifetime use of the four substances, whereas homophobic bullying was not a significant mediator of the associations between sexual orientation and recent and lifetime use of any of the substances. Descriptive and injunctive norms, in conjunction with minority stress, are important to consider in explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially diverse adolescents. These results have implications for substance use interventions among sexual minority adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethnic Discrimination and Global Self-Worth in Early Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization based on one's ethnic group membership contributes to the problems and conflicts of ethnic minority children around the world. With ethnic discrimination, a part of the self is implicated. Hence, it is likely that being treated negatively on the basis of one's ethnicity has a negative influence on ethnic self-esteem and thereby…

  1. The Effects of Ethnic/Racial Discrimination and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem Trajectories Among Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70 % female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed. PMID:24682960

  2. The effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and self-esteem trajectories among diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tiffany

    2015-02-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70% female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed.

  3. How Does Ethnic and Non-Ethnic Victimization by Peers and by Teachers Relate to the School Belongingness of Ethnic Minority Students in Flanders, Belgium? An Explorative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2015-01-01

    School belongingness has proven its positive effect on a wide range of outcomes that lead to school success. However, the factors that influence school belongingness received little research attention. Hence, the goal of this study is to explore the impact of ethnic victimization on ethnic minority students' school belongingness. Hereto, we…

  4. Integration versus segregation: ethnic minorities and urban politics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Van Grunsven, L

    1992-01-01

    The population of Singapore is very heterogenous. The main groups distinguished are the Chinese, the Malays, the Indians, and others. Since the end of the 1950s these groups have remained stable: Chinese make up 76%, Malays 15%, Indians 6%, and others 3% of the total population. In the mid-1960s almost 25% of the Chinese were working in commerce as opposed to only 10% of the Malays. More than 50% of Malays held low-paying jobs in services compared to less than 30% of the Chinese. The backward position of the Malays during the 1960s was reinforced by residential location in the peripheries. In the 1950s and 1960s the city center was exclusively inhabited by the Chinese. Malays were living in small clusters across the city and in 1 large cluster in the eastern part of the city. The ruling People's Action Party government during the 1960s adopted the New Economic Policy which granted economic and social privileges to the Malays. In 1969 the decision was made to disperse the Malay community across the city. In the early 1960s the state launched a large-scale public housing program through the newly created Housing and Development Board (H.D.B.). Between 1970 and 1982 Malay households living in H.D.B. apartments increased from 23% to 77%. Between 1970 and 1980 substantial declustering of the malay community and desegregation of the ethnic groups had occurred. In 24 areas out of 51 subdivisions of Singapore the Malay quotient decreased between 1970 and 1980. In 1980 the location quotient for Malay settlement areas was significantly lower (varying between 0.07 and 2.18) than the highest quotient in 1970 (varying between 0.06 and 3.7). During the 1980s the economic participation of the Malays increased steadily, they became gradually incorporated into industry, and increasingly moved upward within the public housing sector. Between 1980 and 1990 the Malay households living in H.D.B. dwellings increased from 72% to 97%. Notwithstanding residential integration, ethnic

  5. Ethnicity as a moderator of motivational interviewing for incarcerated adolescents after release

    PubMed Central

    Clair, Mary; Stein, L.A.R.; Soenksen, Shayna; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Lebeau, Rebecca; Golembeske, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has been found to be an effective treatment for substance using populations, including incarcerated adolescents. Although some studies suggest MI is more successful with individuals from minority backgrounds, the research remains mixed. The current study investigated the impact of ethnicity on treatment in reducing alcohol and marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents. Adolescents (14–19 years of age) were recruited from a state juvenile correctional facility and randomly assigned to receive MI or relaxation therapy (RT) (N = 147; 48 White, 51 Hispanic, and 48 African American; 126 male; 21 female). Interviews were conducted at admission to the facility and 3 months after release. Results suggest that the effects of MI on treatment outcomes are moderated by ethnicity. Hispanic adolescents who received MI significantly decreased total number of drinks on heavy drinking days (NDHD) and percentage of heavy drinking days (PHDD) as compared to Hispanic adolescents who received RT. These findings suggest that MI is an efficacious treatment for an ethnic minority juvenile justice-involved population in need of evidence-based treatments. PMID:23810265

  6. Unpredicted trajectories: the relationship between race/ethnicity, pregnancy during adolescence, and young women's outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casares, Whitney N; Lahiff, Maureen; Eskenazi, Brenda; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2010-08-01

    Adolescents who become pregnant in the United States are at higher risk for a myriad of health concerns. One would predict even more adverse health outcomes among pregnant adolescents who are from disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups; however, previous studies indirectly suggest the opposite. This study examines whether adolescents from racial/ethnic minority groups are less affected by adolescent pregnancy compared to white adolescents. We used data from 1,867 adolescents participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1995-2001). Our predictor variable was self-reported race/ethnicity. Self-perception of health, educational attainment, and public assistance use in young adulthood were outcome measures. We conducted weighted multivariate logistic regressions and analyzed how adolescent pregnancy modified the relationship between our predictor and outcome variables. Black and American Indian young women had significantly higher odds than white young women of receiving public assistance (OR, 2.6 and 2.7, respectively; p <.01) and even higher odds if ever pregnant in adolescence (OR, 4.2 and 19.0, respectively; p = .03). White young women had significantly lower odds of high educational attainment if they had a live birth in adolescence as compared to those who had not (OR, 0.1; CI = 0.1-0.4). These findings support studies that found adolescent pregnancy increases the risk of public assistance use and low educational attainment. The study shows that, for educational attainment, black young women who become pregnant may not be as disadvantaged as their peers, whereas white young women who become pregnant are more disadvantaged. (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnic, gender, and BMI differences in athletic identity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cheryl Braselton; Mâsse, Louise C; Zhang, Hong; Coleman, Karen J; Chang, Shine

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about differences in athletic self-concept that are related to ethnicity, gender, and overweight status, which may influence physical activity behavior. Children (N=936) and adolescents (N=1071) completed the Athletic Identity Questionnaire, measuring athletic appearance, competence, importance of activity, and encouragement from parents, teachers, and friends. Multivariate ANOVA assessed group differences and interactions on the 6 subscales. Interaction effects were found in children (Ethnic×Gender; Ethnic×BMI), and ethnic, gender, and BMI (body mass index) main effects in adolescents. In children, Hispanic girls had lower appearance and competence ratings. Within weight categories, normal-weight Hispanic children had lower appearance and importance ratings compared with whites, and obese black children had lower importance ratings than obese whites and Hispanics. In adolescents, there were lower appearance and competence ratings among Hispanics and obese students, lower importance ratings among girls and Hispanics, and less parental encouragement in Hispanics. No gender, ethnic, or BMI differences on encouragement from teachers were found in either children or adolescents. More negative athletic self-perceptions and less parental encouragement were seen in minorities. Consideration of these factors will be important in interventions to promote physical activity.

  8. Changing psychology: history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues.

    PubMed

    Comas-Díaz, Lillian

    2009-10-01

    The history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (American Psychological Association Division 45) for its first 20 years are reviewed. The legitimization of the ethnic minority scholarship within organized psychology is chronicled, highlighting the central role of advocacy and activism. Multiculturalism is presented as a paradigm for the globalization of the United States. It is concluded that ethnic minority psychology has changed the field and equips us for the challenges of the internationalization of the world. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Bullying and Victimization among Adolescents: The Role of Ethnicity and Ethnic Composition of School Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between ethnicity, peer-reported bullying and victimization, and whether these relationships were moderated by the ethnic composition of the school classes. Participants were 2386 adolescents (mean age: 13 years and 10 months; 51.9% boys) from 117 school classes in the Netherlands. Multilevel analyses…

  10. Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

  11. Beliefs about Smoking among Adolescents--Gender and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Wendell C.; Ayars, Candace L.; Gladney, Alicia P.; Peters, Ron J., Jr.; Roy, Jacquilin R.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    1999-01-01

    Study identifies gender and ethnic beliefs about cigarette smoking and abstention from smoking. The development of the moral/ethical theme is discussed along with the study results. Recommendations are presented for future research to clarify influences for smoking and not smoking by gender and ethnic group among adolescents. (Author/GCP)

  12. Ethnic Experience and Politics of Ethnicity in a Globalized Environment: Insights into the Perspectives and Experiences of the Ukrainian Minority Youth in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the question of ethnic place/identity negotiation, as well as ethnic minority experiences shaped by globalization processes in the post-1989 national and (East) European space. Using a cultural lens, this qualitative study first examines how the place and positioning of ethnic minorities are defined in the context of the…

  13. Perceived ethnic-racial socialization, ethnic identity, and social competence among Asian American late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alisia G T T; Lee, Richard M

    2010-04-01

    This study extends the research on parental ethnic-racial socialization to Asian American late adolescents (N = 166). The authors specifically examined the factor structure, frequency, and correlates of a perceived ethnic-racial socialization measure. Ethnic identity was also hypothesized to function as a mediator in the relationship between perceived cultural socialization and social competence. The results supported a 3-factor model of perceived ethnic-racial socialization that included cultural socialization-pluralism, promotion of mistrust, and preparation for bias. Exploratory analyses revealed that ethnic-racial socialization messages were reported by large proportions of participants and were related to a number of demographic variables. The authors further found that perceived promotion of mistrust messages were inversely associated with social competence. They also found that perceived cultural socialization-pluralism was significantly related to social competence through ethnic identity. Results support the importance of perceived ethnic-racial socialization for Asian American development.

  14. Parental Ethnic-Racial Socialization and Social Attitudes Among Ethnic-Racial Minority and White American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alisia G T T; Mintert, Jeffrey S; Jew, Gilbert B

    2016-08-15

    This article utilizes moderated mediation analyses to explore whether the relations between parental ethnic-racial socialization (PERS) dimensions and social attitudes differ across ethnic-racial minority (n = 128) and White (n = 131) college-going emerging adults. We examined social dominance orientation (SDO) as an index of antiegalitarian intergroup attitudes and attitudes toward interpersonal harmony as an index of interpersonal attitudes. We tested whether there were ethnic-racial variations in mediation models in which each type of PERS dimension was expected to be linked to greater antiegalitarian attitudes (greater SDO), which, in turn, was predicted to be associated with less prosocial attitudes (lower harmony enhancement). Results indicated that more frequent cultural socialization and preparation for bias were linked to greater SDO for the White sample, but not for the ethnic-minority sample. Moderation results were nonsignificant for promotion of mistrust, with results indicating a positive link to SDO, regardless of racial-ethnic status. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed indirect effects of cultural socialization and preparation for bias on interpersonal attitudes through SDO for the White sample, but not for the ethnic-minority sample. Specifically, greater cultural socialization and preparation for bias each were linked to greater SDO, which, in turn, was associated with less positive perceptions of the value of maintaining interpersonal harmony for White respondents. Practical applications, including social justice implications, of the results and possibilities for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Cross-ethnic friendships, perceived discrimination, and their effects on ethnic activism over time: a longitudinal investigation of three ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Tropp, Linda R; Hawi, Diala R; Van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana

    2012-06-01

    This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by testing effects longitudinally and examining how relationships among these variables may differ across ethnic minority groups. Results indicate that, over time, greater friendships with Whites predict both lower perceptions of discrimination and less support for ethnic activism among African Americans and Latino Americans, but not among Asian Americans. Implications of these findings for future research on inter-group contact, minority-majority relations, and ethnic group differences in status are discussed.

  16. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention Among Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as structural or policy interventions, have the potential to impact the HIV epidemic at a population level, and thus reduce the HIV health disparities that exist among ethnic minority youth and other segments of the U.S. population. This article calls for a paradigm shift to develop, evaluate, and disseminate interventions that target upstream/macro-level factors or that, at a minimum, integrate both a macro and individual level perspective. The article also discusses the challenges in developing and evaluating such interventions. Psychologists and other behavioral scientists can play a critical role in reducing the impact of HIV on ethnic minority youth by integrating macro-level approaches to future HIV prevention strategies. PMID:23688095

  17. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  18. Ethnic Minorities and Achievements: The Black Hole in Science Ranks. Part 2: Post-16 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)

  19. Crime and mental disorders among native Dutch and ethnic minority juvenile defendants in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vinkers, David J; Duits, Nils

    2011-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of mental disorders and the recommendations regarding criminal responsibility and treatment in pre-trial mental health evaluations requested by Dutch juvenile courts for youths between the ages of 12 to 17. Youths of native Dutch (n=2694) and of ethnic minority background (n=1393) were compared. The prevalence of mental disorders was similar for both groups (76.8% versus 74.4%). Criminal responsibility in native Dutch youth was more often considered 'diminished' or 'strongly diminished' than in ethnic minority youth. Admission to a juvenile institution was more often recommended for ethnic minority juveniles than for native Dutch juveniles. It remains unclear from our data whether these differences reflect a false stereotype of ethnic minority populations as being more dangerous and threatening.

  20. Ethnic Minorities and Achievements: The Black Hole in Science Ranks. Part 2: Post-16 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)

  1. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  2. Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent cigarette smoking: intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Corliss, Heather L; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A; Newcomb, Michael E; Buchting, Francisco O; Matthews, Alicia K

    2014-06-01

    We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64,397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay-lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians-gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians-gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking.

  3. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods.

    PubMed

    Elford, Jonathan; McKeown, Eamonn; Doerner, Rita; Nelson, Simon; Low, Nicola; Anderson, Jane

    2010-07-14

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM.The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America.Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email.Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence Higgins Trust (THT) CHAPS

  4. The Association of Ethnic Minority Density with Late Entry into Antenatal Care in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Posthumus, Anke G.; Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, non-Western ethnic minority women make their first antenatal visit later than native Dutch women. Timely entry into antenatal care is important as it provides the opportunity for prenatal screening and the detection of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study we explored whether women's timely entry is influenced by their neighborhood. Moreover, we assessed whether ethnic minority density (the proportion of ethnic minorities in a neighborhood) influences Western and non-Western ethnic minority women's chances of timely entry into care differently. We hypothesized that ethnic minority density has a protective effect against non-Western women's late entry into care. Data on time of entry into care and other individual-level characteristics were obtained from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (2000-2008; 97% of all pregnancies). We derived neighborhood-level data from three other national databases. We included 1,137,741 pregnancies of women who started care under supervision of a community midwife in 3422 neighborhoods. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood-level determinants with entry into antenatal care before and after 14 weeks of gestation. We found that neighborhood characteristics influence timely entry above and beyond individual characteristics. Ethnic minority density was associated with a higher risk of late entry into antenatal care. However, our analysis showed that for non-Western women, living in high ethnic minority density areas is less detrimental to their risk of late entry than for Western women. This means that a higher proportion of ethnic minority residents has a protective effect on non-Western women's chances of timely entry into care. Our results suggest that strategies to improve timely entry into care could seek to create change at the neighborhood level in order to target individuals likely of entering care too late. PMID:25856150

  5. The association of ethnic minority density with late entry into antenatal care in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Posthumus, Anke G; Schölmerich, Vera L N; Steegers, Eric A P; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, non-Western ethnic minority women make their first antenatal visit later than native Dutch women. Timely entry into antenatal care is important as it provides the opportunity for prenatal screening and the detection of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study we explored whether women's timely entry is influenced by their neighborhood. Moreover, we assessed whether ethnic minority density (the proportion of ethnic minorities in a neighborhood) influences Western and non-Western ethnic minority women's chances of timely entry into care differently. We hypothesized that ethnic minority density has a protective effect against non-Western women's late entry into care. Data on time of entry into care and other individual-level characteristics were obtained from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (2000-2008; 97% of all pregnancies). We derived neighborhood-level data from three other national databases. We included 1,137,741 pregnancies of women who started care under supervision of a community midwife in 3422 neighborhoods. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood-level determinants with entry into antenatal care before and after 14 weeks of gestation. We found that neighborhood characteristics influence timely entry above and beyond individual characteristics. Ethnic minority density was associated with a higher risk of late entry into antenatal care. However, our analysis showed that for non-Western women, living in high ethnic minority density areas is less detrimental to their risk of late entry than for Western women. This means that a higher proportion of ethnic minority residents has a protective effect on non-Western women's chances of timely entry into care. Our results suggest that strategies to improve timely entry into care could seek to create change at the neighborhood level in order to target individuals likely of entering care too late.

  6. Exploring Group Activity Therapy with Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…

  7. Ethnicity, Race, Class, and Adolescent Violence. Center Paper 006.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Darnell F.

    This document critically reviews the empirical evidence and theories that have emerged to document and explain ethnic, racial, and class differences in the rate of adolescent involvement in interpersonal violence. In the first section, recent data are presented on the incidence of violence among adolescents in the United States as documented in…

  8. A longitudinal examination of parenting behaviors and perceived discrimination predicting Latino adolescents' ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B

    2010-05-01

    Characteristics of the familial and societal context were examined as predictors of Latino adolescents' (N = 323; 49.5% female) ethnic identity. Consistent with previous work, familial ethnic socialization significantly predicted future levels of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation for both male adolescents and female adolescents, although the association was significantly stronger for female adolescents than male adolescents for exploration and resolution. Furthermore, for male adolescents, higher levels of familial ethnic socialization were significantly associated with a faster rate of growth for ethnic identity resolution. In addition, paternal warmth-support emerged as a significant longitudinal predictor of male adolescents', but not female adolescents', ethnic identity exploration. Finally, perceived discrimination was significantly associated with male adolescents', but not female adolescents', ethnic identity exploration and affirmation. Significant gender differences in the relations of interest highlight the need to consider variability in the process of ethnic identity formation by gender. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  9. End-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Amanda; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Purandare, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic minority status and provision of end-of-life care for people with dementia. It included all empirical research on people with dementia or severe cognitive impairment or their caregivers and with ethnic minority people as a subgroup in examining an outcome involving end-of-life care processes or attitudes toward end-of-life care. Two authors independently rated quality of included studies; 20 studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the review: 19 quantitative and one qualitative. All articles were based in the United States, with African American, Hispanic, and Asian groups being the ethnic minorities. Artificial nutrition and other life-sustaining treatments were more frequent and decisions to withhold treatment less common in African American and Asian groups. The qualitative evidence, albeit limited, found that attitudes toward end-of-life care were more similar than different between different ethnic groups. Differences in hospice usage patterns were less consistent and potentially influenced by factors such as study setting and dementia severity. Caregivers' experiences differed between ethnic groups, whereas levels of strain experienced were similar. Disparities in end-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups appear to exist and may be due to the double disadvantage of dementia and ethnic minority status. Further research is needed in other western multicultural countries, with a focus on prospective qualitative studies to understand the underlying reasons for these differences, not just their occurrence.

  10. Vocational Education and Training in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate the provision of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses (SEMBs) operating in the West Midlands region of the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative approach is employed, involving in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 66 owner/managers of small ethnic minority…

  11. The Mediators of Minority Ethnic Underperformance in Final Medical School Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Katherine; McManus, I. Chris; Potts, Henry W. W.; Dacre, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background: UK-trained medical students and doctors from minority ethnic groups underperform academically. It is unclear why this problem exists, which makes it dif?cult to know how to address it. Aim: To investigate whether demographic and psychological factors mediate the relationship between ethnicity and ?nal examination scores. Sample: Two…

  12. Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible for…

  13. Researching Ethnic Minority Students in a Chinese Context: Mixed Methods Design for Cross Cultural Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Hue, Ming Tak

    2011-01-01

    Research on and with ethnic minority students is characterised by a growing international literature that privileges "liberal multiculturalism" as a lens through which to understand their experiences, yet ethnic diversity is constructed and responded to in many societies that are not underpinned by liberal democratic values. In this…

  14. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  15. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: A Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, the "leaky pipeline" metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school…

  16. Ethnic Minorities, Language Diversity, and Educational Implications: A Case Study on the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the Dutch situation looks at how growing immigrant numbers and resulting second language groups have prompted a rethinking of traditional concepts of education. First, ethnic population trends across national boundaries in Western Europe are examined and basic statistics on ethnic minorities in the Netherlands are presented. The…

  17. The Mediators of Minority Ethnic Underperformance in Final Medical School Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Katherine; McManus, I. Chris; Potts, Henry W. W.; Dacre, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background: UK-trained medical students and doctors from minority ethnic groups underperform academically. It is unclear why this problem exists, which makes it dif?cult to know how to address it. Aim: To investigate whether demographic and psychological factors mediate the relationship between ethnicity and ?nal examination scores. Sample: Two…

  18. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  19. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: A Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, the "leaky pipeline" metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school…

  20. Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible for…

  1. Teachers' and Parental Attribution for School Performance of Ethnic Majority and Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; de Haan, Mariette

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether teachers' and parental attributions for children's school performance differ depending on the ethnic background of the child. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, real-life attributions within 54 teacher-parent conversations (15 ethnic majority; 39 minority) were examined. The results indicated that,…

  2. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  3. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  4. The Impact of Immigrants on Long-Lasting Ethnic Minorities in Japanese Schools: Globalisation from Below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okano, Kaori

    2006-01-01

    While the myth of ethnic and linguistic homogeneity prevails, Japan has always been a multiethnic and multilingual entity. The existence of ethnic minorities remained relatively invisible, and their activism to maintain their identities was not widely acknowledged in the public discourse. However, the influx of immigrants since the mid-1980s as a…

  5. Ethnicity, Education and Empowerment: Identity Construction among Minority Students in Southwestern China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    1998-01-01

    Eight percent of the population of the People's Republic of China is comprised of ethnic minority people, people with cultures (particularly languages and religions) that are distinct from the majority (or Han) Chinese. Ethnic students in China and elsewhere face considerable obstacles to getting a good education. A tiny percentage of Chinese…

  6. The Impact of Immigrants on Long-Lasting Ethnic Minorities in Japanese Schools: Globalisation from Below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okano, Kaori

    2006-01-01

    While the myth of ethnic and linguistic homogeneity prevails, Japan has always been a multiethnic and multilingual entity. The existence of ethnic minorities remained relatively invisible, and their activism to maintain their identities was not widely acknowledged in the public discourse. However, the influx of immigrants since the mid-1980s as a…

  7. Ethnic Identity, Ego Identity, and Psychological Well-Being among Mixed-Ethnic Arab-European Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rayya, Hisham Motkal

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity, ego identity, and psychological wellbeing among mixed-ethnic adolescents with European mothers and Arab fathers in Israel. One hundred and twenty-seven mixed-ethnic adolescents (13 to 18 years) were instructed to respond to a modified version of Phinney's (1992) Multigroup ethnic…

  8. Minority ethnicity patient satisfaction and experience: results of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey in England

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Richard J; Ferguson, Jamie; Møller, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to explore the differential patient satisfaction reported by patients with cancer who are from ethnic minority backgrounds, examining patient-reported experience of interacting with medical and nursing staff. Setting As a secondary analysis, we collated data collected over two consecutive annual rounds of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (NCPES) from September 2012 to November 2013. Participants There were 138 878 responses from 155 hospital trusts across the National Health Service in England, representing a response rate of 63.9% based on the total identified cohort of patients receiving cancer care over those 2 years. Outcomes We used the results of the annual survey, which sought to assess overall patient satisfaction along with patient experience of interacting with clinical nurse specialists, hospital doctors and ward nurses. Results Ethnic minority patients reported lower satisfaction and less positive experiences of care overall. While some of this difference appeared related to demographic and socioeconomic variation, ethnic minority patients remained less positive than those in the White British group, after statistical adjustment. Ethnic minority patients also reported lower confidence in, and less understanding of, healthcare professionals, including clinical nurse specialists, doctors and ward nurses. Conclusions Given the diversity of the British population, as well as the clustering of ethnic minority patients in certain urban areas, a better understanding of the expectations and additional needs of ethnic minority patients is required to improve their experience of and satisfaction with cancer care. PMID:27354083

  9. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues"…

  10. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues"…

  11. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  12. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  13. Familism, Family Ethnic Socialization, and Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers’ Educational Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Diamond Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Guimond, Amy B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers’ ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers’ reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers’ familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers’ endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers’ educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers’ educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950

  14. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture.

  15. The Status of Former CSWE Ethnic Minority Doctoral Fellows in Social Work Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiele, Jerome H.; Francis, E. Aracelis

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 90 former Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) Ethnic Minority Doctoral Fellows found Hispanic Americans were most likely to be full, tenured professors, and that more males than females were tenured, most who applied had been awarded promotion and tenure, scholarly productivity was attributed to a minority of respondents, and…

  16. A Theoretical Study on English Teaching in Chinese Ethnic Minority Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Huang

    2013-01-01

    From an investigation about the factors influencing the trilingual education in Chinese ethnic minority regions, the author find out that the minority students are incompetent in English learning. Inappropriate teaching strategies, learning materials as well as language policy hinder the development of teaching and learning progress in those…

  17. Ethnic Minority Languages versus Frisian in Dutch Primary Schools: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus

    1989-01-01

    Compares the position of ethnic minority languages versus Frisian in Dutch primary schools, and considers the roles of legislation, educational models, minority language usage, language attitudes, pressure groups, teacher quality, instructional materials, and the serious lack of basic research data on the acquisition, use, shift, and loss of…

  18. Ethnic Minority Perspectives on the Evaluation of Early Childhood Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhine, W. Ray

    Issues presented at a symposium on ethnic minority perspectives and evaluation of early childhood education are presented. Two presentations are summarized. The first, "Evaluation Research and the Education of Oppressed Minority Group Members," by Edward J. Barnes, emphasizes that the evaluation of education programs must include a look at the…

  19. Text message intervention improves objective sleep hours among adolescents: the moderating role of race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Adam, Emma K

    2017-02-01

    This 10-day study aimed to (1) assess the effectiveness of a text message-based sleep intervention and (2) determine whether the intervention was equally effective for non-Hispanic whites and racial-ethnic minority adolescents. Participants were 46 (50% female) adolescents (13-18 years; mean=15.75 years old, SD=0.98) from a public high school in the Midwest. Participants were randomly assigned to a control or text message intervention condition. Only participants in the intervention condition received 2 text messages outlining individualized bedtime goals daily, for 8 weekdays. All participants attended a sleep lecture, wore a sleep monitor, and completed baseline and exit surveys that assessed demographics, subjective sleep, lifestyle, and psychosocial adjustment variables. Results of a 2 (intervention, control) × 2 (pre-intervention, postintervention) analysis of variance test revealed no significant intervention × time interaction effect (F1,38=0.020, P=.889) in the full sample. This effect, however, was significantly moderated by race-ethnicity: Results indicated a significant intervention × time × race interaction (F1,36=8.050, P=.007, partial η(2)=.183) such that the intervention significantly improved sleep hours (by approximately 1 hour) only among non-Hispanic whites (and not among adolescents of racial-ethnic minority status). Adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups may face significant barriers that interfere with their ability to successfully alter their sleep-wake patterns and maximize sleep hours. Copyright © 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conceptualizing Culturally Infused Engagement and Its Measurement for Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Children and Families

    PubMed Central

    Pottick, Kathleen J.; Chen, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Despite the central role culture plays in racial and ethnic disparities in mental health among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families, existing measures of engagement in mental health services have failed to integrate culturally specific factors that shape these families' engagement with mental health services. To illustrate this gap, the authors systematically review 119 existing instruments that measure the multi-dimensional and developmental process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review is anchored in a new integrated conceptualization of engagement, the culturally infused engagement model. The review assesses culturally relevant cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral mechanisms of engagement from the stages of problem recognition and help seeking to treatment participation that can help illuminate the gaps. Existing measures examined four central domains pertinent to the process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families: (a) expressions of mental distress and illness, (b) causal explanations of mental distress and illness, (c) beliefs about mental distress and illness, and (d) beliefs and experiences of seeking help. The findings highlight the variety of tools that are used to measure behavioral and attitudinal dimensions of engagement, showing the limitations of their application for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review proposes directions for promising research methodologies to help intervention scientists and clinicians improve engagement and service delivery and reduce disparities among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families at large, and recommends practical applications for training, program planning, and policymaking. PMID:28275923

  1. Conceptualizing Culturally Infused Engagement and Its Measurement for Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Children and Families.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Pottick, Kathleen J; Chen, Yun

    2017-03-08

    Despite the central role culture plays in racial and ethnic disparities in mental health among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families, existing measures of engagement in mental health services have failed to integrate culturally specific factors that shape these families' engagement with mental health services. To illustrate this gap, the authors systematically review 119 existing instruments that measure the multi-dimensional and developmental process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review is anchored in a new integrated conceptualization of engagement, the culturally infused engagement model. The review assesses culturally relevant cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral mechanisms of engagement from the stages of problem recognition and help seeking to treatment participation that can help illuminate the gaps. Existing measures examined four central domains pertinent to the process of engagement for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families: (a) expressions of mental distress and illness, (b) causal explanations of mental distress and illness, (c) beliefs about mental distress and illness, and (d) beliefs and experiences of seeking help. The findings highlight the variety of tools that are used to measure behavioral and attitudinal dimensions of engagement, showing the limitations of their application for ethnic minority and immigrant children and families. The review proposes directions for promising research methodologies to help intervention scientists and clinicians improve engagement and service delivery and reduce disparities among ethnic minority and immigrant children and families at large, and recommends practical applications for training, program planning, and policymaking.

  2. Prevalence, impact and cultural context of psychotic experiences among ethnic minority youth.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, M; van Domburgh, L; Hoek, H W; Susser, E; Doreleijers, T A H; Veling, W

    2015-02-01

    The risk for psychotic disorders is increased for many ethnic minority groups and may develop in early childhood. This study investigated whether the prevalence of psychotic experiences (PE) with high impact is higher among ethnic minority youth compared to majority youth and examined the significance of these PE. A school-based study assessed a large community sample of 1545 ethnic minority and majority children in The Netherlands (mean age 12.98 ± 1.81 years). The Dutch (n = 702, 45.4%), Moroccan-Dutch (n = 400, 25.9%) and Turkish-Dutch (n = 170, 11.0%) ethnic groups could be studied separately. Self-report questionnaires on PE, impact and cultural context were administered. Prevalence of PE with high impact was 3.1% in Dutch, 9.5% in Moroccan-Dutch and 7.1% in Turkish-Dutch youth. Compared to Dutch youth, odds ratios were 3.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-5.1] for Moroccan-Dutch youth and 2.2 (95% CI 1.1-4.6) for Turkish-Dutch youth. Differences were not explained by cultural or religious differences. The increased risk for psychotic disorders in ethnic minorities may already be detectable in childhood, since PE with high impact were more common among ethnic minority youth compared to majority youth. The additional measurement of impact of PE appears to be a valid approach to identify those children at risk to develop psychotic or other more common psychiatric disorders.

  3. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Kathryn A; Solarin, Ijeoma; Power, Emily; Atkin, Wendy; Wardle, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and attitudes to FS screening were added to Ethnibus™ – a monthly, nationwide survey of the main ethnic minority communities living in the UK (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, and Chinese). Interviews (n = 875) were conducted, face-to-face, by multilingual field-workers, including 125 interviews with white-British adults. Results All respondents showed a notable lack of knowledge about causes of colorectal cancer, which was more pronounced in ethnic minority than white-British adults. Interest in FS screening was uniformly high (>60%), with more than 90% of those interested saying it would provide 'peace of mind'. The most frequently cited barrier to screening 'in your community' was embarrassment, particularly among ethnic minority groups. Conclusion Educational materials should recognise that non-white groups may be less knowledgeable about colorectal cancer. The findings of the current study suggest that embarrassment may be a greater deterrent to participation to FS screening among ethnic minority groups, but this result requires exploration in further research. PMID:18221519

  4. Conducting HIV Research in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities: Building a Successful Interdisciplinary Research Team

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, Frinny R.; Dominguez, Dinora C.; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, JoAnn M.; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans into clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and that has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants in order to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research. PMID:21277228

  5. Conducting HIV research in racial and ethnic minority communities: building a successful interdisciplinary research team.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Frinny R; Dominguez, Dinora C; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, Joann M; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. However, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans in clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed.

  7. Projections of the ethnic minority populations of the United Kingdom 2006-2056.

    PubMed

    Coleman, David

    2010-01-01

    The ethnic minority populations in the UK are growing substantially through immigration, a youthful age structure, and in some cases relatively high fertility. Their diverse demographic and socioeconomic characteristics have attracted considerable academic and policy attention, especially insofar as those distinctive characteristics have persisted in the generations born in the UK. No official projections of the UK ethnic populations have been published since 1979. This article provides projections to 2056 and beyond of 12 ethnic groups. Given overall net immigration and vital rates as assumed in the office for National Statistics 2008-based Principal Projection, and the ethnic characteristics estimated here, the ethnic minority populations (including the Other White) would increase from 13 percent of the UK population in 2006 to 28 percent by 2031 and 44 percent by 2056, and to about half the 0-4 age group in 2056. Alternative projections assume various lower levels of immigration. Possible implications of projected changes are discussed.

  8. Empirical validation of a short version of the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale using a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents from an economically disadvantage community.

    PubMed

    Sufrinko, Alicia M; Valrie, Cecelia R; Lanzo, Lauren; Bond, Kayzandra E; Trout, Krystal L; Ladd, Rebecca E; Everhart, D Erik

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for brief, psychometrically sound instruments to assess adolescent sleep, particularly for ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged adolescents. A 10-item short version of the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale was recently proposed based upon exploratory factor analysis with primarily Caucasian healthy adolescents from middle- to high-income families. The aim of this study was to expand the utility of the short version of the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale by investigating the empirical and construct validity of the measure on an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents from an economically disadvantaged community. Participants included 467 adolescents (40% African American, 35.5% Caucasian, 16.5% Latino, and 7.9% multiethnic), aged 12-18 years (mean = 15.27 years, SD = 1.96 years), who completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with Mplus 7 based on the three-factor solution proposed by Essner et al. (2014). CFA indicated that the three-factor structure was a good fit for the data (χ(2) (29) = 52.053, p = 0.005, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.96, standardized root mean residuals (SRMR) = 0.03), and factor loadings for each item were >0.40. Cronbach's alphas by ethnicity indicated that the scale has acceptable reliability (0.70 ≤ α ≤ 0.90) for African American, Caucasian, and multiethnic adolescents, but not for Latino adolescents. Our results support the use of the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale short form for the majority of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intimate Partner Violence and its Health Impact on Ethnic Minority Women [corrected].

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient-provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors.

  10. Factors associated with psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders in ethnic minority youth.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke; Veling, Wim

    2016-10-01

    While ethnic diversity is increasing in many countries, ethnic minority youth is less likely to be reached, effectively treated and retained by youth mental health care compared to majority youth. Improving understanding of factors associated with mental health problems within socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth is important to tailor current preventive and treatment interventions to the needs of these youth. The aim of this study was to explore factors at child, family, school, peer, neighbourhood and ethnic minority group level associated with mental health problems in Moroccan-Dutch youth (n = 152, mean age 13.6 ± 1.9 years). Self-reported and teacher-reported questionnaire data on psychiatric symptoms and self-report interview data on psychiatric disorders were used to divide children into three levels of mental health problems: no symptoms, only psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were associated with more psychopathic traits, a higher number of experienced trauma and children in the family, and more conflicts with parents, affiliation with delinquent peers, perceived discrimination and cultural mistrust. Psychiatric symptoms and/or disorders were also associated with less self-esteem, parental monitoring, affiliation with religion and orientation to Dutch or Moroccan culture, and a weaker ethnic identity. For youth growing up in a disadvantaged ethnic minority position, the most important factors were found at family (parent-child relationship and parenting practices) and ethnic minority group level (marginalization, discrimination and cultural mistrust). Preventive and treatment interventions for socially disadvantaged ethnic minority youth should be aimed at dealing with social disadvantage and discrimination, improving the parent-child relationship and parenting practices, and developing a positive (cultural) identity.

  11. Variations in hospitalization rates for asthma among black and minority ethnic communities.

    PubMed

    Gilthorpe, M S; Lay-Yee, R; Wilson, R C; Walters, S; Griffiths, R K; Bedi, R

    1998-04-01

    In response to the introduction of ethnic monitoring within the U.K. hospital inpatient data set, this study investigates the variations in secondary healthcare utilization by Black and minority ethnic communities whose cause of admission is related to asthma. The study examines all residents of the West Midlands: over 5 million people, of whom 8.5% are from Black and minority ethnic groups. A retrospective study of 15,921 asthma-related hospital admissions, from 1 April 1995 to 31 March 1996, was carried out. Age-standardized admission rates were higher in all Black and minority ethnic groups studied than in the White group. There were elevated rates in Black children aged 5-14 years, and particular differences were observed for Indian and Bangladeshi men and women aged 65 years or over. Emergency admissions to hospital for asthma were strongly associated with patients' socioeconomic background but this was largely observed for Black and minority ethnic groups that also generally experience high levels of deprivation. The findings support previous studies which suggest that hospital utilization rates for asthma among people from Black and minority ethnic groups are high compared with the White group, despite little evidence in measured prevalence. This study suggests that ethnic background is more important in asthma admissions than deprivation, which raises serious concerns on the appropriateness and quality of asthma care for these patient groups within our society. Future studies need to examine pathways to care, that is the health-seeking behaviour of Black and minority ethnic groups, the type of treatment received at the primary care level and referral patterns to secondary care.

  12. Adolescent individuation and alcohol use in multi-ethnic youth.

    PubMed

    Bray, J H; Getz, J G; Baer, P E

    2000-07-01

    A structural equation modeling approach is used to assess adolescent alcohol use as a function of two measures of individuation in the context of other family and peer psychosocial factors for adolescents in three ethnic groups. The separation measure captures aspects of individuation related to detachment or rebelliousness. Intergenerational individuation measures increasing self-reliance and control with maintenance of supportive family bonds. A sample of 1,200 sixth through eighth grade black, Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white adolescents participated. A structural equation model describing adolescent alcohol use as a function of two measures of individuation, family conflict, communication with mother, stress and peer use of alcohol was tested and compared for the three ethnic groups. Significant direct and indirect paths to adolescent alcohol use were indicated for individuation measures and family use, peer use and stress variables. The proposed model fit for each of the groups, although the way in which separation related to stress was different in the black group. The findings support the role of individuation as a contributing factor in adolescent alcohol use for each ethnic group. They indicate the importance of family and parent-adolescent relationships in adolescent alcohol use and suggest directions for both family-based and school-based preventive interventions.

  13. Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341

  14. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  15. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  16. Maladjustment in statistical minorities within ethnically unbalanced classrooms.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, K; Gregory, W L; Stephan, W G

    1990-10-01

    Ascertained if being a member of a statistical minority influences children's adjustment in school, as measured by the AML, a teacher-administered adjustment rating scale. Teachers from a southwest school district evaluated elementary students on aggressive, acting-out behaviors, moody-internalized behaviors, and learning difficulties. Analyses conducted on 376 students revealed significant effects of statistical minority status on certain dimensions of adjustment ratings for both Hispanic and Anglo students. Hispanic students in the statistical minority received poorer ratings on the moodiness dimension of the AML than nonminority Hispanic students. Anglo students in the statistical minority received poorer ratings on the aggression dimension of the AML than nonminority Anglo students. These results were interpreted in terms of cultural differences in coping with statistical minority status. Traits commonly exhibited within a culture may intensify and be perceived as maladaptive when stress resulting from being a minority occurs. Implications of the finding that statistical minority status within the school environment influences adjustment are discussed.

  17. Polysubstance Use among Minority Adolescent Males Incarcerated for Serious Offenses

    PubMed Central

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Saha, Shonali; Trent, Maria; Adger, Hoover; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. Objective This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youth incarcerated for serious offenses. We examined several risk factors for substance use and delinquency (i.e., early and frequent substance use, prior history of arrests, school expulsion, Black ethnicity), as well as the association between aggression and polysubstance use. Methods Data were collected via questionnaires from 373 serious male juvenile offenders upon intake into a secure locked facility. Youth were on average 16 years old, and minority youth were overrepresented (28.1% Black, 53.1% Latino). Poisson regressions were used to assess the associations between the risk factors, aggression, and polysubstance use. Results Consistent with the literature, Black youth reported less polysubstance use and later age of drug use onset than White and Latino youth. Findings suggest that Latino juvenile offenders and those with an early and problematic pattern of substance use are at heightened risk for polysubstance use. Aggression was not significantly related to polysubstance use, over and above the risk factors. Conclusions Given that Latino youth experience low rates of treatment for substance use, the development of culturally-sensitive interventions for these youth is needed. Interventions should also be multifaceted to address the multitude of risk factors associated with polysubstance use among juvenile offenders. PMID:26997851

  18. East Asian adolescents' ethnic identity development and cultural integration: A qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eunju; Adams, Kristen; Clawson, Angela; Chang, Hanna; Surya, Shruti; Jérémie-Brink, Gihane

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the current conceptualization of acculturation/enculturation as bilinear, multidimensional processes proceeding in interaction with surrounding contexts, this study examined ethnic identity development and cultural integration of 13 adolescents from East Asian immigrant families. Five domains emerged via the Consensual Qualitative Research method: ethnic/cultural identity and socialization; bicultural living; racial context-racism and stereotypes; family context-parental expectation; and peer context-friendship/dating. Overall, the participants experienced a cultural split and discontinuity between the 2 worlds of home and ethnic community versus school and society in general. They received strong ethnic socialization messages from family and ethnic community. Although most participants experienced hurtful racial discrimination, they used passive coping (e.g., dismiss, minimize, defend perpetrators). The model minority stereotype was prevalent and deeply engrained in many aspects of their lives including ethnic identity development, cultural socialization messages from mainstream society, discrimination experiences, and academic/occupational demands imposed by self, parents, peers, and society. Although they appreciated parents' high expectations of academic/occupational success, they felt pressured and desired to have space and independence. Friendship/dating patterns reflected ethnic identity development as well as contextual influence. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Developing Coping Typologies of Minority Adolescents: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 years). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level…

  20. The Role of Mothers' and Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Shaping Ethnic-Racial Identity among Early Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization…

  1. The Role of Mothers' and Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Shaping Ethnic-Racial Identity among Early Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization…

  2. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination by Teachers and Ethnic Minority Students' Academic Futility: Can Parents Prepare Their Youth for Better or for Worse?

    PubMed

    D'hondt, Fanny; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the interplay of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers, parents' ethnic socialization practices, and ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. Since discrimination creates barriers beyond control of the individual, the first research goal is to examine the association of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers with ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. The second research goal is to focus on the role of perceived parental ethnic socialization (e.g., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) to get a better understanding of the interaction between family level factors and the potentially negative consequences of ethnic teacher discrimination. A multilevel analysis on 1181 ethnic minority students (50.6 % girls; mean age = 15.5), originating from migration, in 53 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) shows that the frequent perception of ethnic discrimination by teachers is associated with stronger feelings of academic futility, and if these students also received high levels of parents' ethnic socialization, they perceive even stronger feelings of futility. The group of ethnic minority students, who perceive frequent ethnic teacher discrimination, is a group at risk, and parents' ethnic socialization does not seem able to change this.

  3. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  4. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in “mapping out” these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19101788

  5. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe González; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-02-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in "mapping out" these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes.

  6. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: a Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Billy

    2016-02-01

    In the UK, the `leaky pipeline' metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school context. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 interviews and 22 h of classroom observations with British students (aged 11-14) from Black Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Indian and Chinese ethnic backgrounds, this paper identified five `types' of science participation among minority ethnic students. The five types of science participation emerged from an analysis of students' science achievement, science aspiration, science interest and science capital. The characteristics of the five types are as follows: Science adverse students have no aspirations towards science and lacked interest, achievement and capital in science. Science intrinsic students have high science aspirations, interest and capital but low science attainment. Students who are science intermediate have some aspirations, interest and capital in science, with average science grades. Science extrinsic students achieve highly in science, have some science capital but lacked science aspirations and/or interest. Science prominent students are high science achievers with science aspirations, high levels of interest and capital in science. The findings highlight that minority ethnic students participate in science in diverse ways. Policy implications are suggested for each type as this paper provides empirical evidence to counter against public (and even some academic) discourses of minority ethnic students as a homogeneous group.

  7. Higher Education Access and Equality among Ethnic Minorities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…

  8. A Review of Tobacco Use Treatments in U.S. Ethnic Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Okuyemi, Kolawole; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States. Among racial and ethnic minorities, disparities in tobacco use, knowledge of health risks and treatment resources, access to and utilization of treatment contribute to a disproportionate disease burden from tobacco use. Furthermore, racial and ethnic minorities have been under-represented within tobacco treatment studies. Purpose/Objective This paper provides a review of published studies examining tobacco treatment interventions among ethnic and minority populations in the United States. Study Design/Methods Literature searches were used to identify smoking cessation interventions involving racial/ethnic minority populations. Identified studies were published between 1985 and 2009 involving African American, Latino, Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander smokers. Studies included in the review a) targeted one or more ethnic minority group or had at least 10 percent of study participants from ethnic minority groups and b) reported abstinence outcomes. Results Sixty-four studies were included in this review. Of studies meeting inclusion criteria, 28 included a primary focus on African Americans, 10 focused on Latinos, 4 focused on Native Americans, and 3 focused on Asian American smokers. An additional 19 studies reported samples including participants from more than one minority group. Sample inclusion criteria, intervention content and duration, follow-up, abstinence assessment, and limitations of these studies were reviewed. Conclusions Individuals from racial and ethnic minority populations are interested in stopping smoking and willing to participate in treatment research. Variations in the content of treatment intervention and study design produced a range of abstinence outcomes across studies. Additional research is needed for all groups, including African American smokers, and special attention is warranted for Latino, Native American, and Asian groups

  9. Meta-analysis of operative mortality and complications in patients from minority ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Bloo, G J A; Hesselink, G J; Oron, A; Emond, E J J M; Damen, J; Dekkers, W J M; Westert, G; Wolff, A P; Calsbeek, H; Wollersheim, H C

    2014-10-01

    Insight into the effects of ethnic disparities on patients' perioperative safety is necessary for the development of tailored improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to review the literature on safety differences between patients from minority ethnic groups and those from the ethnic majority undergoing surgery. PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Embase were searched using predefined inclusion criteria for available studies from January 1990 to January 2013. After quality assessment, the study data were organized on the basis of outcome, statistical significance and the direction of the observed effects. Relative risks for mortality were calculated. After screening 3105 studies, 26 studies were identified. Nine of these 26 studies showed statistically significant higher mortality rates for patients from minority ethnic groups. Meta-analysis demonstrated a greater risk of mortality for these patients compared with patients from the Caucasian majority in studies performed both in North America (risk ratio 1·22, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·05 to 1·42) and outside (risk ratio 2·25, 1·40 to 3·62). For patients from minority groups, the length of hospital or intensive care unit stay was significantly longer in five studies, and complication rates were significantly higher in ten. Methods used to identify patient ethnicity were not described in 14 studies. Patients from minority ethnic groups, in North America and elsewhere, have an increased risk of perioperative death and complications. More insight is needed into the causes of ethnic disparities to pursue safer perioperative care for patients of minority ethnicity. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  11. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  12. HIV testing policies for migrants and ethnic minorities in EU/EFTA Member States

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Susana; Caro-Murillo, Ana M.; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Amaya; Belza, Maria J.; Rivero-Montesdeoca, Yaiza; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the context of an European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) research project, our objective was to describe current recommendations regarding HIV testing and counselling targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union/European Economic Area/European Free Trade Association (EU/EEA/EFTA) Member States. Methods: An on-line survey was conducted among 31 EU/EEA/EFTA Member States. The survey inquired on the existence of specific HIV testing and counselling recommendations or policies for migrants and/or ethnic minorities and the year of their publication. Additionally, we performed a review of national recommendations, guidelines or any other policy documents retrieved from an Internet search through the different countries’ competent bodies. Results: Twenty-nine (94%) country representatives responded the survey, and 28 documents from 27 countries were identified. National guidelines on HIV testing are heterogeneous and tailored, according to the epidemiological situation. Twenty-two countries identify migrants and four countries identify ethnic minorities as particularly vulnerable to HIV. Sixteen countries explicitly recommend offering an HIV test to migrants/ethnic minorities. Guidelines especially target people originating from HIV endemic countries, and benefits of HIV early detection are highlighted. HIV testing is not mandatory in any country, but some countries overtly facilitate this practice. Conclusion: Benefits of HIV testing in migrants and ethnic minorities, at both individual and community levels are recognized by many countries. In spite of this, not all countries identify the need to test these groups. PMID:23921295

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life of Food-Insecure Ethnic Minority Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gany, Francesca; Leng, Jennifer; Ramirez, Julia; Phillips, Serena; Aragones, Abraham; Roberts, Nicole; Mujawar, Mohammed Imran; Costas-Muñiz, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The association between food insecurity and health-related quality of life (QOL) of racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer has not been examined. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between food insecurity and health-related QOL reported by racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer. Methods: A consecutive sample of 1,390 underserved ethnic minority patients receiving cancer care in 10 cancer clinics and hospitals in New York City participated in this study. Health-related QOL was measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and food security was assessed by the US Department of Agriculture Core Food Security Module. Results: Of the 1,390 patients, 581 (41.8%) were classified as food secure, 571 (41.1%) with low food security, and 238 (17.1%) with very low food security. Health-related QOL decreased with each lower food security level. Patient self-reported physical, functional, social, and emotional well-being subscale scores decrease significantly with increasing food insecurity. After controlling for demographic and medical-related factors, the decreases in QOL, physical, functional, social and emotional well-being scores with increasing food insecurity remained significant. Conclusion: Food insecurity was associated with lower QOL in this sample of underserved racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer. Underserved ethnic minority patients diagnosed with cancer are a vulnerable patient population, at significant risk for inadequate food access and the related lower QOL. PMID:26286100

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity-associated hypertension in the racial ethnic minorities of the United States.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Bonita; Cossrow, Nicole D F H

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical condition that includes multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors, including obesity, high blood pressure or hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormal glucose metabolism. The core metabolic abnormality in MetS is insulin resistance, or impaired insulin-mediated glucose regulation that results in elevated plasma insulin concentration. MetS greatly increases the risk for diabetes, atherosclerosis, and adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. The syndrome is present in over 25 % of adults in the U.S., with higher rates among racial/ethnic minority groups. Although commonly associated with adult diseases and aging, MetS has also been described in children and adolescents, but at a much lower prevalence of approximately 4-5 %. Because obesity is a key component of the syndrome, the growing childhood epidemic has raised awareness of MetS in children. The rate of MetS among obese children and adolescents is approximately 30 %, with similar racial/ethnic disparity among minority groups as among adults.

  15. A developmentally informed adaptation of minority stress for sexual minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Gibbs, Jeremy J

    2017-02-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (lesbian, gay, bisexual) experience disparities in behavioral health outcomes compared to their heterosexual peers, generally attributed to minority stress. Although evidence of the applicability of the minority stress model among adolescents exists, it is based on a primarily adult literature. Developmental and generational differences demand further examination of minority stress to confirm its applicability. Forty-eight life history interviews with sexual minority adolescents in California (age 14-19; M = 19.27 SD = 1.38; 39.6% cismale, 35.4% cisfemale, 25% other gender) were completed, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis in QSR NVivo. Following a consensus model, all transcripts were double coded. Results suggest that minority stress is appropriate for use with adolescents; however, further emphasis should be placed on social context, coping resources, and developmental processes regarding identity development. A conceptual model is provided, as are implications for research and practice. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceived health status in urban minority young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Honig, Judy

    2002-01-01

    To describe perceptions of health status among a sample of urban minority adolescents and the contribution of demographics, intrinsic motivation, general self-efficacy, risk taking, and stressful life experiences on the adolescent's perception of health status. Correlational design. A total of 71 adolescents were studied using the Adolescent Health Chart for perceived health status, the Health Self-Determinism Index for Children, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Risk Taking Instrument, and the Life Events Checklist. There were no statistically significant effects of demographics on perceived health status. Scores of Perceived Health Status correlated with scores of self-efficacy (r = 0.56; p <.0001), risk-taking (r = 0.39; p <.001), negative events (r = 0.32; p <.01) and violent events (r = -0.41; p <.001). The study findings suggest that self-efficacy, risk taking, and life events are predictive of perceived health status in urban minority adolescents. The results contribute to the present body of knowledge about patterns of adolescent health as perceived by the adolescent. In addition to expanding the understanding of the minority adolescent experience in relation to health promotion attributes and health compromising behaviors, the results identify antecedents that are predictive of improved perceived health status for the urban adolescent.

  17. Cranial computed tomography use among children with minor blunt head trauma: association with race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Natale, JoAnne E; Joseph, Jill G; Rogers, Alexander J; Mahajan, Prashant; Cooper, Arthur; Wisner, David H; Miskin, Michelle L; Hoyle, John D; Atabaki, Shireen M; Dayan, Peter S; Holmes, James F; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2012-08-01

    To determine if patient race/ethnicity is independently associated with cranial computed tomography (CT) use among children with minor blunt head trauma. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Pediatric research network of 25 North American emergency departments. In total, 42 412 children younger than 18 years were seen within 24 hours of minor blunt head trauma. Of these, 39 717 were of documented white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, or Hispanic race/ethnicity. Using a previously validated clinical prediction rule, we classified each child's risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury to describe injury severity. Because no meaningful differences in cranial CT rates were observed between children of black non-Hispanic race/ethnicity vs Hispanic race/ethnicity, we combined these 2 groups. Cranial CT use in the emergency department, stratified by race/ethnicity. In total, 13 793 children (34.7%) underwent cranial CT. The odds of undergoing cranial CT among children with minor blunt head trauma who were at higher risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury did not differ by race/ethnicity. In adjusted analyses, children of black non-Hispanic or Hispanic race/ethnicity had lower odds of undergoing cranial CT among those who were at intermediate risk (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96) or lowest risk (odds ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.80) for clinically important traumatic brain injury. Regardless of risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury, parental anxiety and request was commonly cited by physicians as an important influence for ordering cranial CT in children of white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. Disparities may arise from the overuse of cranial CT among patients of nonminority races/ethnicities. Further studies should focus on explaining how medically irrelevant factors, such as patient race/ethnicity, can affect physician decision making, resulting in exposure of children to unnecessary health care risks.

  18. Barriers to racial/ethnic minority application and competition for NIH research funding.

    PubMed Central

    Shavers, Vickie L.; Fagan, Pebbles; Lawrence, Deirdre; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; McDonald, Paige; Browne, Doris; McLinden, Dan; Christian, Michaele; Trimble, Edward

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to increase the pool of racial/ethnic minority investigators, racial/ethnic minority representation among National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded investigators remains low. Racial/ethnic minority investigators bring unique perspectives and experiences that enhance the potential for understanding factors that underlie racial/ethnic variation in health and health status. Identification of barriers to successful minority competition for NIH funding and suggestions for strategies to overcome them were obtained from a concept mapping project and a meeting of minority investigators and investigators at minority-serving institutions. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-methods planning approach that integrates common data collection processes with multivariate statistical analyses, was used in this exploratory project. The concept mapping approach generated a series of related "concept maps" that were used for data interpretation and meeting discussions. RESULTS: Barriers to minority investigator competition for NIH funding identified by concept mapping participants include: (1) inadequate research infrastructure, training and development; (2) barriers to development as independent researchers; (3) inadequate mentoring; (4) insensitivity, misperceptions and miscommunication about the specific needs of investigators involved in research with minority communities; (5) institutional bias in NIH policies; (6) unfair competitive environment; (7) lack of institutional support; (8) lack of support for research topics/methods relevant to research with minority communities; and (9) social, cultural and environmental barriers. DISCUSSION: Data from both the concept mapping and the meeting discussions suggest the need to use a multilevel approach to increase minority representation among funded NIH investigators. Specifically, the NIH should use strategies that overcome barriers at the home institution, within NIH and at the investigator

  19. Depression Interventions among Racial and Ethnic Minority Older Adults: A Systematic Review across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P.

    2012-01-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults that are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies based on diverse settings and varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives) remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority. PMID:22828202

  20. Depression interventions among racial and ethnic minority older adults: a systematic review across 20 years.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P

    2012-11-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults who are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies that took place in different types of settings and with varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed, although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low-income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives), remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority.

  1. Perceived Prejudice and the Mental Health of Chinese Ethnic Minority College Students: The Chain Mediating Effect of Ethnic Identity and Hope

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jin; Yang, Liping

    2017-01-01

    As a multinational country incorporating 56 officially recognized ethnic groups, China is concerned with the mental health of members of minority ethnic groups, with an increasing focus on supporting Chinese ethnic minority college students. Nevertheless, in daily life, members of minority ethnic groups in China often perceive prejudice, which may in turn negatively influence their mental health, with respect to relative levels of ethnic identity and hope. To examine the mediating effects of ethnic identity and hope on the relationship between perceived prejudice and the mental health of Chinese ethnic minority college students, 665 students (18–26 years old; 207 males, 458 females; the proportion of participants is 95.38%) from nine colleges in the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region and Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of China took part in our study, each completing adapted versions of a perceived prejudice scale, a multiethnic identity measure, an adult dispositional hope scale, and a general health questionnaire. Analysis of the results reveals that perceived prejudice negatively influences mental health through both ethnic identity and hope in Chinese ethnic minority college students. The total mediation effect was 54.9%. Perceived prejudice was found to negatively predict ethnic identity and hope, suggesting that perceived prejudice brings about a negative reconstruction of ethnic identity and hope mechanisms within the study's Chinese cultural context. The relationship between perceived prejudice and mental health was fully mediated by hope and the chain of ethnic identity and hope. Ethnic identity partially mediated the relationship between perceived prejudice and hope. The relationship between perceived prejudice and mental health mediated by ethnic identity was not significant, which suggests that the rejection–identification model cannot be applied to Chinese ethnic minority college students. This paper concludes by considering the limitations of our study

  2. Role of ethnicity in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake: a cross-sectional study of girls from ethnic minority groups attending London schools

    PubMed Central

    Rockliffe, Lauren; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura A V; Forster, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that girls from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination than white British girls; however, the specific ethnic minority groups that have lower uptake have not been identified. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school-level uptake and ethnicity as well as uptake and other ethnicity-related factors, to understand which specific groups are less likely to receive the vaccination. Methods Aggregated uptake rates from 195 schools were obtained for each of the three recommended vaccine doses from 2008 to 2010. Census data at the lower super output area (LSOA) level for the postcode of each school were also obtained, describing the ethnic breakdown of the resident population (ethnicity, language spoken, religion, proficiency in English and duration of residency in the UK). These were used as proxy measures of the ethnic make-up of the schools. The most prevalent non-majority group for each ethnicity and ethnicity-related factor was assigned to each school. Analyses explored differences in uptake by ethnicity and ethnicity-related factors. Results No significant differences in vaccination uptake were found by ethnicity or ethnicity-related factors, although descriptive differences were apparent. Schools in areas where black ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently low rates of uptake for all doses. Schools in areas where some Asian ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently high rates of uptake for all doses. There was evidence of variability in mean uptake rates for ethnicities within ‘black’ and ‘Asian’ ethnic groups. Conclusions Future research would benefit from focusing on specific ethnicities rather than broad ethnic categories. Replication of this study with a larger sample and using complete individual-level data, collected on a national level, would provide a clearer indication

  3. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    PubMed

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Adolescent brain development and the mature minor doctrine.

    PubMed

    Silber, Tomas J

    2011-08-01

    The medical rights of minors have been questioned, especially due to information on adolescent brain development and studies on adolescent decision-making. This chapter briefly introduces the mature minor doctrine (MMD) and its history, justification, and practice and then presents some of the objections to the MMD. The article then highlights new knowledge about adolescent brain development (ABD) and what this may contribute to this debate and describes "hot cognition" and "cold cognition". It concludes by alerting the reader to the danger of making inappropriate use of the discoveries of brain science and proposing a prudent approach to adolescent consent and confidentiality, one that incorporates the new knowledge on ABD without "turning back the clock" on the medical rights of minors.

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  6. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  7. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.

  8. Barriers to cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Laura A V; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women are less likely to attend cervical screening. Aim To explore self-perceived barriers to cervical screening attendance among ethnic minority women compared to white British women. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Community groups in ethnically diverse London boroughs. Methods Interviews were carried out with 43 women from a range of ethnic minority backgrounds (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White other) and 11 White British women. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework analysis. Results Fifteen women had delayed screening/had never been screened. Ethnic minority women felt that there was a lack of awareness about cervical cancer in their community, and several did not recognise the terms ‘cervical screening’ or ‘smear test’. Barriers to cervical screening raised by all women were emotional (fear, embarrassment, shame), practical (lack of time) and cognitive (low perceived risk, absence of symptoms). Emotional barriers seemed to be more prominent among Asian women. Low perceived risk of cervical cancer was influenced by beliefs about having sex outside of marriage and some women felt a diagnosis of cervical cancer might be considered shameful. Negative experiences were well remembered by all women and could be a barrier to repeat attendance. Conclusions Emotional barriers (fear, embarrassment and anticipated shame) and low perceived risk might contribute to explaining lower cervical screening coverage for some ethnic groups. Interventions to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer are needed in ethnic minority communities, and investment in training for health professionals may improve experiences and encourage repeat attendance for all women. PMID:25583124

  9. Expanding our borders: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology's special issue on immigration.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Zárate, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    Introduces the current special issue of the journal, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. This special issue focuses on the topic of immigration and highlights the important within group differences often overlooked when immigrants are conceptualized as a homogeneous group. The articles in this journal consider a variety of microsystems, such as educational settings, ethnic and gay communities, and communities with anti-immigration laws.

  10. Exposure to American culture is associated with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder among ethnic minority women

    PubMed Central

    Pilver, Corey E.; Kasl, Stanislav; Desai, Rani; Levy, Becca R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethnic minorities in America will achieve majority by 2042, and due to their younger age distribution, will represent the largest proportion of women at risk for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). Research has not addressed ethnic minority women’s vulnerabilities to PMDD. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation and PMDD. Methods An analysis of acculturation and PMDD among 3,856 English-speaking, pre-menopausal Asian, Latina, and Black women from the National Latino and Asian American Survey and the National Survey of American Life. Results The lifetime prevalence of PMDD was 3.3%. Nativity status, duration of residence, and age at immigration were significantly associated with PMDD. Foreign-born women (OR=0.38; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=0.21–0.68)and immigrants arriving to the US after age six (OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.18, 0.62) were less likely to have PMDD, compared to US-born women, and US-born women/immigrants who arrived before age six, respectively. The likelihood of PMDD increased as the duration of residence in the US lengthened. Limitations The diagnosis of PMDD was provisional due to retrospective symptom reporting. Statements of causality could not be made because the study was cross-sectional. Conclusions A substantial percentage of ethnic minority women suffer from PMDD in their lifetimes. Exposure to American culture appeared to elevate ethnic minority women’s likelihood for PMDD. The stressors that are associated with ethnic minority life in America—discrimination, poverty, pressures to assimilate, etc.—may contribute to ethnic minority women’s vulnerability to PMDD, and clinicians should be sensitive to the special risks in this population. PMID:21055829

  11. The Association of Neighborhood Social Capital and Ethnic (Minority) Density with Pregnancy Outcomes in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Erdem, Özcan; Borsboom, Gerard; Ghorashi, Halleh; Groenewegen, Peter; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal morbidity rates are relatively high in the Netherlands, and significant inequalities in perinatal morbidity and mortality can be found across neighborhoods. In socioeconomically deprived areas, ‘Western’ women are particularly at risk for adverse birth outcomes. Almost all studies to date have explained the disparities in terms of individual determinants of birth outcomes. This study examines the influence of neighborhood contextual characteristics on birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) and preterm birth. We focused on the influence of neighborhood social capital – measured as informal socializing and social connections between neighbors – as well as ethnic (minority) density. Methods Data on birth weight and prematurity were obtained from the Perinatal Registration Netherlands 2000–2008 dataset, containing 97% of all pregnancies. Neighborhood-level measurements were obtained from three different sources, comprising both survey and registration data. We included 3.422 neighborhoods and 1.527.565 pregnancies for the birth weight analysis and 1.549.285 pregnancies for the premature birth analysis. Linear and logistic multilevel regression was performed to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood level variables with birth weight and preterm birth. Results We found modest but significant neighborhood effects on birth weight and preterm births. The effect of ethnic (minority) density was stronger than that of neighborhood social capital. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density was associated with higher birth weight for infants of non-Western ethnic minority women compared to Western women (15 grams; 95% CI: 12,4/17,5) as well as reduced risk for prematurity (OR 0.97; CI 0,95/0,99). Conclusions Our results indicate that neighborhood contexts are associated with birth weight and preterm birth in the Netherlands. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density seems to be a protective factor for non-Western ethnic minority women, but

  12. Overcoming barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities to mental health research: a typology of recruitment strategies.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Waquas; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Woodham, Adrine; Allen, Gill; Bower, Peter

    2015-05-02

    The ethnic minority population in developed countries is increasing over time. These groups are at higher risk of mental illness and demonstrate lower participation in research. Published evidence suggests that multiple factors like stigma, lack of trust, differences in explanatory models, logistical issues and lack of culturally aware researchers act as barriers to ethnic minority recruitment into mental health research. To reduce inequalities in participation, there is a need to devise innovative and culturally sensitive recruitment strategies. It is important that researchers share their experience of employing these strategies so that ethnic minority participation can be facilitated. We previously published a systematic review of barriers to recruiting ethnic minority participants into mental health research. The nine papers included in our prior review formed the basis for developing a typology of barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities into mental health research. This typology identified 33 barriers, described under five themes. We further extracted data on the strategies used to overcome these recruitment barriers, as described in the included studies. The strategies employed by the authors could be matched to all but two barriers (psychopathology/substance misuse and limited resource availability). There was evidence that multiple strategies were employed, and that these depended upon the population, clinical set-up and resources available. This typology of strategies to overcome barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities provides guidance on achieving higher rates of recruitment. It is important that researchers plan to deploy these strategies well in advance of initiating recruitment. Whilst adopting these strategies, the authors have not been able to quantify the positive impact of these strategies on recruitment. The typology should encourage researchers to employ these strategies in future research, refine them further and quantitatively evaluate their

  13. Lifelong Learning for Social Inclusion of Ethnic Minorities in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its overall economic success, most citizens living in the remote areas of Botswana face poverty and are unemployed. The article argues that minority communities in remote areas are excluded because education programs use unfamiliar languages and de-contextualized curricula, there is no national qualifications framework to sufficiently…

  14. Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

  15. Ethnic Minorities in American Labor Markets. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    The document presents an analysis of the economic status of certain minority groups in the United States. The groups include Blacks, American Indians, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos. Specifically, the document examines differences in female labor supply, female occupational status, and male earnings among the…

  16. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Caler, Kyle R; Vargas Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Nower, Lia

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177). Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. Educational Provision for Ethnic Minority Groups in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines effect of Nicaragua's 1979 revolution on education, especially for minority Miskito Indians. Summarizes history of Indian culture in region. Suggests Sandinista government began emphasizing bilingual, bicultural education in 1982-83, sparked by deteriorating economic situation. Concludes multicultural education program, while hindered by…

  18. Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

  19. Lifelong Learning for Social Inclusion of Ethnic Minorities in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its overall economic success, most citizens living in the remote areas of Botswana face poverty and are unemployed. The article argues that minority communities in remote areas are excluded because education programs use unfamiliar languages and de-contextualized curricula, there is no national qualifications framework to sufficiently…

  20. β-globin gene cluster haplotypes in ethnic minority populations of southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Liu, Hongxian; Huang, Kai; Lin, Keqin; Huang, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jiayou; Ma, Shaohui; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2017-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationships among ethnic minority populations of southwest China were investigated using seven polymorphic restriction enzyme sites in the β-globin gene cluster. The haplotypes of 1392 chromosomes from ten ethnic populations living in southwest China were determined. Linkage equilibrium and recombination hotspot were found between the 5′ sites and 3′ sites of the β-globin gene cluster. 5′ haplotypes 2 (+−−−), 6 (−++−+), 9 (−++++) and 3′ haplotype FW3 (−+) were the predominant haplotypes. Notably, haplotype 9 frequency was significantly high in the southwest populations, indicating their difference with other Chinese. The interpopulation differentiation of southwest Chinese minority populations is less than those in populations of northern China and other continents. Phylogenetic analysis shows that populations sharing same ethnic origin or language clustered to each other, indicating current β-globin cluster diversity in the Chinese populations reflects their ethnic origin and linguistic affiliations to a great extent. This study characterizes β-globin gene cluster haplotypes in southwest Chinese minorities for the first time, and reveals the genetic variability and affinity of these populations using β-globin cluster haplotype frequencies. The results suggest that ethnic origin plays an important role in shaping variations of the β-globin gene cluster in the southwestern ethnic populations of China. PMID:28205625

  1. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention with racial and ethnic minority women.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Greenfield, Brenna L; Bowen, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in the treatment of addiction have been acknowledged for several years, yet little is known about which empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders are more or less effective in treating racial and ethnic minority clients. The current study was a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of two evidence-based treatments, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) and relapse prevention (RP), as part of a residential addiction treatment program for women referred by the criminal justice system (n=70). At 15-week follow-up, regression analyses found that racial and ethnic minority women in MBRP, compared to non-Hispanic and racial and ethnic minority women in RP, reported significantly fewer drug use days (d=.31) and lower addiction severity (d=.65), based on the Addiction Severity Index. Although the small sample size is a limitation, the results suggest that MBRP may be more efficacious than traditional treatments for racial and ethnic minority women. © 2013.

  2. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Hye; Han, Dong Woon; Yoo, Eun Kyung; Kim, Woon-Yong

    2014-03-19

    Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population.

  3. Health-related quality of life of infants from ethnic minority groups: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Flink, Ilse J E; Beirens, Tinneke M J; Looman, Caspar; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Tiemeier, Henning; Mol, Henriette A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-04-01

    To assess whether the health-related quality of life of infants from ethnic minority groups differs from the health-related quality of life of native Dutch infants and to evaluate whether infant health and family characteristics explain the potential differences. We included 4,506 infants participating in the Generation R Study, a longitudinal birth cohort. When the child was 12 months, parents completed the Infant Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL); ITQOL scale scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Influence of infant health and family characteristics on ITQOL scale scores were evaluated using multivariate regression models. Infants from ethnic minority groups presented significantly lower ITQOL scale scores compared to the Dutch subgroup (e.g., Temperament and Moods scale: median score of Turkish subgroup, 70.8 (IQR, 15.3); median score of Dutch subgroup, 80.6 (IQR, 13.9; P < 0.001)). Infant health and family characteristics mediated an important part of the association between the ethnic minority status and infant health-related quality of life. However, these factors could not fully explain all the differences in the ITQOL scale scores. Parent-reported health-related quality of life is lower in infants from ethnic minority groups compared to native Dutch infants, which could partly be explained by infant health and by family characteristics.

  4. Cumulative Effect of Racial Discrimination on the Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; Bécares, Laia

    2016-07-01

    To examine the longitudinal association between cumulative exposure to racial discrimination and changes in the mental health of ethnic minority people. We used data from 4 waves (2009-2013) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal household panel survey of approximately 40 000 households, including an ethnic minority boost sample of approximately 4000 households. Ethnic minority people who reported exposure to racial discrimination at 1 time point had 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component scores 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.31, -0.56) points lower than did those who reported no exposure to racial discrimination, whereas those who had been exposed to 2 or more domains of racial discrimination, at 2 different time points, had SF-12 mental component scores 8.26 (95% CI = -13.33, -3.18) points lower than did those who reported no experiences of racial discrimination. Controlling for racial discrimination and other socioeconomic factors reduced ethnic inequalities in mental health. Cumulative exposure to racial discrimination has incremental negative long-term effects on the mental health of ethnic minority people in the United Kingdom. Studies that examine exposure to racial discrimination at 1 point in time may underestimate the contribution of racism to poor health.

  5. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  6. Psychological Vulnerability among Overweight/Obese Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela A.; Penckofer, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Depression is associated with obesity among adolescents, with racial/ethnic variability noted. Psychological correlates that may influence this relationship have not been adequately explored. The primary objective of this secondary analysis was to compare levels of stress, self-esteem, coping, social support, and depressive mood between normal…

  7. Psychological Vulnerability among Overweight/Obese Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela A.; Penckofer, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Depression is associated with obesity among adolescents, with racial/ethnic variability noted. Psychological correlates that may influence this relationship have not been adequately explored. The primary objective of this secondary analysis was to compare levels of stress, self-esteem, coping, social support, and depressive mood between normal…

  8. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  9. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  10. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  11. Examining Minor and Major Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  12. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.

  13. Ethnic Differences in STD Rates among Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines ethnic differences in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in female adolescents (N=205) receiving care at two family-planning clinics; new infection and reinfection rates were also examined. Black teens had a higher rate of past STDs than Hispanics or Whites; however, there were no differences in rates at the time of the clinic…

  14. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  15. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  16. Can neighborhoods explain racial/ethnic differences in adolescent inactivity?

    PubMed

    Richmond, Tracy K; Field, Alison E; Rich, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To determine if neighborhoods and their attributes contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 17,007), a nationally representative school-based study in the United States. Stratifying by gender, we used multivariate linear regression and multi-level modeling to determine whether neighborhood of residence may partially explain racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical inactivity, defined as hours viewing television or videos/DVDs and/or playing computer/video games each week. Participants lived in largely segregated communities. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported higher levels of inactivity than White adolescent girls (21 vs. 15 vs. 13 hours/week, respectively, p <0.001). Similar patterns were seen in adolescent boys, with Black adolescent males reporting a mean of 26 hours/week; Hispanic boys a mean of 20 hours/week; and White boys a mean of 17 hours/week of inactivity (p <0.001). After accounting for between-neighborhood variation, there were no residual within-neighborhood differences in inactivity between Hispanic and White adolescent girls (gamma = -0.06, p =0.93); when living in the same neighborhood Hispanic and White girls had similar levels of inactivity. Black adolescent girls and boys were found to have higher levels of inactivity no matter where they lived (gamma =7.00, p <0.001 for girls; gamma = 6.96, p <0.001 for boys). Hispanic boys had similar patterns of inactivity to White boys (gamma =-1.57, p = 0.12). In both males and females, the reported rate of violent crime in the neighborhood was associated with inactivity, despite the individual's perception of his/her neighborhood as safe not being predictive. Although inactivity varies by race/ethnicity and gender, only in Hispanic adolescent girls does neighborhood fully explain the differential use. Our findings suggest that approaches other than changing

  17. Correlates of Sun Safety Practices in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention Interventions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Tyc, Vida L; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of their pediatric wellness visit. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and nonwhite minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial and ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention with antismoking counseling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Correlates of sun safety practices in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents: Implications for skin cancer prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tyc, Vida L.; Atkins, Michael B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of pediatric well-visits. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and non-white minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial/ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention and anti-smoking counseling. PMID:26269134

  19. The application of minority stress theory to marijuana use among sexual minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed.

  20. Diabetes susceptibility in ethnic minority groups from Turkey, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Pakistan compared with Norwegians - the association with adiposity is strongest for ethnic minority women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The difference in diabetes susceptibility by ethnic background is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the association between adiposity and diabetes in four ethnic minority groups compared with Norwegians, and take into account confounding by socioeconomic position. Methods Data from questionnaires, physical examinations and serum samples were analysed for 30-to 60-year-olds from population-based cross-sectional surveys of Norwegians and four immigrant groups, comprising 4110 subjects born in Norway (n = 1871), Turkey (n = 387), Vietnam (n = 553), Sri Lanka (n = 879) and Pakistan (n = 420). Known and screening-detected diabetes cases were identified. The adiposity measures BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were categorized into levels of adiposity. Gender-specific logistic regression models were applied to estimate the risk of diabetes for the ethnic minority groups adjusted for adiposity and income-generating work, years of education and body height used as a proxy for childhood socioeconomic position. Results The age standardized diabetes prevalence differed significantly between the ethnic groups (women/men): Pakistan: 26.4% (95% CI 20.1-32.7)/20.0% (14.9-25.2); Sri Lanka: 22.5% (18.1-26.9)/20.7% (17.3-24.2), Turkey: 11.9% (7.2-16.7)/12.0% (7.6-16.4), Vietnam: 8.1% (5.1-11.2)/10.4% (6.6-14.1) and Norway: 2.7% (1.8-3.7)/6.4% (4.6-8.1). The prevalence increased more in the minority groups than in Norwegians with increasing levels of BMI, WHR and waist circumference, and most for women. Highly significant ethnic differences in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes were found for both genders in all categories of all adiposity measures (p < 0.001). The Odds Ratio (OR) for diabetes adjusted for age, WHR, body height, education and income-generating work with Norwegians as reference was 2.9 (1.30-6.36) for Turkish, 2.7 (1.29-5.76) for Vietnamese, 8.0 (4.19-15.14) for Sri Lankan and 8.3 (4.37-15.58) for Pakistani

  1. Relationship-specific variability in adolescents' ethnic self-labeling preferences.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Johnson, Natasha C

    2013-10-01

    Consistency between adolescents' best-fitting ethnic label and the labels uses in three different relationship contexts was compared and linked to adjustment among 154 9th-10th graders (50% 9th; 56% female) of Asian descent. Results indicated that 57%, 61%, and 63% of adolescents reported best-fitting labels that were inconsistent with the labels they would use with Asian, non-Asian minority, and European American peers, respectively, and only 25% reported using the same label across all four situations. Inconsistency was not associated with gender or generation, but was linked with higher perceived discrimination. Despite its prevalence, there were few adjustment differences based on labeling inconsistency. One exception was that adolescents who reported inconsistency between best-fitting labels and labels used with non-Asian minority peers reported more negative emotions than those with concordant labels. Results and discussion highlight the need to continue investigating the contextual fluidity of ethnic labels, including predictors and developmental and cultural implications.

  2. Capitalizing on Mobile Technology to Support Healthy Eating in Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pernal, Wendy; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Franko, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Participants: Forty-three African American and Hispanic female students participated in a 3-week intervention between January and May 2013. Methods: Participants photographed their meals using their smart…

  3. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  4. Barriers to Clinical Trial Enrollment in Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Lauren M.; Penner, Louis A.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Heath, Elisabeth; Gwede, Clement K.; Eggly, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical trials that study cancer are essential for testing the safety and effectiveness of promising treatments, but most people with cancer never enroll in a clinical trial — a challenge exemplified in racial and ethnic minorities. Underenrollment of racial and ethnic minorities reduces the generalizability of research findings and represents a disparity in access to high-quality health care. Methods Using a multilevel model as a framework, potential barriers to trial enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities were identified at system, individual, and interpersonal levels. Exactly how each level directly or indirectly contributes to doctor–patient communication was also reviewed. Selected examples of implemented interventions are included to help address these barriers. We then propose our own evidence-based intervention addressing barriers at the individual and interpersonal levels. Results Barriers to enrolling a diverse population of patients in clinical trials are complex and multilevel. Interventions focused at each level have been relatively successful, but multilevel interventions have the greatest potential for success. Conclusion To increase the enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials, future interventions should address barriers at multiple levels. PMID:27842322

  5. Mentoring Matters: Racial Ethnic Minority Undergraduates' Cultural Fit, Mentorship, and College and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Besson, Doriane; Clark Harvey, Le Ondra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which cultural fit (cultural congruity in combination with perception of the university environment) and the dimensional noncognitive processes of mentoring predicted college satisfaction and life satisfaction for 238 racial and ethnic minority undergraduates from two university contexts. Group differences as well…

  6. "They Know where to Find Us...." Service Providers' Views on Early Support and Minority Ethnic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Bogusia; Young, Alys; Bolton, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine the views of multi-professional service providers on the provision of Early Support for disabled children 0-3 years old from minority ethnic communities. We begin with a description of national policies relevant to this field and of Early Support before describing a national evaluation of its impact. We discuss findings…

  7. [Comparing ethnic structures and government policies affecting minorities in South Tyrol (Alto Adige) and Burgenland].

    PubMed

    Munz, R

    1991-01-01

    The ethnic minorities of lands that became parts of Italy, Germany, Hungary, and Austria after World War I are discussed in terms of their assimilation and legal and political rights in the various countries. Particular attention is given to South Tyrol and Burgenland. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Factors Affecting Ethnic Minority Students' Attainment in Secondary Schools in Cyprus: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; West, Mel; Muijs, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study in Cyprus aiming to gain insight into the factors responsible for the low attainment of ethnic minority students observed in earlier studies. Teachers from different schools and cities on the island participated in a focus group discussion. Identified factors related to the child, parents, home environment, teachers,…

  9. Training Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in a White Man's Program: Don't Get Bucked off!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, Carolyn G.; Crowley, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This is a narrative journey of a Blackfeet woman as she learned to help ethnic minority students navigate graduate training. The talk reflects the holistic, contextual, and interdependent characteristics of Native American culture blended with the culture of the West. Insights from working with horses are included because they have much to teach…

  10. Special Issue: Racial and Ethnic Minority Students' Success in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…

  11. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  12. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  13. Examining the Ethnic Minority Student Experience at Predominantly White Institutions: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lee; Castellanos, Jeanett; Cole, Darnell

    2002-01-01

    Conducted four focus groups to explore the college student experience of ethnic minorities (African American, Asian-Pacific American, Chicano/Latino, and Native American) in a predominantly White institution of higher education. Findings in terms of student voices and perspectives were grouped into six main categories: general campus climate,…

  14. Public Library Provision for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities--Where Are We in 2009?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, John

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses developments in public library provision for Black and minority ethnic [BME] communities in the UK since the publication in 1969 of the results of research into the needs of "Indian and Pakistani communities". It includes a brief discussion of some major societal issues, and then sets public library services in this…

  15. Handbook for National Unions of Students on Students with a Migrant or Ethnic Minority Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maoláin, Aengus Ó.; Popescu, Cristi; Bergan, Gabriela; Sallinen, Jyri; Savola, Pauliina; de Bruijn, Simone; Dalen, Svea; Servant, Thibaut; Grønne, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been written by the European Student's Union's Ethnic Minorities Working Group (EMWG) based on the work it conducted from its establishment at ESU's Board Meeting 57 in 2009 until its expiration at the Board Meeting 64 in 2013. The work was undertaken by representatives from ESU's members SAMOK (Finland), NUSUK (UK), LSVb (the…

  16. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  17. Special Education and Minority Ethnic Young People in England: Continuing Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In countries that have developed special education (SE) provision, whether in segregated settings or "included" in mainstream, racial, ethnic and immigrant minorities continue to be disproportionately represented. Explanations for placement in SE programmes continue to centre round assumptions of deficiencies in student abilities to…

  18. "Peer Social Capital" and Networks of Migrants and Minority Ethnic Youth in England and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Clara Helene Rübner

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses friendships and peer groups of migrant and minority ethnic youth in schools in England and Spain, and critically considers them in relation to existing notions of "peer social capital" and bridging (heterogeneous) and bonding (homogeneous) peer networks. The article argues for an extended understanding of peer…

  19. Research Ethics for Mental Health Science Involving Ethnic Minority Children and Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Boyce, Cheryl; Duster, Troy; Frank, Deborah A.; Grisso, Thomas; Levine, Robert J.; Macklin, Ruth; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Takanishi, Ruby; Trimble, Joseph E.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes key recommendations resulting from a meeting of national leaders in bioethics, multicultural research, and ethnic minority mental health. The recommendations focus on applying a cultural perspective to the evaluation of research risks and benefits; developing and implementing respectful informed consent procedures; developing and…

  20. Training Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in a White Man's Program: Don't Get Bucked off!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, Carolyn G.; Crowley, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This is a narrative journey of a Blackfeet woman as she learned to help ethnic minority students navigate graduate training. The talk reflects the holistic, contextual, and interdependent characteristics of Native American culture blended with the culture of the West. Insights from working with horses are included because they have much to teach…

  1. Differentiated Instruction in Developmental Mathematics Classes and Achievement of Ethnic Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Otis D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    National educational assessment organizations present statistical information that an achievement gap exists between White students and students of color. This achievement gap closely relates to students representing lower SES conditions. This study examined the lack of achievement for ethnic minorities in the field of mathematics using an…

  2. Mentoring Matters: Racial Ethnic Minority Undergraduates' Cultural Fit, Mentorship, and College and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Besson, Doriane; Clark Harvey, Le Ondra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which cultural fit (cultural congruity in combination with perception of the university environment) and the dimensional noncognitive processes of mentoring predicted college satisfaction and life satisfaction for 238 racial and ethnic minority undergraduates from two university contexts. Group differences as well…

  3. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  4. Mentoring Ethnic Minority, Pre-Doctoral Students: An Analysis of Key Mentor Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Anne W.

    2008-01-01

    This article present results from a qualitative study that examined mentor practices with four ethnic minority proteges interested in applying to doctoral programs in psychology. Some of the mentor practices identified were expected and consistent with the research literature. Other findings were unanticipated but significant. In particular,…

  5. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  6. Racial/Ethnic Minority Vocational Research: A Content and Trend Analysis across 36 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Nilsson, Johanna E.; Ojeda, Lizette; Jordan, Shiloh E.; Lynn, Ginger L.; Leal, Veronica M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined 281 racial/ethnic minority (REM) career-related studies published in the "Journal of Vocational Behavior," "The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ)," the "Journal of Career Assessment (JCA)," and the "Journal of Career Development" between 1969 and 2004. Publication trends, article content and type, samples, and leading author…

  7. Research Ethics for Mental Health Science Involving Ethnic Minority Children and Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Boyce, Cheryl; Duster, Troy; Frank, Deborah A.; Grisso, Thomas; Levine, Robert J.; Macklin, Ruth; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Takanishi, Ruby; Trimble, Joseph E.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes key recommendations resulting from a meeting of national leaders in bioethics, multicultural research, and ethnic minority mental health. The recommendations focus on applying a cultural perspective to the evaluation of research risks and benefits; developing and implementing respectful informed consent procedures; developing and…

  8. Reduced Psychological Distress in Racial and Ethnic Minority Students Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Charles; Nidich, Sanford; Colbert, Robert; Hagelin, John; Grayshield, Lisa; Oviedo-Lim, Dynah; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Jones, Chris; Gerace, Denise

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing literature describing the stressful nature of students' school experience. Previous research has found that racial and ethnic minority groups are particularly subject to high levels of stress due to exposure to violence, pressures due to acculturation, and the schooling process. This is the first study to evaluate effects of the…

  9. Removing the Barriers: Raising Achievement Levels for Minority Ethnic Pupils. Exploring Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This resource kit, which can be used with an accompanying videotape and written materials, shows how three English secondary schools have succeeded in raising the achievement of their ethnic minority students by increasing expectations of what each student is capable of, valuing diversity, working in partnership with parents, and encouraging…

  10. Sociological Perspectives on Ethnic Minority Teachers in China: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    2016-01-01

    Improving the quality of education has been a central goal of the People's Republic of China since its founding in 1949. Particular concern has been focused on ethnic minority areas where educational quality lags behind that of other regions. Since 1986 the State Education Commission has been working toward the implementation of nine years of…

  11. Relationships between Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and Counseling Psychology: Three New Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…

  12. Training racial and ethnic minority students for careers in public health sciences.

    PubMed

    Duffus, Wayne A; Trawick, Cynthia; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Tola, Jigsa; Truman, Benedict I; Dean, Hazel D

    2014-11-01

    A workforce that resembles the society it serves is likely to be more effective in improving health equity for racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in the U.S. public health professions. Project Imhotep is operated by Morehouse College with funding and technical assistance from CDC. Imhotep trains racial and ethnic minority students for entry into graduate and professional training programs for careers in the public health sciences. The curriculum focuses on biostatistics, epidemiology, and occupational safety and health with practical training in statistical data analysis, scientific writing, and oral presentation skills. To describe the Imhotep program and highlight some of its outcomes. Data were collected every year by self-administered questionnaire or follow-up telephone and e-mail interviews of students who participated in Imhotep during 1982-2010 and were followed through December 2013. Findings demonstrated that 100% of the 481 trained students earned bachelor's degrees; 73.2% earned graduate degrees (53% earned master's degrees, 11.1% earned medical degrees, and 7.3% earned other doctoral degrees); and 60% entered public health careers. The Imhotep program has improved the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among public health professionals in the U.S. A diverse workforce involving Imhotep graduates could augment the pool of pubic health professionals who make strategic and tactical decisions around program design and resource allocation that impact health in the most affected communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ethnic Majority/Minority Status: Children's Interactions and Affective Responses to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of classroom ethnic majority/minority status on third-, fifth-, and seventh-grade children's responses (N=118)while listening to and discussing the music of a Latin salsa artist, African-American rhythm and blues artist, and a European-American folk artist. Investigates the students' artist and music preferences. (CMK)

  14. Gifted Ethnic Minority Students and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis exploring ethnic minority students enrolled in gifted/advanced programs with an emphasis on their academic achievement outcomes. A comprehensive search based on the Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis checklist, was performed to retrieve articles within a 30-year time period (1983-2014), which…

  15. Effective Counseling for Racial/Ethnic Minority Clients: Examining Changes Using a Practice Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Graceffo, James M.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that counseling decreases students' academic distress. These findings, however, are based primarily on European American students. This study explored the impact of counseling on academic distress for treatment-seeking racial/ethnic minority college students using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological…

  16. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from…

  17. Race, Ethnicity, and College Success: Examining the Continued Significance of the Minority-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Stella M.; Park, Toby J.

    2013-01-01

    The minority-serving institution (MSI) sector has grown considerably since the 1980s, yet we have less empirical information about what currently influences students to enroll in and complete college at these institutions in comparison to their non-MSI counterparts. We evaluate student postsecondary outcomes by race and ethnicity in Texas's large…

  18. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  19. Sociological Perspectives on Ethnic Minority Teachers in China: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    2016-01-01

    Improving the quality of education has been a central goal of the People's Republic of China since its founding in 1949. Particular concern has been focused on ethnic minority areas where educational quality lags behind that of other regions. Since 1986 the State Education Commission has been working toward the implementation of nine years of…

  20. Racial/Ethnic Minority Vocational Research: A Content and Trend Analysis across 36 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Nilsson, Johanna E.; Ojeda, Lizette; Jordan, Shiloh E.; Lynn, Ginger L.; Leal, Veronica M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined 281 racial/ethnic minority (REM) career-related studies published in the "Journal of Vocational Behavior," "The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ)," the "Journal of Career Assessment (JCA)," and the "Journal of Career Development" between 1969 and 2004. Publication trends, article content and type, samples, and leading author…

  1. Research, Practice, and Ethnic Minorities: Applications of and Comments on "New Scholarship on Women."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Responds to "new scholarship on women" perspective presented in previous article by Greiner. Delineates areas of fit and areas of misfit while applying the perspective to ethnic minorities. Examines six basic tenets of perspective as they relate to research or to practice, drawing examples from and about Hispanic populations. (NB)

  2. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  3. Ethical Principles and Standards: A Racial-Ethnic Minority Research Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, J. Manuel; Thompson, Chalmer E.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses American Psychological Association's (APA, 1990) "Ethical Principles" and American Association for Counseling and Development's (AACD, 1988) "Ethical Standards" as they relate to racial-ethnic minorities. Contends that philosophical premises that underlie these principles and standards reflect solely majority culture…

  4. Gifted Ethnic Minority Students and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis exploring ethnic minority students enrolled in gifted/advanced programs with an emphasis on their academic achievement outcomes. A comprehensive search based on the Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis checklist, was performed to retrieve articles within a 30-year time period (1983-2014), which…

  5. Our Common Commitment. Enhancing Ethnic Minority Integration and Achievement in Arizona's Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Board of Regents, Phoenix.

    A report and recommendations of the Arizona Board of Regents' Ad Hoc Committee on University Access and Retention focuses on the enhancement of ethnic minority integration and achievement in Arizona's universities. Eight sections cover: introduction (the challenge for Arizona's universities); House Bill 2108; early outreach (linkages and…

  6. Capitalizing on Mobile Technology to Support Healthy Eating in Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pernal, Wendy; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Franko, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Participants: Forty-three African American and Hispanic female students participated in a 3-week intervention between January and May 2013. Methods: Participants photographed their meals using their smart…

  7. Older and Wiser. A Study of Educational Provision for Black and Ethnic Minority Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella

    This publication is the outcome of the Older and Wiser Project that assessed projects' work with elderly black clients. The first part defines who the black elderly are and provides an overview of the black elderly in Britain using data from the 1991 Census. A chart breaks down ethnic minority groups by age. Population pyramids that provide an…

  8. The Stranger within My Gate: Ethnic Minorities and School Policy in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Frederick M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper outlines a heuristic framework for understanding basic patterns in the efforts of nation-states to achieve some degree of integration of ethnic minorities to the dominant culture. Four case studies, from Britain, Sweden, and the Netherlands, illuminate the basic typology: Assimilation, Cultural Pluralism, Socialized Isolation,…

  9. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  10. Effective Counseling for Racial/Ethnic Minority Clients: Examining Changes Using a Practice Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Graceffo, James M.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that counseling decreases students' academic distress. These findings, however, are based primarily on European American students. This study explored the impact of counseling on academic distress for treatment-seeking racial/ethnic minority college students using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological…

  11. Ethnic Majority/Minority Status: Children's Interactions and Affective Responses to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of classroom ethnic majority/minority status on third-, fifth-, and seventh-grade children's responses (N=118)while listening to and discussing the music of a Latin salsa artist, African-American rhythm and blues artist, and a European-American folk artist. Investigates the students' artist and music preferences. (CMK)

  12. The Importance of Minority Teachers to the Racial and Ethnic Integration of American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1989-01-01

    Racial and ethnic separation and isolation can be countered through significantly increasing the number of minority teachers. Students learn important societal lessons through the example of cooperative interracial and interethnic relationships among teachers. Discusses implications for teacher education, recruitment, assignment, and retention,…

  13. Reduced Psychological Distress in Racial and Ethnic Minority Students Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Charles; Nidich, Sanford; Colbert, Robert; Hagelin, John; Grayshield, Lisa; Oviedo-Lim, Dynah; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Jones, Chris; Gerace, Denise

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing literature describing the stressful nature of students' school experience. Previous research has found that racial and ethnic minority groups are particularly subject to high levels of stress due to exposure to violence, pressures due to acculturation, and the schooling process. This is the first study to evaluate effects of the…

  14. Toward Culturally Centered Integrative Care for Addressing Mental Health Disparities among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha; McGregor, Brian; Thandi, Poonam; Fresh, Edith; Sheats, Kameron; Belton, Allyson; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, recognition and treatment of mental illness and its co-morbidities still remain a significant public health problem in the United States. Ethnic minorities are identified as a population that is vulnerable to mental health disparities and face unique challenges pertaining to mental health care. Psychiatric illness is associated with great physical, emotional, functional, and societal burden. The primary health care setting may be a promising venue for screening, assessment, and treatment of mental illnesses for ethnic minority populations. We propose a comprehensive, innovative, culturally centered integrated care model to address the complexities within the health care system, from the individual level, that includes provider and patient factors, to the system level, which include practice culture and system functionality issues. Our multi-disciplinary investigative team acknowledges the importance of providing culturally tailored integrative healthcare to holistically concentrate on physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral problems among ethnic minorities in a primary care setting. It is our intention that the proposed model will be useful for health practitioners, contribute to the reduction of mental health disparities, and promote better mental health and well-being for ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities. PMID:25383991

  15. Interactive Whole Language E-Story for Early Literacy Development in Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phadung, Muneeroh; Suksakulchai, Surachai; Kaewprapan, Wacheerapan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using an interactive e-story for early literacy instruction on word recognition, story comprehension and story application. The study was conducted in two classrooms in the southern border provinces of Thailand with ethnic minority children at the kindergarten level. The samples consisted of 60 children who…

  16. Ethnic Attitudes of Minority Students and Their Contact with Majority Group Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2012-01-01

    Research on intergroup attitudes in children has focused on contact with out-group peers but neglected the role of adults. This cross-sectional self-report study examined the association between the ethnic attitudes of 174 minority (Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch) preadolescents (ages 9-13) and the perceived interpersonal relationships with their…

  17. Interactive Whole Language E-Story for Early Literacy Development in Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phadung, Muneeroh; Suksakulchai, Surachai; Kaewprapan, Wacheerapan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using an interactive e-story for early literacy instruction on word recognition, story comprehension and story application. The study was conducted in two classrooms in the southern border provinces of Thailand with ethnic minority children at the kindergarten level. The samples consisted of 60 children who…

  18. Admissions to Higher Education: Are There Biases against or in Favour of Ethnic Minorities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittoes, Mark; Thompson, John

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Tariq Modood's "Ethnicity, Muslims and higher education in Britain," which asserted that higher education had been a major success story for non-White minorities and argued that, if encouraged, Islam could be an influence on young Muslim men and women to take up educational opportunities that would…

  19. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from…

  20. Equal Access of Ethnic Minority Students to Different Types of Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we focus on answering the question "Is there equal access to different types of higher education institutions (HEIs) for ethnic minority (EM) students in Yunnan Province (China), and what explanation might be found for any differences?" In order to answer this question, we rely on the education attainment theory, and a…

  1. A Blessing with a Curse: Model Minority Ethnic Students and the Construction of Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    While concerns around minority ethnic students and underachievement have attracted considerable attention in educational research, such as in England, few studies have examined those who excel, except as reference to justify the equity of the established system. This paper explores the educational success of British Chinese and Indian students,…

  2. Special Issue: Racial and Ethnic Minority Students' Success in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…

  3. Racial/Ethnic Minority-Specific Instrumentation in Counseling Research: A Review, Critique, and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabnani, Haresh B.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews eight instruments specifically conceptualized and developed for use in racial/ethnic minority-focused psychological research: Cultural Mistrust Inventory, African Self-Consciousness Scale, Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory-Revised, Modern Racism Scale, Value Orientation Scale, Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, Racial…

  4. Parent Training among Ethnic Minorities: Parenting Practices as Mediators of Change in Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorknes, Ragnhild; Kjobli, John; Manger, Terje; Jakobsen, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined parenting practices as mediators of changes in child conduct problems in ethnic minority families participating in Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO). The participants included 96 Somali and Pakistani immigrant mothers and their children living in Norway. The families were randomized to PMTO or a waiting-list…

  5. A Blessing with a Curse: Model Minority Ethnic Students and the Construction of Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    While concerns around minority ethnic students and underachievement have attracted considerable attention in educational research, such as in England, few studies have examined those who excel, except as reference to justify the equity of the established system. This paper explores the educational success of British Chinese and Indian students,…

  6. "We Raised It with the Head": The Educational Practices of Minority Ethnic, Middle-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a small-scale empirical exploration of the views, experiences and educational practices of middle-class minority ethnic families in the United Kingdom. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 36 parents, pupils and "young professionals". Analyses consider to what extent generic class…

  7. Relationships between Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and Counseling Psychology: Three New Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…

  8. "We Raised It with the Head": The Educational Practices of Minority Ethnic, Middle-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a small-scale empirical exploration of the views, experiences and educational practices of middle-class minority ethnic families in the United Kingdom. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 36 parents, pupils and "young professionals". Analyses consider to what extent generic class…

  9. Reflections on ethnic minority psychology: learning from our past so the present informs our future.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Anderson J

    2009-10-01

    Commentary on progress and reflections of conversations that undergirded the advancement of ethnic minority psychology are presented by the author as a perspective of an Elder. Articles in this special issue are considered in terms of the themes that emerged from their narratives on the history of ethnic psychological associations, Division 45, the Minority Fellowship Program, and governance's response to multicultural issues within the American Psychological Association. Themes in the history of African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians are discussed in terms of the centrality of culture, history, and pride in resilience, treatment in U.S. history, representation in literature, and its implications for training, research and practice, challenges for ethnic psychological associations, and tensions in transition to a multicultural psychology movement. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Relation Between Racial Discrimination, Social Class, and Health Among Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James Y.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales. Methods. We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class. Results. Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a “racist society,” household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups. Conclusions. The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used. PMID:11919063

  11. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

  12. Ethnic minority groups in regional and local labour markets in Britain: a review of data sources and associated issues.

    PubMed

    Green, A E; Owen, D W

    1995-12-01

    "This paper outlines the context of, and discusses the need for, local information on the demographic patterns and labour market experience of ethnic minority groups in many parts of Britain. The specific focus is on the identification and assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of particular data sources providing spatially disaggregated information on the economic position of ethnic minority groups."

  13. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  14. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  15. Teachers' Multicultural Awareness and the Ethnic Identity of Minority Students: An Individual Case Study of a Hani Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qunhui, Ou; Na, Du

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the role of teachers' multicultural awareness in promoting minority students' ethnic identity by considering the situation in one particular middle school. A case study of a Hani student is presented to show how teachers' multicultural awareness affects ethnic identity and the academic achievement of minority students. This…

  16. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  17. Ethnic minority children’s active commuting to school and association with physical activity and pedestrian safety behaviors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Children's active commuting to school, i.e. walking or cycling to school, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, although studies among ethnic minorities are sparse. Among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of fourth grade students from eight public schools, we examine...

  18. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  19. The Power of Knowledge: A Critical Analysis of the Depiction of Ethnic Minorities in China's Elementary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting

    2015-01-01

    This study critically analyzes knowledge about: (1) ethnic minority groups; (2) the dominant Han group; and (3) the interaction between ethnic minorities and Han presented in three types of elementary textbooks used in China. The analysis reveals that the knowledge about and the values and beliefs of the Han people are overwhelmingly dominant in…

  20. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  1. A Preliminary Discussion on Several Forms of Alternate Location Schooling in Ethnic Minority Education and the Problems Therein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Zhanlong

    2010-01-01

    "Alternate location schooling" ("yidi banxue"), a special measure adopted in China to advance ethnic minority education and especially basic education, adheres to the principle of providing focused educational support in Tibet and Xinjiang and giving consideration to education in ethnic minority regions nationwide. Since the…

  2. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

  3. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  4. A Preliminary Discussion on Several Forms of Alternate Location Schooling in Ethnic Minority Education and the Problems Therein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Zhanlong

    2010-01-01

    "Alternate location schooling" ("yidi banxue"), a special measure adopted in China to advance ethnic minority education and especially basic education, adheres to the principle of providing focused educational support in Tibet and Xinjiang and giving consideration to education in ethnic minority regions nationwide. Since the…

  5. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  6. Ethnic minorities' paranoia and self-preservative work behaviors in response to perceived ethnic discrimination, with collective self-esteem as a buffer.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dejun Tony

    2016-07-01

    The present research examines (a) how ethnic minorities' paranoia mediates the relations between perceived ethnic discrimination and 2 forms of self-preservative work behaviors and (b) how ethnic minorities' collective self-esteem moderates the relation between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoia. Two field studies focusing on 2 ethnic minority groups (Asian and Latino/Hispanic Americans), respectively, rendered empirical support to the focal mechanisms, which appeared robust even when perceived ethnic acceptance, psychological needs satisfaction, and neuroticism were simultaneously accounted for. Specifically, paranoia mediated the relations between perceived ethnic discrimination and voice and between perceived ethnic discrimination and workplace withdrawal. Collective self-esteem attenuated the relation between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoia. These key findings shed light on the emotional and behavioral implications of perceived ethnic discrimination in the workplace and highlight collective self-esteem as a critical factor that attenuates the negative emotional consequence of perceived ethnic discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI among U.S. adolescents and young adults in three race/ethnicity groups.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Blood, Emily A; Milliren, Carly E; Calzo, Jerel P; Richmond, Tracy K; Gooding, Holly C; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I-IV (1995-2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11-34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.

  8. Promoting Academic Persistence among Racial/Ethnic Minority and European American Freshman and Sophomore Undergraduates: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…

  9. Promoting Academic Persistence among Racial/Ethnic Minority and European American Freshman and Sophomore Undergraduates: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…

  10. Health disparities in colorectal cancer among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oman, Matthew; Patel, Aatish M.; Vega, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 2010 Census, just over one-third of the United States (US) population identified themselves as being something other than being non-Hispanic white alone. This group has increased in size from 86.9 million in 2000 to 111.9 million in 2010, representing an increase of 29 percent over the ten year period. Per the American Cancer Society, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to develop cancer and die from it when compared to the general population of the United States. This is particularly true for colorectal cancer (CRC). The primary aim of this review is to highlight the disparities in CRC among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Despite overall rates of CRC decreasing nationally and within certain racial and ethnic minorities in the US, there continue to be disparities in incidence and mortality when compared to non-Hispanic whites. The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality are related to certain areas of deficiency such as knowledge of family history, access to care obstacles, impact of migration on CRC and paucity of clinical data. These areas of deficiency limit understanding of CRC’s impact in these groups and when developing interventions to close the disparity gap. Even with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act, disparities in CRC screening will continue to exist until specific interventions are implemented in the context of each of racial and ethnic group. Racial and ethnic minorities cannot be viewed as one monolithic group, rather as different segments since there are variations in incidence and mortality based on natural history of CRC development impacted by gender, ethnicity group, nationality, access, as well as migration and socioeconomic status. Progress has been made overall, but there is much work to be done. PMID:27034811

  11. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in an ethnic minority group in Central Vietnam: implications to health burden and relationship between two ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga Thi; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Van Nguyen, Hoa; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2017-07-01

    Thalassemia is a genetic condition that can result in long and expensive treatments, and severe thalassemia may lead to death if left untreated. Couples contributing two genes for thalassemia place their children at particular risk for severe thalassemia. Gene frequency of thalassemia varies in Vietnam, but presents remarkably high levels among some ethnic minority groups. Limited information about thalassemia frequency makes prevention and control of thalassemia difficult. This study aimed to determine gene frequency of certain types of thalassemia among 390 women of reproductive age of the Ta-Oi ethnic minority. Hemoglobin and DNA analyses were carried out to diagnose thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Of the total participants, 56.1% (95% CI = 51.1-61.1) carried thalassemia genes. A remarkably high frequency of hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) of 23.8% (95% CI = 19.7-28.4) was noted. The frequency of α(+)-thalassemia (-3.7 kb deletion) was 26.4% (95% CI = 22.1-31.1), while hemoglobin E (Hb E) and hemoglobin Paksé (Hb Ps) were identified at frequencies of 14.6 (95% CI = 11.2-18.5) and 2.6% (95% CI = 1.4-5.0), respectively. Further analysis of α-globin gene haplotype revealed the same Hb CS haplotype (+ - M + + -) as of the Co-Tu minority, a neighboring minority of the Ta-Oi, indicating that these two minorities may share the same ancestors. This information will be helpful for further studies in population genetics, as well as the development prevention and control program in the region.

  12. Examining differential treatment effects for depression in racial and ethnic minority women: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine effectiveness of depression treatment in racial and ethnic minority women. REVIEW METHODS: Inclusion criteria: 1) the study examined treatment of depression among racial and ethnic minority women age > 17, 2) data analysis was separated by race and ethnicity, and 3) the study was conducted in the United States. Interventions considered were: psychotropic medications, psychotherapy (including cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal therapy and any type of psychotherapy adapted for minority populations) and any type of psychotherapy combined with case management or a religious focus. Individual and group psychotherapy were eligible. Each study was critically reviewed to identify treatment effectiveness specific to racial and ethnic minority women. RESULTS: Ten published studies met the inclusion criteria (racial and ethnic minority participants n = 2,136). Seven of these were randomized clinical trials, one was a retrospective cohort study, one was a case series, and the remaining one had an indeterminate study design. Participants' age ranged from 18-74 years, with a higher proportion > 40 years. Most were low income. Differences in treatment responses between African-American, Latino and white women were found. Adapted models of care, including quality improvement and collaborative care, were found to be more effective than usual care and community referral in treating depression. Although medication and psychotherapy were both effective in treating depression, low-income women generally needed case management to address other social issues. CONCLUSION: Adapted models that allow patients to select the treatment of their choice (medication or psychotherapy or a combination) while providing outreach and other supportive services (case management, childcare and transportation) appear to result in optimal clinical benefits. PMID:17393951

  13. Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. [The Use of Telemedicine Interventions to Improve Hypertension Management Among Racial Ethnic Minorities: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wen; Lai, Wei-Shu

    2016-08-01

    Racial ethnic minorities are one of the fastest growing populations in Taiwan. In recent years, there has been an increase in literature addressing the efficacy of home blood-pressure (BP) management that uses telemedicine interventions in general healthcare and community settings. However, no study or systematic literature review has yet assessed the effectiveness of using telemedicine HTN interventions in Taiwan's indigenous, new-immigrant, and other minority populations. The purpose of the present paper is to review the current literature on the use of telemedicine interventions to assist HTN management among racial ethnic minorities. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for full-text articles that were published between January 2000 and December 2015 using the following databases: PubMed, WEB of Science, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature), PsycINFO, Science Direct, ProQuest, Medline, Cochrane Library, National Dissertations and Theses, and airiti Library. The search used the following key search terms both alone and in combination: hypertension, blood pressure, management, telemedicine, telehealth, ehealth, and digital health. The studies were thoroughly assessed under the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A total of 6 articles met the criteria for using keywords related to racial ethnic minority populations and were used in the present review. Findings of this systematic review show that telemedicine interventions significantly improve HTN management. The intervention that combined home telemonitoring with culturally competent nurse counseling calls was identified as the best intervention for reducing BP. As the current literature on this topic is limited to African-Americans, more research is necessary to validate our findings. Future studies should target racial ethnic minorities in Taiwan in order to better understand how to provide culturally appropriate

  15. Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

    2011-01-01

    Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

  16. The Role of Language, Parents, and Peers in Ethnic Identity among Adolescents in Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.; Romero, Irma; Nava, Monica; Huang, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents and parents from 81 Armenian, 47 Vietnamese, and 88 Mexican families. Adolescents completed measures of ethnic language proficiency, peer social interaction, and ethnic identity, while parents completed a measure of support for cultural maintenance. Across all groups, ethnic language proficiency and in-group peer interaction…

  17. Ethnic density is not associated with psychological distress in Turkish-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch ethnic minorities in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Agnes C; Peen, Jaap; de Wit, Matty A S; van Ameijden, Erik J C; Erdem, Ozcan; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Dekker, Jack J M; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic density, the proportion of people of the same ethnic group in the neighbourhood, has been identified as a protective factor with regard to mental health in ethnic minorities. Research on the putative intermediating factors, exposure to discrimination and improved social support, has not yielded conclusive evidence. We investigated the association between ethnic density and psychological well-being in three ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. We also assessed whether a protective ethnic density effect is related to the degree to which each group experiences discrimination and social support at group level. Using multi-level linear regression modelling, we studied the influence of ethnic density at neighbourhood level on psychological distress, measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10), in 13,864 native Dutch, 1,206 Surinamese-Dutch, 978 Turkish-Dutch and 784 Moroccan-Dutch citizens of the four major cities in the Netherlands. Based on a nationwide survey among ethnic minorities on social integration, ethnic groups were ordered with respect to the intermediating factors. Ethnic density was not associated with psychological distress in any of the three ethnic minority groups. As a consequence, we found no support for either experiences of discrimination or for own-group social interactions at group level as intermediating factors. In all three ethnic minority groups, as well as in the native Dutch group, individual demographic and socio-economic factors emerged as the main explanations for individuals' mental well-being. These results suggest that individual demographic and socio-economic risk characteristics outweigh the influence of neighbourhood attributes on mental health.

  18. Multi-ethnic minority nurses' knowledge and practice of genetics and genomics.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Bernice; Calzone, Kathleen A; Jenkins, Jean; Paniagua, Carmen; Rivera, Reynaldo; Hong, Oi Saeng; Spruill, Ida; Bonham, Vence

    2014-07-01

    Exploratory studies establishing how well nurses have integrated genomics into practice have demonstrated there remains opportunity for education. However, little is known about educational gaps in multi-ethnic minority nurse populations. The purpose of this study was to determine minority nurses' beliefs, practices, and competency in integrating genetics-genomics information into practice using an online survey tool. A cross-sectional survey with registered nurses (RNs) from the participating National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Organizations (NCEMNA). Two phases were used: Phase one had a sample of 27 nurses who determined the feasibility of an online approach to survey completion and need for tool revision. Phase two was a main survey with 389 participants who completed the revised survey. The survey ascertained the genomic knowledge, beliefs, and practice of a sample of multi-ethnic minority nurses who were members of associations comprising the NCEMNA. The survey was administered online. Descriptive survey responses were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Categorical responses in which comparisons were analyzed used chi square tests. About 40% of the respondents held a master's degree (39%) and 42% worked in direct patient care. The majority of respondents (79%) reported that education in genomics was important. Ninety-five percent agreed or strongly agreed that family health history could identify at-risk families, 85% reported knowing how to complete a second- and third-generation family history, and 63% felt family history was important to nursing. Conversely, 50% of the respondents felt that their understanding of the genetics of common disease was fair or poor, supported by 54% incorrectly reporting they thought heart disease and diabetes are caused by a single gene variant. Only 30% reported taking a genetics course since licensure, and 94% reported interest in learning more about genomics. Eighty-four percent believed that their ethnic

  19. Multi-Ethnic Minority Nurses’ Knowledge and Practice of Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Bernice; Calzone, Kathleen A.; Jenkins, Jean; Paniagua, Carmen; Rivera, Reynaldo; Hong, Oi Saeng; Spruill, Ida; Bonham, Vence

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exploratory studies establishing how well nurses have integrated genomics into practice have demonstrated there remains opportunity for education. However, little is known about educational gaps in multi-ethnic minority nurse populations. The purpose of this study was to determine minority nurses’ beliefs, practices, and competency in integrating genetics-genomics information into practice using an online survey tool. Design A cross-sectional survey with registered nurses (RNs) from the participating National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Organizations (NCEMNA). Two phases were used: Phase one had a sample of 27 nurses who determined the feasibility of an online approach to survey completion and need for tool revision. Phase two was a main survey with 389 participants who completed the revised survey. The survey ascertained the genomic knowledge, beliefs, and practice of a sample of multi-ethnic minority nurses who were members of associations comprising the NCEMNA. Methods The survey was administered online. Descriptive survey responses were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Categorical responses in which comparisons were analyzed used chi square tests. Findings About 40% of the respondents held a master’s degree (39%) and 42% worked in direct patient care. The majority of respondents (79%) reported that education in genomics was important. Ninety-five percent agreed or strongly agreed that family health history could identify at-risk families, 85% reported knowing how to complete a second- and third-generation family history, and 63% felt family history was important to nursing. Conversely, 50% of the respondents felt that their understanding of the genetics of common disease was fair or poor, supported by 54% incorrectly reporting they thought heart disease and diabetes are caused by a single gene variant. Only 30% reported taking a genetics course since licensure, and 94% reported interest in learning more about genomics. Eighty

  20. Patient-reported frequency of acral surface inspection during skin examination in white and ethnic minority patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Monica S; Chiu, Melvin W

    2014-08-01

    Acral lentiginous melanomas compose a higher proportion of melanomas and have a higher mortality in ethnic minorities than in whites. Early detection by acral surface inspection during skin examinations may lead to improved acral lentiginous melanoma outcomes. This study compared patient-reported frequencies of acral skin examinations in ethnic and white populations. Written surveys were collected from 1040 dermatology clinic patients. More whites reported performing self-skin examinations than ethnic minorities (P < .01), but there was no difference in the rates of hand (P = .7) or foot (P = .87) inspection during self-skin examination between whites and ethnic minorities. More whites (77.5%) than ethnic minorities (38.9%) reported having undergone a full-body skin examination (FBSE) from a health care provider (P < .01). During their most recent FBSE by a health care provider, more whites than ethnic minorities reported having their hands examined (P = .02), but there was no difference in reported hand inspection (P = .06) at any previous FBSE or foot inspection at any (P = .07) or the most recent (P = .59) FBSE between whites and ethnic minorities. Single-center study using a new unvalidated survey is a limitation. Whites were found to more frequently report self-skin examination and FBSE than ethnic minorities, but significant differences in reported acral examinations were not detected. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.