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Sample records for ethnically diverse older

  1. Abbreviated Posttraumatic Stress Screen for Ethnically Diverse Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Luciana; Schuitevoerder, Sage

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult for busy health care providers to perform routine screening for older women’s posttraumatic stress symptomatology, due, at least partially, to a paucity of instruments specifically tested on such a population. To address this issue, in this preliminarily study we tested an abbreviated screen from the set of 20 items comprising the Distressing Event Questionnaire (DEQ; Kubany, Leisen, Kaplan, & Kelly, 2000) on a convenience sample of 94 ethnically diverse older women (ages 52–105). This new 5-item derivation, named “Brief Posttraumatic Stress Screening Scale (BPSSS)”, assesses posttraumatic stress based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - IV (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Its conciseness reduces the likelihood that older women would become fatigued during assessment, making it ideal for use in busy health care settings. Because the BPSSS has only five items, a single factor was hypothesized to account for a large proportion of the variance in its items, in view of the hypothesized cohesiveness of the tool’s five items. We also expected that scores on the screen would correlate (to a certain extent) with those on measures of depression and perceived stress of a non-traumatic and non-medical nature. A standardized alpha of .86 demonstrated high internal consistency of the BPSSS and the exploratory factor analysis showed that one factor accounted for 58% of the five items’ variance. Moreover, the correlations of BPSSS scores with scores on non-traumatic stress and depression were moderate yet significant (r = .37, p < .01 and r = .50, p < .01, respectively). PMID:25400322

  2. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  3. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  4. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  5. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  6. Nonpharmacological pain management by ethnically diverse older adults with chronic pain: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Hirz, Christina E; Manotas, Karen; Hooyman, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    As key players in multidisciplinary health care systems, geriatric social workers must understand the dynamics of pain management among older adults with chronic pain. This study identified perceived barriers to, and facilitators for, utilizing nonpharmacological pain management through face-to-face interviews with 44 ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults. Constant comparative analysis identified barriers not recognized in prior studies: (a) embarrassment/self-consciousness, (b) unavailability of certain treatments, and (c) lack of faith in effectiveness of nonpharmacological treatments. Most frequently reported facilitators were (a) social support, (b) positive attitude, and (c) available resources. Social workers can provide counseling to motivate older adults to exercise to manage chronic pain and refer them to exercise programs tailored for older adults. To resolve the most frequently reported barrier-transportation-social workers can link older adults with transportation services offered by senior centers or other nonprofit agencies.

  7. Factors Affecting Willingness to Use Hospice in Racially/Ethnically Diverse Older Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Ko, Jung Eun; Chiriboga, David A

    2016-09-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities tend to underutilize hospice services. Guided by Andersen behavioral health model, the purpose of this study was to explore the predictors of the willingness to use hospice services in racially/ethnically diverse older men and women. Data were drawn from the Survey of Older Floridians: 504 non-Hispanic whites, 360 African Americans, 328 Cuban Americans, and 241 non-Cuban Hispanics. In each group, logistic regression models of the willingness to use hospice were estimated. A greater likelihood of willingness was observed among younger non-Hispanic whites and among African Americans with fewer functional disabilities. In non-Cuban Hispanics, English proficiency increased the willingness by 3.1 times. Findings of the study identified group-specific factors contributing to the willingness to use hospice services and hold implications for tailored intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Health policy and ethnic diversity in older Americans. Dissonance or harmony?

    PubMed Central

    Wray, L A

    1992-01-01

    The rapid growth and diversity of the older population have long-term implications for health care policies in the United States. Current policies designed for a homogeneous population are increasingly obsolete. To ameliorate obstacles that handicap many ethnic minority elders and to provide equal access to adequate and acceptable health care, several factors need to be considered. Enhanced data collection and analytic techniques are needed. The effects of race or ethnicity must be separated from other biologic, environmental, socioeconomic, cultural, and temporal factors on health status and behavior. Health care professionals and organizations serving minority elders must continue to expand their advocacy efforts to articulate the findings and their concerns to policymakers. Policymakers must understand and acknowledge the implications of an increasingly diverse society and determine what will constitute adequate, accessible, and acceptable health care within continuing fiscal constrains. Program planning, implementation, and evaluation methods must be revised to meet future health care needs effectively and efficiently. PMID:1413784

  9. Protection as care: moral reasoning and moral orientation among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse older women.

    PubMed

    Dakin, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study examined moral reasoning among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse older women based on the care and justice moral orientations reflecting theoretical frameworks developed by Carol Gilligan and Lawrence Kohlberg, respectively. A major gap in this area of research and theory development has been the lack of examination of moral reasoning in later life. This study addressed this gap by assessing socioeconomically and ethnically diverse older women's reasoning in response to ethical dilemmas showing conflict between autonomy, representative of Kohlberg's justice orientation, and protection, representative of Gilligan's care orientation. The dilemmas used in this study came from adult protective services (APS), the U.S. system that investigates and intervenes in cases of elder abuse and neglect. Subjects were 88 African American, Latina, and Caucasian women age 60 or over from varying socioeconomic status backgrounds who participated in eight focus groups. Overall, participants favored protection over autonomy in responding to the case scenarios. Their reasoning in responding to these dilemmas reflected an ethic of care and responsibility and a recognition of the limitations of autonomy. This reasoning is highly consistent with the care orientation. Variations in the overall ethic of care and responsibility based on ethnicity and SES also are discussed.

  10. PREDICTORS OF COMPUTER USE IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING ETHNICALLY DIVERSE OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Julie M.; Carlson, Mike; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Clark, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Objective In this study we analyzed self-reported computer use, demographic variables, psychosocial variables, and health and well-being variables collected from 460 ethnically diverse, community-dwelling elders in order to investigate the relationship computer use has with demographics, well-being and other key psychosocial variables in older adults. Background Although younger elders with more education, those who employ active coping strategies, or those who are low in anxiety levels are thought to use computers at higher rates than others, previous research has produced mixed or inconclusive results regarding ethnic, gender, and psychological factors, or has concentrated on computer-specific psychological factors only (e.g., computer anxiety). Few such studies have employed large sample sizes or have focused on ethnically diverse populations of community-dwelling elders. Method With a large number of overlapping predictors, zero-order analysis alone is poorly equipped to identify variables that are independently associated with computer use. Accordingly, both zero-order and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlates of two types of computer use: email and general computer use. Results Results indicate that younger age, greater level of education, non-Hispanic ethnicity, behaviorally active coping style, general physical health, and role-related emotional health each independently predicted computer usage. Conclusion Study findings highlight differences in computer usage, especially in regard to Hispanic ethnicity and specific health and well-being factors. Application Potential applications of this research include future intervention studies, individualized computer-based activity programming, or customizable software and user interface design for older adults responsive to a variety of personal characteristics and capabilities. PMID:22046718

  11. Predictors of computer use in community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older adults.

    PubMed

    Werner, Julie M; Carlson, Mike; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Clark, Florence

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we analyzed self-reported computer use, demographic variables, psychosocial variables, and health and well-being variables collected from 460 ethnically diverse, community-dwelling elders to investigate the relationship computer use has with demographics, well-being, and other key psychosocial variables in older adults. Although younger elders with more education, those who employ active coping strategies, or those who are low in anxiety levels are thought to use computers at higher rates than do others, previous research has produced mixed or inconclusive results regarding ethnic, gender, and psychological factors or has concentrated on computer-specific psychological factors only (e.g., computer anxiety). Few such studies have employed large sample sizes or have focused on ethnically diverse populations of community-dwelling elders. With a large number of overlapping predictors, zero-order analysis alone is poorly equipped to identify variables that are independently associated with computer use. Accordingly, both zero-order and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlates of two types of computer use: e-mail and general computer use. Results indicate that younger age, greater level of education, non-Hispanic ethnicity, behaviorally active coping style, general physical health, and role-related emotional health each independently predicted computer usage. Study findings highlight differences in computer usage, especially in regard to Hispanic ethnicity and specific health and well-being factors. Potential applications of this research include future intervention studies, individualized computer-based activity programming, or customizable software and user interface design for older adults responsive to a variety of personal characteristics and capabilities.

  12. Primary and Specialty Medical Care among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  13. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  14. Primary and Specialty Medical Care among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  15. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  16. Age-related decline in bone density among ethnically diverse older men.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Y; Cauley, J A; Wheeler, V W; Patrick, A L; Bunker, C H; Ensrud, K E; Orwoll, E S; Zmuda, J M

    2011-02-01

    We compared rates of BMD decline in older men of diverse ethnic background. The rate of bone loss was statistically equivalent between men of African and Caucasian descent. Race differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) are well established, but the magnitude of bone loss among non-white men has not been well characterized. Our objective was to compare and contrast the rates of decline in BMD with aging among older men of different race/ethnic groups. The rate of decline in hip BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-4500 W) with an average follow-up of 4.6 years in 3,869 Caucasian, 138 African American, 145 Asian, and 334 Afro-Caribbean men aged ≥ 65 years (Mean ages: 73 ± 5, 70 ± 4, 72 ± 5, 71 ± 5 years, respectively). The annual rate of decline in BMD at the femoral neck was -0.32%, -0.42%, -0.09%, and -0.44%/year for Caucasian, African American, Asian, and Afro-Caribbean men, respectively (p < 0.05 for Caucasian versus Asian). Although men of African ancestry have higher peak BMD than Caucasians, rates of decline in BMD with aging appear to be statistically equivalent in our study. In contrast, Asian men experienced a slower rate of decline in BMD compared with Caucasians and African Americans. More studies are needed to better define the natural history of and factors associated with bone loss among non-white men.

  17. The human dimensions of post-stroke homecare: experiences of older carers from diverse ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Pound, Carole; Greenwood, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Very little is known about how older people from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups caring for someone after a stroke access and engage with social care services. This paper explores both the experiences of carers whose relative was receiving social care services in their own home and the value of a theory of humanising care to understand and explain these experiences. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 50 carers from five different ethnic groups: Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean and White British. Data were thematically analysed within a phenomenological framework. Five interacting themes emerged: communication and bureaucracy; time and timing; communication and rapport building; trust and safety; humanity and the human dimensions of care. Many of the experiences could be interpreted within a conceptual framework of humanising care underpinned by eight interacting dimensions of what it means to be treated as an individual and a human. Carers from BME and White British groups share many experiences of homecare although language and cultural difference may exacerbate common pressures and stresses. The framework for humanising care is a useful tool to evaluate aspects of homecare that are responsive to dignity and diversity. Implications for Rehabilitation Explicitly identifying, describing and valuing the human dimensions of care may support services in responding appropriately to homecare users from black minority ethnic communities as well as those from white majority groups. Unresponsive services and poor communication may lead to loss of trust with care agencies and undermine BME carers' sense of entitlement and competence in engaging with homecare services. Care worker continuity investing time in building relationships and care worker familiarity is important to many families who access social care services.

  18. Recruiting and Retaining an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Older Adults in a Longitudinal Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…

  19. Confronting Challenges in Intervention Research with Ethnically Diverse Older Adults: The USC Well Elderly II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jeanne; Mandel, Deborah; Blanchard, Jeanine; Carlson, Mike; Cherry, Barbara; Azen, Stanley; Chou, Chih-Ping; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Forman, Todd; White, Brett; Granger, Douglas; Knight, Bob; Clark, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-dwelling older adults are at risk for declines in physical health, cognition, and psychosocial well-being. However, their enactment of active and health-promoting lifestyles can reduce such declines. Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the USC Well Elderly II study, a randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle program for elders, and document how various methodological challenges were addressed during the course of the trial. Methods In the study, 460 ethnically diverse elders recruited from a variety of sites in the urban Los Angeles area were enrolled in a randomized experiment involving a crossover design component. Within either the first or second six month phase of their study involvement, each elder received a lifestyle intervention designed to improve a variety of aging outcomes. At 4–5 time points over an 18–24 month interval, the research participants were assessed on measures of healthy activity, coping, social support, perceived control, stress-related biomarkers, perceived physical health, psychosocial well-being, and cognitive functioning to test the effectiveness of the intervention and document the process mechanisms responsible for its effects. Results The study protocol was successfully implemented, including the enrollment of study sites, the recruitment of 460 older adults, administration of the intervention, adherence to the plan for assessment, and establishment of a large computerized data base. Limitations Methodological challenges were encountered in the areas of site recruitment, participant recruitment, testing, and intervention delivery. Conclusions The completion of clinical trials involving elders from numerous local sites requires careful oversight and anticipation of threats to the study design that stem from: (a) social situations that are particular to specific study sites; and (b) physical, functional, and social challenges pertaining to the elder

  20. Cultural diversity and the mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities: some implications for service provision.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien

    2012-07-01

    Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.

  1. Cultural Beliefs and Mental Health Treatment Preferences of Ethnically Diverse Older Adult Consumers in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Daniel E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Cardenas, Veronica; Daliwal, Sanam S.; Alegría, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background Beliefs concerning the causes of mental illness may help explain why there are significant disparities in the rates of formal mental health service use among racial/ethnic minority elderly as compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This study applies the Cultural Influences on Mental Health framework to identify the relationship between race/ethnicity and differences in: (1) beliefs on the cause of mental illness; (2) preferences for type of treatment; and (3) provider characteristics. Method Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the Cultural Attitudes toward Healthcare and Mental Illness Questionnaire, developed for the PRISM-E (Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly) study, a multi-site randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1257 non-Latino Whites, 536 African-Americans, 112 Asian-Americans, and 303 Latinos. Results African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Latinos had differing beliefs regarding the causes of mental illness when compared to Non-Latino Whites. Race/ethnicity was also associated with determining who makes healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Conclusions This study highlights the association between race/ethnicity and health beliefs, treatment preferences, healthcare decisions, and consumers' preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Accommodating the values and preferences of individuals can be helpful in engaging racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health services. PMID:21992942

  2. Ending Cervical Cancer Screening: Attitudes and Beliefs from Ethnically Diverse Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Sawaya, George F.; Iwaoka-Scott, A. Yuri; Kim, Sue; Wong, Sabrina T.; Huang, Alison J.; Washington, A. Eugene; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Guidelines support ending cervical-cancer screening in women aged 65–70 years and older with prior normal testing, but little is known about older women’s attitudes and beliefs about ending screening. Methods We conducted face-to-face interviews with 199 women aged 65 and older in English, Spanish, Cantonese or Mandarin. Results Most interviewees were non-White (44.7% Asian, 18.1% Latina and 11.6% African American). Most (68%) thought lifelong screening was either important or very important, a belief held more strongly by African American (77%) and Latina (83%) women compared to women in other ethnic groups (p<0.01). Most (77%) had no plans to discontinue screening or had ever thought of discontinuing (69%). When asked if they would end screening if recommended by their physician, 68% responded “yes.” Conclusions The majority of these women believe that lifelong cervical-cancer screening is important. Many women, however, reported they would end screening if recommended by their physician. PMID:18976734

  3. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  4. The Association of Health and Functional Status with Private and Public Religious Practice among Rural, Ethnically Diverse, Older Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Golden, Shannon L.; Snively, Beverly M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This analysis describes the association of health and functional status with private and public religious practice among ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) rural older adults with diabetes. Methods: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional, stratified, random sample survey of 701…

  5. The Association of Health and Functional Status with Private and Public Religious Practice among Rural, Ethnically Diverse, Older Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Golden, Shannon L.; Snively, Beverly M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This analysis describes the association of health and functional status with private and public religious practice among ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) rural older adults with diabetes. Methods: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional, stratified, random sample survey of 701…

  6. Factor structure of the Arthritis-Related Health Belief instrument in ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Clement, Russell; Hooyman, Nancy; Cavalie, Katia; Ouslander, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of chronic pain in older people can be effective but attitudes and adherence to use of this treatment may differ by ethnicity. This study supports that a modified 14-item instrument based on the modified Health Belief Model-the arthritis-related health belief instrument (AHBI)-can be used across ethnically diverse older adults (i.e., European Americans, Hispanics, African Americans, and Afro-Caribbeans). Confirmatory factor analysis tested the factor structure of the AHBI to eliminate items inappropriate for this population. Structural equation modeling tested expected relationships among four latent variables-severity, susceptibility, barriers, and benefits-across the four ethnic groups. Findings suggest that the modified 14-item AHBI (eliminating two items from the original AHBI) adequately described the four latent factors pertaining to use of nonpharmacological pain therapy in this sample. All items registered substantial loadings (.41-.95) on the hypothesized factors, operating similarly across the four ethnic groups. The modified 14-item AHBI may be useful in (a) assessing how individual perceptions influence access to nonpharmacological pain therapy among ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults, with the goal to develop and implement effective pain treatment for this population; and (b) measuring the likelihood of using nonpharmacological pain therapy by older adults. The modified 14-item AHBI can help health care providers to provide accurate pain assessment and examine domains that could affect use of nonpharmacological pain therapy by ethnically diverse older adults and guide practice with them by identifying barriers to use of such therapies and providing education to encourage their use.

  7. The moderating and covarying effects of social support and pain intensity on depressive symptomology among racially and ethnically diverse older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Newman, David; Engstrom, Gabriella; Hammar, Lena M; Swall, Anna

    2017-01-01

    To examine the interplay of social support, pain intensity and ethnicity as moderators and covariates of relationship on depressive symptomatology. Racially and ethnically diverse elders responded to measures of depressive symptomatology and social support. Hispanics reported significantly higher prevalence of moderate pain intensity and depressive symptomology, and lower prevalence of high social support compared with other ethnic groups. Although social support showed reduced depressive symptomatology among those with high pain intensity, it did not play a significant role in decreasing depressive symptomatology among those with low/moderate pain intensity. Social support in decreasing depressive symptomatology is more effective in older adults with high pain intensity than those with moderate or low levels of pain intensity.

  8. Time-Location Patterns of a Diverse Population of Older Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    PubMed Central

    Spalt, Elizabeth W.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Allen, Ryan W.; Cohen, Martin; Adar, Sara D.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Avol, Ed; Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Nunn, Cathy; Mancera-Cuevas, Karen; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this analysis was to present and describe questionnaire data characterizing time-location patterns of an older, multi-ethnic population from six American cities. We evaluated consistency of results from repeated administration of this questionnaire and between this questionnaire and other questionnaires collected from participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Participants reported spending most of their time inside their homes (average: 121 hours/week or 72%). More than 50% of participants reported spending no time in several of the location options, including at home outdoors, at work/volunteer/school locations indoors or outdoors, or in “other” locations outdoors. We observed consistency between self-reported time-location patterns from repeated administration of the time-location questionnaire and compared with other survey instruments. Comparisons to national cohorts demonstrated differences in time-location patterns in the MESA Air cohort due to differences in demographics, but the data showed similar trends in patterns by age, gender, season, and employment status. This study was the first to explicitly examine time-location patterns in an older, multi-ethnic population and the first to add data on Chinese participants. These data can be used to inform future epidemiological research of MESA Air and other studies that include diverse populations. PMID:25921083

  9. Cultural Diversity Among Older Adults: Addressing Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of the older adult population is increasing, and health professionals need to learn new knowledge and skills to improve the adherence of older ethnic clients to their health recommendations. Much of the existing research literature on diversity in gerontology concludes that ethnic older adults are at a health disadvantage. Few if any…

  10. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David

    2014-01-01

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  11. Glycemic control and health disparities in older ethnically diverse underserved adults with diabetes: five-year results from the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) study.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Ruth S; Teresi, Jeanne A; Goland, Robin; Izquierdo, Roberto; Palmas, Walter; Eimicke, Joseph P; Ebner, Susana; Shea, Steven

    2011-02-01

    The Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) project randomized ethnically diverse underserved older adults with diabetes to a telemedicine intervention or usual care. Intervention participants had lower A1C levels over 5 years. New analyses were performed to help better understand this difference. IDEATel randomized Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes (n = 1,665) to receive home video visits with a diabetes educator and upload glucose levels every 4-6 weeks or usual care (2000-2007). Annual measurements included BMI, A1C (primary outcome), and completion of questionnaires. Mixed-model analyses were performed using random effects to adjust for clustering within primary care physicians. At baseline, A1C levels (mean ± SD) were 7.02 ± 1.25% in non-Hispanic whites (n = 821), 7.58 ± 1.78% in non-Hispanic blacks (n = 248), and 7.79 ± 1.68% in Hispanics (n = 585). Over time, lower A1C levels were associated with more glucose uploads (P = 0.02) and female sex (P = 0.002). Blacks, Hispanics, and insulin-users had higher A1C levels than non-Hispanic whites (P < 0.0001). BMI was not associated with A1C levels. Blacks and Hispanics had significantly fewer uploads than non-Hispanic whites over time. Hispanics had the highest baseline A1C levels and showed the greatest improvement in the intervention, but, unlike non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics did not achieve A1C levels <7.0% at 5 years. Racial/ethnic disparities were observed in this cohort of underserved older adults with diabetes. The IDEATel telemedicine intervention was associated with improvement in glycemic control, particularly in Hispanics, who had the highest baseline A1C levels, suggesting that telemedicine has the potential to help reduce disparities in diabetes management.

  12. Ethnic Diversity: Challenging the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" explores the influence of mass media on the perceptions about cultural pluralism and ethnic diversity in society. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the society. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Pluralism" (Joseph Giordano; Irving M. Levine); (2) "Does TV Shape…

  13. Ethnic Diversity: Challenging the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" explores the influence of mass media on the perceptions about cultural pluralism and ethnic diversity in society. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the society. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Pluralism" (Joseph Giordano; Irving M. Levine); (2) "Does TV Shape…

  14. Ethnic Identity and Perceived Stress Among Ethnically Diverse Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre

    2016-09-28

    Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.

  15. Not Quite Color Blind: Ethnic and Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Older People among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Houck, Margaret M.; Olatosi, Bankole A.

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward older people can influence how they are treated and their cognitive and physical health. The populations of the United States and many other countries have become more ethnically diverse, and are aging. Yet little research examines how ethnic diversity affects attitudes toward older people. Our study addresses this research gap.…

  16. Not Quite Color Blind: Ethnic and Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Older People among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Houck, Margaret M.; Olatosi, Bankole A.

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward older people can influence how they are treated and their cognitive and physical health. The populations of the United States and many other countries have become more ethnically diverse, and are aging. Yet little research examines how ethnic diversity affects attitudes toward older people. Our study addresses this research gap.…

  17. Psychometric Properties of Reverse-Scored Items on the CES-D in a Sample of Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Mike; Wilcox, Rand; Chou, Chih-Ping; Chang, Megan; Yang, Frances; Blanchard, Jeanine; Marterella, Abbey; Kuo, Ann; Clark, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Reverse-scored items on assessment scales increase cognitive processing demands and may therefore lead to measurement problems for older adult respondents. In this study, the objective was to examine possible psychometric inadequacies of reverse-scored items on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) when used to assess…

  18. Community health education: reaching ethnically diverse elders.

    PubMed

    States, Rebecca A; Susman, William M; Riquelme, Luis F; Godwin, Ellen M; Greer, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    To address disparities in access to health care information, we developed a model program of community-based, health education workshops to be delivered in English and Spanish to older urban adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language backgrounds. The workshops were created through an interdisciplinary collaboration among faculty from seven health care professions and focused on three healthcare topics identified in Healthy People 2010: dementia and depression, stress reduction, and physical activity. The development of workshop content and structure, including didactic and interactive components, an approach to interdisciplinary student involvement, and program evaluation by clients and community center staff, are presented as a model for other educators. The workshops presented at five senior centers were attended by 1110 mostly female clients with an average age of 74 yrs and with a large proportion self-identified as of minority background. One hundred seven students from seven healthcare programs helped deliver the workshops. Interviews and surveys of the clients demonstrated that most had a positive learning experience, whereas the evidence of intent to take action on health care issues was less definitive. Analysis of student essays demonstrated increased student understanding of older adults and of community services. A website, Geriatric Educational Resources for Instructors and Elders (www.GERIE.org), was created to provide access to the instructional and resource materials used for the workshops, including presentation materials in Spanish. This model program may help address the substantial health education needs of a growing population of older adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language minorities.

  19. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  20. Title V of the Older Americans Act, the Senior Community Service Employment Program: participant demographics and service to racially/ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Washko, Michelle M; Schack, Ronald W; Goff, Barry A; Pudlin, Bennett

    2011-04-01

    Title V of the Older Americans Act, the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), is a 40+-year-old federal program providing subsidized community service and employment training to low-income, unemployed individuals aged 55 and older. It is the only nationally mandated workforce training program for seniors. Because of SCSEP's dual mission, participants added 48 million hours of community service (valued at almost $1 billion) to the U.S. economy in 2008. Almost half (48.9%) of the participants are racial or ethnic minorities, which makes it crucial to understand the program experience of these individuals. Participation, program duration, and employment placement of minorities are examined. Findings show successful enrollment rates, an interactive effect of age and education on program duration, and no indication of a minority disadvantage in employment placement. Recommendations include funding for innovative grants, leveraging of federal partnerships, and targeted technical assistance.

  1. Student and Faculty Ethnic Diversity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Keith; Girardi, Anthony G.

    2007-01-01

    The annual Ethnic Diversity Report provides information about minority student enrollment and minority faculty at Iowa colleges and universities. The "Student and Faculty Ethnic Diversity Report" has been prepared annually since 1992 and is provided to the Governor and General Assembly leadership. This summary is based on a Fall 2006…

  2. School ethnic diversity and students' interethnic relations.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-03-01

    School ethnic desegregation has been a topic of strong societal and educational concern. Research has examined the effects of ethnic school composition on students' interethnic relations with diverging outcomes and sometimes inconsistent results. In this review paper, we provide an assessment of this literature to explain why and when school desegregation might improve or worsen ethnic relations and to identify important future research directions. We discuss different theoretical perspectives predicting positive versus negative aspects of school ethnic diversity: intergroup contact theory and the perspectives of group threat and power differences. Subsequently, we consider a number of school and educational characteristics that can moderate the impact of ethnic diversity on students' interethnic relations and that could be considered in future research. Furthermore, we discuss the need for studying underlying psychological and social processes as well as the importance of investigating interethnic relations in combination with academic adjustment. School ethnic diversity is not enough to promote interethnic tolerance. It is important to examine diversity in relation to other aspects of the school environment that may influence how students respond to the ethnic diversity within school. Important factors to consider are the presence of multicultural education and inclusive school identities, student-teacher relationships, and peer norms and networks, but also the role of parents and of peer relations outside the school context. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  4. Educational Equity in Ethnically Diverse Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Trish; Clark, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Educational research in cooperative learning suggests that inequity based on perceived status may be an issue with heterogeneous cooperative learning groups. This paper explores issues of status based on race, ethnicity and cultural background in the New Zealand tertiary classroom where there is a diverse mix of domestic and international…

  5. Depression Interventions among Racial and Ethnic Minority Older Adults: A Systematic Review across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P.

    2012-01-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults that are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies based on diverse settings and varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives) remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority. PMID:22828202

  6. A Pilot Psychometric Study on the Validation of the Older Women’s Non-Medical Stress Scale (OWN-MSS) on an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Luciana; Prilutsky, Roxanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Older women often experience various types of stressors, including the death of a spouse and associated financial stress (often with a lack of social support), emotional stress due to factors such as caregiving and being single, and the challenges of the aging process. These circumstances could produce or aggravate anxious symptomatology that can in turn compound the negative effects of aging. A brief scale of perceived stress that is not confounded with health status and covers multiple culturally relevant potential stressors is needed for quick use in busy medical settings. Aim To assess the reliability and the validity of an original stress scale designed to measure perceptions of stress beyond health status in a non-clinical convenience sample of community-dwelling older women. Method In this cross-sectional pilot investigation, via conducting item-total correlations and correlational tests of validity, we studied the psychometric properties of our measure using data from volunteer older subjects (mainly low-income and from non-Caucasian backgrounds). The domains covered by the nine items of the tool were selected based on a literature review of common stressors experienced by older adults, especially by older women. Data were collected face-to-face using a demographic list, a well-established depression measure, a brief posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screener, and our 9-item stress tool. Primary outcomes: reliability and validity of the scale of older women’s non-medical stress. Secondary outcomes: demographic characteristics of the sample and correlations between stress items. Results Based on our sample of older women (N=40, mean age 71 years), good internal consistency between the items of the stress scale was found (Cronbach’s a=.66). The findings of the data analyses also revealed that our psychometric tool has good convergent validity with the PTSD screener (r=.53). Moreover, in contrast with most other stress tools, it has strong

  7. [Comparing the Health Needs of Older Aboriginal and Older Ethnic Chinese Individuals in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Lin, Shu-Shuan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chuang, Jui-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Providing healthcare to older people is an essential policy in Taiwan. Previous studies have assessed the health needs of older people residing in urban areas. Evidence related to the differences in healthcare needs between older aboriginal and older ethnic Chinese people in Taiwan is insufficient. As both groups exhibit mutually distinct physical and socio-cultural attributes, understanding their different health needs is necessary to provide tailored and effective healthcare. To investigate the distinct health needs of older aboriginal and older ethnic Chinese using a comprehensive health-needs assessment tool. A cross-sectional study design was used. Older people aged 65 or over were proportionally sampled from communities. The Elderly Assessment System Care Standard instrument was used to collect data through interviews held in participant homes or in community activity centers between October 20th and December 20th, 2011. A total of 180 older people were recruited. A majority of participants had at least one chronic disease, disability, or frailty. Across a range of dimensions and categories of health needs, older aboriginal people had statistically significant higher health needs than non-aboriginal ones. However, older ethnic Chinese participants had higher levels of need in the domains of housing/financing and social participation/isolation. Regression analysis found that independence, risk of frailty, and risk of falls explained the majority of health needs, with R2 values of 64% and 69.6% for older aboriginal and older ethnic Chinese participants, respectively. However, the respective impact of these three categories on overall health needs varied between the two groups. Based on our findings, healthcare providers should focus on improving the self-care capabilities of older aboriginal people and on reducing the risk of breakdowns in care for older ethnic Chinese people in order to enhance the quality of elderly care in Taiwan.

  8. Ethnic Differences in Nonverbal Pain Behaviors Observed in Older Adults with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brianne; Snow, A Lynn; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Research supports using nonverbal pain behaviors to identify pain in persons with dementia. It is unknown whether variations exist among ethnic groups in the expression of nonverbal pain behaviors in this special population. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine ethnic differences in the presentation and intensity of nonverbal pain behaviors among African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic older adults with dementia when screened for pain by certified nursing assistants. Six certified nursing assistants were trained to review and score 28 video recordings of subjects with dementia for nonverbal pain behaviors using the Non-Communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument. Chi-square was used to examine differences among ethnic groups with regard to the display of nonverbal pain behaviors, and ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in the intensity of overall pain across ethnic groups. Of the 168 assessments, pain words (28%), pain noises (29.8%), and pain faces (28%) were observed most often as indicators of pain. Rubbing, bracing, and restlessness were rarely noted. Chi-square analysis revealed ethnic differences in the expression of pain words (χ(2) = 19.167, p < .001). No significant differences were noted across ethnic groups with regards to overall pain intensity. These findings are the first to examine ethnic differences in nonverbal pain behaviors for older adults with dementia. However, future work should examine assessment tendencies of providers in a larger, more diverse sample. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. All rights reserved.

  9. Recruiting Ethnically Diverse Participants into Qualitative Health Research: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renert, Hagar; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of ethnically diverse populations in health research is crucial for addressing ethnic disparities in health status and care. Despite this need, non-dominant ethnic groups continue to be under-represented in health studies. The reasons may be at least partly due to the difficulties inherent in recruiting such groups for research. In…

  10. Ethnic variation in oral health and social integration among older rural adults.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R; Anderson, Andrea M; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-04-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, White) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do White older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, whereas the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian, and White elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted.

  11. Ethnic Variation in Oral Health and Social Integration among Older Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, white) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do white older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, while the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian and white elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted. PMID:23788829

  12. Ethnic Diversity in Schools and Bi-Ethnic Dutch Students' Educational Outcomes and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karssen, Merlijn; van der Veen, Ineke; Volman, Monique

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between ethnic diversity in school and educational outcomes, social-emotional functioning, and citizenship competences for bi-ethnic students. The focus of this study is bi-ethnic children with 1 non-migrant parent (with 2 non-migrant grandparents) and 1 migrant parent (with 2 foreign grandparents). It…

  13. Moving beyond Racial and Ethnic Diversity at HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Michael, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of going beyond racial and ethnic diversity at HBCUs to include other forms of diversity such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and international status.

  14. Moving beyond Racial and Ethnic Diversity at HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Michael, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of going beyond racial and ethnic diversity at HBCUs to include other forms of diversity such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and international status.

  15. Moving Stories: Evaluation of a BSW Oral History Project with Older Adults with Diverse Immigration Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; MacMillan, Thalia; Pardasani, Manoj; Lee, Ji Seon; Moreno, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate an experiential learning project with BSW students to see if their perceptions of older adults have changed. The project consisted of an oral history project and presentation that matched BSW students with older adults from diverse ethnic backgrounds to gather their immigration narratives. The study used a…

  16. Can Ethnic Diversity Have a Positive Effect on School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestri, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of ethnic diversity on test scores, on top of the effect of the share of non-native pupils. We use a rich survey of Dutch primary school students and exploit variations between subsequent cohorts within the same school as our identification strategy. We find that ethnic diversity has a positive impact on the test…

  17. Iowa College and University Annual Ethnic Diversity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    The annual Ethnic Diversity Report provides information about minority student enrollment and minority faculty at Iowa colleges and universities. The Student and Faculty Ethnic Diversity Report has been prepared annually since 1992 and is provided to the Governor and General Assembly leadership. This summary is based on a survey of Iowa college…

  18. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  19. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  20. Ethnic identity, thin-ideal internalization, and eating pathology in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women.

  1. Perceptions of diverse educators regarding ethnic-minority deaf college students, role models, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Parasnis, Ila; Fischer, Susan D

    2005-01-01

    IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY, the researchers documented the perceptions of deaf and hearing ethnically diverse university faculty and staff regarding issues related to the education of ethnic-minority deaf college students. These experienced educators commented on the importance of ethnic-minority role models for deaf college students, the academic preparedness of ethnic-minority deaf students, these students' level of comfort on campus, and the success of institutional efforts to increase awareness regarding ethnic diversity. The insightful reflections of these diverse educators can be informative in improving the educational experience of ethnic-minority deaf students.

  2. Race/Ethnicity and Health-Related Quality of Life Among LGBT Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Few existing studies have addressed racial/ethnic differences in the health and quality of life of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Guided by the Health Equity Promotion Model, this study examines health-promoting and health risk factors that contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among LGBT adults aged 50 and older. We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study. By applying multiple mediator models, we analyzed the indirect effects of race/ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) via demographics, lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, and victimization, and socioeconomic, identity-related, spiritual, and social resources. Although African Americans and Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic Whites, reported lower physical HRQOL and comparable psychological HRQOL, indirect pathways between race/ethnicity and HRQOL were observed. African Americans and Hispanics had lower income, educational attainment, identity affirmation, and social support, which were associated with a decrease in physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans had higher lifetime LGBT-related discrimination, which was linked to a decrease in their physical and psychological HRQOL. African Americans and Hispanics had higher spirituality, which was associated with an increase in psychological HRQOL. Findings illustrate the importance of identifying both health-promoting and health risk factors to understand ways to maximize the health potential of racially and ethnically diverse LGBT older adults. Interventions aimed at health equity should be tailored to bolster identity affirmation and social networks of LGBT older adults of color and to support strengths, including spiritual resources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ethnic Diversity and the Potential for Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others

    This study compared the potential for child abuse among three ethnic groups, when age, educational attainment, and marital status were controlled for in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income mothers residing in a large metropolitan area. Participants (n=195) were between 15 and 45 years and were enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children…

  4. Beyond black and white: race/ethnicity and health status among older adults.

    PubMed

    Ng, Judy H; Bierman, Arlene S; Elliott, Marc N; Wilson, Rachel L; Xia, Chengfei; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2014-03-01

    This study examined physical and mental health, health symptoms, sensory and functional limitations, risk factors, and multimorbidity among older Medicare managed care members to assess disparities associated with race/ethnicity. We used data on 236,289 older adults from 208 Medicare plans who completed the 2012 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey to compare 14 health indicators across non-Hispanic whites, blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, multiracial individuals, and Hispanics. Logistic regression models that clustered on the plan estimated the risk of indicators of adverse health and functional status. Even after controlling for key patient sociodemographic factors, race/ethnicity was significantly associated with most adverse health indicators. Except for Asians, all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to report poor mental health status, presence of most health symptoms, sensory limitations, and activities-of-daily-living disability. Important differences were observed across racial and ethnic groups. Despite some exceptions, elders of racial/ethnic minority background are generally at higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for a broad range of adverse health and functional outcomes that are not routinely assessed. Limitations include bias related to self-reported data and respondent recall. Future research should consider ethnic subgroup variations; employing newer techniques to improve estimates for smaller groups; and prioritizing and identifying opportunities for care improvement of diverse enrollee groups by considering specific needs. To improve the health status of the elderly, service delivery targeting the needs of specific population groups, coupled with culturally appropriate care for racial/ ethnic minorities, should also be considered.

  5. Beyond Black and White: Race/Ethnicity and Health Status Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Judy H.; Bierman, Arlene S.; Elliott, Marc N.; Wilson, Rachel L.; Xia, Chengfei; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    Objectives This study examined physical and mental health, health symptoms, sensory and functional limitations, risk factors, and multimorbidity among older Medicare managed care members to assess disparities associated with race/ethnicity. Study Design and Methods We used data on 236,289 older adults from 208 Medicare plans who completed the 2012 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey to compare 14 health indicators across non-Hispanic whites, blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, multiracial individuals, and Hispanics. Logistic regression models that clustered on the plan estimated the risk of indicators of adverse health and functional status. Results Even after controlling for key patient sociodemographic factors, race/ethnicity was significantly associated with most adverse health indicators. Except for Asians, all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to report poor mental health status, presence of most health symptoms, sensory limitations, and activities-of-daily-living disability. Important differences were observed across racial and ethnic groups. Conclusions Despite some exceptions, elders of racial/ethnic minority background are generally at higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for a broad range of adverse health and functional outcomes that are not routinely assessed. Limitations include bias related to self-reported data and respondent recall. Future research should consider ethnic subgroup variations; employing newer techniques to improve estimates for smaller groups; and prioritizing and identifying opportunities for care improvement of diverse enrollee groups by considering specific needs. To improve the health status of the elderly, service delivery targeting the needs of specific population groups, coupled with culturally appropriate care for racial/ethnic minorities, should also be considered. PMID:24884752

  6. Affective interactions in medical visits: ethnic differences among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Sarkisian, Natalia; Karamnov, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    Investigate influence of ethnicity on older American Indian patients' interpretations of providers' affective behaviors. Using data from 115 older American Indian patients, random effects ordered logit models related patient ratings of providers' respect, empathy, and rapport first to separate measures of American Indian and White American ethnicity, then to "ethnic discordance," or difference between providers' and patients' cultural characteristics. In models accounting for patients' ethnicity only, high scores for American Indian ethnicity were linked to reduced evaluations for providers' respect; high scores on White ethnicity were associated with elevated ratings for empathy and rapport. In models accounting for provider-patient ethnic discordance, high discordance on either ethnicity scale was associated with reduced ratings for the same behaviors. Findings support "orthogonal ethnic identity" theory and extend "cultural health capital" theory, suggesting a pathway by which ethnicity becomes relevant to experience of health care among older adults.

  7. Ethnic diversity and employment growth in English cities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are many reasons why cities with diverse populations may grow faster. Ethnic diversity might attract human capital, tourists or firms, increase productivity through diverse approaches to problem-solving or ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Yet there are also reasons to believe that diversity could be harmful, by leading to sub-optimal provision of public goods or reducing trust or social capital. Or it may be irrelevant, being merely a proxy for class. A number of studies have shown both positive and negative relationships between diversity and growth, using a range of different measures for "diversity." This paper asks two questions: have more diverse English cities grown faster? And does measurement matter: is it important to have a multinational population or an ethnically diverse one? To answer these questions, in this paper a range of models are estimated for employment growth for 53 English cities between 1981 and 2001. The evidence suggests that cities with a high proportion of their populations born abroad in 1981 grew faster in the subsequent 10 years. Neither diversity by country of birth nor ethnic diversity is significant in the period 1991-2001. However, when variables accounting for both are included together, it appears that cities with a large number of migrants saw higher employment growth in the 1990s, but that ethnically diverse cities were less successful. The results presented here suggest that considerable attention needs to be paid to the variable used to indicate "diversity" in these studies and that the impact of diversity varies according to nature of the groups any indicator for "diversity" is representing.

  8. Intragroup Contact and Anxiety Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Considering Ethnic Identity and School Diversity Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Everyday interactions with same-racial/ethnic others may confer positive benefits for adolescents, but the meaning of these interactions are likely influenced by individual differences and larger structural contexts. This study examined the situation-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and anxiety symptoms among a diverse sample of 306 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (Mage = 14 years; 66 % female), based on (1) individual differences in ethnic identity centrality and (2) developmental histories of transitions in diversity between elementary, middle, and high school. The results indicated that at the level of the situation, when adolescents interacted with more same-ethnic others, they reported fewer anxiety symptoms. Further, for adolescents who had experienced a transition in school diversity, the positive benefits of contact with same-ethnic others was only conferred for those who felt that their ethnicity was very important to them. The importance of examining individual differences within larger developmental histories to understand the everyday experiences of ethnic minority adolescents are discussed. PMID:24951944

  9. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Secondary and Postsecondary German Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilett, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This article combines quantitative and qualitative analysis of the depiction of ethnic and racial diversity in recent editions of secondary and postsecondary German textbooks published in the US. The purpose is threefold: (1) to determine the frequency and types of representations of diversity; (2) to examine more closely several representative…

  10. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…

  11. Can we create ethnically diverse skeletal collection from donated bodies?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bone health is least invasively and most effectively done through studying skeletal remains that reflect the living populations who will benefit from the knowledge produced through research. Donated body collections that accurately represent modern populations are needed for osteological insights to be applied to clinical practices. However, even though the US is growing increasingly diverse, donated body collections still suffer from a lack of ethnic diversity. Most individuals who donate their whole-bodies after death are European-American. Reasons for a lack of ethnic diversity stem from past injustices and present religious norms. Increasing body donation among minorities in the US and abroad may be difficult.

  12. Teaching in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Teachers' Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on research on secondary-school teachers and dilemmas they encounter in their work in multi-ethnic schools in the Netherlands. The results of a recent study based on interviews are compared with a survey conducted in 1996. This showed that in a changing societal context, that can be characterized by mounting selection and…

  13. Teaching in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Teachers' Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on research on secondary-school teachers and dilemmas they encounter in their work in multi-ethnic schools in the Netherlands. The results of a recent study based on interviews are compared with a survey conducted in 1996. This showed that in a changing societal context, that can be characterized by mounting selection and…

  14. Learning and Diversity: The Ethnic Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreet, Wilma S.

    1978-01-01

    Teachers may want to observe and record differences among students that appear to be ethnically derived--that is, developed prior to the age of ten or twelve, and separate from individual personality traits. Action research is recommended to relate these characteristics to the appropriate learning style for each child. (CTM)

  15. Racially and ethnically diverse schools and adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Strully, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to "work around" opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships or work around constraints from other groups' preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school.

  16. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    PubMed Central

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  17. Correlates of Prosocial Behaviors of Students in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Asha Leah; White, Samantha Simmons; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between ethnicity-related context variables and the prosocial behavior of early adolescents in ethnically/racially diverse schools. Specifically, youths' perceptions of greater representation of same-ethnic peers at school, school support for ethnic diversity, and engagement in and valuing cross-ethnic contact…

  18. Correlates of Prosocial Behaviors of Students in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Asha Leah; White, Samantha Simmons; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between ethnicity-related context variables and the prosocial behavior of early adolescents in ethnically/racially diverse schools. Specifically, youths' perceptions of greater representation of same-ethnic peers at school, school support for ethnic diversity, and engagement in and valuing cross-ethnic contact…

  19. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    PubMed

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.

  20. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  1. Developing an integrated self: academic and ethnic identities among ethnically diverse college students.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the development of college students' major selection and whether and how this choice is associated with their developing ethnic identities. Ninety ethnically diverse college students were interviewed in their first, sophomore, and senior years. Mixed-method analyses revealed 5 theoretically consistent pathways of how students configured their ethnic identities and majors over time: low awareness, consciousness-raised, high awareness, integrating, and compartmentalized. These pathways were differentially related to students' ethnicities and majors, suggesting that students' identity experiences are moderated by their chosen majors. The results of this study underscore the contribution of a longitudinal, life-span, approach to identity development for understanding the diversity in identity pathways during college. The findings also have implications for practical purposes, particularly for advising, counseling, and curriculum development.

  2. Recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults through community sites for focus group discussions.

    PubMed

    Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol

    2017-06-09

    Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and

  3. School ethnic diversity and White students' civic attitudes in England.

    PubMed

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2015-01-01

    The current paper focuses on White British students in lower secondary education and investigates the effect of school ethnic diversity on their levels of trust and inclusive attitudes towards immigrants. Use is made of panel data of the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study (CELS) to explore these relationships. Ethnic diversity is measured with the proportion of students in a grade identifying with a minority. In agreement with contact theory, the paper initially finds a positive relation between diversity and inclusive attitudes on immigrants. However, this link disappears once controls for social background, gender and prior levels of the outcome are included in the model. This indicates that students with particular pre-enrolment characteristics have self-selected in diverse schools and that inclusive attitudes have stabilized before secondary education. Diversity further appears to have a negative impact on trust, irrespective of the number of controls added to the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Donepezil treatment in ethnically diverse patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Tinklenberg, Jared R; Kraemer, Helena C; Yaffe, Kristine; O'Hara, Ruth; Ringman, John M; Ashford, John W; Yesavage, Jerome A; Taylor, Joy L

    2015-04-01

    To compare the outcome of donepezil treatment in ethnically diverse Alzheimer disease (AD) patients with ethnically diverse AD patients who did not receive donepezil. Patients meeting NINCDS-ADRA criteria for probable or possible AD from a consortium of California sites were systematically followed for at least 1 year in this prospective, observational study. Their treatment regimens, including prescription of donepezil, were determined by their individual physician according to his or her usual criteria. Patients self-identified their ethnicity. The 64 ethnically diverse AD patients who completed the study and received donepezil treatment had an average 1-year decline of 2.30 points (standard deviation: 3.9) on the 30-point Mini-Mental State Exam compared with a 1.70-point (standard deviation: 4.2) decline in the 74 ethnically diverse completers who received no donepezil or other anti-AD drugs during the study period. This difference was not statistically significant. The overall Cohen effect size of this treatment-associated difference was estimated at -0.15. After using propensity analyses and other techniques to assess factors that could bias prescribing decisions, the lack of benefits associated with donepezil treatment remained. The lack of donepezil benefits also remained when more traditional analyses were applied to these data. Ethnically diverse AD patients in this study apparently did not benefit from 1 year of donepezil treatment. These unpromising results are in contrast to modest benefits of donepezil treatment measured in a directly comparable California study involving white non-Latino AD patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Teaching about Culture, Ethnicity, & Diversity. Exercises and Planned Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M., Ed.

    This book is a resource for teachers that contains 28 exercises and planned activities designed by individual authors that can be used to teach about culture, ethnicity, and diversity. The exercises and activities are appropriate for graduate, college, and even advanced high school students in such classes as cross-cultural psychology,…

  6. Ethnic Diversity, National Unity and Multicultural Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…

  7. Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    A major planning effort for Chicago's largest park provided an opprotunity yto examine outdoor recreation use patterns and preferences among a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Results from on-site surveys of 898 park users (217 Black, 210 Latino, 182 Asian, and 289 White) showed that park users shared a core set of interests, preferences, and concerns...

  8. Guiding Discussions in the Class about Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radstake, Hester; Leeman, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    In the literature on intercultural education there is an abundance of text about what ought to be going on in the classroom and a lack of empirical descriptions of the dilemmas of intercultural education in practice. This article describes the practice of five teachers guiding discussions about sensitive issues in ethnically diverse secondary…

  9. Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity among Canadian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiuk, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…

  10. Exploring Group Activity Therapy with Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…

  11. Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity among Canadian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiuk, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…

  12. Well-Being in the Context of Workplace Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo

    2006-01-01

    This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…

  13. Building Multicultural Transitions for Ethnically Diverse Learners with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Lynn K.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Obiakor, Festus E.; Rotz, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities tend to experience fewer successful outcomes in postsecondary transition than do youth without disabilities. Ethnically diverse learners have added challenges, such as worldviews, values, language, family involvement, level of acculturation, expectations, decision-making style, meaning of work, importance of money and…

  14. Guiding Discussions in the Class about Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radstake, Hester; Leeman, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    In the literature on intercultural education there is an abundance of text about what ought to be going on in the classroom and a lack of empirical descriptions of the dilemmas of intercultural education in practice. This article describes the practice of five teachers guiding discussions about sensitive issues in ethnically diverse secondary…

  15. Building Multicultural Transitions for Ethnically Diverse Learners with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Lynn K.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Obiakor, Festus E.; Rotz, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities tend to experience fewer successful outcomes in postsecondary transition than do youth without disabilities. Ethnically diverse learners have added challenges, such as worldviews, values, language, family involvement, level of acculturation, expectations, decision-making style, meaning of work, importance of money and…

  16. Well-Being in the Context of Workplace Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo

    2006-01-01

    This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…

  17. Seed exchange networks, ethnicity, and sorghum diversity

    PubMed Central

    Labeyrie, Vanesse; Thomas, Mathieu; Muthamia, Zachary K.; Leclerc, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies investigating the relationship between crop genetic diversity and human cultural diversity patterns showed that seed exchanges are embedded in farmers’ social organization. However, our understanding of the social processes involved remains limited. We investigated how farmers’ membership in three major social groups interacts in shaping sorghum seed exchange networks in a cultural contact zone on Mount Kenya. Farmers are members of residence groups at the local scale and of dialect groups clustered within larger ethnolinguistic units at a wider scale. The Chuka and Tharaka, who are allied in the same ethnolinguistic unit, coexist with the Mbeere dialect group in the study area. We assessed farmers’ homophily, propensity to exchange seeds with members of the same group, using exponential random graph models. We showed that homophily is significant within both residence and ethnolinguistic groups. At these two levels, homophily is driven by the kinship system, particularly by the combination of patrilocal residence and ethnolinguistic endogamy, because most seeds are exchanged among relatives. Indeed, residential homophily in seed exchanges results from local interactions between women and their in-law family, whereas at a higher level, ethnolinguistic homophily is driven by marriage endogamy. Seed exchanges and marriage ties are interrelated, and both are limited between the Mbeere and the other groups, although frequent between the Chuka and Tharaka. The impact of these social homophily processes on crop diversity is discussed. PMID:26699480

  18. Seed exchange networks, ethnicity, and sorghum diversity.

    PubMed

    Labeyrie, Vanesse; Thomas, Mathieu; Muthamia, Zachary K; Leclerc, Christian

    2016-01-05

    Recent studies investigating the relationship between crop genetic diversity and human cultural diversity patterns showed that seed exchanges are embedded in farmers' social organization. However, our understanding of the social processes involved remains limited. We investigated how farmers' membership in three major social groups interacts in shaping sorghum seed exchange networks in a cultural contact zone on Mount Kenya. Farmers are members of residence groups at the local scale and of dialect groups clustered within larger ethnolinguistic units at a wider scale. The Chuka and Tharaka, who are allied in the same ethnolinguistic unit, coexist with the Mbeere dialect group in the study area. We assessed farmers' homophily, propensity to exchange seeds with members of the same group, using exponential random graph models. We showed that homophily is significant within both residence and ethnolinguistic groups. At these two levels, homophily is driven by the kinship system, particularly by the combination of patrilocal residence and ethnolinguistic endogamy, because most seeds are exchanged among relatives. Indeed, residential homophily in seed exchanges results from local interactions between women and their in-law family, whereas at a higher level, ethnolinguistic homophily is driven by marriage endogamy. Seed exchanges and marriage ties are interrelated, and both are limited between the Mbeere and the other groups, although frequent between the Chuka and Tharaka. The impact of these social homophily processes on crop diversity is discussed.

  19. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

  20. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Buck, Katherine S; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C

    2013-03-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds.

  1. Health concerns and expectations of Anglo and ethnic older Australians: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Quine, S

    1999-06-01

    Australia is a multicultural society in which the most rapidly ageing groups are immigrants, many of whom cannot speak English well. Minimal research has been conducted to identify ethnic variation in health concerns and expectations of older Australians from non-English-speaking backgrounds, necessary to facilitate culturally appropriate services. This paper presents findings from 12 focus group sessions (4 Anglo, 3 Italian, 2 Chinese, 2 Arabic, 1 Greek) with older (60+) Australians. Common areas of concern were inadequate medication information, labelling and instructions. Anglo participants differed from ethnic participants in their use of herbal remedies, language, relationship with pharmacist and doctor and awareness of health rights. Other concerns and expectations were specific to a particular ethnic group. The findings should increase health professionals' awareness of the similarities and differences which exist between mainstream Anglo and ethnic Australians, and also between ethnic groups, thereby avoiding the use of a blanket approach when communicating with, or planning policies for, ethnic older Australians.

  2. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  3. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  4. Ethnic and gender diversity in hand surgery trainees.

    PubMed

    Bae, Gordon H; Lee, Austin W; Park, David J; Maniwa, Keiichiro; Zurakowski, David; Day, Charles S

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether the lack of diversity in plastic and orthopedic surgery persists into hand surgery through assessment of trainee demographics. Demographic data were obtained from compilations on graduate medical education by the Journal of the American Medical Association. Ethnic diversity was assessed using the proportions of minority trainees. We analyzed the trends in ethnic diversity in hand, orthopedic, and plastic surgery from 1995 to 2012 by evaluating changes in proportions of African American, Hispanic, and Asian trainees. In addition, we compared the proportions of minority trainees in various surgical specialties during 2009 to 2012. Trends in gender diversity were similarly analyzed using the proportions of female trainees. During 1995 to 2012, the proportions of minority and female trainees increased significantly in the fields of orthopedic, plastic, and hand surgery. To assess the current state of diversity in various specialties, we compared minority and female population proportions using pooled 2009 to 2012 data. The percentage of non-Caucasian trainees in hand surgery was significantly higher than that in orthopedic sports medicine and orthopedic surgery and significantly lower than in general surgery. The percentage of female trainees in hand surgery was significantly higher than that in orthopedic sports medicine and orthopedic surgery and significantly lower than in plastic and general surgery. Ethnic and gender diversity in hand surgery increased significantly between 1995 and 2012. Women constitute a fifth of hand surgery trainees. Efforts to increase diversity should be further pursued using proven strategies and innovating new ones. Diversity in the medical field has shown to be a beneficial factor in many aspects including research productivity and patient care. Understanding how the field of hand surgery has changed with regard to the diversity of its trainees may aid in providing more equitable and effective health care. Copyright

  5. Ethnic diversity in the nurse workforce: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Otto, Laureen A; Gurney, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    In the 2000-2003 New York State Nurses Association Strategic Plan, the Board of Directors called for an assessment of the progress made toward achieving an ethnically diverse nursing workforce as reflected in the literature. In this paper the authors have responded to that request and offer a snapshot of progress as well as standstills in the journey toward diversity. Although the literature has tended to focus on cultural competency of the healthcare worker, and includes numerous calls for action to diversify the nurse workforce, very little scholarly work has been conducted that rigorously evaluates such diversification activities. The purpose of this literature review is to explore existing scholarly work in ethnic diversity at three levels: in the general workforce, the healthcare workforce, and the nursing workforce. The authors explored the literature as it addresses two aspects: academic and career factors influencing diversity; and recruitment, retention, and other strategies employed to diversify the workforce. By exploring the existing research, gaps can be identified in order to either direct further research, or target funding to recruitment strategies to effectively enhance a more ethnically diverse nurse workforce.

  6. Immigration, ethnicity, and accessibility to culturally diverse family physicians.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu

    2007-09-01

    The study concerns ethnicity, spatial equity, and healthcare access in the context of diversity and integration. The paper first explores how Chinese immigrants in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area choose between ethnic Chinese family physicians and other family physicians, based on a probability survey. It then applies and modifies gravity-type accessibility measures, of which a special type is the so-called floating catchment area (FCA) method, to evaluate three types of geographical accessibility in family physician utilization. The study suggests a certain degree of spatial inequality among Chinese immigrants in accessing culturally sensitive care. The paper yields important methodological and policy implications.

  7. Bladder Symptoms and Attitudes In An Ethnically Diverse Population

    PubMed Central

    Dessie, Sybil G.; Adams, Sonia R.; Modest, Anna M.; Hacker, Michele R.; Elkadry, Eman A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to assess pelvic floor symptoms and attitudes in an ethnically diverse population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of women presenting to two community-based, ethnically diverse gynecology clinics. Prior to being seen by a provider, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. Results A total of 312 women were included: 32.7% Caucasian, 50.3% African American, and 17.0% Hispanic. Other racial/ethnic groups were excluded secondary to small samples size. The median age was 34.0 years (27.0-44.0). The groups differed with respect to most demographic characteristics, such as income, education, and nation of origin. Nocturia and urinary frequency were the most commonly reported symptoms. African American respondents were more likely to report nocturia than Caucasian respondents (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). Respondents' views of normal urinary function generally did not vary by race/ethnicity. However, Hispanic respondents were less likely than Caucasian respondents to agree that it is normal to leak urine after having children (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.68). Among women who reported at least one symptom, 46.7% reported that at least one symptom bothered them, and this did not differ with respect to race/ethnicity (p≥0.59). African American respondents were more likely than Caucasians to report their urinary leakage to their doctors (p=0.006). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that, with few exceptions, bladder symptoms and attitudes are similar among reproductive-age women of various racial/ethnic groups in a community setting. PMID:26516809

  8. Bladder Symptoms and Attitudes in an Ethnically Diverse Population.

    PubMed

    Dessie, Sybil G; Adams, Sonia R; Modest, Anna M; Hacker, Michele R; Elkadry, Eman A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess pelvic floor symptoms and attitudes in an ethnically diverse population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of women presenting to 2 community-based, ethnically diverse gynecology clinics. Before being seen by a provider, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. A total of 312 women were included: 32.7% white, 50.3% African American, and 17.0% Hispanic. Other racial/ethnic groups were excluded secondary to small samples size. The median (interquartile range) age was 34.0 (27.0-44.0) years. The groups differed with respect to most demographic characteristics, such as income, education, and nation of origin. Nocturia and urinary frequency were the most commonly reported symptoms. African American respondents were more likely to report nocturia than white respondents (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.8). Respondents' views of normal urinary function generally did not vary by race/ethnicity. However, Hispanic respondents were less likely than white respondents to agree that it is normal to leak urine after having children (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.68). Among women who reported at least 1 symptom, 46.7% reported that at least 1 symptom bothered them, and this did not differ with respect to race/ethnicity (P ≥ 0.59). African American respondents were more likely than whites to report their urinary leakage to their doctors (P = 0.006). Our study demonstrates that with few exceptions, bladder symptoms and attitudes are similar among reproductive-age women of various racial/ethnic groups in a community setting.

  9. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  10. Preparing racially and ethnically diverse communities for public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Andrulis, Dennis P; Siddiqui, Nadia J; Gantner, Jenna L

    2007-01-01

    The tragedy of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans confirmed that effective implementation of public health preparedness programs and policies will require compliance from all racial and ethnic populations. This study reviews current resources and limitations and suggests future directions for integrating diverse communities into related strategies. It documents research and interventions, including promising models and practices that address preparedness for minorities. However, findings reveal a general lack of focus on diversity and suggest that future preparedness efforts need to fully integrate factors related to race, culture, and language into risk communication, public health training, measurement, coordination, and policy at all levels.

  11. Dietary Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in Ethnically Diverse Urban Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Au, Lauren E.; Economos, Christina D.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Morgan, Emily H.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05), with white and black children reporting saturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181

  12. Dietary intake and cardiometabolic risk in ethnically diverse urban schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Au, Lauren E; Economos, Christina D; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R; Morgan, Emily H; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2012-11-01

    Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05), with white and black children reporting saturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. Copyright © 2012 Academy of

  13. Depression interventions among racial and ethnic minority older adults: a systematic review across 20 years.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P

    2012-11-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults who are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies that took place in different types of settings and with varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed, although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low-income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives), remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority.

  14. Cultural and ethnic diversity. Unique challenges in critical care education.

    PubMed

    Shumate, P L

    2001-03-01

    Cultural and ethnic diversity are facts of life in modern America. This diversity adds greatly to a society's growth and development much as herbs and spices make the difference between a really great soup and a bowl of hot colored water. Yet, as any great cook knows, one has to work with the spices to discover how to blend and mix them. The critical care environment intensifies the tendency for cultures to collide and for education to be stressful and unsuccessful. An educator who is able to learn about other cultures, use flexibility and creativity in teaching methods, and be sensitive to the needs of special groups will find this cultural diversity to be part of the spice of successful educational offerings and a rewarding career.

  15. Enacting Diverse Learning Environments: Improving the Climate for Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Milem, Jeffrey; Clayton-Pedersen, Alma; Allen, Walter

    This digest examines ways in which learning and educational objectives can be maximized to achieve diversity while improving social and learning environments for students from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. The digest examines the literature on campus climate for racial/ethnic diversity, looks at the impact on student diversity of the campus…

  16. Social housing provision for minority ethnic older people with dementia: Findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Valerie; Manthorpe, Gillian

    2015-11-08

    Little research has explored how not-for-profit housing providers, often termed Housing Associations in the United Kingdom, meet the needs of older tenants with dementia who are from black and ethnic minority communities. This article presents findings from an exploratory study conducted in 2015. The study took an audit approach, investigating current practice and policy in 12 Housing Associations. All were developing their understanding of dementia; some were augmenting their standard rented property portfolio to include housing with care provision; and most had policies relating to equalities and diversity and were offering dementia training to members of staff. None appeared to have fully integrated the three strands of housing services, dementia care, and cultural or ethnicity-related needs and preferences. A range of strategies was reported as being developed to meet tenants' changing circumstances. Anxiety about the cost of adaptations was commonly reported, although the nature and extent of this were ill-defined. Discussion focuses on the findings' implications for housing providers and for dementia professionals.

  17. Cancer Genomics: Diversity and Disparity Across Ethnicity and Geography.

    PubMed

    Tan, Daniel S W; Mok, Tony S K; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multinational effort is key to addressing population and genomic diversity as well as overcoming barriers and geographical disparities in research and health care delivery.

  18. Fear of dying in an ethnically diverse society: cross-sectional studies of people aged 65+ in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Iliffe, Steve; Kessel, Anthony; Higginson, Irene J

    2010-01-01

    Aim To examine fears about dying in an ethnically diverse population sample, and a more homogeneous population sample, aged 65 and over. Methods Personal interviews with people aged 65+ living at home responding to two Office for National Statistics Omnibus Surveys in Britain, and two Ethnibus Surveys of ethnically diverse populations in Britain. Results Ethnically diverse respondents were more likely than British population respondents to express fears about dying on all measures used. Respondents in both samples with better, compared with worse, quality of life had significantly reduced odds of having extreme fears of dying (ethnically diverse sample, OR 0.924 (95% CI 0.898 to 0.951); British population sample, OR 0.981 (95% CI 0.966 to 0.996); both p<0.001). In the latter sample only, older age was protective (OR 0.957; 95% CI 0.930 to 0.985; p<0.001), whereas in the Ethnibus sample, having a longstanding illness (OR 2.024; 95% CI 1.158 to 3.535; p<0.05) and having more relatives to help them (OR 1.134; 95% CI 1.010 to 1.274; p<0.05) increased fears about dying. Conclusions Enabling older people to express fears about dying is likely to be important when planning supportive end-of-life care. Practitioners should not assume that fears about dying are the same in different social groups, or that extensive family support is protective against such anxiety. Older people from ethnic minorities had more anxieties about dying than others, and were more likely to express fears the more extensive their family support. These findings have implications for commissioners and practitioners of primary and secondary care. PMID:20354041

  19. Fear of dying in an ethnically diverse society: cross-sectional studies of people aged 65+ in Britain.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Ann; Iliffe, Steve; Kessel, Anthony; Higginson, Irene J

    2010-04-01

    To examine fears about dying in an ethnically diverse population sample, and a more homogeneous population sample, aged 65 and over. Personal interviews with people aged 65+ living at home responding to two Office for National Statistics Omnibus Surveys in Britain, and two Ethnibus Surveys of ethnically diverse populations in Britain. Ethnically diverse respondents were more likely than British population respondents to express fears about dying on all measures used. Respondents in both samples with better, compared with worse, quality of life had significantly reduced odds of having extreme fears of dying (ethnically diverse sample, OR 0.924 (95% CI 0.898 to 0.951); British population sample, OR 0.981 (95% CI 0.966 to 0.996); both p<0.001). In the latter sample only, older age was protective (OR 0.957; 95% CI 0.930 to 0.985; p<0.001), whereas in the Ethnibus sample, having a longstanding illness (OR 2.024; 95% CI 1.158 to 3.535; p<0.05) and having more relatives to help them (OR 1.134; 95% CI 1.010 to 1.274; p<0.05) increased fears about dying. Enabling older people to express fears about dying is likely to be important when planning supportive end-of-life care. Practitioners should not assume that fears about dying are the same in different social groups, or that extensive family support is protective against such anxiety. Older people from ethnic minorities had more anxieties about dying than others, and were more likely to express fears the more extensive their family support. These findings have implications for commissioners and practitioners of primary and secondary care.

  20. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  1. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  2. Roots of the Future: An Education Pack for Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter

    This pack challenges ignorance about racial diversity in England by encouraging activities that shed light on the recent past and the society in which young people in Britain live. The exercises in this book invite young people to explore ethnic and cultural diversity in Britain. They are designed to show that ethnic diversity is good and…

  3. Neighborhood deprivation and adverse birth outcomes among diverse ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Janevic, T; Stein, CR; Savitz, DA; Kaufman, JS; Mason, SM; Herring, AH

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Living in a socioeconomically deprived neighborhood has been associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, variation in the effect of neighborhood deprivation among diverse ethnic groups has not been studied. Methods Using linked hospital discharge and birth data for 517,994 singleton live births in New York City from 1998–2002, we examined the association between neighborhood deprivation, preterm birth (PTB), and term low birthweight (TLBW)(≥37 weeks and <2500g). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for PTB (<32 and 33–36 weeks) and TLBW were estimated using logistic regression. Results The aOR for PTB <32 weeks for the highest quartile of deprivation compared to the lowest was 1.24 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.13, 1.36), for PTB 33–36 weeks was 1.06 (95%CI=1.01, 1.11), and for TLBW was 1.19 (95%CI=1.11, 1.27). Measures of association varied by ethnicity; AORs of the greatest magnitude for PTB were found among Hispanic Caribbean women (PTB<32weeks: aOR=1.63, 95%CI=1.27, 2.10; PTB 33–36 weeks: aOR=1.32, 95%CI=1.02, 1.70), and for TLBW among African women (aOR=1.47, 95%CI=1.02, 2.13). Conclusions The mechanisms linking neighborhood deprivation to adverse birth outcomes may differ depending on individual ethnicity and/or cultural context and should be investigated in future research. PMID:20470971

  4. Family Efficacy within Ethnically Diverse Families: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsui-Sui A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2017-03-01

    Family efficacy, which refers to a family's belief in its ability to produce a desired outcome, has been shown to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors. Few studies have examined family efficacy within diverse populations, however, and understanding of how efficacy is framed and formed within the context of cultural and familial values is limited. This descriptive qualitative study examined sources of family efficacy within ethnically and socioeconomically diverse families, evaluating how such families develop and exercise family efficacy with the intent to protect adolescents from risky health behaviors (i.e., marijuana and alcohol use and early sexual activity). We collected qualitative data via two semi-structured interviews, 4-6 months apart, with 31 adolescents (ages 12-14) and their parent/s, for total of 148 one-on-one interviews. Thematic analysis identified three distinct domains of family efficacy: relational, pragmatic, and value-laden. Prior experiences and cultural background influenced the domain/s utilized by families. Significantly, families that consistently tapped into all three domains were able to effectively manage personal and family difficulties; these families also had family strategies in place to prevent adolescents from risky behaviors. Health professionals could utilize this concept of multidimensional family efficacy to promote health within culturally diverse families. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  5. Utility of the abbreviated Fuld Object Memory Evaluation and MMSE for detection of dementia and cognitive impairment not dementia in diverse ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Rideaux, Tiffany; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Fernandez, Senaida; O'Hara, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    To address the growing need for ethnically unbiased cognitive screening, we examined whether the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), the abbreviated Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME), or a combination of the two provided optimal detection of dementia in an ethnically diverse group of older adults with no cognitive impairment (normal); cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND); and dementia. Participants included 509 Caucasians, 124 African Americans, and 68 Latinos (>70 years old) from the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study who completed the MMSE and FOME. Empirically derived decision trees were computed using signal detection software for receiver operator characteristics (ROC). Among the three ethnic groups, ROC analyses revealed that lower scores on both the MMSE and FOME provided better detection of CIND or dementia. Sensitivity and specificity of the MMSE was augmented by the addition of the FOME among Caucasian and African American older adults. The MMSE alone was the best screen in Latino older adults to distinguish any cognitive impairment from normal. When comparing CIND versus dementia, however, the FOME alone was best for detecting dementia among Latinos. The abbreviated FOME is recommended to increase clinical validity and thus minimize ethnic biases when administering the MMSE to Caucasian and African American older adults. The MMSE alone is preferred for older Latinos unless comparing CIND and dementia, in which case the FOME alone would then be recommended. Findings suggest that ethnicity is important in the selection of an appropriate cognitive screen and cut-score to use with older adults.

  6. Skills Development for a Diverse Older Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Burke, Gerald; Selby Smith, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In the context of aging populations, governments in Australia and in other Western nations fear that slower growth in the numbers of people of working age (15-64 years) will have a dampening effect on economic growth. They are thus considering how to encourage older workers to remain in the workforce beyond the point at which many currently…

  7. Health Disparities and Delayed Health care among Older Adults in California: A Perspective from Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Xu, Qingwen

    2016-09-01

    To examine racial/ethnic/immigration disparities in health and to investigate the relationships among race/ethnic/immigration status, delayed health care, and health of the elderly. Responses from 13,508 people aged 65 and above were analyzed based on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011-2012. Key variables include race/ethnicity/immigration status, health outcome, and delayed health care. Age, gender, education, work status, and annual family income are used as covariates. The findings indicate that Whites (regardless of country of birth) and U.S.-born Asians enjoy better health than Latinos, African-Americans, and Foreign-born Asians. Foreign-born Asians and foreign-born Latinos have the poorest self-reported health and mental health, respectively. Delayed use of health care is negatively associated with both self-reported health and mental health status. Health disparities exist among older adult populations; the combined effects of minority and immigrant status can be approximated from the results in this study. Health care accessibility and the quality of care should be promoted in minority/immigrant populations. Public health nurses have a strong potential to aide in reducing health disparities among an aging American population that continues to exhibit increasing racial/ethnic diversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tobacco use in a tri-ethnic population of older women in southeastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Spangler, John G; Case, L Douglas; Bell, Ronny A; Quandt, Sara A

    2003-01-01

    While many studies have evaluated the epidemiology of tobacco use nationally and among specific populations, less is known about the epidemiology of tobacco use among elderly women. We examined the epidemiology of tobacco use among a tri-racial population of elderly women in southeastern North Carolina. Survey Senior centers, community events, and communal meal settings in Robeson County, North Carolina. Two hundred forty (240) women aged 60 and older, with approximately 80 women recruited from each ethnic group: Native American, African-American, and White. Demographic information, health history, and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco (ST). Of the total sample of 240 women, 38 (16%) were current ST users. In logistic regression analysis, current ST use was inversely associated with age and education, but positively associated with Native American or African-American ethnicity. Sixteen (17%) of the total sample were current smokers. In logistic regression, younger age and any alcohol use in the past year were associated with current smoking In a tri-ethnic, community-based sample of older women, rates of current ST use were greater than national rates found among women of all ages in each ethnic group. On the other hand, rates of current smoking among these older women were lower than the national prevalence for women among all ages in these 3 respective ethnic groups. The distinctly different epidemiology of ST use vs cigarette smoking among these women high-lights the need to tailor tobacco interventions to each specific product.

  9. Utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, with Ethnically Diverse Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; Finch, Maria HernÁndez; Mcintosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2014-01-01

    Current research on the use of revisions of intelligence measures with ethnically diverse populations and younger children is limited. The present study investigated the utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), with an ethnically diverse preschool sample. African American and Caucasian preschoolers, matched on age,…

  10. Preschool Writing and Premathematics Predict Grade 3 Achievement for Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Squires, Christina; Dinehart, Laura H. B.; Bleiker, Charles; Hartman, Suzanne C.; Winsler, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the association between preschool academic skills and Grade 3 achievement among a sample of ethnically diverse children from low-income families. Data were collected from a sample of 1,442 low-income, ethnically diverse children in preschool and associated with Grade 3 achievement in reading and…

  11. Social Network Characteristics and College Adjustment among Racially and Ethnically Diverse First-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Stryker, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Examined social network characteristics of 218 college freshmen. Subjects were of European American descent or of ethnically and racially diverse backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, Native American and Asian American). The study associated social adjustment with family support characteristics for the racially and ethnically diverse students…

  12. Utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, with Ethnically Diverse Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; Finch, Maria HernÁndez; Mcintosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2014-01-01

    Current research on the use of revisions of intelligence measures with ethnically diverse populations and younger children is limited. The present study investigated the utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), with an ethnically diverse preschool sample. African American and Caucasian preschoolers, matched on age,…

  13. Older and Wiser. A Study of Educational Provision for Black and Ethnic Minority Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella

    This publication is the outcome of the Older and Wiser Project that assessed projects' work with elderly black clients. The first part defines who the black elderly are and provides an overview of the black elderly in Britain using data from the 1991 Census. A chart breaks down ethnic minority groups by age. Population pyramids that provide an…

  14. Racial and ethnic differences in cognitive function among older adults in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Venegas, Carlos; Downer, Brian; Langa, Kenneth M.; Wong, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine differences in cognition between Hispanic, non-Hispanic black (NHB), and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults in the United States. Data/Methods The final sample includes 18 982 participants aged 51 or older who received a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status during the 2010 Health and Retirement Study follow-up. Ordinary least squares will be used to examine differences in overall cognition according to race/ethnicity. Results Hispanics and NHB had lower cognition than NHW for all age groups (51–59, 60–69, 70–79, 80+). Hispanics had higher cognition than NHB for all age groups but these differences were all within one point. The lower cognition among NHB compared to NHW remained significant after controlling for age, gender, and education, whereas the differences in cognition between Hispanics and NHW were no longer significant after controlling for these covariates. Cognitive scores increased with greater educational attainment for all race/ethnic groups, but Hispanics exhibited the least benefit. Discussion Our results highlight the role of education in race/ethnic differences in cognitive function during old age. Education seems beneficial for cognition in old age for all race/ethnic groups, but Hispanics appear to receive a lower benefit compared to other race/ethnic groups. Further research is needed on the racial and ethnic differences in the pathways of the benefits of educational attainment for late-life cognitive function. PMID:26766788

  15. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Thelusma, Naomi; Ralston, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists’ involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices. PMID:27199580

  16. Racial and ethnic diversity in orthopaedic surgery residency programs.

    PubMed

    Okike, Kanu; Utuk, Mekeme E; White, Augustus A

    2011-09-21

    Although the U.S. population is increasingly diverse, the field of orthopaedic surgery has historically been less diverse. The purpose of this study was to quantify the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among orthopaedic surgery residents compared with those in other fields of medicine and to determine how these levels of diversity have changed over time. We determined the representation of minorities among residents in orthopaedic surgery and in other fields by analyzing the Graduate Medical Education reports published annually by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), which provided data for African-Americans from 1968 to 2008, Hispanics from 1990 to 2008, Asians from 1995 to 2008, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders from 2001 to 2008. During the 1990s and 2000s, representation among orthopaedic residents increased rapidly for Asians (+4.53% per decade, p < 0.0001) and gradually for Hispanics (+1.37% per decade, p < 0.0001) and African-Americans (+0.68% per decade, p = 0.0003). Total minority representation in orthopaedics averaged 20.2% during the most recent years studied (2001 to 2008), including 11.7% for Asians, 4.0% for African-Americans, 3.8% for Hispanics, 0.4% for American Indians/Alaskan Natives, and 0.3% for Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. However, orthopaedic surgery was significantly less diverse than all of the other residencies examined during this time period (p < 0.001). This was due primarily to the lower representation of Hispanics and Asians in orthopaedic surgery than in any of the other fields of medicine. Minority representation in orthopaedic residency programs has increased over time for Asians, Hispanics, and African-Americans. In spite of these gains, orthopaedic surgery has remained the least diverse of the specialty training programs considered in this study. While further efforts are needed to determine the factors underlying this lack of

  17. An examination of ethnic identity and self-esteem with diverse populations: exploring variation by ethnicity and geography.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Shin, Nana

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the relationships among ethnic identity and self-esteem across multiple ethnic groups within two distinct geographical locations (N = 1,344). In the current study, for same ethnic group members, the components of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) were differentially related to self-esteem based on geographical context. Furthermore, within each geographical context, the strength of the relation between each ethnic identity component and self-esteem varied based on group membership, suggesting that the variables may be more or less influential on self-esteem depending on one's group membership. Based on these results, the exploration and resolution subscales of the Ethnic Identity scale (EIS) appear to be valid and reliable with diverse samples, whereas support for the affirmation subscale of the EIS is more tenuous. Finally, these findings suggest that ethnic identity may have varying salience and meaning for same ethnic group members in different geographical contexts (e.g., Asian Americans in California vs. Asian Americans in the Midwest). (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Derailed by diversity? Purpose buffers the relationship between ethnic composition on trains and passenger negative mood.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Anthony L; Hill, Patrick L

    2013-12-01

    Many individuals feel socially isolated and distressed in ethnically diverse settings. Purpose in life may buffer this form of distress by fostering one's sense of having a meaningful direction, which may also be of significance to others. In two experience-sampling studies with ethnically diverse participants, we examined associations between the ethnic composition of urban trains and passenger distress, and tested purpose as a moderator of these relationships. Study 1 showed that participants of all ethnic backgrounds reported greater negative mood when the percentage of ethnic out-group members aboard their train increased. However, individual differences in purpose significantly attenuated this effect. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings experimentally by showing that relative to a control condition, briefly writing about purpose prior to boarding trains also diminished the impact of ethnic composition on negative mood. The discussion addresses strategies for promoting positive adjustment in our increasingly diverse society.

  19. Loneliness of Older Immigrant Groups in Canada: Effects of Ethnic-Cultural Background.

    PubMed

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants.

  20. Attitudes and Advocacy: Understanding Faculty Views on Racial/Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Denson, Nida

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand faculty attitudes towards diversity, specifically racial/ethnic diversity, the authors created a composite variable that taps into a variety of faculty attitudes towards diversity including their commitments to promoting racial understanding and their views on the role of diversity in undergraduate education. The…

  1. Sociocultural and identity predictors of body dissatisfaction in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

    2016-03-01

    Emerging research suggests that ethnic identity and American identity are associated with mental health in ethnic minorities and European Americans, respectively. Furthermore, although ethnic identity is associated with diminished body dissatisfaction in minority women, the relationship between American identity and body dissatisfaction is unexplored in all ethnic groups. Accordingly, this study examined the relationships among ethnic identity, American identity, thin-ideal internalization, pressures for thinness, and body dissatisfaction in 1018 ethnically diverse college women. Ethnic identity negatively predicted body dissatisfaction for African Americans, and attenuated the relationship between pressures for thinness and body dissatisfaction for African Americans and Asian Americans, but not European Americans or Latina Americans. Results for American identity were inconclusive. Findings suggest that ethnic identity may be a protective factor against eating pathology for Asian American and African American women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health Information Seeking Behaviors of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  3. 'Isn't it all Whites?' Ethnic diversity and the physiotherapy profession.

    PubMed

    Yeowell, Gillian

    2013-12-01

    To explore physiotherapists' perceptions, views and experiences of ethnic diversity in relation to the physiotherapy profession. Qualitative research study, drawing on ethnographic traditions and including ethnographic interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. Several verification procedures were incorporated into the design to ensure quality. Venues chosen by the participants in North West England. A purposive sample of 22 physiotherapists (five students, seven clinicians and 10 academics) with a range of ethnicities. Most participants' experiences and perceptions were of a lack of ethnic diversity within the profession. Further findings related to the impact of this included: the perception that physiotherapy is a White profession; some Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) physiotherapists felt 'out of place' on occasions; and failure to meet patients' needs. The potential benefits of increased ethnic diversity and the possible risks of valuing BME staff solely in terms of their ethnicity were also illuminated by the findings. This study of the perceptions and experiences of physiotherapists identified a lack of ethnic diversity within the profession. It is argued that a lack of ethnic diversity may result in a failure to meet patients' needs. A workforce that is reflective of the population it serves can have greater cultural knowledge, and is more likely to understand and respond to patients' needs. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Culturally Competent Palliative and Hospice Care Training for Ethnically Diverse Staff in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; McFarlane, Sandra; Koijane, Jeannette; Li, Dongmei

    2017-05-01

    Between 2013 and 2030, older adults 65 years and older of racial/ethnic populations in the U.S. is projected to increase by 123% in comparison to the Whites (Non-Hispanics). To meet this demand, training of ethnically diverse health staff in long-term care facilities in palliative and hospice care is imperative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a palliative and hospice care training of staff in two nursing homes in Hawaii - (a) to evaluate knowledge and confidence over three time periods, and (b) to compare staff and family caregiver satisfaction at end of program. The educational frameworks were based on cultural and communication theories. Fifty-two ethnically diverse staff, a majority being Asian (89%), participated in a 10-week module training and one 4 hour communication skills workshop. Staff evaluation included knowledge and confidence surveys, pre- and post-test knowledge tests, and FAMCARE-2 satisfaction instrument. There were nine Asian (89%) and Pacific Islander (11%) family caregivers who completed the FAMCARE-2 satisfaction instrument. The overall staff knowledge and confidence results were promising. The staff rated overall satisfaction of palliative care services lower than the family caregivers. Implications for future research, practice, and education with palliative and hospice care training of ethnically diverse nursing home staff is to include patient and family caregiver satisfaction of palliative and hospice care services, evaluation of effectiveness of cross-cultural communication theories in palliative and hospice care staff training, and support from administration for mentorship and development of these services in long term care facilities.

  5. Purpose in life as a resource for increasing comfort with ethnic diversity.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Anthony L; Stanley, Maclen; Sumner, Rachel; Hill, Patrick L

    2014-11-01

    Emerging demographic trends signal that White Americans will soon relinquish their majority status. As Whites' acclimation to an increasingly diverse society is poised to figure prominently in their adjustment, identifying sources of greater comfort with diversity is important. Three studies (N = 519) revealed evidence that purpose in life bolsters comfort with ethnic diversity among White adults. Specifically, dispositional purpose was positively related to diversity attitudes and attenuated feelings of threat resulting from viewing demographic projections of greater diversity. In addition, when primed experimentally, purpose attenuated participants' preferences for living in an ethnically homogeneous-White city, relative to a more diverse city when shown maps displaying ethno-demographic information. These effects persisted after controlling for positive affect and perceived connections to ethnic out-groups, suggesting the robust influence of purpose. Potential benefits of situating purpose as a unique resource for navigating an increasingly diverse society are discussed. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  6. Individual Differences in Preferences for Matched-Ethnic Mentors among High-Achieving Ethnically Diverse Adolescents in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K.; Chemers, Martin M.; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2012-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age =…

  7. Surviving Depression: Clinical Qualitative Analysis of Long-Term Survival for Ethnically Diverse, Depressed Patients.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jeanne; Bromley, Elizabeth; Izquierdo, Adriana; Jones, Felica; Wells, Kenneth

    2017-08-01

    Depression is persistent and recurrent across ethnic groups. Few narrative analyses of long-term outcomes for ethnically diverse adults with depression exist. We combined 9 years of quantitative data, qualitative interviews at 10 years, clinician ratings of outcomes, and a community discussion group with the objective of describing long-term recovery and survival of diverse primary care patients after an episode of depression. Nearly half of participants were found to be depressed at some time over a 10-year period, and most cases across ethnic groups were judged to need further treatment. The ethnically diverse community members that analyzed the transcripts emphasized assets that participants showed in surviving multiple life stresses. Different sex and ethnic/racial groups had different characteristics of engaging in care, with Latino women in particular raising concerns about care engagement, coping with stress, and long-term outcomes.

  8. Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Attitude toward School: Adaptive Perspectives in Diverse Settings

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual characteristics of ethnicity/race, ethnic identity, gender, and ecological context. Quantitative results reveal that White female and Hispanic and African American male students exhibit strong ethnic identity that correlates positively with school attitude; however, qualitative results indicate very different paths in getting to those outcomes. Hispanic students appear to benefit from a strong ethnic identity that assists with positive relationships at school, while African American male students utilize parental cultural socialization as a protective function in school. The results emphasize the implications of positive school climates for all students. PMID:25866457

  9. Habitat Variability and Ethnic Diversity in Northern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xin; Lee, Harry F.; Cui, Mengchun; Liu, Chao; Zeng, Lin; Yue, Ricci P. H.; Zhao, Yang; Lu, Huayu

    2017-04-01

    There are 56 officially-recognized ethnic groups in China. However, the distinct geographic patterns of various ethnic groups in relation to the physical environment in China have rarely been investigated. Based on the geo-referenced physical environmental parameters of 455 Han, Tu, Hui, Salar, Mongolian, and Tibetan communities in Qinghai, we found that the communities could be statistically demarcated by temperature and aridity threshold according to their ethnic populations, implying that the geographic distribution of each ethnic group is mediated by the physical environment. We also observed that the habitat of each ethnic group is ecologically compatible with current subsistence strategies. Tibetans settle in cold high-altitude regions owing to the cultivation of highland barley and the breeding of yak, dzo, Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goat. Mongolians survive by animal husbandry in cold and humid grassland areas. The Han and Tu ethnic groups settle in the Huangshui River Valley, which offers relatively humid climate and flat land for agriculture. The Hui and Salar ethnic groups occupy the Yellow River Valley with its relatively arid environment and grassland vegetation suitable for animal breeding. Our findings offer a new perspective in explaining the geographic pattern and the variety of ethnic groups in China and elsewhere.

  10. Stigmatizing Attitudes towards Mental Illness among Racial/Ethnic Older Adults in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Daniel E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Cardenas, Veronica; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study applies the perceived stigma framework to identify differences in attitudes toward mental health and mental health treatment among various racial/ethnic minority older adults with common mental health problems including depression, anxiety disorders, or at-risk alcohol use. Specifically, this study examines to what extent race/ethnicity is associated with differences in: (1) perceived stigma of mental illness; and (2) perceived stigma for different mental health treatment options. Methods Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the SAMHSA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment, developed for the PRISM-E (Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly) study, a multi-site randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1247 non-Latino Whites, 536 African-Americans, 112 Asian-Americans, and 303 Latinos. Results African-Americans and Latinos expressed greater comfort in speaking to primary care physicians or mental health professionals concerning mental illness compared to non-Latino Whites. Asian-Americans and Latinos expressed greater shame and embarrassment about having a mental illness than non-Latino Whites. Asian-Americans expressed greater difficulty in seeking or engaging in mental health treatment. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences exist among older adults with mental illness with respect to stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness and mental health treatment. Results of this study could help researchers and clinicians educate racial/ethnic minority older adults about mental illness and engage them in much needed mental health services. PMID:23361866

  11. Ethnic Disparities in Glycemic Control Among Rural Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Glycemic control is a predictor of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about how well older adults in rural communities, with limited access to self-care resources and specialty care practitioners, control their diabetes. Even less is known about whether minority, older, rural adults are at increased risk for poor glycemic control. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected older (≥65 years) adults with type 2 diabetes in rural North Carolina. Participants (N=693) were men and women from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. Capillary blood samples were collected for HbA1C analysis. HbA1C levels (<7%, 7%–<8%, and ≥8%) were compared across ethnic and gender groups. Two multiple logistic regression models (model 1: personal characteristics; model 2: personal and health characteristics) were used to evaluate potential predictors of HbA1C ≥7%. Overall, 36.4% had HbA1C ≥7%. Native Americans and African-American men had the highest proportion at levels of poor glycemic control (≥7%), and African-American women and White men had the lowest. In bivariate analysis, ethnicity, living arrangements, use of medications for diabetes, having a diabetes-related healthcare visit in the past year, and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with glycemic control. In multivariate analysis (model 1), being Native American, having low income without Medicaid, and being married were associated with poor glycemic control. Adding health characteristics (model 2), longer diabetes duration and diabetes medication therapy were significant predictors. These data indicate that older ethnic minorities in rural communities are at increased risk for diabetes complications and need diabetes management strategies to improve glycemic control. PMID:16259490

  12. Marketing Your Camp to Diverse Populations: Tips To Reach Ethnic Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Cultural differences enhance the wonder of camp. Tips for reaching diverse populations include emphasizing multicultural programming in promotional materials, distributing flyers in diverse neighborhoods, having diverse staff, advertising on radio stations popular with ethnic communities, offering scholarships, advertising through national ethnic…

  13. Negotiating White Science in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunac, Patricia S.; Demir, Kadir

    2017-01-01

    The racial and ethnic makeup of the United States is in constant flux and is expected to experience substantial increases in racial and ethnic diversity over the next four decades. The problem the American educational system faces is attempting to problematize race/racism in its educational system and creating a system to counteract educational…

  14. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  15. The MCCI (Millon College Counseling Inventory) in an Ethnically Diverse Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornheim, Liane; Ramnath, R.; Gomez, C.; von Harscher, H.; Pellegrini, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the MCCI (Millon College Counseling Inventory) (T. Millon, Strack, C. Millon, & Grossman, 2006), as applied to students from ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds. The sample (N = 209, Mean age = 23.81, 74% identified as ethnic minority) was derived from students presented for counseling…

  16. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  17. Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Attitude toward School: Adaptive Perspectives in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the…

  18. Interracial Friendship and Structural Diversity: Trends for Greek, Religious, and Ethnic Student Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Kim, Young K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how peer interactions in college organizations (Greek, ethnic, and religious) affect interracial friendships, including whether peer interaction in student organizations mediates the relationship between structural diversity and interracial friendship. Involvement in ethnic student organizations was non-significant;…

  19. Interracial Friendship and Structural Diversity: Trends for Greek, Religious, and Ethnic Student Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Kim, Young K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how peer interactions in college organizations (Greek, ethnic, and religious) affect interracial friendships, including whether peer interaction in student organizations mediates the relationship between structural diversity and interracial friendship. Involvement in ethnic student organizations was non-significant;…

  20. Attachment Narratives and Behavioral and Emotional Symptoms in an Ethnically Diverse, At-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futh, Annabel; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Green, Jonathan; Scott, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine clinical correlates from the attachment narratives of an ethnically diverse, at-risk sample of early school-age children. It was observed that their attachment narratives were associated with their behavioral and emotional adjustment, prosocial behavior and competence across ethnic groups.

  1. Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Attitude toward School: Adaptive Perspectives in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the…

  2. Negotiating White Science in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunac, Patricia S.; Demir, Kadir

    2017-01-01

    The racial and ethnic makeup of the United States is in constant flux and is expected to experience substantial increases in racial and ethnic diversity over the next four decades. The problem the American educational system faces is attempting to problematize race/racism in its educational system and creating a system to counteract educational…

  3. Managing Transition and Student Support Services for Ethnically Diverse College Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Sunday O.

    2006-01-01

    For many ethnically diverse students with learning disabilities, participation in postsecondary education is necessary. However, to achieve this goal, a comprehensive transition planning is essential. As a consequence, postsecondary personnel must collaborate with others to ensure nondiscriminatory but sensible treatment of ethnically diverse…

  4. Classical varicose vein surgery in a diverse ethnic community.

    PubMed

    Murli, N L; Navin, I D

    2008-08-01

    Chronic venous disorders range from telangiactasia or spider veins to varicose veins, venous swellings, skin changes and venous ulcerations. The aim of this study is to assess outcome of varicose vein surgery in the ethnically diverse population of Penang, Malaysia. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients seen from 1999 to 2004. All patients who presented to the outpatient clinic of our surgical department with saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) and/or saphenopopliteal junction (SPJ) reflux associated with incompetence of the great saphenous vein (GSV) or small saphenous vein (SSV) respectively underwent classical varicose varicose vein surgery. A single surgeon at a single institution performed the surgeries. Data from pre-operative, post-operative and follow-up procedures were recorded in case report forms. A total of 202 cases were treated. Of these, 200 were qualified by the inclusion criteria and follow-ups, with 23 who were treated bilaterally. Of those treated, Chinese comprised 47.5%, Indians 27.0%, Malays 12.5% and foreigners 13.0% (largely Indonesian Chinese, British and Americans). The average age was 52.1 years. Indians had the highest average BMI of 29.2, compared to the Chinese who had the lowest of 24.6. Based on occupation, housewives (43.0%), blue collar workers (19.0%), salespersons (12.0%) and factory workers (9.5%) were among those afflicted with varicose veins. While local Chinese predominated in the business groups (salespersons and food-related workers), the Indians and Malays in this study were mainly factory workers and/or blue collar workers. Symptomatology in descending order of severity included pain in 80.0% of cases, swelling in 65.5%, heaviness in 53.5%, cramps in 53.0%, lipodermatosclerosis in 39.0%, superficial thrombophlebitis in 33.5%, venous ulceration in 32.0%, eczema 22.0% and cellulitis in 12.5% of patients. Post surgery pains dropped to 9.9%, cramps 6.4%, heaviness 5.5% and swelling 5.3% (p<0.0001 in all groups

  5. Assessing the Relationship between Physical Illness and Mental Health Service Use and Expenditures among Older Adults from Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Cook, Benjamin; Kim, Giyeon; Reynolds, Charles F.; Alegria, Margarita; Coe-Odess, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association of physical illness and mental health service use in older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups is an important area of study given the mental and physical health disparities and the low use of mental health services in this population. The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of comorbid physical illness on mental health service use and expenditures in older adults; and to evaluate disparities in mental health service use and expenditures among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of older adults with and without comorbid physical illness. Methods Data were obtained from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (years 2004–2011). The sample included 1563 whites, 519 African-Americans, and 642 Latinos and (N=2,724) aged 65+ with probable mental illness. Using two-part generalized linear models, we estimated and compared mental health service use among those with and without a comorbid physical illness. Results Mental health service use was greater for older adults with comorbid physical illness compared to those without a comorbid physical illness. Once mental health services were accessed, no differences in mental health expenditures were found. Comorbid physical illness increased the likelihood of mental health service use in older whites and Latinos. However, the presence of a comorbidity did not impact racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use. Conclusions This study highlighted the important role of comorbid physical illness as a potential contributor to using mental health services and suggests intervention strategies to enhance engagement in mental health services by older adults from racial/ethnic minority groups. PMID:25772763

  6. Belief in Divine Control, Coping, and Race/Ethnicity among Older Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Umezawa, Yoshiko; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. Objectives This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Methods Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Results Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Conclusions Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients. PMID:22529040

  7. The significance of cross-racial/ethnic friendships: associations with peer victimization, peer support, sociometric status, and classroom diversity.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R

    2011-11-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations between cross-racial/ethnic friendships and relative changes in forms of peer victimization or peer support and the roles of classroom diversity and sociometric status (i.e., social preference) in these associations. A total of 444 children (age range: 9-10 years) from racially/ethnically diverse elementary schools participated in this study. Results demonstrated that cross-racial/ethnic friendships (but not same-racial/ethnic friendships) uniquely predicted relative decreases in relational victimization. Further, classroom diversity moderated the relations of cross-racial/ethnic friendships with relative decreases in physical victimization and relative increases in peer support, such that these relations were stronger for children in highly diverse classrooms. Finally, social preference mediated the association between cross-racial/ethnic friendships and relative decreases in relational victimization. The associations among cross-racial/ethnic friendships, same-racial/ethnic friendships, social experiences with peers, and classroom diversity are discussed.

  8. The Culture Care Meaning of Comfort for Ethnically Diverse Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Nursing Students in the Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, Lynne K.

    2010-01-01

    The nursing profession is calling for enhanced diversity within the ranks of registered nurses to meet the health care needs of an increasingly diverse society. Nursing education is faced with the challenge of retaining ethnically diverse nursing students. Students who are ethnically diverse face unique challenges in addition to the universal…

  9. The Culture Care Meaning of Comfort for Ethnically Diverse Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Nursing Students in the Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, Lynne K.

    2010-01-01

    The nursing profession is calling for enhanced diversity within the ranks of registered nurses to meet the health care needs of an increasingly diverse society. Nursing education is faced with the challenge of retaining ethnically diverse nursing students. Students who are ethnically diverse face unique challenges in addition to the universal…

  10. Racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular medication use among older adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Qato, Dima M.; Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Conti, Rena M.; Schumm, L. Philip; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Despite persistent racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older adults, information on whether there are similar disparities in the use of prescription and over-the-counter medications to prevent such disease is limited. We examined racial and ethnic disparities in the use of statins and aspirin among older adults at low, moderate, and high risk for CVD. Methods and Results In-home interviews, including a medication inventory, were administered between June 2005 and March 2006 to 3005 community-residing individuals, ages 57–85 years, drawn from a cross-sectional, nationally-representative probability sample of the United States. Based on a modified version of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) risk stratification guidelines, 1066 respondents were at high cardiovascular risk, 977 were at moderate risk, and 812 were at low risk. Rates of use were highest among respondents at high cardiovascular risk. Racial differences were highest among respondents at high risk with blacks less likely than whites to use statins (38% vs. 50%, p = 0.007) and aspirin (29% vs. 44%, p = 0.008). After controlling for age, gender, comorbidity, and socioeconomic, and access to care factors, racial/ethnic disparities persisted. In particular, blacks at highest risk were less likely than their white counterparts to use statins (odds ratio (OR) 0.65, confidence interval (CI) 0.46–0.90) or aspirin (OR 0.61, CI 0.37–0.98). Conclusions These results, based on an in-home survey of actual medication use, suggest widespread underuse of indicated preventive therapies among older adults at high cardiovascular risk in the United States. Racial/ethnic disparities in such use may contribute to documented disparities in cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:20681002

  11. Race/ethnic differences in associations between bone mineral density and fracture history in older men.

    PubMed

    Shin, M-H; Zmuda, J M; Barrett-Connor, E; Sheu, Y; Patrick, A L; Leung, P C; Kwok, A; Kweon, S-S; Nam, H-S; Cauley, J A

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether there are race/ethnic differences in bone mineral density (BMD) by fracture history in men aged 65 years and older, we performed cross-sectional analysis in five large independent cohorts. Low BMD was associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in all cohorts, and the magnitude of the BMD differences by fracture status was similar across groups. We aimed to determine whether there are race/ethnic and geographic differences in bone mineral density by fracture history in men aged 65 years and older. The datasets included the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study (5,342 White, 243 African-American, 190 Asian, and 126 Hispanic), MrOS Hong Kong (1,968 Hong Kong Chinese), Tobago Bone Health Study (641 Afro-Caribbean), Namwon Study (1,834 Korean), and Dong-gu Study (2,057 Korean). The two Korean cohorts were combined. The prevalence of self-reported non-traumatic fracture was US white, 17.1 %; Afro-Caribbean, 5.5 %; US African-American, 15.1 %; US Hispanic, 13.7 %; US Asian, 10.5 %; Hong Kong Chinese, 5.6 %, and Korean, 5.1 %. The mean differences in hip and lumbar spine BMD between subjects with fracture and without fracture were statistically significant in all cohorts except US African American and US Asian men. There was a significant race/ethnic interaction for lumbar spine BMD by fracture status (p for interaction = 0.02), which was driven by the small number of Hispanic men. There was no interaction for femoral neck or total hip BMD. There were no significant race/ethnic differences in the odds ratio of fracture by BMD. Low BMD was associated with a higher prevalence of fracture in all cohorts and the magnitude of the BMD differences by fracture status was similar across groups suggesting homogeneity in the BMD-fracture relationship among older men.

  12. Managing Legitimacy in the Educational Quasi-Market: A Study of Ethnically Diverse, Inclusive Schools in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how ethnically diverse, inclusive schools manage their legitimacy in an educational quasi-market. These schools are often threatened with a loss of legitimacy as ethnic majority parents perceive an ethnically diverse student population and radical pedagogical practices as signs of lower quality education. However,…

  13. The contribution of cultural competence to evidence-based care for ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Huey, Stanley J; Tilley, Jacqueline Lee; Jones, Eduardo O; Smith, Caitlin A

    2014-01-01

    Despite compelling arguments for the dissemination of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), questions regarding their relevance to ethnically diverse populations remain. This review summarizes what is known about psychotherapy effects with ethnic minorities, with a particular focus on the role of cultural competence when implementing EBTs. Specifically, we address three questions: (a) does psychotherapy work with ethnic minorities, (b) do psychotherapy effects differ by ethnicity, and (c) does cultural tailoring enhance treatment effects? The evidence suggests that psychotherapy is generally effective with ethnic minorities, and treatment effects are fairly robust across cultural groups and problem areas. However, evidence for cultural competence is mixed. Ethnic minority-focused treatments frequently incorporate culturally tailored strategies, and these tailored treatments are mostly efficacious; yet support for cultural competence as a useful supplement to standard treatment remains equivocal at best. We also discuss research limitations, areas for future research, and clinical implications.

  14. Gender, educational and ethnic differences in active life expectancy among older Singaporeans.

    PubMed

    Chan, Angelique; Malhotra, Rahul; Matchar, David B; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compute total life expectancy (TLE), active life expectancy (ALE) and inactive life expectancy among older Singaporeans by gender, education and ethnicity. Data from a longitudinal survey of older Singaporeans were used. No difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living was considered as "active." Transition probabilities across health states (active/inactive/dead) were assessed to develop multistate life tables, which estimated TLE, ALE and inactive life expectancy. At age 60 years, women, versus men, had significantly higher TLE (25.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24.0-27.8 vs 21.6, 95% CI 20.1-23.1), but similar ALE (18.1, 95% CI 17.0-19.2 vs 18.9, 95% CI 17.7-20.2). Those with high (secondary or higher), versus low (primary or less), education had significantly higher TLE (28.5, 95% CI 25.0-32.0 vs 22.5, 95% CI 21.1-23.9) and ALE (23.5, 95% CI 21.2-25.7 vs 17.1, 95% CI 16.1-18.0) at age 60 years. Those of Chinese, versus non-Chinese, ethnicity had significantly higher ALE at age 60 years (19.4, 95% CI 18.4-20.3 vs 15.0, 95% CI 13.4-16.7). Unlike Western nations, there was no gender difference in ALE among older adults in Singapore. However, difference in ALE by education among older Singaporeans was similar to that observed in Western societies. Policies focusing specifically on improving women's health at all ages, in addition to policies that increase population education levels, are promising approaches to improving ALE. Recognizing ethnic differences in ALE will help target policies that increase ALE in multicultural societies. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  16. Nutrition labels: a survey of use, understanding and preferences among ethnically diverse shoppers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gorton, Delvina; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Chen, Mei-Hua; Dixon, Robyn

    2009-09-01

    Effective nutrition labels are part of a supportive environment that encourages healthier food choices. The present study examined the use, understanding and preferences regarding nutrition labels among ethnically diverse shoppers in New Zealand. A survey was carried out at twenty-five supermarkets in Auckland, New Zealand, between February and April 2007. Recruitment was stratified by ethnicity. Questions assessed nutrition label use, understanding of the mandatory Nutrition Information Panel (NIP), and preference for and understanding of four nutrition label formats: multiple traffic light (MTL), simple traffic light (STL), NIP and percentage of daily intake (%DI). In total 1525 shoppers completed the survey: 401 Maori, 347 Pacific, 372 Asian and 395 New Zealand European and Other ethnicities (ten did not state ethnicity). Reported use of nutrition labels (always, regularly, sometimes) ranged from 66% to 87% by ethnicity. There was little difference in ability to obtain information from the NIP according to ethnicity or income. However, there were marked ethnic differences in ability to use the NIP to determine if a food was healthy, with lesser differences by income. Of the four label formats tested, STL and MTL labels were best understood across all ethnic and income groups, and MTL labels were most frequently preferred. There are clear ethnic and income disparities in ability to use the current mandatory food labels in New Zealand (NIP) to determine if foods are healthy. Conversely, MTL and STL label formats demonstrated high levels of understanding and acceptance across ethnic and income groups.

  17. Racial/ethnic predictors of falls among older adults: The Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Nicklett, Emily J.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Examine racial/ethnic differences in the probability and frequency of falls among adults aged 65 and older. METHODS Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) from 2000-2010, the authors conducted random-intercept logistic and Poisson regression analyses to examine if race/ethnicity predicted the likelihood of a fall event and the frequency of falls. RESULTS The analytic sample included 10,484 older adults. Baseline analyses showed no significant racial/ethnic differences in the probability or number of falls. However, in the longitudinal random-intercept models, African Americans had significantly lower odds (0.65) of experiencing at least one fall compared to non-Hispanic whites. Among fallers, African Americans had significantly fewer falls (24%) than non-Hispanic whites, controlling for health and socio-demographic covariates (all p<0.05). Latinos did not differ from non-Hispanic whites in the likelihood or number of falls. DISCUSSION African Americans are less likely to experience initial or recurrent falls than non-Hispanic whites. PMID:25005171

  18. Divergent pathways? Racial/ethnic differences in older women's labor force withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; Warner, David F

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how women's labor force withdrawal behavior varies across race/ethnicity and to identify life course factors that generate these differences. Using a sample of 7,235 women from the 1992-2004 Health and Retirement Study, we estimated cross-sectional multinomial logit models to explore racial/ethnic differences in labor force status at first interview. We then examined the prospective risk of exiting the labor force via retirement, work disability, or death using discrete-time hazard models. Black and Hispanic women had twice the odds of Whites of being work-disabled at first interview. Whereas younger minorities had lower odds of being retired at first interview, older minorities had higher odds. The prospective results showed that both Blacks and Hispanics had higher risks of work disability but not of retirement or of dying in the labor force. Overall, racial/ethnic differences in mid- and later life work behavior stemmed primarily from disparities in life course capital. This study shows that substantial racial/ethnic disparities in labor force exit behavior have already emerged by midlife. It is important to note that distinguishing between alternative pathways out of the labor force demonstrates that work disability is a more common experience for Black and Hispanic women than for Whites.

  19. Strategic Plan To Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education. 2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Governors for Higher Education, Hartford.

    This report describes progress made on Connecticut's strategic plan to ensure racial and ethnic diversity. Connecticut's public colleges and universities are becoming more diverse every year, and 2001 was no exception. The overall numbers of students, graduates, and professional employees from minority groups are higher than ever, although…

  20. Strategic Plan To Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education. 2001 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Higher Education, Hartford.

    This report describes progress made on Connecticut's strategic plan to ensure racial and ethnic diversity in higher education. The public colleges and universities of Connecticut continue to make incremental, year-to-year progress toward achieving the diversity goals established by the state's Board of Governors for Higher Education in its…

  1. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…

  2. Ethnic and Gender Diversity, Process and Performance in Groups of Business Students in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…

  3. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…

  4. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice. PMID:26229736

  5. Introduction: Special issue on genetic research of alcohol use disorder in diverse racial/ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Karen G; Hesselbrock, Michie N; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2017-08-01

    This special issue of The American Journal on Addictions is an extension of a workshop held at the Research Society on Alcoholism (2015) highlighting several important issues related to studies of the genetic bases of alcohol use disorder among racially/ethnically diverse populations. While not exhaustive in their coverage, the papers in this special issue focus on three important topics: (1) the importance of considering the social and environmental context in genetic analyses; (2) social and cultural considerations for engaging diverse communities in genetic research; and (3) methodologies related to phenotype development for use with racially/ethnically diverse populations. A brief overview of each paper included in these three sections is presented. The issue concludes with additional considerations for genetic research with racially/ethnically diverse population groups along with a commentary. (Am J Addict 2017;26:422-423). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  7. Family Ethnicity: Strength in Diversity. Sage Focus Editions, Volume 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    Extensive information is provided about the various cultural elements, including attitudes toward education and work, that different family groups have drawn on in order to exist in the United States today. The family ethnicities of five distinct cultures (Native American, African American, Mexican American and Spanish origin, Muslim American, and…

  8. Family Ethnicity: Strength in Diversity. Sage Focus Editions, Volume 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    Extensive information is provided about the various cultural elements, including attitudes toward education and work, that different family groups have drawn on in order to exist in the United States today. The family ethnicities of five distinct cultures (Native American, African American, Mexican American and Spanish origin, Muslim American, and…

  9. Responding to Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In today's society professionals working with children want to provide what is best for all children. This requires them to be culturally responsive in their approach to children and their families. Part of being culturally responsive is to be knowledgeable and sensitive to issues of race and ethnicity. However, this is difficult to do, because…

  10. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  11. Fostering Cultural Diversity: Problems of Access and Ethnic Boundary Maintenance

    Treesearch

    Maria T. Allison

    1992-01-01

    This presentation explores theoretical reasons for the underutilization of services, discusses types and problems of access which may be both inadvertent and institutionalized, and discusses policy implications of this work. Data suggest that individuals from distinct ethnic populations, particularly Hispanic, African-American, and Native American, tend to underutilize...

  12. Ethnic differences in urinary calcium and phosphate excretion between Gambian and British older adults.

    PubMed

    Redmond, J; Palla, L; Yan, L; Jarjou, L M A; Prentice, A; Schoenmakers, I

    2015-03-01

    Ethnic differences in renal calcium and phosphate excretion exist, which may depend on differences in their dietary intakes and regulatory factors. We report highly significant differences in urinary calcium and phosphate excretion between white British and Gambian adults after statistical adjustment for mineral intakes, indicating an independent effect of ethnicity. Populations vary in their risk of age-related osteoporosis. There are racial or ethnic differences in the metabolism of the bone-forming minerals calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P), with a lower renal Ca and P excretion in African-Americans compared to white counterparts, even at similar intakes and rates of absorption. Also, Africans in The Gambia have a lower Ca excretion compared to white British subjects, groups known to differ in their dietary Ca intake. Here, we report on differences in urinary Ca and P excretion between Gambian and white British adults while allowing for known predictors, including dietary intakes. Participants were healthy white British (n = 60) and Gambian (n = 61) men and women aged 60-75 years. Fasting blood and 2-h urine samples were collected. Markers of Ca and P metabolism were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed with country-specific methods. White British older adults had higher creatinine-corrected urinary Ca and P excretion (uCa/uCr, uP/uCr) and lower tubular maximum of Ca and P compared to Gambian counterparts. The predictors of urinary Ca and P differed between groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary Ca and Ca/P were predictors of uCa/uCr and uP/uCr, respectively. Ethnicity remained a significant predictor of uCa/uCr and uP/uCr after adjustment for diet and other factors. Gambian older adults have higher renal Ca conservation than British counterparts. Dietary mineral intakes were predictors of the differences in urinary Ca and P excretion, but ethnicity remained a highly significant predictor after statistical adjustment. This suggests that ethnicity

  13. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, heterogeneity was attenuated (p = 0.05) with BMI among all US-born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.

  14. Acculturation and depressive symptoms in Hispanic older adults: does perceived ethnic density moderate their relationship?

    PubMed

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A

    2012-12-01

    The negative impact of low acculturation on mental health in Hispanic older adults is widely known. The current study examined whether this association varied by a perceived density of people with same racial/ethnic backgrounds in neighborhoods. We hypothesized that the negative impact of low acculturation on mental health would be pronounced when they lived in neighborhoods with a low density of Hispanics. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (n = 1,267), hierarchical regression models of depressive symptoms were estimated with sets of predictors: (1) demographic variables, (2) acculturation, (3) perceived density of Hispanics in neighborhoods, and (4) an interaction between acculturation and perceived density of Hispanics. Supporting the hypothesis, the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms was found to be moderated by the perceived density of Hispanics in neighborhoods. Findings suggest the importance of neighborhood characteristics in the lives of immigrant older adults.

  15. Expanding our borders: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology's special issue on immigration.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Zárate, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    Introduces the current special issue of the journal, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. This special issue focuses on the topic of immigration and highlights the important within group differences often overlooked when immigrants are conceptualized as a homogeneous group. The articles in this journal consider a variety of microsystems, such as educational settings, ethnic and gay communities, and communities with anti-immigration laws.

  16. Physical appearance comparisons in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women.

  17. Nonsuicidal self-injury in an ethnically diverse college sample.

    PubMed

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G; Arble, Eamonn; Boutros, Nashaat; Chugani, Diane; Barnett, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Self-report data pertaining to Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI; e.g., cutting) were collected from 5,691 undergraduates at a Midwestern urban university. Consistent with the small literature on NSSI among college students, 12.8% of the sample indicated having engaged in NSSI at least once (3.4% in the past year). Women and younger students were at slightly higher risk. Important ethnic differences were found, as Caucasians and individuals self-identifying as Multiracial were at especially high risk for a history of NSSI, whereas Arab Americans and African Americans had particularly low rates. Further, links between NSSI and religion were found, such that participants with stronger self-reported religious convictions had the lowest rates of NSSI. Those who self-described as Atheist, Agnostic, or Nonbeliever were several times more likely to have engaged in NSSI (31.3%), while Muslims (7.4%) and Baptists (6.3%) had relatively low rates. Multivariate analyses revealed that ethnic differences in NSSI could not be accounted for by religious differences. Processes that may explain the associations between NSSI and ethnic affiliation and religion are discussed.

  18. Individual differences in preferences for matched-ethnic mentors among high-achieving ethnically diverse adolescents in STEM.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K; Chemers, Martin M; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2012-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age = 15.82) attending a 4-week science education program. Cluster analyses indicated that at Time 1, underrepresented ethnic minorities were more often in the cluster defined by feelings of importance of having a matched-background mentor but not having much contact. Perceptions of contact increased over time for these students and were associated with increased feelings of identity as a science student. The results suggest the need for attending to individual differences in students' preferences for matched-background mentors.

  19. Can competing diversity indices inform us about why ethnic diversity erodes social cohesion? A test of five diversity indices in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Merlin

    2013-05-01

    An ever-growing number of studies investigates the relation between ethnic diversity and social cohesion, but these studies have produced mixed results. In cross-national research, some scholars have recently started to investigate more refined and informative indices of ethnic diversity than the commonly used Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. These refined indices allow to test competing theoretical explanations of why ethnic diversity is associated with declines in social cohesion. This study assesses the applicability of this approach for sub-national analyses. Generally, the results confirm a negative association between social cohesion and ethnic diversity. However, the competing indices are empirically indistinguishable and thus insufficient to test different theories against one another. Follow-up simulations suggest the general conclusion that the competing indices are meaningful operationalizations only if a sample includes: (1) contextual units with small and contextual units with large minority shares, as well as (2) contextual units with diverse and contextual units with polarized ethnic compositions. The results are thus instructive to all researchers who wish to apply different diversity indices and thereby test competing theories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Utley, Cheryl A., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "Multiple Voices" contains the following articles: (1) "A Self-Study of Diversity: Preservice Teachers' Beliefs Revealed through Classroom Practices" (Donna M. Sobel and others), which presents the results of seven preservice teachers' self-study that reveals ways in which the teachers' beliefs regarding diversity issues were…

  1. The Link between Classroom Ethnic Diversity and Civic Attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany. Research Briefing No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in educational circles that ethnically mixed schools contribute to inter-ethnic tolerance and community cohesion by making sustained inter-ethnic contact possible. This research explores the relation between classroom ethno-racial diversity and civic attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany using data from the…

  2. The Link between Classroom Ethnic Diversity and Civic Attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany. Research Briefing No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in educational circles that ethnically mixed schools contribute to inter-ethnic tolerance and community cohesion by making sustained inter-ethnic contact possible. This research explores the relation between classroom ethno-racial diversity and civic attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany using data from the…

  3. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development.

  4. "Most girls want to be skinny": body (dis)satisfaction among ethnically diverse women.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Ann M

    2011-10-01

    In this article, I present the findings from an ethnographic study of 18 women college students living in the northeastern United States. I examine how ethnically diverse women dealt with the messages of the dominant White society's obsession with thinness, and whether it affected their perceptions of an ideal body image. From the analysis of the interviews, I identified and extracted several themes related to ethnicity, aesthetic body ideals, body dissatisfaction, and disturbed eating. Grounded in the women's narratives, I found that ethnically diverse women coming of age in American society experience anxieties and emotional stress as they related to others in their daily lives. Their stories shed light on how the body is a vehicle for social mobility and is used by women from marginalized identities to strategically negotiate social inequalities embedded in daily social relationships and interactions that more privileged women do not encounter.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence and Barriers to Mental Health Care for Ethnically Diverse Populations of Women

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Michael; Valentine, Jeanette M.; Son, John B.; Muhammad, Marjani

    2009-01-01

    Ethnically diverse populations of women, particularly survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), experience many barriers to mental health care. The search terms “women” and “domestic violence or IPV” and “mental health care” were used as a means to review the literature regarding barriers to mental health care and minority women. Abstracts chosen for further review included research studies with findings on women of one or more ethnic minority groups, potential barriers to accessing mental health care and a non-exclusive focus on IPV. Fifty-six articles were selected for this review. Identified barriers included a variety of patient, provider, and health system/ community factors. Attention to the barriers to mental health care for ethnically diverse survivors of IPV can help inform the development of more effective strategies for health care practice and policy. PMID:19638359

  6. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  7. Influence of Ethnic-Related Diversity Experiences on Intercultural Sensitivity of Students at a Public University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamam, Ezhar; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the influence of ethnic-related diversity experiences on intercultural sensitivity among Malaysian students at a multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual Malaysian public university. Results reveal a significant differential level of ethnic-related diversity experiences (but not at the level of intercultural…

  8. Examining the Relationships among Classroom Goal Structure, Achievement Goal Orientation, Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning for Ethnically Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, David; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shores, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning strategies used by ethnically diverse learners and to investigate the relationships among the constructs of classroom goal structure, achievement goal orientation, motivation and self-regulated learning in an ethnically diverse population of fourth and fifth grade learners (n = 396). Goal…

  9. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  10. Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Bridgie Alexis, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This publication is designed to address new paradigms such as research, policies, and daily school practices which tend to reduce or perpetuate inequities in educational opportunities for culturally and linguistically diverse individuals with disabilities and/or gifts and talents. This particular issue includes articles that discuss referrals of…

  11. Underprepared, Ethnically Diverse Community College Students: Factors Contributing to Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbatis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the perceptions of underprepared college students who had participated in a first-year learning community at an urban, culturally diverse, commuter campus in the southeastern United States. Perceptions of graduates and those who earned at least 30 college-level credit hours were compared to…

  12. Appreciating Ethnic Diversity with "When I Was Puerto Rican."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes there are many resources available that will stimulate student thinking about the diverse people in the world. Considers Esmeralda Santiago's "When I Was Puerto Rican," and notes how it provides a great tool for helping high school students explore their understanding and appreciation of the emerging Hispanic culture. (SG)

  13. Ethnic Diversity and Gender in the Middle Level Biography Collection. A Scholarly Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Dixie Howse

    The ethnic diversity and gender represented and the age of the collection of middle level biography collections of one middle school library media center and one public library serving the same community were studied. Shelflists and computer printouts, as well as the books themselves, were used to provide information about the biography…

  14. Analysis of Emergency Department Nurse Attitudes Toward Caring for Ethnically Diverse Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-31

    assessments of both the patient and the nurse (Charonko, 1992). Transcultural Nursing Madeleine Leininger (1991), in an effort to improve health care to...ethnically diverse clients, stresses the importance of considering cultural needs among patients. The founder of transcultural nursing, Leininger ...other health care services (1991) . Leininger describes transcultural nursing as a blend of nursing and anthropology which attempts to help nurses

  15. The Value of Telephone Support Groups among Ethnically Diverse Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…

  16. Nursing Faculty Roles in Teaching Racially and Ethnically Diverse Nursing Students in a Registered Nurse Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Kenya V.

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health care disparities continue to plague the United States, placing a tremendous personal and societal burden on individuals. A culturally diverse nursing work force can help eliminate these disparities and improve the quality of health care that is delivered. However, the nursing profession does not reflect the nation's…

  17. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…

  18. Efforts in Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Field of Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie

    2015-01-01

    There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy, with a particular need to increase the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in educational programs. In a sample of 16 art therapy program directors, strategies and barriers to recruitment were identified through an anonymous online survey. The results of the survey…

  19. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  20. Pathways toward Peace: Negotiating National Unity and Ethnic Diversity through Education in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah; Mulimbi, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how education can disrupt threats of conflict, specifically in the presence of ethnic diversity. We present a historical analysis of Botswana, using methods of process tracing drawing on documents, in-depth interviews, and Afrobarometer survey data. Postindependence Botswana engaged in redistribution of educational access…

  1. School Psychology Recruitment Research Characteristics and Implications for Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Romano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Shortages of school psychologists and the underrepresentation of minorities in school psychology represent longstanding concerns. Scholars recommend that one way to address both issues is to recruit individuals from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds into school psychology. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics and…

  2. Classroom Dimensions Predict Early Peer Interaction when Children Are Diverse in Ethnicity, Race, and Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…

  3. Southwesterners’ views of threatened and endangered species management: does ethnic/racial diversity make a difference?

    Treesearch

    Patricia L. Winter; George T. Cvetkovich

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of trust in the Forest Service to manage threatened and endangered species as measured through a survey of residents of four Southwestern States. Of particular interest were variations by ethnic/racial group, gender, concern about threatened and endangered species, and self-assessed knowledge. Increasing diversity in the United States...

  4. Expectations for Parental Management of Dating in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined mothers' beliefs about important dating partner characteristics and expectations regarding management of dating in an ethnically diverse sample of 76 early adolescents and their mothers. Open-ended and structured questions were used to identify a range of dating partner characteristics which were important to mothers…

  5. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  6. Nursing Faculty Roles in Teaching Racially and Ethnically Diverse Nursing Students in a Registered Nurse Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Kenya V.

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health care disparities continue to plague the United States, placing a tremendous personal and societal burden on individuals. A culturally diverse nursing work force can help eliminate these disparities and improve the quality of health care that is delivered. However, the nursing profession does not reflect the nation's…

  7. School Psychology Recruitment Research Characteristics and Implications for Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Romano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Shortages of school psychologists and the underrepresentation of minorities in school psychology represent longstanding concerns. Scholars recommend that one way to address both issues is to recruit individuals from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds into school psychology. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics and…

  8. Examining the Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy across Diverse Client Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jessica Barfield

    2009-01-01

    Treatment for adolescent problem behavior has been given extensive attention in the literature due to the serious nature of the problem and the potential risk to others and the community. As the needs of an increasingly diverse juvenile population intensify and mounting evidence suggests ethnic minority youth receive disparate treatment across…

  9. Minority Adolescents in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Perceptions of Equal Treatment Buffer Threat Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baysu, Gülseli; Celeste, Laura; Brown, Rupert; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (M[subscript age] = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at…

  10. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…

  11. Vicarious Exposure to Diversity as a Means of Influencing Young Children's Ethnic/Racial Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Kurt

    Introducing preschool-age children to people of diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds and cultural practices is becoming one of the central features of early educational programming. This study used a pre-test post-test design with a control to assess such an educational intervention aimed at positively influencing American preschoolers' attitudes…

  12. Identifying Service Delivery Strategies for Ethnically Diverse Users of a Wildland-Urban Recreation Site

    Treesearch

    John M. Baas

    1992-01-01

    Service delivery has become an increasingly important part of managing public lands for recreation. The range of preferences held by ethnically diverse users of recreation sites may warrant the development of more than one service delivery strategy. Two questions were examined: (1) Are there differences in site perceptions that can be identified on the basis on...

  13. Defining Diversity: Ethnic Differences in Black Students' Perceptions of Racial Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kimberly A.; Cunningham, Emil L.; George Mwangi, Chrystal A.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses the potential range of perspectives within the Black student community, focusing specifically on differences by ethnicity and nativity. Narratives were collected from 43 Black students (15 native, 28 immigrants) enrolled at a predominantly White research institution, analyzing their perspectives on diversity and…

  14. Support and Conflict in Ethnically Diverse Young Adults' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on…

  15. Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…

  16. Relational Support as a Predictor of Identity Status in an Ethnically Diverse Early Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan P.; Brassard, Marla R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of relational (i.e., parent, peer, teacher) support as a predictor of identity status was assessed using a sample of 635 early adolescents from an ethnically diverse, low-income school district. Identity status was measured using the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status. Multivariate regression analyses suggested that parental support…

  17. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2011. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are:…

  18. Disclosure Experiences of Urban, Ethnically Diverse LGBT High School Students: Implications for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varjas, Kris; Kiperman, Sarah; Meyers, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity is a milestone event for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth and can have both positive and negative mental health consequences. Twenty-nine urban, ethnically diverse LGBT high school students participated in face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Qualitative results revealed two…

  19. Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

  20. Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

  1. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  2. "Why Do We Celebrate …?" Filling Traditions with Meaning in an Ethnically Diverse Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puskás, Tünde; Andersson, Anita

    2017-01-01

    The Swedish preschool is an important socializing agent because the great majority of children aged, from 1 to 5 years, are enrolled in an early childhood education program. This paper explores how preschool teachers and children, in an ethnically diverse preschool, negotiate the meaning of cultural traditions celebrated in Swedish preschools.…

  3. Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnically Diverse Adolescents the Role of Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura; Gomez, Kenia; Jorgenson, Katherine; Luginbuhl, Paula; Moallem, Isabel; Steele, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines stressors, general stress levels, coping strategies, and subjective well-being in a sample of 144 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents (mean age of 13). The most frequently reported stressors include the death of a family member, feeling socially isolated, family financial problems, injury of a family member, and parents…

  4. Beta cell function and BMI in ethnically diverse children with newly diagnosed autoimmune type 1 diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of our study was to examine the relationship between BMI and beta-cell function at diagnosis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a large group of ethnically diverse children. Cross-sectional analysis of 524 children (60.8% White, 19.5% Hispanic, 14.5% African-American, 5.2% other n...

  5. The association between acanthosis nigricans and dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth-grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three US stat...

  6. Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnically Diverse Adolescents the Role of Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura; Gomez, Kenia; Jorgenson, Katherine; Luginbuhl, Paula; Moallem, Isabel; Steele, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines stressors, general stress levels, coping strategies, and subjective well-being in a sample of 144 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents (mean age of 13). The most frequently reported stressors include the death of a family member, feeling socially isolated, family financial problems, injury of a family member, and parents…

  7. Pathways toward Peace: Negotiating National Unity and Ethnic Diversity through Education in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden-Peterson, Sarah; Mulimbi, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how education can disrupt threats of conflict, specifically in the presence of ethnic diversity. We present a historical analysis of Botswana, using methods of process tracing drawing on documents, in-depth interviews, and Afrobarometer survey data. Postindependence Botswana engaged in redistribution of educational access…

  8. Examining the Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy across Diverse Client Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jessica Barfield

    2009-01-01

    Treatment for adolescent problem behavior has been given extensive attention in the literature due to the serious nature of the problem and the potential risk to others and the community. As the needs of an increasingly diverse juvenile population intensify and mounting evidence suggests ethnic minority youth receive disparate treatment across…

  9. The Value of Telephone Support Groups among Ethnically Diverse Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…

  10. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Schools: The Case of English Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerin-Lajoie, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, schools located in English Canada have experienced important demographic changes in their student population. This article examines the racial, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural diversity in these schools, through the discourses of those who spend the most time with the students: teachers and principals. Here, the concept of…

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Management of Peer Relationships in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2004-01-01

    Relations between adolescents' reports of parental management of peer relationships (consulting, mediating, and autonomy granting in regard to peer relationships) and positive friendship quality, friendship conflict, delinquent activity, and drug use were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of 322 7th and 8th graders. Regression analyses…

  12. Defining Diversity: Ethnic Differences in Black Students' Perceptions of Racial Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kimberly A.; Cunningham, Emil L.; George Mwangi, Chrystal A.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses the potential range of perspectives within the Black student community, focusing specifically on differences by ethnicity and nativity. Narratives were collected from 43 Black students (15 native, 28 immigrants) enrolled at a predominantly White research institution, analyzing their perspectives on diversity and…

  13. Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…

  14. Efforts in Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Field of Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie

    2015-01-01

    There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy, with a particular need to increase the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in educational programs. In a sample of 16 art therapy program directors, strategies and barriers to recruitment were identified through an anonymous online survey. The results of the survey…

  15. Forgotten Americans and the National Pastime: Literature on Baseball's Ethnic, Racial, and Religious Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarkman, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the participation of various ethnic groups in baseball, and suggests that librarians and teachers can explore the richness and diversity of the American immigrant experience through the growing world of baseball nonfiction. The high-interest material of baseball literature portrays the vibrant and evolving American society. (SLD)

  16. Classroom Dimensions Predict Early Peer Interaction when Children Are Diverse in Ethnicity, Race, and Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…

  17. Strategies for research recruitment and retention of older adults of racial and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of

  18. Race/ethnic differences in bone mineral densities in older men

    PubMed Central

    Nam, H.-S.; Shin, M.-H.; Zmuda, J. M.; Leung, P. C.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Orwoll, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary BMD was compared across race/ethnic groups. There were substantial race/ethnic differences in BMD even within African or Asian origin. Additional adjustment for body size greatly attenuated or reversed the differences between US Caucasian men vs Asian men. It illustrates the role of body size on the difference between these groups. Introduction There is insufficient epidemiologic information about men’s bone mineral density (BMD) levels across race/ethnic groups and geographic locations. Methods In a cross-sectional design, we compared BMD in older men across seven race/ethnic groups in four countries. Femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine BMD were measured in men (age 65 to 78 years) from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study (4,074 Caucasian, 208 African-American, 157 Asian, and 116 Hispanic men in USA), Tobago Bone Health Study (422 Afro-Caribbean men), MrOS Hong Kong Study (1,747 Hong Kong Chinese men), and the Namwon Study (1,079 South Korean men). BMD was corrected according to the cross-site calibration results for all scanners. Results When compared with US Caucasian men, Afro-Caribbean and African-American men had, respectively, 8–20% and 6–11% higher age-adjusted mean BMD at all three bone sites. Hip BMD was similar in US Caucasian and Hispanic men, US Asian, Hong Kong Chinese, and Korean men had 3–14% lower BMD at all bone sites except femoral neck in Korean men. Additional adjustment for weight and height greatly attenuated or reversed the differences between US Caucasian men vs Asian men including US Asian, Hong Kong Chinese, and South Korean men. Among Asian groups, Korean men had higher femoral neck BMD and lower total hip BMD. Conclusion These findings show substantial race/ethnic differences in BMD even within African or Asian origin and illustrate the important role of body size on the difference between Asian men and others. PMID:20204598

  19. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  20. Neither bridging nor bonding: A test of socialization effects by ethnically diverse voluntary associations on participants' inter-ethnic tolerance, inter-ethnic trust and intra-ethnic belonging.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between bridging and bonding associations is a cornerstone of social capital research. Nevertheless, this study is the first to provide a direct test of the socialization mechanism that supposedly causes ethnically mixed (bridging) associations to generate interethnic tolerance and trust, and homogenous (bonding) associations to cement self-affirming identities. This multilevel analysis of the Citizenship, Involvement & Democracy (CID) 1999/2000 survey data on Mannheim (Germany), Enschede (the Netherlands), and Aberdeen (Scotland) covers 3166 active participants in 645 associations. The CID includes objective, exogenous measures of each association's composition and aim. Socialization and self-selection effects are pulled apart through interactions with detailed measures of associational involvement. The results display no evidence for (diverse and homogenous) associations as socializing agents. Although inter-ethnic tolerance is higher in ethnically diverse associations, this should be attributed to self-selection effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Hispanic Paradox: Race/Ethnicity and Nativity, Immigrant Enclave Residence and Cognitive Impairment Among Older US Adults.

    PubMed

    Weden, Margaret M; Miles, Jeremy N V; Friedman, Esther; Escarce, José J; Peterson, Christine; Langa, Kenneth M; Shih, Regina A

    2017-05-01

    Hispanics, and particularly foreign-born Mexican Americans, have been shown to fare better across a range of health outcomes than might be expected given the generally higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage in this population, a phenomena termed the "Hispanic Paradox". Previous research on social disparities in cognitive aging, however, has been unable to address both race/ethnicity and nativity (REN) in a nationally-representative sample of US adults leaving unanswered questions about potentially "paradoxical" advantages of Mexican ethnic-origins and the role of nativity, socioeconomic status (SES), and enclave residence. We employ biennial assessments of cognitive functioning to study prevalent and incident cognitive impairment (CI) within the three largest US REN groups: US-born non-Hispanic whites (US-NHW), US-born non-Hispanic blacks (US-NHB), US-born Mexican Americans (US-MA), and foreign-born Mexican Americans (FB-MA). Data come from a nationally-representative sample of community-dwelling older adults in the Health and Retirement Study linked with the 2000 Census and followed over 10 years (N = 8,433). Large disadvantages in prevalent and incident CI were observed for all REN minorities respective to US-born non-Hispanic whites. Individual and neighborhood SES accounted substantially for these disadvantages and revealed an immigrant advantage: FB-MA odds of prevalent CI were about half those of US-NHW and hazards of incident CI were about half those of US-MA. Residence in an immigrant enclave was protective of prevalent CI among FB-MA. The findings illuminate important directions for research into the sources of cognitive risk and resilience and provide guidance about CI screening within the increasingly diverse aging US population. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2017-03-01

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon's assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers ( M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers' high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers' strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers' own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnic-specific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers' culture and level of assimilation.

  3. Sources of Response Bias in Older Ethnic Minorities: A Case of Korean American Elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Ju-Young; Ko, Jisook; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Kim, Kim B; Jang, Yuri

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate potential sources of response bias in empirical research involving older ethnic minorities and to identify prudent strategies to reduce those biases, using Korean American elderly (KAE) as an example. Data were obtained from three independent studies of KAE (N = 1,297; age ≥60) in three states (Florida, New York, and Maryland) from 2000 to 2008. Two common measures, Pearlin's Mastery Scale and the CES-D scale, were selected for a series of psychometric tests based on classical measurement theory. Survey items were analyzed in depth, using psychometric properties generated from both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis as well as correlational analysis. Two types of potential sources of bias were identified as the most significant contributors to increases in error variances for these psychological instruments. Error variances were most prominent when (1) items were not presented in a manner that was culturally or contextually congruent with respect to the target population and/or (2) the response anchors for items were mixed (e.g., positive vs. negative). The systemic patterns and magnitudes of the biases were also cross-validated for the three studies. The results demonstrate sources and impacts of measurement biases in studies of older ethnic minorities. The identified response biases highlight the need for re-evaluation of current measurement practices, which are based on traditional recommendations that response anchors should be mixed or that the original wording of instruments should be rigidly followed. Specifically, systematic guidelines for accommodating cultural and contextual backgrounds into instrument design are warranted.

  4. Quality of Life for Diverse Older Adults in Assisted Living: The Centrality of Control.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Sharon D; Mahmood, Atiya N; Stott-Eveneshen, Sarah

    This pilot project asked: How do ethnically diverse older adult residents of assisted living (AL) facilities in British Columbia (BC) experience quality of life? And, what role, if any, do organizational and physical environmental features play in influencing how quality of life is experienced? The study was conducted at three AL sites in BC: two ethnoculturally targeted and one nontargeted. Environmental audits at each site captured descriptive data on policies, fees, rules, staffing, meals, and activities, and the built environment of the AL building and neighborhood. Using a framework that understands the quality of life of older adults to be contingent on their capability to pursue 5 conceptual attributes-attachment, role, enjoyment, security, and control-we conducted 3 focus groups with residents (1 per site) and 6 interviews with staff (2 per site). Attributes were linked to the environmental features captured in the audits. All dimensions of the environment, especially organizational, influence tenants' capability to attain the attributes of quality of life, most importantly control. Although many tenants accept the trade-off between increased safety and diminished control that accompanies a move into AL, more could be done to minimize that loss. Social workers can advocate for the necessary multi-sectoral changes.

  5. Racial/ethnic differences in bone mineral density among older women.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hae-Sung; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Zmuda, Joseph M; Leung, P C; Lui, Li-Yung; Hill, Deanna D; Patrick, Alan L; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-03-01

    The epidemiologic information regarding international differences in bone mineral density (BMD) in women is currently insufficient. We compared BMD in older women across five racial/ethnic groups in four countries. The femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine BMD were measured in women (aged 65-74 years) from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) (5,035 Caucasian women and 256 African American women in the US), the Tobago Women's Health Study (116 Afro-Caribbean women), the Ms Os Hong Kong Study (794 Hong Kong Chinese women) and the Namwon Study (1,377 South Korean women). BMD was corrected according to the cross-site calibration results for all scanners. When compared with US Caucasian women, the age adjusted mean BMD measurements at the hip sites were 21-31 % higher among Tobago Afro-Caribbean women and 13-23 % higher among African American women. The total hip and spine BMD values were 4-5 % lower among Hong Kong Chinese women and 4-7 % lower among South Korean women compared to US Caucasians. The femoral neck BMD was similar in Hong Kong Chinese women, but higher among South Korean women compared to US Caucasians. Current/past estrogen use was a significant contributing factor to the difference in BMD between US versus non-US women. Differences in body weight partially explained the difference in BMD between Asian versus non-Asian women. These findings show substantial racial/ethnic differences in BMD even within African or Asian origin individuals, and highlight the contributing role of body weight and estrogen use to the geographic and racial/ethnic variation in BMD.

  6. Racial/ethnic differences in bone mineral density among older women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hae-Sung; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Leung, P. C.; Lui, Li-Yung; Hill, Deanna D.; Patrick, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiologic information regarding international differences in bone mineral density (BMD) in women is currently insufficient. We compared BMD in older women across five racial/ethnic groups in four countries. The femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine BMD were measured in women (aged 65–74 years) from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) (5,035 Caucasian women and 256 African American women in the US), the Tobago Women’s Health Study (116 Afro-Caribbean women), the Ms Os Hong Kong Study (794 Hong Kong Chinese women) and the Namwon Study (1,377 South Korean women). BMD was corrected according to the cross-site calibration results for all scanners. When compared with US Caucasian women, the age adjusted mean BMD measurements at the hip sites were 21–31 % higher among Tobago Afro-Caribbean women and 13–23 % higher among African American women. The total hip and spine BMD values were 4–5 % lower among Hong Kong Chinese women and 4–7 % lower among South Korean women compared to US Caucasians. The femoral neck BMD was similar in Hong Kong Chinese women, but higher among South Korean women compared to US Caucasians. Current/past estrogen use was a significant contributing factor to the difference in BMD between US versus non-US women. Differences in body weight partially explained the difference in BMD between Asian versus non-Asian women. These findings show substantial racial/ethnic differences in BMD even within African or Asian origin individuals, and highlight the contributing role of body weight and estrogen use to the geographic and racial/ethnic variation in BMD. PMID:23143509

  7. Ethnic Diversity in Materials Science and Engineering. A report on the workshop on ethnic diversity in materials science and engineering.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Justin

    2014-06-30

    The immediate goal of the workshop was to elevate and identify issues and challenges that have impeded participation of diverse individuals in MSE. The longerterm goals are to continue forward by gathering and disseminating data, launching and tracking initiatives to mitigate the impediments, and increase the number of diverse individuals pursuing degrees and careers in MSE. The larger goal, however, is to create over time an ever-increasing number of role models in science fields who will, in turn, draw others in to contribute to the workforce of the future.

  8. Workforce ethnic diversity and culturally competent health care: the case of Arab physicians in Israel.

    PubMed

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Liberman, Ido; Keshet, Yael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a growing body of literature has been calling for ethnic diversity in health systems, especially in multicultural contexts. Ethnic diversity within the health care workforce is considered to play an important role in reducing health disparities among different ethnic groups. The present study explores the topic using quantitative data on participation of Arab employees in the Israeli health system and qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews with Arab physicians working in the predominantly Jewish Israeli health system. We show that despite the underrepresentation of Arabs in the Israeli health system, Arab physicians who hold positions in Israeli hospitals do not perceive themselves as representatives of the Arab sector; moreover, they consider themselves as having broken through the 'glass ceiling' and reject stereotyping as Arab 'niche doctors.' We conclude that minority physicians may prefer to promote culturally competent health care through integration and advocacy of interaction with the different cultures represented in the population, rather than serving as representatives of their own ethnic minority population. These findings may concern various medical contexts in which issues of ethnic underrepresentation in the health system are relevant, as well as sociological contexts, especially those regarding minority populations and professions.

  9. Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults after Divorce and Remarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about intergenerational responsibilities to assist older kin with a national sample of 362 Latinos, 492 African Americans, 121 Asian Americans, and 2,122 White European Americans using multiple-segment factorial vignettes. More similarities than differences existed between ethnic groups, but Asian Americans and African…

  10. Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults after Divorce and Remarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about intergenerational responsibilities to assist older kin with a national sample of 362 Latinos, 492 African Americans, 121 Asian Americans, and 2,122 White European Americans using multiple-segment factorial vignettes. More similarities than differences existed between ethnic groups, but Asian Americans and African…

  11. Muscle Strength Is Protective Against Osteoporosis in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Ryan P; Kraemer, William J; Vincent, Brenda M; Hall, Orman T; Peterson, Mark D

    2017-09-01

    McGrath, RP, Kraemer, WJ, Vincent, BM, Hall, OT, and Peterson, MD. Muscle strength is protective against osteoporosis in an ethnically diverse sample of adults. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2586-2589, 2017-The odds of developing osteoporosis may be affected by modifiable and nonmodifiable factors such as muscle strength and ethnicity. This study sought to (a) determine whether increased muscle strength was associated with decreased odds of osteoporosis and (b) identify whether the odds of osteoporosis differed by ethnicity. Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess femoral neck bone mineral density. A T-score of ≤2.5 was used to define osteoporosis. Separate covariate-adjusted logistic regression models were performed on each sex to determine the association between muscle strength and osteoporosis. Odds ratios (ORs) were also generated to identify if the association between muscle strength and osteoporosis differed by ethnicity using non-Hispanic blacks as the reference group. There were 2,861 participants included. Muscle strength was shown to be protective against osteoporosis for men (OR: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-0.94) and women (OR: 0.90; CI: 0.90-0.90). Although ORs varied across ethnicities, non-Hispanic Asian men (OR: 6.62; CI: 6.51-6.72) and women (OR: 6.42; CI: 6.37-6.48) were at highest odds of osteoporosis. Increased muscle strength reduced the odds of osteoporosis among both men and women in a nationally representative, ethnically diverse sample of adults. Non-Hispanic Asians had the highest odds of developing osteoporosis. Irrespective of sex or ethnicity, increased muscle strength may help protect against the odds of developing osteoporosis.

  12. The Relations of a School's Capacity for Institutional Diversity to Student Achievement in Socio-Economically, Ethnically, and Linguistically Diverse Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Sookweon; Goff, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how a school's capacity for institutional diversity relates to student achievement in socio-economically, ethnically, and linguistically diverse schools. It also investigates whether various student groups benefit differently from a school's level of student diversity and its institutional capacity for diversity. Using data…

  13. The Relations of a School's Capacity for Institutional Diversity to Student Achievement in Socio-Economically, Ethnically, and Linguistically Diverse Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Sookweon; Goff, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how a school's capacity for institutional diversity relates to student achievement in socio-economically, ethnically, and linguistically diverse schools. It also investigates whether various student groups benefit differently from a school's level of student diversity and its institutional capacity for diversity. Using data…

  14. The worldwide diversity of scalp seborrhoea, as daily experienced by seven human ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Pouradier, Florence; Liu, Chen; Wares, John; Yokoyama, Emilie; Collaudin, Catherine; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint-Léger, Didier; Loussouarn, Geneviève

    2017-09-02

    The re-greasing process and kinetics of the human scalp, post shampooing, has been previously documented, in vivo, on a few Caucasian subjects. The objective of the presented research is to extend such knowledge over 7 different ethnic groups. The post shampooing re-greasing kinetics of the scalp was studied on 1325 subjects (women and men of two distinct age classes) from 7 different ethnic groups in their residential and native country. Sebum amounts were determined onto small shaved scalp areas at various times post shampooing, using the Sebumeter(®) technique. As previously published on Caucasian subjects, scalp re-greasing process follows a hyperbolic-like kinetics over days. However, amounts of collected sebum highly vary with ethnicity. As recorded through the Casual Level (CL) at the equilibrium phase, 2 to 3 days post-shampooing, the highest amount of sebum was found in African American subjects, followed in descending order by Caucasian American, Japanese, Chinese, Thai, Caucasian European and Indian subjects, the latter showing very low values. Lower amounts of sebum were recorded in the older age-class in all ethnics, as compared to the younger one and male subjects were found higher sebum producers than women, irrespective of ethnicity. The kinetics and slopes of the re-greasing process of the human scalp appear similar in all ethnic groups studied. Despite, striking quantitative differences are found between the 7 ethnic groups, resulting from different sebaceous production levels and scalp hygiene routines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Conducting Telephone Interviews with Community-dwelling Older Adults in a State Medicaid Program: Differences by Ethnicity and Language Preference

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Melissa A.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Allen, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    We document the methodological challenges of conducting a health survey of an ethnically diverse elderly community-dwelling Medicaid population by telephone. Individuals (N=5,382) 65 years and older were randomly selected from a state Medicaid Management Information System and 618 eligible participants were interviewed. Participants were classified as non-Hispanic White, English-speaking (NHW-E; 69.2%), non-Hispanic Black, English-speaking (NHB-E; 6.2%), Hispanic, Spanish-speaking (H-S; 9.2%), and Hispanic, English-speaking (H-E; 4.2%). Almost half (44.2%) of the individuals sampled were unreachable, most often because of no valid telephone number. More interviewer time was required to reach and interview Hispanic participants. On average, interviews with H-S and H-E were 11 and 8 minutes longer, respectively, than with NHW-E. Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents reported very high rates of receipt of preventive services relative to the other groups. These high rates by Spanish-speakers may be due to actual greater utilization or biases in self-reported data due to response style differences. PMID:21099081

  16. Racial and ethnic diversity in senior centers: comparing participant characteristics in more and less multicultural settings.

    PubMed

    Giunta, Nancy; Morano, Carmen; Parikh, Nina S; Friedman, Dana; Fahs, Marianne C; Gallo, William T

    2012-01-01

    The 2008 Health Indicators Project surveyed a probability sample (N = 1,870) of New York City senior center participants. Attendees of racially and ethnically diverse and nondiverse senior centers were compared across 5 domains: demographics; health and quality of life; social support networks; neighborhood perceptions and engagement; health service access/utilization. Although homogeneous and diverse center participants demonstrate similar health and quality-of-life outcomes, those from diverse centers demonstrate greater risk of social isolation, receive less family support, and more likely seek medical care from hospitals or community clinics. Implications and future directions for research, practice and policy are discussed.

  17. The relationships between major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination, and mental health in three racial and ethnic groups of older adults.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat; Gum, Amber M

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the relationships between perceived exposure to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination, and mental health in three racial/ethnic groups of older adults. The Health and Retirement Study is a nationally representative sample of individuals 50 years and older living in the United States. A total of 6455 Whites, 716 Latinos, and 1214 Blacks were eligible to complete a self-report psychosocial questionnaire in the year 2006. Whereas 30% of the general population reported at least one type of major lifetime discrimination, almost 45% of Black older adults reported such discrimination. Relative to the other two racial/ethnic groups (82% Whites, 82.6% Blacks), Latinos were significantly less likely to report any everyday discrimination (64.2%), whereas Blacks reported the greatest frequency of everyday discrimination. Whites reported the highest levels of life satisfaction and the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Relative to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination had a somewhat stronger correlation with mental health indicators. The relationships between discrimination and mental health outcomes were stronger for White compared to Black older adults, although everyday discrimination was still significantly associated with outcomes for Black older adults. Black older adults experience the greatest number of discriminative events, but weaker associated mental health outcomes. This could be because they have become accustomed to these experiences, benefit from social or cultural resources that serve as buffers, or selective survival, with the present sample capturing only the most resilient older adults who have learned to cope with the deleterious effects of discrimination.

  18. Social inequalities in later life: the socio-economic position of older people from ethnic minority groups in Britain.

    PubMed

    Evandrou, M

    2000-01-01

    There are now nearly a quarter of a million individuals aged 60 years or over belonging to ethnic minority groups living in Britain. As the ethnic minority groups in Britain continue to age, information regarding their circumstances in later life will be of increasing importance for the development of appropriate services and policy. This article uses data from the General Household Survey (1991-96) to investigate the household living arrangements, lifestyle, socio-economic status, economic resources and experience of multiple deprivation in later life amongst older people from ethnic minority groups in Britain. The findings indicate that there are significant differences both between and within ethnic minority groups in access to material and social resources, which need to be taken into account by policy makers and planners.

  19. The state of racial/ethnic diversity in North Carolina's health workforce.

    PubMed

    McGee, Victoria; Fraher, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the racial and ethnic diversity of the health care workforce is vital to achieving accessible, equitable health care. This study provides baseline data on the diversity of health care practitioners in North Carolina compared with the diversity of the state's population. We analyzed North Carolina health workforce diversity using licensure data from the respective state boards of selected professions from 1994-2009; the data are stored in the North Carolina Health Professions Data System. North Carolina's health care practitioners are less diverse than is the state's population as a whole; only 17% of the practitioners are nonwhite, compared with 33% of the state's population. Levels of diversity vary among the professions, which are diversifying slowly over time. Primary care physicians are diversifying more rapidly than are other types of practitioners; the percentage who are nonwhite increased by 14 percentage points between 1994 and 2009, a period during which 1,630 nonwhite practitioners were added to their ranks. The percentage of licensed practical nurses who are nonwhite increased by 7 percentage points over the same period with the addition of 1,542 nonwhite practitioners to their ranks. Nonwhite health professionals cluster regionally throughout the state, and 79% of them practice in metropolitan counties. This study reports on only a selected number of health professions and utilizes race/ethnicity data that were self-reported by practitioners. Tracking the diversity among North Carolina's health care practitioners provides baseline data that will facilitate future research on barriers to health workforce entry, allow assessment of diversity programs, and be useful in addressing racial and ethnic health disparities.

  20. Immigrant Generation and Sexual Initiation Among a Diverse Racial/Ethnic Group of Urban Youth.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Chavez, Marisol; Bull, Sheana

    2016-04-21

    Foreign-born youth have a lower risk of sexual initiation than native born youth, yet most research has focused on Latinos. An ethnically diverse sample of 200, 14-21 year-old youth were surveyed in Denver in 2014. We used logistic regression models to predict the odds of intentions to have sex and sexual experience, adding covariates that could account for differences in outcomes by immigrant generation. First generation youth were less likely to intend to have sex and to have sexual experience than third generation youth after controlling for racial/ethnic group, suggesting that first generation immigrants of multiple racial/ethnic groups, not just Latinos alone, have a lower risk for sexual initiation. Having a supportive community reduced the odds of sexual intentions and sexual experience. Our findings support future research using a larger sample of black, white, and Asian immigrant youth to corroborate and to explore reasons behind these associations.

  1. Current research findings on end-of-life decision making among racially or ethnically diverse groups.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E

    2005-10-01

    We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or choices, where racial or ethnic groups were compared in their end-of-life decisions, or where the end-of-life decision making of a single minority group was studied in depth. We conducted a narrative review and identified four topical domains of study: advance directives; life support; disclosure and communication of diagnosis, prognosis, and preferences; and designation of primary decision makers. Non-White racial or ethnic groups generally lacked knowledge of advance directives and were less likely than Whites to support advance directives. African Americans were consistently found to prefer the use of life support; Asians and Hispanics were more likely to prefer family-centered decision making than other racial or ethnic groups. Variations within groups existed and were related to cultural values, demographic characteristics, level of acculturation, and knowledge of end-of-life treatment options. Common methodological limitations of these studies were lack of theoretical framework, use of cross-sectional designs, convenience samples, and self-developed measurement scales. Although the studies are limited by methodological concerns, identified differences in end-of-life decision-making preference and practice suggest that clinical care and policy should recognize the variety of values and preferences found among diverse racial or ethnic groups. Future research priorities are described to better inform clinicians and policy makers about ways to allow for more culturally sensitive approaches to end-of-life care.

  2. Cultural Adaptation for Ethnic Diversity: A Review of Obesity Interventions for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda S; Clark, Mary Jo

    2011-09-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects U.S. ethnic minority preschool children, placing them at risk for obesity related co-morbidities and premature death. Effective culturally appropriate interventions are needed to improve health behaviors and reduce obesity in young high-risk minority children, while their behaviors are still developing. All known obesity intervention studies (e.g., diet and physical activity) since 2000 targeting U.S. ethnic minority preschool children were reviewed. Five electronic databases and eight published literature reviews were used to identify the studies. Intervention studies without identified ethnic minority participants were excluded. Ten obesity interventions studies met the review criteria. Published cultural adaptation guidelines were used to develop a mechanism to analyze, score, and rank the intervention adaptations. Cultural adaptations varied widely in rigor, depth, and breadth. Results indicated a relative absence of appropriately adapted obesity interventions for ethnic minority groups, suggesting a need for more rigorous cultural adaptation guidelines when designing obesity interventions for diverse ethnicities. Culturally appropriate adaptations appeared to enhance intervention relevance, effectiveness, and feasibility. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate 1) the type and extent of cultural adaptations strategies applied to the interventions, and 2) how these adaptations related to the study outcomes.

  3. Trauma, Socioeconomic Resources, and Self-rated Health in an Ethnically Diverse Adult Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate ethnic group differences in the association between trauma exposure and health status among an ethnically diverse sample originating in Hawai‘i. Design Across a ten-year period (1998–2008), participants (N = 833) completed five waves of questionnaire assessments. Trauma exposure was measured retrospectively at the most recent assessment (wave 5), socioeconomic resources (educational attainment and employment status) were measured at wave 1, and self-rated health was measured at each of the five waves. Results Results indicated that greater exposure to trauma was associated with poorer self-rated health, as were lower educational attainment and lower work status. In addition there was ethnic group variation in health ratings, as well as in how strongly trauma exposure predicted health status. Specifically, within Filipino American and Native Hawaiian ethnic groups, there was a stronger negative association between trauma exposure and self-rated health. Conclusion These results suggest complex interrelations among trauma, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical health. Further understanding these relations may have implications for medical and behavioral interventions in vulnerable populations. PMID:22732011

  4. Cultural Adaptation for Ethnic Diversity: A Review of Obesity Interventions for Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects U.S. ethnic minority preschool children, placing them at risk for obesity related co-morbidities and premature death. Effective culturally appropriate interventions are needed to improve health behaviors and reduce obesity in young high-risk minority children, while their behaviors are still developing. All known obesity intervention studies (e.g., diet and physical activity) since 2000 targeting U.S. ethnic minority preschool children were reviewed. Five electronic databases and eight published literature reviews were used to identify the studies. Intervention studies without identified ethnic minority participants were excluded. Ten obesity interventions studies met the review criteria. Published cultural adaptation guidelines were used to develop a mechanism to analyze, score, and rank the intervention adaptations. Cultural adaptations varied widely in rigor, depth, and breadth. Results indicated a relative absence of appropriately adapted obesity interventions for ethnic minority groups, suggesting a need for more rigorous cultural adaptation guidelines when designing obesity interventions for diverse ethnicities. Culturally appropriate adaptations appeared to enhance intervention relevance, effectiveness, and feasibility. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate 1) the type and extent of cultural adaptations strategies applied to the interventions, and 2) how these adaptations related to the study outcomes. PMID:24159268

  5. [Education on ethnic diversity in health care in medical school: what can we learn from the American perspective?].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Caroline A; Rassam, Fadi; Spong, Karin S

    2013-01-01

    In April 2012, 20 medical students took part in a study tour to San Francisco, themed 'ethnic diversity in health care'. In this article we discuss four lessons learned from the perspective of these students. The delivery of culturally sensitive healthcare is becoming more important in the Netherlands as the ethnic minority population rate will continue to grow over the coming years. However, diversity education is not a structural component of medical curricula in the Netherlands to the same degree as in the USA where medical education pays a lot of attention to differences in health between ethnic minorities; and where there is also extensive research on this subject. We emphasize that diversity education should create awareness of differences in health outcomes between ethnic groups and awareness of one's own bias and stereotypical views. The implementation of diversity education is a challenge, which requires a change of image and the involvement of teachers from diverse medical disciplines.

  6. The respective racial and ethnic diversity of US pediatricians and American children.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, J J; Back, M R; Brotherton, S E

    2000-01-01

    Much effort has been directed toward increasing the training of physicians from underrepresented minority groups, yet few direct comparisons have examined the diversity of the racial/ethnic backgrounds of the physicians relative to the patient populations they serve, either currently or into the future. This has been particularly true in the case of pediatrics, in which little information has emerged regarding the racial/ethnic backgrounds of pediatricians, yet evidence points to ever-growing diversity in the US child population. We embarked on a comparative analysis to examine trends in the racial and ethnic composition of pediatricians vis-a-vis the patient population they serve, America's infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Data on US pediatricians sorted by racial/ethnic group came from Association of American Medical Colleges distribution data and is based on the cohort of pediatricians graduating from US medical schools between 1983 and 1989 extrapolated to the total number of pediatricians actively practicing in 1996. Data on the demographic diversity of the US child population came from the US Census Bureau. We derived pediatrician-to-child population ratios (PCPRs) specific to racial/ethnic groups to measure comparative diversity between and among groups. Our results show that the black PCPR, currently less than one third of the white PCPR, will fall from 14.3 pediatricians per 100 000 children in 1996 to 12 by 2025. The Hispanic PCPR will fall from 16.9 in 1996 to 9.2 in 2025. The American Indian/Alaska Native PCPR will drop from 7.8 in 1996 to 6.5 by the year 2025. The PCPR specific to the Asian/Pacific Islander group will decline from 52.9 in 1996 to 26.1 in 2025. For whites, the PCPR will increase from 47.8 to 54.2 during this period. For 1996, each of the 5 PCPRs is significantly different from the comparison ratio. The same is true for 2025. For the time trend comparison (between 1996 and 2025), there is a significant difference for

  7. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-11-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  8. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans

    PubMed Central

    MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  9. Excess Weight and Physical Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women of Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    McTigue, Kathleen M.; Bost, James E.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Vitolins, Mara; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Sarto, Gloria E.; Hays-Grudo, Jennifer; Manson, JoAnn E.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of weight and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) generally focus on white populations. This analysis examines the association between clinical weight categories and physical HRQOL in five racial/ethnic groups of older women and determines the extent to which emotional/psychological (social support, caregiver burden) and physical health (diabetes, osteoarthritis) factors modify this relationship. Methods The cross-sectional analysis, completed in 2007, used baseline data from postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) during the 5-year recruitment period (1993–1998). Results Of 161,393 women, 83% were non-Hispanic white, 9% were African American, 4% were Hispanic/Latina, 3% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and <1% were American Indian/Alaska Native. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) was most common in non-Asian minority groups. Regression modeling showed higher odds of poor physical HRQOL with increasing weight category in all groups. In the total sample, these odds were at least 6 times as high in women with class 3 obesity as in women of normal weight and were only mildly attenuated after the analysis adjusted for emotional/psychological factors. Further adjustment for physical health factors made odds ratio (OR) estimates drop from 2.36 to 1.59 for class 1 obesity and from 6.96 to 3.71 for class 3 obesity. This pattern generally persisted within each racial/ethnic group. Conclusions Heavier weight negatively affects physical HRQOL in postmenopausal women across diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Weight-relevant physical health factors have a greater impact on this weight-HRQOL association than do emotional/psychological factors. PMID:20629574

  10. Serving Children in Biracial/Bi-Ethnic Families: A Supplementary Diversity Curriculum for the Training of Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Child Care Health Program, Oakland.

    Because of increasing numbers of children from biracial/bi-ethnic families attending childcare programs and increasing awareness of cultural diversity, and in recognition of the connection between a child's success and his or her racial/ethnic self-esteem, this curriculum is intended to help childcare providers integrate activities and materials…

  11. Self-Regulated Learning Study Strategies and Academic Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: An Investigation Examining Ethnically Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Enrique J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Szu, Evan; Penn, John

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify ethnically diverse students' study strategies in organic chemistry and their relationships to course outcomes. Study diaries, concept maps, and problem sets were used to assess study outcomes. Findings show that students engage in four commonly used reviewing-type strategies, regardless of ethnic group affiliation.…

  12. Self-Regulated Learning Study Strategies and Academic Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: An Investigation Examining Ethnically Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Enrique J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Szu, Evan; Penn, John

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify ethnically diverse students' study strategies in organic chemistry and their relationships to course outcomes. Study diaries, concept maps, and problem sets were used to assess study outcomes. Findings show that students engage in four commonly used reviewing-type strategies, regardless of ethnic group affiliation.…

  13. Ethnic Diversity and Pathways to Care for a First Episode of Psychosis in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Archie, S.; Akhtar-Danesh, N.; Norman, R.; Malla, A.; Roy, P.; Zipursky, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine ethnic variations in the pathways to care for persons accessing early intervention (EI) services in Ontario. Method: The pathways to care and the duration of untreated psychosis were assessed for first-episode psychosis patients who entered specialized EI services in Ontario. The sample was assigned to the following ethnic classifications: the White (Caucasian), Black (African descent), and Asian (ancestry from the continent) groups, plus all the “other ethnicities” group. Results: There were 200 participants: 78% were male; 61% from the White, 15% Black, 13% Asian, and 11% were from the other ethnicities group. At the first point of contact, more participants used nonmedical contacts (12%), such as clergy and naturopathic healers, than psychologists (8%) or psychiatrists (7%). There were no ethnic differences for duration of untreated psychosis (median 22 weeks) or for initiation of help seeking by family/friends (53%), police (15%), or self (33%). After adjusting for relevant clinical and demographic factors, the Asian and other ethnicities groups were 4 and 3 times (respectively) more likely than the White or Black groups (P = .017) to use emergency room services as the first point of contact in the pathways to care. Participants from the Asian group experienced less involuntary hospitalizations (P = .023) than all the other groups. Yet overall, there were many more similarities than significant differences in the pathways to care. Conclusion: EI services should monitor the pathways to care for young people of diverse ethnic backgrounds to address any disparities in accessing care. PMID:18987101

  14. Recruiting Ethnically Diverse General Internal Medicine Patients for a Telephone Survey on Physician-Patient Communication

    PubMed Central

    Nápoles-Springer, Anna M; Santoyo, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of recruitment methods among diverse populations. OBKECTIVE Describe response rates by recruitment stage, ethnic-language group, and type of initial contact letter (for African-American and Latino patients). DESIGN Tracking of response status by recruitment stage and ethnic-language group and a randomized trial of ethnically tailored initial letters nested within a cross-sectional telephone survey on physician-patient communication. PARTICIPANTS Adult general medicine patients with ≥1 visit during the preceding year, stratified by 4 categories: African-American (N= 1,400), English-speaking Latino (N= 894), Spanish-speaking Latino (N= 965), and non-Latino white (N= 1,400). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Ethnically tailored initial letters referred to shortages of African-American (or Latino) physicians and the need to learn about the experiences of African-American (or Latino) patients communicating with physicians. Of 2,482 patients contacted, eligible, and able to participate (identified eligibles), 69.9% completed the survey. Thirty-nine percent of the sampling frame was unable to be contacted, with losses higher among non-Latino whites (46.5%) and African Americans (44.2%) than among English-speaking (32.3%) and Spanish-speaking Latinos (25.1%). For identified eligibles, response rates were highest among Spanish-speaking Latinos (75.2%), lowest for non-Latino whites (66.4%), and intermediate for African Americans (69.7%) and English-speaking Latinos (68.1%). There were no differences in overall response rates between patients receiving ethnically tailored letters (72.2%) and those receiving general letters (70.0%). CONCLUSIONS Household contact and individual response rates differed by ethnic-language group, highlighting the importance of tracking losses by stage and subpopulation. Careful attention to recruitment yielded acceptable response rates among all groups. PMID:15963168

  15. Sex and Race/Ethnic Disparities in Food Security and Chronic Diseases in U.S. Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among sex, race/ethnicity, and food security with the likelihood of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and lung disease for older adults. Method: Complex sample analysis by logistic regression models for chronic diseases were conducted from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 to 2012 and 2013 to 2014, for N = 3,871 adults aged ≥55 years. Results: Being female with low food security was associated with lung disease and diabetes. Poverty, rather than low food security, was associated with cardiovascular diseases. Minority status was independently associated with low food security and diabetes. Discussion: Food insecurity, sex, and race/ethnicity were associated with chronic diseases in a representative sample of U.S. older adults.

  16. RNF213 Mutations in an Ethnically Diverse Population with Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Alana C.; Guo, Dongchuan; Ren, Zhao; Flynn, Kelly; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Wang, Gao T.; Regalado, Ellen S.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J.; Grotta, James C.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous cerebrovascular disease resulting from occlusion of the distal internal carotid arteries. A variant in the Ring Finger 213 gene (RNF213), altering arginine at position 4810 (p.R4810K), is associated with MMD in Asian populations. However, there is a lack of data on the role of RNF213 in MMD patients of additional ethnicities and diasporic Asian populations. We investigate the contribution of RNF213 alterations to MMD in an ethnically diverse population based in the United States (U.S). Methods We initially sequenced RNF213 exons 43, 44, 45 (encoding the eponymous RING finger domain), and exon 60 (encoding p.R4810K), in 86 ethnically diverse patients with MMD. Comprehensive exome sequencing data from 24 additional MMD patients was then analyzed to globally identify RNF213 variants. Segregation of variants with MMD and other vascular diseases was assessed in families. Results RNF213 p.R4810K was identified in 56% (9/16) of MMD patients of Asian descent, and not in 94 patients of non-Asian descent. 3.6% (4/110) of patients had variants in the exons encoding the RING finger domain. Seven additional variants were identified in 29% (7/24) of MMD patients who underwent exome sequencing. Segregation analysis supported an association with MMD for two variants, and a lack of association with disease for one variant. Conclusions These results confirm that alterations in RNF213 predispose patients of diverse ethnicities to MMD, and that the p.R4810K variant predisposes individuals of Asian descent in the U.S. to MMD. PMID:25278557

  17. An association between ethnic diversity and HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brodish, Paul Henry

    2013-01-01

    Summary This paper investigates whether ethnic diversity at the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) cluster level predicts HIV serostatus in three sub-Saharan African countries (Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia), using DHS household survey and HIV biomarker data for men and women ages 15–59 collected since 2006.. The analysis relates a binary dependent variable (HIV positive serostatus) and a weighted aggregate predictor variable representing the number of different ethnic groups within a DHS Statistical Enumeration Area (SEA) or cluster, which roughly corresponds to a neighborhood. Multilevel logistic regression is used to predict HIV prevalence within each SEA, controlling for known demographic, social, and behavioral and predictors of HIV serostatus. The key finding was that the cluster-level ethnic diversity measure was a significant predictor of HIV serostatus in Malawi and Zambia but not in Kenya. Additional results reflected the heterogeneity of the epidemics: male gender, marriage (Kenya), number of extramarital partners in the past year (Kenya and Malawi, but likely confounded with younger age), and Muslim religion (Zambia) were associated with lower odds of positive HIV serostatus. Condom use at last intercourse (a spurious result likely reflecting endogeneity), STD in the past year, number of lifetime sexual partners, age (Malawi and Zambia), education (Zambia), urban residence (Malawi and Zambia), and employment (Kenya and Malawi) were associated with higher odds of positive serostatus. Future studies might continue to employ multilevel models and incorporate additional, more robust controls for individual behavioral risk factors and for higher-level social and economic factors, in order to verify and further clarify the association between neighborhood ethnic diversity and HIV serostatus. PMID:24371845

  18. Body Ideals and Body Dissatisfaction Among a Community Sample of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents on Kauai, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Niide, Tiffany K; Davis, James; Tse, Alice M; Derauf, Chris; Harrigan, Rosanne C; Yates, Alayne

    2011-03-01

    Body dissatisfaction (BD), a risk factor for eating disorders, is occurring at younger ages and among a wide range of socioeconomic and cultural groups. To describe body ideals and prevalence of body satisfaction among an ethnically diverse population of male and female students in Hawaii. An anonymous cross-sectional survey including biographical information and the figure drawing screen was distributed to 7(th) through 12(th) grade students. Of the 1330 completed surveys, 19% of students were significantly dissatisfied with their bodies. Males were at greater risk than females for total BD (25.8% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) and for BD in the direction of wanting to be larger (11.3% vs. 2.3%; p<0.001). Males and females were at similar risk for BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner (14.6% vs. 11.6%; p=0.11). Prevalence of BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner was significantly different (p<0.05) among ethnic groups. There were no significant differences in BD based on grade level or SES. BD exists among nearly 1 out of 5 adolescents, with differing patterns for males and females, and with certain ethnic groups being at higher risk. Studies to understand risk and protective factors by sex and among different ethnic groups may help generate tailored prevention strategies. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the bidirectional BD seen in males and potential outcomes.

  19. The impact of spirituality on eating disorder symptomatology in ethnically diverse Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Jennifer A; Harrell, W Andrew

    2013-12-01

    There is currently a gap in our knowledge of how eating disorder symptomatology is impacted by spirituality and religiosity. To date, studies examining the role of ethnicity in women's self-reported levels of eating disorder symptomatology have neglected the roles of spirituality and religiosity. This study addresses this gap in the literature by investigating ethnicity, spirituality, religiosity, body shame, body mass index (BMI) and age in relation to eating disorder symptomatology in women. A representative non-clinical sample of ethnically diverse Canadian women (N = 591) was surveyed. Younger women, particularly those with higher body shame, BMI and lower spirituality, reported more eating disorder symptomatology. Hispanic and Asian women had higher body shame and lower BMI compared to white women. Spirituality was more strongly related to eating disorder symptomatology than religiosity. This is the first study identifying interactive relationships between ethnicity, spirituality, body shame, BMI and age on eating disorder symptomatology in women. Particularly significant is that higher spirituality was related to a lower level of eating disorder symptomatology. These findings have important implications for treatment and women's physical and psychological health and wellness.

  20. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy. PMID:27298738

  1. Mental Health and Suicidality Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72 691. Results. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Conclusions. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes. PMID:24825217

  2. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  3. Mental health and suicidality among racially/ethnically diverse sexual minority youths.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Wendy B; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-06-01

    We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72,691. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes.

  4. Taking a first puff: cigarette smoking experiences among ethnically diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C S; Allen, P; Crawford, M A; McCormick, L K

    1999-11-01

    To study the social contexts and physiological consequences of an initial cigarette smoking experience among adolescents from four ethnic groups (African American, European American, Hispanic, Native American) who vary by gender and locale (e.g. urban vs rural). A qualitative study using individual interviews and focus groups. Results both amplify and reinforce conclusions about peer and family influences on adolescent smoking initiation reported in quantitative studies of teen smoking. Within the broader themes of peers and family, several important sub-themes emerged. The study findings suggest that peer influence can be characterized as social conformity or social acceptance. Males were more likely than females to describe experiences involving peers exerting strong messages to conform to smoking behaviors. Roles played by family members in the initiation process were complex and included those of initiator, prompter, accomplice, and inadvertent source of cigarettes. European American and Hispanic girls provided descriptions of parents/family members as instigators of their first smoking experience. Hispanic adolescents descripted instances in which family members prompted cigarette use at a young age by encouraging the young person to light the adult's cigarette. Finally, ethnic differences in the physiological responses to initial smoking suggest the need to further explore the role of brand preference and variations in inhaling among ethnically diverse adolescents. In order to design effective cigarette smoking prevention programs for adolescents, it is important to understand the meaning of smoking behaviors for adolescents from different ethnic and social backgrounds.

  5. Motor vehicle and fall related deaths among older Americans 1990–98: sex, race, and ethnic disparities

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, J; Dellinger, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine differences in motor vehicle and fall related death rates among older adults by sex, race, and ethnicity. Methods: Annual mortality tapes for 1990–98 provided demographic data including race and ethnicity, date, and cause of death. Trend analyses were conducted using Poisson regression. Results: From 1990–98, overall motor vehicle related death rates remained stable while death rates from unintentional falls increased. Motor vehicle and fall related death rates were higher among men. Motor vehicle related death rates were higher among people of color while fall related death rates were higher among whites. Among whites, fall death rates increased significantly during the study period, with an annual relative increase of 3.6% for men and 3.2% for women. Conclusions: The risk of death from motor vehicle and fall related injuries among older adults differed by sex, race and ethnicity, results obscured by simple age and sex specific death rates. This study found important patterns and disparities in these death rates by race and ethnicity useful for identifying high risk groups and guiding prevention strategies. PMID:12460960

  6. End-of-life communication: ethnic differences between Korean American and non-Hispanic White older adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjeong; Lee, Jaehoon

    2009-10-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in end-of-life communication between Korean American and non-Hispanic White older adults using the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework. A cross-sectional design was employed to survey 217 community-dwelling older adults (112 Korean Americans and 105 Non-Hispanic Whites). Half of the participants had never held end-of-life discussions with significant others. Non-Hispanic Whites were more likely to engage in end-of-life communication than Korean Americans, but the ethnicity effect was not evident in a multivariate analysis. Only participants' knowledge, perceived barriers, perceived severity, and experience of illness significantly predicted the likelihood of the end-of-life communication. Higher knowledge, stronger beliefs about the perceived severity and barriers, and greater experience of illness were related to having end-of-life communication. Knowledge and health beliefs play an important role in end-of-life communication which differs by ethnicity. Culturally competent health care practitioners need to consider ethnic variation in advance care planning.

  7. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer Outcomes among Older Patients: Effects of Physician Communication and Patient Empowerment

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Rose C.; Stein, Judith A.; Umezawa, Yoshiko; Leake, Barbara; Douglas Anglin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine racial/ethnic disparities in older women’s health-related quality of life (QOL) and type of breast cancer treatment as mediated by physician level and individual level variables. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a population-based, consecutive sample identified through the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program of Latina (n = 99), African-American (n = 66), and White (n = 92) women aged 55 years or older (N = 257) between 3 and 9 months after primary breast cancer diagnosis and at least one month post treatment. An exploratory, empirically-developed latent variable model tested the relationships among demographic and physician-related variables, patient attitudes, and health-related outcomes. Health-related outcomes included QOL measures and receipt of breast conserving surgery (BCS). Results Latinas reported less BCS and poorer QOL compared to Whites. Physician communication that can empower patients, in terms of patient efficacy in patient-physician interactions and breast cancer knowledge, mitigated racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of BCS. Physician emotional support was not related to patient cognitive empowerment and treatment outcomes. Medical mistrust in minority women was related to less self-efficacy and less positive coping, as well as, both directly and indirectly, to reduced QOL. Latinas reported poorer QOL in the tested model. Conclusions Physician communication style, specifically information-giving and participatory decision-making, may empower older women with breast cancer and help mitigate racial/ethnic disparities in surgical treatment received. PMID:19025268

  8. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    PubMed

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  9. Focus group study of ethnically diverse low-income users of paid personal assistance services.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Joseph T; Grossman, Brian R; Hernandez, Mauro; Wong, Alice; Eversley, Rani; Harrington, Charlene

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of ethnically diverse, low-income consumers of paid personal assistance services (PAS) to understand the successes and problems they faced setting up and maintaining their assistance. A thematic analysis was conducted with transcripts from eight focus groups of ethnically homogeneous consumers (n = 67): African American, Latino, Chinese, Native American, and non-Hispanic white. These experienced consumers were generally satisfied with their current PAS but noted significant difficulties: Getting access to appropriate care, obtaining enough paid care to avoid unmet need, and dealing with confusing bureaucracies and cultural differences between them and agency staff/attendants. They desired more control over their care, including the use of paid family attendants when possible. Respondents recommended improved screening and training of attendants, more attendant time, higher wages for attendants, improved cultural sensitivity of attendants and agency staff, and greater consumer control over PAS. Although these low-income PAS consumers are ethnically and geographically diverse, the similarity of findings points to their ongoing struggle to access adequate high quality assistance. The burden they have in obtaining and maintaining services is substantial.

  10. Parental beliefs about vaccination among an ethnically diverse inner-city population.

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Pamela; Racine, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    To characterize the knowledge and attitudes of an ethnically diverse group of inner-city parents regarding childhood immunizations, we conducted structured telephone interviews with 102 primary caretakers at an academic ambulatory pediatric practice during the winter of 2001-2002. The sample was ethnically diverse, with 36% African-American, 41% Hispanic, and 15% white. Half the households had infants or toddlers in the home, and 36% had children with conditions placing them at high risk for influenza. Almost all parents felt that their children should be immunized against diseases in general (98%), but significant proportions also believed that children received more immunizations than necessary (23%), that immunizations could weaken a child's immune system (36%), or that the influenza vaccine could itself make a child ill (48%). Younger parents, those with infants, and parents of children at risk for complications of influenza were less likely to hold these beliefs while race/ethnicity, marital status, parent's education, or socioeconomic status could not be shown to have any effect. We conclude that many inner-city parents question the effects of childhood immunizations and hold erroneous beliefs about them irrespective of age, race, socioeconomic status, or educational background. Practitioners should address these beliefs in efforts to diminish disparities in immunization levels associated with inner-city multiethnic populations. PMID:15303409

  11. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  12. Diversity based on race, ethnicity, and sex, of the US radiation oncology physician workforce.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Christina H; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The evolution of racial, ethnic, and gender diversity in US otolaryngology residency programs.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph S; Young, Meredith; Velly, Ana M; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2013-07-01

    To examine the evolution of racial, ethnic, and gender diversity in US otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency programs and compare these figures with other residency programs. Retrospective database review. US residency programs. Information concerning minority and female representation in US residency programs was obtained from annually published graduate medical education reports by the Journal of the American Medical Association from 1975 to 2010. Minority representation among US population and university students was obtained from the US Census Bureau. The racial, ethnic, and gender diversity of otolaryngology residents was then compared with other medical fields (general surgery, family medicine, and internal medicine). Underrepresentation in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery is particularly disconcerting for African Americans (-2.3%/y, P = .09) and Native Americans (1.5%/y, P = .11) given their nonsignificant annual growth rates. Hispanic representation (17.3%/y, P < .0001) is growing in otolaryngology but is half the rate of growth of the Hispanic American population (32.8%/y, P < .0001). There is nonetheless promise for women (70.6%/y, P < .0001) and Asian Americans (63.0%/y, P < .0001), who demonstrated statistically significant growth trends. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the evolution of female and minority representation among US otolaryngology residents. Despite increasing gender, ethnic, and racial diversity among medical residents in general, female and certain minority group representation in US otolaryngology residency programs is lagging. These findings are in contrast to rising trends of diversity within other residency programs including general surgery.

  14. Increasing racial/ethnic diversity in nursing to reduce health disparities and achieve health equity.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice M; Malone, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    As nursing continues to advance health care in the 21st century, the current shift in demographics, coupled with the ongoing disparities in health care and health outcomes, will warrant our ongoing attention and action. As within all health professions, concerted efforts are needed to diversify the nation's health-care workforce. The nursing profession in particular will be challenged to recruit and retain a culturally diverse workforce that mirrors the nation's change in demographics. This increased need to enhance diversity in nursing is not new to the profession; however, the need to successfully address this issue has never been greater. This article discusses increasing the diversity in nursing and its importance in reducing health disparities. We highlight characteristics of successful recruitment and retention efforts targeting racial/ethnic minority nurses and conclude with recommendations to strengthen the development and evaluation of their contributions to eliminating health disparities.

  15. Increasing Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Nursing to Reduce Health Disparities and Achieve Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    As nursing continues to advance health care in the 21st century, the current shift in demographics, coupled with the ongoing disparities in health care and health outcomes, will warrant our ongoing attention and action. As within all health professions, concerted efforts are needed to diversify the nation's health-care workforce. The nursing profession in particular will be challenged to recruit and retain a culturally diverse workforce that mirrors the nation's change in demographics. This increased need to enhance diversity in nursing is not new to the profession; however, the need to successfully address this issue has never been greater. This article discusses increasing the diversity in nursing and its importance in reducing health disparities. We highlight characteristics of successful recruitment and retention efforts targeting racial/ethnic minority nurses and conclude with recommendations to strengthen the development and evaluation of their contributions to eliminating health disparities. PMID:24385664

  16. Strategies and issues for managing menopause-related symptoms in diverse populations: ethnic and racial diversity.

    PubMed

    Rice, Valerie Montgomery

    2005-12-19

    Menopause is a naturally occurring "equal opportunity" event that every woman who lives beyond the age of approximately 52 years will experience. During the next 20 years, approximately 3.5 million African American women, 2 million Latinas, and 1 million Asian American women will enter the menopause. How a woman approaches the menopausal transition depends on a number of factors, from educational level to socioeconomic status; health-related factors, including stress; and marital status. Increasingly, the roles of race and ethnicity, as they relate to menopausal symptoms, are being explored. Understanding similarities and differences among women of color in perceptions, attitudes, and expectations surrounding the menopause can help provide culturally appropriate care and promote lifestyles that may decrease symptoms and increase quality of life. For example, minority women are usually the gatekeepers for healthcare for themselves and their families and have a highly developed social support network, often including extended family, a church community, and involvement in sororal or social organizations. In the future, research on menopausal symptoms among women of different racial/ethnic groups should focus on exploring in greater detail the effect of dietary factors and body mass index, additional evaluation of pituitary sensitivity, and use of complementary and alternative medicines in symptom management, with a better understanding of the risks and benefits of such therapies.

  17. Prevalence, Social Contexts, and Risks for Prepartying Among Ethnically Diverse College Students

    PubMed Central

    Paves, Andrew P.; Pedersen, Eric. R.; Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    Prepartying, also known as pre-gaming, has emerged as a high-risk drinking event among U.S. college students. Research on factors related to prepartying behavior is in its relative infancy. The present study provides prevalence rates for prepartying across ethnic groups and examines how social context (whether prepartying took place with primarily male, female, or coed groups) and demographic factors may influence prepartying behavior. Participants were students from two West Coast universities (N = 2,546) whom identified as White, Asian and Pacific Islander American (APIA), Hispanic/Latino(a), or African American. The percentage of students who reported prepartying at least once in the past month, as well as the frequency and number of drinks consumed for prepartying occasions, varied by ethnic group and sex. A greater proportion of White students (60%) reported prepartying than Hispanic/Latino(a) (52%), African American (44%), and APIA (37%) students, though Hispanic/Latino(a) students who prepartied did so as often and consumed similar amounts of alcohol as White prepartiers. Across all ethnic groups, females who reported prepartying in coed groups consumed significantly more drinks than those who prepartied in primarily female groups. Finally, prepartiers within all ethnic groups consumed more drinks per week and experienced a higher number of alcohol-related consequences than non-prepartiers. The results suggest that future research and prevention programs should target prepartying and other high-risk events in at-risk students of ethnically diverse backgrounds and also consider the effects of gender in prepartying contexts on alcohol use. PMID:22464005

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies of HIV-1 Host Control in Ethnically Diverse Chinese Populations.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin

    2015-06-03

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10(-7), HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10(-6)), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10(-6)), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10(-7)) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China.

  19. Ethnic Differences in Hypertension Incidence among Middle-Aged and Older U. S. Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Howard, George; Burke, Gregory L.; Shea, Steven; Levitan, Emily B.; Muntner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is higher among African-Americans than whites. However, inconsistent findings have been reported on the incidence of hypertension among middle-aged and older African-Americans and whites and limited data are available on the incidence of hypertension among Hispanics and Asians in the US. Therefore, this study investigated the age-specific incidence of hypertension by ethnicity for 3,146 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants, age 45–84 years at baseline, were followed for a median of 4.8 years for incident hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or the initiation of antihypertensive medications. The crude incidence rate of hypertension, per 1,000 person-years, was 56.8 for whites, 84.9 for African-Americans, 65.7 for Hispanics, and 52.2 for Chinese. After adjustment for age, gender, and study site, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for hypertension was increased for African-Americans age 45–54 (IRR=2.05, 95% CI=1.47, 2.85), 55–64 (IRR=1.63, 95% CI=1.20, 2.23), and 65–74 years (IRR=1.67, 95% CI=1.21, 2.30) compared with whites, but not for those 75–84 years of age (IRR=0.97, 95% CI=0.56, 1.66). Additional adjustment for health characteristics attenuated these associations. Hispanic participants also had a higher incidence of hypertension compared with whites; however, hypertension incidence did not differ for Chinese and white participants. In summary, hypertension incidence was higher for African-Americans compared with whites between 45 and 74 years of age but not after age 75 years. Public health prevention programs tailored to middle-age and older adults are needed to eliminate ethnic disparities in incident hypertension. PMID:21502561

  20. Racial/Ethnic differences in self-reported health problems and herbal use among older women.

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Saunjoo L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the racial/ethnic differences in self- reported health problems and herbal use as a self-care practice between white American and African-American older women, and between herbal users and nonusers. Two data sets collected in 1998 and 2002 were combined to perform this study. The total sample (143 participants) consisted of 85 white Americans and 58 African-American women > or = 65 years, living independently in the community. While there were statistically significant differences in education (chi-squared = 19.085, p=0.0001) and annual income (chi-squared = 21.905, p=0.0001) between white American and African-American women, no differences were found in the use of herbals between the two groups. There was a significant relationship between the number of herbals used and the number of nonprescribed medications used (gamma = 0.320, p<0.01). No relationship was detected between the number of herbals used and self-reported health problems (gamma = 0.075, p<0.01), and between the number of nonprescribed medications used and self-reported health problems (gamma = 0.047, p<0.01). White American herbal users utilized the highest number of combination products (prescribed, nonprescribed and herbals) of all. African-American herbal users indicated a higher number of combination products than African-American nonusers. Results suggested that herbals were used as a complementary rather than an alternative therapy to manage perceived health concerns in both groups. PMID:16775914

  1. Screening for cognitive impairment among older people in black and minority ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parker, Chris; Philp, Ian

    2004-09-01

    There is a well-documented tendency for cognitive tests to underestimate the abilities of older people in black and minority ethnic groups. This gives rise to a substantially higher risk of mistaken diagnosis of dementia. Reasons include differences in extent or focus of formal education, lack of familiarity with English, lack of literacy in own first language, and culture-specific factors related to individual test items. Attempts to improve the accuracy of screening for these groups have included adaptation of existing tests, including adjustment of cut-points, translation and replacement of culture-specific items. So-called 'culture-free' tests have also been developed, which are less dependent on language, literacy and other skills developed during formal education. Cultural modifications and evidence of cross-cultural performance are summarized here for traditional tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test, Abbreviated Mental Test Score, Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly), and for culture-free tests (Clock Drawing Test, Mini-Cog, 7-minute screening battery, Time and Change Test). The evidence on unadapted traditional tests shows that short ones perform at least as well as longer ones, and are more consistent across cultural and educational groups. Cut-point adjustments have not been universally found successful in improving accuracy, and do not address issues of acceptability. Translated and/or culturally adapted versions exist for a number of tests: it is important to establish cut-points appropriate to the target populations. There are promising results on culture-free tests, which are seen as less threatening and require little language interpretation, but they require further evaluation.

  2. Theory-Guided Selection of Discrimination Measures for Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities Research among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Angela D.; Clay, Olivio J.; Ford, Chandra L.; Stewart, Anita L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Discrimination may contribute to health disparities among older adults. Existing measures of perceived discrimination have provided important insights but may have limitations when used in studies of older adults. This paper illustrates the process of assessing the appropriateness of existing measures for theory-based research on perceived discrimination and health. Methods First we describe three theoretical frameworks that are relevant to the study of perceived discrimination and health – stress-process models, life course models, and the Public Health Critical Race praxis. We then review four widely-used measures of discrimination, comparing their content and describing how well they address key aspects of each theory, and discussing potential areas of modification. Discussion Using theory to guide measure selection can help improve understanding of how perceived discrimination may contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among older adults. PMID:22451527

  3. Racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. national nurse workforce 1988-2013.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ying; Brewer, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the racial and ethnic diversity profile of the nurse workforce over time and by geographic region. We conducted survey analysis using the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses from 1988 to 2008, and further supplemented our trend analysis using published findings from the 2013 National Workforce Survey of Registered Nurses. The gap in racial/ethnic minority representation between the RN workforce and the population has been persistent and has widened over time. This diversity gap is primarily due to underrepresentation of Hispanics and Blacks in the RN workforce, which varied across states and regions, with the largest gaps occurring for Hispanics in the South and West and for Blacks in the South. Greater levels of sustained and targeted support to increase nurse workforce diversity are needed and should be geared not only to specific underrepresented groups but also to the regions and states with the greatest needs. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  5. Ethnic diversity, trust, and the mediating role of positive and negative interethnic contact: a priming experiment.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Ruud; Veit, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This study not only shows that the empirically well-established negative relationship between residential diversity and trust in neighbors holds for the case of Germany, but goes beyond existing research by providing experimental evidence on the causal nature of the diversity effect. Respondents exposed to experimental stimuli that made salient the ethnic or religious heterogeneity of their neighborhoods display significantly lower levels of trust in their neighbors than do respondents in the control group. Further, we explore the role of interethnic contact in mediating the relationship between diversity and trust in a degree of detail unmatched by earlier studies. We consider not only positive forms of interethnic contact such as friendships, but also neutral and negative encounters between people of native and immigrant origin. We find that interethnic contacts mediate negative diversity effects on trust in different ways for both groups. For natives, distant encounters and negative experiences with immigrants in diverse contexts reduce trust, whereas for people of immigrant origin trust in neighbors suffers from the relatively small number of native acquaintances in diverse neighborhoods.

  6. Clinging to any bit of joy: urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women's descriptions of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; Degroot, Joleen

    2012-12-01

    Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women. This study sought to capture perceptions of anxiety and depression in 3 urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods. Using community-based participatory research, in the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, the researchers recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years. Data were collected via 6 homogeneous focus groups composed of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. The women identified themes pertaining to the manifestations and effects of anxiety and depression as well as unique coping strategies.

  7. 'The Elephant on the Table': Religious and Ethnic Diversity in Home Health Services.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Sharma, Sonya; Grypma, Sonya; Pesut, Barbara; Sawatzky, Richard; Wolfs, Dorolen

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare services are increasingly being provided in the home. At the same time, these home contexts are changing as global migration has brought unprecedented diversity both in the recipients of care, and home health workers. In this paper, we present findings of a Canadian study that examined the negotiation of religious and ethnic plurality in home health. Qualitative analysis of the data from interviews and observations with 46 participants-clients, administrators, home healthcare workers-revealed how religion is expressed and 'managed' in home health services.

  8. Contributors to self-reported health in a racially and ethnically diverse population: focus on Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Jessica V V; Miyasato, Gavin S; Gates, Margaret A; Curto, Teresa M; Hall, Susan A; McKinlay, John B

    2013-01-01

    To understand if Hispanics report health differently than other racial and ethnic groups after controlling for demographics and risk factors for poor health. The sample (N = 5502) included 3201 women, 1767 black, 1859 white, and 1876 Hispanic subjects from the Boston Area Community Health Survey, a population-based survey of English- and Spanish-speaking residents of Boston, Massachusetts, United States, aged 30-79 years in 2002-2005. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including interview language for Hispanics) and fair/poor self-reported health (F/P SRH) adjusting for gender, age, socioeconomic status, depression, nativity, and comorbidities. Compared with whites, Hispanics interviewed in Spanish were seven times as likely to report F/P SRH (odds ratio, 7.7; 95% confidence interval, 4.9-12.2) after adjusting for potential confounders and those interviewed in English were twice as likely. In analyses stratified by depression and nativity, we observed stronger associations with Hispanic ethnicity in immigrants and nondepressed individuals interviewed in Spanish. Increased odds of F/P SRH persisted in the Hispanic group even when accounting for interview language and controlling for socioeconomic status, age, depression, and nativity, with interview language mitigating the association. These findings have methodological implications for epidemiologists using SRH across diverse populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using visual displays to communicate risk of cancer to women from diverse race/ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sabrina T; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Kim, Sue E; Gregorich, Steven E; Sawaya, George F; Walsh, Judith M E; Washington, A Eugene; Kaplan, Celia P

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated how well women from diverse race/ethnic groups were able to take a quantitative cancer risk statistic verbally provided to them and report it in a visual format. Cross-sectional survey was administered in English, Spanish or Chinese, to women aged 50-80 (n=1160), recruited from primary care practices. The survey contained breast, colorectal or cervical cancer questions regarding screening and prevention. Women were told cancer-specific lifetime risk then shown a visual display of risk and asked to indicate the specific lifetime risk. Correct indication of risk was the main outcome. Correct responses on icon arrays were 46% for breast, 55% for colon, and 44% for cervical; only 25% correctly responded to a magnifying glass graphic. Compared to Whites, African American and Latina women were significantly less likely to use the icon arrays correctly. Higher education and higher numeracy were associated with correct responses. Lower education was associated with lower numeracy. Race/ethnic differences were associated with women's ability to take a quantitative cancer risk statistic verbally provided to them and report it in a visual format. Systematically considering the complexity of intersecting factors such as race/ethnicity, educational level, poverty, and numeracy in most health communications is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.

  11. Examining the Protective Effect of Ethnic Identity on Drug Attitudes and Use Among a Diverse Youth Population.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Fisher, Sycarah; Banks, Devin E; Hensel, Devon J; Barnes-Najor, Jessica

    2016-11-09

    Ethnic identity is an important buffer against drug use among minority youth. However, limited work has examined pathways through which ethnic identity mitigates risk. School-aged youth (N = 34,708; 52 % female) of diverse backgrounds (i.e., African American (n = 5333), Asian (n = 392), Hispanic (n = 662), Multiracial (n = 2129), Native American (n = 474), and White (n = 25718) in grades 4-12 provided data on ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use. After controlling for gender and grade, higher ethnic identity was associated with lower past month drug use for African American, Hispanic, and Multiracial youth. Conversely, high ethnic identity was associated with increased risk for White youth. An indirect pathway between ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use was also found for African American, Hispanic, and Asian youth. Among White youth the path model was also significant, but in the opposite direction. These findings confirm the importance of ethnic identity for most minority youth. Further research is needed to better understand the association between ethnic identity and drug use for Multiracial and Hispanic youth, best ways to facilitate healthy ethnic identity development for minority youth, and how to moderate the risk of identity development for White youth.

  12. Body Ideals and Body Dissatisfaction Among a Community Sample of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents on Kauai, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Niide, Tiffany K.; Davis, James; Tse, Alice M.; Derauf, Chris; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Yates, Alayne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Body dissatisfaction (BD), a risk factor for eating disorders, is occurring at younger ages and among a wide range of socioeconomic and cultural groups. Objective To describe body ideals and prevalence of body satisfaction among an ethnically diverse population of male and female students in Hawaii. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey including biographical information and the figure drawing screen was distributed to 7th through 12th grade students. Results Of the 1330 completed surveys, 19% of students were significantly dissatisfied with their bodies. Males were at greater risk than females for total BD (25.8% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) and for BD in the direction of wanting to be larger (11.3% vs. 2.3%; p<0.001). Males and females were at similar risk for BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner (14.6% vs. 11.6%; p=0.11). Prevalence of BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner was significantly different (p<0.05) among ethnic groups. There were no significant differences in BD based on grade level or SES. Conclusions BD exists among nearly 1 out of 5 adolescents, with differing patterns for males and females, and with certain ethnic groups being at higher risk. Implications Studies to understand risk and protective factors by sex and among different ethnic groups may help generate tailored prevention strategies. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the bidirectional BD seen in males and potential outcomes. PMID:27358668

  13. Individualized Education Program Development Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Children and Adolescents with Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Hinojosa, Ramon; Nguyen, Jennifer; Bright, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Background Black, Hispanic, and low income children bear a greater burden of chronic health conditions compared to wealthier white counterparts. Under federal law, schools provide services to children when their health conditions impair learning. These school services, called individualized education programs (IEPs) can reduce disparities in school outcomes. This paper examines the extent to which children with health conditions have an IEP plan, an important first step in understanding service utilization. Method Andersen's Behavioral Model was used to examine IEP plan presence by using the 2012 National Survey of Children's Health. School aged children (6-17), with at least one health condition (N = 16,496) were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis to understand predisposing (age, sex, race/ethnicity), enabling (family and neighborhood), and need (health related) factors as predictors of having an IEP plan. Race/ethnicity interaction terms tested for moderating effects of race/ethnicity on the relationship between predisposing, enabling and need factors and having an IEP plan. Results Hispanic children were 93.4 % (OR = .066) less likely and Black children were 87.9 % (OR = .121) less likely to have an IEP plan compared to White children. Black, Hispanic, and Multiracial children were more likely to have an IEP plan if they had more family and neighborhood resources (OR range 1.37-1.62) and greater health needs and health care needs (OR range 1.29-2.57). Conclusion The Behavioral Model was useful in predicting the presence of IEP plans among racially/ethnically diverse children with health conditions as an important step in understanding disparities in healthcare access in schools.

  14. Geography, Ethnicity or Subsistence-Specific Variations in Human Microbiome Composition and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vinod K.; Paul, Sandip; Dutta, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats—Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution—a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota—the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome—nature or nurture, host genetics or his environment

  15. Geography, Ethnicity or Subsistence-Specific Variations in Human Microbiome Composition and Diversity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod K; Paul, Sandip; Dutta, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life. In general, gut microbiome of the hunter-gatherer populations is highly abundant with Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Clostridiales, Ruminobacter etc., while those of the urban communities are often enriched in Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Firmicutes. The oral and skin microbiome are the next most diverse among different populations, while respiratory tract and UGT microbiome show lesser variations. Higher microbiome diversity is observed for oral-cavity in hunter-gatherer group with higher prevalence of Haemophilus than agricultural group. In case of skin microbiome, rural and urban Chinese populations show variation in abundance of Trabulsiella and Propionibacterium. On the basis of published data, we have characterized the core microbiota-the set of genera commonly found in all populations, irrespective of their geographic locations, ethnicity or mode of subsistence. We have also identified the major factors responsible for geography-based alterations in microbiota; though it is not yet clear which factor plays a dominant role in shaping the microbiome-nature or nurture, host genetics or his environment. Some of

  16. Prevalence, determinants and genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus in the multi-ethnic population living in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Mac Donald-Ottevanger, M Sigrid; Vreden, Stephen; van der Helm, Jannie J; van de Laar, Thijs; Molenkamp, Richard; Dams, Els; Roosblad, Jimmy; Codrington, John; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D; Prins, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of HCV in Suriname, a former Dutch colony in South America. To study the prevalence, determinants and genetic diversity of HCV, a one-month survey was conducted at the only Emergency Department in the capital Paramaribo. Participants (≥18 years) completed an interviewer-led standardized HCV risk-factor questionnaire, were tested for HCV-antibodies, and if positive also for HCV RNA. The overall HCV prevalence was 1.0% (22/2128 participants; 95%CI 0.7-1.5). Male sex (OR=4.11; 95%CI 1.30-13.01), older age (OR=1.06 per year increase; 95%CI 1.04-1.09), Javanese ethnicity (OR=7.84; 95%CI 3.25-18.89) and cosmetic tattooing (OR=31.7; 95%CI 3.25-323.87) were independently associated with HCV-infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed six distinct HCV subtypes, all HCV-genotype 2 (HCV-2): subtype 2f (also circulating in Indonesia) plus five yet unassigned HCV-2 subtypes exclusively linked to Suriname.

  17. Ancient founder mutation is responsible for Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome among diverse ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) was described just over 50 years ago by Olga Imerslund and Ralph Gräsbeck and colleagues. IGS is caused by specific malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl) due to bi-allelic mutations in either the cubilin gene (CUBN) or the human amnionless homolog (AMN). Mutations in the two genes are commonly seen in founder populations or in societies with a high degree of consanguineous marriages. One particular mutation in AMN, c.208-2A>G, causing an out-of-frame loss of exon 4 in the mRNA, is responsible for some 15% of IGS cases globally. We present evidence that this founder mutation causes a substantial percentage of cases among diverse ethnicities and that the mutation is as old as human civilization. Methods Partial genotyping indicated a founder event but its presence in diverse peoples of Arabic, Turkish, Jewish, and Hispanic ancestry suggested that the mutation might be recurrent. We therefore studied the flanking sequence spanning 3.5 Mb to elucidate the origin of the haplotype and estimate the age of the mutation using a Bayesian inference method based on observed linkage disequilibrium. Results The mutation's distribution, the size of the shared haplotype, and estimates of growth rate and carrier frequency indicated that the mutation was a single prehistoric event. Dating back to the ancient Middle East around 11,600 BC, the mutation predates the advent of writing, farming, and the monotheistic religions of the region. Conclusions This mutation causes over 50% of the IGS cases among Arabic, Turkish, and Sephardic Jewish families, making it a primary target for genetic screening among diverse IGS cases originating from the Middle East. Thus, rare founder mutations may cause a substantial number of cases, even among diverse ethnicities not usually thought to be related. PMID:22078000

  18. Developing an Integrated Strategy to Reduce Ethnic and Racial Disparities in the Delivery of Clinical Preventive Services for Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mary; Bolen, Julie; Wooten, Karen; Clough, Juliana; Giles, Wayne H.; Anderson, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the optimum strategy for increasing up-to-date (UTD) levels in older Americans, while reducing disparities between White, Black, and Hispanic adults, aged 65 years and older. Methods. Data were analyzed from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, quantifying the proportion of older Americans UTD with influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations, mammograms, Papanicolaou tests, and colorectal cancer screening. A comparison of projected changes in UTD levels and disparities was ascertained by numerically accounting for UTD adults lacking 1 or more clinical preventive services (CPS). Analyses were performed by gender and race/ethnicity. Results. Expanded provision of specific vaccinations and screenings each increased UTD levels. When those needing only vaccinations were immunized, there was a projected decrease in racial/ethnic disparities in UTD levels (2.3%–12.2%). When those needing only colorectal cancer screening, mammography, or Papanicolaou test were screened, there was an increase in UTD disparities (1.6%–4.5%). Conclusions. A primary care and public health focus on adult immunizations, in addition to other CPS, offers an effective strategy to reduce disparities while improving UTD levels. PMID:22698041

  19. American Society of Clinical Oncology Strategic Plan for Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce.

    PubMed

    Winkfield, Karen M; Flowers, Christopher R; Patel, Jyoti D; Rodriguez, Gladys; Robinson, Patricia; Agarwal, Amit; Pierce, Lori; Brawley, Otis W; Mitchell, Edith P; Head-Smith, Kimberly T; Wollins, Dana S; Hayes, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Board of Directors approved the ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce. Developed through a multistakeholder effort led by the ASCO Health Disparities Committee, the purpose of the plan is to guide the formal efforts of ASCO in this area over the next three years (2017 to 2020). There are three primary goals: (1) to establish a longitudinal pathway for increasing workforce diversity, (2) to enhance ASCO leadership diversity, and (3) to integrate a focus on diversity across ASCO programs and policies. Improving quality cancer care in the United States requires the recruitment of oncology professionals from diverse backgrounds. The ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce is designed to enhance existing programs and create new opportunities that will move us closer to the vision of achieving an oncology workforce that reflects the demographics of the US population it serves.

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Antidepressant Use in a Random Community Sample of Ethnically Diverse, Urban Elder Persons

    PubMed Central

    Grunebaum, Michael F.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are limited data on depressive symptoms and antidepressant use in ethnically diverse, urban elderly. METHODS Analysis of depressive symptom and antidepressant use data from an epidemiological survey of dementia in an ethnically diverse, urban, elderly community. RESULTS 21.5% (N=566) reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Severity was inversely associated with socioeconomic status. 7.5% (N=194) reported antidepressant medication use. Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for severity and other covariates showed that men and African Americans had nearly half the odds of using antidepressants. Antidepressant use was more frequent among Hispanics, those with more severe depression and more medical illness. LIMITATIONS Combined sample; CES-D not validated in Hispanics and inner-city African Americans; depressive symptoms assessed at one time-point; lack of complete income data; geographically restricted. CONCLUSIONS In this elder sample, taking into account depressive symptom severity and other confounds, antidepressant use is nearly half as likely among men and African Americans. PMID:17532052

  1. Correlation between the linguistic affinity and genetic diversity of Chinese ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Shuyuan; Lin, Keqin; Yu, Liang; Huang, Kai; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-10-01

    As the world's most populous nation, China exhibits a population with 56 nationalities. We already know the associations between genetic relationship of these ethnic groups in China and their geographic distributions are closely. However, the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinities have still not been fully revealed in China. To investigate these correlations, 31 populations and 1527 samples were chosen, and the languages of this population covered all of the languages spoken in mainland China (including 8 main linguistic families and 16 subfamilies). The genetic polymorphisms of the populations were investigated using 10 autosomal microsatellites. Five ethnic groups, which included 234 samples, were genotyped in this survey, and the data collected from the other 26 populations were obtained from our previous study. An analysis of molecular variance, principal coordinate analysis, clustering analysis using the STRUCTURE and the Mantel test were used to investigate the correlations between genetic diversity and linguistic affinity. These analyses indicated that most populations who speak the same language demonstrate a similar genetic composition, although a few populations deviated from this linkage between genetics and language. The demographic histories of these populations who deviated from this linkage were investigated. Obvious reasons for why evolutionary processes of genetics and linguistics separated in these populations included geographic isolation, gene replacement, language replacement and intermarriage. Thus, we proposed that the consistency of genetic and linguistic evolution is still present in most populations in China; however, this consistency can be broken by many factors, such as isolation, language replacement or intermarriage.

  2. High anxiety is associated with an increased risk of death in an older tri-ethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Goodwin, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives The health consequences of anxiety in late life have not been adequately investigated. We sought to examine the association between anxiety and death in an older tri-ethnic population. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of 506 older noninstitutionalized non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics aged 75 years or older from Galveston County. Results Average age was 80.8 (SD 4.4) and 50.8% were women. Older non-Hispanic Whites (21.6%) reported the highest prevalence of anxiety, followed by Hispanics (12.4%) and non-Hispanic blacks (11.3%) (P =.0001). High anxiety was significantly associated with an increased hazard of all cause death (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.02, 2.28) and cardiovascular death (HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.06, 3.36); and was associated with an increased hazard of cancer death (HR 2.38; 95% CI 0.88, 6.45) during 5-years of follow-up. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of anxiety in late life. Our results indicate an association between anxiety and increased risk of death in persons aged 75 and older. PMID:16632143

  3. HIV Awareness and Knowledge among Viewers of a Documentary Film about HIV among Racial- or Ethnic-Minority Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline

    2015-08-01

    A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers.

  4. PATTERNS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENT USAGE IN DEMOGRAPHICALLY DIVERSE OLDER PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Kishiyama, Shirley S.; Leahy, Marjorie J.; Zitzelberger, Tracy A.; Guariglia, Robin; Zajdel, Daniel P.; Calvert, James F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Oken, Barry S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To analyze dietary supplement usage data from 494 older adults, aged 65 to 101 years. Setting Community dwellers living independently of institutionalized care. Design All dietary supplements, including botanicals, were recorded to aid in assessing the health status of older adults. Participants 1) 224 individuals enrolled in a study that follows the health of persons 85 years and older (oldest-old) in Klamath County, a non-metropolitan area in southern Oregon: 2) 134 participants of oldest-old age living in the metropolitan Portland area, enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of GBE biloba extract (GBE) for dementia prevention: and 3) 136 participants, ages 65–85 years (young-old), also of the Portland area, enrolled in a study of the effects of yoga and exercise on cognition. Measurements Data verified from labels, not from self-report. Results Of the participants, 70.6% used dietary supplements. Women took supplements more often than men, and usage decreased with age. A greater percentage, 67.4%, of the non-metropolitan oldest-old took supplements, compared to 56.7% of the metropolitan oldest-old. The greatest usage, 89.7%, was in the metropolitan young-olds. All of these percentages exceed those for comparable age groups in national representative surveys. Conclusions Dietary supplement usage by older adults in these studies in Oregon exceeded that in other reports and may reflect high interest in complementary and alternative medicine. This report confirms the results of other studies showing that elderly adults, particularly women, use dietary supplements more than other segments of the US population. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of this pattern and potential conflicts with research design or treatment regimen intended for older people. PMID:15945136

  5. The physician's professional role in end-of-life decision-making: voices of racially and ethnically diverse physicians.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ursula K; Ford, Marvella E; Beyth, Rebecca J; McCullough, Laurence B

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have shown racial/ethnic differences in preferences for end-of-life (EOL) care. We aimed to describe values and beliefs guiding physicians' EOL decision-making and explore the relationship between physicians' race/ethnicity and their decision-making. Seven focus groups (3 Caucasian, 2 African American, 2 Hispanic) with internists and subspecialists (n=26) were conducted. Investigators independently analyzed transcripts, assigned codes, compared findings, reconciled differences, and developed themes. Four themes appeared to transcend physicians' race/ethnicity: (1) strong support for the physician's role; (2) responding to "unreasonable" requests; (3) organizational factors; and (4) physician training and comfort with discussing EOL care. Five themes physicians seemed to manage differently based on race/ethnicity: (1) preventing and reducing the burden of surrogate decision-making; (2) responding to requests for "doing everything;" (3) influence of physician-patient racial/ethnic concordance/discordance; (4) cultural differences concerning truth-telling; and (5) spirituality and religious beliefs. Physicians in our multi-racial/ethnic sample emphasized their commitment to their professional role in EOL decision-making. Implicitly invoking the professional virtue of self-effacement, they were able to identify racially/ethnically common and diverse ethical challenges of EOL decision-making. Physicians should use professional virtues to tailor the EOL decision-making process in response to patients' race/ethnicity, based on patients' preferences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. THE PHYSICIAN'S PROFESSIONAL ROLE IN END-OF-LIFE DECISION MAKING: VOICES OF RACIALLY AND ETHNICALLY DIVERSE PHYSICIANS

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Ursula K; Ford, Marvella E; Beyth, Rebecca J; McCullough, Laurence B

    2009-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown racial/ethnic differences in preferences for end-of-life (EOL) care. We aimed to describe values and beliefs guiding physicians' EOL decision-making and explore the relationship between physicians' race/ethnicity and their decision-making. Methods Seven focus groups (3 Caucasian, 2 African American, 2 Hispanic) with internists and subspecialists (n=26) were conducted. Investigators independently analyzed transcripts, assigned codes, compared findings, reconciled differences, and developed themes. Results Four themes appeared to transcend physicians' race/ethnicity: (1) strong support for the physician's role; (2) responding to “unreasonable” requests; (3) organizational factors; and (4) physician training and comfort with discussing EOL care. Five themes physicians seemed to manage differently based on race/ethnicity: (1) preventing and reducing the burden of surrogate decision-making; (2) responding to requests for “doing everything;” (3) influence of physician-patient racial/ethnic concordance/discordance; (4) cultural differences concerning truth-telling; and (5) spirituality and religious beliefs. Conclusions Physicians in our multi-racial/ethnic sample emphasized their commitment to their professional role in EOL decision-making. Implicitly invoking the professional virtue of self-effacement, they were able to identify racially/ethnically common and diverse ethical challenges of EOL decision-making. Practice implications Physicians should use professional virtues to tailor the EOL decision-making process in response to patients' race/ethnicity, based on patients' preferences. PMID:19948388

  7. Implementation-effectiveness trial of an ecological intervention for physical activity in ethnically diverse low income senior centers.

    PubMed

    Rich, Porchia; Aarons, Gregory A; Takemoto, Michelle; Cardenas, Veronica; Crist, Katie; Bolling, Khalisa; Lewars, Brittany; Sweet, Cynthia Castro; Natarajan, Loki; Shi, Yuyan; Full, Kelsie M; Johnson, Eileen; Rosenberg, Dori E; Whitt-Glover, Melicia; Marcus, Bess; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2017-07-18

    As the US population ages, there is an increasing need for evidence based, peer-led physical activity programs, particularly in ethnically diverse, low income senior centers where access is limited. The Peer Empowerment Program 4 Physical Activity' (PEP4PA) is a hybrid Type II implementation-effectiveness trial that is a peer-led physical activity (PA) intervention based on the ecological model of behavior change. The initial phase is a cluster randomized control trial randomized to either a peer-led PA intervention or usual center programming. After 18 months, the intervention sites are further randomized to continued support or no support for another 6 months. This study will be conducted at twelve senior centers in San Diego County in low income, diverse communities. In the intervention sites, 24 peer health coaches and 408 adults, aged 50 years and older, are invited to participate. Peer health coaches receive training and support and utilize a tablet computer for delivery and tracking. There are several levels of intervention. Individual components include pedometers, step goals, counseling, and feedback charts. Interpersonal components include group walks, group sharing and health tips, and monthly celebrations. Community components include review of PA resources, walkability audit, sustainability plan, and streetscape improvements. The primary outcome of interest is intensity and location of PA minutes per day, measured every 6 months by wrist and hip accelerometers and GPS devices. Secondary outcomes include blood pressure, physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Implementation measures include appropriateness & acceptability (perceived and actual fit), adoption & penetration (reach), fidelity (quantity & quality of intervention delivered), acceptability (satisfaction), costs, and sustainability. Using a peer led implementation strategy to deliver a multi-level community based PA program can enhance program adoption, implementation, and

  8. Perceived Effectiveness of Diverse Sleep Treatments in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Tavaria, Ashdin; Patel, Nirav; Madhusudan, Lavanya; Nadaraja, Divani; Onen, Fannie; Richards, Kathy C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the different methods older adults use to treat sleep problems and the perceived effectiveness of these methods. Design Cross-sectional study of treatment patterns for sleep disorders using a mailed questionnaire that gathered information concerning sleep history, demographics, and treatment choices. Setting/Participants Study participants were drawn from a community-based sample of adults aged >65 years, of which 242 responded (67% response rate). Measurements Standardized questionnaires to assess sleep parameters (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), demographic information, and sleep treatment options. Results Study participants engaged in a variety of treatment regimens to improve their sleep, with the average number of treatments attempted being 4.7 +/− 2.9. The most commonly used interventions were watching TV or listening to the radio (66.4%) or reading (56.2%). The most commonly used pharmacotherapy was pain medication (40.1%). Prescription sleeping pills had the greatest self-reported effectiveness. Approximately half of all study participants who used alcohol or over-the-counter sleeping aids had not discussed their sleep problems with their doctor. Conclusion Older adults frequently choose treatments for their sleep problems that can potentially worsen their sleep symptoms. Many patients have not spoken to their health care provider about their treatment choices. These findings highlight the importance of discussing sleep habits and self-treatment choices as well as treating sleep disorders in older adults. PMID:21314649

  9. Effectiveness of different methods for delivering tailored nutrition education to low income, ethnically diverse adults.

    PubMed

    Gans, Kim M; Risica, Patricia M; Strolla, Leslie O; Fournier, Leanne; Kirtania, Usree; Upegui, David; Zhao, Julie; George, Tiffiney; Acharyya, Suddhasatta

    2009-05-05

    Computer-tailored written nutrition interventions have been shown to be more effective than non-tailored materials in changing diet, but continued research is needed. Your Healthy Life/Su Vida Saludable (YHL-SVS) was an intervention study with low income, ethnically diverse, English and Spanish-speaking participants to determine which methods of delivering tailored written nutrition materials were most effective in lowering fat and increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake. YHL-SVS was a randomized controlled trial with four experimental conditions: 1) Nontailored (NT) comparison group; 2) Single Tailored (ST) packet; 3) Multiple Tailored (MT) packet mailed in four installments; 4) Multiple Re-Tailored (MRT) MT packets re-tailored between mailings via brief phone surveys. A baseline telephone survey collected information for tailoring as well as evaluation. Follow-up evaluation surveys were collected 4- and 7-months later. Primary outcomes included F&V intake and fat related behaviors. Descriptive statistics, paired t-test and ANOVA were used to examine the effectiveness of different methods of delivering tailored nutrition information. Both the ST and MT groups reported significantly higher F&V intake at 4-months than the NT and MRT groups. At 7 months, only the MT group still had significantly higher F&V intake compared to the NT group. For changes in fat-related behaviors, both the MT and MRT groups showed more change than NT at 4 months, but at 7 months, while these differences persisted, they were no longer statistically significant. There was a significant interaction of experimental group by education for change in F&V intake (P = .0085) with the lowest educational group demonstrating the most change. In this study, tailored interventions were more effective than non-tailored interventions in improving the short-term dietary behaviors of low income, ethnically diverse participants. Delivery of information in multiple smaller doses over time appeared to

  10. Effectiveness of different methods for delivering tailored nutrition education to low income, ethnically diverse adults

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Kim M; Risica, Patricia M; Strolla, Leslie O; Fournier, Leanne; Kirtania, Usree; Upegui, David; Zhao, Julie; George, Tiffiney; Acharyya, Suddhasatta

    2009-01-01

    Background Computer-tailored written nutrition interventions have been shown to be more effective than non-tailored materials in changing diet, but continued research is needed. Your Healthy Life/Su Vida Saludable (YHL-SVS) was an intervention study with low income, ethnically diverse, English and Spanish-speaking participants to determine which methods of delivering tailored written nutrition materials were most effective in lowering fat and increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake. Methods YHL-SVS was a randomized controlled trial with four experimental conditions: 1) Nontailored (NT) comparison group; 2) Single Tailored (ST) packet; 3) Multiple Tailored (MT) packet mailed in four installments; 4) Multiple Re-Tailored (MRT) MT packets re-tailored between mailings via brief phone surveys. A baseline telephone survey collected information for tailoring as well as evaluation. Follow-up evaluation surveys were collected 4- and 7-months later. Primary outcomes included F&V intake and fat related behaviors. Descriptive statistics, paired t-test and ANOVA were used to examine the effectiveness of different methods of delivering tailored nutrition information. Results Both the ST and MT groups reported significantly higher F&V intake at 4-months than the NT and MRT groups. At 7 months, only the MT group still had significantly higher F&V intake compared to the NT group. For changes in fat-related behaviors, both the MT and MRT groups showed more change than NT at 4 months, but at 7 months, while these differences persisted, they were no longer statistically significant. There was a significant interaction of experimental group by education for change in F&V intake (P = .0085) with the lowest educational group demonstrating the most change. Conclusion In this study, tailored interventions were more effective than non-tailored interventions in improving the short-term dietary behaviors of low income, ethnically diverse participants. Delivery of information in multiple

  11. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Family Check-Up Effects Across Diverse Ethnic Groups: Reducing Early-Adolescence Antisocial Behavior by Reducing Family Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Zerr, Argero A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent–child interactions for diverse cultural groups. Method A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Results Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6 through 8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Conclusions Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research. PMID:24731120

  13. Family check-up effects across diverse ethnic groups: reducing early-adolescence antisocial behavior by reducing family conflict.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Knoble, Naomi B; Zerr, Argero A; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007 ). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent-child interactions for diverse cultural groups. A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6-8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research.

  14. Clinical Profile of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Impact of Ethnic and Social Diversities in Israel.

    PubMed

    Mahaj, Muhammad; Sharkia, Rajech; Shorbaji, Nadeem; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the increased worldwide recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a variability in the diagnostic rate of both ADHD and its co-morbidities. These diversities are probably related to the methodology and instruments used for the diagnosis of ADHD and to awareness and cultural interpretation of its existence. To identify consistent differences in the clinical profile of Arab and Jewish children with ADHD in Israel who differ in cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic background. We analyzed the data of 823 children and adolescents with ADHD (516 Jews and 307 Arabs) and compared the clinical characteristics between these two ethnic groups. All patients were evaluated in two neuropediatric and child development centers in northern Israel: one in Haifa and one in Hadera. Children with autism and intellectual disabilities were excluded. The distribution of ADHD subtypes was similar in both populations. However, learning disorders and psychiatric co-morbidities (behavioral difficulties and anxiety) were reported more frequently in the Jewish population. The most commonly reported adverse effects to psychostimulants were mood changes, anorexia, headache, insomnia and rebound effect, and were more frequently reported in the Jewish population (42.0% vs.18.0%, P < 0.05). We assume that these differences are related to cultural and socioeconomic factors. We suggest that the physician take cultural background into consideration when treating patients with ADHD.

  15. Differential host susceptibility and bacterial virulence factors driving Klebsiella liver abscess in an ethnically diverse population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. Russel; Molton, James S.; Wyres, Kelly L.; Gorrie, Claire; Wong, Jocelyn; Hoh, Chu Han; Teo, Jeanette; Kalimuddin, Shirin; Lye, David C.; Archuleta, Sophia; Holt, Kathryn E.; Gan, Yunn-Hwen

    2016-01-01

    Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging cause of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess. First described in Asia, it is now increasingly recognized in Western countries, commonly afflicting those with Asian descent. This raises the question of genetic predisposition versus geospecific strain acquisition. We leveraged on the Antibiotics for Klebsiella Liver Abscess Syndrome Study (A-KLASS) clinical trial ongoing in ethnically diverse Singapore, to prospectively examine the profiles of 70 patients together with their isolates’ genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The majority of isolates belonged to capsule type K1, a genetically homogenous group corresponding to sequence-type 23. The remaining K2, K5, K16, K28, K57 and K63 isolates as well as two novel cps isolates were genetically heterogeneous. K1 isolates carried higher frequencies of virulence-associated genes including rmpA (regulator of mucoid phenotype A), kfu (Klebsiella ferric uptake transporter), iuc (aerobactin), iro (salmochelin) and irp (yersiniabactin) than non-K1 isolates. The Chinese in our patient cohort, mostly non-diabetic, had higher prevalence of K1 infection than the predominantly diabetic non-Chinese (Malays, Indian and Caucasian). This differential susceptibility to different capsule types among the various ethnic groups suggests patterns of transmission (e.g. environmental source, familial transmission) and/or genetic predisposition unique to each race despite being in the same geographical location. PMID:27406977

  16. Desired mental health resources for urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women struggling with anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; Warpinski, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are mental health issues that disproportionately affect women-particularly when access to culturally sensitive care is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify mental health concerns in three urban, ethnically diverse, underserved, and impoverished neighborhoods using the ideological perspective of community-based participatory research. In the context of long-term partnerships between a department of nursing and these neighborhoods, we recruited 61 women aged 18 to 69 years and collected data via homogeneous focus groups comprised of Black, Hispanic, and White women, respectively. We conducted five of the focus groups in English and one in Spanish. The women perceived anxiety and depression as significant concerns for themselves, their families, and their communities. They used unique community resources to manage mental health issues and desired new resources, including support groups and education.

  17. ORMDL3 Gene Is Associated with Asthma in Three Ethnically Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Eng, Celeste; Nazario, Sylvette; Rodríguez-Santana, José R.; Casal, Jesús; Torres-Palacios, Alfonso; Salas, Jorge; Chapela, Rocio; Watson, H. Geoffrey; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Avila, Pedro C.; Burchard, Esteban González

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Independent replication of genetic associations in complex diseases, particularly in whole-genome association studies, is critical to confirm the association. Objectives: A whole-genome association study identified ORMDL3 as a promising candidate gene for asthma in white populations. Here, we attempted to confirm the role of ORMDL3 genetic variants in asthma in three ethnically diverse populations: Mexican, Puerto Rican, and African American. Methods: We used family-based analyses to test for association between seven candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around the ORMDL3 gene and asthma and related phenotypes in 701 Puerto Rican and Mexican parent–child trios. We also evaluated these seven SNPs and an additional ORMDL3 SNP in 264 African American subjects with asthma and 176 healthy control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: We found significant associations between two SNPs within ORMDL3 (rs4378650 and rs12603332) and asthma in Mexicans and African Americans (P = 0.028 and 0.001 for rs4378650 and P = 0.021 and 0.001 for rs12603332, respectively), and a trend toward association in Puerto Ricans (P = 0.076 and 0.080 for SNPs rs4378650 and rs12603332, respectively). These associations became stronger among Mexican and Puerto Rican subjects with asthma with IgE levels greater than 100 IU/ml. We did not find any association between ORMDL3 SNPs and baseline lung function or response to the bronchodilator albuterol. Conclusions: Our results confirm that the ORMDL3 locus is a risk factor for asthma in ethnically diverse populations. However, inconsistent SNP-level results suggest that further studies will be needed to determine the mechanism by which ORMDL3 predisposes to asthma. PMID:18310477

  18. Haplotype analysis of the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation in ethnically diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Yael; Feng, Bing-Jian; Zamir, Itay M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Duncan, Paul; Port, Danielle; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Evans, Gareth; Latif, Ayse; Newman, William G; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Zidan, Jamal; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Goldgar, David; Friedman, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ∼2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ∼5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750–1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ∼650 years ago, and into the Iraqi–Jewish community ∼450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews. PMID:22763381

  19. Ethnic Differences in In-Hospital Place of Death Among Older Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Lackan, Nuha A.; Eschbach, Karl; Stimpson, Jim P.; Freeman, Jean L.; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Substantial ethnic differences have been reported in the probability that death will occur in a hospital setting rather than at home, in a hospice, or in a nursing home. To date, no study has investigated the role of both individual characteristics and contextual characteristics, including local health care environments, to explain ethnic differentials in end-of-life care. Objectives The study purpose is to examine ethnic differences in the association between death as a hospital in-patient and individual and contextual characteristics, as well as medical resource supply. Research Design This study employed a secondary data analysis. Subjects We used data from the California Death Statistical Master file for the years 1999–2001, which included 472,382 complete cases. These data were geocoded and linked to data from the US Census Bureau and the American Hospital Association. Results Death as an in-patient was most common for Asian (54%) and Hispanic immigrants (49%) and least common for non-Hispanic whites (36%) and US-born Asians (41%). Medical resource supply variables are of considerable importance in accounting for ethnic differentials in the probability of dying in a hospital. Residual differences in in-hospital site of death were largest for immigrant populations. Conclusions There are sizeable ethnic differentials in the probability that a death will occur in a hospital in California. These differences are substantially mediated by sociodemographic characteristics of the decedent and local medical care supply. One implication of these findings is that variation exists in the efficiency and quality of end of life care delivered to ethnic minorities. PMID:19169113

  20. Understanding Differences in College Persistence: A Longitudinal Examination of Financial Circumstances, Family Obligations, and Discrimination in an Ethnically Diverse Sample.

    PubMed

    Witkow, Melissa R; Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic and generation differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, less work has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and financial factors in 12th grade and two years later as predictors of persistence four years after high school, and as mediators of ethnic and generation differences in persistence. Results indicate that family obligations, discrimination, and financial burdens are associated with reduced rates of persistence, while high school GPA, SES, and financial aid are associated with higher rates of persistence. Ethnic differences in persistence are related to high school GPA and SES, as well as financial circumstances. Reducing ethnic disparities in college persistence should thus involve attention not only to academic factors, but also to family circumstances that may cause college attendance to be a hardship.

  1. Understanding Differences in College Persistence: A Longitudinal Examination of Financial Circumstances, Family Obligations, and Discrimination in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic and generation differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, less work has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and financial factors in 12th grade and two years later as predictors of persistence four years after high school, and as mediators of ethnic and generation differences in persistence. Results indicate that family obligations, discrimination, and financial burdens are associated with reduced rates of persistence, while high school GPA, SES, and financial aid are associated with higher rates of persistence. Ethnic differences in persistence are related to high school GPA and SES, as well as financial circumstances. Reducing ethnic disparities in college persistence should thus involve attention not only to academic factors, but also to family circumstances that may cause college attendance to be a hardship. PMID:25897194

  2. Death anxiety and attitudes toward the elderly among older adults: the role of gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Depaola, Stephen J; Griffin, Melody; Young, Jennie R; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2003-05-01

    The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for particular subgroups of respondents. Older women scored higher on the Fear of the Dead subscale of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) than did men. Caucasian participants displayed higher Fear of the Dying Process than did older African American participants. Lastly, older African American participants reported higher levels of death anxiety on 3 of the subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (Fear of the Unknown, Fear of Conscious Death, and Fear for the Body after Death) when compared with older Caucasian participants and also tended to accord less social value to the elderly. These findings are interpreted in terms of patterns of socialization, and their implications for end-of-life care preferences are noted.

  3. 'Planning ahead' among community-dwelling older people from culturally and linguistically diverse background: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sarah; Ohr, Seok; Pich, Jacqueline; Saul, Peter; Ho, Alan

    2015-01-01

    To explore preparedness of end-of-life care planning among community-dwelling older persons of culturally and linguistically diverse background. To improve end-of-life care through advance care planning, the key concept 'Planning ahead' has been promoted in Australia. However, since the introduction of the model in 2008, it is not known whether 'Planning Ahead' practice by older people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds has improved. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 453 community older adults (65+) who attended 17 day care centres in a region were invited to participate in the study. A total of 229 people completed the survey with a response rate of 50·5%. The questions relevant to this study include: (1) awareness of enduring guardian, advance care directive and advance care planning, (2) the preference for substitute decision-makers and (3) the challenges experienced with advance care planning. Awareness of advance care planning was low, and completion of advance care directive was very low. 37·5% of Anglo Celtic group had an enduring guardian, compared with 15·5, 24·1 and 13·3% from Mediterranean, Eastern European and Asia/Pacific group, respectively. Children were the most preferred substitute decision-makers more for Asia/Pacific group than Anglo Celtic, Mediterranean and Eastern Europeans. The various difficulties experienced included being time-consuming, difficult to understand terms and forms, and do not know how to do it. Regardless of cultural and ethnic backgrounds, a low level of 'Planning ahead' practices was apparent because of a lack of understanding of the concept, the forms and the processes involved. The gap identified between the existing legal/ethical frameworks and the preferences of older people as substitute decision-makers adds new knowledge for further discussion. Nursing professionals are provided with an opportunity to improve their practice to meet the needs of older persons and their families in planning

  4. Cardiovascular health: associations with race-ethnicity, nativity, and education in a diverse, population-based sample of Californians.

    PubMed

    Bostean, Georgiana; Roberts, Christian K; Crespi, Catherine M; Prelip, Michael; Peters, Anne; Belin, Thomas R; McCarthy, William J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how race-ethnicity, nativity, and education interact to influence disparities in cardiovascular (CV) health, a new concept defined by the American Heart Association. We assessed whether race-ethnicity and nativity disparities in CV health vary by education and whether the foreign-born differ in CV health from their U.S.-born race-ethnic counterparts with comparable education. We used data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to determine the prevalence of optimal CV health metrics (based on selected American Heart Association guidelines) among adults ages 25 and older (n = 42,014). We examined the interaction between education and ethnicity-nativity, comparing predicted probabilities of each CV health measure between U.S.-born and foreign-born White, Asian, and Latino respondents. All groups were at high risk of suboptimal physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable and fast food consumption, and overweight/obesity. Those with greater education were generally better off except among Asian respondents. Ethnicity-nativity differences were more pronounced among those with less than a college degree. The foreign-born respondents exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in CV health compared with their U.S.-born counterparts that varied by ethnicity-nativity. Education influences ethnicity-nativity disparities in CV health, with most race-ethnic and nativity differences occurring among the less educated. Studies of nativity differences in CV health should stratify by education in order to adequately address SES differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transition to Kindergarten for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Focus Group Study With Ethnically Diverse Parents, Teachers, and Early Intervention Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…

  6. Transition to Kindergarten for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Focus Group Study With Ethnically Diverse Parents, Teachers, and Early Intervention Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…

  7. Workshop on Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Hassan B.

    2008-02-13

    The purpose of the Workshop 'Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry' was to promote the development of a cadre of academic leaders who create, implement and promote programs and strategies for increasing the number of racial and ethnic minorities to equitable proportions on the faculties of departments throughout the academic chemistry community. An important objective of the workshop was to assist in creating an informed and committed community of chemistry leaders who will create, implement and promote programs and strategies to advance racial and ethnic equity in both the faculty and the student body with the goal of increasing the number of U.S. citizen underrepresented minorities (URM) participating in academic chemistry at all levels, with particular focus on the pipeline to chemistry faculty. This objective was met by (1) presentations of detailed data describing current levels of racial and ethnic minorities on the faculties of chemistry departments; (2) frank discussion of the obstacles to and benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in the chemistry professoriate; (3) summary of possible effective interventions and actions; and (4) promotion of the dissemination and adoption of initiatives designed to achieve racial/ethnic equity. Federal programs over the past thirty years have been instrumental in delivering to our universities URM students intending to major in the physical sciences such as chemistry. However, the near absence of URM faculty means that there is also an absence of URM as role models for aspiring students. For example, citing 2003 as a representative year, some statistics reveal the severity of the pipeline shrinkage for U. S. citizen URM starting from chemistry B.S. degrees awarded to the appointment to chemistry faculty. Compared to the URM population of approximately 30% for that year, 67% of the B.S. degrees in chemistry were awarded to white citizens and 17% were awarded to URM

  8. "Do You Trust Him?" Children's Trust Beliefs and Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Averdijk, Margit; Ribeaud, Denis; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Eisner, Manuel P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of trust beliefs (i.e., trustworthiness, trustfulness) on aggression trajectories in a four-wave longitudinal study using an ethnically diverse sample of 8- to 11-year-old children (N = 1,028), as well as the risk profiles of low trust beliefs and low socioeconomic status on aggression trajectories. At Time 1 to…

  9. Suburbanizing Segregation? Changes in Racial/Ethnic Diversity and the Geographic Distribution of Metropolitan School Segregation, 2002-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroub, Kori J.; Richards, Meredith P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While postwar suburban migration established suburbs as relatively affluent, homogeneous white enclaves distinct from the urban core, recent waves of suburbanization and exurbanization have been spurred largely by rapid growth in the nonwhite population. While these increases in suburban racial/ethnic diversity represent a significant…

  10. English Language Independent Prediction of Academic Readiness in Ethnically Diverse Low SES Four and Five Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milan, Marjorie L.

    Designed to explore the effectiveness of predictors of academic readiness among low SES ethnically diverse children, this study tested low income 4- and 5-year-old Anglo-American, Mexican, and Vietnamese children eligible for kindergarten in the school year 1982-83. The recently arrived Mexican and Vietnamese children did not speak English. Sixty…

  11. Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of School Climate Based on School Diversity, Ethnicity, Educational Category, Socioeconomic Status, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…

  12. Sexual Health Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Testa, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To provide evidence about the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of an ethnically diverse sample of young people from Secondary/High schools in London. Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The sample consisted of students in school Years 11 to 13 (aged 15-18 years), present in school on the day of…

  13. White Undergraduate Social Justice Advocates: Experiences That Influence Continued Participation in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Campus Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jesse S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how the experiences of four white, undergraduate, self-identified social justice advocates influenced their on campus participation in racially and ethnically diverse settings. Acknowledging the existence and persistence of white privilege, ontological expansiveness, and epistemological ignorance, the research was grounded in…

  14. NCWWI Traineeships: A National Cross-Site Evaluation of Child Welfare Stipend Programs for Ethnically Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Robin; de Guzman, Anna; Rienks, Shauna; Archer, Gretchen; Potter, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    The task of recruiting and retaining ethnically diverse, qualified, and committed social workers in child welfare is challenging. Federal funding supporting BSW and MSW education has been a catalyst for university-agency partnerships across the country. An important goal of these partnerships is to prepare social work students with the knowledge,…

  15. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  16. "Do You Trust Him?" Children's Trust Beliefs and Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Averdijk, Margit; Ribeaud, Denis; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Eisner, Manuel P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of trust beliefs (i.e., trustworthiness, trustfulness) on aggression trajectories in a four-wave longitudinal study using an ethnically diverse sample of 8- to 11-year-old children (N = 1,028), as well as the risk profiles of low trust beliefs and low socioeconomic status on aggression trajectories. At Time 1 to…

  17. Parenting across Cultural Contexts in the USA: Assessing Parenting Behaviour in an Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Toolis, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factorial validity of the Parent Behavior Inventory (PBI), a brief measure of parenting behaviour, in a diverse sample of mothers and compared differences in parenting as a function of ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on data generated by mothers of young…

  18. Religious Diversity, Inter-Ethnic Relations and the Catholic School: Introducing the "Responsive" Approach to Single Faith Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Damian

    2009-01-01

    The article offers a case study of the ways in which a Catholic primary school located in the centre of a large South-Asian community in Leicester, UK, responded to the religious and ethnic diversity of its surroundings. The school, Our Saviour's, engaged in shared activities with a neighbouring school which had a majority intake of Hindu, Muslim…

  19. Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of School Climate Based on School Diversity, Ethnicity, Educational Category, Socioeconomic Status, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…

  20. Strategic Plan To Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education. Annual Report: December, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Higher Education, Hartford.

    This report describes the activities and results of three programs instituted under Connecticut's Minority Advancement Program (MAP) to promote racial and ethnic diversity in Connecticut public higher education. The Connecticut Collegiate Awareness and Preparation Program (ConnCAP), which enrolled 1,585 students in 1993-94, is designed to give…

  1. White Undergraduate Social Justice Advocates: Experiences That Influence Continued Participation in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Campus Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jesse S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how the experiences of four white, undergraduate, self-identified social justice advocates influenced their on campus participation in racially and ethnically diverse settings. Acknowledging the existence and persistence of white privilege, ontological expansiveness, and epistemological ignorance, the research was grounded in…

  2. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  3. Understanding Differences in College Persistence: A Longitudinal Examination of Financial Circumstances, Family Obligations, and Discrimination in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkow, Melissa R.; Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic and generational differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, minimal research has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and…

  4. Understanding Differences in College Persistence: A Longitudinal Examination of Financial Circumstances, Family Obligations, and Discrimination in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkow, Melissa R.; Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic and generational differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, minimal research has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and…

  5. NCWWI Traineeships: A National Cross-Site Evaluation of Child Welfare Stipend Programs for Ethnically Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Robin; de Guzman, Anna; Rienks, Shauna; Archer, Gretchen; Potter, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    The task of recruiting and retaining ethnically diverse, qualified, and committed social workers in child welfare is challenging. Federal funding supporting BSW and MSW education has been a catalyst for university-agency partnerships across the country. An important goal of these partnerships is to prepare social work students with the knowledge,…

  6. Barriers in participant recruitment of diverse ethnicities in the state of Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rejection rates of subject recruitments for research studies have been reported in immigrants in many countries. However, the barriers in recruiting members of the expatriate population in Kuwait have not yet been investigated. This study was therefore designed to identify barriers in recruiting expatriates for research studies in the state of Kuwait. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on expatriate subject’s aged 18 years and older living in Kuwait. Difference between groups of continuous independent variables was analyzed using the t-test. Different categories such as ethnicity and gender were compared using the chi-square test. Results 3460 (85.1%) participants were recruited and 617 (14.2%) refused to participate in the study while 2530 (38%) calls were unreachable from the total of 6607 calls placed. Younger subjects (mean age 41.1 years) were more hesitant to be part of the study compared to older participants. The rejections among South Asians was (41.8%), Arabs (32.6%), Southeast Asians (18.9%) while the others (6.6%) category was least to refuse among all the nationalities. Gender was not significantly associated with refusal. Conclusion There is an acute lack of appropriate recording of the problems faced while recruiting the participants. The findings suggest important messages for the decision makers in the area of expatriate recruitments, to understand the challenge and design new strategies to overcome the problem of recruitment in the state of Kuwait for research studies. PMID:24257144

  7. Chronic Illness Self-care and the Family Lives of Older Adults: A Synthetic Review Across Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Mary P.; Spitze, Glenna; Grove, Joshua G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on family and social ties among older ethnic minority men and women with the literature on chronic illness self-care among elders in these groups, in order to increase understanding of social influences on self-care behavior, raise questions for future research, and inform culturally appropriate interventions to maximize the health-promoting potential of social relationships. The paper presents demographic and chronic illness prevalence information, and then summarizes literature about patterns of chronic illness self-care behaviors for older African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, and American Indians in the U.S. For each group, the sociological literature about residential, cultural, and socioeconomic patterns, family lives, and other social ties is then reviewed, and the self-care literature that has accounted for these patterns is discussed. Finally, six themes are outlined and related questions are identified to further illuminate the social context of older adults’ chronic illness self-care. PMID:20177963

  8. A Comprehensive, Ethnically Diverse Library of Sickle Cell Disease-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonmi; Gianotti-Sommer, Andreia; Molina-Estevez, Francisco Javier; Vanuytsel, Kim; Skvir, Nick; Leung, Amy; Rozelle, Sarah S; Shaikho, Elmutaz Mohammed; Weir, Isabelle; Jiang, Zhihua; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Chui, David H K; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Alsultan, Abdulraham; Al-Ali, Amein; Sebastiani, Paola; Steinberg, Martin H; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Murphy, George J

    2017-04-11

    Sickle cell anemia affects millions of people worldwide and is an emerging global health burden. As part of a large NIH-funded NextGen Consortium, we generated a diverse, comprehensive, and fully characterized library of sickle-cell-disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients of different ethnicities, β-globin gene (HBB) haplotypes, and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. iPSCs stand to revolutionize the way we study human development, model disease, and perhaps eventually, treat patients. Here, we describe this unique resource for the study of sickle cell disease, including novel haplotype-specific polymorphisms that affect disease severity, as well as for the development of patient-specific therapeutics for this phenotypically diverse disorder. As a complement to this library, and as proof of principle for future cell- and gene-based therapies, we also designed and employed CRISPR/Cas gene editing tools to correct the sickle hemoglobin (HbS) mutation.

  9. Support for smoke-free multi-unit housing policies among racially and ethnically diverse, low-income seniors in South Florida.

    PubMed

    Cook, Nicole J; Hollar, Lucas; Chavez, Summer; Quinn, David L; Phillips, Teina; DeLucca, Michael; Corrales, Lindsay

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have gauged support for implementing smoke-free multi-unit housing (MUH) policies in the United States, but none have specifically examined attitudes among racially and ethnically diverse elders living in low-income MUH. We surveyed a convenience sample of elders 62 years of age and older (n = 807) across 24 low-income housing properties in Broward County, Florida in order to assess residents' smoking behaviors, exposure to second-hand smoke, and support for smoke-free policies. The study sample was ethnically and racially diverse with Hispanics comprising more than 61 % of the population, and 22 % identifying as Black or other races. Although close to 22 % of the sample were former smokers, only 9 % of residents reported being current smokers. The majority of residents surveyed supported no-smoking policies: 75 % support no-smoking policies for individual units; 77 % supported no-smoking policies in common areas; and, 68 % supported no-smoking policies in outdoor areas. Over 29 % of residents surveyed reported being exposed to secondhand smoke entering their units from elsewhere in their building. Residents who reported having a home smoking rule were more than twice as likely to support an indoor policy compared to residents who allowed smoking anywhere in their home (OR = 2.36; 95%CI 1.25-4.43; p ≤ 0.01), and nonsmoking residents were nearly three times as likely to support an indoor policy compared to smokers (OR = 2.89; 95%CI 1.44-5.79; p ≤ 0.01). Support for an indoor policy was not modified by age, gender, ethnicity or race. . This study demonstrates that elders living in low-income MUH properties overwhelmingly supported the implementation of smoke-free policies.

  10. Racial/ethnic group differences in treatment decision-making and treatment received among older breast carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Maly, Rose C; Umezawa, Yoshiko; Ratliff, Carl T; Leake, Barbara

    2006-02-15

    Health care disparities have been identified in the treatment of older and racial/ethnic minority breast carcinoma patients. The purpose of the current study was to examine racial/ethnic group differences in the treatment decision-making process of older breast carcinoma patients and the differential impact on treatment received. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of a population-based, consecutive sample identified by the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program comprised of Latina (n = 99), African-American (n = 66), and white (n = 92) women age > or = 55 years (total n = 257) and who were between 3-9 months after their primary breast carcinoma diagnosis. Approximately 49% of less acculturated Latinas and 18% of more acculturated Latinas indicated that their family members determined the final treatment decision, compared with less than 4% of African-Americans and whites (P < 0.001). This disparity remained in multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for potential confounders, including sociodemographic, physician-patient communication, social support, and health variables. Compared with African-American and white women, Latina women were more likely to identify a family member as the final treatment decision-maker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] of 7.97; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.43-26.20, for less acculturated Latinas; and AOR of 4.48; 95% CI, 1.09-18.45, for more acculturated Latinas). A multiple logistic regression model, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, indicated that patients were less likely to receive breast-conserving surgery (BCS) when the family made the final treatment decision (AOR of 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.85). Family appears to play a powerful role in treatment decision-making among older Latina breast carcinoma patients, regardless of the level of acculturation. This family influence appears to contribute to racial/ethnic group differences in treatment received. Physicians should acknowledge and educate

  11. Parental Social Support, Ethnicity, and Energy Balance-Related Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse, Low Income, Urban Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Rachel; Springer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assessed levels of child-reported parent and family social support associated with physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) by ethnicity among a lower-income sample of U.S. elementary school students. Design Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data of an elementary school-based study from fall 2010. Setting 19 schools in a large urban school district in central Texas. Participants Fourth and fifth grade children (n=581) and their parents. Main Outcome Measure(s) Child-reported parental and family social support, seven day PA, previous day FVC, and weight status. Analysis Examined child-reported social support, PA, and FVC using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, chi-square tests, and multiple linear regressions. Results Child-reported parent and family social support varied by ethnicity (p<.01), with Hispanic children consistently reporting the lowest support. Child-reported social support had a positive association across the three energy-balance related behaviors examined (p<.001) Conclusions and Implications While child-reported social support was associated with energy-balance related behaviors across ethnic groups, the lower perceived parental and family social support in Hispanic children may represent an important opportunity for intervention. PMID:25106093

  12. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  13. Effects of classroom education on knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation in ethnically diverse urban high schools

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Vicky; Thornton, John Daryl; Wong, Kristine A.; Spigner, Clarence; Allen, Margaret D.

    2010-01-01

    School-based health education is a promising approach for improving organ donation rates, but little is known about its efficacy among ethnically diverse youth. The impact of a classroom intervention was examined in a multicultural high school population where students’ ethnicities were 45% African American, 30% Asian American, and 33% Caucasian (allowing for multiracial choices). A baseline survey was administered to all health classes within 2 weeks prior to intervention. On the intervention day, classes randomly assigned to the intervention group received an educational session, followed by a second survey; in control classes, the second survey was taken before the educational session. At baseline, non-Caucasian ethnicity and male gender were each associated with lower levels of willingness to donate. Following the intervention, students in the intervention group demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge scores (p<0.001), as well as positive movement of opinion regarding willingness to donate (p<0.0001). Most importantly, the positive changes in opinion occurred independently of ethnicity and gender, in spite of these both being negative predictors of opinion at baseline. These results demonstrate that even a single classroom exposure can impact knowledge levels, correct misinformation, and effect opinion change on organ donation among an ethnically diverse adolescent population. PMID:20088915

  14. Home Modifications among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Closer Look at Race and Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Bakk, Louanne; Cadet, Tamara; Lien, Laura; Smalley, Angela

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated racial and ethnic differences in home modification use. Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were used (n=6,764). Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics were less likely to have a grab bar (odds ratio (OR) = 0.6), bath seat (OR = 0.8), or raised toilet (OR = 0.6). Non-Hispanic Blacks were less likely to have a grab bar (OR = 0.7) or bath seat (OR = 0.7) than non-Hispanic Whites, but more likely to have a raised toilet (OR = 1.3). English proficiency largely explained ethnic differences, while health status partially accounted for racial disparities.

  15. Medicinal plants of Guinea-Bissau: Therapeutic applications, ethnic diversity and knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Luís; Havik, Philip J; Romeiras, Maria M

    2016-05-13

    The rich flora of Guinea-Bissau, and the widespread use of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases, constitutes an important local healthcare resource with significant potential for research and development of phytomedicines. The goal of this study is to prepare a comprehensive documentation of Guinea-Bissau's medicinal plants, including their distribution, local vernacular names and their therapeutic and other applications, based upon local notions of disease and illness. Ethnobotanical data was collected by means of field research in Guinea-Bissau, study of herbarium specimens, and a comprehensive review of published works. Relevant data were included from open interviews conducted with healers and from observations in the field during the last two decades. A total of 218 medicinal plants were documented, belonging to 63 families, of which 195 are native. Over half of these species are found in all regions of the country. The medicinal plants are used to treat 18 major diseases categories; the greatest number of species are used to treat intestinal disorders (67 species). More than thirty ethnic groups were identified within the Guinea-Bissau population; 40% of the medicinal plants have been recorded in the country's principal ethnic languages (i.e. Fula and Balanta). This multi-disciplinary, country-wide study identifies a great diversity of plants used by indigenous communities as medicinal, which constitute an important common reservoir of botanical species and therapeutic knowledge. The regional overlap of many indigenous species, the consensual nature of disease groups based upon local perceptions of health conditions, and the relevance of local vernacular including Guinean Creole are key factors specific to the country which enhance the potential for the circulation and transmission of ethno-botanical and therapeutic knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PCR-based screening for cystic fibrosis carrier mutations in an ethnically diverse pregnant population.

    PubMed Central

    Grody, W W; Dunkel-Schetter, C; Tatsugawa, Z H; Fox, M A; Fang, C Y; Cantor, R M; Novak, J M; Bass, H N; Crandall, B F

    1997-01-01

    As the most common lethal autosomal recessive disorder in North America, cystic fibrosis (CF) is an obvious candidate for general population carrier screening. Although the identification of the causative gene has made detection of asymptomatic carriers possible, the extreme heterogeneity of its mutations has limited the sensitivity of the available DNA screening tests and has called into question their utility when they are applied to patients with no family history of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the technical feasibility, patient acceptance and understanding, and psychosocial impact of large-scale CF carrier screening in an ethnically diverse pregnant population. A total of 4,739 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics located in both an academic medical center and a large HMO were invited in person to participate. Of this group, 3,543 received CF instruction and assessments of knowledge and mood, and 3,192 underwent DNA testing for the six most common CF mutations, by means of a noninvasive PCR-based reverse-dot-blot method. Overall participation rates (ranging from 53% at the HMO to 77% at the academic center) and consent rates for DNA testing after CF instruction (>98%) exceeded those of most other American studies. The PCR-based screening method worked efficiently on large numbers of samples, and 55 carriers and one at-risk couple were identified. Understanding of residual risk, anxiety levels, and overall satisfaction with the program were acceptable across all ethnic groups. Our strategy of approaching a motivated pregnant population in person with a rapid and noninvasive testing method may provide a practical model for developing a larger CF screening program targeting appropriate high-risk groups at the national level, and may also serve as a paradigm for population-based screening of other genetically heterogeneous disorders in the future. Images Figure 1 PMID:9106541

  17. Impact of Menthol Smoking on Nicotine Dependence for Diverse Racial/Ethnic Groups of Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Soulakova, Julia N.; Danczak, Ryan R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate whether menthol smoking and race/ethnicity are associated with nicotine dependence in daily smokers. Methods: The study used two subsamples of U.S. daily smokers who responded to the 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The larger subsample consisted of 18,849 non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and Hispanic (HISP) smokers. The smaller subsample consisted of 1112 non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), non-Hispanic Asian (ASIAN), non-Hispanic Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (HPI), and non-Hispanic Multiracial (MULT) smokers. Results: For larger (smaller) groups the rates were 45% (33%) for heavy smoking (16+ cig/day), 59% (51%) for smoking within 30 min of awakening (Sw30), and 14% (14%) for night-smoking. Overall, the highest prevalence of menthol smoking corresponded to NHB and HPI (≥65%), followed by MULT and HISP (31%–37%), and then by AIAN, NHW, and ASIAN (22%–27%) smokers. For larger racial/ethnic groups, menthol smoking was negatively associated with heavy smoking, not associated with Sw30, and positively associated with night-smoking. For smaller groups, menthol smoking was not associated with any measure, but the rates of heavy smoking, Sw30, and night-smoking varied across the groups. Conclusions: The diverse associations between menthol smoking and nicotine dependence maybe due to distinction among the nicotine dependence measures, i.e., individually, each measure assesses a specific smoking behavior. Menthol smoking may be associated with promoting smoking behaviors. PMID:28085040

  18. Body mass index and mortality in an ethnically diverse population: the Multiethnic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Murphy, Suzanne P.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been strongly related to overall mortality, but the consistency of this association across diverse ethnic groups and the effects of early adult BMI versus BMI in later adulthood have not been adequately studied. A prospective analysis was performed using data from 183,211 adults aged 45–75 who enrolled the population-based Multiethnic Cohort Study by completing a questionnaire that included self-reported weight and height information in 1993–1996. Participants were African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites living in Hawaii and California. During an average 12.5 years of follow-up, 35,664 deaths were identified. To control for confounding caused by conditions that lead to weight loss and mortality, we excluded participants with a history of cancer or heart disease, who ever smoked, and who died within the first 3 years of follow-up. An increased risk of mortality was observed in participants with a BMI ≥ 27.5 in both men and women compared with the reference category of BMI 23.0–24.9; a BMI ≥ 35.0 carried a greater risk of mortality in men than in women. Although the findings were generally similar across ethnic groups, the association of higher BMI with mortality in Latino men appeared to be weaker than in the other groups. A BMI of 25.0–34.9 at age 21 showed a stronger positive association, with no further increase in risk for a BMI ≥ 35.0, than did BMI in later adulthood. These results indicate that the association of BMI with mortality is generally consistent across sex and ethnic groups, with some variation in the strength of the effect. Most notably, the effect of overweight in young adulthood appears to be much stronger than that of overweight in later adulthood on mortality in later life. This emphasizes the importance of weight management in childhood and adolescence. PMID:22644110

  19. Diversity at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Sandra R.

    2000-01-01

    Diversity in the workplace goes beyond racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. It extends to those with disabilities of all types and older workers. Students must be able to acknowledge and appreciate peoples' differences and educators must integrate diversity into the classroom. (JOW)

  20. Implementing a Combined Cognitive-Behavioral + Exercise Therapy Protocol for Use by Older Adults with Chronic Back Pain: Evidence for a Possible Race/Ethnicity Effect

    PubMed Central

    Beissner, Katherine; Parker, Samantha; Henderson, Charles R.; Pal, Anusmiriti; Papaleontiou, Maria; Reid, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility and potential efficacy of a self-management program that combines cognitive-behavioral strategies with exercise for use by seniors with chronic back pain, and to assess for possible race/ethnicity differences in program impact. Design/Methods Sixty-nine participants attending senior centers in New York City enrolled in the 8-week group-based program, with approximately equal numbers of African Americans (n=24), Hispanics (n=25), and non-Hispanic whites (n=20) enrolling. Participants provided weekly input on their perceived understanding and usefulness of program components. Efficacy outcomes included pain-related disability, as measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), pain intensity, pain self-efficacy, depressive symptom score, social activity, and functional status. Results Eighty percent of enrollees completed the program, and 84% of program participants indicated they did the weekly practice/homework exercises. Program content was rated as understandable and highly useful to participants. Significant decreases in RMDQ scores were found for non-Hispanic white (adjusted change score −3.53), African American (−3.89), and Hispanic (−8.45), participants. Significant improvements in all other efficacy outcomes (pain intensity, social activity, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms) were observed, but only for Hispanic participants. Conclusions These results confirm that implementation of the protocol in urban senior centers is feasible, and the program shows potential efficacy in affecting pain-related disability among a diverse population of older adults. The race/ethnicity differences observed in the current study merit further investigation. PMID:22015623

  1. Nursing students identify fears regarding working with diverse critically ill patients: development of guidelines for caring for diverse critically ill older adults.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students need to gain more exposure to communicating, assessing, and planning appropriate care and evaluating outcomes of care with diverse critically ill geriatric patients. This project developed teaching strategies that facilitated additional opportunities for gaining these valuable learning experiences for students. Nurse educators can use the Guidelines for Caring for Diverse Critically Ill Older Adults, the case study and simulation examples, and topical outline to assist them in teaching critical care students and nurses about diverse critically ill older adults.

  2. Ayurgenomics for stratified medicine: TRISUTRA consortium initiative across ethnically and geographically diverse Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Prasher, Bhavana; Varma, Binuja; Kumar, Arvind; Khuntia, Bharat Krushna; Pandey, Rajesh; Narang, Ankita; Tiwari, Pradeep; Kutum, Rintu; Guin, Debleena; Kukreti, Ritushree; Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2017-02-02

    Genetic differences in the target proteins, metabolizing enzymes and transporters that contribute to inter-individual differences in drug response are not integrated in contemporary drug development programs. Ayurveda, that has propelled many drug discovery programs albeit for the search of new chemical entities incorporates inter-individual variability "Prakriti" in development and administration of drug in an individualized manner. Prakriti of an individual largely determines responsiveness to external environment including drugs as well as susceptibility to diseases. Prakriti has also been shown to have molecular and genomic correlates. We highlight how integration of Prakriti concepts can augment the efficiency of drug discovery and development programs through a unique initiative of Ayurgenomics TRISUTRA consortium. Five aspects that have been carried out are (1) analysis of variability in FDA approved pharmacogenomics genes/SNPs in exomes of 72 healthy individuals including predominant Prakriti types and matched controls from a North Indian Indo-European cohort (2) establishment of a consortium network and development of five genetically homogeneous cohorts from diverse ethnic and geo-climatic background (3) identification of parameters and development of uniform standard protocols for objective assessment of Prakriti types (4) development of protocols for Prakriti evaluation and its application in more than 7500 individuals in the five cohorts (5) Development of data and sample repository and integrative omics pipelines for identification of genomic correlates. Highlight of the study are (1) Exome sequencing revealed significant differences between Prakriti types in 28 SNPs of 11 FDA approved genes of pharmacogenomics relevance viz. CYP2C19, CYP2B6, ESR1, F2, PGR, HLA-B, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DRB1, LDLR, CFTR, CPS1. These variations are polymorphic in diverse Indian and world populations included in 1000 genomes project. (2) Based on the phenotypic attributes of

  3. Gender, Genocide, and Ethnicity: The Legacies of Older Armenian American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoogian, Margaret M.; Walker, Alexis J.; Richards, Leslie N.

    2007-01-01

    Women use legacies to help family members articulate family identity, learn family history, and provide succeeding generations with information about family culture. Using feminist standpoint theory and the life-course perspective, this qualitative study examined the intergenerational transmissions that 30 older Armenian American mothers received…

  4. Health and Life Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Older Adults in Mainland China: Effects of Financial Strain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yawen; Aranda, Maria P.; Chi, Iris

    2007-01-01

    China has achieved indisputable economic growth in the past decades but, with it, unbalanced development across region and socio-economic groups. Little is known about how this impacts the lives of minority older adults who tend to live in remote inland areas. This study is the first attempt to examine and compare the relationships between…

  5. Promoting the Mental Well-Being of Older People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in United Kingdom Rural Areas: Findings from an Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Sharif, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from 81 interviews with practitioners in social care and housing with care services in the United Kingdom, this paper explores practice issues in rural areas when supporting the mental health and well-being of older people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper begins with a review of the literature which provides evidence that…

  6. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The…

  7. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The…

  8. Influence of ethnic traditional cultures on genetic diversity of rice landraces under on-farm conservation in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjie; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Xiaodong; Caiji, Zhuoma; Yang, Jingbiao; Cui, Di; Cao, Guilan; Ma, Xiaoding; Han, Bing; Xue, Dayuan; Han, Longzhi

    2016-10-27

    Crop genetic resources are important components of biodiversity. However, with the large-scale promotion of mono-cropping, genetic diversity has largely been lost. Ex-situ conservation approaches were widely used to protect traditional crop varieties worldwide. However, this method fails to maintain the dynamic evolutionary processes of crop genetic resources in their original habitats, leading to genetic diversity reduction and even loss of the capacity of resistance to new diseases and pests. Therefore, on-farm conservation has been considered a crucial complement to ex-situ conservation. This study aimed at clarifying the genetic diversity differences between ex-situ conservation and on-farm conservation and to exploring the influence of traditional cultures on genetic diversity of rice landraces under on-farm conservation. The conservation status of rice landrace varieties, including Indica and Japonica, non-glutinous rice (Oryza sativa) and glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa Matsum), was obtained through ethno-biology investigation method in 12 villages of ethnic groups from Guizhou, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China. The genetic diversity between 24 pairs of the same rice landraces from different times were compared using simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers technology. The landrace paris studied were collected in 1980 and maintained ex-situ, while 2014 samples were collected on-farm in southwest of China. The results showed that many varieties of rice landraces have been preserved on-farm by local farmers for hundreds or thousands of years. The number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei genetic diversity index (He) and Shannon information index (I) of rice landraces were significantly higher by 12.3-30.4 % under on-farm conservation than under ex-situ conservation. Compared with the ex-situ conservation approach, rice landraces under on-farm conservation programs had more alleles and higher genetic diversity. In

  9. Social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in an older sample: ethnic and gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; Baker, Patricia Sawyer; Bodner, Eric V.; Allman, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships that exist between social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in older black and white women and men. The paper reports on 1000 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging, a longitudinal observational study of mobility among older black and white participants in the USA. Black women were at greatest nutritional risk; and black women and men were the groups most likely to be socially isolated and to possess the least amounts of social support and social capital. For all ethnic–gender groups, greater restriction in independent life–space (an indicator of social isolation) was associated with increased nutritional risk. For black women and white men, not having adequate transportation (also an indicator of social isolation) was associated with increased nutritional risk. Additionally, for black and white women and white men, lower income was associated with increased nutritional risk. For white women only, the perception of a low level of social support was associated with increased nutritional risk. For black men, not being married (an indicator of social support) and not attending religious services regularly, restricting activities for fear of being attacked, and perceived discrimination (indicators of social capital) were associated with increased nutritional risk. Black females had the greatest risk of poor nutritional health, however more indicators of social isolation, support, and capital were associated with nutritional risk for black men. Additionally, the indicators of social support and capital adversely affecting nutritional risk for black men differed from those associated with nutritional risk in other ethnic–gender groups. This research has implications for nutritional policies directed towards older adults. PMID:15571893

  10. Sleep duration, snoring habits, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in an ethnically diverse population.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Matthew; Aggarwal, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Lack of sleep has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Prior research has often been conducted in select populations and has not consistently adjusted for confounders, especially psychosocial factors. The aims of this study were to assess the association between sleep habits and established risk factors for CVD and to evaluate potential interactions by race and gender. Participants were part of a CVD screening and educational outreach program in New York City. Free-living men older than 40 years and women older than 50 years (n = 371, mean age = 60 years, 57% women, 60% racial/ethnic minorities) were systematically assessed for CVD risk (including traditional, lifestyle, and psychosocial risk factors) and completed a standardized questionnaire regarding sleep habits (including sleep duration and snoring). Lipids were analyzed by validated finger-stick technology. Stress at work and at home was assessed using a validated screening tool from the INTERHEART study. Associations between participants' sleep habits and CVD risk factors/demographic factors were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The proportion of participants who reported sleeping less than 6 hours per night on average was 28%, and 52% of participants reported snoring. Sleeping less than 6 hours per night was significantly (P < .05) associated with female gender, being single, increased stress at home, increased financial stress, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Gender modified the association between sleep duration and LDL-C level (P = .04): Sleeping less than 6 hours per night was significantly associated with reduced LDL-C level among women and increased LDL-C level among men. Snoring was significantly associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level (<40 mg/dL for men/<50 mg/dL for women), being married, increased stress at work and at home

  11. An HIV prevention intervention for ethnically diverse men in substance abuse treatment: pilot study findings.

    PubMed

    Calsyn, Donald A; Burlew, A Kathleen; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Beadnell, Blair; Wright, Lynette; Wilson, Jerika

    2013-05-01

    We determined the acceptability, participants' receptivity, and effectiveness of a culturally adapted version of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment. In 2010 and 2011, we compared participants who attended at least 1 (of 5) REMAS-CA session (n = 66) with participants in the original REMAS study (n = 136). Participants completed an assessment battery at baseline and at 3-month follow-up with measures of substance abuse, HIV risk behaviors, perceived condom barriers, and demographics. We conducted postintervention focus groups at each clinic. Minority REMAS-CA participants were more likely to have attended 3 or more sessions (87.0%), meeting our definition of intervention completion, than were minority participants in the REMAS study (75.1%; odds ratio = 2.1). For REMAS-CA participants with casual partners (n = 25), the number of unprotected sexual occasions in the past 90 days declined (6.2 vs 1.6). Among minority men in the REMAS study (n = 36), the number of unprotected sexual occasions with casual partners changed little (9.4 vs 8.4; relative risk = 4.56). REMAS-CA was effective across ethnic groups, a benefit for HIV risk reduction programs that serve a diverse clientele.

  12. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  13. Epidemiology of mixed martial arts and youth violence in an ethnically diverse sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies.

  14. Consensus Recommendations for Advancing Breast Cancer: Risk Identification and Screening in Ethnically Diverse Younger Women

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Summers, Thomas A; Eberhardt, John; Cerussi, Albert; Grundfest, Warren; Peterson, Charles M.; Brazaitis, Michael; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Freeman, Harold

    2011-01-01

    A need exists for a breast cancer risk identification paradigm that utilizes relevant demographic, clinical, and other readily obtainable patient-specific data in order to provide individualized cancer risk assessment, direct screening efforts, and detect breast cancer at an early disease stage in historically underserved populations, such as younger women (under age 40) and minority populations, who represent a disproportionate number of military beneficiaries. Recognizing this unique need for military beneficiaries, a consensus panel was convened by the USA TATRC to review available evidence for individualized breast cancer risk assessment and screening in young (< 40), ethnically diverse women with an overall goal of improving care for military beneficiaries. In the process of review and discussion, it was determined to publish our findings as the panel believes that our recommendations have the potential to reduce health disparities in risk assessment, health promotion, disease prevention, and early cancer detection within and in other underserved populations outside of the military. This paper aims to provide clinicians with an overview of the clinical factors, evidence and recommendations that are being used to advance risk assessment and screening for breast cancer in the military. PMID:21509152

  15. Y chromosome STR allelic and haplotype diversity in five ethnic Tamil populations from Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Suhasini, G; Vijaya, M; Kanthimathi, S; Mullins, Nicole; Tracey, Martin; Duncan, George

    2010-09-01

    We have analyzed 17 Y chromosomal STR loci in a population sample of 154 unrelated male individuals of the Tamil ethnic group residing in the state of Tamil Nadu, Southern India using AmpFlSTR(R) Yfiler PCR amplification kit. The population samples consist of the following castes: Kongu Gounder (KOG), Nadar Hindu (NAH), Agamudayar (AGA), Parayar (PAR) and other Tamil individuals (MCT) of mixed castes. A total of 152 unique haplotypes were identified among the 154 individuals studied. The haplotype diversity was found to be 0.9935 or higher for all the five groups. The results of population pairwise Fst p values indicate no statistically significant differentiation between the five populations in this study, but the results were highly significant when compared with 12 other global populations (p<0.05). Comparison of populations in this study with other national and global populations using Principal co-ordinate analysis (PCA) using Rst distance matrix indicates a delineation of all the Indian populations from other unrelated populations.

  16. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Advance Directive Possession: Role of Demographic Factors, Religious Affiliation, and Personal Health Values in a National Survey of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, John M.; Chiong, Winston

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Black and Hispanic older Americans are less likely than white older Americans to possess advance directives. Understanding the reasons for this racial and ethnic difference is necessary to identify targets for future interventions to improve advance care planning in these populations. Methods: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether racial and ethnic differences in advance directive possession are explained by other demographic factors, religious characteristics, and personal health values. A general population survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample using a web-enabled survey panel of American adults aged 50 and older (n = 2154). Results: In a sample of older Americans, white participants are significantly more likely to possess advance directives (44.0%) than black older Americans (24.0%, p < 0.001) and Hispanic older Americans (29.0%, p = 0.006). Gender, age, retired or disabled employment status, educational attainment, religious affiliation, Internet access, preferences for physician-centered decision making, and desiring longevity regardless of functional status were independent predictors of advance directive possession. In fully adjusted multivariable models with all predictors included, black older Americans remained significantly less likely than white older Americans to have an advance directive (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.24–0.75), whereas the effect of Hispanic ethnicity was no longer statistically significant (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.39–1.1). Conclusion: In a nationally representative sample, black race is an independent predictor for advance directive possession. This association remains even after adjustment for other demographic variables, religious characteristics, and personal health values. These findings support targeted efforts to mitigate racial disparities in access to advance care planning. PMID:26840850

  17. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Advance Directive Possession: Role of Demographic Factors, Religious Affiliation, and Personal Health Values in a National Survey of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ivy A; Neuhaus, John M; Chiong, Winston

    2016-02-01

    Black and Hispanic older Americans are less likely than white older Americans to possess advance directives. Understanding the reasons for this racial and ethnic difference is necessary to identify targets for future interventions to improve advance care planning in these populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether racial and ethnic differences in advance directive possession are explained by other demographic factors, religious characteristics, and personal health values. A general population survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample using a web-enabled survey panel of American adults aged 50 and older (n = 2154). In a sample of older Americans, white participants are significantly more likely to possess advance directives (44.0%) than black older Americans (24.0%, p < 0.001) and Hispanic older Americans (29.0%, p = 0.006). Gender, age, retired or disabled employment status, educational attainment, religious affiliation, Internet access, preferences for physician-centered decision making, and desiring longevity regardless of functional status were independent predictors of advance directive possession. In fully adjusted multivariable models with all predictors included, black older Americans remained significantly less likely than white older Americans to have an advance directive (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.24-0.75), whereas the effect of Hispanic ethnicity was no longer statistically significant (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.39-1.1). In a nationally representative sample, black race is an independent predictor for advance directive possession. This association remains even after adjustment for other demographic variables, religious characteristics, and personal health values. These findings support targeted efforts to mitigate racial disparities in access to advance care planning.

  18. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    PubMed

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Overview of Genetic-epidemiological Studies in Ethnically and Demographically Diverse Isolates of Dagestan, Northern Caucasus, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Bulayeva, Kazima B.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess genetic diversity and genetic distances among isolated populations from Dagestan. Methods A cross-population genetic epidemiology design was applied in ethnically and demographically diverse isolates from Dagestan, some with more than 200 and some with less than 100 generations of demographical history since their founding. Results The analysis of genetic diversity showed that Dagestan ethnic populations are clearly close to European ethnic populations. The genetic data support the view of them as ancient, highly isolated populations 85%-97% the rate of the endogamy and inbreeding coefficient F = 0.010-0.015. Many Dagestan populations have very high prevalence of certain complex diseases such as cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and progressive muscular dystrophy. Lifetime morbid risk for schizophrenia in the isolates varied from 0 to 5%. Among the relatives, the number of men with chronic schizophrenia was at least twice as high as women. The average age of onset of schizophrenia was 21.2 years for offspring of consanguineous marriages and 17.4 years for offspring of non-consanguineous marriages (P = 0.033). Conclusion The results support the hypothesis that cross-population design provides unique opportunities for observing reliable ancestral haplotypes with disease predisposing loci, as well as population-specific linked loci. PMID:16912990

  20. It doesn't happen here: eating disorders in an ethnically diverse sample of economically disadvantaged, urban college students.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Katie; Raghavan, Chitra; Rajah, Valli; Gates, Katie

    2007-01-01

    The bulk of eating disorder studies have focused on white, middle-upper class women, excluding ethnically and economically diverse women and men. Accordingly, our knowledge of prevalence rates and risk factors is reliant on this narrow literature. To expand upon the current literature, we examined eating disorders in ethnically diverse low-income, urban college students. We surveyed 884 incoming freshmen during an orientation class to assess the frequency of eating disorder diagnosis and the risk factors of child physical abuse and sexual abuse before and after age 13. We found 10% of our sample received an eating disorder diagnosis, 12.2% of the women and 7.3% of the men. The majority of these students were Latino/a or "other," with White women receiving the fewest diagnoses. For all women, both child physical abuse and both indices of sexual abuse contributed equally to the development of an eating disorder. For men only the sexual abuse indices contributed to an eating disorder diagnosis. These results indicate that ethnic minority populations do suffer from relatively high rates of self-reported eating disorders and that a history of trauma is a significant risk factor for eating disorders in these diverse populations of both women and men.

  1. Increasing Ethnic Diversity in LIS: Strategies Suggested by Librarians of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung-Sun; Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna

    2008-01-01

    The proportion of ethnic minorities in the LIS school student population has remained significantly lower than in the U.S. population: in 2002, ethnic minorities constituted only 11.3 percent of the LIS student population, compared to 31.3 percent of the U.S. population. Despite efforts by LIS schools and associations in recruiting and retaining…

  2. Advancing Research on Racial–Ethnic Health Disparities: Improving Measurement Equivalence in Studies with Diverse Samples

    PubMed Central

    Landrine, Hope; Corral, Irma

    2014-01-01

    To conduct meaningful, epidemiologic research on racial–ethnic health disparities, racial–ethnic samples must be rendered equivalent on other social status and contextual variables via statistical controls of those extraneous factors. The racial–ethnic groups must also be equally familiar with and have similar responses to the methods and measures used to collect health data, must have equal opportunity to participate in the research, and must be equally representative of their respective populations. In the absence of such measurement equivalence, studies of racial–ethnic health disparities are confounded by a plethora of unmeasured, uncontrolled correlates of race–ethnicity. Those correlates render the samples, methods, and measures incomparable across racial–ethnic groups, and diminish the ability to attribute health differences discovered to race–ethnicity vs. to its correlates. This paper reviews the non-equivalent yet normative samples, methodologies and measures used in epidemiologic studies of racial–ethnic health disparities, and provides concrete suggestions for improving sample, method, and scalar measurement equivalence. PMID:25566524

  3. Ethnic Minorities, Language Diversity, and Educational Implications: A Case Study on the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the Dutch situation looks at how growing immigrant numbers and resulting second language groups have prompted a rethinking of traditional concepts of education. First, ethnic population trends across national boundaries in Western Europe are examined and basic statistics on ethnic minorities in the Netherlands are presented. The…

  4. Prevalence of Disabling Conditions among Diverse Racial/Ethnic Groups in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sylvia; And Others

    This study used data on 120,032 people from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey to assess prevalence of disabilities among racial and ethnic minority groups. It examined the status of racial/ethnic minority persons in the following four disability categories: (1) chronic health conditions; (2) physical, sensory, and language impairments; (3)…

  5. Age and education effects on relationships of cognitive test scores with brain structure in demographically diverse older persons.

    PubMed

    Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Decarli, Charles

    2009-03-01

    This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Whites. The authors used latent variable modeling to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age- and education-adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables; adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI variables in the combined sample and Hispanics, made no difference in Whites, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure.

  6. Racial and ethnic differences in smoking changes after chronic disease diagnosis among middle-aged and older adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Ana R; Nagel, Corey L; Newsom, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Sheridan, Paige; Thielke, Stephen M

    2017-02-08

    Middle-aged and older Americans from underrepresented racial and ethnic backgrounds are at risk for greater chronic disease morbidity than their white counterparts. Cigarette smoking increases the severity of chronic illness, worsens physical functioning, and impairs the successful management of symptoms. As a result, it is important to understand whether smoking behaviors change after the onset of a chronic condition. We assessed the racial/ethnic differences in smoking behavior change after onset of chronic diseases among middle-aged and older adults in the US. We use longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS 1992-2010) to examine changes in smoking status and quantity of cigarettes smoked after a new heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, or lung disease diagnosis among smokers. The percentage of middle-aged and older smokers who quit after a new diagnosis varied by racial/ethnic group and disease: for white smokers, the percentage ranged from 14% after diabetes diagnosis to 32% after cancer diagnosis; for black smokers, the percentage ranged from 15% after lung disease diagnosis to 40% after heart disease diagnosis; the percentage of Latino smokers who quit was only statistically significant after stoke, where 38% quit. In logistic models, black (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99) and Latino (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.65) older adults were less likely to continue smoking relative to white older adults after a stroke, and Latinos were more likely to continue smoking relative to black older adults after heart disease onset (OR = 2.69, 95% CI [1.05-6.95]). In models evaluating changes in the number of cigarettes smoked after a new diagnosis, black older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes than whites after a new diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, stroke or cancer, and Latino older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes compared to white older adults after newly diagnosed diabetes and heart disease. Relative to black

  7. The relation between body mass index and self-rated mental health among older adults: do racial/ethnic differences exist?

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Parmelee, Patricia; DeCoster, Jamie; Bryant, Ami N; Chiriboga, David A

    2014-07-01

    To examine racial and ethnic differences in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and self-rated mental health (SRMH) among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. In-person household interviews. Older adults aged 60 and older (N = 2,017), including non-Hispanic white (N = 547), black (N = 814), Hispanic (N = 401), and Asian (N = 255) patients. SRMH was measured with a single item, "How would you rate your own mental health?" BMI categories were underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), healthy weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (≥30.0 kg/m(2)). A two-way analysis of covariance showed that after controlling for covariates, there was a significant main effect of race/ethnicity on SRMH, but the main effect of BMI was not significant. A significant interaction between BMI and race/ethnicity on SRMH was also found. The linear contrasts showed that white adults had a significant trend showing that SRMH decreased with increases in BMI, whereas black adults had a significant trend showing that SRMH increased with increases in BMI. The linear trends for Hispanic and Asian adults were not significant. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in the relation between BMI and SRMH. Understanding the role of race/ethnicity as a moderator of the relation between BMI and mental health may help improve treatment for older adults with unhealthy weights. Clinical implications are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Issues in educating health professionals to meet the diverse needs of patients and other service users from ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Chevannes, Mel

    2002-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to undertake training needs analysis among a multi-professional group for the purpose of improving care for ethnic minority patients and other service users. Evidence from the literature identifies that some of the explanations advanced for the failure of health professionals to meet the needs of ethnic minorities include lack of understanding of cultural diversities, racism, racial stereotyping, lack of knowledge, exclusivity, and ethnocentrism. While these issues have been addressed in different countries, little work has been carried out to examine these from the perspective of health professionals caring for ethnic minorities. This study is therefore an attempt to find out what health professionals know about caring for patients and other service users from minority ethnic groups and their perception of training needs in this area of work. A pre- and post-training design phase structured the qualitative approach. A purposive sample of individuals working across five health service organizations located in a multi-racial city yielded a multi-professional group of participants. Views of 22 participants were obtained by semi-structured interviews at a pretraining phase. Training needs of health professionals drew on Walklin's (1992) six stages used to structure data collection, data analysis and delivery of training. The post-training phase used questionnaires to evaluate immediate learning that based on a 4-week period of reflection and applied to practice. The questionnaires were complemented by a facilitator-lead focus group. The majority of the participants confirmed that no attention was given in their initial education to the health care needs of minority ethnic groups. Instead, participants engaged in self-initiated learning to improve their knowledge and understanding. The issue of communication was viewed with dissatisfaction and seen as affecting the sufficiency of caring for these patients. All participants rated meeting

  9. Insights into BRCA1/2 Genetic Counseling from Ethnically Diverse Latina Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Rajpal, Neha; Muñoz, Juliana; Peshkin, Beth N; Graves, Kristi D

    2017-04-04

    Despite the disproportionate underuse of genetic counseling and testing for BRCA1/2 (BRCA)-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk among Latinas, little is known about the associated barriers and facilitators. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 at-risk Latina women from diverse backgrounds. Eligible women were diagnosed with breast cancer <50 years, with or without a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer (>1 first-degree relative diagnosed <50 years). All interviews were conducted in Spanish, audio recorded, transcribed, and translated into English. Two bilingual coders used thematic analyses to identify 7 main themes. Results revealed very low levels of awareness and knowledge about HBOC and BRCA genetic counseling. Interestingly, for most Latinas, competing life demands and cultural concerns (fatalismo and destino) did not strongly influence personal beliefs about genetic counseling. In addition, older women were equally as interested in education, cancer prevention, and BRCA genetic counseling as younger women. These findings suggest that Latinas, regardless of age, increasingly acknowledge and prioritize their own health. Women reported their main motivator to undergo counseling was concern about family members' cancer risks. Main barriers included financial and insurance concerns, and lack of awareness about genetic services. Investigating the beliefs and attitudes of diverse populations of Latinas at risk for HBOC reveals logistical barriers to BRCA genetic counseling uptake within this under-represented community. Efforts are needed to provide at-risk Latina breast cancer survivors' knowledge of and access to genetic counseling and testing based on risk status and Latinas' increasing responsiveness and uptake of these services.

  10. Experimental Pain Phenotype Profiles in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Riley, Joseph L.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of interindividual variability in experimental pain responses emerging from multiple experimental pain measures in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of healthy adults and to examine the association between the derived phenotype profiles with demographic, psychological, and health-related measures. Methods Two hundred and ninety-one participants underwent heat, cold, pressure, and ischemic pain assessments, and completed several psychological and health-related assessments. The experimental pain measures were subjected to a principal component analysis and factor scores were used to compute Pain Sensitivity Index scores. The scores were subsequently submitted to a cluster analysis to identify patterns of pain sensitivity across experimental pain modalities. Results The sample was equally composed of non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, and Hispanic whites. Sensitivity scores were computed for heat pain, pressure pain, cold pain, ischemic pain, and temporal summation of heat pain. Five distinct clusters were characterized by high heat pain sensitivity, low ischemic pain sensitivity, low cold pain sensitivity, low pressure pain sensitivity, and high temporal summation. Cluster membership was significantly different by sex as well as somatic reactivity and catastrophizing, although cluster differences were most pronounced between the heat pain-sensitive individuals vs the cold pain-insensitive individuals. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of phenotyping individuals to account for interindividual differences in pain responses. Our findings also replicate previously reported pain phenotypes, which are not solely related to demographic, psychosocial, or health-related factors in our healthy participants. Future studies designed to elucidate the biological underpinnings of pain sensitivity profiles would be of substantial value. PMID:23889771

  11. Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon’s assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers (M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers’ high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers’ strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers’ own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnicspecific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers’ culture and level of assimilation. PMID:25883044

  12. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the

  13. Differentiating Approaches to Diabetes Self-Management of Multi-ethnic Rural Older Adults at the Extremes of Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn from a population-based sample aged 65 years or older with diabetes. The sample was stratified by sex and ethnic group (African American, American Indian, and White) from the low (A1C <6%) and high (A1C >8%) extremes of the glycemic control distribution. Case-based text analysis was guided by a model, including six self-management domains and four resource types (self-care, informal support, formal services, and medical care). Results: A “structured” approach to self-management differentiated respondents in good glycemic control from those in poor glycemic control. Those in good glycemic control were more likely to practice specific food behaviors to limit food consumption and practice regular blood glucose monitoring with specific target values. This approach was facilitated by a greater use of home aides to assist with diabetes care. Respondents in poor glycemic control demonstrated less structure, naming general food categories and checking blood glucose in reaction to symptoms. Implications: Results provide evidence that degree of structure differentiates self-management approaches of persons with good and poor glycemic control. Findings should provide a foundation for further research to develop effective self-management programs for older adults with diabetes. PMID:20110333

  14. Diversity in Older Adults’ Use of the Internet: Identifying Subgroups Through Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Boekel, Leonieke C; Peek, Sebastiaan TM; Luijkx, Katrien G

    2017-01-01

    Background As for all individuals, the Internet is important in the everyday life of older adults. Research on older adults’ use of the Internet has merely focused on users versus nonusers and consequences of Internet use and nonuse. Older adults are a heterogeneous group, which may implicate that their use of the Internet is diverse as well. Older adults can use the Internet for different activities, and this usage can be of influence on benefits the Internet can have for them. Objective The aim of this paper was to describe the diversity or heterogeneity in the activities for which older adults use the Internet and determine whether diversity is related to social or health-related variables. Methods We used data of a national representative Internet panel in the Netherlands. Panel members aged 65 years and older and who have access to and use the Internet were selected (N=1418). We conducted a latent class analysis based on the Internet activities that panel members reported to spend time on. Second, we described the identified clusters with descriptive statistics and compared the clusters using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests. Results Four clusters were distinguished. Cluster 1 was labeled as the “practical users” (36.88%, n=523). These respondents mainly used the Internet for practical and financial purposes such as searching for information, comparing products, and banking. Respondents in Cluster 2, the “minimizers” (32.23%, n=457), reported lowest frequency on most Internet activities, are older (mean age 73 years), and spent the smallest time on the Internet. Cluster 3 was labeled as the “maximizers” (17.77%, n=252); these respondents used the Internet for various activities, spent most time on the Internet, and were relatively younger (mean age below 70 years). Respondents in Cluster 4, the “social users,” mainly used the Internet for social and leisure-related activities such as gaming and social network sites. The

  15. Cross-Cultural Dietary Patterns: A College Course on Ethnically Diverse Eating Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Mary K.; Stuhldreher, Wendy L.

    1998-01-01

    A course on cross-cultural dietary patterns provides family and consumer sciences students with information about influences on ethnic diets while introducing food preparation and computer nutrient evaluation techniques. (SK)

  16. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans With and Without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or ethnicity, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455

  17. Blood pressure and body mass index in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents in Paramaribo, Suriname

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Oudeman, Eline; Zijlmans, Wilco; Wendte, Johannes; Stronks, Karien

    2009-01-01

    Background High blood pressure (BP) is now an important public health problem in non-industrialised countries. The limited evidence suggests ethnic inequalities in BP in adults in some non-industrialised countries. However, it is unclear whether these ethnic inequalities in BP patterns in adults reflect on adolescents. Hence, we assessed ethnic differences in BP, and the association of BP with body mass index (BMI) among adolescents aged 12–17 years in Paramaribo, Suriname. Methods Cross-sectional study with anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. A random sample of 855 adolescents (167 Hindustanis, 169 Creoles, 128 Javanese, 91 Maroons and 300 mixed-ethnicities) were studied. Ethnicity was based on self-reported ethnic origin. Results Among boys, Maroons had a lower age- and height-adjusted systolic BP than Creoles, and a lower diastolic BP than other ethnic groups. However, after further adjustment for BMI, only diastolic BP in Maroons was significantly lower than in Javanese (67.1 versus 70.9 mmHg). Creole boys had a lower diastolic BP than Hindustani (67.3 versus 70.2 mmHg) and Javanese boys after adjustment for age, height and BMI. Among girls, there were no significant differences in systolic BP between the ethnic groups. Maroon girls, however, had a lower diastolic BP (65.6 mmHg) than Hindustani (69.1 mmHg), Javanese (71.2 mmHg) and Mixed-ethnic (68.3 mmHg) girls, but only after differences in BMI had been adjusted for. Javanese had a higher diastolic BP than Creoles (71.2 versus 66.8 mmHg) and Mixed-ethnicity girls. BMI was positively associated with BP in all the ethnic groups, except for diastolic BP in Maroon girls. Conclusion The study findings indicate higher mean BP levels among Javanese and Hindustani adolescents compared with their African descent peers. These findings contrast the relatively low BP reported in Javanese and Hindustani adult populations in Suriname and underscore the need for public health measures early in life to prevent

  18. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  19. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  20. Cultural diversity and views on Alzheimer disease in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Harris, Lynn F

    2013-01-01

    Cultural constructs prevalent in older African Americans may influence their risk perceptions and knowledge of Alzheimer disease (AD). To examine this issue, we administered 3 sociocultural scales, the AD Knowledge Scale, and a Risk Perception questionnaire to 271 older African Americans who were recruited from a large community senior center and local churches. Higher Present Time Orientation was significantly related to perceptions of having little control over risks to health (P=0.004), God's Will in determining AD (P=0.001), and lower AD knowledge (P<0.0001) and marginally related to having little control over developing AD (P=0.052). Religiosity was marginally related to having little control over risks to health (P=0.055) and getting AD (P=0.057). Post hoc intergroup comparisons found significant differences in the highest versus lowest scoring Religiosity groups. There were no significant differences by Future Time Orientation. Most subjects (57.6%) were unaware that African Americans were at higher risk for AD than whites. These data indicate that cultural diversity within older African Americans may shape health perceptions and knowledge of AD. This diversity may contribute to disparities in the detection and treatment of AD in this high-risk population.

  1. Cultural Diversity and Views on Alzheimer’s Disease in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Harris, Lynn Fields

    2012-01-01

    Cultural constructs prevalent in older African Americans may influence their risk perceptions and knowledge of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To examine this issue, we administered 3 sociocultural scales, the Alzheimer’s Disease Knowledge Scale, and a Risk Perception questionnaire to 271 older African Americans who were recruited from a large community senior center and local churches. Higher Present Time Orientation was significantly related to perceptions of having little control over risks to health (p = .004), God’s Will in determining AD (p = .001), and lower AD knowledge (p < .0001), and marginally related to having little control over developing AD (p = .052). Religiosity was marginally related to having little control over risks to health (p = .055) and getting AD″ (p =.057). Post hoc inter-group comparisons found significant differences in the highest vs. lowest scoring Religiosity groups. There were no significant differences by Future Time Orientation. Most subjects (57.6%) were unaware that African Americans were at higher risk for AD than whites. These data indicate that cultural diversity within older African Americans may shape health perceptions and knowledge of AD. This diversity may contribute to disparities in the detection and treatment of AD in this high risk population. PMID:22828323

  2. Correlates of Sun Safety Practices in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention Interventions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Tyc, Vida L; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of their pediatric wellness visit. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and nonwhite minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial and ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention with antismoking counseling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Correlates of sun safety practices in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents: Implications for skin cancer prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tyc, Vida L.; Atkins, Michael B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of pediatric well-visits. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and non-white minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial/ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention and anti-smoking counseling. PMID:26269134

  4. Carrying the burdens of poverty, parenting, and addiction: depression symptoms and self-silencing among ethnically diverse women.

    PubMed

    Grant, Therese M; Jack, Dana C; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Ernst, Cara C

    2011-02-01

    Depression among women commonly co-occurs with substance abuse. We explore the association between women's depressive symptoms and self-silencing accounting for the effects of known childhood and adult risk indicators. Participants are 233 ethnically diverse, low-income women who abused alcohol/drugs prenatally. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Addiction Severity Index. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the association between self-silencing and the dependent depression variable. The full model indicated a 3% increased risk for depressive distress for each point increase in self-silencing score (OR = 1.03; P = .001). Differences in depressive symptomatology by ethnic groups were accounted for by their differences in self-silencing.

  5. Incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event in an ethnically diverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy population.

    PubMed

    Dias, A; Franco, E; Janzer, S; Koshkelashvili, Nikoloz; Bhalla, V; Rubio, Manolo; Amanullah, Sarah; Hebert, Kathy; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS) is a peculiar clinical condition often affecting postmenopausal women after a stressful trigger. The underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated but several hypotheses have been advanced, with catecholamine cardiotoxicity, microvascular dysfunction and coronary artery spasm each suggested to play a role. The incidence of stroke after TTS appears to range from 0% to 7.7%, and interestingly TTS has been described as both a cause and a complication of stroke. We sought to assess the incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event (peri-index event stroke) in a heterogeneous TTS population. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study reviewing patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of TTS from the Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA and Danbury Hospital, Danbury, CT in the period between 2003 and 2014. A total of Incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event in an ethnically diverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy population 206 patients met the modified Mayo Clinic criteria and were included in the study. The patients' overall mean age was 67.8 years; 87% (n=179) were females and 25% (n=53) were African Americans. The following incidence rates were found: stroke 7%, in-hospital heart failure 26.7%, and in-hospital death 7%. On multivariate analysis independent predictors (expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals) of periindex event stroke were: i) African American race (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2-10.2, p=0.048); ii) hypertension (OR 10.5, 95% CI 1.3-88, p=0.03). ACE inhibitor use was a protective factor for developing peri-index event stroke (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.5, p=0.001). There was a trend towards dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) being protective for stroke (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.05-1.1, p=0.08). The incidence of peri-index event stroke was 7%. African American race and hypertension were found to be independent predictors of peri-index event stroke. Prospective clinical trials are

  6. Incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event in an ethnically diverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy population.

    PubMed

    Dias, A; Franco, E; Janzer, S; Koshkelashvili, Nikoloz; Bhalla, V; Rubio, Manolo; Amanullah, Sarah; Hebert, Kathy; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-09-26

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS) is a peculiar clinical condition often affecting postmenopausal women after a stressful trigger. The underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated but several hypotheses have been advanced, with catecholamine cardiotoxicity, microvascular dysfunction and coronary artery spasm each suggested to play a role. The incidence of stroke after TTS appears to range from 0% to 7.7%, and interestingly TTS has been described as both a cause and a complication of stroke. We sought to assess the incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event (peri-index event stroke) in a heterogeneous TTS population. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study reviewing patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of TTS from the Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA and Danbury Hospital, Danbury, CT in the period between 2003 and 2014. A total of Incidence and predictors of stroke during the index event in an ethnically diverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy population 206 patients met the modified Mayo Clinic criteria and were included in the study. The patients' overall mean age was 67.8 years; 87% (n=179) were females and 25% (n=53) were African Americans. The following incidence rates were found: stroke 7%, in-hospital heart failure 26.7%, and in-hospital death 7%. On multivariate analysis independent predictors (expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals) of periindex event stroke were: i) African American race (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2-10.2, p=0.048); ii) hypertension (OR 10.5, 95% CI 1.3-88, p=0.03). ACE inhibitor use was a protective factor for developing peri-index event stroke (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.5, p=0.001). There was a trend towards dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) being protective for stroke (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.05-1.1, p=0.08). The incidence of peri-index event stroke was 7%. African American race and hypertension were found to be independent predictors of peri-index event stroke. Prospective clinical trials are

  7. Novel susceptibility variants at 10p12.31-12.2 for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Yang, Wenjian; Perez-Andreu, Virginia; Devidas, Meenakshi; Fan, Yiping; Cheng, Cheng; Pei, Deqing; Scheet, Paul; Burchard, Esteban González; Eng, Celeste; Huntsman, Scott; Torgerson, Dara G; Dean, Michael; Winick, Naomi J; Martin, Paul L; Camitta, Bruce M; Bowman, W Paul; Willman, Cheryl L; Carroll, William L; Mullighan, Charles G; Bhojwani, Deepa; Hunger, Stephen P; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E; Relling, Mary V; Loh, Mignon L; Yang, Jun J

    2013-05-15

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children and the incidence of ALL varies by ethnicity. Although accumulating evidence indicates inherited predisposition to ALL, the genetic basis of ALL susceptibility in diverse ancestry has not been comprehensively examined. We performed a multiethnic genome-wide association study in 1605 children with ALL and 6661 control subjects after adjusting for population structure, with validation in three replication series of 845 case subjects and 4316 control subjects. Association was tested by two-sided logistic regression. A novel ALL susceptibility locus at 10p12.31-12.2 (BMI1-PIP4K2A, rs7088318, P = 1.1 × 10(-11)) was identified in the genome-wide association study, with independent replication in European Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans (P = .001, .009, and .04, respectively). Association was also validated at four known ALL susceptibility loci: ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, and CDKN2A/2B. Associations at ARID5B, IKZF1, and BMI1-PIP4K2A variants were consistent across ethnicity, with multiple independent signals at IKZF1 and BMI1-PIP4K2A loci. The frequency of ARID5B and BMI1-PIP4K2A variants differed by ethnicity, in parallel with ethnic differences in ALL incidence. Suggestive evidence for modifying effects of age on genetic predisposition to ALL was also observed. ARID5B, IKZF1, CEBPE, and BMI1-PIP4K2A variants cumulatively conferred strong predisposition to ALL, with children carrying six to eight copies of risk alleles at a ninefold (95% confidence interval = 6.9 to 11.8) higher ALL risk relative to those carrying zero to one risk allele at these four single nucleotide polymorphisms. These findings indicate strong associations between inherited genetic variation and ALL susceptibility in children and shed new light on ALL molecular etiology in diverse ancestry.

  8. Neighborhood Ethnic Composition and Problem Drinking Among Older Mexican American Men: Results from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Stroope, Samuel; Martinez, Brandon C; Eschbach, Karl; Peek, M Kristen; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic enclaves may be protective for health. This study investigates the effects of neighborhood co-ethnic density on problem drinking among older Mexican American men. Probability sample of 2,086 community-dwelling Mexican Americans aged 75 or older drawn in 2004-2005 residing in communities in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico and Texas. Problem drinking was found among 15.3 % of men (n = 350). For each percent increase in neighborhood percent Mexican American, men had 2 % lower odds of problem drinking [odds ratio (OR) 0.98; P < 0.05]. U.S. born men had lower odds of problem drinking (OR 0.40; P < 0.05) compared with foreign born men, while English language use was associated with greater odds of problem drinking (OR 2.14; P < 0.05). Older Mexican American men in neighborhoods with low levels of co-ethnic density, the foreign born, and those with English language facility had an increased likelihood of problem drinking.

  9. Vitamin D status of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the greater Toronto area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiological and lifestyle factors put older adults at an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency and resulting negative health outcomes. Here we explore the vitamin D status in a sample of community dwelling older adults of diverse ancestry living in the Greater Toronto area (GTA). Methods Two hundred and twenty-four (224) adults over 60 years of age were recruited from the Square One Older Adult Centre, in Mississauga, Ontario. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured from dried blood spot cards. Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin D were assessed via questionnaires. Skin pigmentation was assessed quantitatively by measuring melanin levels using a reflectometer. Results The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the total sample was 82.4 nmol/L. There were no statistically significant differences in serum 25(OH)D concentrations, supplemental or dietary vitamin D intakes between the three major ancestral groups (East Asians, Europeans and South Asians). Females had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than males (84.5 nmol/L vs. 72.2 nmol/L, p = 0.012). The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L were 12.1%, and 38.8%, respectively. The mean daily supplemental intake of vitamin D was 917 IU/day. Vitamin D intake from supplements was the major factor determining 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mean concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the GTA exceeded 80 nmol/L, and there were no significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. These results sharply contrast with our recent study focused on young adults of diverse ancestry living in the same geographic area, in which we found substantially lower 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 39.5 nmol/L), low supplemental vitamin D intake (114 IU/day), and significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. High daily intake

  10. Vitamin D status of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the Greater Toronto Area.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Jaime K; Krithika, S; Gozdzik, Agnes; Hanwell, Heather; Whiting, Susan; Parra, Esteban J

    2013-07-01

    Physiological and lifestyle factors put older adults at an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency and resulting negative health outcomes. Here we explore the vitamin D status in a sample of community dwelling older adults of diverse ancestry living in the Greater Toronto area (GTA). Two hundred and twenty-four (224) adults over 60 years of age were recruited from the Square One Older Adult Centre, in Mississauga, Ontario. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured from dried blood spot cards. Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin D were assessed via questionnaires. Skin pigmentation was assessed quantitatively by measuring melanin levels using a reflectometer. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the total sample was 82.4 nmol/L. There were no statistically significant differences in serum 25(OH)D concentrations, supplemental or dietary vitamin D intakes between the three major ancestral groups (East Asians, Europeans and South Asians). Females had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than males (84.5 nmol/L vs. 72.2 nmol/L, p = 0.012). The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L were 12.1%, and 38.8%, respectively. The mean daily supplemental intake of vitamin D was 917 IU/day. Vitamin D intake from supplements was the major factor determining 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.001). Mean concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the GTA exceeded 80 nmol/L, and there were no significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. These results sharply contrast with our recent study focused on young adults of diverse ancestry living in the same geographic area, in which we found substantially lower 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 39.5 nmol/L), low supplemental vitamin D intake (114 IU/day), and significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. High daily intake of supplemental vitamin D in this sample

  11. Factors associated with genotype clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in an ethnically diverse region of southern California, United States.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, Timothy C; Kapasi, Anokhi J; Barnes, Richard F W; Moser, Kathleen S

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates with identical genotypes, found in different patients, are most likely the result of recent transmission. Mtb strains with closely related genotypes, called clonal complexes, are most likely derived from one another. We examined Mtb genotypes from southern California TB patients from 2005 through 2008 to complete the first comprehensive molecular epidemiology analysis of this complicated and ethnically diverse region. Mtb genotypes were characterized with spoligotype and MIRU-12 typing. MIRU-VNTRplus was utilized to assign genotypes to global lineages and complete cluster analyses. Associations between patient characteristics and genotype clustering and clonal complexes were evaluated using logistic regression and frequency analysis. Of 832 Mtb isolates analyzed, 480 (58%) fell into 94 strain clusters. The majority of isolates were identified as being in the EA1 (31%), LAM (17%) and Haarlem (15%) lineages, but 13 different lineages were found in this region. TB patients with clustered isolates were more likely to be homeless (AOR 3.44, 95% CI 1.65, 7.18) and male (AOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17, 2.10). Of the 480 clustered strains, 388 aggregated into six clonal complexes. Over 45% of reported TB cases were clustered and likely resulted from recent transmission events. Patients with clustered Mtb isolates that were grouped into clonal complexes had unique socio-demographic characteristics. These data suggest that TB is being transmitted in relatively insular community networks defined by race/ethnicity and country of origin. The addition of clonal complex analysis to simple cluster analysis provides important public health insights into the local transmission of TB in ethnically diverse regions with diverse Mtb genotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perspectives About Family Meals from Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Households With and Without an Overweight/Obese Child.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Hanson, Carrie; Draxten, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Several quantitative studies have found a protective association between family meal frequency and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors (e.g., healthy dietary intake, less disordered eating behaviors). However, limited qualitative research has been conducted to understand more in depth about family meal-level characteristics (e.g., rules, responsibilities, and interpersonal dynamics) that may be risk or protective factors for child weight and weight-related behaviors. The current study aimed to identify family meal-level characteristics within racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse households that were similar and/or different between households with and without an overweight/obese child. The current study is a qualitative study including 118 parents of children ages 6-12 who participated in the Family Meals, LIVE! Parents (92% female) were from racially/ethnically (87% minority) and socioeconomically (73% <$35,000 per year) diverse households. Parents were individually interviewed during a home visit. Data were stratified by child weight status (i.e., normal weight vs. overweight/obese) and analyzed using deductive and inductive content analysis. Qualitative results showed some similarities and some differences in family meal-level characteristics by child weight status that may provide insight into past research showing significant associations between family meal frequency and child weight and weight-related behaviors. Similar themes between families with and without an overweight/obese child included: family meals provide more healthful food; rules about manners; meal planning; and involving children in meal preparation. Themes that were different between families with and without an overweight/obese child included: connection and communication; "clean your plate rule"; electronic devices; and child behavior problems. Findings from the current study may be useful for developing interventions for racially/ethnically and

  13. Perspectives About Family Meals from Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Households With and Without an Overweight/Obese Child

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Carrie; Draxten, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several quantitative studies have found a protective association between family meal frequency and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors (e.g., healthy dietary intake, less disordered eating behaviors). However, limited qualitative research has been conducted to understand more in depth about family meal-level characteristics (e.g., rules, responsibilities, and interpersonal dynamics) that may be risk or protective factors for child weight and weight-related behaviors. The current study aimed to identify family meal-level characteristics within racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse households that were similar and/or different between households with and without an overweight/obese child. Methods: The current study is a qualitative study including 118 parents of children ages 6–12 who participated in the Family Meals, LIVE! study. Parents (92% female) were from racially/ethnically (87% minority) and socioeconomically (73% <$35,000 per year) diverse households. Parents were individually interviewed during a home visit. Data were stratified by child weight status (i.e., normal weight vs. overweight/obese) and analyzed using deductive and inductive content analysis. Results: Qualitative results showed some similarities and some differences in family meal-level characteristics by child weight status that may provide insight into past research showing significant associations between family meal frequency and child weight and weight-related behaviors. Similar themes between families with and without an overweight/obese child included: family meals provide more healthful food; rules about manners; meal planning; and involving children in meal preparation. Themes that were different between families with and without an overweight/obese child included: connection and communication; “clean your plate rule”; electronic devices; and child behavior problems. Conclusions: Findings from the current study may be useful for

  14. A constructivist perspective on clinical social work practice with ethnically diverse clients.

    PubMed

    Greene, G J; Jensen, C; Harper Jones, D

    1996-03-01

    A person's reality and definition of self are socially constructed; ethnicity is integrally involved in this process. Clinical work is successful if the client constructs a self with a sense of positive self-esteem and empowerment. The profession views social workers' use of self as important in successful clinical work, especially with clients ethnically different from themselves. This article provides a framework adapted from a constructivist perspective for the clinician's skillful use of self in therapeutic discourse. The framework consists of five stances the clinician can use in transcending the discomfort he or she may experience in a cross-cultural clinical situation. Use of these stances facilitates clients' ethnic validation, which is essential to positive therapeutic outcomes. This article uses case examples to illustrate the use of the framework.

  15. Factors Associated with Increased Risk for Lethal Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191

  16. Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Jung, Yumi; Thompson, Tracy; Alaimo, Katherine; Risley, John; Mayfield, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a community-based and social marketing healthy corner store program (FIT store) to improve the affordability and availability of healthy foods in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores data were analyzed for the FIT (N = 4) stores. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among the FIT store customers before (N = 401) and after (N = 318) the intervention. Three FIT stores improved their total Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores availability score from before to after the intervention. A significantly higher level of FIT awareness and monthly bean and nut consumption was reported in the postintervention.

  17. The Relationship between Social Support and Suicide Risk in a National Sample of Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Tabaac, Ariella R.; Perrin, Paul B.; Rabinovitch, Annie E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between three types of social support and suicidal ideation and lifetime attempts among a national sample of ethnically diverse sexual minority women (SMW). Participants (N = 150) completed measures of social support and suicidal ideation/attempts. After controlling for socioeconomic status, social support explained 12.3% of the variance in past suicidal ideation and 10.7% in lifetime suicide attempts. Social support from family and significant other were both inversely associated with suicidal ideation, and social support from family inversely with lifetime attempts. Interventions that strengthen family relationships could be a buffer of suicidality in this population. PMID:28018520

  18. Vitamin D intake and serum vitamin D in ethnically diverse urban schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Au, Lauren E; Economos, Christina D; Goodman, Elizabeth; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low serum vitamin D, which largely affects ethnic minorities, is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases. Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in intake, particularly in children, or if any differences are associated with differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The objective of the present study was to determine whether racial/ethnic differences in dietary vitamin D intake exist and whether they explain differences in 25(OH)D. Design Vitamin D intakes (Block Kids 2004 FFQ) and 25(OH)D were measured. Race/ethnicity was parent-reported (white (37·9%), Hispanic (32·4%), black (8·3%), Asian (10·3%), multi-racial/other (11·0%)). Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the associations among dietary vitamin D and race/ethnicity, as well as 25(OH)D, independent of BMI Z-score and other covariates. Setting Elementary/middle schools in Somerville, MA, USA, during January–April 2010. Subjects Schoolchildren (n 145) in 4th–8th grade. Results Only 2·1% met the 2011 RDA (15 µg/d (600 IU/d)). Average dietary intake was 3.5 (sd 2.2) µg/d (140 (sd 89·0) IU/d). No racial/ethnic differences in intake were evident. Most (83·4%) were 25(OH)D deficient (<20 ng/ml; 16·0 (sd 6·5) ng/ml). In ANOVA post hoc analyses, 25(OH)D levels were lower in Hispanics than whites (14·6 (sd 6·1) ng/ml v. 17·9 (sd 4·6) ng/ml; P< 0·01). Dietary vitamin D was associated with 25(OH)D overall (P< 0·05), but did not explain the racial/ethnic differences in 25(OH)D. Conclusions Most children in this north-east US sample did not meet dietary recommendations for vitamin D and were vitamin D deficient. Dietary vitamin D did not explain the difference in 25(OH)D between Hispanic and white children. Further research is needed to determine if changes in dietary vitamin D by race/ethnicity can impact 25(OH)D levels. PMID:22857261

  19. Cooking up diversity. Impact of a multicomponent, multicultural, experiential intervention on food and cooking behaviors among elementary-school students from low-income ethnically diverse families.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home.

  20. European population genetic substructure: further definition of ancestry informative markers for distinguishing among diverse European ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K; Seldin, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4,000 subjects genotyped for 300,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian, and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be controlled effectively in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity of performing additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets.

  1. Time spent in the United States and breast cancer screening behaviors among ethnically diverse immigrant women: evidence for acculturation?

    PubMed

    Brown, William Michael; Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol

    2006-10-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the relations between time spent in the United States and breast cancer screening in a large sample (N=915) of ethnically diverse immigrant women living in New York City. Previous research among Hispanic women has suggested that acculturation positively influences health beliefs and preventive health behaviors. However, research has not yet extended to other growing immigrant groups, including women from Haiti and the English-speaking Caribbean, and has not tested whether time spent in the United States differentially impacts breast screening across groups that are known to vary in their health beliefs. As expected, time spent in the United States was associated with a greater number of mammograms and clinical breast exams. Importantly, these relations held even when controlling for (a) age, income, education, marital status; (b) morbidity, health insurance, physician's recommendation, physical exams; and (c) ethnicity. Moreover, time spent in the United States interacted with being Haitian to predict the number of clinical breast exams. Even though Haitians were less likely to utilize breast cancer screening overall, time spent in the United States had a stronger effect on the number of clinical breast exams for Haitian women. Results are discussed in terms of the ethnic-specificity of health beliefs, how they may change over time and their implications for preventive health behaviors.

  2. European Population Genetic Substructure: Further Definition of Ancestry Informative Markers for Distinguishing Among Diverse European Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E.; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4000 subjects genotyped for 300 thousand SNPs we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be effectively controlled in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity to perform additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets. PMID:19707526

  3. Familial and cultural perceptions and beliefs of oral hygiene and dietary practices among ethnically and socio-economicall diverse groups.

    PubMed

    Adair, Pauline M; Pine, Cynthia M; Burnside, Girvan; Nicoll, Alison D; Gillett, Angela; Anwar, Shahid; Broukal, Zdenek; Chestnutt, Ivor G; Declerck, Dominique; Ping, Feng Xi; Ferro, Roberto; Freeman, Ruth; Grant-Mills, Donna; Gugushe, Tshepo; Hunsrisakhun, Jaranya; Irigoyen-Camacho, Maria; Lo, Edward C M; Moola, Mohamed Hanif; Naidoo, Sudeshni; Nyandindi, Ursuline; Poulsen, Vibeke Juul; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Razanamihaja, Noëline; Shahid, Swarngit; Skeie, Marit Slåttelid; Skur, O Patricia; Splieth, Christian; Soo, Teo Choo; Whelton, Helen; Young, David W

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE; The aim of this international study was to develop a valid and reliable psychometric measure to examine the extent to which parents' attitudes about engaging in twice-daily tooth brushing and controlling sugar snacking predict these respective behaviours in their children. A supplementary objective was to assess whether ethnic group, culture, level of deprivation or children's caries experience impact upon the relationships between oral health related behaviours, attitudes to these respective behaviours and to dental caries. Nurseries, health centres and dental clinics in 17 countries. 2822 children aged 3 to 4 years and their parents. Dental examination of children and questionnaire to parents. Factor analysis identified 8 coherent attitudes towards toothbrushing, sugar snacking and childhood caries. Attitudes were significantly different in families from deprived and non-deprived backgrounds and in families of children with and without caries. Parents perception of their ability to control their children's toothbrushing and sugar snacking habits were the most significant predictor of whether or not favourable habits were reported. Some differences were found by site and ethnic group. This study supports the hypothesis that parental attitudes significantly impact on the establishment of habits favourable to oral health. An appreciation of the impact of cultural and ethnic diversity is important in understanding how parental attitudes to oral health vary. Further research should examine in a prospective intervention whether enhancing parenting skills is an effective route to preventing childhood caries.

  4. Factors Contributing to 50-ft Walking Speed and Observed Ethnic Differences in Older Community-Dwelling Mexican Americans and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hazuda, Helen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexican Americans comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the older US population and are reported to have poorer functional health than European Americans, but few studies have examined factors contributing to ethnic differences in walking speed between Mexican Americans and European Americans. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to walking speed and observed ethnic differences in walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans using the disablement process model (DPM) as a guide. Design This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were 703 Mexican American and European American older adults (aged 65 years and older) who completed the baseline examination of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Hierarchical regression models were performed to identify the contribution of contextual, lifestyle/anthropometric, disease, and impairment variables to walking speed and to ethnic differences in walking speed. Results The ethic difference in unadjusted mean walking speed (Mexican Americans=1.17 m/s, European Americans=1.29 m/s) was fully explained by adjustment for contextual (ie, age, sex, education, income) and lifestyle/anthropometric (ie, body mass index, height, physical activity) variables; adjusted mean walking speed in both ethnic groups was 1.23 m/s. Contextual variables explained 20.3% of the variance in walking speed, and lifestyle/anthropometric variables explained an additional 8.4%. Diseases (ie, diabetes, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) explained an additional 1.9% of the variance in walking speed; impairments (ie, FEV1, upper leg pain, and lower extremity strength and range of motion) contributed an additional 5.5%. Thus, both nonmodifiable (ie, contextual, height) and modifiable (ie, impairments, body mass index, physical activity) factors contributed to walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans. Limitations

  5. Factors Contributing to 50-ft Walking Speed and Observed Ethnic Differences in Older Community-Dwelling Mexican Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Quiben, Myla U; Hazuda, Helen P

    2015-06-01

    Mexican Americans comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the older US population and are reported to have poorer functional health than European Americans, but few studies have examined factors contributing to ethnic differences in walking speed between Mexican Americans and European Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to walking speed and observed ethnic differences in walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans using the disablement process model (DPM) as a guide. This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Participants were 703 Mexican American and European American older adults (aged 65 years and older) who completed the baseline examination of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Hierarchical regression models were performed to identify the contribution of contextual, lifestyle/anthropometric, disease, and impairment variables to walking speed and to ethnic differences in walking speed. The ethic difference in unadjusted mean walking speed (Mexican Americans=1.17 m/s, European Americans=1.29 m/s) was fully explained by adjustment for contextual (ie, age, sex, education, income) and lifestyle/anthropometric (ie, body mass index, height, physical activity) variables; adjusted mean walking speed in both ethnic groups was 1.23 m/s. Contextual variables explained 20.3% of the variance in walking speed, and lifestyle/anthropometric variables explained an additional 8.4%. Diseases (ie, diabetes, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) explained an additional 1.9% of the variance in walking speed; impairments (ie, FEV1, upper leg pain, and lower extremity strength and range of motion) contributed an additional 5.5%. Thus, both nonmodifiable (ie, contextual, height) and modifiable (ie, impairments, body mass index, physical activity) factors contributed to walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans. The study was conducted in a single geographic area and

  6. Effects of Appearance-Related Testing on Ethnically Diverse Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Johnson, Kim K. P.

    2007-01-01

    The primary research question in this study was whether adolescents' experiences of and responses to teasing were related to the content of a tease and to particular ethnicity. Caucasian (n = 27) and African American adolescents (n = 22) between 12 to 17 years of age were asked to write about an experience of being teased regarding an aspect of…

  7. Beyond Johnny Appleseed: Learning English as a New Language through Ethnically Diverse Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giambo, Debra; Gonzales, Maria Elizabeth; Szecsi, Tunde; Thirumurthy, Vidya

    2006-01-01

    The linguistic, cultural, and ethnic mixture in many countries, including the United States, is changing rapidly and varies significantly from such old standbys as "Johnny Appleseed" or "Dick and Jane." Learning to communicate effectively in a new language involves gaining familiarity with the present-day culture of the country in which one…

  8. The Relationship between Ethnic Diversity and Classroom Disruption in the Context of Migration Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veerman, Gert-Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between ethnic school composition and classroom disruption in secondary education in the context of migration policies. We measured classroom disruption using students' reports from 3533 schools in 20 countries provided by cross-national PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 data. We employ…

  9. Awareness of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Japanese Junior High Schools' English Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Mieko

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how cultural attitudes about race and ethnicity are taught in the English language textbooks as a part of Japan's school curriculum. A content analysis of Japanese junior high school textbooks on English as a foreign language published from 1987 to 2002 was conducted. Four hypotheses were investigated relating to 1) the…

  10. 6-n-Propylthiouracil sensitivity and obesity status among ethnically diverse children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective was to examine the relationship of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity to BMI while statistically controlling for demographic characteristics in two age groups of children: 9-10 years and 17-18 years (n 1551). Cross-sectional design with a multi-ethnic (White, African-American, Hispani...

  11. Stereotype Threat and School Belonging in Adolescents from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…

  12. Iowa College Student Aid Commission Student and Faculty Ethnic Diversity Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Keith; Girardi, Anthony G.; Griffin, Mary Beth

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results of the Iowa College Student Aid Commission's annual survey of colleges and universities in Iowa concerning racial and ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. The report summarizes trends in student enrollment, state-sponsored student financial aid, and faculty appointments by racial and ethnic…

  13. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  14. Delivering "Virtual Ethnicity" Drama: A Pedagogical Design for Bridging Digital and Diversity Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, E. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This study examines an original dramaturgical method for creating virtual world experience called virtual world drama. The instructional focus is improving students' aptitude for analyzing ethnic identity by instilling both conceptual and multicultural competency. An exploratory research method is used, relying on observation (disguised and…

  15. The Athletic Experiences of Ethnically Diverse Girls. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 131.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Jeanne

    This digest discusses how race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and area of residence, whether urban, suburban, or rural, impact girls' sports experiences. The social context of girls' lives shapes their sports choices and opportunities, with financial restraints often restricting African American girls' opportunities. When access to sports is…

  16. Dietary Behaviors of a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Overweight and Obese Californians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorkin, Dara H.; Billimek, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine racial/ethnic differences in the dietary behaviors of overweight or obese adults using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Method: Data were obtained from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based sample of noninstitutionalized adults in California. The sample included 26,721 adults aged 18…

  17. Welcome to the Celtic Tiger? Teacher Responses to Immigration and Increasing Ethnic Diversity in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Dympna

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research in the area of ethnicity and schooling is conducted in countries with a long tradition of immigration. The rapidity of social change in Ireland at a time of unprecedented economic growth is such that many schools, while still "mainly white", are grappling with the particular challenges that are posed by new patterns…

  18. Awareness of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Japanese Junior High Schools' English Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Mieko

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how cultural attitudes about race and ethnicity are taught in the English language textbooks as a part of Japan's school curriculum. A content analysis of Japanese junior high school textbooks on English as a foreign language published from 1987 to 2002 was conducted. Four hypotheses were investigated relating to 1) the…

  19. Beyond Johnny Appleseed: Learning English as a New Language through Ethnically Diverse Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giambo, Debra; Gonzales, Maria Elizabeth; Szecsi, Tunde; Thirumurthy, Vidya

    2006-01-01

    The linguistic, cultural, and ethnic mixture in many countries, including the United States, is changing rapidly and varies significantly from such old standbys as "Johnny Appleseed" or "Dick and Jane." Learning to communicate effectively in a new language involves gaining familiarity with the present-day culture of the country in which one…

  20. Dietary Behaviors of a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Overweight and Obese Californians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorkin, Dara H.; Billimek, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine racial/ethnic differences in the dietary behaviors of overweight or obese adults using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Method: Data were obtained from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based sample of noninstitutionalized adults in California. The sample included 26,721 adults aged 18…

  1. The Relationship between Ethnic Diversity and Classroom Disruption in the Context of Migration Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veerman, Gert-Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between ethnic school composition and classroom disruption in secondary education in the context of migration policies. We measured classroom disruption using students' reports from 3533 schools in 20 countries provided by cross-national PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 data. We employ…

  2. Effects of Appearance-Related Testing on Ethnically Diverse Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Johnson, Kim K. P.

    2007-01-01

    The primary research question in this study was whether adolescents' experiences of and responses to teasing were related to the content of a tease and to particular ethnicity. Caucasian (n = 27) and African American adolescents (n = 22) between 12 to 17 years of age were asked to write about an experience of being teased regarding an aspect of…

  3. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  4. Welcome to the Celtic Tiger? Teacher Responses to Immigration and Increasing Ethnic Diversity in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Dympna

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research in the area of ethnicity and schooling is conducted in countries with a long tradition of immigration. The rapidity of social change in Ireland at a time of unprecedented economic growth is such that many schools, while still "mainly white", are grappling with the particular challenges that are posed by new patterns…

  5. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  6. A Call for Diversity: The Need to Recruit and Retain Ethnic Minority Students in Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy with particular attention to increasing the representation of students of color in art therapy training programs. However, little to no data exists on how art therapy programs are actively recruiting for diversity. Diversity in the classroom can offer novel perspectives on…

  7. A Call for Diversity: The Need to Recruit and Retain Ethnic Minority Students in Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy with particular attention to increasing the representation of students of color in art therapy training programs. However, little to no data exists on how art therapy programs are actively recruiting for diversity. Diversity in the classroom can offer novel perspectives on…

  8. Racial/Ethnic and Income Differences in Obesity Among Older Adults: The Role of Leisure-time Physical Activity and Neighborhood Social Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chia-Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have examined the associations among social cohesion, physical activity, and obesity in older adults. This study explored the influences of social cohesion and leisure-time physical activity on obesity in older adults, and tested whether these relationships varied by race/ethnicity and income level. A cross-sectional analysis of adults in the 2013 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) who were over 65 years of age (N = 7714) was used. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the impacts of social cohesion and physical activity on obesity, and the relative risks (RR) were reported. The median age was 73 years old, and 59.8% of respondents were female; 23.8% met the recommended level of moderate physical activity. Neighborhood social cohesion was not associated with obesity for older adults. Meeting the recommended level of vigorous physical activity was related to a lower probability of obesity only for older Hispanic adults (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.50), while older adults were less likely to be obese if they met the recommended level of moderate physical activity. Increasing the level of physical activity may profoundly reduce the probability of obesity for older adults. Moreover, the results implied the need for future physical activity interventions for minorities.

  9. The Home Environment and Family Asthma Management Among Ethnically Diverse Urban Youth with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Amy F.; Kopel, Sheryl J.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Seifer, Ronald; Esteban, Cynthia; Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Klein, Robert; Fritz, Gregory K.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    While the pediatric psychology literature underscores the importance of illness related aspects of the home environment for optimal family asthma management, little is known about the contribution of more global aspects of the home environment (e.g., family routines/schedule, quality of stimulation provided to child) to asthma management in ethnic minority and urban families. The goals of this study were to: 1) explore ethnic/racial group differences in global and specific dimensions of home environment quality among Latino, non-Latino white (NLW), and African American urban children with asthma; and 2) examine associations between the quality and quantity of support and stimulation within the home environment, as measured by the HOME Inventory, and family asthma management in this sample. Urban, low-income children (N=131) between the ages of 6 and 13 with asthma and a primary caregiver participated in a multi-modal assessment including an in home observation and semi structured interviews to assess aspects of home environment quality and family asthma management practices. While controlling for poverty, no ethnic group differences were found in the global home environment; however, there were significant differences in specific dimensions (e.g. Family Participation in Developmentally Stimulating Experiences, and Aspects of the Physical Environment) of home environment quality. Across the whole sample, home environment quality predicted family asthma management. When examining this association for specific ethnic groups, this finding did not hold for the Latino subsample. The results highlight the need to consider ethnic group differences in non-illness specific aspects of the home environment when addressing families’ asthma management strategies. PMID:23795627

  10. Barriers to care in an ethnically diverse publicly insured population: is health care reform enough?

    PubMed

    Call, Kathleen T; McAlpine, Donna D; Garcia, Carolyn M; Shippee, Nathan; Beebe, Timothy; Adeniyi, Titilope Cole; Shippee, Tetyana

    2014-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides for the expansion of Medicaid, which may result in as many as 16 million people gaining health insurance coverage. Yet it is unclear to what extent this coverage expansion will meaningfully increase access to health care. The objective of the study was to identify barriers that may persist even after individuals are moved to insurance and to explore racial/ethnic variation in problems accessing health care services. Data are from a 2008 cross-sectional mixed-mode survey (mail with telephone follow-up in 4 languages), which is unique in measuring a comprehensive set of barriers and in focusing on several select understudied ethnic groups. We examine racial/ethnic variation in cost and coverage, access, and provider-related barriers. The study adhered to a community-based participatory research process. Surveys were obtained from a stratified random sample of adults enrolled in Minnesota Health Care Programs who self-report ethnicity as white, African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, or Somali (n=1731). All enrollees reported barriers to getting needed care; enrollees from minority cultural groups (Hmong and American Indian in particular) were more likely to experience problems than whites. Barriers associated with cost and coverage were the most prevalent, with 72% of enrollees reporting 1 or more of these problems. Approximately 63% of enrollees reported 1 or more access barriers. Provider-related barriers were the least prevalent (about 29%) yet revealed the most pervasive disparities. Many challenges to care persist for publicly insured adults, particularly minority racial and ethnic groups. The ACA expansion of Medicaid, although necessary, is not sufficient for achieving improved and equitable access to care.

  11. The home environment and family asthma management among ethnically diverse urban youth with asthma.

    PubMed

    Sato, Amy F; Kopel, Sheryl J; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Seifer, Ronald; Esteban, Cynthia; Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Klein, Robert; Fritz, Gregory K; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2013-06-01

    Although the pediatric psychology literature underscores the importance of illness-related aspects of the home environment for optimal family asthma management, little is known about the contribution of more global aspects of the home environment (e.g., family routines/schedule, quality of stimulation provided to child) to asthma management in ethnic minority and urban families. The goals of this study were to (a) explore ethnic/racial group differences in global and specific dimensions of home environment quality among Latino, non-Latino White (NLW), and African American urban children with asthma; and (b) examine associations between the quality and quantity of support and stimulation within the home environment, as measured by the HOME Inventory, and family asthma management. Urban, low-income children (N = 131) between the ages of 6 and 13 with asthma and a primary caregiver participated in a multimodal assessment, including an in-home observation and semistructured interviews to assess aspects of home environment quality and family asthma management practices. While controlling for poverty, no ethnic group differences were found in the global home environment; however, there were significant differences in specific dimensions (e.g., Family Participation in Developmentally Stimulating Experiences, and Aspects of the Physical Environment) of home environment quality. Across the whole sample, home environment quality predicted family asthma management. When examining this association for specific ethnic groups, this finding did not hold for the Latino subsample. The results highlight the need to consider ethnic group differences in non-illness-specific aspects of the home environment when addressing families' asthma management strategies.

  12. Sun-Exposed Skin Color Is Associated with Changes in Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Racially/Ethnically Diverse Children.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Caleigh M; Van Rompay, Maria I; Au, Lauren E; Gordon, Catherine M; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2016-04-01

    UVB light from the sun increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, but this relation may depend on skin pigmentation among different racial/ethnic groups. We used quantitative measures of exposed (facultative) and unexposed (constitutive) skin color to examine relations between serum 25(OH)D concentration, tanning, race/ethnicity, and constitutive skin color over the summer, following winter vitamin D supplementation. The subjects (n= 426, mean age 11.7 ± 1.4 y, 51% female) were racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (57% non-white/Caucasian) enrolled in a 6-mo vitamin D supplementation trial (October-December to April-June). In this secondary analysis, measures of serum 25(OH)D concentration and skin color, with the use of reflectance colorimetry, were taken over a 6-mo period after supplementation, from pre-summer (April-June) to post-summer (September-December). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate longitudinal relations. Following supplementation, mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 29.3 ± 9.5 ng/mL but fell to 25.6 ± 7.9 ng/mL (P< 0.0001) by the end of summer. The decrease in white/Caucasian children was less than in black/African American children (P< 0.01) and tended to be less than in Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and multiracial/other children (P= 0.19-0.50) despite similar changes in sun-exposed skin color among all groups. Tanning was significantly associated with post-summer serum 25(OH)D concentration (β = -0.15,P< 0.0001), as was race/ethnicity (P= 0.0002), but the later association disappeared after adjusting for constitutive skin color. Tanning significantly contributed to serum 25(OH)D concentration over the summer, independent of race/ethnicity, but was not sufficient to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentration attained with supplementation. Much of the variation in serum 25(OH)D concentration between racial/ethnic groups may be explained by skin color. This trial was registered atclinicaltrials.govasNCT01537809. © 2016

  13. Prospective evaluation of radiation-induced skin toxicity in a race/ethnically diverse breast cancer population.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jean L; Takita, Cristiane; Reis, Isildinha M; Zhao, Wei; Lee, Eunkyung; Nelson, Omar L; Hu, Jennifer J

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated predictors of radiation-induced skin toxicity in a prospective study of a tri-racial/ethnic breast cancer population. We evaluated patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment variables in the first 392 patients in a prospective study assessing radiation-induced skin toxicity. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential predictors of skin toxicity. The study consists of 59 non-Hispanic whites (NHW; 15%), 241 Hispanic Whites (HW; 62%), 79 black or African Americans (AA; 20%), and 13 others (3%). Overall, 48% developed grade 0-1 skin toxicity, 49.8% grade 2, and 2.2% grade 3 by the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) scale. Twenty-one percent developed moist desquamation. In multivariate analysis, higher body mass index (BMI; OR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.15, 3.82), higher disease stage (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.06, 3.11), ER-positive/PR-negative status (OR = 2.74; 95%CI = 1.26, 5.98), and conventionally fractionated regimens (OR = 3.25; 95%CI = 1.76, 6.01) were significantly associated with higher skin toxicity grade after adjustment for age, race, ethnicity, ER status, and breast volume. B MI specifically predicted for moist desquamation, but not degree of erythema. In this racially and ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients receiving radiation to the intact breast, risk factors including BMI, disease stage, and conventionally fractionated radiation predicted for higher skin toxicity grade, whereas age, race, ethnicity, and breast volume did not. BMI specifically predicted for moist desquamation, suggesting that preventive measures to address this particular outcome should be investigated. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to Measure Depression among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Frederick Y; Chung, Henry; Kroenke, Kurt; Delucchi, Kevin L; Spitzer, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) is a well-validated, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders— Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criterion-based measure for diagnosing depression, assessing severity and monitoring treatment response. The performance of most depression scales including the PHQ-9, however, has not been rigorously evaluated in different racial/ethnic populations. Therefore, we compared the factor structure of the PHQ-9 between different racial/ethnic groups as well as the rates of endorsement and differential item functioning (DIF) of the 9 items of the PHQ-9. The presence of DIF would indicate that responses to an individual item differ significantly between groups, controlling for the level of depression. MEASUREMENTS A combined dataset from 2 separate studies of 5,053 primary care patients including non-Hispanic white (n =2,520), African American (n =598), Chinese American (n =941), and Latino (n =974) patients was used for our analysis. Exploratory principal components factor analysis was used to derive the factor structure of the PHQ-9 in each of the 4 racial/ethnic groups. A generalized Mantel-Haenszel statistic was used to test for DIF. RESULTS One main factor that included all PHQ-9 items was found in each racial/ethnic group with α coefficients ranging from 0.79 to 0.89. Although endorsement rates of individual items were generally similar among the 4 groups, evidence of DIF was found for some items. CONCLUSIONS Our analyses indicate that in African American, Chinese American, Latino, and non-Hispanic white patient groups the PHQ-9 measures a common concept of depression and can be effective for the detection and monitoring of depression in these diverse populations. PMID:16808734

  15. Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to measure depression among racially and ethnically diverse primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Frederick Y; Chung, Henry; Kroenke, Kurt; Delucchi, Kevin L; Spitzer, Robert L

    2006-06-01

    The Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) is a well-validated, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criterion-based measure for diagnosing depression, assessing severity and monitoring treatment response. The performance of most depression scales including the PHQ-9, however, has not been rigorously evaluated in different racial/ethnic populations. Therefore, we compared the factor structure of the PHQ-9 between different racial/ethnic groups as well as the rates of endorsement and differential item functioning (DIF) of the 9 items of the PHQ-9. The presence of DIF would indicate that responses to an individual item differ significantly between groups, controlling for the level of depression. A combined dataset from 2 separate studies of 5,053 primary care patients including non-Hispanic white (n=2,520), African American (n=598), Chinese American (n=941), and Latino (n=974) patients was used for our analysis. Exploratory principal components factor analysis was used to derive the factor structure of the PHQ-9 in each of the 4 racial/ethnic groups. A generalized Mantel-Haenszel statistic was used to test for DIF. One main factor that included all PHQ-9 items was found in each racial/ethnic group with alpha coefficients ranging from 0.79 to 0.89. Although endorsement rates of individual items were generally similar among the 4 groups, evidence of DIF was found for some items. Our analyses indicate that in African American, Chinese American, Latino, and non-Hispanic white patient groups the PHQ-9 measures a common concept of depression and can be effective for the detection and monitoring of depression in these diverse populations.

  16. Haplotype diversity of 16 Y-chromosomal STRs in three main ethnic populations (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuet Meng; Perumal, Revathi; Keat, Phoon Yoong; Kuehn, Daniel L C

    2007-03-22

    We have analyzed 16 Y-STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) from the non-recombining region of the human Y-chromosome in 980 male individuals from three main ethnic populations in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) using the AmpFlSTR((R)) Y-filertrade mark (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three ethnic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 88.7% of the haplotypic variation is found within population and 11.3% is between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.113, p=0.000). This study has revealed Y-chromosomes with null alleles at several Y-loci, namely DYS458, DYS392, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS439, DYS448 and Y-GATA H4; and several occurrences of duplications at the highly polymorphic DYS385 loci. Some of these deleted loci were in regions of the Y(q) arm that have been implicated in the occurrence of male infertility.

  17. Combining genetics and population history in the study of ethnic diversity in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Black, M L; Wise, C A; Wang, W; Bittles, A H

    2006-06-01

    Genomic data have increasingly been used to complement linguistic, archeological, and anthropological evidence in reconstructing the origins and migratory patterns of modern humans. East Asia is a particular hotspot of human migration, especially mainland China, where a large number of human fossils have been unearthed and more than 20% of the world's population now resides. There are 56 officially recognized ethnic populations (minzu) in China. In the present study we investigated the ancestry and genetic diversity of nine populations: the majority Han of Liaoning Province; the Miao, Yao, Kucong, and Tibetan communities of Yunnan Province in southwest China; and four Muslim populations, the Hui, Bonan, Dongxiang, and Sala from central and northern China. We used both biparental and uniparental markers to determine patterns of diversity at autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosome loci. The study populations displayed several paternal origins but restricted maternal ancestries. From the Y-chromosome data in particular, major demographic changes, such as the Neolithic population expansion and more recent historical events including migration along the Silk Road, could be inferred. Specific aspects of the internal structure and organization of the study populations, including endogamy and consanguinity, were uncovered using autosomal markers. However, we encountered interpretive problems in terms of the definition of the present-day ethnic study populations in China, which appear to reflect past and present political as well as genetic influences.

  18. Physical activity for an ethnically diverse sample of endometrial cancer survivors: a needs assessment and pilot intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Amerigo; Moadel-Robblee, Alyson; Garber, Carol Ewing; Kuo, Dennis; Goldberg, Gary; Einstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity (PA) behavior, needs and preferences for underserved, ethnically diverse women with a history of endometrial cancer (EC). Methods Women with a history of EC (41 non-Hispanic black, 40 non-Hispanic white, and 18 Hispanic) completed a needs assessment during their regular follow-up appointments at Montefiore Medical Center in Bronx, NY, USA. An 8-week pilot PA intervention based on the results of the needs assessment was conducted with 5 EC survivors. Results Mean body mass index (BMI) among the 99 respondents was 34.1±7.6 kg/m2, and 66% did not exercise regularly. Self-described weight status was significantly lower than actual BMI category (p<0.001). Of the 86% who were interested in joining an exercise program, 95% were willing to attend at least once weekly. The primary motivations were improving health, losing weight, and feeling better physically. Despite the high interest in participation, volunteer rate was very low (8%). However, adherence to the 8-week pilot PA intervention was high (83%), and there were no adverse events. Body weight decreased in all pilot participants. Conclusion These data show that ethnically diverse EC survivors have a great need for, and are highly interested in, PA interventions. However, greater care needs to be taken to assess and identify barriers to increase participation in such programs. PMID:25872894

  19. Longitudinal study of cardiometabolic risk from early adolescence to early adulthood in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Seeromanie; Silva, Maria João; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Enayat, Zinat E; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Read, Ursula M; Cruickshank, J Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine influences of adiposity from early adolescence to early 20s on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the multiethnic Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. Methods In 2002–2003, 6643 11–13-year-olds from 51 London schools participated at baseline, and 4785 were seen again at 14–16 years. Recently, 665 (97% of invited) participated in pilot follow-up at 21–23 years, with biological and psychosocial measures and blood biomarkers (only at 21–23 years). Regression models examined interplay between ethnicity, adiposity and CVD. Results At 21–23 years, ∼30–40% were overweight. About half of the sample had completed a degree with little ethnic variation despite more socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescence among ethnic minorities. Regardless of ethnicity, overweight increased more steeply between 14–16 years and 21–23 years than between 11–13 years and 14–16 years. More overweight among Black Caribbean and Black African females, lower systolic blood pressure (sBP) among Indian females and Pakistani/Bangladeshi males compared with White UK peers, persisted from 11–13 years. At 21–23 years, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was higher among Black Caribbean females, total cholesterol higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol lower among Pakistani/Bangladeshis. Overweight was associated with a ∼+2 mm Hg rise in sBP between 11–13 years and 21–23 years. Adiposity measures at 11–13 years were related to allostatic load (a cluster of several risk markers), HbA1c and HDL cholesterol at 21–23 years. Ethnic patterns in CVD biomarkers remained after adjustments. Conclusions Adolescent adiposity posed significant risks at 21–23 years, a period in the lifespan generally ignored in cardiovascular studies, when ethnic/gender variations in CVD are already apparent. PMID:27979836

  20. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17–19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs’ psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents’ self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20446024