Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.
This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…
Pike, Amanda Alders
This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…
Park, Juyoung; Hirz, Christina E; Manotas, Karen; Hooyman, Nancy
As key players in multidisciplinary health care systems, geriatric social workers must understand the dynamics of pain management among older adults with chronic pain. This study identified perceived barriers to, and facilitators for, utilizing nonpharmacological pain management through face-to-face interviews with 44 ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults. Constant comparative analysis identified barriers not recognized in prior studies: (a) embarrassment/self-consciousness, (b) unavailability of certain treatments, and (c) lack of faith in effectiveness of nonpharmacological treatments. Most frequently reported facilitators were (a) social support, (b) positive attitude, and (c) available resources. Social workers can provide counseling to motivate older adults to exercise to manage chronic pain and refer them to exercise programs tailored for older adults. To resolve the most frequently reported barrier-transportation-social workers can link older adults with transportation services offered by senior centers or other nonprofit agencies.
Wray, L A
The rapid growth and diversity of the older population have long-term implications for health care policies in the United States. Current policies designed for a homogeneous population are increasingly obsolete. To ameliorate obstacles that handicap many ethnic minority elders and to provide equal access to adequate and acceptable health care, several factors need to be considered. Enhanced data collection and analytic techniques are needed. The effects of race or ethnicity must be separated from other biologic, environmental, socioeconomic, cultural, and temporal factors on health status and behavior. Health care professionals and organizations serving minority elders must continue to expand their advocacy efforts to articulate the findings and their concerns to policymakers. Policymakers must understand and acknowledge the implications of an increasingly diverse society and determine what will constitute adequate, accessible, and acceptable health care within continuing fiscal constrains. Program planning, implementation, and evaluation methods must be revised to meet future health care needs effectively and efficiently. PMID:1413784
This study examined moral reasoning among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse older women based on the care and justice moral orientations reflecting theoretical frameworks developed by Carol Gilligan and Lawrence Kohlberg, respectively. A major gap in this area of research and theory development has been the lack of examination of moral reasoning in later life. This study addressed this gap by assessing socioeconomically and ethnically diverse older women's reasoning in response to ethical dilemmas showing conflict between autonomy, representative of Kohlberg's justice orientation, and protection, representative of Gilligan's care orientation. The dilemmas used in this study came from adult protective services (APS), the U.S. system that investigates and intervenes in cases of elder abuse and neglect. Subjects were 88 African American, Latina, and Caucasian women age 60 or over from varying socioeconomic status backgrounds who participated in eight focus groups. Overall, participants favored protection over autonomy in responding to the case scenarios. Their reasoning in responding to these dilemmas reflected an ethic of care and responsibility and a recognition of the limitations of autonomy. This reasoning is highly consistent with the care orientation. Variations in the overall ethic of care and responsibility based on ethnicity and SES also are discussed.
Werner, Julie M.; Carlson, Mike; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Clark, Florence
Objective In this study we analyzed self-reported computer use, demographic variables, psychosocial variables, and health and well-being variables collected from 460 ethnically diverse, community-dwelling elders in order to investigate the relationship computer use has with demographics, well-being and other key psychosocial variables in older adults. Background Although younger elders with more education, those who employ active coping strategies, or those who are low in anxiety levels are thought to use computers at higher rates than others, previous research has produced mixed or inconclusive results regarding ethnic, gender, and psychological factors, or has concentrated on computer-specific psychological factors only (e.g., computer anxiety). Few such studies have employed large sample sizes or have focused on ethnically diverse populations of community-dwelling elders. Method With a large number of overlapping predictors, zero-order analysis alone is poorly equipped to identify variables that are independently associated with computer use. Accordingly, both zero-order and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlates of two types of computer use: email and general computer use. Results Results indicate that younger age, greater level of education, non-Hispanic ethnicity, behaviorally active coping style, general physical health, and role-related emotional health each independently predicted computer usage. Conclusion Study findings highlight differences in computer usage, especially in regard to Hispanic ethnicity and specific health and well-being factors. Application Potential applications of this research include future intervention studies, individualized computer-based activity programming, or customizable software and user interface design for older adults responsive to a variety of personal characteristics and capabilities. PMID:22046718
Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.
Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…
Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.
Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…
Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather
This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…
Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Carlson, Mike; Cherry, Barbara; Azen, Stanley; Chou, Chih-Ping; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Forman, Todd; White, Brett; Granger, Douglas; Knight, Bob; Clark, Florence
Background Community-dwelling older adults are at risk for declines in physical health, cognition, and psychosocial well-being. However, their enactment of active and health-promoting lifestyles can reduce such declines. Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the USC Well Elderly II study, a randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle program for elders, and document how various methodological challenges were addressed during the course of the trial. Methods In the study, 460 ethnically diverse elders recruited from a variety of sites in the urban Los Angeles area were enrolled in a randomized experiment involving a crossover design component. Within either the first or second six month phase of their study involvement, each elder received a lifestyle intervention designed to improve a variety of aging outcomes. At 4–5 time points over an 18–24 month interval, the research participants were assessed on measures of healthy activity, coping, social support, perceived control, stress-related biomarkers, perceived physical health, psychosocial well-being, and cognitive functioning to test the effectiveness of the intervention and document the process mechanisms responsible for its effects. Results The study protocol was successfully implemented, including the enrollment of study sites, the recruitment of 460 older adults, administration of the intervention, adherence to the plan for assessment, and establishment of a large computerized data base. Limitations Methodological challenges were encountered in the areas of site recruitment, participant recruitment, testing, and intervention delivery. Conclusions The completion of clinical trials involving elders from numerous local sites requires careful oversight and anticipation of threats to the study design that stem from: (a) social situations that are particular to specific study sites; and (b) physical, functional, and social challenges pertaining to the elder
Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien
Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.
Sawaya, George F.; Iwaoka-Scott, A. Yuri; Kim, Sue; Wong, Sabrina T.; Huang, Alison J.; Washington, A. Eugene; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.
Background Guidelines support ending cervical-cancer screening in women aged 65–70 years and older with prior normal testing, but little is known about older women’s attitudes and beliefs about ending screening. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 199 women aged 65 and older in English, Spanish, Cantonese or Mandarin. Results Most interviewees were non-White (44.7% Asian, 18.1% Latina and 11.6% African American). Most (68%) thought lifelong screening was either important or very important, a belief held more strongly by African American (77%) and Latina (83%) women compared to women in other ethnic groups (p<0.01). Most (77%) had no plans to discontinue screening or had ever thought of discontinuing (69%). When asked if they would end screening if recommended by their physician, 68% responded “yes.” Conclusions The majority of these women believe that lifelong cervical-cancer screening is important. Many women, however, reported they would end screening if recommended by their physician. PMID:18976734
Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent
Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.
Arcury, Thomas A.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Golden, Shannon L.; Snively, Beverly M.; Quandt, Sara A.
Purpose: This analysis describes the association of health and functional status with private and public religious practice among ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) rural older adults with diabetes. Methods: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional, stratified, random sample survey of 701…
Park, Juyoung; Clement, Russell; Hooyman, Nancy; Cavalie, Katia; Ouslander, Joseph
Nonpharmacological treatment of chronic pain in older people can be effective but attitudes and adherence to use of this treatment may differ by ethnicity. This study supports that a modified 14-item instrument based on the modified Health Belief Model-the arthritis-related health belief instrument (AHBI)-can be used across ethnically diverse older adults (i.e., European Americans, Hispanics, African Americans, and Afro-Caribbeans). Confirmatory factor analysis tested the factor structure of the AHBI to eliminate items inappropriate for this population. Structural equation modeling tested expected relationships among four latent variables-severity, susceptibility, barriers, and benefits-across the four ethnic groups. Findings suggest that the modified 14-item AHBI (eliminating two items from the original AHBI) adequately described the four latent factors pertaining to use of nonpharmacological pain therapy in this sample. All items registered substantial loadings (.41-.95) on the hypothesized factors, operating similarly across the four ethnic groups. The modified 14-item AHBI may be useful in (a) assessing how individual perceptions influence access to nonpharmacological pain therapy among ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults, with the goal to develop and implement effective pain treatment for this population; and (b) measuring the likelihood of using nonpharmacological pain therapy by older adults. The modified 14-item AHBI can help health care providers to provide accurate pain assessment and examine domains that could affect use of nonpharmacological pain therapy by ethnically diverse older adults and guide practice with them by identifying barriers to use of such therapies and providing education to encourage their use.
Spalt, Elizabeth W.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Allen, Ryan W.; Cohen, Martin; Adar, Sara D.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Avol, Ed; Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Nunn, Cathy; Mancera-Cuevas, Karen; Kaufman, Joel D.
The primary aim of this analysis was to present and describe questionnaire data characterizing time-location patterns of an older, multi-ethnic population from six American cities. We evaluated consistency of results from repeated administration of this questionnaire and between this questionnaire and other questionnaires collected from participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Participants reported spending most of their time inside their homes (average: 121 hours/week or 72%). More than 50% of participants reported spending no time in several of the location options, including at home outdoors, at work/volunteer/school locations indoors or outdoors, or in “other” locations outdoors. We observed consistency between self-reported time-location patterns from repeated administration of the time-location questionnaire and compared with other survey instruments. Comparisons to national cohorts demonstrated differences in time-location patterns in the MESA Air cohort due to differences in demographics, but the data showed similar trends in patterns by age, gender, season, and employment status. This study was the first to explicitly examine time-location patterns in an older, multi-ethnic population and the first to add data on Chinese participants. These data can be used to inform future epidemiological research of MESA Air and other studies that include diverse populations. PMID:25921083
Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Houck, Margaret M.; Olatosi, Bankole A.
Attitudes toward older people can influence how they are treated and their cognitive and physical health. The populations of the United States and many other countries have become more ethnically diverse, and are aging. Yet little research examines how ethnic diversity affects attitudes toward older people. Our study addresses this research gap.…
Lai, Daniel W L
In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.
Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David
Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313
Carlson, Mike; Wilcox, Rand; Chou, Chih-Ping; Chang, Megan; Yang, Frances; Blanchard, Jeanine; Marterella, Abbey; Kuo, Ann; Clark, Florence
Reverse-scored items on assessment scales increase cognitive processing demands and may therefore lead to measurement problems for older adult respondents. In this study, the objective was to examine possible psychometric inadequacies of reverse-scored items on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) when used to assess…
Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre
Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.
States, Rebecca A; Susman, William M; Riquelme, Luis F; Godwin, Ellen M; Greer, Ellen
To address disparities in access to health care information, we developed a model program of community-based, health education workshops to be delivered in English and Spanish to older urban adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language backgrounds. The workshops were created through an interdisciplinary collaboration among faculty from seven health care professions and focused on three healthcare topics identified in Healthy People 2010: dementia and depression, stress reduction, and physical activity. The development of workshop content and structure, including didactic and interactive components, an approach to interdisciplinary student involvement, and program evaluation by clients and community center staff, are presented as a model for other educators. The workshops presented at five senior centers were attended by 1110 mostly female clients with an average age of 74 yrs and with a large proportion self-identified as of minority background. One hundred seven students from seven healthcare programs helped deliver the workshops. Interviews and surveys of the clients demonstrated that most had a positive learning experience, whereas the evidence of intent to take action on health care issues was less definitive. Analysis of student essays demonstrated increased student understanding of older adults and of community services. A website, Geriatric Educational Resources for Instructors and Elders (www.GERIE.org), was created to provide access to the instructional and resource materials used for the workshops, including presentation materials in Spanish. This model program may help address the substantial health education needs of a growing population of older adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language minorities.
Washko, Michelle M; Schack, Ronald W; Goff, Barry A; Pudlin, Bennett
Title V of the Older Americans Act, the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), is a 40+-year-old federal program providing subsidized community service and employment training to low-income, unemployed individuals aged 55 and older. It is the only nationally mandated workforce training program for seniors. Because of SCSEP's dual mission, participants added 48 million hours of community service (valued at almost $1 billion) to the U.S. economy in 2008. Almost half (48.9%) of the participants are racial or ethnic minorities, which makes it crucial to understand the program experience of these individuals. Participation, program duration, and employment placement of minorities are examined. Findings show successful enrollment rates, an interactive effect of age and education on program duration, and no indication of a minority disadvantage in employment placement. Recommendations include funding for innovative grants, leveraging of federal partnerships, and targeted technical assistance.
Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P.
While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults that are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies based on diverse settings and varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives) remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority. PMID:22828202
Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.
We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…
Baker, Trish; Clark, Jill
Educational research in cooperative learning suggests that inequity based on perceived status may be an issue with heterogeneous cooperative learning groups. This paper explores issues of status based on race, ethnicity and cultural background in the New Zealand tertiary classroom where there is a diverse mix of domestic and international…
Laganà, Luciana; Prilutsky, Roxanne R.
Introduction Older women often experience various types of stressors, including the death of a spouse and associated financial stress (often with a lack of social support), emotional stress due to factors such as caregiving and being single, and the challenges of the aging process. These circumstances could produce or aggravate anxious symptomatology that can in turn compound the negative effects of aging. A brief scale of perceived stress that is not confounded with health status and covers multiple culturally relevant potential stressors is needed for quick use in busy medical settings. Aim To assess the reliability and the validity of an original stress scale designed to measure perceptions of stress beyond health status in a non-clinical convenience sample of community-dwelling older women. Method In this cross-sectional pilot investigation, via conducting item-total correlations and correlational tests of validity, we studied the psychometric properties of our measure using data from volunteer older subjects (mainly low-income and from non-Caucasian backgrounds). The domains covered by the nine items of the tool were selected based on a literature review of common stressors experienced by older adults, especially by older women. Data were collected face-to-face using a demographic list, a well-established depression measure, a brief posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screener, and our 9-item stress tool. Primary outcomes: reliability and validity of the scale of older women’s non-medical stress. Secondary outcomes: demographic characteristics of the sample and correlations between stress items. Results Based on our sample of older women (N=40, mean age 71 years), good internal consistency between the items of the stress scale was found (Cronbach’s a=.66). The findings of the data analyses also revealed that our psychometric tool has good convergent validity with the PTSD screener (r=.53). Moreover, in contrast with most other stress tools, it has strong
Arcury, Thomas A.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.
This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, white) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do white older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, while the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian and white elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted. PMID:23788829
Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R; Anderson, Andrea M; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A; Quandt, Sara A
This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, White) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do White older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, whereas the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian, and White elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted.
Renert, Hagar; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy
The inclusion of ethnically diverse populations in health research is crucial for addressing ethnic disparities in health status and care. Despite this need, non-dominant ethnic groups continue to be under-represented in health studies. The reasons may be at least partly due to the difficulties inherent in recruiting such groups for research. In…
Karssen, Merlijn; van der Veen, Ineke; Volman, Monique
The present study examined the relationship between ethnic diversity in school and educational outcomes, social-emotional functioning, and citizenship competences for bi-ethnic students. The focus of this study is bi-ethnic children with 1 non-migrant parent (with 2 non-migrant grandparents) and 1 migrant parent (with 2 foreign grandparents). It…
Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S
Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women.
Lee, John Michael, Jr.
This chapter emphasizes the importance of going beyond racial and ethnic diversity at HBCUs to include other forms of diversity such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and international status.
Ng, Judy H.; Bierman, Arlene S.; Elliott, Marc N.; Wilson, Rachel L.; Xia, Chengfei; Scholle, Sarah Hudson
Objectives This study examined physical and mental health, health symptoms, sensory and functional limitations, risk factors, and multimorbidity among older Medicare managed care members to assess disparities associated with race/ethnicity. Study Design and Methods We used data on 236,289 older adults from 208 Medicare plans who completed the 2012 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey to compare 14 health indicators across non-Hispanic whites, blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, multiracial individuals, and Hispanics. Logistic regression models that clustered on the plan estimated the risk of indicators of adverse health and functional status. Results Even after controlling for key patient sociodemographic factors, race/ethnicity was significantly associated with most adverse health indicators. Except for Asians, all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to report poor mental health status, presence of most health symptoms, sensory limitations, and activities-of-daily-living disability. Important differences were observed across racial and ethnic groups. Conclusions Despite some exceptions, elders of racial/ethnic minority background are generally at higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for a broad range of adverse health and functional outcomes that are not routinely assessed. Limitations include bias related to self-reported data and respondent recall. Future research should consider ethnic subgroup variations; employing newer techniques to improve estimates for smaller groups; and prioritizing and identifying opportunities for care improvement of diverse enrollee groups by considering specific needs. To improve the health status of the elderly, service delivery targeting the needs of specific population groups, coupled with culturally appropriate care for racial/ethnic minorities, should also be considered. PMID:24884752
Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.
This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…
Parasnis, Ila; Fischer, Susan D
IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY, the researchers documented the perceptions of deaf and hearing ethnically diverse university faculty and staff regarding issues related to the education of ethnic-minority deaf college students. These experienced educators commented on the importance of ethnic-minority role models for deaf college students, the academic preparedness of ethnic-minority deaf students, these students' level of comfort on campus, and the success of institutional efforts to increase awareness regarding ethnic diversity. The insightful reflections of these diverse educators can be informative in improving the educational experience of ethnic-minority deaf students.
Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others
This study compared the potential for child abuse among three ethnic groups, when age, educational attainment, and marital status were controlled for in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income mothers residing in a large metropolitan area. Participants (n=195) were between 15 and 45 years and were enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children…
There are many reasons why cities with diverse populations may grow faster. Ethnic diversity might attract human capital, tourists or firms, increase productivity through diverse approaches to problem-solving or ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Yet there are also reasons to believe that diversity could be harmful, by leading to sub-optimal provision of public goods or reducing trust or social capital. Or it may be irrelevant, being merely a proxy for class. A number of studies have shown both positive and negative relationships between diversity and growth, using a range of different measures for "diversity." This paper asks two questions: have more diverse English cities grown faster? And does measurement matter: is it important to have a multinational population or an ethnically diverse one? To answer these questions, in this paper a range of models are estimated for employment growth for 53 English cities between 1981 and 2001. The evidence suggests that cities with a high proportion of their populations born abroad in 1981 grew faster in the subsequent 10 years. Neither diversity by country of birth nor ethnic diversity is significant in the period 1991-2001. However, when variables accounting for both are included together, it appears that cities with a large number of migrants saw higher employment growth in the 1990s, but that ethnically diverse cities were less successful. The results presented here suggest that considerable attention needs to be paid to the variable used to indicate "diversity" in these studies and that the impact of diversity varies according to nature of the groups any indicator for "diversity" is representing.
Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.
This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…
This article combines quantitative and qualitative analysis of the depiction of ethnic and racial diversity in recent editions of secondary and postsecondary German textbooks published in the US. The purpose is threefold: (1) to determine the frequency and types of representations of diversity; (2) to examine more closely several representative…
Understanding bone health is least invasively and most effectively done through studying skeletal remains that reflect the living populations who will benefit from the knowledge produced through research. Donated body collections that accurately represent modern populations are needed for osteological insights to be applied to clinical practices. However, even though the US is growing increasingly diverse, donated body collections still suffer from a lack of ethnic diversity. Most individuals who donate their whole-bodies after death are European-American. Reasons for a lack of ethnic diversity stem from past injustices and present religious norms. Increasing body donation among minorities in the US and abroad may be difficult.
Spivak, Asha Leah; White, Samantha Simmons; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra
This study examined the association between ethnicity-related context variables and the prosocial behavior of early adolescents in ethnically/racially diverse schools. Specifically, youths' perceptions of greater representation of same-ethnic peers at school, school support for ethnic diversity, and engagement in and valuing cross-ethnic contact…
This article reports on research on secondary-school teachers and dilemmas they encounter in their work in multi-ethnic schools in the Netherlands. The results of a recent study based on interviews are compared with a survey conducted in 1996. This showed that in a changing societal context, that can be characterized by mounting selection and…
Australia is a multicultural society in which the most rapidly ageing groups are immigrants, many of whom cannot speak English well. Minimal research has been conducted to identify ethnic variation in health concerns and expectations of older Australians from non-English-speaking backgrounds, necessary to facilitate culturally appropriate services. This paper presents findings from 12 focus group sessions (4 Anglo, 3 Italian, 2 Chinese, 2 Arabic, 1 Greek) with older (60+) Australians. Common areas of concern were inadequate medication information, labelling and instructions. Anglo participants differed from ethnic participants in their use of herbal remedies, language, relationship with pharmacist and doctor and awareness of health rights. Other concerns and expectations were specific to a particular ethnic group. The findings should increase health professionals' awareness of the similarities and differences which exist between mainstream Anglo and ethnic Australians, and also between ethnic groups, thereby avoiding the use of a blanket approach when communicating with, or planning policies for, ethnic older Australians.
White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.
Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.
We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650
Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo
This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…
Wilder, Lynn K.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Obiakor, Festus E.; Rotz, Elizabeth J.
Individuals with disabilities tend to experience fewer successful outcomes in postsecondary transition than do youth without disabilities. Ethnically diverse learners have added challenges, such as worldviews, values, language, family involvement, level of acculturation, expectations, decision-making style, meaning of work, importance of money and…
Singelis, Theodore M., Ed.
This book is a resource for teachers that contains 28 exercises and planned activities designed by individual authors that can be used to teach about culture, ethnicity, and diversity. The exercises and activities are appropriate for graduate, college, and even advanced high school students in such classes as cross-cultural psychology,…
Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.
Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…
Radstake, Hester; Leeman, Yvonne
In the literature on intercultural education there is an abundance of text about what ought to be going on in the classroom and a lack of empirical descriptions of the dilemmas of intercultural education in practice. This article describes the practice of five teachers guiding discussions about sensitive issues in ethnically diverse secondary…
This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…
The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…
Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole
This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…
Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.
Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467
Labeyrie, Vanesse; Thomas, Mathieu; Muthamia, Zachary K.; Leclerc, Christian
Recent studies investigating the relationship between crop genetic diversity and human cultural diversity patterns showed that seed exchanges are embedded in farmers’ social organization. However, our understanding of the social processes involved remains limited. We investigated how farmers’ membership in three major social groups interacts in shaping sorghum seed exchange networks in a cultural contact zone on Mount Kenya. Farmers are members of residence groups at the local scale and of dialect groups clustered within larger ethnolinguistic units at a wider scale. The Chuka and Tharaka, who are allied in the same ethnolinguistic unit, coexist with the Mbeere dialect group in the study area. We assessed farmers’ homophily, propensity to exchange seeds with members of the same group, using exponential random graph models. We showed that homophily is significant within both residence and ethnolinguistic groups. At these two levels, homophily is driven by the kinship system, particularly by the combination of patrilocal residence and ethnolinguistic endogamy, because most seeds are exchanged among relatives. Indeed, residential homophily in seed exchanges results from local interactions between women and their in-law family, whereas at a higher level, ethnolinguistic homophily is driven by marriage endogamy. Seed exchanges and marriage ties are interrelated, and both are limited between the Mbeere and the other groups, although frequent between the Chuka and Tharaka. The impact of these social homophily processes on crop diversity is discussed. PMID:26699480
The study concerns ethnicity, spatial equity, and healthcare access in the context of diversity and integration. The paper first explores how Chinese immigrants in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area choose between ethnic Chinese family physicians and other family physicians, based on a probability survey. It then applies and modifies gravity-type accessibility measures, of which a special type is the so-called floating catchment area (FCA) method, to evaluate three types of geographical accessibility in family physician utilization. The study suggests a certain degree of spatial inequality among Chinese immigrants in accessing culturally sensitive care. The paper yields important methodological and policy implications.
Lipman, Valerie; Manthorpe, Gillian
Little research has explored how not-for-profit housing providers, often termed Housing Associations in the United Kingdom, meet the needs of older tenants with dementia who are from black and ethnic minority communities. This article presents findings from an exploratory study conducted in 2015. The study took an audit approach, investigating current practice and policy in 12 Housing Associations. All were developing their understanding of dementia; some were augmenting their standard rented property portfolio to include housing with care provision; and most had policies relating to equalities and diversity and were offering dementia training to members of staff. None appeared to have fully integrated the three strands of housing services, dementia care, and cultural or ethnicity-related needs and preferences. A range of strategies was reported as being developed to meet tenants' changing circumstances. Anxiety about the cost of adaptations was commonly reported, although the nature and extent of this were ill-defined. Discussion focuses on the findings' implications for housing providers and for dementia professionals.
Dessie, Sybil G.; Adams, Sonia R.; Modest, Anna M.; Hacker, Michele R.; Elkadry, Eman A.
Objectives Our aim was to assess pelvic floor symptoms and attitudes in an ethnically diverse population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of women presenting to two community-based, ethnically diverse gynecology clinics. Prior to being seen by a provider, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. Results A total of 312 women were included: 32.7% Caucasian, 50.3% African American, and 17.0% Hispanic. Other racial/ethnic groups were excluded secondary to small samples size. The median age was 34.0 years (27.0-44.0). The groups differed with respect to most demographic characteristics, such as income, education, and nation of origin. Nocturia and urinary frequency were the most commonly reported symptoms. African American respondents were more likely to report nocturia than Caucasian respondents (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). Respondents' views of normal urinary function generally did not vary by race/ethnicity. However, Hispanic respondents were less likely than Caucasian respondents to agree that it is normal to leak urine after having children (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.68). Among women who reported at least one symptom, 46.7% reported that at least one symptom bothered them, and this did not differ with respect to race/ethnicity (p≥0.59). African American respondents were more likely than Caucasians to report their urinary leakage to their doctors (p=0.006). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that, with few exceptions, bladder symptoms and attitudes are similar among reproductive-age women of various racial/ethnic groups in a community setting. PMID:26516809
Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon
National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523
Andrulis, Dennis P; Siddiqui, Nadia J; Gantner, Jenna L
The tragedy of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans confirmed that effective implementation of public health preparedness programs and policies will require compliance from all racial and ethnic populations. This study reviews current resources and limitations and suggests future directions for integrating diverse communities into related strategies. It documents research and interventions, including promising models and practices that address preparedness for minorities. However, findings reveal a general lack of focus on diversity and suggest that future preparedness efforts need to fully integrate factors related to race, culture, and language into risk communication, public health training, measurement, coordination, and policy at all levels.
Au, Lauren E.; Economos, Christina D.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Morgan, Emily H.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.
Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05), with white and black children reporting saturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181
Tan, Daniel S W; Mok, Tony S K; Rebbeck, Timothy R
Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multinational effort is key to addressing population and genomic diversity as well as overcoming barriers and geographical disparities in research and health care delivery.
Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam
Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…
Díaz-Venegas, Carlos; Downer, Brian; Langa, Kenneth M.; Wong, Rebeca
Objective Examine differences in cognition between Hispanic, non-Hispanic black (NHB), and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults in the United States. Data/Methods The final sample includes 18 982 participants aged 51 or older who received a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status during the 2010 Health and Retirement Study follow-up. Ordinary least squares will be used to examine differences in overall cognition according to race/ethnicity. Results Hispanics and NHB had lower cognition than NHW for all age groups (51–59, 60–69, 70–79, 80+). Hispanics had higher cognition than NHB for all age groups but these differences were all within one point. The lower cognition among NHB compared to NHW remained significant after controlling for age, gender, and education, whereas the differences in cognition between Hispanics and NHW were no longer significant after controlling for these covariates. Cognitive scores increased with greater educational attainment for all race/ethnic groups, but Hispanics exhibited the least benefit. Discussion Our results highlight the role of education in race/ethnic differences in cognitive function during old age. Education seems beneficial for cognition in old age for all race/ethnic groups, but Hispanics appear to receive a lower benefit compared to other race/ethnic groups. Further research is needed on the racial and ethnic differences in the pathways of the benefits of educational attainment for late-life cognitive function. PMID:26766788
This pack challenges ignorance about racial diversity in England by encouraging activities that shed light on the recent past and the society in which young people in Britain live. The exercises in this book invite young people to explore ethnic and cultural diversity in Britain. They are designed to show that ethnic diversity is good and…
De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants.
Rideaux, Tiffany; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Fernandez, Senaida; O'Hara, Ruth
To address the growing need for ethnically unbiased cognitive screening, we examined whether the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), the abbreviated Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME), or a combination of the two provided optimal detection of dementia in an ethnically diverse group of older adults with no cognitive impairment (normal); cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND); and dementia. Participants included 509 Caucasians, 124 African Americans, and 68 Latinos (>70 years old) from the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study who completed the MMSE and FOME. Empirically derived decision trees were computed using signal detection software for receiver operator characteristics (ROC). Among the three ethnic groups, ROC analyses revealed that lower scores on both the MMSE and FOME provided better detection of CIND or dementia. Sensitivity and specificity of the MMSE was augmented by the addition of the FOME among Caucasian and African American older adults. The MMSE alone was the best screen in Latino older adults to distinguish any cognitive impairment from normal. When comparing CIND versus dementia, however, the FOME alone was best for detecting dementia among Latinos. The abbreviated FOME is recommended to increase clinical validity and thus minimize ethnic biases when administering the MMSE to Caucasian and African American older adults. The MMSE alone is preferred for older Latinos unless comparing CIND and dementia, in which case the FOME alone would then be recommended. Findings suggest that ethnicity is important in the selection of an appropriate cognitive screen and cut-score to use with older adults.
Kenny, Maureen E.; Stryker, Sonia
Examined social network characteristics of 218 college freshmen. Subjects were of European American descent or of ethnically and racially diverse backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, Native American and Asian American). The study associated social adjustment with family support characteristics for the racially and ethnically diverse students…
Dale, Brittany A.; Finch, Maria HernÁndez; Mcintosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Finch, W. Holmes
Current research on the use of revisions of intelligence measures with ethnically diverse populations and younger children is limited. The present study investigated the utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), with an ethnically diverse preschool sample. African American and Caucasian preschoolers, matched on age,…
Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Glycemic control is a predictor of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about how well older adults in rural communities, with limited access to self-care resources and specialty care practitioners, control their diabetes. Even less is known about whether minority, older, rural adults are at increased risk for poor glycemic control. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected older (≥65 years) adults with type 2 diabetes in rural North Carolina. Participants (N=693) were men and women from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. Capillary blood samples were collected for HbA1C analysis. HbA1C levels (<7%, 7%–<8%, and ≥8%) were compared across ethnic and gender groups. Two multiple logistic regression models (model 1: personal characteristics; model 2: personal and health characteristics) were used to evaluate potential predictors of HbA1C ≥7%. Overall, 36.4% had HbA1C ≥7%. Native Americans and African-American men had the highest proportion at levels of poor glycemic control (≥7%), and African-American women and White men had the lowest. In bivariate analysis, ethnicity, living arrangements, use of medications for diabetes, having a diabetes-related healthcare visit in the past year, and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with glycemic control. In multivariate analysis (model 1), being Native American, having low income without Medicaid, and being married were associated with poor glycemic control. Adding health characteristics (model 2), longer diabetes duration and diabetes medication therapy were significant predictors. These data indicate that older ethnic minorities in rural communities are at increased risk for diabetes complications and need diabetes management strategies to improve glycemic control. PMID:16259490
Thelusma, Naomi; Ralston, Penny
Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists’ involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices. PMID:27199580
Umezawa, Yoshiko; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C.
Background Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. Objectives This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Methods Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Results Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Conclusions Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients. PMID:22529040
Burrow, Anthony L; Hill, Patrick L
Many individuals feel socially isolated and distressed in ethnically diverse settings. Purpose in life may buffer this form of distress by fostering one's sense of having a meaningful direction, which may also be of significance to others. In two experience-sampling studies with ethnically diverse participants, we examined associations between the ethnic composition of urban trains and passenger distress, and tested purpose as a moderator of these relationships. Study 1 showed that participants of all ethnic backgrounds reported greater negative mood when the percentage of ethnic out-group members aboard their train increased. However, individual differences in purpose significantly attenuated this effect. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings experimentally by showing that relative to a control condition, briefly writing about purpose prior to boarding trains also diminished the impact of ethnic composition on negative mood. The discussion addresses strategies for promoting positive adjustment in our increasingly diverse society.
Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S
Emerging research suggests that ethnic identity and American identity are associated with mental health in ethnic minorities and European Americans, respectively. Furthermore, although ethnic identity is associated with diminished body dissatisfaction in minority women, the relationship between American identity and body dissatisfaction is unexplored in all ethnic groups. Accordingly, this study examined the relationships among ethnic identity, American identity, thin-ideal internalization, pressures for thinness, and body dissatisfaction in 1018 ethnically diverse college women. Ethnic identity negatively predicted body dissatisfaction for African Americans, and attenuated the relationship between pressures for thinness and body dissatisfaction for African Americans and Asian Americans, but not European Americans or Latina Americans. Results for American identity were inconclusive. Findings suggest that ethnic identity may be a protective factor against eating pathology for Asian American and African American women.
Qato, Dima M.; Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Conti, Rena M.; Schumm, L. Philip; Alexander, G. Caleb
SUMMARY Background Despite persistent racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older adults, information on whether there are similar disparities in the use of prescription and over-the-counter medications to prevent such disease is limited. We examined racial and ethnic disparities in the use of statins and aspirin among older adults at low, moderate, and high risk for CVD. Methods and Results In-home interviews, including a medication inventory, were administered between June 2005 and March 2006 to 3005 community-residing individuals, ages 57–85 years, drawn from a cross-sectional, nationally-representative probability sample of the United States. Based on a modified version of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) risk stratification guidelines, 1066 respondents were at high cardiovascular risk, 977 were at moderate risk, and 812 were at low risk. Rates of use were highest among respondents at high cardiovascular risk. Racial differences were highest among respondents at high risk with blacks less likely than whites to use statins (38% vs. 50%, p = 0.007) and aspirin (29% vs. 44%, p = 0.008). After controlling for age, gender, comorbidity, and socioeconomic, and access to care factors, racial/ethnic disparities persisted. In particular, blacks at highest risk were less likely than their white counterparts to use statins (odds ratio (OR) 0.65, confidence interval (CI) 0.46–0.90) or aspirin (OR 0.61, CI 0.37–0.98). Conclusions These results, based on an in-home survey of actual medication use, suggest widespread underuse of indicated preventive therapies among older adults at high cardiovascular risk in the United States. Racial/ethnic disparities in such use may contribute to documented disparities in cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:20681002
Park, Julie J.; Denson, Nida
In order to better understand faculty attitudes towards diversity, specifically racial/ethnic diversity, the authors created a composite variable that taps into a variety of faculty attitudes towards diversity including their commitments to promoting racial understanding and their views on the role of diversity in undergraduate education. The…
Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; McFarlane, Sandra; Koijane, Jeannette; Li, Dongmei
Between 2013 and 2030, older adults 65 years and older of racial/ethnic populations in the U.S. is projected to increase by 123% in comparison to the Whites (Non-Hispanics). To meet this demand, training of ethnically diverse health staff in long-term care facilities in palliative and hospice care is imperative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a palliative and hospice care training of staff in two nursing homes in Hawaii - (a) to evaluate knowledge and confidence over three time periods, and (b) to compare staff and family caregiver satisfaction at end of program. The educational frameworks were based on cultural and communication theories. Fifty-two ethnically diverse staff, a majority being Asian (89%), participated in a 10-week module training and one 4 hour communication skills workshop. Staff evaluation included knowledge and confidence surveys, pre- and post-test knowledge tests, and FAMCARE-2 satisfaction instrument. There were nine Asian (89%) and Pacific Islander (11%) family caregivers who completed the FAMCARE-2 satisfaction instrument. The overall staff knowledge and confidence results were promising. The staff rated overall satisfaction of palliative care services lower than the family caregivers. Implications for future research, practice, and education with palliative and hospice care training of ethnically diverse nursing home staff is to include patient and family caregiver satisfaction of palliative and hospice care services, evaluation of effectiveness of cross-cultural communication theories in palliative and hospice care staff training, and support from administration for mentorship and development of these services in long term care facilities.
Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.
Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer
The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual characteristics of ethnicity/race, ethnic identity, gender, and ecological context. Quantitative results reveal that White female and Hispanic and African American male students exhibit strong ethnic identity that correlates positively with school attitude; however, qualitative results indicate very different paths in getting to those outcomes. Hispanic students appear to benefit from a strong ethnic identity that assists with positive relationships at school, while African American male students utilize parental cultural socialization as a protective function in school. The results emphasize the implications of positive school climates for all students. PMID:25866457
Miyawaki, Christina E.
This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice. PMID:26229736
Burrow, Anthony L; Stanley, Maclen; Sumner, Rachel; Hill, Patrick L
Emerging demographic trends signal that White Americans will soon relinquish their majority status. As Whites' acclimation to an increasingly diverse society is poised to figure prominently in their adjustment, identifying sources of greater comfort with diversity is important. Three studies (N = 519) revealed evidence that purpose in life bolsters comfort with ethnic diversity among White adults. Specifically, dispositional purpose was positively related to diversity attitudes and attenuated feelings of threat resulting from viewing demographic projections of greater diversity. In addition, when primed experimentally, purpose attenuated participants' preferences for living in an ethnically homogeneous-White city, relative to a more diverse city when shown maps displaying ethno-demographic information. These effects persisted after controlling for positive affect and perceived connections to ethnic out-groups, suggesting the robust influence of purpose. Potential benefits of situating purpose as a unique resource for navigating an increasingly diverse society are discussed.
Park, Julie J.; Kim, Young K.
This article examines how peer interactions in college organizations (Greek, ethnic, and religious) affect interracial friendships, including whether peer interaction in student organizations mediates the relationship between structural diversity and interracial friendship. Involvement in ethnic student organizations was non-significant;…
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer
The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the…
Dunac, Patricia S.; Demir, Kadir
The racial and ethnic makeup of the United States is in constant flux and is expected to experience substantial increases in racial and ethnic diversity over the next four decades. The problem the American educational system faces is attempting to problematize race/racism in its educational system and creating a system to counteract educational…
Obi, Sunday O.
For many ethnically diverse students with learning disabilities, participation in postsecondary education is necessary. However, to achieve this goal, a comprehensive transition planning is essential. As a consequence, postsecondary personnel must collaborate with others to ensure nondiscriminatory but sensible treatment of ethnically diverse…
Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.
Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…
Dornheim, Liane; Ramnath, R.; Gomez, C.; von Harscher, H.; Pellegrini, A.
This study examined psychometric properties of the MCCI (Millon College Counseling Inventory) (T. Millon, Strack, C. Millon, & Grossman, 2006), as applied to students from ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds. The sample (N = 209, Mean age = 23.81, 74% identified as ethnic minority) was derived from students presented for counseling…
Cultural differences enhance the wonder of camp. Tips for reaching diverse populations include emphasizing multicultural programming in promotional materials, distributing flyers in diverse neighborhoods, having diverse staff, advertising on radio stations popular with ethnic communities, offering scholarships, advertising through national ethnic…
Murli, N L; Navin, I D
Chronic venous disorders range from telangiactasia or spider veins to varicose veins, venous swellings, skin changes and venous ulcerations. The aim of this study is to assess outcome of varicose vein surgery in the ethnically diverse population of Penang, Malaysia. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients seen from 1999 to 2004. All patients who presented to the outpatient clinic of our surgical department with saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) and/or saphenopopliteal junction (SPJ) reflux associated with incompetence of the great saphenous vein (GSV) or small saphenous vein (SSV) respectively underwent classical varicose varicose vein surgery. A single surgeon at a single institution performed the surgeries. Data from pre-operative, post-operative and follow-up procedures were recorded in case report forms. A total of 202 cases were treated. Of these, 200 were qualified by the inclusion criteria and follow-ups, with 23 who were treated bilaterally. Of those treated, Chinese comprised 47.5%, Indians 27.0%, Malays 12.5% and foreigners 13.0% (largely Indonesian Chinese, British and Americans). The average age was 52.1 years. Indians had the highest average BMI of 29.2, compared to the Chinese who had the lowest of 24.6. Based on occupation, housewives (43.0%), blue collar workers (19.0%), salespersons (12.0%) and factory workers (9.5%) were among those afflicted with varicose veins. While local Chinese predominated in the business groups (salespersons and food-related workers), the Indians and Malays in this study were mainly factory workers and/or blue collar workers. Symptomatology in descending order of severity included pain in 80.0% of cases, swelling in 65.5%, heaviness in 53.5%, cramps in 53.0%, lipodermatosclerosis in 39.0%, superficial thrombophlebitis in 33.5%, venous ulceration in 32.0%, eczema 22.0% and cellulitis in 12.5% of patients. Post surgery pains dropped to 9.9%, cramps 6.4%, heaviness 5.5% and swelling 5.3% (p<0.0001 in all groups
Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R
This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations between cross-racial/ethnic friendships and relative changes in forms of peer victimization or peer support and the roles of classroom diversity and sociometric status (i.e., social preference) in these associations. A total of 444 children (age range: 9-10 years) from racially/ethnically diverse elementary schools participated in this study. Results demonstrated that cross-racial/ethnic friendships (but not same-racial/ethnic friendships) uniquely predicted relative decreases in relational victimization. Further, classroom diversity moderated the relations of cross-racial/ethnic friendships with relative decreases in physical victimization and relative increases in peer support, such that these relations were stronger for children in highly diverse classrooms. Finally, social preference mediated the association between cross-racial/ethnic friendships and relative decreases in relational victimization. The associations among cross-racial/ethnic friendships, same-racial/ethnic friendships, social experiences with peers, and classroom diversity are discussed.
Zajac, Lynne K.
The nursing profession is calling for enhanced diversity within the ranks of registered nurses to meet the health care needs of an increasingly diverse society. Nursing education is faced with the challenge of retaining ethnically diverse nursing students. Students who are ethnically diverse face unique challenges in addition to the universal…
Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell
The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.
Connecticut State Board of Governors for Higher Education, Hartford.
This report describes progress made on Connecticut's strategic plan to ensure racial and ethnic diversity. Connecticut's public colleges and universities are becoming more diverse every year, and 2001 was no exception. The overall numbers of students, graduates, and professional employees from minority groups are higher than ever, although…
The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…
Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn
This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…
McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.
Extensive information is provided about the various cultural elements, including attitudes toward education and work, that different family groups have drawn on in order to exist in the United States today. The family ethnicities of five distinct cultures (Native American, African American, Mexican American and Spanish origin, Muslim American, and…
Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.
An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…
McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of
Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N
Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, heterogeneity was attenuated (p = 0.05) with BMI among all US-born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.
Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Ju-Young; Ko, Jisook; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Kim, Kim B; Jang, Yuri
The present study was undertaken to investigate potential sources of response bias in empirical research involving older ethnic minorities and to identify prudent strategies to reduce those biases, using Korean American elderly (KAE) as an example. Data were obtained from three independent studies of KAE (N = 1,297; age ≥60) in three states (Florida, New York, and Maryland) from 2000 to 2008. Two common measures, Pearlin's Mastery Scale and the CES-D scale, were selected for a series of psychometric tests based on classical measurement theory. Survey items were analyzed in depth, using psychometric properties generated from both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis as well as correlational analysis. Two types of potential sources of bias were identified as the most significant contributors to increases in error variances for these psychological instruments. Error variances were most prominent when (1) items were not presented in a manner that was culturally or contextually congruent with respect to the target population and/or (2) the response anchors for items were mixed (e.g., positive vs. negative). The systemic patterns and magnitudes of the biases were also cross-validated for the three studies. The results demonstrate sources and impacts of measurement biases in studies of older ethnic minorities. The identified response biases highlight the need for re-evaluation of current measurement practices, which are based on traditional recommendations that response anchors should be mixed or that the original wording of instruments should be rigidly followed. Specifically, systematic guidelines for accommodating cultural and contextual backgrounds into instrument design are warranted.
Nakamura, Nadine; Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Zárate, Michael A
Introduces the current special issue of the journal, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. This special issue focuses on the topic of immigration and highlights the important within group differences often overlooked when immigrants are conceptualized as a homogeneous group. The articles in this journal consider a variety of microsystems, such as educational settings, ethnic and gay communities, and communities with anti-immigration laws.
Nam, Hae-Sung; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Zmuda, Joseph M; Leung, P C; Lui, Li-Yung; Hill, Deanna D; Patrick, Alan L; Cauley, Jane A
The epidemiologic information regarding international differences in bone mineral density (BMD) in women is currently insufficient. We compared BMD in older women across five racial/ethnic groups in four countries. The femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine BMD were measured in women (aged 65-74 years) from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) (5,035 Caucasian women and 256 African American women in the US), the Tobago Women's Health Study (116 Afro-Caribbean women), the Ms Os Hong Kong Study (794 Hong Kong Chinese women) and the Namwon Study (1,377 South Korean women). BMD was corrected according to the cross-site calibration results for all scanners. When compared with US Caucasian women, the age adjusted mean BMD measurements at the hip sites were 21-31 % higher among Tobago Afro-Caribbean women and 13-23 % higher among African American women. The total hip and spine BMD values were 4-5 % lower among Hong Kong Chinese women and 4-7 % lower among South Korean women compared to US Caucasians. The femoral neck BMD was similar in Hong Kong Chinese women, but higher among South Korean women compared to US Caucasians. Current/past estrogen use was a significant contributing factor to the difference in BMD between US versus non-US women. Differences in body weight partially explained the difference in BMD between Asian versus non-Asian women. These findings show substantial racial/ethnic differences in BMD even within African or Asian origin individuals, and highlight the contributing role of body weight and estrogen use to the geographic and racial/ethnic variation in BMD.
Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.
We examined beliefs about intergenerational responsibilities to assist older kin with a national sample of 362 Latinos, 492 African Americans, 121 Asian Americans, and 2,122 White European Americans using multiple-segment factorial vignettes. More similarities than differences existed between ethnic groups, but Asian Americans and African…
Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin
Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women.
Kuentzel, Jeffrey G; Arble, Eamonn; Boutros, Nashaat; Chugani, Diane; Barnett, Douglas
Self-report data pertaining to Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI; e.g., cutting) were collected from 5,691 undergraduates at a Midwestern urban university. Consistent with the small literature on NSSI among college students, 12.8% of the sample indicated having engaged in NSSI at least once (3.4% in the past year). Women and younger students were at slightly higher risk. Important ethnic differences were found, as Caucasians and individuals self-identifying as Multiracial were at especially high risk for a history of NSSI, whereas Arab Americans and African Americans had particularly low rates. Further, links between NSSI and religion were found, such that participants with stronger self-reported religious convictions had the lowest rates of NSSI. Those who self-described as Atheist, Agnostic, or Nonbeliever were several times more likely to have engaged in NSSI (31.3%), while Muslims (7.4%) and Baptists (6.3%) had relatively low rates. Multivariate analyses revealed that ethnic differences in NSSI could not be accounted for by religious differences. Processes that may explain the associations between NSSI and ethnic affiliation and religion are discussed.
Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K; Chemers, Martin M; Zurbriggen, Eileen L
This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age = 15.82) attending a 4-week science education program. Cluster analyses indicated that at Time 1, underrepresented ethnic minorities were more often in the cluster defined by feelings of importance of having a matched-background mentor but not having much contact. Perceptions of contact increased over time for these students and were associated with increased feelings of identity as a science student. The results suggest the need for attending to individual differences in students' preferences for matched-background mentors.
Clark, Melissa A.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Allen, Susan M.
We document the methodological challenges of conducting a health survey of an ethnically diverse elderly community-dwelling Medicaid population by telephone. Individuals (N=5,382) 65 years and older were randomly selected from a state Medicaid Management Information System and 618 eligible participants were interviewed. Participants were classified as non-Hispanic White, English-speaking (NHW-E; 69.2%), non-Hispanic Black, English-speaking (NHB-E; 6.2%), Hispanic, Spanish-speaking (H-S; 9.2%), and Hispanic, English-speaking (H-E; 4.2%). Almost half (44.2%) of the individuals sampled were unreachable, most often because of no valid telephone number. More interviewer time was required to reach and interview Hispanic participants. On average, interviews with H-S and H-E were 11 and 8 minutes longer, respectively, than with NHW-E. Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents reported very high rates of receipt of preventive services relative to the other groups. These high rates by Spanish-speakers may be due to actual greater utilization or biases in self-reported data due to response style differences. PMID:21099081
Janmaat, Jan Germen
There is a widespread belief in educational circles that ethnically mixed schools contribute to inter-ethnic tolerance and community cohesion by making sustained inter-ethnic contact possible. This research explores the relation between classroom ethno-racial diversity and civic attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany using data from the…
Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Utley, Cheryl A., Ed.
This issue of "Multiple Voices" contains the following articles: (1) "A Self-Study of Diversity: Preservice Teachers' Beliefs Revealed through Classroom Practices" (Donna M. Sobel and others), which presents the results of seven preservice teachers' self-study that reveals ways in which the teachers' beliefs regarding diversity issues were…
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Koehn, Sharon D; Mahmood, Atiya N; Stott-Eveneshen, Sarah
This pilot project asked: How do ethnically diverse older adult residents of assisted living (AL) facilities in British Columbia (BC) experience quality of life? And, what role, if any, do organizational and physical environmental features play in influencing how quality of life is experienced? The study was conducted at three AL sites in BC: two ethnoculturally targeted and one nontargeted. Environmental audits at each site captured descriptive data on policies, fees, rules, staffing, meals, and activities, and the built environment of the AL building and neighborhood. Using a framework that understands the quality of life of older adults to be contingent on their capability to pursue 5 conceptual attributes-attachment, role, enjoyment, security, and control-we conducted 3 focus groups with residents (1 per site) and 6 interviews with staff (2 per site). Attributes were linked to the environmental features captured in the audits. All dimensions of the environment, especially organizational, influence tenants' capability to attain the attributes of quality of life, most importantly control. Although many tenants accept the trade-off between increased safety and diminished control that accompanies a move into AL, more could be done to minimize that loss. Social workers can advocate for the necessary multi-sectoral changes.
Miyawaki, Christina E
Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health
MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.
Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health
Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna
What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development.
Cheney, Ann M
In this article, I present the findings from an ethnographic study of 18 women college students living in the northeastern United States. I examine how ethnically diverse women dealt with the messages of the dominant White society's obsession with thinness, and whether it affected their perceptions of an ideal body image. From the analysis of the interviews, I identified and extracted several themes related to ethnicity, aesthetic body ideals, body dissatisfaction, and disturbed eating. Grounded in the women's narratives, I found that ethnically diverse women coming of age in American society experience anxieties and emotional stress as they related to others in their daily lives. Their stories shed light on how the body is a vehicle for social mobility and is used by women from marginalized identities to strategically negotiate social inequalities embedded in daily social relationships and interactions that more privileged women do not encounter.
Rodríguez, Michael; Valentine, Jeanette M.; Son, John B.; Muhammad, Marjani
Ethnically diverse populations of women, particularly survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), experience many barriers to mental health care. The search terms “women” and “domestic violence or IPV” and “mental health care” were used as a means to review the literature regarding barriers to mental health care and minority women. Abstracts chosen for further review included research studies with findings on women of one or more ethnic minority groups, potential barriers to accessing mental health care and a non-exclusive focus on IPV. Fifty-six articles were selected for this review. Identified barriers included a variety of patient, provider, and health system/ community factors. Attention to the barriers to mental health care for ethnically diverse survivors of IPV can help inform the development of more effective strategies for health care practice and policy. PMID:19638359
Shannon, David; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shores, Melanie
The purpose of this study was to explore the learning strategies used by ethnically diverse learners and to investigate the relationships among the constructs of classroom goal structure, achievement goal orientation, motivation and self-regulated learning in an ethnically diverse population of fourth and fifth grade learners (n = 396). Goal…
Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John
Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…
Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.
Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura; Gomez, Kenia; Jorgenson, Katherine; Luginbuhl, Paula; Moallem, Isabel; Steele, John C.
This study examines stressors, general stress levels, coping strategies, and subjective well-being in a sample of 144 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents (mean age of 13). The most frequently reported stressors include the death of a family member, feeling socially isolated, family financial problems, injury of a family member, and parents…
Dunham, Jessica Barfield
Treatment for adolescent problem behavior has been given extensive attention in the literature due to the serious nature of the problem and the potential risk to others and the community. As the needs of an increasingly diverse juvenile population intensify and mounting evidence suggests ethnic minority youth receive disparate treatment across…
assessments of both the patient and the nurse (Charonko, 1992). Transcultural Nursing Madeleine Leininger (1991), in an effort to improve health care to...ethnically diverse clients, stresses the importance of considering cultural needs among patients. The founder of transcultural nursing, Leininger ...other health care services (1991) . Leininger describes transcultural nursing as a blend of nursing and anthropology which attempts to help nurses
The objective of our study was to examine the relationship between BMI and beta-cell function at diagnosis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a large group of ethnically diverse children. Cross-sectional analysis of 524 children (60.8% White, 19.5% Hispanic, 14.5% African-American, 5.2% other n...
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth-grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three US stat...
Beard, Kenya V.
Racial and ethnic health care disparities continue to plague the United States, placing a tremendous personal and societal burden on individuals. A culturally diverse nursing work force can help eliminate these disparities and improve the quality of health care that is delivered. However, the nursing profession does not reflect the nation's…
Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.
Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.
Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…
Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen
Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…
Coleman, L.; Testa, A.
This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…
Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John
One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…
Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela
We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on…
National Academies Press, 2014
"Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…
Griffin, Kimberly A.; Cunningham, Emil L.; George Mwangi, Chrystal A.
This qualitative study addresses the potential range of perspectives within the Black student community, focusing specifically on differences by ethnicity and nativity. Narratives were collected from 43 Black students (15 native, 28 immigrants) enrolled at a predominantly White research institution, analyzing their perspectives on diversity and…
Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie
There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy, with a particular need to increase the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in educational programs. In a sample of 16 art therapy program directors, strategies and barriers to recruitment were identified through an anonymous online survey. The results of the survey…
Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha
The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…
Dryden-Peterson, Sarah; Mulimbi, Bethany
This study examines how education can disrupt threats of conflict, specifically in the presence of ethnic diversity. We present a historical analysis of Botswana, using methods of process tracing drawing on documents, in-depth interviews, and Afrobarometer survey data. Postindependence Botswana engaged in redistribution of educational access…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Romano, Maria
Shortages of school psychologists and the underrepresentation of minorities in school psychology represent longstanding concerns. Scholars recommend that one way to address both issues is to recruit individuals from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds into school psychology. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics and…
Bjarkman, Peter C.
Reviews the participation of various ethnic groups in baseball, and suggests that librarians and teachers can explore the richness and diversity of the American immigrant experience through the growing world of baseball nonfiction. The high-interest material of baseball literature portrays the vibrant and evolving American society. (SLD)
Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R
The present study examined direct and interactive links between friendships and social, academic, and psychological adjustment problems (i.e., peer rejection as nominated by same-ethnic and cross-ethnic peers, teacher-reported academic engagement, and teacher-reported internalizing symptoms) among school-age children in multiethnic schools (n = 509, age: 9-10). The data, which included 2 time points with a 6-month interval, were drawn from a relatively large-sized, short-term longitudinal study. Results showed that cross-ethnic friendships (not same-ethnic friendships) were associated with greater academic engagement concurrently and predated decreased peer rejection and internalizing symptoms longitudinally, even after controlling for the availability of same-ethnic peers and classroom diversity. Furthermore, cross-ethnic friendships (not same-ethnic friendships) moderated the link between relational victimization and increased peer rejection and greater internalizing symptoms, such that this link was evidenced for children with fewer cross-ethnic friendships. However, the moderation effect was contingent upon the type of outcome variables and the ethnicity of the child. For example, the buffering effect against the negative contribution of relational victimization to internalizing symptoms was found particularly for African American children. The findings are discussed based on theories of normative development, ethnic socialization, and intergroup relations.
Ford, Bridgie Alexis, Ed.
This publication is designed to address new paradigms such as research, policies, and daily school practices which tend to reduce or perpetuate inequities in educational opportunities for culturally and linguistically diverse individuals with disabilities and/or gifts and talents. This particular issue includes articles that discuss referrals of…
Ruggieri, Colleen A.
Notes there are many resources available that will stimulate student thinking about the diverse people in the world. Considers Esmeralda Santiago's "When I Was Puerto Rican," and notes how it provides a great tool for helping high school students explore their understanding and appreciation of the emerging Hispanic culture. (SG)
The immediate goal of the workshop was to elevate and identify issues and challenges that have impeded participation of diverse individuals in MSE. The longerterm goals are to continue forward by gathering and disseminating data, launching and tracking initiatives to mitigate the impediments, and increase the number of diverse individuals pursuing degrees and careers in MSE. The larger goal, however, is to create over time an ever-increasing number of role models in science fields who will, in turn, draw others in to contribute to the workforce of the future.
Min, Sookweon; Goff, Peter T.
This study examines how a school's capacity for institutional diversity relates to student achievement in socio-economically, ethnically, and linguistically diverse schools. It also investigates whether various student groups benefit differently from a school's level of student diversity and its institutional capacity for diversity. Using data…
Giunta, Nancy; Morano, Carmen; Parikh, Nina S; Friedman, Dana; Fahs, Marianne C; Gallo, William T
The 2008 Health Indicators Project surveyed a probability sample (N = 1,870) of New York City senior center participants. Attendees of racially and ethnically diverse and nondiverse senior centers were compared across 5 domains: demographics; health and quality of life; social support networks; neighborhood perceptions and engagement; health service access/utilization. Although homogeneous and diverse center participants demonstrate similar health and quality-of-life outcomes, those from diverse centers demonstrate greater risk of social isolation, receive less family support, and more likely seek medical care from hospitals or community clinics. Implications and future directions for research, practice and policy are discussed.
Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Chavez, Marisol; Bull, Sheana
Foreign-born youth have a lower risk of sexual initiation than native born youth, yet most research has focused on Latinos. An ethnically diverse sample of 200, 14-21 year-old youth were surveyed in Denver in 2014. We used logistic regression models to predict the odds of intentions to have sex and sexual experience, adding covariates that could account for differences in outcomes by immigrant generation. First generation youth were less likely to intend to have sex and to have sexual experience than third generation youth after controlling for racial/ethnic group, suggesting that first generation immigrants of multiple racial/ethnic groups, not just Latinos alone, have a lower risk for sexual initiation. Having a supportive community reduced the odds of sexual intentions and sexual experience. Our findings support future research using a larger sample of black, white, and Asian immigrant youth to corroborate and to explore reasons behind these associations.
Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Dubanoski, Joan P.
Objectives To evaluate ethnic group differences in the association between trauma exposure and health status among an ethnically diverse sample originating in Hawai‘i. Design Across a ten-year period (1998–2008), participants (N = 833) completed five waves of questionnaire assessments. Trauma exposure was measured retrospectively at the most recent assessment (wave 5), socioeconomic resources (educational attainment and employment status) were measured at wave 1, and self-rated health was measured at each of the five waves. Results Results indicated that greater exposure to trauma was associated with poorer self-rated health, as were lower educational attainment and lower work status. In addition there was ethnic group variation in health ratings, as well as in how strongly trauma exposure predicted health status. Specifically, within Filipino American and Native Hawaiian ethnic groups, there was a stronger negative association between trauma exposure and self-rated health. Conclusion These results suggest complex interrelations among trauma, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical health. Further understanding these relations may have implications for medical and behavioral interventions in vulnerable populations. PMID:22732011
Clark, Mary Jo
Obesity disproportionately affects U.S. ethnic minority preschool children, placing them at risk for obesity related co-morbidities and premature death. Effective culturally appropriate interventions are needed to improve health behaviors and reduce obesity in young high-risk minority children, while their behaviors are still developing. All known obesity intervention studies (e.g., diet and physical activity) since 2000 targeting U.S. ethnic minority preschool children were reviewed. Five electronic databases and eight published literature reviews were used to identify the studies. Intervention studies without identified ethnic minority participants were excluded. Ten obesity interventions studies met the review criteria. Published cultural adaptation guidelines were used to develop a mechanism to analyze, score, and rank the intervention adaptations. Cultural adaptations varied widely in rigor, depth, and breadth. Results indicated a relative absence of appropriately adapted obesity interventions for ethnic minority groups, suggesting a need for more rigorous cultural adaptation guidelines when designing obesity interventions for diverse ethnicities. Culturally appropriate adaptations appeared to enhance intervention relevance, effectiveness, and feasibility. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate 1) the type and extent of cultural adaptations strategies applied to the interventions, and 2) how these adaptations related to the study outcomes. PMID:24159268
McTigue, Kathleen M.; Bost, James E.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Vitolins, Mara; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Sarto, Gloria E.; Hays-Grudo, Jennifer; Manson, JoAnn E.; Kuller, Lewis H.
Abstract Background Studies of weight and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) generally focus on white populations. This analysis examines the association between clinical weight categories and physical HRQOL in five racial/ethnic groups of older women and determines the extent to which emotional/psychological (social support, caregiver burden) and physical health (diabetes, osteoarthritis) factors modify this relationship. Methods The cross-sectional analysis, completed in 2007, used baseline data from postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) during the 5-year recruitment period (1993–1998). Results Of 161,393 women, 83% were non-Hispanic white, 9% were African American, 4% were Hispanic/Latina, 3% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and <1% were American Indian/Alaska Native. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) was most common in non-Asian minority groups. Regression modeling showed higher odds of poor physical HRQOL with increasing weight category in all groups. In the total sample, these odds were at least 6 times as high in women with class 3 obesity as in women of normal weight and were only mildly attenuated after the analysis adjusted for emotional/psychological factors. Further adjustment for physical health factors made odds ratio (OR) estimates drop from 2.36 to 1.59 for class 1 obesity and from 6.96 to 3.71 for class 3 obesity. This pattern generally persisted within each racial/ethnic group. Conclusions Heavier weight negatively affects physical HRQOL in postmenopausal women across diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Weight-relevant physical health factors have a greater impact on this weight-HRQOL association than do emotional/psychological factors. PMID:20629574
Yoon, Saunjoo L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the racial/ethnic differences in self- reported health problems and herbal use as a self-care practice between white American and African-American older women, and between herbal users and nonusers. Two data sets collected in 1998 and 2002 were combined to perform this study. The total sample (143 participants) consisted of 85 white Americans and 58 African-American women > or = 65 years, living independently in the community. While there were statistically significant differences in education (chi-squared = 19.085, p=0.0001) and annual income (chi-squared = 21.905, p=0.0001) between white American and African-American women, no differences were found in the use of herbals between the two groups. There was a significant relationship between the number of herbals used and the number of nonprescribed medications used (gamma = 0.320, p<0.01). No relationship was detected between the number of herbals used and self-reported health problems (gamma = 0.075, p<0.01), and between the number of nonprescribed medications used and self-reported health problems (gamma = 0.047, p<0.01). White American herbal users utilized the highest number of combination products (prescribed, nonprescribed and herbals) of all. African-American herbal users indicated a higher number of combination products than African-American nonusers. Results suggested that herbals were used as a complementary rather than an alternative therapy to manage perceived health concerns in both groups. PMID:16775914
Parker, Chris; Philp, Ian
There is a well-documented tendency for cognitive tests to underestimate the abilities of older people in black and minority ethnic groups. This gives rise to a substantially higher risk of mistaken diagnosis of dementia. Reasons include differences in extent or focus of formal education, lack of familiarity with English, lack of literacy in own first language, and culture-specific factors related to individual test items. Attempts to improve the accuracy of screening for these groups have included adaptation of existing tests, including adjustment of cut-points, translation and replacement of culture-specific items. So-called 'culture-free' tests have also been developed, which are less dependent on language, literacy and other skills developed during formal education. Cultural modifications and evidence of cross-cultural performance are summarized here for traditional tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test, Abbreviated Mental Test Score, Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly), and for culture-free tests (Clock Drawing Test, Mini-Cog, 7-minute screening battery, Time and Change Test). The evidence on unadapted traditional tests shows that short ones perform at least as well as longer ones, and are more consistent across cultural and educational groups. Cut-point adjustments have not been universally found successful in improving accuracy, and do not address issues of acceptability. Translated and/or culturally adapted versions exist for a number of tests: it is important to establish cut-points appropriate to the target populations. There are promising results on culture-free tests, which are seen as less threatening and require little language interpretation, but they require further evaluation.
Figueroa, Caroline A; Rassam, Fadi; Spong, Karin S
In April 2012, 20 medical students took part in a study tour to San Francisco, themed 'ethnic diversity in health care'. In this article we discuss four lessons learned from the perspective of these students. The delivery of culturally sensitive healthcare is becoming more important in the Netherlands as the ethnic minority population rate will continue to grow over the coming years. However, diversity education is not a structural component of medical curricula in the Netherlands to the same degree as in the USA where medical education pays a lot of attention to differences in health between ethnic minorities; and where there is also extensive research on this subject. We emphasize that diversity education should create awareness of differences in health outcomes between ethnic groups and awareness of one's own bias and stereotypical views. The implementation of diversity education is a challenge, which requires a change of image and the involvement of teachers from diverse medical disciplines.
Lopez, Enrique J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Szu, Evan; Penn, John
This study sought to identify ethnically diverse students' study strategies in organic chemistry and their relationships to course outcomes. Study diaries, concept maps, and problem sets were used to assess study outcomes. Findings show that students engage in four commonly used reviewing-type strategies, regardless of ethnic group affiliation.…
Nápoles-Springer, Anna M; Santoyo, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L
BACKGROUND Limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of recruitment methods among diverse populations. OBKECTIVE Describe response rates by recruitment stage, ethnic-language group, and type of initial contact letter (for African-American and Latino patients). DESIGN Tracking of response status by recruitment stage and ethnic-language group and a randomized trial of ethnically tailored initial letters nested within a cross-sectional telephone survey on physician-patient communication. PARTICIPANTS Adult general medicine patients with ≥1 visit during the preceding year, stratified by 4 categories: African-American (N= 1,400), English-speaking Latino (N= 894), Spanish-speaking Latino (N= 965), and non-Latino white (N= 1,400). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Ethnically tailored initial letters referred to shortages of African-American (or Latino) physicians and the need to learn about the experiences of African-American (or Latino) patients communicating with physicians. Of 2,482 patients contacted, eligible, and able to participate (identified eligibles), 69.9% completed the survey. Thirty-nine percent of the sampling frame was unable to be contacted, with losses higher among non-Latino whites (46.5%) and African Americans (44.2%) than among English-speaking (32.3%) and Spanish-speaking Latinos (25.1%). For identified eligibles, response rates were highest among Spanish-speaking Latinos (75.2%), lowest for non-Latino whites (66.4%), and intermediate for African Americans (69.7%) and English-speaking Latinos (68.1%). There were no differences in overall response rates between patients receiving ethnically tailored letters (72.2%) and those receiving general letters (70.0%). CONCLUSIONS Household contact and individual response rates differed by ethnic-language group, highlighting the importance of tracking losses by stage and subpopulation. Careful attention to recruitment yielded acceptable response rates among all groups. PMID:15963168
Archie, S.; Akhtar-Danesh, N.; Norman, R.; Malla, A.; Roy, P.; Zipursky, R. B.
Objective: To examine ethnic variations in the pathways to care for persons accessing early intervention (EI) services in Ontario. Method: The pathways to care and the duration of untreated psychosis were assessed for first-episode psychosis patients who entered specialized EI services in Ontario. The sample was assigned to the following ethnic classifications: the White (Caucasian), Black (African descent), and Asian (ancestry from the continent) groups, plus all the “other ethnicities” group. Results: There were 200 participants: 78% were male; 61% from the White, 15% Black, 13% Asian, and 11% were from the other ethnicities group. At the first point of contact, more participants used nonmedical contacts (12%), such as clergy and naturopathic healers, than psychologists (8%) or psychiatrists (7%). There were no ethnic differences for duration of untreated psychosis (median 22 weeks) or for initiation of help seeking by family/friends (53%), police (15%), or self (33%). After adjusting for relevant clinical and demographic factors, the Asian and other ethnicities groups were 4 and 3 times (respectively) more likely than the White or Black groups (P = .017) to use emergency room services as the first point of contact in the pathways to care. Participants from the Asian group experienced less involuntary hospitalizations (P = .023) than all the other groups. Yet overall, there were many more similarities than significant differences in the pathways to care. Conclusion: EI services should monitor the pathways to care for young people of diverse ethnic backgrounds to address any disparities in accessing care. PMID:18987101
Tarraf, Wassim; Jensen, Gail; González, Hector M
Access to Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) care has not been explored among older racial/ethnic minorities. We used data on adults 55-years and older from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2008-2013). We account for five features of PCMH experiences and focus on respondents self-identifying as Non-Latino White, Black, and Latino. We used regression models to examine associations between PCMH care and its domains and race/ethnicity and decomposition techniques to assess contribution to differences by predisposing, enabling and health need factors. We found low overall access and significant racial/ethnic variations in experiences of PCMH. Our results indicated strong deficiencies in access to a personal primary care physician provided healthcare. Factors contributing to differences in reported PCMH experiences relative to Whites differed by racial/ethnic grouping. Policy initiatives aimed at addressing accessibility to personal physician directed healthcare could potentially reduce racial/ethnic differences while increasing national access to PCMH care.
Adams, Mary; Bolen, Julie; Wooten, Karen; Clough, Juliana; Giles, Wayne H.; Anderson, Lynda
Objectives. To determine the optimum strategy for increasing up-to-date (UTD) levels in older Americans, while reducing disparities between White, Black, and Hispanic adults, aged 65 years and older. Methods. Data were analyzed from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, quantifying the proportion of older Americans UTD with influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations, mammograms, Papanicolaou tests, and colorectal cancer screening. A comparison of projected changes in UTD levels and disparities was ascertained by numerically accounting for UTD adults lacking 1 or more clinical preventive services (CPS). Analyses were performed by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. Expanded provision of specific vaccinations and screenings each increased UTD levels. When those needing only vaccinations were immunized, there was a projected decrease in racial/ethnic disparities in UTD levels (2.3%–12.2%). When those needing only colorectal cancer screening, mammography, or Papanicolaou test were screened, there was an increase in UTD disparities (1.6%–4.5%). Conclusions. A primary care and public health focus on adult immunizations, in addition to other CPS, offers an effective strategy to reduce disparities while improving UTD levels. PMID:22698041
Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline
A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers.
Cecchi, Alana C.; Guo, Dongchuan; Ren, Zhao; Flynn, Kelly; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Wang, Gao T.; Regalado, Ellen S.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J.; Grotta, James C.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Milewicz, Dianna M.
Background and Purpose Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous cerebrovascular disease resulting from occlusion of the distal internal carotid arteries. A variant in the Ring Finger 213 gene (RNF213), altering arginine at position 4810 (p.R4810K), is associated with MMD in Asian populations. However, there is a lack of data on the role of RNF213 in MMD patients of additional ethnicities and diasporic Asian populations. We investigate the contribution of RNF213 alterations to MMD in an ethnically diverse population based in the United States (U.S). Methods We initially sequenced RNF213 exons 43, 44, 45 (encoding the eponymous RING finger domain), and exon 60 (encoding p.R4810K), in 86 ethnically diverse patients with MMD. Comprehensive exome sequencing data from 24 additional MMD patients was then analyzed to globally identify RNF213 variants. Segregation of variants with MMD and other vascular diseases was assessed in families. Results RNF213 p.R4810K was identified in 56% (9/16) of MMD patients of Asian descent, and not in 94 patients of non-Asian descent. 3.6% (4/110) of patients had variants in the exons encoding the RING finger domain. Seven additional variants were identified in 29% (7/24) of MMD patients who underwent exome sequencing. Segregation analysis supported an association with MMD for two variants, and a lack of association with disease for one variant. Conclusions These results confirm that alterations in RNF213 predispose patients of diverse ethnicities to MMD, and that the p.R4810K variant predisposes individuals of Asian descent in the U.S. to MMD. PMID:25278557
Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.
Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy. PMID:27298738
Fitch, Pamela; Racine, Andrew
To characterize the knowledge and attitudes of an ethnically diverse group of inner-city parents regarding childhood immunizations, we conducted structured telephone interviews with 102 primary caretakers at an academic ambulatory pediatric practice during the winter of 2001-2002. The sample was ethnically diverse, with 36% African-American, 41% Hispanic, and 15% white. Half the households had infants or toddlers in the home, and 36% had children with conditions placing them at high risk for influenza. Almost all parents felt that their children should be immunized against diseases in general (98%), but significant proportions also believed that children received more immunizations than necessary (23%), that immunizations could weaken a child's immune system (36%), or that the influenza vaccine could itself make a child ill (48%). Younger parents, those with infants, and parents of children at risk for complications of influenza were less likely to hold these beliefs while race/ethnicity, marital status, parent's education, or socioeconomic status could not be shown to have any effect. We conclude that many inner-city parents question the effects of childhood immunizations and hold erroneous beliefs about them irrespective of age, race, socioeconomic status, or educational background. Practitioners should address these beliefs in efforts to diminish disparities in immunization levels associated with inner-city multiethnic populations. PMID:15303409
Mullan, Joseph T; Grossman, Brian R; Hernandez, Mauro; Wong, Alice; Eversley, Rani; Harrington, Charlene
This study examined the experiences of ethnically diverse, low-income consumers of paid personal assistance services (PAS) to understand the successes and problems they faced setting up and maintaining their assistance. A thematic analysis was conducted with transcripts from eight focus groups of ethnically homogeneous consumers (n = 67): African American, Latino, Chinese, Native American, and non-Hispanic white. These experienced consumers were generally satisfied with their current PAS but noted significant difficulties: Getting access to appropriate care, obtaining enough paid care to avoid unmet need, and dealing with confusing bureaucracies and cultural differences between them and agency staff/attendants. They desired more control over their care, including the use of paid family attendants when possible. Respondents recommended improved screening and training of attendants, more attendant time, higher wages for attendants, improved cultural sensitivity of attendants and agency staff, and greater consumer control over PAS. Although these low-income PAS consumers are ethnically and geographically diverse, the similarity of findings points to their ongoing struggle to access adequate high quality assistance. The burden they have in obtaining and maintaining services is substantial.
Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland
Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.
Paves, Andrew P.; Pedersen, Eric. R.; Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
Prepartying, also known as pre-gaming, has emerged as a high-risk drinking event among U.S. college students. Research on factors related to prepartying behavior is in its relative infancy. The present study provides prevalence rates for prepartying across ethnic groups and examines how social context (whether prepartying took place with primarily male, female, or coed groups) and demographic factors may influence prepartying behavior. Participants were students from two West Coast universities (N = 2,546) whom identified as White, Asian and Pacific Islander American (APIA), Hispanic/Latino(a), or African American. The percentage of students who reported prepartying at least once in the past month, as well as the frequency and number of drinks consumed for prepartying occasions, varied by ethnic group and sex. A greater proportion of White students (60%) reported prepartying than Hispanic/Latino(a) (52%), African American (44%), and APIA (37%) students, though Hispanic/Latino(a) students who prepartied did so as often and consumed similar amounts of alcohol as White prepartiers. Across all ethnic groups, females who reported prepartying in coed groups consumed significantly more drinks than those who prepartied in primarily female groups. Finally, prepartiers within all ethnic groups consumed more drinks per week and experienced a higher number of alcohol-related consequences than non-prepartiers. The results suggest that future research and prevention programs should target prepartying and other high-risk events in at-risk students of ethnically diverse backgrounds and also consider the effects of gender in prepartying contexts on alcohol use. PMID:22464005
Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10(-7), HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10(-6)), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10(-6)), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10(-7)) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China.
Phillips, Janice M; Malone, Beverly
As nursing continues to advance health care in the 21st century, the current shift in demographics, coupled with the ongoing disparities in health care and health outcomes, will warrant our ongoing attention and action. As within all health professions, concerted efforts are needed to diversify the nation's health-care workforce. The nursing profession in particular will be challenged to recruit and retain a culturally diverse workforce that mirrors the nation's change in demographics. This increased need to enhance diversity in nursing is not new to the profession; however, the need to successfully address this issue has never been greater. This article discusses increasing the diversity in nursing and its importance in reducing health disparities. We highlight characteristics of successful recruitment and retention efforts targeting racial/ethnic minority nurses and conclude with recommendations to strengthen the development and evaluation of their contributions to eliminating health disparities.
As nursing continues to advance health care in the 21st century, the current shift in demographics, coupled with the ongoing disparities in health care and health outcomes, will warrant our ongoing attention and action. As within all health professions, concerted efforts are needed to diversify the nation's health-care workforce. The nursing profession in particular will be challenged to recruit and retain a culturally diverse workforce that mirrors the nation's change in demographics. This increased need to enhance diversity in nursing is not new to the profession; however, the need to successfully address this issue has never been greater. This article discusses increasing the diversity in nursing and its importance in reducing health disparities. We highlight characteristics of successful recruitment and retention efforts targeting racial/ethnic minority nurses and conclude with recommendations to strengthen the development and evaluation of their contributions to eliminating health disparities. PMID:24385664
Koopmans, Ruud; Veit, Susanne
This study not only shows that the empirically well-established negative relationship between residential diversity and trust in neighbors holds for the case of Germany, but goes beyond existing research by providing experimental evidence on the causal nature of the diversity effect. Respondents exposed to experimental stimuli that made salient the ethnic or religious heterogeneity of their neighborhoods display significantly lower levels of trust in their neighbors than do respondents in the control group. Further, we explore the role of interethnic contact in mediating the relationship between diversity and trust in a degree of detail unmatched by earlier studies. We consider not only positive forms of interethnic contact such as friendships, but also neutral and negative encounters between people of native and immigrant origin. We find that interethnic contacts mediate negative diversity effects on trust in different ways for both groups. For natives, distant encounters and negative experiences with immigrants in diverse contexts reduce trust, whereas for people of immigrant origin trust in neighbors suffers from the relatively small number of native acquaintances in diverse neighborhoods.
Zapolski, Tamika C B; Fisher, Sycarah; Banks, Devin E; Hensel, Devon J; Barnes-Najor, Jessica
Ethnic identity is an important buffer against drug use among minority youth. However, limited work has examined pathways through which ethnic identity mitigates risk. School-aged youth (N = 34,708; 52 % female) of diverse backgrounds (i.e., African American (n = 5333), Asian (n = 392), Hispanic (n = 662), Multiracial (n = 2129), Native American (n = 474), and White (n = 25718) in grades 4-12 provided data on ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use. After controlling for gender and grade, higher ethnic identity was associated with lower past month drug use for African American, Hispanic, and Multiracial youth. Conversely, high ethnic identity was associated with increased risk for White youth. An indirect pathway between ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use was also found for African American, Hispanic, and Asian youth. Among White youth the path model was also significant, but in the opposite direction. These findings confirm the importance of ethnic identity for most minority youth. Further research is needed to better understand the association between ethnic identity and drug use for Multiracial and Hispanic youth, best ways to facilitate healthy ethnic identity development for minority youth, and how to moderate the risk of identity development for White youth.
Knipper, Michael; Seeleman, Conny; Essink-Bot, Marie-Luise
Ethnic diversity has become a common reality in European societies, including those of Germany and the Netherlands. Given that ethnic minority groups and immigrants are known to be especially vulnerable to inequalities in health, access to services and quality of care, the need for cultural competency training in medical education is widely acknowledged. This paper presents four key issues in providing medical students and physicians with the knowledge, attitudes and skills to adapt medical care to ethnically diverse populations. It then describes two educational programmes delivered by the University of Amsterdam (UvA Academic Medical Centre, the Netherlands) and Giessen University Medical School (Germany), respectively, to illustrate that translating theoretical educational objectives into educational practice can lead to different teaching programmes depending on specific local conditions. In the conclusions, emphasis is placed on the need for systematic approaches that do not limit their focus to patients and groups of specific ethnic or migration backgrounds. Issues of culture, communication and research in relation to ethnically diverse populations are magnifications of general problems in medicine and healthcare. Explicit attention to ethnic diversity thus offers a view through a ‘magnifying glass’ of subjects of much broader importance and can be a means for improving health care in general. PMID:21818195
Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey
Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.
Mac Donald-Ottevanger, M Sigrid; Vreden, Stephen; van der Helm, Jannie J; van de Laar, Thijs; Molenkamp, Richard; Dams, Els; Roosblad, Jimmy; Codrington, John; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D; Prins, Maria
Little is known about the epidemiology of HCV in Suriname, a former Dutch colony in South America. To study the prevalence, determinants and genetic diversity of HCV, a one-month survey was conducted at the only Emergency Department in the capital Paramaribo. Participants (≥18 years) completed an interviewer-led standardized HCV risk-factor questionnaire, were tested for HCV-antibodies, and if positive also for HCV RNA. The overall HCV prevalence was 1.0% (22/2128 participants; 95%CI 0.7-1.5). Male sex (OR=4.11; 95%CI 1.30-13.01), older age (OR=1.06 per year increase; 95%CI 1.04-1.09), Javanese ethnicity (OR=7.84; 95%CI 3.25-18.89) and cosmetic tattooing (OR=31.7; 95%CI 3.25-323.87) were independently associated with HCV-infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed six distinct HCV subtypes, all HCV-genotype 2 (HCV-2): subtype 2f (also circulating in Indonesia) plus five yet unassigned HCV-2 subtypes exclusively linked to Suriname.
Depaola, Stephen J; Griffin, Melody; Young, Jennie R; Neimeyer, Robert A
The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for particular subgroups of respondents. Older women scored higher on the Fear of the Dead subscale of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) than did men. Caucasian participants displayed higher Fear of the Dying Process than did older African American participants. Lastly, older African American participants reported higher levels of death anxiety on 3 of the subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (Fear of the Unknown, Fear of Conscious Death, and Fear for the Body after Death) when compared with older Caucasian participants and also tended to accord less social value to the elderly. These findings are interpreted in terms of patterns of socialization, and their implications for end-of-life care preferences are noted.
Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Hinojosa, Ramon; Nguyen, Jennifer; Bright, Melissa
Background Black, Hispanic, and low income children bear a greater burden of chronic health conditions compared to wealthier white counterparts. Under federal law, schools provide services to children when their health conditions impair learning. These school services, called individualized education programs (IEPs) can reduce disparities in school outcomes. This paper examines the extent to which children with health conditions have an IEP plan, an important first step in understanding service utilization. Method Andersen's Behavioral Model was used to examine IEP plan presence by using the 2012 National Survey of Children's Health. School aged children (6-17), with at least one health condition (N = 16,496) were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis to understand predisposing (age, sex, race/ethnicity), enabling (family and neighborhood), and need (health related) factors as predictors of having an IEP plan. Race/ethnicity interaction terms tested for moderating effects of race/ethnicity on the relationship between predisposing, enabling and need factors and having an IEP plan. Results Hispanic children were 93.4 % (OR = .066) less likely and Black children were 87.9 % (OR = .121) less likely to have an IEP plan compared to White children. Black, Hispanic, and Multiracial children were more likely to have an IEP plan if they had more family and neighborhood resources (OR range 1.37-1.62) and greater health needs and health care needs (OR range 1.29-2.57). Conclusion The Behavioral Model was useful in predicting the presence of IEP plans among racially/ethnically diverse children with health conditions as an important step in understanding disparities in healthcare access in schools.
Background Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) was described just over 50 years ago by Olga Imerslund and Ralph Gräsbeck and colleagues. IGS is caused by specific malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl) due to bi-allelic mutations in either the cubilin gene (CUBN) or the human amnionless homolog (AMN). Mutations in the two genes are commonly seen in founder populations or in societies with a high degree of consanguineous marriages. One particular mutation in AMN, c.208-2A>G, causing an out-of-frame loss of exon 4 in the mRNA, is responsible for some 15% of IGS cases globally. We present evidence that this founder mutation causes a substantial percentage of cases among diverse ethnicities and that the mutation is as old as human civilization. Methods Partial genotyping indicated a founder event but its presence in diverse peoples of Arabic, Turkish, Jewish, and Hispanic ancestry suggested that the mutation might be recurrent. We therefore studied the flanking sequence spanning 3.5 Mb to elucidate the origin of the haplotype and estimate the age of the mutation using a Bayesian inference method based on observed linkage disequilibrium. Results The mutation's distribution, the size of the shared haplotype, and estimates of growth rate and carrier frequency indicated that the mutation was a single prehistoric event. Dating back to the ancient Middle East around 11,600 BC, the mutation predates the advent of writing, farming, and the monotheistic religions of the region. Conclusions This mutation causes over 50% of the IGS cases among Arabic, Turkish, and Sephardic Jewish families, making it a primary target for genetic screening among diverse IGS cases originating from the Middle East. Thus, rare founder mutations may cause a substantial number of cases, even among diverse ethnicities not usually thought to be related. PMID:22078000
Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Shuyuan; Lin, Keqin; Yu, Liang; Huang, Kai; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing
As the world's most populous nation, China exhibits a population with 56 nationalities. We already know the associations between genetic relationship of these ethnic groups in China and their geographic distributions are closely. However, the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinities have still not been fully revealed in China. To investigate these correlations, 31 populations and 1527 samples were chosen, and the languages of this population covered all of the languages spoken in mainland China (including 8 main linguistic families and 16 subfamilies). The genetic polymorphisms of the populations were investigated using 10 autosomal microsatellites. Five ethnic groups, which included 234 samples, were genotyped in this survey, and the data collected from the other 26 populations were obtained from our previous study. An analysis of molecular variance, principal coordinate analysis, clustering analysis using the STRUCTURE and the Mantel test were used to investigate the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinity. These analyses indicated that most populations who speak the same language demonstrate a similar genetic composition, although a few populations deviated from this linkage between genetics and language. The demographic histories of these populations who deviated from this linkage were investigated. Obvious reasons for why evolutionary processes of genetics and linguistics separated in these populations included geographic isolation, gene replacement, language replacement and intermarriage. Thus, we proposed that the consistency of genetic and linguistic evolution is still present in most populations in China; however, this consistency can be broken by many factors, such as isolation, language replacement or intermarriage.
Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Sharif, Nadira
Drawing from 81 interviews with practitioners in social care and housing with care services in the United Kingdom, this paper explores practice issues in rural areas when supporting the mental health and well-being of older people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper begins with a review of the literature which provides evidence that…
Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The…
Li, Yawen; Aranda, Maria P.; Chi, Iris
China has achieved indisputable economic growth in the past decades but, with it, unbalanced development across region and socio-economic groups. Little is known about how this impacts the lives of minority older adults who tend to live in remote inland areas. This study is the first attempt to examine and compare the relationships between…
Smith, Justin D.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Zerr, Argero A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.
Objective Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent–child interactions for diverse cultural groups. Method A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Results Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6 through 8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Conclusions Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research. PMID:24731120
Lee, I. Russel; Molton, James S.; Wyres, Kelly L.; Gorrie, Claire; Wong, Jocelyn; Hoh, Chu Han; Teo, Jeanette; Kalimuddin, Shirin; Lye, David C.; Archuleta, Sophia; Holt, Kathryn E.; Gan, Yunn-Hwen
Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging cause of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess. First described in Asia, it is now increasingly recognized in Western countries, commonly afflicting those with Asian descent. This raises the question of genetic predisposition versus geospecific strain acquisition. We leveraged on the Antibiotics for Klebsiella Liver Abscess Syndrome Study (A-KLASS) clinical trial ongoing in ethnically diverse Singapore, to prospectively examine the profiles of 70 patients together with their isolates’ genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The majority of isolates belonged to capsule type K1, a genetically homogenous group corresponding to sequence-type 23. The remaining K2, K5, K16, K28, K57 and K63 isolates as well as two novel cps isolates were genetically heterogeneous. K1 isolates carried higher frequencies of virulence-associated genes including rmpA (regulator of mucoid phenotype A), kfu (Klebsiella ferric uptake transporter), iuc (aerobactin), iro (salmochelin) and irp (yersiniabactin) than non-K1 isolates. The Chinese in our patient cohort, mostly non-diabetic, had higher prevalence of K1 infection than the predominantly diabetic non-Chinese (Malays, Indian and Caucasian). This differential susceptibility to different capsule types among the various ethnic groups suggests patterns of transmission (e.g. environmental source, familial transmission) and/or genetic predisposition unique to each race despite being in the same geographical location. PMID:27406977
Witkow, Melissa R; Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J
Ethnic and generation differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, less work has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and financial factors in 12th grade and two years later as predictors of persistence four years after high school, and as mediators of ethnic and generation differences in persistence. Results indicate that family obligations, discrimination, and financial burdens are associated with reduced rates of persistence, while high school GPA, SES, and financial aid are associated with higher rates of persistence. Ethnic differences in persistence are related to high school GPA and SES, as well as financial circumstances. Reducing ethnic disparities in college persistence should thus involve attention not only to academic factors, but also to family circumstances that may cause college attendance to be a hardship.
Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Ethnic and generation differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, less work has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and financial factors in 12th grade and two years later as predictors of persistence four years after high school, and as mediators of ethnic and generation differences in persistence. Results indicate that family obligations, discrimination, and financial burdens are associated with reduced rates of persistence, while high school GPA, SES, and financial aid are associated with higher rates of persistence. Ethnic differences in persistence are related to high school GPA and SES, as well as financial circumstances. Reducing ethnic disparities in college persistence should thus involve attention not only to academic factors, but also to family circumstances that may cause college attendance to be a hardship. PMID:25897194
Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; Warpinski, Mary
Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women-particularly when access to culturally sensitive care is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify mental health concerns in three urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods using the ideological perspective of community-based participatory research. In the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, we recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years and collected data via homogeneous focus groups comprised of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. We conducted five of the focus groups in English and one in Spanish. The women perceived anxiety and depression as significant concerns for themselves, their families, and their communities. They used unique community resources to manage mental health issues and desired new resources, including support groups and education.
Laitman, Yael; Feng, Bing-Jian; Zamir, Itay M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Duncan, Paul; Port, Danielle; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Evans, Gareth; Latif, Ayse; Newman, William G; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Zidan, Jamal; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Goldgar, David; Friedman, Eitan
The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ∼2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ∼5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750–1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ∼650 years ago, and into the Iraqi–Jewish community ∼450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews. PMID:22763381
Background High rejection rates of subject recruitments for research studies have been reported in immigrants in many countries. However, the barriers in recruiting members of the expatriate population in Kuwait have not yet been investigated. This study was therefore designed to identify barriers in recruiting expatriates for research studies in the state of Kuwait. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on expatriate subject’s aged 18 years and older living in Kuwait. Difference between groups of continuous independent variables was analyzed using the t-test. Different categories such as ethnicity and gender were compared using the chi-square test. Results 3460 (85.1%) participants were recruited and 617 (14.2%) refused to participate in the study while 2530 (38%) calls were unreachable from the total of 6607 calls placed. Younger subjects (mean age 41.1 years) were more hesitant to be part of the study compared to older participants. The rejections among South Asians was (41.8%), Arabs (32.6%), Southeast Asians (18.9%) while the others (6.6%) category was least to refuse among all the nationalities. Gender was not significantly associated with refusal. Conclusion There is an acute lack of appropriate recording of the problems faced while recruiting the participants. The findings suggest important messages for the decision makers in the area of expatriate recruitments, to understand the challenge and design new strategies to overcome the problem of recruitment in the state of Kuwait for research studies. PMID:24257144
Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.
Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…
The article offers a case study of the ways in which a Catholic primary school located in the centre of a large South-Asian community in Leicester, UK, responded to the religious and ethnic diversity of its surroundings. The school, Our Saviour's, engaged in shared activities with a neighbouring school which had a majority intake of Hindu, Muslim…
Connecticut State Dept. of Higher Education, Hartford.
This report describes the activities and results of three programs instituted under Connecticut's Minority Advancement Program (MAP) to promote racial and ethnic diversity in Connecticut public higher education. The Connecticut Collegiate Awareness and Preparation Program (ConnCAP), which enrolled 1,585 students in 1993-94, is designed to give…
Watson, Jesse S.
This study explored how the experiences of four white, undergraduate, self-identified social justice advocates influenced their on campus participation in racially and ethnically diverse settings. Acknowledging the existence and persistence of white privilege, ontological expansiveness, and epistemological ignorance, the research was grounded in…
In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…
Malti, Tina; Averdijk, Margit; Ribeaud, Denis; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Eisner, Manuel P.
This study investigated the role of trust beliefs (i.e., trustworthiness, trustfulness) on aggression trajectories in a four-wave longitudinal study using an ethnically diverse sample of 8- to 11-year-old children (N = 1,028), as well as the risk profiles of low trust beliefs and low socioeconomic status on aggression trajectories. At Time 1 to…
Edwards, Patricia Thomas
The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…
Weis, Robert; Toolis, Erin E.
This study examined the factorial validity of the Parent Behavior Inventory (PBI), a brief measure of parenting behaviour, in a diverse sample of mothers and compared differences in parenting as a function of ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on data generated by mothers of young…
Leake, Robin; de Guzman, Anna; Rienks, Shauna; Archer, Gretchen; Potter, Cathryn
The task of recruiting and retaining ethnically diverse, qualified, and committed social workers in child welfare is challenging. Federal funding supporting BSW and MSW education has been a catalyst for university-agency partnerships across the country. An important goal of these partnerships is to prepare social work students with the knowledge,…
Witkow, Melissa R.; Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Ethnic and generational differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, minimal research has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and…
Ali, Hassan B.
The purpose of the Workshop 'Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry' was to promote the development of a cadre of academic leaders who create, implement and promote programs and strategies for increasing the number of racial and ethnic minorities to equitable proportions on the faculties of departments throughout the academic chemistry community. An important objective of the workshop was to assist in creating an informed and committed community of chemistry leaders who will create, implement and promote programs and strategies to advance racial and ethnic equity in both the faculty and the student body with the goal of increasing the number of U.S. citizen underrepresented minorities (URM) participating in academic chemistry at all levels, with particular focus on the pipeline to chemistry faculty. This objective was met by (1) presentations of detailed data describing current levels of racial and ethnic minorities on the faculties of chemistry departments; (2) frank discussion of the obstacles to and benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in the chemistry professoriate; (3) summary of possible effective interventions and actions; and (4) promotion of the dissemination and adoption of initiatives designed to achieve racial/ethnic equity. Federal programs over the past thirty years have been instrumental in delivering to our universities URM students intending to major in the physical sciences such as chemistry. However, the near absence of URM faculty means that there is also an absence of URM as role models for aspiring students. For example, citing 2003 as a representative year, some statistics reveal the severity of the pipeline shrinkage for U. S. citizen URM starting from chemistry B.S. degrees awarded to the appointment to chemistry faculty. Compared to the URM population of approximately 30% for that year, 67% of the B.S. degrees in chemistry were awarded to white citizens and 17% were awarded to URM
Cook, Nicole J; Hollar, Lucas; Chavez, Summer; Quinn, David L; Phillips, Teina; DeLucca, Michael; Corrales, Lindsay
Previous studies have gauged support for implementing smoke-free multi-unit housing (MUH) policies in the United States, but none have specifically examined attitudes among racially and ethnically diverse elders living in low-income MUH. We surveyed a convenience sample of elders 62 years of age and older (n = 807) across 24 low-income housing properties in Broward County, Florida in order to assess residents' smoking behaviors, exposure to second-hand smoke, and support for smoke-free policies. The study sample was ethnically and racially diverse with Hispanics comprising more than 61 % of the population, and 22 % identifying as Black or other races. Although close to 22 % of the sample were former smokers, only 9 % of residents reported being current smokers. The majority of residents surveyed supported no-smoking policies: 75 % support no-smoking policies for individual units; 77 % supported no-smoking policies in common areas; and, 68 % supported no-smoking policies in outdoor areas. Over 29 % of residents surveyed reported being exposed to secondhand smoke entering their units from elsewhere in their building. Residents who reported having a home smoking rule were more than twice as likely to support an indoor policy compared to residents who allowed smoking anywhere in their home (OR = 2.36; 95%CI 1.25-4.43; p ≤ 0.01), and nonsmoking residents were nearly three times as likely to support an indoor policy compared to smokers (OR = 2.89; 95%CI 1.44-5.79; p ≤ 0.01). Support for an indoor policy was not modified by age, gender, ethnicity or race. . This study demonstrates that elders living in low-income MUH properties overwhelmingly supported the implementation of smoke-free policies.
Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N
The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.
Undergraduate students need to gain more exposure to communicating, assessing, and planning appropriate care and evaluating outcomes of care with diverse critically ill geriatric patients. This project developed teaching strategies that facilitated additional opportunities for gaining these valuable learning experiences for students. Nurse educators can use the Guidelines for Caring for Diverse Critically Ill Older Adults, the case study and simulation examples, and topical outline to assist them in teaching critical care students and nurses about diverse critically ill older adults.
Park, Seonmi; Gianotti-Sommer, Andreia; Molina-Estevez, Francisco Javier; Vanuytsel, Kim; Skvir, Nick; Leung, Amy; Rozelle, Sarah S; Shaikho, Elmutaz Mohammed; Weir, Isabelle; Jiang, Zhihua; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Chui, David H K; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Alsultan, Abdulraham; Al-Ali, Amein; Sebastiani, Paola; Steinberg, Martin H; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Murphy, George J
Sickle cell anemia affects millions of people worldwide and is an emerging global health burden. As part of a large NIH-funded NextGen Consortium, we generated a diverse, comprehensive, and fully characterized library of sickle-cell-disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients of different ethnicities, β-globin gene (HBB) haplotypes, and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. iPSCs stand to revolutionize the way we study human development, model disease, and perhaps eventually, treat patients. Here, we describe this unique resource for the study of sickle cell disease, including novel haplotype-specific polymorphisms that affect disease severity, as well as for the development of patient-specific therapeutics for this phenotypically diverse disorder. As a complement to this library, and as proof of principle for future cell- and gene-based therapies, we also designed and employed CRISPR/Cas gene editing tools to correct the sickle hemoglobin (HbS) mutation.
Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Maramba, Gloria Gia
Identifies where most work on cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology is being published and the authors. Very little overlap was found between literature in cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology. Top scholars in cross-cultural psychology are men of European ancestry, while in ethnic minority psychology, scholars are ethnic…
Soulakova, Julia N.; Danczak, Ryan R.
Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate whether menthol smoking and race/ethnicity are associated with nicotine dependence in daily smokers. Methods: The study used two subsamples of U.S. daily smokers who responded to the 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The larger subsample consisted of 18,849 non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and Hispanic (HISP) smokers. The smaller subsample consisted of 1112 non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), non-Hispanic Asian (ASIAN), non-Hispanic Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (HPI), and non-Hispanic Multiracial (MULT) smokers. Results: For larger (smaller) groups the rates were 45% (33%) for heavy smoking (16+ cig/day), 59% (51%) for smoking within 30 min of awakening (Sw30), and 14% (14%) for night-smoking. Overall, the highest prevalence of menthol smoking corresponded to NHB and HPI (≥65%), followed by MULT and HISP (31%–37%), and then by AIAN, NHW, and ASIAN (22%–27%) smokers. For larger racial/ethnic groups, menthol smoking was negatively associated with heavy smoking, not associated with Sw30, and positively associated with night-smoking. For smaller groups, menthol smoking was not associated with any measure, but the rates of heavy smoking, Sw30, and night-smoking varied across the groups. Conclusions: The diverse associations between menthol smoking and nicotine dependence maybe due to distinction among the nicotine dependence measures, i.e., individually, each measure assesses a specific smoking behavior. Menthol smoking may be associated with promoting smoking behaviors. PMID:28085040
Grody, W W; Dunkel-Schetter, C; Tatsugawa, Z H; Fox, M A; Fang, C Y; Cantor, R M; Novak, J M; Bass, H N; Crandall, B F
As the most common lethal autosomal recessive disorder in North America, cystic fibrosis (CF) is an obvious candidate for general population carrier screening. Although the identification of the causative gene has made detection of asymptomatic carriers possible, the extreme heterogeneity of its mutations has limited the sensitivity of the available DNA screening tests and has called into question their utility when they are applied to patients with no family history of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the technical feasibility, patient acceptance and understanding, and psychosocial impact of large-scale CF carrier screening in an ethnically diverse pregnant population. A total of 4,739 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics located in both an academic medical center and a large HMO were invited in person to participate. Of this group, 3,543 received CF instruction and assessments of knowledge and mood, and 3,192 underwent DNA testing for the six most common CF mutations, by means of a noninvasive PCR-based reverse-dot-blot method. Overall participation rates (ranging from 53% at the HMO to 77% at the academic center) and consent rates for DNA testing after CF instruction (>98%) exceeded those of most other American studies. The PCR-based screening method worked efficiently on large numbers of samples, and 55 carriers and one at-risk couple were identified. Understanding of residual risk, anxiety levels, and overall satisfaction with the program were acceptable across all ethnic groups. Our strategy of approaching a motivated pregnant population in person with a rapid and noninvasive testing method may provide a practical model for developing a larger CF screening program targeting appropriate high-risk groups at the national level, and may also serve as a paradigm for population-based screening of other genetically heterogeneous disorders in the future. Images Figure 1 PMID:9106541
Miyawaki, Christina E.
Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon’s assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers (M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers’ high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers’ strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers’ own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnicspecific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers’ culture and level of assimilation. PMID:25883044
Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.
Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn from a population-based sample aged 65 years or older with diabetes. The sample was stratified by sex and ethnic group (African American, American Indian, and White) from the low (A1C <6%) and high (A1C >8%) extremes of the glycemic control distribution. Case-based text analysis was guided by a model, including six self-management domains and four resource types (self-care, informal support, formal services, and medical care). Results: A “structured” approach to self-management differentiated respondents in good glycemic control from those in poor glycemic control. Those in good glycemic control were more likely to practice specific food behaviors to limit food consumption and practice regular blood glucose monitoring with specific target values. This approach was facilitated by a greater use of home aides to assist with diabetes care. Respondents in poor glycemic control demonstrated less structure, naming general food categories and checking blood glucose in reaction to symptoms. Implications: Results provide evidence that degree of structure differentiates self-management approaches of persons with good and poor glycemic control. Findings should provide a foundation for further research to develop effective self-management programs for older adults with diabetes. PMID:20110333
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.
Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455
Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Decarli, Charles
This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Whites. The authors used latent variable modeling to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age- and education-adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables; adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI variables in the combined sample and Hispanics, made no difference in Whites, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure.
Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A
This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed.
Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M
Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies.
Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Suhasini, G; Vijaya, M; Kanthimathi, S; Mullins, Nicole; Tracey, Martin; Duncan, George
We have analyzed 17 Y chromosomal STR loci in a population sample of 154 unrelated male individuals of the Tamil ethnic group residing in the state of Tamil Nadu, Southern India using AmpFlSTR(R) Yfiler PCR amplification kit. The population samples consist of the following castes: Kongu Gounder (KOG), Nadar Hindu (NAH), Agamudayar (AGA), Parayar (PAR) and other Tamil individuals (MCT) of mixed castes. A total of 152 unique haplotypes were identified among the 154 individuals studied. The haplotype diversity was found to be 0.9935 or higher for all the five groups. The results of population pairwise Fst p values indicate no statistically significant differentiation between the five populations in this study, but the results were highly significant when compared with 12 other global populations (p<0.05). Comparison of populations in this study with other national and global populations using Principal co-ordinate analysis (PCA) using Rst distance matrix indicates a delineation of all the Indian populations from other unrelated populations.
Stroope, Samuel; Martinez, Brandon C; Eschbach, Karl; Peek, M Kristen; Markides, Kyriakos S
Ethnic enclaves may be protective for health. This study investigates the effects of neighborhood co-ethnic density on problem drinking among older Mexican American men. Probability sample of 2,086 community-dwelling Mexican Americans aged 75 or older drawn in 2004-2005 residing in communities in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. Problem drinking was found among 15.3 % of men (n = 350). For each percent increase in neighborhood percent Mexican American, men had 2 % lower odds of problem drinking [odds ratio (OR) 0.98; P < 0.05]. U.S. born men had lower odds of problem drinking (OR 0.40; P < 0.05) compared with foreign born men, while English language use was associated with greater odds of problem drinking (OR 2.14; P < 0.05). Older Mexican American men in neighborhoods with low levels of co-ethnic density, the foreign born, and those with English language facility had an increased likelihood of problem drinking.
Walker, Sylvia; And Others
This study used data on 120,032 people from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey to assess prevalence of disabilities among racial and ethnic minority groups. It examined the status of racial/ethnic minority persons in the following four disability categories: (1) chronic health conditions; (2) physical, sensory, and language impairments; (3)…
Kim, Kyung-Sun; Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna
The proportion of ethnic minorities in the LIS school student population has remained significantly lower than in the U.S. population: in 2002, ethnic minorities constituted only 11.3 percent of the LIS student population, compared to 31.3 percent of the U.S. population. Despite efforts by LIS schools and associations in recruiting and retaining…
Landrine, Hope; Corral, Irma
To conduct meaningful, epidemiologic research on racial–ethnic health disparities, racial–ethnic samples must be rendered equivalent on other social status and contextual variables via statistical controls of those extraneous factors. The racial–ethnic groups must also be equally familiar with and have similar responses to the methods and measures used to collect health data, must have equal opportunity to participate in the research, and must be equally representative of their respective populations. In the absence of such measurement equivalence, studies of racial–ethnic health disparities are confounded by a plethora of unmeasured, uncontrolled correlates of race–ethnicity. Those correlates render the samples, methods, and measures incomparable across racial–ethnic groups, and diminish the ability to attribute health differences discovered to race–ethnicity vs. to its correlates. This paper reviews the non-equivalent yet normative samples, methodologies and measures used in epidemiologic studies of racial–ethnic health disparities, and provides concrete suggestions for improving sample, method, and scalar measurement equivalence. PMID:25566524
Gentile, Katie; Raghavan, Chitra; Rajah, Valli; Gates, Katie
The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an orientation class to assess the frequency of eating disorder diagnosis and the risk factors of child physical abuse and sexual abuse before and after age 13. We found 10% of our sample received an eating disorder diagnosis, 12.2% of the women and 7.3% of the men. The majority of these students were Latino/a or "other," with White women receiving the fewest diagnoses. For all women, both child physical abuse and both indices of sexual abuse contributed equally to the development of an eating disorder. For men only the sexual abuse indices contributed to an eating disorder diagnosis. These results indicate that ethnic minority populations do suffer from relatively high rates of self-reported eating disorders and that a history of trauma is a significant risk factor for eating disorders in these diverse populations of both women and men.
Bulayeva, Kazima B.
Aim To assess genetic diversity and genetic distances among isolated populations from Dagestan. Methods A cross-population genetic epidemiology design was applied in ethnically and demographically diverse isolates from Dagestan, some with more than 200 and some with less than 100 generations of demographical history since their founding. Results The analysis of genetic diversity showed that Dagestan ethnic populations are clearly close to European ethnic populations. The genetic data support the view of them as ancient, highly isolated populations 85%-97% the rate of the endogamy and inbreeding coefficient F = 0.010-0.015. Many Dagestan populations have very high prevalence of certain complex diseases such as cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and progressive muscular dystrophy. Lifetime morbid risk for schizophrenia in the isolates varied from 0 to 5%. Among the relatives, the number of men with chronic schizophrenia was at least twice as high as women. The average age of onset of schizophrenia was 21.2 years for offspring of consanguineous marriages and 17.4 years for offspring of non-consanguineous marriages (P = 0.033). Conclusion The results support the hypothesis that cross-population design provides unique opportunities for observing reliable ancestral haplotypes with disease predisposing loci, as well as population-specific linked loci. PMID:16912990
Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.
The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…
Hazuda, Helen P.
Background Mexican Americans comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the older US population and are reported to have poorer functional health than European Americans, but few studies have examined factors contributing to ethnic differences in walking speed between Mexican Americans and European Americans. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to walking speed and observed ethnic differences in walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans using the disablement process model (DPM) as a guide. Design This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were 703 Mexican American and European American older adults (aged 65 years and older) who completed the baseline examination of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Hierarchical regression models were performed to identify the contribution of contextual, lifestyle/anthropometric, disease, and impairment variables to walking speed and to ethnic differences in walking speed. Results The ethic difference in unadjusted mean walking speed (Mexican Americans=1.17 m/s, European Americans=1.29 m/s) was fully explained by adjustment for contextual (ie, age, sex, education, income) and lifestyle/anthropometric (ie, body mass index, height, physical activity) variables; adjusted mean walking speed in both ethnic groups was 1.23 m/s. Contextual variables explained 20.3% of the variance in walking speed, and lifestyle/anthropometric variables explained an additional 8.4%. Diseases (ie, diabetes, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) explained an additional 1.9% of the variance in walking speed; impairments (ie, FEV1, upper leg pain, and lower extremity strength and range of motion) contributed an additional 5.5%. Thus, both nonmodifiable (ie, contextual, height) and modifiable (ie, impairments, body mass index, physical activity) factors contributed to walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans. Limitations
Brooks, Kristine M.
The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the
Background Physiological and lifestyle factors put older adults at an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency and resulting negative health outcomes. Here we explore the vitamin D status in a sample of community dwelling older adults of diverse ancestry living in the Greater Toronto area (GTA). Methods Two hundred and twenty-four (224) adults over 60 years of age were recruited from the Square One Older Adult Centre, in Mississauga, Ontario. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured from dried blood spot cards. Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin D were assessed via questionnaires. Skin pigmentation was assessed quantitatively by measuring melanin levels using a reflectometer. Results The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the total sample was 82.4 nmol/L. There were no statistically significant differences in serum 25(OH)D concentrations, supplemental or dietary vitamin D intakes between the three major ancestral groups (East Asians, Europeans and South Asians). Females had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than males (84.5 nmol/L vs. 72.2 nmol/L, p = 0.012). The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L were 12.1%, and 38.8%, respectively. The mean daily supplemental intake of vitamin D was 917 IU/day. Vitamin D intake from supplements was the major factor determining 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mean concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the GTA exceeded 80 nmol/L, and there were no significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. These results sharply contrast with our recent study focused on young adults of diverse ancestry living in the same geographic area, in which we found substantially lower 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 39.5 nmol/L), low supplemental vitamin D intake (114 IU/day), and significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. High daily intake
Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17–19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs’ psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents’ self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20446024
Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen
Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17-19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs' psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents' self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Head, Mary K.; Stuhldreher, Wendy L.
A course on cross-cultural dietary patterns provides family and consumer sciences students with information about influences on ethnic diets while introducing food preparation and computer nutrient evaluation techniques. (SK)
Agyemang, Charles; Oudeman, Eline; Zijlmans, Wilco; Wendte, Johannes; Stronks, Karien
Background High blood pressure (BP) is now an important public health problem in non-industrialised countries. The limited evidence suggests ethnic inequalities in BP in adults in some non-industrialised countries. However, it is unclear whether these ethnic inequalities in BP patterns in adults reflect on adolescents. Hence, we assessed ethnic differences in BP, and the association of BP with body mass index (BMI) among adolescents aged 12–17 years in Paramaribo, Suriname. Methods Cross-sectional study with anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. A random sample of 855 adolescents (167 Hindustanis, 169 Creoles, 128 Javanese, 91 Maroons and 300 mixed-ethnicities) were studied. Ethnicity was based on self-reported ethnic origin. Results Among boys, Maroons had a lower age- and height-adjusted systolic BP than Creoles, and a lower diastolic BP than other ethnic groups. However, after further adjustment for BMI, only diastolic BP in Maroons was significantly lower than in Javanese (67.1 versus 70.9 mmHg). Creole boys had a lower diastolic BP than Hindustani (67.3 versus 70.2 mmHg) and Javanese boys after adjustment for age, height and BMI. Among girls, there were no significant differences in systolic BP between the ethnic groups. Maroon girls, however, had a lower diastolic BP (65.6 mmHg) than Hindustani (69.1 mmHg), Javanese (71.2 mmHg) and Mixed-ethnic (68.3 mmHg) girls, but only after differences in BMI had been adjusted for. Javanese had a higher diastolic BP than Creoles (71.2 versus 66.8 mmHg) and Mixed-ethnicity girls. BMI was positively associated with BP in all the ethnic groups, except for diastolic BP in Maroon girls. Conclusion The study findings indicate higher mean BP levels among Javanese and Hindustani adolescents compared with their African descent peers. These findings contrast the relatively low BP reported in Javanese and Hindustani adult populations in Suriname and underscore the need for public health measures early in life to prevent
Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tyc, Vida L.; Atkins, Michael B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.
To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of pediatric well-visits. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and non-white minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial/ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention and anti-smoking counseling. PMID:26269134
Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Tyc, Vida L; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P
To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of their pediatric wellness visit. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and nonwhite minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial and ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention with antismoking counseling.
Grant, Therese M; Jack, Dana C; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Ernst, Cara C
Depression among women commonly co-occurs with substance abuse. We explore the association between women's depressive symptoms and self-silencing accounting for the effects of known childhood and adult risk indicators. Participants are 233 ethnically diverse, low-income women who abused alcohol/drugs prenatally. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Addiction Severity Index. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the association between self-silencing and the dependent depression variable. The full model indicated a 3% increased risk for depressive distress for each point increase in self-silencing score (OR = 1.03; P = .001). Differences in depressive symptomatology by ethnic groups were accounted for by their differences in self-silencing.
Dias, A; Franco, E; Janzer, S; Koshkelashvili, Nikoloz; Bhalla, V; Rubio, Manolo; Amanullah, Sarah; Hebert, Kathy; Figueredo, Vincent M
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS) is a peculiar clinical condition often affecting postmenopausal women after a stressful trigger. The underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated but several hypotheses have been advanced, with catecholamine cardiotoxicity, microvascular dysfunction and coronary artery spasm each suggested to play a role. The incidence of stroke after TTS appears to range from 0% to 7.7%, and interestingly TTS has been described as both a cause and a complication of stroke. We sought to assess the incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event (peri-index event stroke) in a heterogeneous TTS population. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study reviewing patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of TTS from the Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA and Danbury Hospital, Danbury, CT in the period between 2003 and 2014. A total of Incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event in an ethnically diverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy population 206 patients met the modified Mayo Clinic criteria and were included in the study. The patients' overall mean age was 67.8 years; 87% (n=179) were females and 25% (n=53) were African Americans. The following incidence rates were found: stroke 7%, in-hospital heart failure 26.7%, and in-hospital death 7%. On multivariate analysis independent predictors (expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals) of periindex event stroke were: i) African American race (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2-10.2, p=0.048); ii) hypertension (OR 10.5, 95% CI 1.3-88, p=0.03). ACE inhibitor use was a protective factor for developing peri-index event stroke (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.5, p=0.001). There was a trend towards dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) being protective for stroke (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.05-1.1, p=0.08). The incidence of peri-index event stroke was 7%. African American race and hypertension were found to be independent predictors of peri-index event stroke. Prospective clinical trials are
Dias, A; Franco, E; Janzer, S; Koshkelashvili, Nikoloz; Bhalla, V; Rubio, Manolo; Amanullah, Sarah; Hebert, Kathy; Figueredo, Vincent M
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS) is a peculiar clinical condition often affecting postmenopausal women after a stressful trigger. The underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated but several hypotheses have been advanced, with catecholamine cardiotoxicity, microvascular dysfunction and coronary artery spasm each suggested to play a role. The incidence of stroke after TTS appears to range from 0% to 7.7%, and interestingly TTS has been described as both a cause and a complication of stroke. We sought to assess the incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event (peri-index event stroke) in a heterogeneous TTS population. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study reviewing patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of TTS from the Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA and Danbury Hospital, Danbury, CT in the period between 2003 and 2014. A total of Incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event in an ethnically diverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy population 206 patients met the modified Mayo Clinic criteria and were included in the study. The patients' overall mean age was 67.8 years; 87% (n=179) were females and 25% (n=53) were African Americans. The following incidence rates were found: stroke 7%, in-hospital heart failure 26.7%, and in-hospital death 7%. On multivariate analysis independent predictors (expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals) of periindex event stroke were: i) African American race (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2-10.2, p=0.048); ii) hypertension (OR 10.5, 95% CI 1.3-88, p=0.03). ACE inhibitor use was a protective factor for developing peri-index event stroke (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.5, p=0.001). There was a trend towards dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) being protective for stroke (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.05-1.1, p=0.08). The incidence of peri-index event stroke was 7%. African American race and hypertension were found to be independent predictors of peri-index event stroke. Prospective clinical trials are
Greene, G J; Jensen, C; Harper Jones, D
A person's reality and definition of self are socially constructed; ethnicity is integrally involved in this process. Clinical work is successful if the client constructs a self with a sense of positive self-esteem and empowerment. The profession views social workers' use of self as important in successful clinical work, especially with clients ethnically different from themselves. This article provides a framework adapted from a constructivist perspective for the clinician's skillful use of self in therapeutic discourse. The framework consists of five stances the clinician can use in transcending the discomfort he or she may experience in a cross-cultural clinical situation. Use of these stances facilitates clients' ethnic validation, which is essential to positive therapeutic outcomes. This article uses case examples to illustrate the use of the framework.
Petrov, Megan E; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Baldwin, Carol M
The study determined the prevalence of sleep disorders by ethnicity and sex, and related daytime functioning, working memory, and mental health among older adolescent to emerging adult college students. Participants were U.S.A. undergraduates (N = 1684), aged 17-25, recruited from 2010 to 2011. Participants completed online questionnaires for all variables. Overall, 36.0% of the sample screened positive for sleep disorders with insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder being the most prevalent. Women reported more insomnia and daytime impairment. African-Americans reported more early morning awakenings and less daytime impairment. Students with insomnia symptoms or restless legs syndrome tended to have lower working memory capacities. Students with nightmares or parasomnias had greater odds for mental disorders. In an older adolescent to emerging adult college student sample, sleep disorders may be a common source of sleep disturbance and impairment. Certain sleep disorders may be associated with lower working memory capacity and poor mental health.
Tabaac, Ariella R.; Perrin, Paul B.; Rabinovitch, Annie E.
This study examined the relationship between three types of social support and suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts among a national sample of ethnically diverse sexual minority women (SMW). Participants (N = 150) completed measures of social support and suicidal ideation/attempts. After controlling for socioeconomic status, social support explained 12.3% of the variance in past suicidal ideation and 10.7% in lifetime suicide attempts. Social support from family and significant other were both inversely associated with suicidal ideation, and social support from family inversely with lifetime attempts. Interventions that strengthen family relationships could be a buffer of suicidality in this population. PMID:28018520
Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191
Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine
This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home.
Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.
Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688
Carter, E. Vincent
This study examines an original dramaturgical method for creating virtual world experience called virtual world drama. The instructional focus is improving students' aptitude for analyzing ethnic identity by instilling both conceptual and multicultural competency. An exploratory research method is used, relying on observation (disguised and…
Veerman, Gert-Jan M.
This paper studies the relationship between ethnic school composition and classroom disruption in secondary education in the context of migration policies. We measured classroom disruption using students' reports from 3533 schools in 20 countries provided by cross-national PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 data. We employ…
Much of the research in the area of ethnicity and schooling is conducted in countries with a long tradition of immigration. The rapidity of social change in Ireland at a time of unprecedented economic growth is such that many schools, while still "mainly white", are grappling with the particular challenges that are posed by new patterns…
Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Johnson, Kim K. P.
The primary research question in this study was whether adolescents' experiences of and responses to teasing were related to the content of a tease and to particular ethnicity. Caucasian (n = 27) and African American adolescents (n = 22) between 12 to 17 years of age were asked to write about an experience of being teased regarding an aspect of…
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth
Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…
Objective was to examine the relationship of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity to BMI while statistically controlling for demographic characteristics in two age groups of children: 9-10 years and 17-18 years (n 1551). Cross-sectional design with a multi-ethnic (White, African-American, Hispani...
Greiner, Keith; Girardi, Anthony G.; Griffin, Mary Beth
This report presents results of the Iowa College Student Aid Commission's annual survey of colleges and universities in Iowa concerning racial and ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. The report summarizes trends in student enrollment, state-sponsored student financial aid, and faculty appointments by racial and ethnic…
Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.
In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…
Sorkin, Dara H.; Billimek, John
Objectives: To examine racial/ethnic differences in the dietary behaviors of overweight or obese adults using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Method: Data were obtained from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based sample of noninstitutionalized adults in California. The sample included 26,721 adults aged 18…
This article explores how cultural attitudes about race and ethnicity are taught in the English language textbooks as a part of Japan's school curriculum. A content analysis of Japanese junior high school textbooks on English as a foreign language published from 1987 to 2002 was conducted. Four hypotheses were investigated relating to 1) the…
Giambo, Debra; Gonzales, Maria Elizabeth; Szecsi, Tunde; Thirumurthy, Vidya
The linguistic, cultural, and ethnic mixture in many countries, including the United States, is changing rapidly and varies significantly from such old standbys as "Johnny Appleseed" or "Dick and Jane." Learning to communicate effectively in a new language involves gaining familiarity with the present-day culture of the country in which one…
Sato, Amy F; Kopel, Sheryl J; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Seifer, Ronald; Esteban, Cynthia; Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Klein, Robert; Fritz, Gregory K; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne
Although the pediatric psychology literature underscores the importance of illness-related aspects of the home environment for optimal family asthma management, little is known about the contribution of more global aspects of the home environment (e.g., family routines/schedule, quality of stimulation provided to child) to asthma management in ethnic minority and urban families. The goals of this study were to (a) explore ethnic/racial group differences in global and specific dimensions of home environment quality among Latino, non-Latino White (NLW), and African American urban children with asthma; and (b) examine associations between the quality and quantity of support and stimulation within the home environment, as measured by the HOME Inventory, and family asthma management. Urban, low-income children (N = 131) between the ages of 6 and 13 with asthma and a primary caregiver participated in a multimodal assessment, including an in-home observation and semistructured interviews to assess aspects of home environment quality and family asthma management practices. While controlling for poverty, no ethnic group differences were found in the global home environment; however, there were significant differences in specific dimensions (e.g., Family Participation in Developmentally Stimulating Experiences, and Aspects of the Physical Environment) of home environment quality. Across the whole sample, home environment quality predicted family asthma management. When examining this association for specific ethnic groups, this finding did not hold for the Latino subsample. The results highlight the need to consider ethnic group differences in non-illness-specific aspects of the home environment when addressing families' asthma management strategies.
Zubair, Maria; Norris, Meriel
This special issue focuses broadly upon questions and themes relating to the current conceptualisations, representations and use of 'ethnicity' (and ethnic minority experiences) within the field of social gerontology. An important aim of this special issue is to explore and address the issue of 'otherness' within the predominant existing frameworks for researching those who are ageing or considered aged, compounded by the particular constructions of their ethnicity and ethnic 'difference'. The range of theoretical, methodological and empirical papers included in this collection provide some critical insights into particular facets of the current research agendas, cultural understandings and empirical focus of ethnic minority ageing research. The main emphasis is on highlighting the ways in which ethnic cultural homogeneity and 'otherness' is often assumed in research involving older people from ethnic minority backgrounds, and how wider societal inequalities are concomitantly (re)produced, within (and through) research itself - for example, based on narrowly defined research agendas and questions; the assumed age and/or ethnic differences of researchers vis-à-vis their older research participants; the workings of the formalised ethical procedures and frameworks; and the conceptual and theoretical frameworks employed in the formulation of research questions and interpretation of data. We examine and challenge here the simplistic categorisations and distinctions often made in gerontological research based around research participants' ethnicity, age and ageing and assumed cultural differences. The papers presented in this collection reveal instead the actual complexity and fluidity of these concepts as well as the cultural dynamism and diversity of experiences within ethnic groups. Through an exploration of these issues, we address some of the gaps in existing knowledge and understandings as well as contribute to the newly emerging discussions surrounding the use of
Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie
There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy with particular attention to increasing the representation of students of color in art therapy training programs. However, little to no data exists on how art therapy programs are actively recruiting for diversity. Diversity in the classroom can offer novel perspectives on…
Black, M L; Wise, C A; Wang, W; Bittles, A H
Genomic data have increasingly been used to complement linguistic, archeological, and anthropological evidence in reconstructing the origins and migratory patterns of modern humans. East Asia is a particular hotspot of human migration, especially mainland China, where a large number of human fossils have been unearthed and more than 20% of the world's population now resides. There are 56 officially recognized ethnic populations (minzu) in China. In the present study we investigated the ancestry and genetic diversity of nine populations: the majority Han of Liaoning Province; the Miao, Yao, Kucong, and Tibetan communities of Yunnan Province in southwest China; and four Muslim populations, the Hui, Bonan, Dongxiang, and Sala from central and northern China. We used both biparental and uniparental markers to determine patterns of diversity at autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosome loci. The study populations displayed several paternal origins but restricted maternal ancestries. From the Y-chromosome data in particular, major demographic changes, such as the Neolithic population expansion and more recent historical events including migration along the Silk Road, could be inferred. Specific aspects of the internal structure and organization of the study populations, including endogamy and consanguinity, were uncovered using autosomal markers. However, we encountered interpretive problems in terms of the definition of the present-day ethnic study populations in China, which appear to reflect past and present political as well as genetic influences.
Rossi, Amerigo; Moadel-Robblee, Alyson; Garber, Carol Ewing; Kuo, Dennis; Goldberg, Gary; Einstein, Mark
Objective To determine the physical activity (PA) behavior, needs and preferences for underserved, ethnically diverse women with a history of endometrial cancer (EC). Methods Women with a history of EC (41 non-Hispanic black, 40 non-Hispanic white, and 18 Hispanic) completed a needs assessment during their regular follow-up appointments at Montefiore Medical Center in Bronx, NY, USA. An 8-week pilot PA intervention based on the results of the needs assessment was conducted with 5 EC survivors. Results Mean body mass index (BMI) among the 99 respondents was 34.1±7.6 kg/m2, and 66% did not exercise regularly. Self-described weight status was significantly lower than actual BMI category (p<0.001). Of the 86% who were interested in joining an exercise program, 95% were willing to attend at least once weekly. The primary motivations were improving health, losing weight, and feeling better physically. Despite the high interest in participation, volunteer rate was very low (8%). However, adherence to the 8-week pilot PA intervention was high (83%), and there were no adverse events. Body weight decreased in all pilot participants. Conclusion These data show that ethnically diverse EC survivors have a great need for, and are highly interested in, PA interventions. However, greater care needs to be taken to assess and identify barriers to increase participation in such programs. PMID:25872894
Harding, Seeromanie; Silva, Maria João; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Enayat, Zinat E; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Read, Ursula M; Cruickshank, J Kennedy
Objective To examine influences of adiposity from early adolescence to early 20s on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the multiethnic Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. Methods In 2002–2003, 6643 11–13-year-olds from 51 London schools participated at baseline, and 4785 were seen again at 14–16 years. Recently, 665 (97% of invited) participated in pilot follow-up at 21–23 years, with biological and psychosocial measures and blood biomarkers (only at 21–23 years). Regression models examined interplay between ethnicity, adiposity and CVD. Results At 21–23 years, ∼30–40% were overweight. About half of the sample had completed a degree with little ethnic variation despite more socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescence among ethnic minorities. Regardless of ethnicity, overweight increased more steeply between 14–16 years and 21–23 years than between 11–13 years and 14–16 years. More overweight among Black Caribbean and Black African females, lower systolic blood pressure (sBP) among Indian females and Pakistani/Bangladeshi males compared with White UK peers, persisted from 11–13 years. At 21–23 years, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was higher among Black Caribbean females, total cholesterol higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol lower among Pakistani/Bangladeshis. Overweight was associated with a ∼+2 mm Hg rise in sBP between 11–13 years and 21–23 years. Adiposity measures at 11–13 years were related to allostatic load (a cluster of several risk markers), HbA1c and HDL cholesterol at 21–23 years. Ethnic patterns in CVD biomarkers remained after adjustments. Conclusions Adolescent adiposity posed significant risks at 21–23 years, a period in the lifespan generally ignored in cardiovascular studies, when ethnic/gender variations in CVD are already apparent. PMID:27979836
Cosentino, Stephanie; Brickman, Adam M.; Griffith, Erica; Habeck, Christian; Cines, Sarah; Farrell, Meagan; Shaked, Danielle; Huey, Edward D.; Briner, Tamara; Stern, Yaakov
Unawareness of memory loss is a challenging characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other age-related neurodegenerative conditions at their earliest stages, adversely affecting important outcomes such as patient decision making and safety. The basis of this metacognitive disturbance has been elusive; however it is almost certainly determined in part by compromise to brain regions critical for self-assessment. The subjectivity of traditional measurements of self-awareness in dementia has likely limited the rigor with which its neuroanatomic correlates can be established. Here we objectively measure memory awareness (metamemory) using a Feeling of Knowing (FOK) task in a group of cognitively diverse older adults, including 14 with mild AD and 20 cognitively healthy older adults. Performance on the metamemory task was examined in relation to the structural integrity of 14 bilateral neuroanatomic regions hypothesized to support self-awareness. Less accurate metamemory was associated only with reduced right insular volume (r = .41, p = .019). Implications of the current findings for models of metacognitive aging are discussed, with attention to the role of the insula in the conscious detection of errors. PMID:26049091
Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. )
The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab
This study constructed an anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population. In total, thirty-seven body dimensions were measured among 3720 Iranian workers with different ethnicities (3000 male and 720 female; aged 20-60 years). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences for most of body dimensions among the ethnical groups. Moreover, the authors compared Iranian anthropometric characteristics with those of four Asian populations: Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Overall, 16 body dimensions for the five Asian populations were selected and compared. Accordingly, different morphological characteristics of these five populations were observed. The Iranian population showed wide shoulders and hips and long legs; the Chinese population showed narrow hips and shoulders and a short height relative to the other populations. The Korean sample recorded moderate body size comparing the other populations. The Taiwanese had large hands, relatively wide shoulders and short upper limbs. These differences in population dimensions should be taken into consideration for product and process design when expanding regional markets.
Crandell, Carl; Mills, Terry L; Gauthier, Ricardo
Over 11 million individuals exhibit some degree of permanent noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Despite such data, there remains a paucity of empirical evidence on the knowledge of noise exposure and hearing protection devices (HPDs) for young adults, particularly those of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. This lack of research is unfortunate, as prior research suggests that the incidence of NIHL can be reduced through educational programs, such as hearing conservation programs (HCPs). Moreover, research also indicates that such educational programs are more beneficial when developed for specific age and/or ethnic/racial groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the knowledge base of 200 college-aged young adults aged 18-29, concerning the auditory mechanism, NIHL, and the use of HPDs. The second aim of this study was to identify race and ethnicity differences or similarities in knowledge of these areas among African-American and caucasian young adults. Overall, in many instances, a majority of the young adults in our study demonstrated a high degree of knowledge concerning factors associated with exposure to excessive noise and the risk of hearing loss. Yet, the results also revealed significant racial/ethnic differences in knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about the use of HPDs. Recent estimates suggest that more than 11 million individuals in the United States exhibit some degree of NIHL. Moreover, 40 million individuals work in environments that contain potentially harmful noise levels, and over 50 million Americans routinely use firearms--a common cause of noise-induced hearing impairment. A specific hallmark manifestation of NIHL is a permanent decrease in hearing sensitivity from 3,000-6,000 Hz, with a characteristic notch at 4,000 Hz. Additional effects of exposure to high noise levels include physiological changes in heart rate and blood pressure, decrease in work productivity, and an interference with communication that results
Diversity Matters: New Directions for Institutional Research on Undergraduate Racial/Ethnic and Economic Diversity. SERU Project and Consortium Research Paper. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.11
This paper reviews the new directions in institutional research on undergraduate racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity at the University of California, Berkeley. The use of SERU/UCUES and other web-based census surveys has made possible more detailed and extensive analysis of student diversity. Included is research on an expanded number of…
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.
Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…
Marbley, Aretha Faye; Wimberly, Cynthia; Berg, Rachelle; Rouson, Leon; Wilkins, Erica
Using the lessons learned from mistakes made in their earlier clinical work with African American families, through the lens of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy theory, these culturally diverse practitioners use reflections from their counseling experiences to offer clinicians a people-responsive, diversity-sensitive framework and provide…
Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Hossellman, Emily
Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus--increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on…
Recruitment and retention of research participants is evolving with the changing demographics of the American population, in particular its growing diversity. The cultural-historical background and sociopolitical conditions of each diverse group poses unique challenges in developing successful recruitment and retention methods and strategies. This…
Objectives: To characterize dietary patterns among a diverse sample of older adults (= 65 years). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Five counties in west central Alabama. Participants: Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (N=416; 76.8 ± 5.2 years, 56% female, 39% African American) in the Univer...
Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh
Summary Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. Methods From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. Results The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 107-107 × 107. The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Conclusions Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future. PMID:24847189
Hoerr, Sharon L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Franklin, Frank; Liu, Yan
Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study's objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their young children and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically diverse families with limited incomes. This was a secondary analysis of dietary data on mother-child dyads from a cross-sectional study. The sample was 465 children (4.4+/-0.6 years) and their mothers, 41% African American, 34% Hispanic, and 21% white. Dietary and anthropometric data were collected in 52 Head Start centers in Alabama and Texas during 1 year starting fall 2004. Associations between mother-child intakes were examined by race/ethnicity using correlations. Calcium intake from dinners was predicted (stepwise regression) from four beverage categories-milk, sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juices, and non-energy-containing beverages plus water-and from cheese and dairy desserts. Overall, the mother's dinnertime intake of milk did not predict that of her child. Mother-child intakes of cheese, dairy desserts, and sweetened beverages correlated more strongly than did milk. All the beverages and dairy groups demonstrated moderate correlations for dyads with those for cheese (r=0.56), dairy desserts (r=0.39), fruit juice (r=0.36), and sweetened beverages (r=0.31) higher than that for milk overall (r=0.29, P<0.01). Milk and cheese predicted the most variance in calcium intake for both mothers and children overall (R(2)=0.82), and for all race-ethnic groups, except African-American children, where the contribution from cheese predominated. Food and nutrition professionals should encourage replacing sweet beverages at dinner with low-fat milk or calcium-fortified beverages to improve the nutrient density of meals.
Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Watson, Kathleen B; Jago, Russell; Islam, Noemi; Beltran, Alicia; Martin, Shelby J; Nguyen, Nga; Tepper, Beverly J
Sensitivity to the taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) (a bitter tasting chemical related to the phenylthiocarbamide found in cruciferous vegetables) has been related to dietary intake or preferences of cruciferous vegetables among adults and young children, but not middle aged children or adolescents. We hypothesized that PROP taste sensitivity is related to lower reported dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables, primarily among younger children (i.e. a moderating effect of child age). This study examined the relationship of PROP sensitivity to reported dietary intake across three days in two age groups of youth (9–10 years and 17–18 year), while statistically controlling for physical activity, social desirability and reporting bias. Cross sectional design was employed with a multi-ethnic (White, African American, Hispanic, and Other) sample of 843 males and females. Children were recruited from and data were collected in local elementary and high schools that had at least 30% ethnic minority enrollment. Children providing nonplausible reports of dietary intake were deleted from the analyses. BMI was calculated and expressed in z-scores. Energy intake and physical activity were measured by three telephone conducted 24-hour dietary recalls with the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR) and 5 days of Actigraph activity monitor. The primary analyses included 347 students. PROP sensitivity was not related to intake of cruciferous vegetables. Intakes of the cruciferous vegetables were low, which may explain the lack of relationship. PMID:21925344
Harawa, Nina T.; Leng, Mei; Kim, Junyeop; Cunningham, William Emery
Background A higher frequency of nonmonogamy, due in part to lower marriage prevalence, may contribute to elevated HIV/STD rates among older Blacks. Methods To examine race and gender differences in nonmonogamy, time spent single (i.e., not married or cohabiting), and HIV testing in older adults, we analyzed U.S. population-based data from the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) for 2,825 heterosexual participants ages 57-85 years. Results Blacks spent greater portions of their adult lives single than did Hispanics or Whites and were far more likely to report recent nonmonogamous partnerships (23.4% vs. 10.0% and 8.2%). Among individuals reporting sex in the prior 5 years, nonmonogamous partnerships were strongly associated with time spent single during the period. Control for time spent single and other covariates reduced the association of Black race with nonmonogamous partnerships for men but increased it for women. Less than 20% reported ever testing for HIV; less than 6% had been recommended testing by a provider. Testing rates, highest in Black men and White women, differed little by history of nonmonogamous partnerships within gender strata. Conclusions Singlehood helps to explain higher nonmonogamous partnership rates in older Black men but not older Black women. Older adults rarely receive or are recommended HIV testing, a key strategy for reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22082721
Examination of ancestry and ethnic affiliation using highly informative diallelic DNA markers: application to diverse and admixed populations and implications for clinical epidemiology and forensic medicine.
Yang, Nan; Li, Hongzhe; Criswell, Lindsey A; Gregersen, Peter K; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Kittles, Rick; Shigeta, Russell; Silva, Gabriel; Patel, Pragna I; Belmont, John W; Seldin, Michael F
We and others have identified several hundred ancestry informative markers (AIMs) with large allele frequency differences between different major ancestral groups. For this study, a panel of 199 widely distributed AIMs was used to examine a diverse set of 796 DNA samples including self-identified European Americans, West Africans, East Asians, Amerindians, African Americans, Mexicans, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and South Asians. Analysis using a Bayesian clustering algorithm (STRUCTURE) showed grouping of individuals with similar ethnic identity without any identifier other than the AIMs genotyping and showed admixture proportions that clearly distinguished different individuals of mixed ancestry. Additional analyses showed that, for the majority of samples, the predicted ethnic identity corresponded with the self-identified ethnicity at high probability (P > 0.99). Overall, the study demonstrates that AIMs can provide a useful adjunct to forensic medicine, pharmacogenomics and disease studies in which major ancestry or ethnic affiliation might be linked to specific outcomes.
Geller, Karly S; Nigg, Claudio R; Motl, Robert W; Horwath, Caroline; Dishman, Rod K
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) research applying the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to examine group differences and/or change over time requires preliminary evidence of factorial validity and invariance. The current study examined the factorial validity and longitudinal invariance of TTM constructs recently revised for PA. METHOD: Participants from an ethnically diverse sample in Hawaii (N=700) completed questionnaires capturing each TTM construct. RESULTS: Factorial validity was confirmed for each construct using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood. Longitudinal invariance was evidenced across a shorter (3-month) and longer (6-month) time period via nested model comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaires for each validated TTM construct are provided, and can now be generalized across similar subgroups and time points. Further validation of the provided measures is suggested in additional populations and across extended time points.
Nigg, Claudio R; Motl, Robert W; Horwath, Caroline; Dishman, Rod K
Objectives Physical activity (PA) research applying the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to examine group differences and/or change over time requires preliminary evidence of factorial validity and invariance. The current study examined the factorial validity and longitudinal invariance of TTM constructs recently revised for PA. Method Participants from an ethnically diverse sample in Hawaii (N=700) completed questionnaires capturing each TTM construct. Results Factorial validity was confirmed for each construct using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood. Longitudinal invariance was evidenced across a shorter (3-month) and longer (6-month) time period via nested model comparisons. Conclusions The questionnaires for each validated TTM construct are provided, and can now be generalized across similar subgroups and time points. Further validation of the provided measures is suggested in additional populations and across extended time points. PMID:22778669
Aiken, A R A; Lever, A M L
We surveyed the HIV-positive population attending a major teaching hospital sited outwith a major conurbation. Eighty-five percent of homosexually acquired infections were contracted within the UK and 91% of heterosexually acquired infections were contracted outside of the UK. A strikingly wide range of nationalities (45) and countries of origin of infection were represented within a relatively small patient population. Most patients were non-UK-born immigrants. A high proportion of illegal immigrants were identified within which there was a high proportion lost to follow-up. This degree of ethnic diversity and domiciliary instability is rarely a feature of non-HIV populations in this setting and imposes additional demands on delivery of care and health-care planning.
Iwamoto, Derek K; Creswell, John; Caldwell, Leon
Despite its national and international appeal, rap is considered one of the most controversial of music genres. Given the political charge it generates, rap music has spawned research across the social and health sciences. The majority of the research has investigated its impact on African Americans. Further, the research has tended to focus on negative aspects of the music; there has been a dearth of in-depth qualitative studies that explore how rap impacts the listener. Our phenomenological study explores that impact on ethnically diverse college students. Results indicate a profound psychological and educational effect and the discussion goes on to highlight the potential and innovative ways rap music can be utilized with adolescents in fields such as education, risk reduction programs, and counseling psychology.
Lim, Li Min; McStea, Megan; Chung, Wen Wei; Nor Azmi, Nuruljannah; Abdul Aziz, Siti Azdiah; Alwi, Syireen; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chua, Siew Siang
Background Polypharmacy has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the older population. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy in a cohort of urban community-dwelling older adults receiving chronic medications in Malaysia. Methods This was a baseline study in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research cohort. The inclusion criteria were individuals aged ≥55years and taking at least one medication chronically (≥3 months). Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during home visits where medications taken were reviewed. Health outcomes assessed were frequency of falls, functional disability, potential inappropriate medication use (PIMs), potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs), healthcare utilisation and quality of life (QoL). Risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy (≥5 medications including dietary supplements) were determined using multivariate regression models. Results A total of 1256 participants were included with a median (interquartile range) age of 69(63–74) years. The prevalence of polypharmacy was 45.9% while supplement users made up 56.9% of the cohort. The risk factors associated with increasing medication use were increasing age, Indian ethnicity, male, having a higher number of comorbidities specifically those diagnosed with cardiovascular, endocrine and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as supplement use. Health outcomes significantly associated with polypharmacy were PIMS, PDDIs and increased healthcare utilisation. Conclusion A significant proportion of older adults on chronic medications were exposed to polypharmacy and use of dietary supplements contributed significantly to this. Medication reviews are warranted to reduce significant polypharmacy related issues in the older population. PMID:28273128
Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H
Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities.
Roy, R; Symonds, R P; Kumar, D M; Ibrahim, K; Mitchell, A; Fallowfield, L
A total of 82 Asian and 117 randomly selected white Caucasian patients at the Leicestershire Cancer Centre were assessed using measures of coping and adaption to cancer. On the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale, Asian patients were more fatalistic (P<0.0001) and had more significant hopeless/helpless scores (P=0.007). The two ethnic groups answered the three questions thought to assess denial differently. Caucasians were more likely not to dwell on their illness (73 vs 55.5%, P<0.0001) and agree with the statement ‘I have difficulty believing this is happening to me' (73 vs 60.5%, P<0.0001). However, Asian patients were more likely to agree with the statement ‘I don't really believe I have cancer' (48.2 vs 31.3%, P=0.019). Within both groups there was an association with denial and anxious preoccupation (P<0.001). On the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, there was no difference in anxiety scores between either sexes or between the Asian and Caucasian groups. However, Asian patients were more depressed (P=0.001). Although denial was significantly related to the presence of both depression (P<0.0001) and anxiety (P=0.001) in the entire patient population, there were different predictors of denial in each subgroup. On multiple regression analysis depression was linked with denial in Caucasians, whereas Fighting Spirit (minus helplessness/hopelessness) was linked with denial in Asian patients. There are definite differences in coping styles in British cancer patients according to ethnicity. While significant numbers in both groups employ denial in some form, Caucasian patients appear to adapt to the psychological pressures of cancer more successfully than Asian patients at a particular point in time. Further work is required to elucidate longitudinal relationships between denial and adaption to cancer. PMID:15812548
Albright, Cheryl L; Schembre, Susan M; Steffen, Alana D; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Yonemori, Kim M; Murphy, Suzanne P
Dietary supplement use is widespread among adults across races/ethnicities, yet reasons for use can vary across these groups. The Supplement Reporting (SURE) study quantified dietary supplement use and reasons for taking supplements in a multiethnic sample of adults who took at least one supplement. This study explored sociodemographic differences, including by race/ethnicity, associated with specific reasons/motivations for taking dietary supplements, including perceived importance of taking supplements relative to prescription medications. The study time period was March 2005 to August 2006. Participants (n=397) were older adults (ages 52 to 88 years) recruited from the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with equal representation of males and females from six ethnic groups (ie, white, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, African American, US-born Latino, and foreign-born Latino). Subgroups of participants were compared by χ(2) tests and logistic regression. The most common reasons for taking supplements were to maintain a healthy life, because they were recommended by a health professional, and to prevent a disease/medical problem. A majority (76%) of participants reported that their dietary supplements were as important as prescription medications, with foreign-born Latinos and Japanese Americans being most likely to state this belief. The relative importance of supplements was not associated with excessive use, but 27% of participants exceeded the upper limit for a nutrient. It is crucial for health professionals to better understand why individuals take supplements and the importance that they attach to their use. This information could lead to better monitoring and education efforts to prevent overuse of supplements and possible interactions with medications.
Bliss, Donna Z.; Gurvich, Olga; Savik, Kay; Eberly, Lynn E.; Harms, Susan; Mueller, Christine; Wyman, Jean F.; Garrard, Judith; Virnig, Beth
Objective The objective of this study was to assess whether there are racial and ethnic disparities in the time to development of a pressure ulcer and number of pressure ulcer treatments in individuals aged 65 and older after nursing home admission. Method Multi-level predictors of time to a pressure ulcer from three national surveys were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression for White Non-Hispanic residents. Using the Peters–Belson method to assess for disparities, estimates from the regression models were applied to American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians/ Pacific Islanders, Blacks, and Hispanics separately resulting in estimates of expected outcomes as if they were White Non-Hispanic, and were then compared with their observed outcomes. Results More Blacks developed pressure ulcers sooner than expected. No disparities in time to a pressure ulcer disadvantaging other racial/ethnic groups were found. There were no disparities in pressure ulcer treatment for any group. Discussion Reducing disparities in pressure ulcer development offers a strategy to improve the quality of nursing home care. PMID:25260648
Featherstone, William H.
Recent demographic forecasts demonstrate the United States is rapidly becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. By the year 2050, demographers maintain the nation will advance to a "majority minority" state where non-Hispanic Whites will fall below 50%. For that reason, colleges and universities are reevaluating their mission and making…
The under-preparation in math at the high school and college levels, as well as the low participation of ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in STEM fields are concerning because their preparation for work in these areas is essential for the U.S. to remain competitive in the innovative knowledge economy. While there is now a…
Rowe-Whyte, Ann-Marie Simone
This study examined the nature of communication experienced by ethnically diverse students who participated in an online distance education course. A quantitative survey research design was used to gather data from students enrolled in an online distance education course. The research examined whether the independent variables, (a) instructional…
Stotzer, Rebecca L; Hossellman, Emily
Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus-increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on campus. Findings suggest that those schools that are most successful in recruiting the hardest to recruit minorities (Black and Latino students) report fewer hate crimes on campus. Implications for campus climate and racial dynamics on campus, as well as future research, are discussed.
Chin, Jeffrey, Ed.; Berheide, Catherine White, Ed.; Rome, Dennis, Ed.
This collection of essays is designed for the faculty member and others who care about the retention and success of students of color in gateway courses in Sociology. The book examines assumptions about diversity and teaching and learning and provides strategies for enacting learning environments that are more inclusive and conducive to the…
Lehavot, Keren; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Ibrahim-Wells, Gemma D.
Lesbian and bisexual women from diverse backgrounds possess unique viewpoints regarding the meanings and functions of "community." Despite this, few studies have explored sexual minority women's understanding of and relationship to their communities. The present study employed qualitative research methods to investigate the meanings and functions…
Trent, Judith S., Ed.
This collection of essays is designed for the faculty member and others who care about the retention and success of students of color in gateway courses in Communications. The book examines assumptions about diversity and teaching and learning, and provides strategies for enacting learning environments that are more inclusive and conducive to the…
Fowler, Shelli B., Ed.; Villanueva, Victor, Ed.
This collection of essays is designed for the faculty member and others who care about the retention and success of students of color in gateway courses in English. The book examines assumptions about diversity and teaching and learning, and provides strategies for enacting learning environments that are more inclusive and conducive to the success…
Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Gower, Barbara A.; Locher, Julie L.
The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person = 6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: 1) chicken (of any kind), 2) collard greens, 3) cornbread, 4) green or string beans, 5) fish (fried catfish is implied), 6) turnip greens, 7) potatoes, 8) apples, 9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and 10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions. PMID:23262296
Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R; Judd, Suzanne E; Gower, Barbara A; Locher, Julie L
The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person=6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: (1) chicken (of any kind), (2) collard greens, (3) cornbread, (4) green or string beans, (5) fish (fried catfish is implied), (6) turnip greens, (7) potatoes, (8) apples, (9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and (10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions.
Tomov, Martin L.; Olmsted, Zachary T.; Dogan, Haluk; Gongorurler, Eda; Tsompana, Maria; Otu, Hasan H.; Buck, Michael; Chang, Eun-Ah; Cibelli, Jose; Paluh, Janet L.
The realization of personalized medicine through human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology can be advanced by transcriptomics, epigenomics, and bioinformatics that inform on genetic pathways directing tissue development and function. When possible, population diversity should be included in new studies as resources become available. Previously we derived replicate iPSC lines of African American, Hispanic-Latino and Asian self-designated ethnically diverse (ED) origins with normal karyotype, verified teratoma formation, pluripotency biomarkers, and tri-lineage in vitro commitment. Here we perform bioinformatics of RNA-Seq and ChIP-seq pluripotency data sets for two replicate Asian and Hispanic-Latino ED-iPSC lines that reveal differences in generation of contractile cardiomyocytes but similar and robust differentiation to multiple neural, pancreatic, and smooth muscle cell types. We identify shared and distinct genes and contributing pathways in the replicate ED-iPSC lines to enhance our ability to understand how reprogramming to iPSC impacts genes and pathways contributing to cardiomyocyte contractility potential. PMID:27917881
Frosch, Dominick L.; Légaré, France; Mangione, Carol M.
Objective To assess the effects of informational brochures and video decision aids about cancer screening on patient intention to engage in shared decision making and its predictors in a racially diverse sample. Methods Participants were recruited from 13 community-based primary care practices serving racially and ethnically diverse patients in predominately economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants completed theory-based measures assessing attitudes, perceived social norms, self-efficacy and intentions for working with their physician to make a cancer screening decision after reviewing a brochure or video decision aid, but before seeing the physician. A post-questionnaire assessed screening decisions and participant knowledge. Results Participants who reviewed a video decision aid had higher knowledge and were more likely to want to be the primary decision-maker. They reported lower perceived social norms, self-efficacy and intentions to work with their physicians than participants who reviewed a brochure. Participants who decided against cancer screening reported lower intentions to work with their physician in making a decision and were less likely to report having spoken with their physician about screening. Conclusion Participants who opted against cancer screening after reviewing a brochure or decision aid were less likely to discuss their decision with their physician. The tendency toward autonomous decision-making was stronger among participants who reviewed a video decision aid. PMID:18771875
Shalabe, Haitham; Terkel-Dawer, Ruth; Akawi, Ashraf; Zelnik, Nathanel
Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P < 0.05), while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS) were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors. PMID:25984535
HLA-B27 is a serological specificity which encompasses an increasing number of subtypes that show varied racial/ethnic prevalence in the world. Here, data from 5129 Indians (4500 population and caste; 629 tribal) is compiled from the literature. In addition, HLA-B27 subtyping of 58 positive individuals from Maharastra is presented. Analysis revealed an increased B27 antigen frequency among the north Indian groups (>5%) compared to the south Indian groups (<5%). HLA-B27 subtyping identified B*2704 (34.48%), B*2705 (36.2%), B*2707 (15.51%), B*2708 (10.34%) and B*2714 (3.44%) alleles in the population groups from Maharastra, but these differed in their distribution among the caste and tribal groups studied. The study showed that more extensive subtyping in other Indian caste groups will be necessary to resolve the evolutionary implications of HLA-B27 subtypes and their relationship to disease association in the Indian context.
Cobb, Ryon J.; Perry, Samuel L.; Dougherty, Kevin D.
This study examines the extent to which the racial composition of a congregation moderates explanations for Black/White inequality among White, Black, and Hispanic congregants. Using nationally representative data from General Social Surveys and National Congregations Studies, we find that religiously affiliated Blacks and Hispanics tend to hold different racial attitudes than religiously affiliated Whites, but these differences largely disappear inside multiracial congregations. Importantly, we find that attending a multiracial congregation is unassociated with Whites’ explanations for racial inequality, and Blacks who attend multiracial congregations are actually less likely to affirm structural explanations for Black/White inequality than Blacks in nonmultiracial congregations or Whites in multiracial congregations. We find little evidence that multiracial congregations promote progressive racial views among attendees of any race or ethnicity. Rather, our findings suggest that multiracial congregations (1) leave dominant White racial frames unchallenged, potentially influencing minority attendees to embrace such frames and/or (2) attract racial minorities who are more likely to embrace those frames in the first place. PMID:27429542
SABRI, BUSHRA; BOLYARD, RICHELLE; MCFADGION, AKOSOA L.; STOCKMAN, JAMILA K.; LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; CALLWOOD, GLORIA B.; COVERSTON, CATHERINE R.; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.
Background This study examined exposure to violence and risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships as factors related to co-occurring MH problems and use of mental health (MH) resources among women of African descent. Methods Black women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences (n=431) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in the US and the US Virgin Islands. Results Severity of IPV was significantly associated with co-occurring MH problems, but was not associated with the use of MH resources among African American women. Risk for lethality and co-occurring problems were also not significantly related to the use of resources. African Caribbean women with severe physical abuse experiences were significantly less likely to use resources. In contrast, severity of physical abuse was positively associated with the use of resources among Black women with mixed ethnicity. Conclusions Severe IPV experiences are risk factors for co-occurring MH problems, which in turn, increases the need for MH services. However, Black women may not seek help for MH problems. Thus, social work practitioners in health care settings must thoroughly assess women for their IPV experiences and develop tailored treatment plans that address their abuse histories and MH needs. PMID:23581838
Sabri, Bushra; Bolyard, Richelle; McFadgion, Akosoa L; Stockman, Jamila K; Lucea, Marguerite B; Callwood, Gloria B; Coverston, Catherine R; Campbell, Jacquelyn C
This study examined exposure to violence and risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships as factors related to co-occurring MH problems and use of mental health (MH) resources among women of African descent. Black women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences (n = 431) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in the United States and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Severity of IPV was significantly associated with co-occurring MH problems, but was not associated with the use of MH resources among African-American women. Risk for lethality and co-occurring problems were also not significantly related to the use of resources. African Caribbean women with severe physical abuse experiences were significantly less likely to use resources. In contrast, severity of physical abuse was positively associated with the use of resources among Black women with mixed ethnicity. Severe IPV experiences are risk factors for co-occurring MH problems, which in turn, increases the need for MH services. However, Black women may not seek help for MH problems. Thus, social work practitioners in health care settings must thoroughly assess women for their IPV experiences and develop tailored treatment plans that address their abuse histories and MH needs.
Mahajnah, Muhammad; Sharkia, Rajech; Shalabe, Haitham; Terkel-Dawer, Ruth; Akawi, Ashraf; Zelnik, Nathanel
Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P < 0.05), while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS) were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors.
Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s day-to-day functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem. PMID:19908103
Iqbal, Humera; Neal, Sarah; Vincent, Carol
This article explores how children make, manage, or avoid friendships in super-diverse primary school settings. We draw on interviews and pictorial data from 78 children, aged 8–9 years across three local London primary schools to identify particular friendship groupings and the extent to which they followed existing patterns of social division. Children in the study did recognise social and cultural differences, but their friendship perceptions, affections, conflicts and practices meant that the way in which difference impacted relationships was partial and unstable. Friendship practices in the routine settings of school involved interactions across difference, but also entrenchments around similarity. PMID:28232774
Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.; Ritch, Donna
In an effort to create a more culturally inclusive undergraduate science curriculum, a course entitled "Ethnic Minorities in Science" was designed and implemented. The course has the following learning objectives: 1). to understand the history and culture of science in the U.S., in order to recognize what has led to the current under representation of specific ethnic groups in the sciences; 2). to appreciate the often undervalued or overlooked contributions of minority scientists and physicians; 3). to gain a perspective on the disparities in the quality of health care available to various ethnic groups in the U.S.; and 4). to identify ways to initiate change and improve the climate for minorities in the fields of science and medicine. Course readings, pedagogical methods, and the impact of the course on students' awareness of diversity issues in science are discussed.
Chang, Janet; McAllister, Carolyn; McCaslin, Rosemary
Older adults constitute the group with the greatest increase in Internet usage in the past decade; however, usage varies greatly within this population. Services to older adults require a current understanding of Internet-use trends. This study utilized a quantitative survey method to examine correlates of, and barriers to, current Internet use in a demographically diverse county in Southern California. Findings indicate that the presence of a computer at home, a job requiring computer use, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors in predicting Internet use in older adults. Implications for social work practice with older adults is discussed.
Michos, Erin D.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Szklo, Moyses; Burke, Gregory L.; Siscovick, David S.; Tracy, Russell P.; Barr, R. Graham; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Greenland, Philip; Jacobs, David R.; Post, Wendy
Coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intimal medial thickness (cIMT), and reduced ankle brachial indices (ABI) are markers of subclinical vascular disease strongly associated with aging. We identified factors associated with low levels of subclinical vascular disease in 1824 participants ≥70 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. 452 had low CAC (<25th percentile), 441 had low cIMT (<25th percentile), 1636 had normal ABI (>0.9), and 165 had a combination index indicating favorable values for all three parameters. This combination index was independently associated with younger age [OR=2.5 per 1 SD (95%CI 1.8–3.6)], female gender [OR=3.0(1.9–4.8)], lower BMI [OR=1.6 per 1 SD (1.2–2.0)], absence of hypertension [OR=1.8(1.2–2.6)], absence of dyslipidemia [OR=1.6 (1.04–2.4)], and never smoking [OR=1.7(1.1–2.6)]. No significant associations were observed for C-reactive protein, education, diet, or physical activity. Favorable levels of multiple traditional risk factors, but not several novel risk factors, were associated with subclinical markers of successful cardiovascular aging. PMID:19476580
Hagan, Melissa J; Sulik, Michael J; Lieberman, Alicia F
Studies of the association between traumatic experiences and psychopathology in early childhood have primarily focused on specific types of events (e.g., sexual abuse) or aggregated different types of events without differentiating among them. We extend this body of work by investigating patterns of traumatic event exposure in a high-risk, ethnically diverse sample of children ages 3-6 (N = 211; 51 % female) and relating these different patterns to parents' reports of child externalizing, internalizing, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology. Using latent class analysis, which divides a heterogeneous population into homogenous subpopulations, we identified three patterns of traumatic events based on parents' responses to an interview-based assessment of trauma exposure in young children: (1) severe exposure, characterized by a combination of family violence and victimization; (2) witnessing family violence without victimization; and (3) moderate exposure, characterized by an absence of family violence but a moderate probability of other events. The severe exposure class exhibited elevated internalizing and post-traumatic stress symptoms relative to the witness to violence and moderate exposure classes, controlling for average number of traumatic events. Results highlight the need for differentiation between profiles of traumatic life event exposure and the potential for person-centered methods to complement the cumulative risk perspective.
DiStefano, Anthony S; Gill, Jasmeet K; Hubach, Randolph D; Cayetano, Reggie T; Hilbert, Cary J
Associations linking HIV infection to violence and abuse are well documented; however, little is known about how violence/abuse is related to HIV testing behavior, particularly among undergraduate university students, who test at lower rates compared to non-student peers in the United States. We assessed history of HIV testing in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduates in California (n = 1,210); and examined potential associations between testing and various forms of violence/abuse, while controlling for covariates. Whereas 73.4% of students were sexually active in the past year, only 26.3% had ever tested for HIV. At the bivariate level, testing was associated with experiencing verbal abuse and sexual violence/coercion, and perpetrating verbal abuse. Experiencing verbal abuse remained significant in multivariate analysis. We discuss findings in a syndemics framework, considered in combination with social psychology-based health behavior theories. Enhanced HIV testing scale-up initiatives for undergraduates are needed and should consider integration with violence prevention programs.
Wilcox, Sara; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Mathews, Anna E.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sahyoun, Nadine; Robare, Joseph F.; Liu, Rui
Purpose: To examine older adults' perceptions of the link between physical activity (PA) and nutrition to the maintenance of cognitive health. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 396 ethnically diverse (White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic) community-dwelling older adults. FGs…
Kivett, Vira R.
Examined ethnic diversity of the grandmother role and implications for strengthening support networks of older African-American women. Findings from 79 African-American grandmothers and 87 white grandmothers 65 years of age and older showed cultural distinctions in grandmother role. Results have important implications for strengthening the natural…
Kapadia, F; Siconolfi, D E; Barton, S; Olivieri, B; Lombardo, L; Halkitis, P N
Associations between social support network characteristics and sexual risk among racially/ethnically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM) were examined using egocentric network data from a prospective cohort study of YMSM (n = 501) recruited in New York City. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between social support network characteristics and sexual risk taking behaviors in Black, Hispanic/Latino, and White YMSM. Bivariate analyses indicated key differences in network size, composition, communication frequency and average relationship duration by race/ethnicity. In multivariable analyses, controlling for individual level sociodemographic, psychosocial and relationship factors, having a sexual partner in one's social support network was associated with unprotected sexual behavior for both Hispanic/Latino (AOR = 3.90) and White YMSM (AOR = 4.93). Further examination of key network characteristics across racial/ethnic groups are warranted in order to better understand the extant mechanisms for provision of HIV prevention programming to racially/ethnically diverse YMSM at risk for HIV.
Rodriguez, James; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana; Smith, Emilie Phillips; Johnson, Deborah J
We review and summarize the findings across 7 studies contained in the special section titled, "Racial-Ethnic Socialization, Identity, and Youth Outcomes: Excavating Culture." These studies represent a significant advance for research in issues related to the impact of racial-ethnic socialization and identity on child outcomes. All 7 studies attempted to test in whole or part a hypothetical model in which ethnic-racial socialization in families of color is related to child psychosocial and academic outcomes directly and indirectly through effects on self-system variables such as racial-ethnic identity and self-esteem. Two types of racial socialization messages were of particular interest: messages that promote cultural pride (referred to as ethnic or cultural socialization) and messages that address children's exposure to discrimination (referred to as racial socialization). Collectively, the studies suggest that ethnic-racial socialization processes are related to youth outcomes through indirect associations with ethnic-racial identity and self-esteem. Findings were most consistent in the studies with African American youth and some aspects of the model were not supported for American Indian and Chinese youth. Ethnic and racial group differences and directions for future research are discussed.
Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria
Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…
Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.
The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities…
Bostean, Georgiana; Roberts, Christian K.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Prelip, Michael; Peters, Anne; Belin, Thomas R.; McCarthy, William J.
Purpose This study examined how race-ethnicity, nativity, and education interact to influence disparities in cardiovascular (CV) health, a new concept defined by the American Heart Association (AHA). We assessed whether race-ethnicity and nativity disparities in CV health vary by education, and whether the foreign-born differ in CV health from their US-born race-ethnic counterparts with comparable education. Methods We used data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to determine the prevalence of optimal CV health metrics (based on selected AHA guidelines) among adults ages 25 and over (n = 42,014). We examined the interaction between education and ethnicity-nativity, comparing predicted probabilities of each CV health measure between US-born and foreign-born Whites, Asians, and Latinos. Results All groups were at high risk of suboptimal physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable and fast food consumption, and overweight/obesity. Those with higher education were generally better-off, except among Asians. Ethnicity-nativity differences were more pronounced among those with less than a college degree. The foreign-born exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in CV health compared to their US-born counterparts that varied by ethnicity-nativity. Conclusions Education influences ethnicity-nativity disparities in CV health, with most race-ethnic and nativity differences occurring among the less educated. Studies of nativity differences in CV health should stratify by education in order to adequately address SES differences. PMID:23726820
This dissertation investigates the implications of student-teacher racial/ethnic matching on two educational outcomes. The fourth chapter investigates whether assignment to same-race teachers affects students' math and reading achievement growth in early elementary grades and whether the overall racial/ethnic composition of the teaching workforce…
Winsler, Adam; Hutchison, Lindsey A; De Feyter, Jessica J; Manfra, Louis; Bleiker, Charles; Hartman, Suzanne C; Levitt, Jerome
Concern about kindergarten retention is on the rise within the current climate of high-stakes testing and escalating kindergarten expectations. Kindergarten retention has been linked in previous research to various risk factors such as poverty, low maternal education, single parent status, minority status, English language learner (ELL) status, and male gender. However, these factors are also associated with poor school readiness and low kindergarten performance--the very reasons children are retained in the 1st place. This study teases apart unique and combined predictors of delayed entry into kindergarten and kindergarten retention with a large (n = 13,191) ethnically diverse, at-risk sample of children. Delayed kindergarten entry was rare for this sample but more likely among boys, native English speakers, those with poorer school readiness, less maternal education, and greater resources, and those who attended childcare rather than public school prekindergarten (pre-K) at age 4 years. Boys were more likely to be retained in kindergarten, but only because of their poorer school readiness. After strong effects for age 4 school readiness were controlled, only poverty, ELL status, and preschool program attendance predicted retention. ELL students were less likely to be retained than were native speakers, and those who attended public school pre-K programs were less likely to be retained, compared with those in childcare at age 4 years. After controlling for children's actual performance in kindergarten their 1st time, Caucasian children and children with lower language and social skills at age 4 years were more likely to repeat kindergarten.
Chesin, Megan S; Jeglic, Elizabeth L
Although one-third of enrolled U.S. undergraduate college students are non-White, little is known about risk factors for suicidal behavior among racial and ethnic minority students. Thus, we set out to determine psychosocial factors associated with recurrent suicidal ideation among racially and ethnically diverse college students with a history of suicide attempt. From 2012-2013, 1,734 racially and ethnically diverse college students completed an on-line survey of suicidal behavior and associated factors. Depression, hopelessness, rejection sensitivity, and mindfulness, as well as past-year discrimination, ethnic identification, and acculturative stress were measured using well-validated self-report instruments. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was used to assess current suicidal ideation. A subsample of 118 college students who self-reported a past suicide attempt were selected for the current analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to test associations between risk factors and the presence of suicidal ideation, and linear regression analysis was used to test factors associated with suicidal ideation severity among those who reported current suicidal ideation. Depression was significantly related to both the presence and severity of current suicidal ideation. Mindfulness, and in particular awareness of present moment experience, was also inversely associated with ideation severity. We found depression and mindlessness were associated with suicidal ideation severity among a sample of diverse college students at high risk for suicidal behavior due to a past suicide attempt. Factors unique to the minority experience, such as acculturative stress, were not associated with current suicidal ideation. Implications for suicide prevention are discussed.
Ballantyne, Peri J.; Mirza, Raza M.; Austin, Zubin; Boon, Heather S.; Fisher, Judith E.
Because medication prescribing and use have become a normative aspect of health care for older adults, we seek to understand how individuals navigate prescribed-medication use within the context of aging. We reasoned that, for those who are ambulatory, medication use is likely influenced by ethnocultural meanings of health and experiences with…
Daniel, Philip T. K.
Explores the pattern of ethnic attitude formation toward careers among young children and how television influences these attitudes. Also discusses other influencers of children's attitudes: parents, teachers, and peers. (CT)
Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures.
Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747
Marlow, Laura A V; McGregor, Lesley M; Nazroo, James Y; Wardle, Jane
Objective Earlier diagnosis of cancer has become a policy priority. There is evidence that minority ethnic groups are more likely to delay help-seeking for cancer symptoms, but few studies have explored reasons for delay in these groups. The present study explored facilitators and barriers to help-seeking for breast and cervical cancer in an ethnically diverse sample of women. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 54 healthy women from a range of ethnic backgrounds; Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White British and White other. Framework analysis was used to identify themes. Results Appraising a symptom as possibly due to cancer was an important facilitator of help-seeking, although for some the prospect of a cancer diagnosis was a deterrent. Women believed that earlier diagnosis improved the chance of survival, and this facilitated prompt help-seeking. A sympathetic GP facilitated help-seeking, and an unsympathetic GP was a deterrent. Some ethnic minority women described the use of alternative medicine and prayer as a first-line strategy that might delay help-seeking. Language barriers, racism and a tendency to ‘soldier on’ were also mentioned by these women. Conclusions Models of delay in presentation for early cancer symptoms are likely to transfer across different ethnic groups. Encouraging open discussion about cancer among minority communities could help raise awareness about the importance of early detection and promote help-seeking as a priority response to a possible cancer symptom. © 2013 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24352798
Levine, Ellen G.; Aviv, Caryn; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred
Introduction One in ten women over the age of 65 will develop breast cancer. Despite this high incidence of breast cancer among older women, social support for them is often inadequate. This paper describes a qualitative study of the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on older women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and their subsequent need for social support. Methods Forty-seven older African American, Asian American, Caucasian and Latina women between the ages of 65 to 83 participated in a larger study examining the impact of breast cancer on women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and the meaning and nature of social support. The women completed an in-depth qualitative interview on the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and the meaning and nature of social support. Results and Conclusion The results indicate that there are variations in reactions to a breast cancer diagnosis among older women, and that these reactions impact their experiences with seeking social support at diagnosis and during treatment. Respondents were concerned about their aging bodies, potential dependency on others, and loss of autonomy. At the same time, the severity of cancer treatment and existing co-morbidities often meant they needed to learn to receive support, and to reach out if they had no support. The implications of these findings underscore the older cancer patient’s need to strengthen her supportive networks at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and post-treatment. PMID:20967554
Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Hughson, Jo-anne; Parker, Anna; Bresin, Agnese; Hajek, John; Knoch, Ute; Phan, Tuong Dien; Story, David
Background Low-participation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients in medical research remains a problem in migrant and refugee destination countries such as Australia. The aims of this study were to explore i) CALD persons’ perceptions and experiences of the medical system and medical research, in this case, older Italian Australians; and ii) the views of research professionals on CALD patient participation in medical research. Design and Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, in 2015 utilising in-depth interviews and focus groups with four stakeholder groups: older Italian Australians (n=21); adult children of older Italian Australians (n=10); hospital Human Research Ethics Committee administrators (n=4); and clinical researchers (n=4). The data were analysed for content and thematic analysis. Results Themes for the CALD and family group were getting by in medical interactions; receptivity to medical research: testing the waters; and, receptivity to technology for support: passive versus active. Themes for the researcher and HREC groups about CALD patient participation in research were: exclusion; cultural factors; and e-consent. Conclusions Our findings from four stakeholder perspectives and experiences confirm that there were considerable cultural, linguistic, and resourcing barriers hindering the participation of older Italian-Australians in medical research. Furthermore, our findings showed that in this study setting there were few enabling strategies in place to address these barriers despite the national ethics guidelines for equitable participation in research. The findings informed the creation of a multimedia tool whose purpose is to address and improve representation of CALD groups in clinical research. Significance for public health Many people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds remain excluded from medical research such as clinical trials due to a range of language and
Claudat, Kim; Warren, Cortney S; Durette, Robert T
This study investigated the relationships between body surveillance, body shame, and contextual body image during sexual activity in American female college students of European, African, Asian, and Hispanic/Latina descent (N=1174). Responses to self-report questionnaires indicated that body surveillance and body shame were significantly positively correlated with contextual body concern during sexual activities for women of all ethnic groups. Examination of direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling indicated that body shame partially mediated the relationship between body surveillance and contextual body image during sexual activity for the sample as a whole. However, multiple-group analyses (i.e., path invariance tests) showed that some of these relationships differed by ethnic group, with European American women reporting the strongest relationships. Study results generally support the mediational role of body shame, but highlight that the strength of these relationships and means may differ across ethnic groups.
Sparks, David M.
The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments
Kelly, Ursula A; Pich, Kourou
The objectives of this study were to: (1) Determine the feasibility of a community-based intervention for Latinas with PTSD who experienced IPV; (2) Explore the intervention effectiveness in reducing PTSD and improving quality of life, social support and self-efficacy. This was a feasibility study, using intervention pre-test/post-test qualitative and quantitative data. The experience of living through and surviving IPV was far more important than ethnicity in cultural identity. Significant reductions in PTSD and MDD and increased self-efficacy were sustained 6-months post-intervention. Culturally relevant mental health IPV interventions can be feasible and appropriate across ethnic groups.
Stedman, Caryn White
A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…
Tanner, Amanda E; Mann, Lilli; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Schafer, Katherine; Arellano, Elías; Garcia, Jesus M; Rhodes, Scott D
Estimates suggest that only about 30% of all individuals living with HIV in the U.S. have achieved viral suppression. Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly racial/ethnic minority young MSM, are at increased risk for HIV infection and may have even lower viral suppression rates. HIV testing rates among MSM are low, and when tested, racial/ethnic minority young MSM have disproportionately lower rates of retention in care and viral suppression compared to other subgroups. This article describes the design and development of weCare, our social media-based intervention to improve care linkage and retention and health outcomes among racially and ethnically diverse MSM, ages 13-34, living with HIV that will be implemented and evaluated beginning in late 2016. The intervention harnesses established social media that MSM between these ages commonly use, including Facebook, text messaging, and established GPS-based mobile applications (apps). We are using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to enhance the quality and validity of weCare, equitably involving community members, organization representatives, healthcare providers, clinic staff, and academic researchers.
Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L.; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne
Background To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Methods Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. Results The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. Conclusions The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. PMID:26054910
Lazarin, Gabriel A.; Haque, Imran S.; Nazareth, Shivani; Iori, Kevin; Patterson, A. Scott; Jacobson, Jessica L.; Marshall, John R.; Seltzer, William K.; Patrizio, Pasquale; Evans, Eric A.; Srinivasan, Balaji S.
Purpose: Recent developments in genomics have led to expanded carrier screening panels capable of assessing hundreds of causal mutations for genetic disease. This new technology enables simultaneous measurement of carrier frequencies for many diseases. As the resultant rank-ordering of carrier frequencies impacts the design and prioritization of screening programs, the accuracy of this ranking is a public health concern. Methods: A total of 23,453 individuals from many obstetric, genetics, and infertility clinics were referred for routine recessive disease carrier screening. Multiplex carrier screening was performed and results were aggregated for this study. Results: Twenty-four percent of individuals were identified as carriers for at least one of 108 disorders, and 5.2% were carriers for multiple disorders. We report tabulations of carrier frequency by self-identified ethnicity and disease. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study of a large, ethnically diverse clinical sample provides the most accurate measurements to date of carrier frequencies for hundreds of recessive alleles. The study also yields information on the clinical considerations associated with routine use of expanded panels and provides support for a pan-ethnic screening paradigm that minimizes the use of “racial” categories by the physician, as recommended by recent guidelines. PMID:22975760
Benjamins, Maureen R
Discrimination is detrimental to health behaviors and outcomes, but little is known about which measures of discrimination are most strongly related to health, if relationships with health outcomes vary by race/ethnicity, and if coping responses moderate these associations. To explore these issues, the current study assessed race/ethnic differences in five measures of race/ethnic discrimination, as well as emotional and behavioral coping responses, within a population-based sample of Whites, African Americans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans (n = 1,699). Stratified adjusted logistic regression models were run to examine associations between the discrimination measures and mental, physical, and health behavior outcomes and to test the role of coping. Overall, 86 % of the sample reported discrimination. Puerto Ricans were more likely than Mexicans and Whites to report most types of discrimination but less likely than Blacks. Discrimination was most strongly related to depression and was less consistently (or not) associated with physical health and health behaviors. Differences by measure of discrimination and respondent race/ethnicity were apparent. No support was found to suggest that coping responses moderate the association between discrimination and health. More work is needed to understand the health effects of this widespread social problem. In addition, interventions attempting to reduce health disparities need to take into account the influence of discrimination.
Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel
The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…
Wren, Frances J.; Berg, Eric A.; Heiden, Lynda A.; Kinnamon, Carolyn J.; Ohlson, Lirio A.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Bernal, M. Pilar
Objective: To explore in a multiethnic primary care population the impact of child gender and of race/ethnicity on parent and child reports of school-age anxiety and on the factor structure of the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Method: A consecutive sample of 515 children (8 to less than 13 years) and their…
Erickson, Sarah J.; Hahn-Smith, Anne; Smith, Jane Ellen
Empirical support for the association between childhood overweight and low self-esteem is equivocal. The present study investigated how weight, ethnicity, body esteem, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating attitudes/behaviors contribute to global and dimensional self-esteem in a non-clinical sample of Hispanic- and Anglo-American grade 3-6…
Gerke, Clarice K.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Kliewer, Wendy
Objective: The goals of this study were to examine the role of dissociation and depression as possible mediators of the relationship between several forms of childhood trauma and bulimic symptomatology and to explore potential ethnic differences in these relationships. Method: Four hundred seventeen female undergraduates participated in this…
Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.
This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…
Berryhill, Joseph C.; Bee, Erin K.
Colleges often seek to promote a psychological sense of community (PSOC) among their students. However, there is limited research on factors promoting PSOC, and little empirical evidence on whether students of different ethnic backgrounds might experience PSOC differently. This study, which took place on a predominantly White campus, explored…
Bjarkman, Peter C.
Continues the discussion of the contributions of racial and ethnic minorities to baseball history, focusing on African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Jews. Nonfiction and fiction works dealing with minority groups in baseball are briefly reviewed for their portrayal of the American experience. (SLD)
Šabanović, Selma; Bennett, Casey C; Chang, Wan-Ling; Huber, Lesa
We evaluated the seal-like robot PARO in the context of multi-sensory behavioral therapy in a local nursing home. Participants were 10 elderly nursing home residents with varying levels of dementia. We report three principle findings from our observations of interactions between the residents, PARO, and a therapist during seven weekly therapy sessions. Firstly, we show PARO provides indirect benefits for users by increasing their activity in particular modalities of social interaction, including visual, verbal, and physical interaction, which vary between primary and non-primary interactors. Secondly, PARO's positive effects on older adults' activity levels show steady growth over the duration of our study, suggesting they are not due to short-term "novelty effects." Finally, we show a variety of ways in which individual participants interacted with PARO and relate this to the "interpretive flexibility" of its design.
Guaraldi, Giovanni; Zona, Stefano; Brothers, Thomas D.; Carli, Federica; Stentarelli, Chiara; Dolci, Giovanni; Santoro, Antonella; Beghetto, Barbara; Menozzi, Marianna; Mussini, Cristina; Falutz, Julian
Objective People aging with HIV might have different health conditions compared with people who seroconverted at older ages. The study objective was to assess the prevalence of, and risk factors for, individual co-morbidities and multimorbidity (MM) between HIV-positive patients with a longer duration of HIV infection, and patients who seroconverted at an older age. We compared estimates across both groups to a matched community-based cohort sampled from the general population. Methods We performed a case-control study including antiretroviral therapy (ART)–experienced patients who were HIV seropositive for ≥ 20.6 years (“HIV-Aging”), or who were seropositive for < 11.3 years (“HIV-Aged”) having access in 2013 at the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic. Patients were matched in a 1:3 ratio with controls from the CINECA ARNO database. MM was defined as the concurrent presence of >2 NICM. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associated predictors of NICM and MM. Results We analysed 404 HIV-Aging and 404 HIV-Aged participants in comparison to 2424 controls. The mean age was 46.7±6.2 years, 28.9% were women. Prevalence of HIV co-morbidities and MM were significantly higher in the HIV-positive groups compared to the general population (p<0.001) and a trend towards higher rates of MM was found in aging vs aged group. This difference turned to be significant in patients above the age of 45 years old (p<0.001). Conclusions People aging with HIV display heterogeneous health conditions. Host factors and duration of HIV infection are associated with increased risk of MM compared to the general population. PMID:25874806
Lash, Denise N; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K
Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans' numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one's weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB's ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans' facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular.
Ahmad, Rahimah; Saleem, Mohamed; Aloysious, Nisha Sabrina; Yelumalai, Punithawathy; Mohamed, Nurul; Hassan, Syahzuwan
Alpha thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the plural society of Malaysia and is a public health problem. Haematological and molecular data from 5016 unrelated patients referred from various hospitals to the Institute for Medical Research for α thalassaemia screening from 2007 to 2010 were retrieved. The aims of this retrospective analysis were to describe the distribution of various alpha thalassaemia alleles in different ethnic groups, along with their genotypic interactions, and to illustrate the haematological changes associated with each phenotype. Amongst the patients, 51.2% (n = 2567) were diagnosed with α thalassaemia. Of the 13 α thalassaemia determinants screened, eight different deletions and mutations were demonstrated: three double gene deletions, --(SEA), --(THAI), --(FIL); two single-gene deletions, α-³·⁷ and -α⁴·²; and three non-deletion mutations, Cd59G > A (haemoglobin [Hb] Adana), Cd125T > C (Hb Quong Sze) and Cd142 (Hb Constant Spring). A high incidence of α-³·⁷ deletion was observed in Malays, Indians, Sabahans, Sarawakians and Orang Asli people. However, the --SEA deletion was the most common cause of alpha thalassaemia in Chinese, followed by the α-³·⁷ deletion. As many as 27 genotypic interactions showed 1023 α thalassaemia silent carriers, 196 homozygous α⁺ thalassaemia traits, 973 heterozygous α⁰ thalassaemia carriers and 375 patients with Hb H disease. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the distribution of α thalassaemia determinants amongst the various ethnic groups. Hence, the heterogeneous distribution of common determinants indicated that the introduction of an ethnicity-targeted hierarchical α thalassaemia screening approach in this multi-ethnic Malaysian population would be effective.
Zimmerman, Molly E.; Lipton, Richard B.; Santoro, Nanette; McConnell, Daniel S.; Derby, Carol A.; Katz, Mindy J.; Baigi, Khosrow; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel
This study examined the relationship between endogenous hormones and cognitive function in nondemented, ethnically-diverse community-dwelling older men enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study (EAS). All eligible participants (185 men, mean age = 81 years) received neuropsychological assessment (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Logical…
Yost, Robert W.; Gonzalez, Edward L. F.
Analogical reasoning is integral to everyday living. The diversity associated with a coral reef provides a familiar model for initiating discussions focusing on cultural diversity and gender of past and present scientists with non-western science endeavors. These concepts are strengthened through the use of scientific biographical and historical…
Lo, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L
Food quality is a measure of food security in vulnerable groups. The elderly are often nutritionally vulnerable, but how much of this is reflected in food quality and determined by financial status is unclear. We determined whether expenditure on dietary quality challenges food security in the aged. We used the representative Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan during 1999-2000 (n=1783), and evaluated dietary quality by a Dietary Diversity Score (DDS, range: 0-6) based on a 24-h dietary recall. Monthly mean national food prices were used to estimate food expenditure. In general, it was found to cost more to achieve a greater DDS. The food expenditure of subjects whose DDS=6 was 2.20 times greater than the DDS ≤3 group, after controlling for covariates. Elders of lower socioeconomic status tended to choose foods which would have cost less. However, a sub-group of elders who achieve the highest DDS with limited money offer approaches to food-money management. Nutrition policy directed to food insecure groups, like the aged, could employ health promotion strategies which reduce financial barriers to healthy eating.
Maynard, Maria; Baker, Graham; Harding, Seeromanie
Small-scale, detailed exploration of the recruitment, assessment, and evaluation processes of obesity intervention among minority ethnic children. The study took place in schools and places of worship during 2008-2010 in London, UK. Measures included 3-day food diaries, 24 h dietary recalls, the Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire, accelerometry, and diet and physical activity self-efficacy questionnaires. Potential intervention components were evaluated via observation, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. Schools and places of worship that reflected the ethnic and religious diversity of inner city London populations (Hindus, Muslims and Christians) were targeted. Telephone invitations to 12 schools achieved recruitment of five schools (42% response); 181 invitations to 94 places of worship, recruited eight organisations (9%). Multi-strategy approaches were required to build relationships with faith organisations. Sixty-five children aged 8-13 years participated in the testing of measures. High completion rates were achieved for 24 h recalls, diet and PA self-efficacy questionnaires (ranging from 89% to 100%), with more consistent quality in schools. Dietary assessment highlighted inadequacies in composition data for minority ethnic foods. Intervention sessions were tested among 155 children in all five schools, and 33 children in a church, temple and mosque. Evaluation coverage was more consistent in these places of worship than in schools. Schools may logistically be more straightforward settings for delivery of interventions but, despite complex issues (engagement strategies; cultural foodways), places of worship provide opportunities for effective reach of children, families and communities. We suggest community based participatory research between researchers, schools and community organisations to harness culturally-specific support.
Ricker, Charité; Culver, Julie O; Lowstuter, Katrina; Sturgeon, Duveen; Sturgeon, Julia D; Chanock, Christopher R; Gauderman, William J; McDonnell, Kevin J; Idos, Gregory E; Gruber, Stephen B
This study aims to assess multi-gene panel testing in an ethnically diverse clinical cancer genetics practice. We conducted a retrospective study of individuals with a personal or family history of cancer undergoing clinically indicated multi-gene panel tests of 6-110 genes, from six commercial laboratories. The 475 patients in the study included 228 Hispanics (47.6%), 166 non-Hispanic Whites (35.4%), 55 Asians (11.6%), 19 Blacks (4.0%), and seven others (1.5%). Panel testing found that 15.6% (74/475) of patients carried deleterious mutations for a total of 79 mutations identified. This included 7.4% (35/475) of patients who had a mutation identified that would not have been tested with a gene-by-gene approach. The identification of a panel-added mutation impacted clinical management for most of cases (69%, 24/35), and genetic testing was recommended for the first degree relatives of nearly all of them (91%, 32/35). Variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) were identified in a higher proportion of tests performed in ethnic minorities. Multi-gene panel testing increases the yield of mutations detected and adds to the capability of providing individualized cancer risk assessment. VUSs represent an interpretive challenge due to less data available outside of White, non-Hispanic populations. Further studies are necessary to expand understanding of the implementation and utilization of panels across broad clinical settings and patient populations.
Vaughn, Lisa M; Jacquez, Farrah; Zhao, Juanjuan; Lang, Maria
School-based health programs have a unique and powerful potential to meet the health needs of children because students spend more time in schools than in any other environment away from home. We conducted a participatory needs assessment called a Group Level Assessment (GLA) in collaboration with an economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse school to facilitate the students' identification of and subsequent action toward important health needs. A total of 68 students in Kindergarten through eighth grade participated in the GLA. Four major themes emerged: the desire for more sports and after-school activities, better school lunches, enjoyment of friends and families, and overall happiness. Other health issues identified by the students included limited health/medical care, stress resulting from schoolwork and grades, positive self-image, and the desire for more art opportunities. The salient themes identified by students are consistent with many factors identified in the academic literature as important in child socioemotional functioning.
Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Burgess-Champoux, Teri; Haines, Jess; Hannan, Peter J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
BACKGROUND Despite evidence in support of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, national data indicate that FV consumption among school-aged children is below recommended levels, particularly among low-income children. School meals offered through the School Breakfast Program and National School Lunch Program can provide an important contribution to child FV intake. This study examines the proportion of fruits and vegetables consumed from school meals programs among ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status children. METHODS Participants (n = 103) included fourth to sixth grade boys and girls from 4 urban elementary schools in St. Paul, Minnesota serving primarily low-income populations. Research staff interviewed children during school hours and recorded dietary intake via 24-hour recall. Analysis included descriptive statistics using cross tabulations and means. RESULTS Average reported mean (SD) daily FV intake was 3.6 (2.5) servings, with 80% of children consuming fewer than 5 daily servings of FV. On average, children consumed over half of their daily FV intake within school. Children with low FV intake (<5 FV servings daily) consumed a higher proportion of their daily intake at school than children with higher FV intake (≥5 FV servings daily) (39% vs 59%; p = .002). CONCLUSIONS Child FV intake is below recommended levels. School meals provide an important contribution to the daily FV intake among ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status children, particularly among those with the lowest FV intake. School meals programs promoting FV intake within the school environment may provide an opportunity to encourage increased FV consumption. PMID:20840658
Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?
Brooks, Larry; Hadi, Joseph; Amber, Kyle T; Weiner, Michelle; La Riche, Christopher L; Ference, Tamar
Background This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM) (n=219) and a control group women with chronic pain (CP) without FM (n=116). The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort. Methods This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009–2010. Results Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (P<0.01) and gynecologic surgery (P<0.05) were significantly more common in FM. Women with FM were more likely to have multiple autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic surgery. A larger prospective study of the relationship between gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM is warranted. PMID:26316807
Laganá, Luciana; García, James J.
Introduction: We preliminarily explored the effects of computer and internet training in older age and attempted to address the diversity gap in the ethnogeriatric literature, given that, in our study’s sample, only one-third of the participants self-identified as White. The aim of this investigation was to compare two groups - the control and the experimental conditions - regarding theme 1) computer attitudes and related self-efficacy, and theme 2) self-esteem and depressive symptomatology. Methods: Sixty non-institutionalized residents of Los Angeles County (mean age ± SD: 69.12 ± 10.37 years; age range: 51-92) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=30) or the waitlist/control group (n=30). The experimental group was involved in 6 weeks of one-on-one computer and internet training for one 2-hour session per week. The same training was administered to the control participants after their post-test. Outcome measures included the four variables, organized into the two aforementioned themes. Results: There were no significant between-group differences in either post-test computer attitudes or self-esteem. However, findings revealed that the experimental group reported greater computer self-efficacy, compared to the waitlist/control group, at post-test/follow-up [F(1,56)=28.89, p=0.001, η2=0.01]. Additionally, at the end of the computer and internet training, there was a substantial and statistically significant decrease in depression scores among those in the experimental group when compared to the waitlist/control group [F(1,55)=9.06, p<0.004, η2=0.02]. Conclusions: There were significant improvements in favour of the experimental group in computer self-efficacy and, of noteworthy clinical relevance, in depression, as evidenced by a decreased percentage of significantly depressed experimental subjects from 36.7% at baseline to 16.7% at the end of our intervention. PMID:24151452
Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F
This community-partnered study was developed and fielded in partnership with key community stakeholders and describes age- and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization between middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults aged 50 and older who self-identified as African American or Latino and lived in ZIP codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants aged 50 to 64 were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percentage (APP)=18%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=14-23) and problems obtaining needed medical care (APP=15%, 95% CI=12-20) than those aged 65 and older. Uninsured participants aged 50 to 64 reported even greater delays in care (APP=45%, 95% CI=33-56) and problems obtaining needed medical (APP=33%, 95% CI=22-45) and specialty care (APP=26%, 95% CI=16-39) than those aged 65 and older. Participants aged 50 to 64 were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy than older participants, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Participants aged 50 to 64 had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than those aged 65 and older, particularly if they were uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness.
Yeh, Ming-Chin; Ickes, Scott B; Lowenstein, Lisa M; Shuval, Kerem; Ammerman, Alice S; Farris, Rosanne; Katz, David L
A diet high in fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been associated with a decreased risk of certain cancers, reduced morbidity and mortality from heart disease, and enhanced weight management. Yet to date, most of the US population does not consume the recommended amount of F&V despite numerous interventions and government guidelines to promote consumption. Research has found various impediments to F&V consumption, such as high costs, an obesogenic environment and low socio-economic status. However, studies have not sufficiently focused on barriers and enablers to F&V intake among adult multi-ethnic populations. The present qualitative study examines 147 focus group participants' perceptions of impediments and enablers to F&V consumption. Twelve focus groups were conducted among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina and Connecticut. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo Software. Text data were systematically analyzed by investigators to identify recurrent themes both within and across groups and states. Focus group results indicate that most participants were aware of the health benefits associated with a diet rich in F&V. Yet many admitted not adhering to the Health and Human Service's recommendations. Individual impediments consisted of the high costs of F&V and a perceived lack of time. Early home food environment was perceived as affecting F&V consumption later in life. Other barriers reported were ethnic-specific. The African American participants reported limited access to fresh produce. This finding is consistent with numerous studies and must be addressed through health promotion intervention. Both the church and primary care clinics were described by African Americans as appropriate settings for health behavior interventions; these findings should be considered. Hispanic participants, mostly immigrants, cited inhibiting factors encountered in their adopted US environment. There is a
Zhu, Bo-feng; Shen, Chun-mei; Wang, Hong-dan; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Guo, Jian-xin; Huang, Jing-feng; Jing, Hang; Liu, Xin-she
In the present study, we investigated 21 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435, D5S2500), which are not included in the Combined DNA Index System and Amelogenin locus in 104 randomly selected healthy autochthonous individuals from the Tibetan ethnic minority group residing in the Lhasa region, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Allelic frequencies, common forensic statistical parameters, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population were calculated with a modified PowerState V12.xls. A total of 143 alleles were found in the Tibetan group with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.582. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the power of discrimination, the power of exclusion, and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.615 to 0.817, 0.559 to 0.787, 0.727 to 0.926, 0.310 to 0.632, and 0.488 to 0.760, respectively. Chi-square tests of the observed genotype frequencies and expected genotype frequencies in the samples showed no departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all loci except for D5S2500. Our results demonstrate that these 21 STRs are highly polymorphic and suitable for anthropological research, population genetics, and forensic paternity testing and human individual identification in this region, and can enrich Chinese ethnical genetic informational resources.
The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006. Briefing Report
US Commission on Civil Rights, 2006
On July 28, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the putative benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary education. Four experts presented written statements to the Commissioners that assessed the social science literature on this issue. They also addressed whether or not…
Peek, Monica E.; Kim, Karen E.; Johnson, Julie K.; Vela, Monica B.
Purpose There is little evidence regarding which factors and strategies are associated with high proportions of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty in academic medicine. The authors conducted a national study of U.S. academic medicine departments to better understand the challenges, successful strategies, and predictive factors for enhancing racial and ethnic diversity among faculty (i.e., physicians with an academic position or rank). Method This was a mixed-methods study using quantitative and qualitative methods. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of eligible departments of medicine in 125 accredited U.S. medical schools, dichotomized into low-URM (bottom 50%) versus high-URM rank (top 50%). They used t tests and chi-squared tests to compare departments by geographic region, academic school rank, city type, and composite measures of “diversity best practices.” The authors also conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with a subsample from the highest-and lowest-quartile medical schools in terms of URM rank. Results Eighty-two medical schools responded (66%). Geographic region and academic rank were statistically associated with URM rank, but not city type or composite measures of diversity best practices. Key themes emerged from interviews regarding successful strategies for URM faculty recruitment and retention including institutional leadership, the use of human capital and social relationships and strategic deployment of institutional resources. Conclusions Departments of medicine with high proportions of URM faculty employ a number of successful strategies and programs for recruitment and retention. More research is warranted to identify new successful strategies and to determine the impact of specific strategies on establishing and maintaining workforce diversity. PMID:23348090
Siordia, Carlos; Díaz, María E.
In this study, we investigate individual-level language shift in a population of Mexican origin Latinos/as aged 65 and up. By using data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, we investigate their English language use as the dependent variable in a hierarchical linear model. The microlevel independent continuous variable is their level of contact with “Anglos”; the macrolevel continuous independent variable is the percentage of Mexicans in tract of residence. After accounting for their generational status, other microlevel social and health covariates, and tract-level attributes, we found a direct relationship between contact with Anglos and a “shift” toward more English language use, where as co-ethnic concentration increases, the influence of contact with Anglos decreases. We frame this article with a discussion on language shifting, and explain how co-ethnic concentration may provide the resources for engaging in a language resistance. PMID:25104874
Nevin, Ann I.; Barbetta, Patricia; Cramer, Elizabeth
The mission for Urban SEALS (Special Education Academic Leaders), a federally funded doctoral preparation program, is to prepare doctoral-level special educators, including those who are culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) to assume leadership roles in the education of urban students with disabilities who are CLD. This report provides…
Rogers, Margaret R.; Ingraham, Colette L.; Bursztyn, Alberto; Cajigas-Segrede, Nelda; Esquivel, Giselle; Hess, Robyn; Nahari, Sara G.; Lopez, Emilia C.
Presents a synthesis of some of the existing knowledge base about how best to promote the educational and psychological well being of diverse students and their families within the school context. Identifies specific professional practices for school psychologists and provides illustrations of those practices to help guide psychologists' behavior…
Montemayor, Raymond, Ed.; Adams, Gerald R., Ed; Gullotta, Thomas P., Ed.
This book is designed to summarize, integrate, and evaluate current research on adolescent development. It contains the following chapters: (1) "Paths to Adulthood: Adolescent Diversity in Contemporary America" (Ramond Montemayor); (2) "Competence among Urban Adolescents in Poverty: Multiple Forms, Contexts, and Developmental…
Gowen, L. Kris; Feldman, S. Shirley; Diaz, Rafael; Yisrael, Donnovan Somera
Sexual behaviors and attitudes of female adolescents were studied as a function of age of boyfriend. Boyfriend's age was dichotomized: similar-aged was defined as within 2 years of the girls' age; older aged was 3 or more years older than the girl. A school-based, ethnically diverse sample of 9th-grade girls (N = 146) who had been in a serious…
Chacko, Sara A.; Song, Yiqing; Nathan, Lauren; Tinker, Lesley; de Boer, Ian H.; Tylavsky, Fran; Wallace, Robert; Liu, Simin
OBJECTIVE Although magnesium may favorably affect metabolic outcomes, few studies have investigated the role of magnesium intake in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Among 3,713 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes at baseline, we measured plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), turnor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 (TNF-α-R2), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and E-selectin. Magnesium intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS After adjustment for age, ethnicity, clinical center, time of blood draw, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, energy intake, BMI, and diabetes status, magnesium intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP (P for linear trend = 0.003), IL-6 (P < 0.0001), TNF-α-R2 (P = 0.0006), and sVCAM-1 (P = 0.06). Similar findings remained after further adjustment for dietary fiber, fruit, vegetables, folate, and saturated and trans fat intake. Multivariable-adjusted geometric means across increasing quintiles of magnesium intake were 3.08, 2.63, 2.31, 2.53, and 2.16 mg/l for hs-CRP (P = 0.005); 2.91, 2.63, 2.45, 2.27, and 2.26 pg/ml for IL-6 (P = 0.0005); and 707, 681, 673, 671, and 656 ng/ml for sVCAM-1 (P = 0.04). An increase of 100 mg/day magnesium was inversely associated with hs-CRP (−0.23 mg/l ± 0.07; P = 0.002), IL-6 (−0.14 ± 0.05 pg/ml; P = 0.004), TNF-α-R2 (−0.04 ± 0.02 pg/ml; P = 0.06), and sVCAM-1 (−0.04 ± 0.02 ng/ml; P = 0.07). No significant ethnic differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS High magnesium intake is associated with lower concentrations of certain markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women. PMID:19903755
Vitoroulis, Irene; Brittain, Heather; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Bullying in ethnically diverse schools varies as a function of the ethnic composition and degree of diversity in schools. Although Canada is highly multicultural, few researchers have focused on the role of context on ethnic majority and minority youths' bullying involvement. In the present study, 11,649 European-Canadian/ethnic majority (77%) and…
Grilo, Carlos M; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D; Walsh, B Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina
The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N = 26), placebo (N = 27), shCBT + sibutramine (N = 26), or shCBT + placebo (N = 25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to placebo for treating BED in
Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Watson, Kathleen B; Jago, Russell; Islam, Noemi; Beltran, Alicia; Martin, Shelby J; Nguyen, Nga; Tepper, Beverly J
Sensitivity to the taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) (a bitter chemical related to the phenylthiocarbamide found in cruciferous vegetables) has been related to dietary intake or preferences of cruciferous vegetables among adults and young children but not middle-aged children or adolescents. We hypothesized that PROP taste sensitivity is related to lower reported dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables, primarily among younger children (ie, a moderating effect of child age). This study examined the relationship of PROP sensitivity to reported dietary intake across 3 days in 2 age groups of youth (9-10 and 17-18 years) while statistically controlling for physical activity, social desirability, and reporting bias. Cross-sectional design was used with a multiethnic (white, African American, Hispanic, etc) sample of 843 men and women. Children were recruited from and data were collected in local elementary and high schools that had at least 30% ethnic minority enrollment. Children providing nonplausible reports of dietary intake were deleted from the analyses. Body mass index was calculated and expressed in z scores. Energy intake and physical activity were measured by 3 telephone-conducted 24-hour dietary recalls with the Nutrient Data System for Research and 5 days of Actigraph (ActiGraph, Shalimar, Florida) activity monitor. The primary analyses included 347 students. 6-n-Propylthiouracil sensitivity was not related to intake of cruciferous vegetables. Intakes of the cruciferous vegetables were low, which may explain the lack of relationship.
Vasu, Sumithira; Leitman, Susan F; Tisdale, John F; Hsieh, Matthew M; Childs, Richard W; Barrett, A John; Fowler, Daniel H; Bishop, Michael R; Kang, Elizabeth M; Malech, Harry L; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Khuu, Hanh M; Wesley, Robert; Yau, Yu Y; Bolan, Charles D
A reliable estimate of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may identify donors at risk for poor mobilization and help optimize transplantation approaches. We studied 639 allogeneic PBSC collections performed in 412 white, 75 black, 116 Hispanic, and 36 Asian/Pacific adult donors who were prescribed G-CSF dosed at either 10 or 16 microg/kg per day for 5 days followed by large-volume leukapheresis (LVL). Additional LVL (mean, 11 L) to collect lymphocytes for donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and other therapies was performed before G-CSF administration in 299 of these donors. Day 5 preapheresis blood CD34(+) cell counts after mobilization were significantly lower in whites compared with blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific donors (79 vs 104, 94, and 101 cells/microL, P < .001). In addition, donors who underwent lymphapheresis before mobilization had higher CD34(+) cell counts than donors who did not (94 vs 79 cells/microL, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, higher post-G-CSF CD34(+) cell counts were most strongly associated with the total amount of G-CSF received, followed by the pre-G-CSF platelet count, pre-G-CSF mononuclear count, and performance of prior LVL for DLI collection. Age, white ethnicity, and female gender were associated with significantly lower post-G-CSF CD34(+) cell counts.
Vasu, Sumithira; Leitman, Susan F.; Tisdale, John F.; Hsieh, Matthew M.; Childs, Richard W.; Barrett, A. John; Fowler, Daniel H.; Bishop, Michael R.; Kang, Elizabeth M.; Malech, Harry L.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Khuu, Hanh M.; Wesley, Robert; Yau, Yu Y.
A reliable estimate of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may identify donors at risk for poor mobilization and help optimize transplantation approaches. We studied 639 allogeneic PBSC collections performed in 412 white, 75 black, 116 Hispanic, and 36 Asian/Pacific adult donors who were prescribed G-CSF dosed at either 10 or 16 μg/kg per day for 5 days followed by large-volume leukapheresis (LVL). Additional LVL (mean, 11 L) to collect lymphocytes for donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and other therapies was performed before G-CSF administration in 299 of these donors. Day 5 preapheresis blood CD34+ cell counts after mobilization were significantly lower in whites compared with blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific donors (79 vs 104, 94, and 101 cells/μL, P < .001). In addition, donors who underwent lymphapheresis before mobilization had higher CD34+ cell counts than donors who did not (94 vs 79 cells/μL, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, higher post–G-CSF CD34+ cell counts were most strongly associated with the total amount of G-CSF received, followed by the pre–G-CSF platelet count, pre–G-CSF mononuclear count, and performance of prior LVL for DLI collection. Age, white ethnicity, and female gender were associated with significantly lower post–G-CSF CD34+ cell counts. PMID:18523146
Brieger, W R; Oke, G A; Otusanya, S; Adesope, A; Tijanu, J; Banjoko, M
Guinea-worm eradication has been progressing internationally and efforts at case containment have begun in most endemic countries. Case containment rests on the assumption that in previous phases of eradication most if not all endemic settlements have been identified. Experiences in the predominantly Yoruba communities of Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, however, have shown that the settlements of ethnic minority groups may be overlooked during initial case searches and subsequent programmes of village-based reporting. The migrant cattle-herding Fulani are found throughout the savannah and sahel regions of West Africa. Nearly 3000 live in 60 settlements in Ifeloju. An intensive case search identified 57 cases in 15 settlements. The assumption that village-based health workers (VBHWs) in neighbouring Yoruba farm hamlets would identify cases in the Fulani settlements, known as gaa, proved false. Only 5 endemic gaa were located next to a Yoruba hamlet that had a VBHW, and even then the VBHW did not identify and report the cases in the gaa. Efforts to recruit VBHWs for each endemic gaa are recommended, but only after LGA staff improve the poor relationship between themselves and the Fulani, whom they view as outsiders. The results also imply the need for Guinea worm eradication staff in neighbouring LGAs, states and countries to search actively for the disease among their minority populations.
Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann
Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p < .001) and condomless anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p < .05) in the past 3 months. The only predictor of CAS with HIV-negative or unknown status partners was being under age 30 (AOR 3.38, p < .01). This study helped to inform online targeted recruitment techniques, access to technology and social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.
The demographic landscape of the United States is changing as the general population ages and the size of racial/ethnic minority groups grows. Most prior studies on mental health service use among Asians in America have overlooked older adults. A deeper understanding of the way acculturation factors impact help-seeking behaviors among older Asian Americans will inform behavioral health practice and program planners as they address the disparities affecting a diverse racial group. The California Health Interview Survey was used to examine the correlates of perceived mental health need among 980 older Asian immigrants. The study found that English proficiency and other covariates affected how Asian Americans perceived mental health need. Implications for understanding the help-seeking behaviors of older Asian immigrants are discussed.
Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Gozdzik, Agnes; Misir, Vachan; Skosireva, Anna; Connelly, Jo; Sarang, Aseefa; Whisler, Adam; Hwang, Stephen W.; O’Campo, Patricia; McKenzie, Kwame
Housing First (HF) is being widely disseminated in efforts to end homelessness among homeless adults with psychiatric disabilities. This study evaluates the effectiveness of HF with Intensive Case Management (ICM) among ethnically diverse homeless adults in an urban setting. 378 participants were randomized to HF with ICM or treatment-as-usual (TAU) in Toronto (Canada), and followed for 24 months. Measures of effectiveness included housing stability, physical (EQ5D-VAS) and mental (CSI, GAIN-SS) health, social functioning (MCAS), quality of life (QoLI20), and health service use. Two-thirds of the sample (63%) was from racialized groups and half (50%) were born outside Canada. Over the 24 months of follow-up, HF participants spent a significantly greater percentage of time in stable residences compared to TAU participants (75.1% 95% CI 70.5 to 79.7 vs. 39.3% 95% CI 34.3 to 44.2, respectively). Similarly, community functioning (MCAS) improved significantly from baseline in HF compared to TAU participants (change in mean difference = +1.67 95% CI 0.04 to 3.30). There was a significant reduction in the number of days spent experiencing alcohol problems among the HF compared to TAU participants at 24 months (ratio of rate ratios = 0.47 95% CI 0.22 to 0.99) relative to baseline, a reduction of 53%. Although the number of emergency department visits and days in hospital over 24 months did not differ significantly between HF and TAU participants, fewer HF participants compared to TAU participants had 1 or more hospitalizations during this period (70.4% vs. 81.1%, respectively; P=0.044). Compared to non-racialized HF participants, racialized HF participants saw an increase in the amount of money spent on alcohol (change in mean difference = $112.90 95% CI 5.84 to 219.96) and a reduction in physical community integration (ratio of rate ratios = 0.67 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96) from baseline to 24 months. Secondary analyses found a significant reduction in the number of days
George, Valerie A; Erb, Allison F; Harris, Cristen L; Casazza, Krista
This study investigated differences in psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders among university females (n=406) of diverse Hispanic background (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American/Mexican, Dominican, Venezuelan) and among White non-Hispanic (n=102) female students. Risk factors were assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Factor Questionnaire (PRFQ) which includes four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. There were significant differences among the groups in total PRFQ score, F(7,499)=2.76, P<.008, and the subscale score for Concern, F(7,499)=2.99, P<.004, with Dominicans, Venezuelans and Columbians having higher scores than White non-Hispanics and Central Americans/Mexicans. In addition, there was a significant difference in BMI, F(7,499)=2.70, P<.009. Both Puerto Ricans (24.27+0.81) and Venezuelans (24.66+1.00) had higher BMIs than White non-Hispanics (21.87+0.37), Cubans (21.99+0.24) and Brazilians (21.46+0.96). There was also a significant, F(7,498)=2.70, P<.009, difference among the groups in Ideal Body Image score. Puerto Ricans had the highest score and Brazilians the lowest. Acknowledging that differences in psychosocial risk factors exist among Hispanic females of diverse background can assist us in creating more targeted approaches for the prevention of potential eating disorders in this population.
Bajwa, Martha; Vita, Serena; Vescovini, Rosanna; Larsen, Martin; Sansoni, Paolo; Terrazzini, Nadia; Caserta, Stefano; Thomas, David; Davies, Kevin A.; Smith, Helen; Kern, Florian
Background. Parallel upregulation of several T-cell effector functions (ie, polyfunctionality) is believed to be critical for the protection against viruses but thought to decrease in large T-cell expansions, in particular at older ages. The factors determining T-cell polyfunctionality are incompletely understood. Here we revisit the question of cytomegalovirus (CMV)–specific T-cell polyfunctionality, including a wide range of T-cell target proteins, response sizes, and participant ages. Methods. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to analyze the functional diversity (ie, CD107, CD154, interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor, and interferon γ expression) of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to 19 CMV proteins in a large group of young and older United Kingdom participants. A group of oldest old people (age >85 years) was included to explore these parameters in exceptional survivors. Polyfunctionality was assessed for each protein-specific response subset, by subset and in aggregate, across all proteins by using the novel polyfunctionality index. Results. Polyfunctionality was not reduced in healthy older people as compared to young people. However, it was significantly related to target protein specificity. For each protein, it increased with response size. In the oldest old group, overall T-cell polyfunctionality was significantly lower. Discussion. Our results give a new perspective on T-cell polyfunctionality and raise the question of whether maintaining polyfunctionality of CMV-specific T cells at older ages is necessarily beneficial. PMID:27521364
Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Halkitis, Perry N.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697
Darnell, Adam J; Schuler, Megan S
Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is an intensive community-based treatment program designed to reduce youth behavior problems such as violence, drug use, and other delinquency. Although there is evidence of FFT efficacy and effectiveness with predominantly White samples, there is very little evidence with racial/ethnic minority samples. In light of the over-representation of African American and Latino youth in the juvenile justice system, this study examined the effectiveness of FFT and an adaptation of FFT to probation supervision, called Functional Family Probation (FFP), among a predominantly Latino and African American sample of youth returning home from court-ordered out-of-home placements (OHP). Propensity score weighting was used to compare the likelihood of subsequent OHPs among youth receiving standard probation (Comparison group), and youth receiving FFT (with standard probation), youth receiving FFP (instead of standard probation), and youth receiving FFT in combination with FFP. Results indicated that youth receiving FFT (both with standard probation and FFP), relative to Comparison youth receiving standard probation only, had significantly lower likelihood of OHP during the first two months following release, but this advantage disappeared in later months. Youth receiving only FFP also had lower likelihood of OHP than Comparison youth in the first two months, though not significantly. These findings provide encouraging evidence of positive effects of FFT, in combination with FFP or standard probation, among a diverse sample of juvenile justice system-involved youth.
Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.
Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc
The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.
Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia
When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…
Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70% female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed.
Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Rudolph, Alexander L.
The mission of the Cal-Bridge program is to increase the number of underrepresented minority and women students completing a bachelor’s degree and entering a PhD program in astronomy, physics, or closely-related fields. The program has created a network of faculty at diverse higher education institutions, including 5 University of California (UC) campuses, 9 California State Universities (CSUs), and 10 community colleges in southern California, dedicated to this goal. Students selected for the program are know as “Cal-Bridge Scholars” and they are given a wide variety of support: (1) scholarships in their junior/senior years at CSU and their first year of graduate school at a UC, (2) intensive mentoring by a pair of CSU and UC faculty members, (3) tutoring, when needed, (4) professional development workshops, (5) exposure to research opportunities at various universities, and (6) membership in a growing cohort of like-minded students. We report on the structure of our program, lessons learned with our current 12 Cal-Bridge scholars, and the results of our first two years of operation. Funding for this program is provided by NSF-SSTEM Grant #1356133.
Alesina, Alberto; Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias
This study explores the consequences and origins of between-ethnicity economic inequality across countries. First, combining satellite images of nighttime luminosity with the historical homelands of ethnolinguistic groups we construct measures of ethnic inequality for a large sample of countries. We also compile proxies of overall spatial inequality and regional inequality across administrative units. Second, we uncover a strong negative association between ethnic inequality and contemporary comparative development; the correlation is also present when we condition on regional inequality, which is itself related to under-development. Third, we investigate the roots of ethnic inequality and establish that differences in geographic endowments across ethnic homelands explain a sizable fraction of the observed variation in economic disparities across groups. Fourth, we show that ethnic-specific inequality in geographic endowments is also linked to under-development. PMID:27330223
Beydoun, M. A.; Fanelli Kuczmarski, M.; Kitner-Triolo, M. H.; Beydoun, H. A.; Kaufman, J. S.; Mason, M. A.; Evans, M. K.; Zonderman, A. B.
Background Dietary antioxidants can inhibit reactions accompanying neurodegeneration, and thus prevent cognitive impairment. We describe associations of dietary antioxidants with cognitive function in a large biracial population, while testing moderation by sex, race and age and mediation by depressive symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,274 adults (541 men and 733 women) aged 30–64y at baseline (Mean±SD: 47.5±9.3) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study (HANDLS), Baltimore city, MD. Cognitive performance in the domains of memory, language/verbal, attention, spatial, psychomotor speed, executive function, and global mental status were assessed. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-hr recalls, estimating daily consumption of total carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E, per 1,000 kcal. Results Among key findings, one standard deviation (SD~2.02 mg/1,000kcal) higher vitamin E was associated with a higher score on verbal memory, immediate recall, (β=+0.64±0.19, p=0.001) and better language/verbal fluency performance (β=+0.53±0.16, p=0.001), particularly among the younger age group. Women with higher vitamin E intake (β=+0.68±0.21, p=0.001) had better performance on a psychomotor speed test. The vitamin E-verbal memory association was partially mediated by depressive symptoms (proportion mediated=13–16%). Conclusions In sum, future cohort studies and dietary interventions should focus on associations of dietary vitamin E with cognitive decline, specifically for domains of verbal memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. PMID:25478706
Brittian, Aerika S; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L
This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants' ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse.
Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jansen, Pauline W; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein
A healthy diet is important for optimal growth and development in children. Food preferences are a main determinant of children's intake. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (taste sensitivity to PROP) with children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among ethnically diverse children. We analysed data from 5585 6-year-old children enrolled in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PROP taster status was evaluated using a suprathreshold screening solution. Food preferences of the children were assessed by a two-stage protocol using photographs of eight food items (candy, chocolate, mayonnaise, whipped cream, soup, potato chips, carrot and bread), yielding both hedonic ratings (1-3) and rank order scores (1-8). Univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed, using tasters as the reference group. Non-tasters had a slightly higher preference for carrots (β: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13, -0.02 and β: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 for hedonic ratings and rank order scores, respectively) and bread (hedonic ratings; β: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.01) compared with tasters. No differences were found in children's preference for sweet, fat or salty food items. Furthermore, there were no associations of PROP taster status with the consumption of high-calorie snacks ≥ 2 times/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91,1.24) or sweet beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.92,1.23). Other factors relating to the family food environment may be more important for young children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages than their innate taste sensitivity.
Hamilton, Leslie J; Lerner, Carlos F; Presson, Angela P; Klitzner, Thomas S
The Pediatric Medical Home Program at UCLA enrolled 41 patients in a primary care model focused on providing intensive care coordination for medically complex, ethnically diverse children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in our Pediatric Resident Continuity clinic. We sought to determine the effect of our program on parental satisfaction, and to compare differences in parental satisfaction between English and Spanish speaking patients. The Medical Home Family Index, developed by the Center for Medical Home Improvement, was administered to a total of 22 participating parents, in the family's primary language by a native speaker, at various times after enrollment in the program. Survey data and language effects were analyzed. The 36 standardized mean scores for the 15 Spanish speaking families were significantly higher (8.5 points higher) than the mean scores from the seven English speaking families (p = 0.003). Although no statistically significant differences were noted in individual questions between Spanish and English speakers, a trend towards more positive responses by Spanish speakers was noted in questions regarding physician-patient communication (p = 0.054) and family-centeredness (p = 0.053). Our results suggest that a primary care model focused on providing intensive care coordination produces positive parental perceptions of the organization and delivery of primary care services in a medically complex population of CSHCN. The main finding of the study is that utilizing the AAP's approach to the medical home model, emphasizing family-centered and culturally competent care, can produce higher satisfaction scores in Spanish speaking parents when compared to English speaking parents.
This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups?
This study explores the meaning and conditions of housework and other unpaid responsibilities for older women. Taped, in-person interviews were conducted with 53 ethnically and economically diverse women, 55-84 years old. The interview guide contained open-ended questions regarding the process of taking on housework and other unpaid responsibilities and the centrality to personal identity. Participants reported shifts in perceptions of housework as work, decreased importance of housework with age, the attitude of care recipients affecting the experience and meaning of unpaid responsibilities, and the impact of historical racist events on viewing unpaid responsibilities as opportunity.
In June 2003, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) organized its annual Policy Forum to discuss the impact of increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies on education in general and the implications for educational planning in particular. The proceedings of this Policy Forum are presented in this volume. Part I,…
A few days into the new school year, the author's female students invariably beg, plead, and cajole her in the hopes of watching Disney's "Pocahontas" in class. Toddlers when the film was released in 1995, doubtless they have seen it already dozens of times; more importantly, the author cringes at the ethnic and gender stereotypes sometimes…
Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.
This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…
Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes
This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…
Oates, Flora B.
The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…
Powell, Gary C.
Provides definitions for the diversity-related terminology used in this issue that deals with diversity in instructional design. Topics include culture, cross cultural awareness or sensitivity, cultural pluralism, diversity, ethnic group, and race. (LRW)
Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D
The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups.
Peviani, Valeria; Scarpa, Pina; Toraldo, Alessio; Bottini, Gabriella
Neuropsychological assessment is critical in both diagnosis and prognosis of patients with epilepsy. Beyond electrophysiological and anatomical alterations, other factors including different ethnic-cultural and linguistic backgrounds might affect neuropsychological performance. Only a few studies considered migration and acculturation effects and they typically concerned nonclinical samples. The current study aimed at investigating the influence of ethnic background and time spent in Italy on a full neuropsychological battery administered to both Italian and foreign-born patients and at providing a brief interview for obtaining relevant information on each patient's transcultural and language-related history. Clinical reports from 43 foreign-born patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were collected from the archives of Milan Niguarda Hospital. Epileptogenic zone, age, education, profession, illness duration, seizure frequency, handedness, and gender were considered in selecting 43 Italian controls. Ethnicity (Italian/foreign-born) and years spent in Italy were analyzed as main predictors on 21 neuropsychological scales by means of General(ized) Linear Models. An additional analysis studied two composite scores of overall verbal and nonverbal abilities. Ethnicity significantly affected the following: the verbal overall score, Verbal Fluency, Naming, Token-test, Digit Span, Attentional Matrices, Trail-Making-Test, Line-Orientation-Test, and Raven matrices; no effects were found on the nonverbal overall score, Word Pairs Learning, Episodic Memory, reading accuracy, visual span, Bells test, Rey Figure, and face memory and recognition. No significant effects of years spent in Italy emerged. While years spent in Italy does not predict neuropsychological performance, linguistic background had a strong impact on it. With respect to Italian-speaking patients, those who were foreign-born showed large task-related variability, with an especially low performance on language
Genome-wide linkage scans for type 2 diabetes mellitus in four ethnically diverse populations; significant evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in African Americans: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) Research Group
Malhotra, Alka; Igo, Robert P.; Thameem, Farook; Kao, W.H. Linda; Abboud, Hanna E.; Adler, Sharon G.; Arar, Nedal H.; Bowden, Donald W.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Freedman, Barry I.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Knowler, William C.; Kohn, Orly; Leehey, David; Meoni, Lucy A.; Nelson, Robert G.; Nicholas, Susanne B.; Parekh, Rulan S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Saad, Mohammed F.; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Sedor, John R.; Shah, Vallabh O.; Taylor, Kent D.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Zager, Philip G.; Horvath, Amanda; Hanson, Robert L.
Background Previous studies have shown that, in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations. Methods Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from African American (AA; total number of individuals (N)=1004), American Indian (AI; N=883), European American (EA; N=537), and Mexican American (MA; N=1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Nonparametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4,404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM. Results Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 4q21.1 (LOD=3.13; genome-wide p=0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of eleven regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD>1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD=2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD=2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD=2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD=2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD=2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD>1.71 have been identified in previously published studies. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA, 6p in EA, 2p in AI, and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population. PMID:19795399
Ungemah, Lori D.
Racial, ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity continues to increase in classrooms. Many call for a more diverse curriculum, but curricular diversity brings its own challenges to both teachers and students. These three vignettes are drawn from my ethnographic data at Atlantic High School in Brooklyn, New York, where I worked for ten years as…
The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans.
Barakat, Suzanne; Martinez, Diana; Thomas, Melanie; Handley, Margaret
Many women develop postpartum mental health symptoms, ranging from the maternity blues to clinically diagnosed postpartum depression (PPD). Substantial literature supports an association between depression and type 2 diabetes, but there is limited literature regarding to what extent this relationship pertains to gestational diabetes (GDM) and postpartum depression. Review of the literature regarding GDM and PPD with a particular focus on describing the prevalence of PPD among women who may be at increased risk for GDM, including low-income and ethnic minority groups, was performed. Literature searches were conducted across four databases for studies reporting postpartum mental health outcomes (including postpartum depression, behavioral symptoms, mental disorders, mood, anxiety, quality of life) following a diagnosis of GDM. Studies including subgroups of women with GDM were included if postpartum mental health outcomes were reported. Of the 245 abstracts identified, ten studies were included in the final review. Findings suggest that PPD was high among low-income, ethnic minority women. Additional research is required to understand the complex relationship between GDM and PPD among low-income women, with the ultimate goal of implementing tailored interventions to address their medical and psychiatric needs.
Miyawaki, Christina E
This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.
Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study
Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.
Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188
“I Felt Like It Was God's Hands Putting the Needles In”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Experience of Acupuncture for Chronic Pain in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse, and Medically Underserved Patient Population
Buonora, Michele; Gabison, Jonathan; Jacobs, Emilie; Karasz, Alison; McKee, M. Diane
Abstract Objectives: To examine the experience of patients from a low-income, ethnically diverse medically underserved population receiving acupuncture for chronic pain. Design: Qualitative analysis using inductive thematic analysis of interviews with participants from an acupuncture trial. Settings/Location: Four community health centers in the Bronx, New York. Participants: Thirty-seven adults with chronic neck or back pain or osteoarthritis who participated in a previous acupuncture trial. Interventions: Up to 14 weekly acupuncture treatments. Outcome measures: Pain and quality of life were examined in the original trial; this study examines qualitative outcomes. Results: The themes grouped naturally into three domains of the acupuncture experience: the decision-making process, the treatment experience, and the effect of acupuncture on health. Regarding decision-making, important factors were a willingness to try something new even if you do not necessary “believe” in it or have specifically positive expectations; a sense that medications were not working for their pain, that they also caused significant adverse effects, and that natural strategies might be preferable; and a feeling of desperation. Cost and access were significant barriers to acupuncture treatment. Regarding the process of acupuncture, the open and personal communication with the acupuncturist was an important factor, as were the sense that the process of acupuncture related to a natural process of healing or correction within the body and that part of making acupuncture successful required being open to the power of the mind to generate a positive outcome. Regarding the effect of treatment, notable aspects were the deep sense of rest and relaxation participants reported during treatment as well as the benefit they experienced for conditions other than pain. Conclusions: The themes that emerged in this ethnically diverse, low-income population were very similar to those that have emerged
Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Horton, David
Although emotions and patterns of emotion regulation are central to models linking personality and health, the generalizability of these models to diverse populations of older adults remains untested. In this study, 1,364 community-dwelling women (aged 50-70 years) from six ethnic groups completed self-report measures of trait anger, inhibition, defensiveness, and health. As expected, reports of trait anger and emotion inhibition predicted poorer health (and defensiveness better health), even when demographics and health behaviors were controlled. However, these characteristics related to outcome differently across ethnic groups; greater anger was related to better health in all groups other than U.S-born European Americans, and increased emotion inhibition was associated with better health among immigrant Eastern European women. Results are discussed within a contextualistic model of emotions and health, and directions for future research are given.
Shen, Chun-mei; Zhu, Bo-feng; Deng, Ya-jun; Ye, Shi-hui; Yan, Jiang-wei; Yang, Guang; Wang, Hong-dan; Qin, Hai-xia; Huang, Qi-zhao; Zhang, Jing-Jing
Background Previous studies indicate that the frequency distributions of HLA alleles and haplotypes vary from one ethnic group to another or between the members of the same ethnic group living in different geographic areas. It is necessary and meaningful to study the high-resolution allelic and haplotypic distributions of HLA loci in different groups. Methodology/Principal Findings High-resolution HLA typing for the Uyghur ethnic minority group using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based-typing method was first reported. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 104 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters for HLA loci were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. A total of 35 HLA-A, 51 HLA-B and 33 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified at the four-digit level in the population. High frequency alleles were HLA-A*1101 (13.46%), A*0201 (12.50%), A*0301 (10.10%); HLA-B*5101(8.17%), B*3501(6.73%), B*5001 (6.25%); HLA-DRB1*0701 (16.35%), DRB1*1501 (8.65%) and DRB1*0301 (7.69%). The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were HLA-A*3001-B*1302 (2.88%), A*2402-B*5101 (2.86%); HLA-B*5001-DRB1*0701 (4.14%) and B*0702-DRB1*1501 (3.37%). The three-locus haplotype at the highest frequency was HLA-A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701(2.40%). Significantly high linkage disequilibrium was observed in six two-locus haplotypes, with their corresponding relative linkage disequilibrium parameters equal to 1. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the Uyghur group and other previously reported populations was constructed on the basis of standard genetic distances among the populations calculated using the four-digit sequence-level allelic frequencies at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Uyghur group belongs to the northwestern Chinese populations and is most closely related to the Xibe group, and then to Kirgiz, Hui, Mongolian and Northern Han. Conclusions
Haug, Sarah Woodbury
The government of Belize promotes ethnicity and nationalism in schools through a curriculum that teaches about the country's ethnic diversity but ignores its many multiethnic/multiracial children. A study of such children in one rural town reveals the irrelevance of the curriculum and shows how the children are constructing their own multiethnic…
Dauvrin, Marie; Lorant, Vincent; d'Hoore, William
The chronic care model (CCM) concerns both the medical and the cultural and linguistic needs of patients through the inclusion of cultural competence in the delivery system design. This literature review attempted to@@ identify the domains of the CCM culturally competent (CC) interventions that the adults from ethnic minorities suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus report. We identified the CCM and the CC components in the relevant studies published between 2005 and 2014. Thirty-two studies were included. Thirty-one articles focused on self-management and 20 on community resources. Twenty-three interventions integrated cultural norms from the patients' backgrounds. CC interventions reported the CCM at the individual level but need to address the organizational level more effectively. The scope of CC interventions should be expanded to transform health care organizations and systems.
Ware, Laurie Jowers; Herr, Keela A; Booker, Staja Star; Dotson, Kelley; Key, Jennifer; Poindexter, Norma; Pyles, Gia; Siler, Bobbie; Packard, Abbot
Self-report pain assessment tools are commonly used in clinical settings to determine patients' pain intensity. The Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT) is a tool that was developed for research, but also can be used in clinical settings. However, its utility in clinical settings is challenging because it uses a 13-point scale (0-12 scale) that does not align with common electronic pain scoring metrics. Therefore, this study evaluated the psychometric properties of an 11-point (0-10 scale) adaptation of the Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT-R) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IPT-R and to determine patient preference for a self-report pain assessment tool. A descriptive, correlational design was employed. The IPT-R was compared with the original IPT and a numeric rating scale (NRS). This study was conducted in the southeastern United States with 75 adults ranging in age from 65-95 years with varying levels of cognition. Participants were primarily representative of black and white backgrounds. Participants were asked to rate current pain, worst pain during the past week, and reassessment of current pain after 10-minute intervals using three scales (IPT-R, IPT, and NRS) presented in random order. Participants were asked to identify the tool preferred (the easiest to use and that best represented their pain intensity). Spearman-rank correlations were performed to determine convergent validity and test-retest reliability. Based on the results of this preliminary study, the IPT-R has good validity and reliability. The participants in this sample preferred the IPT-R over the original IPT (0-12 scale) and the traditional NRS (0-10 scale). Clinicians may consider using this tool with diverse older patients to assess pain intensity.
Schiffman, Carole B.
Growing populations of older adults, ethnic minorities, and the low-literate create unique concerns for the design of visual information. Those for whom text presents a barrier will respond most to legibility, use of familiar formats and symbols, and simplification. Guidelines for those processes are needed, and this paper, in particular,…
... or older and people from certain racial and ethnic groups. That’s why the FDA is encouraging more ... clinical trials, especially people of different ages, races, ethnic groups, and genders. Read on to learn more ...
Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation (NJ1), 2005
Created through Woodrow Wilson's Responsive Ph.D. initiative, "Diversity and the Ph.D." looks at a range of mechanisms through which foundations, government agencies, and nonprofits have sought to recruit and retain more minority students in U.S. doctoral programs. Drawing on interviews with the leaders of 13 such programs, the report also points…
Staub, Shalom, Ed.
This proceedings of a conference convened by the Governor of Pennsylvania explores the impact of Pennsylvania's cultural diversity upon public policy. The following five panel discussions were held: "Conservation of Cultural Heritage Resources: Values and Strategies"; "Culturally Sensitive Delivery of Health Care and Human…
Hesser, Phillip, Ed.
For people concerned with the future of diversity in the United States, the month of June 2003 was a momentous watershed. Nearly four decades earlier, President Lyndon B. Johnson first advocated affirmative action as a means to "seek not just freedom, but opportunity." June 2003 also saw the 25th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court's…
Jenkins, Gavin R; Yuen, Hon K; Rose, Emily J; Maher, Amy I; Gregory, Kristina C; Cotton, Megan E
This study investigated the differences in the quality of park play spaces between an affluent and a non-affluent community in a large US Southeastern metropolitan area. Two cities were purposefully selected to reflect differences in household income and race/ethnicity characteristics. Using the Playable Space Quality Assessment Tool (PSQAT), all parks (n = 11, with six in the affluent city, and five in the non-affluent city) in these two cities were evaluated. The data were analyzed across three aspects of environmental features of the PSQAT: Location, Play Value and Care and Maintenance between parks in the two cities. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated significant differences between parks in the two cities in all three aspects of the PSQAT with p-values ≤ 0.03 and effect sizes of > 0.65, suggesting that the affluent city had parks of a higher quality than the non-affluent city. Significant disparity in Play Value (p = 0.009) in parks between these two communities suggests that children and young people are likely to have different experiences of the play spaces in their locality and therefore may experience different physical and psychological health benefits.
Jenkins, Gavin R.; Yuen, Hon K.; Rose, Emily J.; Maher, Amy I.; Gregory, Kristina C.; Cotton, Megan E.
This study investigated the differences in the quality of park play spaces between an affluent and a non-affluent community in a large US Southeastern metropolitan area. Two cities were purposefully selected to reflect differences in household income and race/ethnicity characteristics. Using the Playable Space Quality Assessment Tool (PSQAT), all parks (n = 11, with six in the affluent city, and five in the non-affluent city) in these two cities were evaluated. The data were analyzed across three aspects of environmental features of the PSQAT: Location, Play Value and Care and Maintenance between parks in the two cities. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated significant differences between parks in the two cities in all three aspects of the PSQAT with p-values ≤ 0.03 and effect sizes of > 0.65, suggesting that the affluent city had parks of a higher quality than the non-affluent city. Significant disparity in Play Value (p = 0.009) in parks between these two communities suggests that children and young people are likely to have different experiences of the play spaces in their locality and therefore may experience different physical and psychological health benefits. PMID:26184270
Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin
The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.
Kang, Hyunsook; Hebert, Corie
This study seeks to broaden the understanding of friend relationships in older adults and the differences in those friend relationships among various ethnic groups. Secondary data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) was analyzed to test the hypothesis that Caucasian older adults have stronger friend networks than older…
Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.
Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…
Annang, Lucy; Richter, Donna L; Fletcher, Faith E; Weis, Megan A; Fernandes, Pearl R; Clary, Louis A
While public health has gained increased attention and placement on the national health agenda, little progress has been made in achieving a critical mass of underrepresented minority (URM) academicians in the public health workforce. In 2008, a telephone-based qualitative assessment was conducted with URM faculty of schools of public health to discuss this issue. As a result, we present successful strategies that institutional leaders can employ to extend the discourse about addressing limited diversity in the public health academy.
Zhu, Bo-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Lv, Zhe; Dong, Nan; Li, Qiong; Yang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Hou, Yin-Ling; Qian, Li; Fan, Shuan-Liang; Xu, Peng
In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 115 unrelated Hui male individuals from Haiyuan county or Tongxin county, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, to evaluate the forensic application of the 24 STR loci and to analyze interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Hui group data and previously published data of other 13 populations. A total of 115 different haplotypes were observed on these 24 Y-STR loci. The gene diversities ranged from 0.4049 (DYS437) to 0.9729 (DYS385a, b). The overall haplotype diversity was 1 at AGCU 24 Y-STR loci level, while the values were reduced to 0.999237, 0.996949, and 0.996644 at the Y-filer 17 loci, 11 Y-STR loci of extended haplotype and 9 Y-STR loci of minimal haplotype levels, respectively; whereas, haplotype diversity for additional 7 loci (not included in Y-filer 17 loci) was 0.995271. The pairwise FST , multidimensional scaling plot and neighbor-joining tree indicated the Hui group had the closest genetic relationship with Sala in the paternal lineage in the present study. In summary, the results in our study indicated the 24 Y-STRs had a high level of polymorphism in Hui group and hence could be a powerful tool for forensic application and population genetic study.
Gordon, Allegra R.; Austin, S. Bryn; Krieger, Nancy; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Reisner, Sari L.
The impact of societal femininity ideals on disordered eating behaviors in non-transgender women has been well described, but scant research has explored these processes among transgender women. The present study explored weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women at high risk for HIV or living with HIV in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 participants (ages 18–31 years; mean annual income <$10,000; ethnic identity: Multiracial [n = 8], Black [n = 4], Latina [n = 4], White [n = 4], Asian [n = 1]). Interviews were transcribed and double-coded using a template organizing method, guided by ecosocial theory and a gender affirmation framework. Of 21 participants, 16 reported engaging in past-year disordered eating or weight and shape control behaviors, including binge eating, fasting, vomiting, and laxative use. Study participants described using a variety of strategies to address body image concerns in the context of gender-related and other discriminatory experiences, which shaped participants’ access to social and material resources as well as stress and coping behaviors. Disordered weight and shape control behaviors were discussed in relation to four emergent themes: (1) gender socialization and the development of femininity ideals, (2) experiences of stigma and discrimination, (3) biological processes, and (4) multi-level sources of strength and resilience. This formative study provides insight into disordered eating and weight and shape control behaviors among at-risk transgender women, illuminating avenues for future research, treatment, and public health intervention. PMID:27518756
Lichter, Daniel T
Over the next generation or two, America's older, largely white population will increasingly be replaced by today's disproportionately poor minority children. All future growth will come from populations other than non-Hispanic whites as America moves toward a majority-minority society by 2043. This so-called Third Demographic Transition raises important implications about changing racial boundaries in the United States, that is, about the physical, economic, and sociocultural barriers that separate different racial and ethnic groups. America's racial transformation may place upward demographic pressure on future poverty and inequality as today's disproportionately poor and minority children grow into adult roles. Racial boundaries will be reshaped by the changing meaning of race and ethnicity, shifting patterns of racial segregation in neighborhoods and the workplace, newly integrating (or not) friendship networks, and changing rates of interracial marriage and childbearing. The empirical literature provides complicated lessons and offers few guarantees that growing racial diversity will lead to a corresponding breakdown in racial boundaries-that whites and minorities will increasingly share the same physical and social spaces or interact as coequals. How America's older population of elected officials and taxpayers responds today to America's increasingly diverse population will provide a window to the future, when today's children successfully transition (or not) into productive adult roles. Racial and ethnic inclusion will be reshaped by changing ethnoracial inequality, which highlights the need to invest in children-now.
Enoch, Mary-Anne; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Shen, Pei-Hong; Gorodetsky, Elena; Marietta, Cheryl A.; Roy, Alex; Goldman, David
Background Animal and human studies indicate that GABBR1, encoding the GABAB1 receptor subunit, and SLC6A1, encoding the neuronal GABA transporter GAT1, play a role in addiction by modulating synaptic GABA. Therefore variants in these genes might predict risk/resilience for alcoholism. Methods This study included three populations that differed by ethnicity and alcoholism phenotype: African American (AA) men: 401 treatment-seeking inpatients with single/comorbid diagnoses of alcohol and drug dependence, 193 controls; Finnish Caucasian men: 159 incarcerated alcoholics, half with comorbid ASPD, 181 controls; a community sample of Plains Indian (PI) men and women: 239 alcoholics, 178 controls. Seven GABBR1 tag SNPs were genotyped in the AA and Finnish samples; rs29220 was genotyped in the PI for replication. Also, a uniquely African, functional SLC6A1 insertion promoter polymorphism (IND) was genotyped in the AAs. Results We found a significant and congruent association between GABBR1 rs29220 and alcoholism in all three populations. The major genotype (heterozygotes in AAs, Finns) and the major allele in PIs were significantly more common in alcoholics. Moreover, SLC6A1 IND was more abundant in controls, i.e. the major genotype predicted alcoholism. An analysis of combined GABBR1 rs29220 and SLC6A1 IND genotypes showed that rs29220 heterozygotes, irrespective of their IND status, had an increased risk for alcoholism whereas carriers of the IND allele and either rs29220 homozygote were more resilient. Conclusions Our results show that with both GABBR1 and SLC6A1, the minor genotypes/alleles were protective against risk for alcoholism. Finally, GABBR1 rs29220 might predict treatment response/adverse effects for baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist. PMID:26727527
Mindt, Monica Rivera; Miranda, Caitlin; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Monzones, Jennifer; Fuentes, Armando; Arias, Francesca; Rentería, Miguel Arce; Rosario, Ana; Morgello, Susan
In recent years, HIV/AIDS populations have become older and increasingly more ethnically diverse. Concurrently, the prevalence of HIV-related neurocognitive (NC) impairment remains high. This study examined the effects of age and ethnicity on NC function in HIV-positive adults. The sample (N = 126; 84 Latina/o and 42 Non-Hispanic White) completed a comprehensive NC battery. Global NC and domain average demographically-corrected t-scores were generated. There were no significant differences between Younger (<50 years) Latina/os and non-Hispanic Whites on Global NC function or NC domains (all p's >.10), with generally small effect sizes. Older Latina/os (≥50 years) were significantly more impaired than Older Non-Hispanic Whites on processing speed and learning, with trends in Global NC function and memory. Further, effect sizes fell within the medium to large range (Cohen's d's = .49-1.15). This study suggests that older Latina/os are at potentially greater risk for NC impairment, particularly in processing speed and learning, when compared to similarly-aged non-Hispanic whites.
Graham, Sandra; Munniksma, Anke; Juvonen, Jaana
To examine the unique functions of same- and cross-ethnic friendships, Latino (n = 536) and African American (n = 396) sixth-grade students (Mage = 11.5 years) were recruited from 66 classrooms in 10 middle schools that varied in ethnic diversity. Participants reported on the number of same- and cross-ethnic friends, perceived vulnerability, friendship quality, and the private regard dimension of ethnic identity. Whereas same-ethnic friendships were uniquely associated with stronger private regard, more ethnic diversity and cross-ethnic friendships were uniquely associated with less perceived vulnerability. Multilevel structural equation modeling tested whether cross-ethnic friendships mediated the diversity-vulnerability relation. Although cross-ethnic friendships did not significantly mediate this relation at the classroom level, these friendships predicted less vulnerability at the individual student level.
Smith, Sanne; Van Tubergen, Frank; Maas, Ineke; McFarland, Daniel A
Ethnically diverse settings provide opportunities for interethnic friendship but can also increase the preference for same-ethnic friendship. Therefore, same-ethnic friendship preferences, or ethnic homophily, can work at cross-purposes with policy recommendations to diversify ethnic representation in social settings. In order to effectively overcome ethnic segregation, we need to identify those factors within diverse settings that exacerbate the tendency toward ethnic homophily. Using unique data and multiple network analyses, the authors examine 529 adolescent friendship networks in English, German, Dutch, and Swedish schools and find that the ethnic composition of school classes relates differently to immigrant and native homophily. Immigrant homophily disproportionately increases as immigrants see more same-ethnic peers, and friendship density among natives has no effect on this. By contrast, native homophily remains relatively low until natives see dense groups of immigrants. The authors' results suggest that theories of interethnic competition and contact opportunities apply differently to ethnic majority and minority groups.
Estimating the weight of ethnically diverse children attending an Australian emergency department: a prospective, blinded, comparison of age-based and length-based tools including Mercy, PAWPER and Broselow
John-Denny, Blessy; McGarvey, Kathryn; Hann, Alexandra; Pegiazoglou, Ioannis; Peat, Jennifer
Objective To prospectively compare the actual weights of Australian children in an ethnically diverse metropolitan setting with the predicted weights using the Paediatric Advanced Weight Prediction in the Emergency Room (PAWPER) tape, Broselow tape, Mercy system and calculated weights using the updated Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS), Luscombe and Owens and Best Guess formulae. Methods A prospective, cross-sectional, observational, blinded, convenience study conducted at the Children's Hospital at Westmead Paediatric Emergency Department in Sydney, Australia. Comparisons were made using Bland-Altman plots, mean difference, limits of agreement and estimated weight within 10% and 20% of actual weight. Results 199 patients were enrolled in the study with a mean actual weight of 27.2 kg (SD 17.2). Length-based tools, with or without body habitus adjustment, performed better than age-based formulae. When measuring estimated weight within 10% of actual weight, PAWPER performed best with 73%, followed by Mercy (69%), PAWPER with no adjustment (62%), Broselow (60%), Best Guess (47%), Luscombe and Owens (41%) and revised APLS (40%). Mean difference was similar across all methods ranging from 0.4 kg (0.0, 0.9) for Mercy to −2.2 kg (−3.5, −0.9) for revised APLS. Limits of agreement were narrower for the length-based tools (−5.9, 6.8 Mercy; −8.3, 5.6 Broselow; −9.0, 7.1 PAWPER adjusted; −12.1, 9.2 PAWPER unadjusted) than the age-based formulae (−18.6, 17.4 Best Guess; −19.4, 15.1 revised APLS, −21.8, 17.7 Luscombe and Owens). Conclusion In an ethnically diverse population, length-based methods with or without body habitus modification are superior to age-based methods for predicting actual body weight. Body habitus modifications increase the accuracy and precision slightly. PMID:27799153
Syed, Moin; Juang, Linda P
The purpose of the present study was to test three fundamental theoretical propositions from Phinney's (1990) developmental model about the relations among ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: (a) ethnic identity is more strongly related to identity coherence for ethnic minorities than for Whites; (b) ethnic identity is more strongly related to psychological functioning for ethnic minorities than for Whites; and (c) identity coherence mediates the association between ethnic identity and psychological functioning for ethnic minorities, but not for Whites. These hypotheses were tested in three independent samples of ethnically diverse youth. In general, we found weak to moderate support for these three hypotheses, suggesting that the theoretically proposed differences in ethnic identity between ethnic minorities and Whites may not be supported by data. Implications for theory and measurement of ethnic identity are discussed.
Bulaeva, K B; Jorde, L; Ostler, C; Bulaev, O A; Pavlova, T A; Harpending, H
Genomic diversity of 21 STR loci has been studied in six ethnic populations of Daghestan (the Caucasus), namely, Avars, Dargins, Kubachians, Lezgins, and Nogais, and the results have been compared with these data for European, African, and East Asian ethnic groups. Daghestan is unique in its ethnic diversity, which is the greatest in the Caucasus: 26 out of approximately 50 autochthonous ethnic groups of the Caucasus live there. The genetic origin of this wide ethnic diversity of Daghestan and the Caucasus as a whole is still obscure. The genetic heterogeneity of Daghestan populations has been found to be lower than that of most other populations in the world. This is explained by a prolonged isolation and gene drift in their demographic history. Generalized genetic distances between ethnic groups calculated for the whole set of loci studied allow differentiating Asian populations from African ones, with European populations occupying intermediate positions. All Daghestan ethnic populations form a distinct common group together with some European populations (Finnish, Polish, and French). Nogais are genetically close to Southeast Asian populations. The genetic closeness and the apparently equal genetic diversity of Daghestan and European populations suggest that the ethnic differentiation of the ancestral populations of Daghestan and European ethnic groups occurred in the earliest populations of modern humans.
Donelle, Lorie; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Gatobu, Sospeter; Arocha, Jose F
Competency in health numeracy is essential in understanding risk about disease susceptibility and the consequences of disease treatment. Both health literacy and skill in using the Internet to obtain health information are lower among older compared with younger adults. Presentation format of health information has been shown to influence comprehension. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of information formatting (text and graphic) on older adults' comprehension of Internet-based numeric cancer risk information. This cross-sectional study involved a convenience sample of adults, aged 50 years and older from diverse ethnic and educational backgrounds. Cancer risk information, obtained from a Canadian Cancer Society web page, was presented as text, graphics or as a combination of text and graphics formats. Comprehension of the information was assessed by six questions focused on basic numeracy skill and ability to perform simple calculations and operations. A three-item general context numeracy and an eight-item health context numeracy instrument were used to describe health numeracy skills of participants. The six-item Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test was used to assess prose and numeric health literacy. There was no statistically significant effect of presentation format on participants' comprehension of the cancer information. Participants' comprehension of basic health numeracy information was positively correlated with education (p < or = 0.05) and income (p < or = 0.01) whereas comprehension of information that assessed calculation and operations numeracy skill was positively correlated only with income (p < or = 0.05). Health literacy skill and income explained a significant proportion of the variance in overall comprehension of Internet-based cancer risk information (R(2) = 0.414, p < or = 0.01) in this sample of older adults. Format of numeric risk information was not a significant factor in the comprehension of cancer risk information in
Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Barker, Judith C; Unutzer, Jurgen; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Johnson, Megan Dwight; Tran, Cindy; Guarnaccia, Peter; Hinton, Ladson
Older men are less likely than older women to receive depression treatment. Latino older men in particular have been found to have significantly lower rates of depression treatment than their white-non-Mexican (WNM) counterparts. Prior research has shown that men are less likely than women to express overt affect and/or report depression symptoms that may prompt primary care physicians' inquiry about depression. Previous studies have overlooked the idioms of distress common among older men. This study investigates: a) the range of idioms of distress that emerge in the narratives of depressed older men, and b) the use of these idioms among depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older men. The present report is based on qualitative data collected through the Men's Health and Aging Study (MeHAS), a mixed-method study of clinically depressed WNM and Mexican-origin older (65 and above) men recruited in primary care settings. Qualitative analysis of 77 interviews led to identification of idioms of distress and informed idiom categories. Study findings show that: a) both groups of men utilized a range of idioms of distress that met current DSM criteria for depression, b) both groups were also likely to utilize idioms that feel outside clinical depression criteria, and c) there were similarities as well as differences between WNM and Mexican-origin men. This study provides a larger vocabulary that clinicians might consider in recognizing depression and initiating depression care for older men from diverse ethnic backgrounds. This is important to improve depression care among older men in general and those of Mexican-origin in particular.
A review of the empirical literature was conducted to establish the relation between teacher and student ethnicity, and cognitive and noncognitive student outcomes. It was hypothesized that ethnic teacher-student congruence results in more favorable outcomes for especially minority students. A total of 24 quantitative studies focusing on primary…
... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...
Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y; Kann, Sarah J; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E
Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults' use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test - RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia.
Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A.; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y.; Kann, Sarah J.; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E.
Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults’ use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test – RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:25471537
Studies of the history of newspapers in the United States have virtually ignored the ethnically oriented, foreign language press. This gap in journalistic investigation should be filled by considering the two conflicting roles which ethnic newspapers fill: assimilation of the ethnic group into the mainstream of American culture and maintenance and…
Brewster, Paul W. H.; Melrose, Rebecca J.; Marquine, María J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan
Objective We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Method Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these three domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, APOE genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Results Non-Latino whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ε4 and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Conclusions Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ε4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PMID:24933483
Brown, Susan D; Unger Hu, Kirsten A; Mevi, Ashley A; Hedderson, Monique M; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira
The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one's ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined (a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R, including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and (b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the "Gestational diabetes' Effect on Moms" diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age = 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated 2-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the 2 MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups.
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane
Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…
Pang, Valerie Ooka
Multicultural education, at least in elementary school, should represent a balance between our national identity as Americans and our diverse ethnic heritage, fostering respect for the contributions of different ethnic groups. A unit on the Underground Railroad and Black courage is included. (MT)
Laws, M. Barton; Yeh, Yating; Reisner, Ellin; Stone, Kevin; Wang, Tina; Brugge, Doug
Objectives Studies in the U.S. have found that white men are less concerned about pollution than are women or people of other ethnicity. These studies have not assessed respondents’ proximity to localized sources of pollution. Our objective was to assess lay perceptions of risk from air pollution in an ethnically diverse sample in which proximity to a major perceptible source of pollution is known. Methods Cross sectional interview study of combined area probability and convenience sample of individuals 40 and older in the Boston area, selected according to proximity to high traffic controlled access highways. Results Of 697 respondents 46% were white, 37% Asian (mostly Chinese), 6.3% African-American, 6.3% Latino, and 7.6% other ethnicity. While white respondents, and particularly white men, were less concerned about air pollution than others, this effect disappeared when controlling for distance from the highway. White men were slightly less supportive than others of government policy to control pollution Conclusions The “white male” effect may in part be accounted for by the greater likelihood of minority respondents to live near perceptible localized sources of pollution. PMID:25822317
Martinez, Iveris L; Crooks, Donneth; Kim, Kristen S; Tanner, Elizabeth
There is a growing call for civic engagement, largely in the form of formal volunteering, among older adults in America. This call is a response to the aging of the baby boom population, believed to be the healthiest and wealthiest cohort of older adults to date. It also coincides with the devolution of welfare programs. We argue that current discussions of civic engagement are too narrow and may exclude important informal contributions that older adults make to civic society, and put undue stress on, and devalue those who may not contribute to society due to poor health, poverty or other barriers. We draw on data collected from older adults of lower socio-economic status and diverse ethnic backgrounds in Baltimore City using focus groups to explore their definitions of volunteering and barriers which they face. Through a discussion of existing barriers and motivators for engagement, we critically assess the use of these terms and advance discussions on how to facilitate and value contributions of all older adults. We conclude that civic engagement includes more than formal volunteering and that significant barriers need to be removed to facilitate greater participation of all elders in both formal and informal activities.
Olson, Katherine E; O'Brien, Marita A; Rogers, Wendy A; Charness, Neil
OBJECTIVES: When we think of technology-savvy consumers, older adults are typically not the first persons that come to mind. The common misconception is that older adults do not want to use or cannot use technology. But for an increasing number of older adults, this is not true (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Older adults do use technologies similar to their younger counterparts, but perhaps at different usage rates. Previous research has identified that there may be subgroups of older adults, "Silver Surfers", whose adoption patterns mimic younger adults (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Much of the previous research on age-related differences in technology usage has only investigated usage broadly -- from a "used" or "not used" standpoint. The present study investigated age-related differences in overall usage of technologies, as well as frequency of technology usage (i.e., never, occasional, or frequent). METHODS: The data were gathered through a questionnaire from younger adults (N=430) and older adults (N=251) in three geographically separate and ethnically diverse areas of the United States. RESULTS: We found that younger adults use a greater breadth of technologies than older adults. However, age-related differences in usage and the frequency of use depend on the technology domain. CONCLUSION: This paper presents technology usage and frequency data to highlight age-related differences and similarities. The results provide insights into older and younger adults' technology-use patterns, which in turn provide a basis for expectations about knowledge differences. Designers and trainers can benefit from understanding experience and knowledge differences.
Olson, Katherine E.; O’Brien, Marita A.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Charness, Neil
Objectives When we think of technology-savvy consumers, older adults are typically not the first persons that come to mind. The common misconception is that older adults do not want to use or cannot use technology. But for an increasing number of older adults, this is not true (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Older adults do use technologies similar to their younger counterparts, but perhaps at different usage rates. Previous research has identified that there may be subgroups of older adults, “Silver Surfers”, whose adoption patterns mimic younger adults (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Much of the previous research on age-related differences in technology usage has only investigated usage broadly -- from a “used” or “not used” standpoint. The present study investigated age-related differences in overall usage of technologies, as well as frequency of technology usage (i.e., never, occasional, or frequent). Methods The data were gathered through a questionnaire from younger adults (N=430) and older adults (N=251) in three geographically separate and ethnically diverse areas of the United States. Results We found that younger adults use a greater breadth of technologies than older adults. However, age-related differences in usage and the frequency of use depend on the technology domain. Conclusion This paper presents technology usage and frequency data to highlight age-related differences and similarities. The results provide insights into older and younger adults’ technology-use patterns, which in turn provide a basis for expectations about knowledge differences. Designers and trainers can benefit from understanding experience and knowledge differences. PMID:22685360
Estaville, Lawrence E., Ed.; Rosen, Carol J., Ed.
U.S. ethnic geography is an increasingly important focus of study due to cultural diversity and continued growth of the United States. Geographers are carefully studying the spatial aspects of present U.S. ethnic groups. This collection of essays addresses the important need for creating innovative approaches in teaching U.S. ethnic geography in…
Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.
Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…
Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia
This paper investigates the role of ethnic majority staff in the perpetuation of monocultural education that excludes non-western, ethnic minority cultures and reproduces institutional racism in schools. Based on qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews in four ethnically diverse schools in the Flemish educational system, we…
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Smith, Shannon L.; Quandt, Sara A.
Objective: To determine if ethnic differences in elders' use of home remedies are explained by structured inequalities. Method: Dichotomous indicators of “food” and “other” home remedies were obtained from a randomly selected cohort of older adults with diabetes (N=701). Analyses evaluated if differences in availability of care, economic hardship, and health status explained ethnic differences in home remedy use. Results: Differences in residential location, discretionary money, and health partially explained greater home remedy use among Black and Native American elders relative to whites. Conclusions: Ethnic differences in elders' use of home remedies are not largely attributed to socially structured inequalities. PMID:16430319
... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...
Montemayor, Aurelio M.
Discusses problems in attracting and retaining qualified minority group teachers. Some reasons minority teachers leave school districts are lack of an induction process, isolation from other faculty members, economics, and diminishing prestige of teaching. Recommendations involving universities, public schools, state legislators and agencies,…
Goldsmith, Scott; Frazier, Rosyland
In the spring of 2001, the mayor of Anchorage (Alaska) created a task force to develop recommendations to help heal racism in Anchorage. A series of focus groups were held throughout the community to obtain an assessment of attitudes and opinions about the quality of life in Anchorage from the perspective of different racial groups and to solicit…
Ogilvie, Rachel P.; Redline, Susan; Bertoni, Alain G.; Chen, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Pamela; Szklo, Moyses; Lutsey, Pamela L.
Study Objectives: To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between objectively measured sleep characteristics and multiple indices of adiposity in racially/ethnically diverse older adults within the MESA Sleep study (n = 2,146). Methods: 7-day actigraphy was used to assess sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and night-to-night variability. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat were modeled continuously and according to obesity cut-points. Models were adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables. Results: Participants who slept less than 6 hours a night had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, and body fat relative to those who slept 7–8 hours. Those who slept less than 5 hours had a 16% higher prevalence of general obesity (BMI ≥ 30 vs. < 25 kg/m2) (95% [CI]: 0.08–0.24) and a 9% higher prevalence of abdominal obesity (waist circumference: women ≥ 88 centimeters, men ≥ 102 centimeters; 95% CI: 0.03–0.16) compared to those who slept 7–8 hours. Results were similar for sleep efficiency and night-to-night sleep variability. Conclusions: Among an older multi-ethnic cohort, we found robust associations across multiple indices of sleep and adiposity. Targeting sleep characteristics may be of benefit in obesity interventions, but more research is needed to rule out reverse causality. Citation: Ogilvie RP, Redline S, Bertoni AG, Chen X, Ouyang P, Szklo M, Lutsey PL. Actigraphy measured sleep indices and adiposity: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). SLEEP 2016;39(9):1701–1708. PMID:27306270
Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Hecht, Michael L.; Sills, Stephen
This article reports the results of research exploring how ethnicity and ethnic identity may “protect” adolescents against drug use and help them form antidrug use norms. This study was conducted in 1998 and is based on a sample of 4364 mostly Mexican American seventh graders residing in a large southwestern city of diverse acculturation statuses. It aims at testing existing findings by conducting the research within the unique geographic and ethnic context of the Southwest region of the United States. This research examines how strength of ethnic identity plays a distinctive role in drug use behavior among the various ethnic groups represented in the sample: Mexican Americans, other Latinos, American Indians, African Americans, non-Hispanic Whites, and those of mixed ethnic backgrounds. Positive ethnic identity (i.e., strong ethnic affiliation, attachment, and pride) was associated with less substance use and stronger antidrug norms in the sample overall. Unexpectedly, the apparently protective effects of positive ethnic identity were generally stronger for non-Hispanic White respondents (a numerical minority group in this sample) than for members of ethnic minority groups. Implications for prevention programs tailored for Mexican/Mexican American students are discussed. PMID:15387204
Femminella, Francis X.
The relationship between ethnic heritage and citizenship is explored in this paper. The author develops his analysis in four chapters. Chapter I examines levels of identity through which all individuals progress as they mature. These include identification with oneself, one's family, the extended family and ethnic group, the nation, and the world…
Halder, Rebat M; Brooks, Howard L; Callender, Valerie D
Acne is the most common disorder observed in ethnic skin. Clinical presentation is different than in white skin. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is a common sequelae of acne in darker skin. The management of acne in ethnic skin is based largely on the prevention and treatment of hyperpigmentation.
Nwankwo, Robert L.
This paper discusses the intercultural communication body of knowledge and focuses on the ethnicity and mass communication. The orientation and tradition of communication research in the United States is discussed; the findings of some mass communication studies that have subject matter or variables related to mass ethnicity are summarized; the…
Budescu, David V.; Budescu, Mia
Racial/ethnic diversity has become an increasingly important variable in the social sciences. Research from multiple disciplines consistently demonstrates the tremendous impact of ethnic diversity on individuals and organizations. Investigators use a variety of measures, and their choices can affect the conclusions that can be drawn and limit the…
Rodgers, Allen L
Using combinations of the key words urolithiasis, kidney stones, race, ethnicity, population group in Google Scholar and Pubmed, a literature search identified 40 articles. Of these, 33 satisfied the principal inclusion criterion of studies involving comparison of at least two groups in which there is a perceived difference in stone occurrence. Studies were classified as "weak" (no attempt to account for inter-racial or inter-ethnic group differences in stone occurrence), "soft" (speculative explanations reached by default) or "hard" (explanations based on empirically measured lithogenic risk factors). Only 12 studies (36 %) fell into the latter category. Among these, a wide diversity of lithogenic factors was invoked to explain inter-group differences in stone rates. Traditional urinary physicochemical risk factors do not convincingly account for these differences. Studies have failed to yield a consolidated and unifying theory which compellingly explains racial and ethnic differences in urolithiasis.
Altschuler, Joanne; Rhee, Siyon
The number of midlife and older women with HIV/AIDS is high and increasing, especially among women of color. This article addresses these demographic realities by reporting on findings about self-esteem, relationship power, and HIV risk from a pilot study of midlife and older women. A purposive sample (N = 110) of ethnically, economically, and educationally diverse women 40 years and older from the Greater Los Angeles Area was surveyed to determine their levels of self-esteem, general relationship power, sexual decision-making power, safer sex behaviors, and HIV knowledge. Women with higher levels of self-esteem exercised greater power in their relationships with their partner. Women with higher levels of general relationship power and self-esteem tend to exercise greater power in sexual decision making, such as having sex and choosing sexual acts. Income and sexual decision-making power were statistically significant in predicting the use of condoms. Implications and recommendations for future HIV/AIDS research and intervention targeting midlife and older women are presented.
Brennan-Ing, Mark; Seidel, Liz; Karpiak, Stephen E
Social networks of older adults with HIV have been characterized as fragile, with a greater reliance on friends as compared to family. However, we know little about the subgroup differences in the social network constellations of this population, how such characteristics are related to social support resources, and their relationship with psychosocial well-being. We developed a typology of social networks of older HIV-positive adults and examined if they would be related to receipt of informal assistance, perceptions of support sufficiency, and psychosocial well-being. Data were obtained from Research on Older Adults with HIV (n = 914). Participants were 50 years and older, HIV positive, and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation. Cluster analysis identified Isolated, Friend-centered, and Integrated social network types. The Isolated reported significantly lower levels of assistance, lower perceptions of support availability and adequacy, greater stigma and psychological distress, and lower well-being compared to their peers. While friends dominate many social networks in this population, a more nuanced interpretation is needed; many have no friends and a substantial proportion receive significant family support. Those with Isolated network types will likely need to access a high volume of community-based services as they age as they lack informal support resources.
Bernstein, J; Mutschler, P; Bernstein, E
Older women of color tend to have much lower rates of regular mammography screening for breast cancer than younger Caucasian women; yet, they have higher rates of mortality. This study was designed to increase mammography rates among inner-city women aged 50 years or older. Another goal was to investigate differences in mammography utilization related to race/ethnicity and language after barriers associated with cost and the difficulty of making an appointment are removed. A peer delivered intervention, which consisted of interview, mammography referral, and the scheduling of a next-day appointment, was conducted among a convenience sample of 151 culturally and racially diverse older women through a primary care referral project operating within an urban emergency department (ED). A brief motivational interview and mammography referral at the time of an ED visit, including scheduling of a next-day no cost appointment, was followed by a cross-sectional telephone survey of utilization and motivating and hindering factors. Follow-up was achieved with 96 women (66%). Fifty-eight women (60%) had a post-intervention mammogram; of those, 69% were first time users. More than 90% planned a repeat mammogram the following year. Of the 27 who did not receive a mammogram, 21 (77%) requested a "second try" appointment. These findings demonstrate that an interactive intervention among older women of color has the potential to dramatically increase mammography rates.
Skilton, Michael R
Birthweight is known to differ by ethnicity, with South Asian, black African and Caribbean, and Hispanic ethnic groups having lower birthweight on average, when compared with people of white European ethnicity. Birthweight is the most frequently used proxy of fetal growth, and represents the net effect of a host of genetic, physiological and pathophysiological factors. These same ethnic groups that have lower average birthweight also tend to have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is not unreasonable to propose that the well-established inverse association between birthweight and risk of type 2 diabetes may at least partially contribute to these differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes between ethnic groups. This hypothesis would rely on the mechanisms that drive the ethnic differences in birthweight aligning with those that modify the risk of type 2 diabetes. In this issue of Diabetologia (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-014-3474-7), Nightingale et al have furthered this field by determining whether ethnic differences in markers of cardio-metabolic risk are consistent with the differences in birthweight in an ethnically diverse cohort of children. The likely contribution of fetal growth to ethnic differences in risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is discussed, particularly in light of the magnitude of the birthweight differences, as are implications for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Bresee, Catherine; Dubina, Emily D.; Khan, Aqsa A.; Sevilla, Claudia; Grant, David; Eilber, Karyn S.; Anger, Jennifer T.
OBJECTIVES As the aging population in the United States grows, the investigation of urinary incontinence (UI) issues becomes increasingly important, especially among women. Using data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), we sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of UI among an ethnically diverse population of older, community-dwelling women. METHODS 5,374 female Californians aged 65 or older participated in a population-based, cross-sectional random digit dialing telephone survey. The CHIS 2003 adult survey included one question for Californians aged 65+ about UI. Additional information collected via the self-reported survey included demographics (age, race/ethnicity, education, and household income); general health data (self-reported health status, height and weight, fall history, and special equipment needs); medical co-morbidities; and health behaviors (tobacco usage, physical activity, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). RESULTS The estimated state-wide female prevalence rate for UI was 24.4%. Prevalence rates increased with age. UI was significantly associated with poorer overall health (adjusted OR 3.43, p<0.001), decreased mobility (OR 1.81, p=0.004), current use of HRT (OR 1.72, p<0.001), being overweight or obese (OR 1.60, p<0.001), a history of falls (OR 1.53, p=0.002), and a history of heart disease (OR 1.38, p=0.010). After adjusting for all health factors, UI was not found to have any significant association with level of education, household poverty status, or smoking status. CONCLUSIONS UI prevalence among this diverse group of older community-dwelling Californian women parallels that of other population-based studies. CHIS demonstrated that poor health, increased BMI, falls, and decreased mobility are strongly correlated with UI. PMID:25185631
Dean, Michael; Stephens, J. Claiborne; Winkler, Cheryl; Lomb, Deborah A.; Ramsburg, Mark; Boaze, Raleigh; Stewart, Claudia; Charbonneau, Lauren; Goldman, David; Albaugh, Bernard J.; Goedert, James J.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Buchbinder, Susan; Weedon, Michael; Johnson, Patricia A.; Eichelberger, Mary; O'Brien, Stephen J.
A panel of 257 RFLP loci was selected on the basis of high heterozygosity in Caucasian DNA surveys and equivalent spacing throughout the human genome. Probes from each locus were used in a Southern blot survey of allele frequency distribution for four human ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Asian (Chinese), and American Indian (Cheyenne). Nearly all RFLP loci were polymorphic in each group, albeit with a broad range of differing allele frequencies (δ). The distribution of frequency differences (δ values) was used for three purposes: (1) to provide estimates for genetic distance (differentiation) among these ethnic groups, (2) to revisit with a large data set the proportion of human genetic variation attributable to differentiation within ethnic groups, and (3) to identify loci with high δ values between recently admixed populations of use in mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD). Although most markers display significant allele frequency differences between ethnic groups, the overall genetic distances between ethnic groups were small (.066–.098), and <10% of the measured overall molecular genetic diversity in these human samples can be attributed to “racial” differentiation. The median δ values for pairwise comparisons between groups fell between .15 and .20, permitting identification of highly informative RFLP loci for MALD disease association studies. PMID:7942857
Chao, Ruth K.; Otsuki-Clutter, Michiko
With the increasing focus on racial and ethnic diversity in studies of adolescence, this review highlights trends in this research over the past decade. Not only is the sheer number of studies incorporating diverse youth increasing, this research has penetrated many areas of the study of adolescence. Some of this research has attempted to…
Reviews two new books that argue for the political implementation of cultural pluralism in the United States: Peter Schrag's The Decline of the Wasp," and Michael Novak's The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics." (Author/JM)
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Charmaraman, Linda
This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th–12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the importance of race-ethnicity to the adolescents' identities, representing the diverse ideologies of White adolescents' explanations, ranging from colorblind claims to ethnic pride. This study also found significant relationships between racial-ethnic identity importance (centrality) and parents' education for White adolescents. These findings highlight the diversity of White adolescents' understanding of their racial-ethnic identities and the importance of context in shaping racial-ethnic centrality. PMID:19636713
Grossman, Jennifer M; Charmaraman, Linda
This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th-12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the importance of race-ethnicity to the adolescents' identities, representing the diverse ideologies of White adolescents' explanations, ranging from colorblind claims to ethnic pride. This study also found significant relationships between racial-ethnic identity importance (centrality) and parents' education for White adolescents. These findings highlight the diversity of White adolescents' understanding of their racial-ethnic identities and the importance of context in shaping racial-ethnic centrality.
Jackson, James S; Torres, Myriam; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Neighbors, Harold W; Nesse, Randolph M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Trierweiler, Steven J; Williams, David R
The objectives of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) are to investigate the nature, severity, and impairment of mental disorders among national samples of the black and non-Hispanic white (n = 1,006) populations in the US. Special emphasis in the study is given to the nature of race and ethnicity within the black population by selecting and interviewing national samples of African-American (N = 3,570), and Afro-Caribbean (N = 1,623) immigrant and second and older generation populations. National multi-stage probability methods were used in generating the samples and race/ethnic matching of interviewers and respondents were used in the largely face-to-face interview, which lasted on average 2 hours and 20 minutes. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) IV World Mental Health Composite Interview (WHO-CIDI) was used to assess a wide range of serious mental disorders, potential risk and resilience factors, and help seeking and service use patterns. This paper provides an overview of the design of the NSAL, sample selection procedures, recruitment and training of the national interviewing team, and some of the special problems faced in interviewing ethnically and racially diverse national samples. Unique features of sample design, including special screening and listing procedures, interviewer training and supervision, and response rate outcomes are described.
Lisabeth, Lynda D; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Wing, Jeffrey J; Sanchez, Brisa N; Zahuranec, Darin B; Skolarus, Lesli E; Burke, James F; Kleerekoper, Michael; Smith, Melinda A; Brown, Devin L
Background Mexican Americans have increased stroke risk and lower fracture risk compared with non-Hispanic whites, but little is known about post-stroke fracture risk in Mexican Americans. The objective was to describe post-stroke fracture risk in a bi-ethnic population and to compare risk by ethnicity. Methods In the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project, strokes were identified through hospital surveillance (2000–2004) and validated by neurologists (n=2,389). Inpatient claims for fractures were ascertained (2000–2004) and cross-referenced with strokes. Survival free from fracture (any and hip) post-stroke was estimated and compared by ethnicity. Cox regression was used to test the association of ethnicity and fracture risk adjusted for confounders. Interaction terms for ethnicity and age were considered. Results Mean age was 71 years (sd=13); 54% were Mexican American; 52% were women. Mean follow-up was 4 years. There were 105 fractures (hip 33%). Survival free of any fracture and of hip fracture did not differ by ethnicity in unadjusted analyses. Increasing age, female gender, intracerebral hemorrhage and greater stroke severity were associated with risk of any fracture, but ethnicity was not. Ethnicity was associated with risk of hip fracture but this association was modified by age (p=0.02), where Mexican Americans were protected from hip fractures at younger but not older ages. Conclusion Stroke patients were at high fracture risk, with a 10% risk at 5 years. Mexican Americans were protected from hip fractures at younger but not older ages. Both elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites should be targeted for fracture prevention post-stroke. PMID:21334222
Ford, Chandra L; Harawa, Nina T
Although social stratification persists in the US, differentially influencing the well-being of ethnically defined groups, ethnicity concepts and their implications for health disparities remain under-examined. Ethnicity is a complex social construct that influences personal identity and group social relations. Ethnic identity, ethnic classification systems, the groupings that compose each system and the implications of assignment to one or another ethnic category are place-, time- and context-specific. In the US, racial stratification uniquely shapes expressions of and understandings about ethnicity. Ethnicity is typically invoked via the term, 'race/ethnicity'; however, it is unclear whether this heralds a shift away from racialization or merely extends flawed racial taxonomies to populations whose cultural and phenotypic diversity challenge traditional racial classification. We propose that ethnicity be conceptualized as a two-dimensional, context-specific, social construct with an attributional dimension that describes group characteristics (e.g., culture, nativity) and a relational dimension that indexes a group's location within a social hierarchy (e.g., minority vs. majority status). This new conceptualization extends prior definitions in ways that facilitate research on ethnicization, social stratification and health inequities. While federal ethnic and racial categories are useful for administrative purposes such as monitoring the inclusion of minorities in research, and traditional ethnicity concepts (e.g., culture) are useful for developing culturally appropriate interventions, our relational dimension of ethnicity is useful for studying the relationships between societal factors and health inequities. We offer this new conceptualization of ethnicity and outline next steps for employing socially meaningful measures of ethnicity in empirical research. As ethnicity is both increasingly complex and increasingly central to social life, improving its
Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed.
Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E
This study described the housing tenure and residential density of elders from the six largest Asian American ethnic groups in the US: Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Asian Indian, and Vietnamese. These groups were compared to non-Hispanic White elders. Based on data from the 2000 US Census of Population, multilevel regression analyses showed that Japanese elders were most like the non-Hispanic White comparison group across the two housing dimensions. Older Vietnamese persons were least likely to own their homes compared to the other Asian American groups, and with the exception of the Japanese elders, all Asian groups were more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to live in crowded residences. In general, considerable heterogeneity in housing characteristics was observed across the six older Asian American ethnic groups, even after controlling for assimilation and housing discrimination indicators.
Proponents of "diversity hiring" insist that faculty members of color have a different perspective on issues of race and ethnicity that will increase students' understanding of the multiracial, multicultural world they will inhabit in the 21st century. The mere presence of "diverse" faculty members will prepare students for workplace realities,…
Holland, Robert, Jr.
In an interview, a prominent college trustee discusses strategies for increasing ethnic and cultural diversity on governing boards, the relationship between board diversity and institutional policies, effects on the student body, the responsibility of the board, and the challenges and rewards of trusteeship. (MSE)
Knott, Elizabeth S.
Reviews demographic and economic trends promoting cultural diversity in postsecondary education. Urges educators to support cultural diversity and respect cultural differences, rather than forcing students to reject their culture of origin and adopt the dominant culture. Discusses instructional implications of ethnic/racial differences,…
Reid, M. Carrington; Papaleontiou, Maria; Ong, Anthony; Breckman, Risa; Wethington, Elaine; Pillemer, Karl
Context Self-management strategies for pain hold substantial promise as a means of reducing pain and improving function among older adults with chronic pain, but their use in this age group has not been well defined. Objective To review the evidence regarding self-management interventions for pain due to musculoskeletal disorders among older adults. Design We searched the Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases to identify relevant articles for review and analyzed English-language articles that presented outcome data on pain, function, and/or other relevant endpoints and evaluated programs/strategies that could be feasibly implemented in the community. Abstracted information included study sample characteristics, estimates of treatment effect, and other relevant outcomes when present. Results Retained articles (N = 27) included those that evaluated programs sponsored by the Arthritis Foundation and other programs/strategies including yoga, massage therapy, Tai Chi, and music therapy. Positive outcomes were found in 96% of the studies. Proportionate change in pain scores ranged from an increase of 18% to a reduction of 85% (median = 23% reduction), whereas change in disability scores ranged from an increase of 2% to a reduction of 70% (median = 19% reduction). Generalizability issues identified included limited enrollment of ethnic minority elders, as well as non-ethnic elders aged 80 and above. Conclusions Our results suggest that a broad range of self-management programs may provide benefits for older adults with chronic pain. Research is needed to establish the efficacy of the programs in diverse age and ethnic groups of older adults and identify strategies that maximize program reach, retention, and methods to ensure continued use of the strategies over time. PMID:18346056
Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias
Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.
Designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines, this teaching guide focuses on ethnic foods and their influence on and contributions to America's eating habits. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Project described in ED 150 043. The objective of this unit is to develop a knowledge and an appreciation of the food…
National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice, Rockville, MD.
The National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP) convened the Expert Workgroup on Diversity to advise the NACNEP on development of a national agenda for increasing workforce diversity. The workgroup's 18 members developed recommended goals and actions covering the following broad themes: (1) enhance efforts to increase the…
Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily
Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development.
Young Bear, Ray; And Others
Poets Ray Young Bear (Mesquakie), James Mitsui (Japanese American), James McAuley (Irish-American), Alex Kuo (Chinese-America) and Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (Sioux) participated in this forum on the legacy of culture and the creative process. Genres, culture, and definitions of ethnicity were discussed; and an audience participation question-and-answer…
This research examined the relationship between ethnicity and the psychological status and behavior of Jewish and non-Jewish caregivers in relation to the impaired elderly. It was hypothesized that Jewish caregivers would make significantly more use of formal services than non-Jewish (usually Christian) caregivers. Two separate data sets were…
Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…
Sowell, Thomas, Ed.; Collins, Lynn D., Ed.
The essays in this volume focus on the historical and social evolution of six American ethnic groups. Thomas Sowell discusses similarities and differences in the experiences of antebellum "free persons of color," emancipated slaves and their descendants, and West Indian immigrants, and examines trends in the socioeconomic status of black…
Greeley, Andrew M.
This report relies on a composite sample of 12 National Opinion Research Center surveys (with a total sample of 17,700) to trace out the basic outlines of the achievements of American denominational and ethnic groups. There are three fundamental questions addressed in this analysis: (1) whether there are inequalities of achievement among the…
Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M
This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance that adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th- to 12th-grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents' racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants' thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings that adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups.
Graham, Sandra; Munniksma, Anke; Juvonen, Jaana
To examine the unique functions of same- and cross-ethnic friendships, Latino (n = 536) and African American (n = 396) sixth-grade students (M[subscript age] = 11.5 years) were recruited from 66 classrooms in 10 middle schools that varied in ethnic diversity. Participants reported on the number of same- and cross-ethnic friends, perceived…
Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.
This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…
Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Wong, Sabrina; Smye, Victoria L
Although ethnicity data are collected in most countries at the population level, it has become more common to collect such data in healthcare settings, partially in response to growing health and social inequities worldwide. However, the implications of doing so have not been studied. This two-year study was designed to critically examine the implications of collecting ethnicity data in healthcare settings. Using a critical ethnographic approach, we interviewed 104 patients, community and healthcare leaders, and healthcare workers within diverse clinical contexts in a large city in Western Canada in 2006-2007. This paper presents an interpretive thematic analysis, using an ethical lens, of the harms and benefits associated with the process of data collection in a clinical context. While most leaders and healthcare workers and some patients envisioned potential benefits associated with having ethnicity data, these benefits were seen as largely contingent upon action being taken to ameliorate inequities. Overwhelmingly, however, leaders from ethno-cultural communities and patients of diverse identities anticipated potential harm arising both from having ethnicity data and the process of collection. The analysis illustrates that in today's sociopolitical context, collecting ethnicity data in clinical contexts may engender considerable harm, particularly for racialized, vulnerable patients. If ethnicity data are currently collected at the population level, evidence of benefit is required before proceeding to collect these data at the point of care.
Jin, Li; Case, D. Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao
Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry. PMID:20098698
Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao
Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.
The obesity epidemic in the USA affects disproportionately women and the ethnic minorities. On the other hand, female sex is traditionally associated with a favorable fat distribution preferentially in the subcutaneous depots of the lower body and with improved endocrine and metabolic function of the adipose tissue. However, these data are derived from predominantly non-Hispanic white populations. This review discusses fat distribution patterns in women of diverse ethnic backgrounds, together with data on the release of adipokines from adipose tissue in these populations. Very little information is available on how the metabolic function of the adipocyte differs depending on ethnicity. Thus, it becomes clear that future clinical and translational research should explicitly discuss and take into account the sex and ethnic background of the populations studied.
Norton, Peter J.; Weeks, Justin W.
Established and emerging cognitive models of social anxiety have provided researchers and clinicians with a solid foundation for understanding and treating this phenomenon. Much of the support for these models, however, has been derived from predominantly Caucasian samples. While the evidence supports the concept of socio-evaluative fears as being universal, ethnic/cultural influences can dramatically alter the cognitive profile of the fears. The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-ethnic equivalence of the bivalent fear of evaluation model of social anxiety among an ethnically diverse sample of 799 undergraduate students from the United States. A series of confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit for each of the ethnic groups examined, and that holding factor loadings and latent variances and covariances equivalent did not alter model fit significantly. PMID:19560315
Hernandez-Tejada, Melba Alexandra; Amstadter, Ananda; Muzzy, Wendy; Acierno, Ron
The prevalence of elder mistreatment with respect to race and ethnicity was examined in an unweighted sample of 5,777 participants (5,776 participants in weighted sample). Random Digit Dialing methodology was used to select a representative sample of community-dwelling older adults, and the survey was available in English and Spanish. Mistreatment types included emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Race and ethnicity based differences were largely absent, and the only observed increase was for physical mistreatment among Non-White older adults; however this association was not sustained in multivariate analyses controlling for income, health status, and social support. Findings are in contrast to prior reports of increased risk of mistreatment in minority populations, and point to correlated and modifiable factors of social support and poor health as targets for preventive intervention. PMID:23768412
Kohler, Iliana V.; Preston, Samuel H.
We investigated ethnic/religious mortality differentials in Bulgaria during the 1990s. The analyses employed a unique longitudinal data set covering the entire population of Bulgaria from the census of 1992 until 1998. The mortality of Roma is very high compared to all other ethnic/religious groups. The excess applies to nearly every cause of death examined and is not entirely explained by the adverse location of Roma on social and economic variables. For young men, Muslim mortality is substantially lower than that of non-Muslims when socioeconomic differences are controlled. An analysis of causes of death suggests that lower consumption of alcohol may contribute to this ‘Muslim paradox’. For older Muslim women, a significant mortality disadvantage remains after controls are imposed. Suicide mortality is lower for Muslims than for Christian groups of the same ethnicity. Consistent with deteriorating economic conditions over the study period, mortality was rising, particularly for women. PMID:21294054
Joseph, Alex Clement
This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity, emotional empathy, multicultural sensitivity and dimensions of burnout among schoolteachers working with students from diverse ethnic groups. Based on the self-stereotyping principles and tendencies for ingroup favoritism of social identity approaches, it was hypothesized that…
Stegers-Jager, K. M.; Brommet, F. N.; Themmen, A. P. N.
Medical schools are increasingly faced with a more diverse student population. Generally, ethnic minority students are reported to underperform compared with those from the ethnic majority. However, there are inconsistencies in findings in different types of examinations. Additionally, little is known about the performance of first-generation…
This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible for…
Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas
This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…
De Anda, Diane; Riddel, Valerie Anne
Seventy Asian-white, black-white, and Latino-white adolescents reported having multiethnic identity and high degrees of acceptance and comfort in white majority and ethnic minority communities, peer relationships, and family relationships. Respondents had average self-esteem and preferred an ethnically diverse group of friends. Contains 26…
Basit, Tehmina N.; McNamara, Olwen
Currently in the UK there is much pressure to increase the recruitment and retention of ethnic minority teachers, not only to respond to the continuing shortage, but to develop a teaching force that reflects the diversity in the UK population and provides role models for ethnic minority students. There is, however, little research on how ethnic…
Pham, Andy V.; Carlson, John S.; Kosciulek, John F.
Objective: A survey study was conducted to explore ethnic differences in parental beliefs about the causes and treatments of ADHD and whether these beliefs predicted treatment preference. Method: Ethnically diverse parents of 5- to 12-year-old children with ADHD (n = 58) and without ADHD (n = 61) completed a questionnaire developed by the authors…
Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra
This study examined how "homophily" (similarity) and "propinquity" (availability) simultaneously predict both unidirectional and reciprocal cross-ethnic friendships among early adolescents in ethnically diverse classrooms. In a sample of sixth-grade students, liking nominations were used as the indicator of friendship, and both…
Rumbaut, Ruben G.
Examines the psychosocial adaptation of children of immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean showing major differences in ethnic self-identification, both among and within groups from diverse national origins. Analyses explore the determinants of assimilative and dissimilative ethnic self-identities and of other aspects of…