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Sample records for ethology

  1. Homology, Analogy, and Ethology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Colin G.

    1984-01-01

    Because the main criterion of structural homology (the principle of connections) does not exist for behavioral homology, the utility of the ethological concept of homology has been questioned. The confidence with which behavioral homologies can be claimed varies inversely with taxonomic distance. Thus, conjectures about long-range phylogenetic…

  2. Homology, Analogy, and Ethology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Colin G.

    1984-01-01

    Because the main criterion of structural homology (the principle of connections) does not exist for behavioral homology, the utility of the ethological concept of homology has been questioned. The confidence with which behavioral homologies can be claimed varies inversely with taxonomic distance. Thus, conjectures about long-range phylogenetic…

  3. Attachment, ethology and adult psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sable, Pat

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses Bowlby's development of an ethological-evolutionary perspective, and its implications for psychotherapy with adults. According to Bowlby, attachment behavior is instinctive, having emerged throughout the course of evolution to ensure protection and actual survival. Because the environment affects how attachment behavior unfolds, adverse experiences can divert developmental pathways away from resilience, toward dysfunction and emotional distress. Psychotherapy offers the experience of an attachment relationship. Part of the process involves helping patients understand that feelings such as fear and anxiety are inherent responses to safeguard affectional relationships when they are endangered. As working models are re-appraised and revised, there is emphasis on clarifying the attachment experiences that may have intensified these natural feelings.

  4. [The relevance of ethology for psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Brüne, M

    1998-07-01

    Darwin's evolutionary theory was the starting point for ethology, associated with an impact on scientific psychiatry. Psychiatry and ethology have common scientific and methodological prerequisites: inductive and deductive methods and "gestalt theory" as a basis for observing and describing behaviour patterns with subsequent causal analysis. There have been early endeavours to anchor ethological thinking in psychiatry but this tendency did not prevail for the following reasons: on the one hand, the methodology of ethology was immature or not applicable to man, whereas on the other hand the dominating experiential phenomenological school of Karl Jaspers and Kurt Schneider stressed the privileged position of human thinking, perception, and feeling. These fundamental categories of human existence did not appear amenable to any causal ethological analysis. Psychiatry and evolutionary biology were linked in an atrocious manner during the Nazi regime, both being abused for propaganda purposes and genocide. More recently, there is a "reconciliation" of both disciplines. In psychiatric nosology, operational, behaviour-oriented diagnostic systems have been introduced; ethology has opened up for theories of learning; new subsections like human ethology and sociobiology have evolved. The seeming incompatibility of (behavioural) biological psychiatry and experiential phenomenological psychopathology may be overcome on the basis of Konrad Lorenz' evolutionary epistemology. The functional analysis of human feeling and behaviour in psychotic disorders on the basis of Jackson's theory of the evolution and dissolution of the nervous system may serve as an example. The significance of an "ethological psychiatry" for diagnostic and therapeutical processes of psychiatric disorders derive from prognostic possibilities and the analysis of non-verbal communication in therapist-patient-interactions, but have not yet been systematically investigated.

  5. An Experiment in Teaching Human Ethology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Students of ethology are often confused about the validity of arguments based on comparisons of animal and human behavior. The problem can be dealt with purely theoretically or through observational or experimental studies of human behavior. Some results of using these two methods are described and discussed. (Author/MA)

  6. Ethology and the biological correlates of mood.

    PubMed

    Cyrulnik, Boris

    2005-01-01

    The insights of ethology-the science of animal behavior from a biological and psychological point of view-were incorporated in the 1950s by the British developmental psychiatrist, John Bowlby, into his attachment theory, which argued that a secure affective base in infancy was critical to the normal development of perception, cognition, learning, and emotion, in addition to that of physical parameters. The theory was illustrated by Harlow's pioneering experiments with baby monkeys: those raised with a wire-frame "mother" failed to thrive, compared with the more normal development of those deriving comfort contact from a terry-cloth surrogate. Modern neuroscience techniques have confirmed that the absence of sensory stimulation during periods of maximal synaptic expansion provides the substrate for a subsequent mood disorder. Ethology offers a novel "nature plus nurture" approach to the development of abnormal mood, as well as a target for treatment.

  7. Ethological approach to delayed language acquistion.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, G J

    1975-09-01

    Language is initially a social or communicative event that develops from the nonverbal communication system existing between caretaker and child. While language in an adult speaker is used for reasons other than social communication, the communication function is the primary source for language acquistion, other language functions being derivatives of this basic function. A few studies were cited which suggest that the normal process of language acquisition may be conceived heuristically in terms of an ethological or psychosoical framework. This ethological approach to language acquisition suggests that noncognitive, interpersonal factors may be major contributors to the slow pace of language development among mentally retarded and autistic children. The implications of this approach were discussed in terms of the design of language-intervention programs.

  8. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam

    2016-08-01

    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  9. The Development of Early Social Interaction--An Ethological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omark, Donald R.; Edelman, Murray S.

    The ethological approach may become an important methodology in the developmental studies of children. The ethological approach takes into consideration the total world of the child, social and cognitive, when the child's development in that world is analyzed. Information can be obtained both from studies of other primates (for example, the study…

  10. Affect induction through musical sounds: an ethological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Huron, David

    2015-01-01

    How does music induce or evoke feeling states in listeners? A number of mechanisms have been proposed for how sounds induce emotions, including innate auditory responses, learned associations and mirror neuron processes. Inspired by ethology, it is suggested that the ethological concepts of signals, cues and indices offer additional analytic tools for better understanding induced affect. It is proposed that ethological concepts help explain why music is able to induce only certain emotions, why some induced emotions are similar to the displayed emotion (whereas other induced emotions differ considerably from the displayed emotion), why listeners often report feeling mixed emotions and why only some musical expressions evoke similar responses across cultures. PMID:25646521

  11. Affect induction through musical sounds: an ethological perspective.

    PubMed

    Huron, David

    2015-03-19

    How does music induce or evoke feeling states in listeners? A number of mechanisms have been proposed for how sounds induce emotions, including innate auditory responses, learned associations and mirror neuron processes. Inspired by ethology, it is suggested that the ethological concepts of signals, cues and indices offer additional analytic tools for better understanding induced affect. It is proposed that ethological concepts help explain why music is able to induce only certain emotions, why some induced emotions are similar to the displayed emotion (whereas other induced emotions differ considerably from the displayed emotion), why listeners often report feeling mixed emotions and why only some musical expressions evoke similar responses across cultures.

  12. Labels, cognomes, and cyclic computation: an ethological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    For the past two decades, it has widely been assumed by linguists that there is a single computational operation, Merge, which is unique to language, distinguishing it from other cognitive domains. The intention of this paper is to progress the discussion of language evolution in two ways: (i) survey what the ethological record reveals about the uniqueness of the human computational system, and (ii) explore how syntactic theories account for what ethology may determine to be human-specific. It is shown that the operation Label, not Merge, constitutes the evolutionary novelty which distinguishes human language from non-human computational systems; a proposal lending weight to a Weak Continuity Hypothesis and leading to the formation of what is termed Computational Ethology. Some directions for future ethological research are suggested. PMID:26089809

  13. Ethology and the origins of behavioral endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The neurosciences embrace many disciplines, some long established, others of more recent origin. Behavioral endocrinology has only recently been fully acknowledged as a branch of neuroscience, distinctive for the determination of some of its exponents to remain integrative in the face of the many pressures towards reductionism that so dominate modern biology. One of its most characteristic features is a commitment to research at the whole-animal level on the physiological basis of complex behaviors, with a particular but by no means exclusive focus on reproductive behavior in all its aspects. The search for rigorously defined principles of behavioral organization that apply across species and the hormonal and neural mechanisms that sustain them underlies much of the research. Their aims are much like those put forth in the classical ethology of Lorenz and Tinbergen, one of the roots from which behavioral endocrinology has sprung. But there are others that can be traced back a century or more. Antecedents can be found in the work of such pioneers as Jakob von Uexküll, Jacques Loeb, Herbert Spencer Jennings, and particularly Charles Otis Whitman who launched a tradition that culminated in the classical contributions of Robert Hinde and Daniel Lehrman. William C. Young was another pioneer. His studies revolutionized thinking about the physiological mechanisms by which hormones influence behavior. An earlier potent influence was Karl Lashley who helped to shape the career of Frank Ambrose Beach who, more than anyone, has played a leading role in launching this new field.

  14. Ethological approach to autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Setz, Eleonore Z F; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2014-03-26

    The purpose of the study was to develop a new ethogram for the assessment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) and to test whether this instrument accurately distinguishes ASD participants (n = 61) from IDD participants (n = 61). An ethogram with 88 behavior elements was generated, including body postures, verbalizations, facial expressions, motor stereotypies, head postures, gaze behavior, gestures, and interpersonal distance. Significant differences were detected between both groups in classic ASD behaviors; in behaviors that are deficient in ASD according to established theoretical models, such as symbolic play, gaze direction, gaze following, and use of mental state language; in atypical behaviors that have also been described previously in ethological studies with ASD; and in the nonspecific behaviors of ASD, such as walk, look own body, explore, and cry. The predictive success of a diagnosis of ASD in the logistic regression model with the ethogram's factors was 98.4%. The results suggest that this ethogram is a powerful and useful tool for both the detailed study of the social behaviors of autistic children and adolescents, and for discriminating ASD and IDD.

  15. [Ethology of the family (natural models of family physiology)].

    PubMed

    Cyrulnik, B; Leroy, R

    1977-06-01

    The Ethology of the Family allows in a first step to collect naturals models of family organisations. It results an extreme diversity where all family forms exist: maternal, paternal, biparental, solitary. However we can find in this notion of socialitary peogramme where a certain mode of social operation is inscribed in the genetic code.

  16. Ethological concepts enhance the translational value of animal models.

    PubMed

    Peters, Suzanne M; Pothuizen, Helen H J; Spruijt, Berry M

    2015-07-15

    The translational value of animal models is an issue of ongoing discussion. We argue that 'Refinement' of animal experiments is needed and this can be achieved by exploiting an ethological approach when setting up and conducting experiments. Ethology aims to assess the functional meaning of behavioral changes, due to experimental manipulation or treatment, in animal models. Although the use of ethological concepts is particularly important for studies involving the measurement of animal behavior (as is the case for most studies on neuro-psychiatric conditions), it will also substantially benefit other disciplines, such as those investigating the immune system or inflammatory response. Using an ethological approach also involves using more optimal testing conditions are employed that have a biological relevance to the animal. Moreover, using a more biological relevant analysis of the data will help to clarify the functional meaning of the modeled readout (e.g. whether it is psychopathological or adaptive in nature). We advocate for instance that more behavioral studies should use animals in group-housed conditions, including the recording of their ultrasonic vocalizations, because (1) social behavior is an essential feature of animal models for human 'social' psychopathologies, such as autism and schizophrenia, and (2) social conditions are indispensable conditions for appropriate behavioral studies in social species, such as the rat. Only when taking these elements into account, the validity of animal experiments and, thus, the translation value of animal models can be enhanced.

  17. John Bowlby and ethology: an annotated interview with Robert Hinde.

    PubMed

    Bowlby, John

    2007-12-01

    From the 1950s, John Bowlby, one of the founders of attachment theory, was in personal and scientific contact with leading European scientists in the field of ethology (e.g., Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and especially Robert Hinde). In constructing his new theory on the nature of the bond between children and their caregivers, Bowlby profited highly from their new approach to (animal) behavior. Hinde and Tinbergen in their turn were influenced and inspired by Bowlby's new thinking. On the basis of extensive interviews with bowlby's colleague and lifelong friend Robert Hinde and on the basis of archival materials, both the relationship between John Bowlby and Robert Hinde and the cross-fertilization of ethology and attachment theory are described.

  18. "Don't tread on me": ethological perspectives on institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Senn, B J; Steiner, J R

    The concept of dignity is developed from an ethological perspective. Special attention is given to innate, phylogenetically programmed behavior, the role of releasers, the importance of rituals, and the fact that "management problems" in institutions are often cries for dignity. Observations of geriatric patients admitted to a nursing home are given, but it is believed that the generalizations apply equally well to institutionalization in other settings such as residential centers for young people, correctional facilities, or mental hospitals.

  19. The Quantitative Ethology of the Zebra Finch: A Study in Comparative Psychometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative ethogram was developed for the zebra finch, using one-zero focal animal sampling on an ethologically comprehensive checklist of 52 behavioral items, and it was assessed for interobserver reliability and construct validity. Applying the quantitative methods of psychometrics allows verification of ethological theory and testing of…

  20. Embryology, ethology and ecology of ontogenetic critical periods in fish.

    PubMed

    Browman, H I

    1989-01-01

    Overviews of critical period concepts, as they appear at several biological levels, are presented. In embryology, critical periods generally refer to restricted periods in development during which undifferentiated groups of cells can be induced to differentiate. In neurobiology, critical periods are those during which neural circuits are particularly plastic and subject to molding by cellular processes and by experience. The ethological critical period concept advances the idea that an individual's behavioral characteristics can be more strongly influenced by a given event (some stimulus) at one stage of development than at others. For example, this is the period during which young birds imprint upon their parent(s) and learn their species' songs, or during which young salmon imprint to the odor of their home streams. The fisheries science critical period, an ecological concept, refers to a restricted time in the early life history of fish during which there is massive mortality. For many fish, this event is generally considered the primary factor controlling the size of the adult population. The cause of variable mortality between years is thought to be a result of differential food availability and predation during a critical stage in early fish larval development. At each biological level of the critical period, spatial and temporal overlap between the developing organism and specific environmental input is essential. It is likely that critical periods in embryology, neurobiology and ethology are causally interrelated in a hierarchical manner and that they can be manifested as ecological critical periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. VTA dopaminergic neurons regulate ethologically relevant sleep–wake behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eban-Rothschild, Ada; Rothschild, Gideon; Giardino, William J; Jones, Jeff R; de Lecea, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons are critically involved in a variety of behaviors that rely on heightened arousal, but whether they directly and causally control the generation and maintenance of wakefulness is unknown. We recorded calcium activity using fiber photometry in freely behaving mice and found arousal-state-dependent alterations in VTA dopaminergic neurons. We used chemogenetic and optogenetic manipulations together with polysomnographic recordings to demonstrate that VTA dopaminergic neurons are necessary for arousal and that their inhibition suppresses wakefulness, even in the face of ethologically relevant salient stimuli. Nevertheless, before inducing sleep, inhibition of VTA dopaminergic neurons promoted goal-directed and sleep-related nesting behavior. Optogenetic stimulation, in contrast, initiated and maintained wakefulness and suppressed sleep and sleep-related nesting behavior. We further found that different projections of VTA dopaminergic neurons differentially modulate arousal. Collectively, our findings uncover a fundamental role for VTA dopaminergic circuitry in the maintenance of the awake state and ethologically relevant sleep-related behaviors. PMID:27595385

  2. Cultural ethology as a new approach of interplanetary crew's behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole; Giner Abati, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, during short-term and medium-term orbital flights, human beings developed new spatial and motor behaviors to compensate for the lack of terrestrial gravity. Past space ethological studies have shown adaptive strategies to the tri-dimensional environment, with the goal of optimizing relationships between the astronaut and unusual sensorial-motor conditions. During a long-term interplanetary journey, crewmembers will have to develop new individual and social behaviors to adapt, far from earth, to isolation and confinement and as a result to extreme conditions of living and working together. Recent space psychological studies pointed out that heterogeneity is a feature of interplanetary crews, based on personality, gender mixing, internationality and diversity of backgrounds. Intercultural issues could arise between space voyagers. As a new approach we propose to emphasize the behavioral strategies of human groups' adaptation to this new multicultural dimension of the environment.

  3. Big behavioral data: psychology, ethology and the foundations of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Paton, Joseph J; Kampff, Adam R; Costa, Rui M; Mainen, Zachary F

    2014-11-01

    Behavior is a unifying organismal process where genes, neural function, anatomy and environment converge and interrelate. Here we review the current state and discuss the future effect of accelerating advances in technology for behavioral studies, focusing on rodents as an example. We frame our perspective in three dimensions: the degree of experimental constraint, dimensionality of data and level of description. We argue that 'big behavioral data' presents challenges proportionate to its promise and describe how these challenges might be met through opportunities afforded by the two rival conceptual legacies of twentieth century behavioral science, ethology and psychology. We conclude that, although 'more is not necessarily better', copious, quantitative and open behavioral data has the potential to transform and unify these two disciplines and to solidify the foundations of others, including neuroscience, but only if the development of new theoretical frameworks and improved experimental designs matches the technological progress.

  4. Ethological and experimental approaches to behavior analysis: implications for ecotoxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, J; MacPhail, R C

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory research in toxicology has progressed far beyond reliance on measures of mortality to make use of sophisticated behavioral preparations that can evaluate the consequences of sublethal toxicant exposure. In contrast, field studies have not evolved as rapidly. Approaches developed by experimental psychologists and ethologists provide powerful and complementary methodologies to the study of environmental pollutants and behavior. Observational data collection techniques can easily be used to broaden the number of questions addressed regarding sublethal exposure to toxic agents in both field and laboratory environments. This paper provides a background in such techniques, including construction of ethograms and observational methodologies, and the use of laboratory analogues to naturally occurring activities such as social behavior, predation, and foraging. Combining ethological and experimental approaches in behavior analysis can result in a more comprehensive evaluation of the effects of environmental contaminants on behavior. PMID:9182036

  5. Gender dimorphism of a visual anomaly: a deductive prediction based on an ethological model.

    PubMed

    Mackey, W C; Johnson, J W

    1994-06-01

    Using an ethological model, we deduced a prediction concerning gender dimorphism in a visual anomaly from a re-construction of the phylogeny of man. The prediction, which is based on four premises, is that deficits in distance vision (myopia) would be more prevalent in contemporaneous women than in men. Data collected in a de facto double-blind method support the prediction, and thereby support the unique efficacy in using an ethological model to understand facets of the contemporary human condition.

  6. On temporal structure of human hiccups: ethology and chronobiology.

    PubMed

    Anthoney, T R; Anthoney, S L; Anthoney, D J

    1978-01-01

    During a study on the phylogeny and ontogeny of human hiccups, essentially all hiccups to occur over continuous periods of 3m - lly were recorded from 20 healthy people of either sex and various ages. Hiccups displayed considerable structure in time. If more than a few occurred together, they became "established" and a hiccup bout ensued, which did not stop until a certain "minimum" number of hiccups had occurred. For many subjects, two or more bouts frequently occurred on the same hiccup day, even though days on which bouts occurred were weeks apart. Number of hiccups was correlated with age, sex, reproductive status and stage of menstrual cycle, time of day, length of time since previous hiccup day, length of time since previous hiccup bout, and length of hiccup-hiccup intervals within a bout. Findings support the hypothesis that human hiccup is a "fixed action pattern" (FAP)--a central theoretical concept in ethology--and provide leads for further studies aimed at learning the biological function(s) of human hiccup and its possible homologues in other species.

  7. The prehistory of handedness: archaeological data and comparative ethology.

    PubMed

    Uomini, Natalie T

    2009-10-01

    Homo sapiens sapiens displays a species wide lateralised hand preference, with 85% of individuals in all populations being right-handed for most manual actions. In contrast, no other great ape species shows such strong and consistent population level biases, indicating that extremes of both direction and strength of manual laterality (i.e., species-wide right-handedness) may have emerged after divergence from the last common ancestor. To reconstruct the hand use patterns of early hominins, laterality is assessed in prehistoric artefacts. Group right side biases are well established from the Neanderthals onward, while patchy evidence from older fossils and artefacts indicates a preponderance of right-handed individuals. Individual hand preferences and group level biases can occur in chimpanzees and other apes for skilled tool use and food processing. Comparing these findings with human ethological data on spontaneous hand use reveals that the great ape clade (including humans) probably has a common effect at the individual level, such that a person can vary from ambidextrous to completely lateralised depending on the action. However, there is currently no theoretical model to explain this result. The degree of task complexity and bimanual complementarity have been proposed as factors affecting lateralisation strength. When primatology meets palaeoanthropology, the evidence suggests species-level right-handedness may have emerged through the social transmission of increasingly complex, bimanually differentiated, tool using activities.

  8. Research and teaching of dairy cattle well being: finding synergy between ethology and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Todd F; Leslie, Ken E; Lissemore, Kerry D; Millman, Suzanne T

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology is a tool used to identify and quantify risk factors that contribute to the state of health or disease. In addition, the maintenance of health and recognition of nonhuman animal welfare are both key principles of health management. Animal welfare and ethology provide important contributions to our ability to understand and improve health. As such, there can be a strong connection between the disciplines of ethology and epidemiology. This connection becomes a synergy through collaborative research. At the University of Guelph, and at other institutions, dairy health management research efforts involving collaborations between faculty trained in ethology and epidemiology have led to refined and improved research programs, improved access to funding, and a broader extension audience. Furthermore, these collaborations have enhanced teaching programs and facilitated the integration of ethology and welfare topics throughout the veterinary medical curriculum. The paper provides the basis and context for the synergy between ethology and epidemiology and describes examples of teaching and research programs built upon this synergy for the enhancement of dairy cattle well being.

  9. A software-based solution for research in space ethology.

    PubMed

    Tafforin, Carole; Gerebtzoff, Dimitri

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we present details of new applications of a software-based system for human ethological investigations in space missions and analogous settings. The studies address astronauts' motor adaptation to microgravity during short-term stays and the crews' social behavior in isolation and confinement over extended time periods. The current working hypotheses are based on differences observed in multicultural and mixed-gender crews for future interplanetary missions. In our approach, we use The Observer XT computer application to facilitate the observation, description, and quantification of behavioral data collected in parabolic flights, isolation and confinement campaigns, and polar missions. We implemented video recording protocols based on a goal-directed orientation task and daily life activities. The software integrates several steps: project management, definition of a coding scheme, annotation of videos linked to external data, data selection, and analysis. Numerical outcomes are presented. We show differences in motor skills between male (resting: 22%) and female (flexing/stretching: 22%) subjects in parabolic flights. We did not observe significant differences in social behavior by nationality during the isolation and confinement campaign. Notable findings include cultural grouping (20% of place preferences) and gender-based individuality (15%) during wintering at the polar base. The Observer XT may be a valuable tool to synchronize behavioral events with video files and bring forth visual representations and statistical analysis. It will be used for the next interdisciplinary project on the Mars 500 experiment to study physical ability, psychological capabilities, and behavioral performance over a 520-d stay in a simulated ground-based environment.

  10. Visual behaviours of neurologically impaired children with cerebral visual impairment: an ethological study

    PubMed Central

    Porro, G; Dekker, E; Van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Wittebol-Post, D; Schilder, M; Schenk-Rootlieb, A; Treffers, W

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Visual functions of neurologically impaired children with permanent cerebral visual impairment (CVI) can be difficult to determine. This study investigated the behavioural profile of CVI children by means of ethological observations in order to gain a better understanding of their visual functions.
METHODS—Video registrations of nine subjects who were unable to undergo more orthodox methods of visual function testing were observed and analysed by an ethologist.
RESULTS—A series of behaviours (direct signs) and supportive or confirming behavioural elements (indirect signs) indicating some visual perception in the children were found.
CONCLUSION—Detailed ethological observations of visual behaviour were shown to be useful for analysing visual functions of children with permanent CVI.

 Keywords: cerebral visual impairment; visual function; visual behaviour; ethological analysis PMID:9924323

  11. The hawk/goose story: the classical ethological experiments of Lorenz and Tinbergen, revisited.

    PubMed

    Schleidt, Wolfgang; Shalter, Michael D; Moura-Neto, Humberto

    2011-05-01

    We present a historical account of the story behind the famous hawk/goose experiments of Lorenz and Tinbergen in a wider context of cognitive ethology. We discuss their significance, for ethological experimentation in general, and specifically for understanding innate constraints on cognition. As examples of the continuing significance of the hawk/goose paradigm of selective habituation, we discuss its relation to "exposure therapy" of human phobias and the use of hawk silhouettes as deterrents for songbirds. Finally we rephrase Uexküll's thesis of taxon-specific worlds ("Umwelten") as a "Theory of World." 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Ethology, Interpersonal Neurobiology, and Play: Insights into the Evolutionary Origin of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The author considers the biological basis of the arts in human evolution, which she holds to be grounded in ethology and interpersonal neurobiology. In the arts, she argues, ordinary reality becomes extraordinary by attention-getting, emotionally salient devices that also appear in ritualized animal behaviors, many kinds of play, and the playful…

  13. Position Statement: "Functionally Appropriate Nonhuman Primate Environments" as an Alternative to the Term "Ethologically Appropriate Environments".

    PubMed

    Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Hasenau, John; Bohm, Rudolf P

    2017-01-01

    The American Society of Primatologists (ASP), the Association of Primate Veterinarians (APV), and the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) have come together to develop this position statement in which the term "functionally appropriate nonhuman primate environments" is proposed as a better descriptor and as an alternative to the previously used term, "ethologically appropriate environments" to describe environments that are suitable for nonhuman primates involved in biomedical research. In 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture requested comments on a petition which called for amending the Animal Welfare Act so that all research primates would be housed in "ethologically appropriate physical and social environments." We are critical of this term because: (1) it does not provide clarification beyond that in current regulatory language; (2) it does not provide for balance between animal welfare goals and the reasons why the primates are housed in captivity; (3) it discounts the adaptability that is inherent in the behavior of primates; (4) it conveys that duplication of features of the natural environment are required for suitable holding environments; (5) objective studies reveal that environments that appear to be more ethologically appropriate do not necessarily better meet the needs of animals; and (6) using the term "ethology" is inherently confusing. We propose that the term "functionally appropriate nonhuman primate environments" be used instead, as it emphasizes how environments work for nonhuman primates, it better describes current activities underway to improve nonhuman primate welfare, and the balance that is achieved between meeting the needs of the animals and the requirements of the research in which they are involved.

  14. Art as behaviour--an ethological approach to visual and verbal art, music and architecture.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Christa; Schiefenhövel, Wulf; Lehmann, Christian; Forster, Johanna; Apfelauer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the fine arts, architecture, music and literature have increasingly been examined from the vantage point of human ethology and evolutionary psychology. In 2011 the authors formed the research group 'Ethology of the Arts' concentrating on the evolution and biology of perception and behaviour. These novel approaches aim at a better understanding of the various facets represented by the arts by taking into focus possible phylogenetic adaptations, which have shaped the artistic capacities of our ancestors. Rather than culture specificity, which is stressed e.g. by cultural anthropology and numerous other disciplines, universal human tendencies to perceive, feel, think and behave are postulated. Artistic expressive behaviour is understood as an integral part of the human condition, whether expressed in ritual, visual, verbal or musical art. The Ethology of the Arts-group's research focuses on visual and verbal art, music and built environment/architecture and is designed to contribute to the incipient interdisciplinarity in the field of evolutionary art research.

  15. Towards an Ethological Animal Model of Depression? A Study on Horses

    PubMed Central

    Fureix, Carole; Jego, Patrick; Henry, Séverine; Lansade, Léa; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent reviews question current animal models of depression and emphasise the need for ethological models of mood disorders based on animals living under natural conditions. Domestic horses encounter chronic stress, including potential stress at work, which can induce behavioural disorders (e.g. “apathy”). Our pioneering study evaluated the potential of domestic horses in their usual environment to become an ethological model of depression by testing this models’ face validity (i.e. behavioural similarity with descriptions of human depressive states). Methodology/Principal Findings We observed the spontaneous behaviour of 59 working horses in their home environment, focusing on immobility bouts of apparent unresponsiveness when horses displayed an atypical posture (termed withdrawn hereafter), evaluated their responsiveness to their environment and their anxiety levels, and analysed cortisol levels. Twenty-four percent of the horses presented the withdrawn posture, also characterized by gaze, head and ears fixity, a profile that suggests a spontaneous expression of “behavioural despair”. When compared with control “non-withdrawn” horses from the same stable, withdrawn horses appeared more indifferent to environmental stimuli in their home environment but reacted more emotionally in more challenging situations. They exhibited lower plasma cortisol levels. Withdrawn horses all belonged to the same breed and females were over-represented. Conclusions/Significance Horse might be a useful potential candidate for an animal model of depression. Face validity of this model appeared good, and potential genetic input and high prevalence of these disorders in females add to the convergence. At a time when current animal models of depression are questioned and the need for novel models is expressed, this study suggests that novel models and biomarkers could emerge from ethological approaches in home environments. PMID:22761752

  16. Ethological strategies for defence in animals and humans: their role in some psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    1998-12-01

    Ethological strategies for defence in animals and humans are expressed as either aggression or flight behaviour. Aggression is employed by animals during intraspecific competition for resources, mate, territory and acquiring and maintaining social status. It also disperses individuals throughout the biotope. Flight behaviour is used to avoid a source of danger or harm, has both dynamic arid static forms, is phylogenetically very old and takes precedence over all other activities including social behaviour. Animals exposed to inescapable threats or attacks exhibit a characteristic defensive strategy, arrested flight, which consists of gaze-avoidance or cut-offs, cryptic postures such as immobility and covert surveillance of their surroundings. Arrested flight also occurs in social encounters when submission fails to reduce attacks, and in prey animals when escape from a predator is hampered. Ethological studies show that during interviews, depressed patients exhibit a pattern of non-verbal behaviour having all the hallmarks of arrested flight. Cut-off behaviour, which seeks to reduce the input of flight-evoking stimuli is especially evident in these patients but takes an extreme form, i.e. eye closure, in the gaze-profiles of paranoid patients. It is proposed that cut-offs always denote the presence of incipient flight and that arrested flight is a 'last measure' defensive strategy in response to inescapable proximal threat. It can arise in humans whenever their escape routes are hampered and characterizes the behaviour of patients suffering from depression. As in animals, different pathways may lead to arrested flight in humans. In humans, defensive mechanisms also operate at the mental level through putative ego defences, the psychological function of which is to preserve self-esteem by hindering the access of disturbing emotional material into awareness. It is suggested that they function ethologically as mental cut-offs analogous to the behavioural cut-offs in

  17. Some qualitative aspects of the social behaviour of autistic children: an ethological approach.

    PubMed

    van Engeland, H; Bodnàr, F A; Bolhuis, G

    1985-11-01

    Quantitative as well as qualitative aspects of the social behaviour of a group of autistic children (n = 20) and a group of primary school children (n = 20) were studied by means of an ethological method. Principal components analysis of the behaviour protocols made clear that the social behaviour of autistic children was less well organized, lacked the factor 'inferential behaviour' and was characterized by a factor 'stereotyped behaviour'. Although the autistic group showed less eye contact than the normal group, no further signs of any particular social avoidance tendency was found.

  18. EthoLog 2.2: a tool for the transcription and timing of behavior observation sessions.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, E B

    2000-08-01

    EthoLog is a tool that aids in the transcription and timing of behavior observation sessions--experimental or naturalistic, from video/audio tapes or registering real time. It was created with Visual Basic and runs on Windows (3.x/9x). The user types the key codes for the predefined behavioral categories, and EthoLog registers their sequence and timing and saves the resulting data in ASCII output files. A sequential analysis matrix can be generated from the sequential data. The output files may be edited, converted to plain text files for printing, or exported to a spreadsheet program, such as MS Excel, for further analyses.

  19. What ethologically based models have taught us about the neural systems underlying fear and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Canteras, N S; Mota-Ortiz, S R; Motta, S C

    2012-04-01

    Classical Pavlovian fear conditioning to painful stimuli has provided the generally accepted view of a core system centered in the central amygdala to organize fear responses. Ethologically based models using other sources of threat likely to be expected in a natural environment, such as predators or aggressive dominant conspecifics, have challenged this concept of a unitary core circuit for fear processing. We discuss here what the ethologically based models have told us about the neural systems organizing fear responses. We explored the concept that parallel paths process different classes of threats, and that these different paths influence distinct regions in the periaqueductal gray - a critical element for the organization of all kinds of fear responses. Despite this parallel processing of different kinds of threats, we have discussed an interesting emerging view that common cortical-hippocampal-amygdalar paths seem to be engaged in fear conditioning to painful stimuli, to predators and, perhaps, to aggressive dominant conspecifics as well. Overall, the aim of this review is to bring into focus a more global and comprehensive view of the systems organizing fear responses.

  20. Towards a developmental ethology: exploring Deleuze's contribution to the study of health and human development.

    PubMed

    Duff, Cameron

    2010-11-01

    This article explores the work of French thinker Gilles Deleuze and argues for the application of his central ideas to the study of health and human development. Deleuze's work furnishes a host of ontological and epistemological resources for such analysis, ushering in new methods and establishing new objects of inquiry. Of principal interest are the inventive conceptualizations of affect, multiplicity and relationality that Deleuze proposes, and the novel reading of subjectivity that these concepts support. This article introduces a developmental ethology in exploring Deleuze's contributions to the study of human development and its varied courses and processes. Taken from a Deleuzean perspective, human development will be characterized as a discontinuous process of affective and relational encounters. It will be argued further that human development is advanced in the provision of new affective sensitivities and new relational capacities. This course is broadly consistent with existing approaches to human development--particularly those associated with Amartya Sen's capabilities model--with the considerable advantage of offering a more viable working theory of the ways in which developmental capacities are acquired, cultivated and maintained. A provisional research agenda consistent with this developmental ethology is offered by way of conclusion.

  1. What ethologically based models have taught us about the neural systems underlying fear and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Canteras, N.S.; Mota-Ortiz, S.R.; Motta, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Classical Pavlovian fear conditioning to painful stimuli has provided the generally accepted view of a core system centered in the central amygdala to organize fear responses. Ethologically based models using other sources of threat likely to be expected in a natural environment, such as predators or aggressive dominant conspecifics, have challenged this concept of a unitary core circuit for fear processing. We discuss here what the ethologically based models have told us about the neural systems organizing fear responses. We explored the concept that parallel paths process different classes of threats, and that these different paths influence distinct regions in the periaqueductal gray - a critical element for the organization of all kinds of fear responses. Despite this parallel processing of different kinds of threats, we have discussed an interesting emerging view that common cortical-hippocampal-amygdalar paths seem to be engaged in fear conditioning to painful stimuli, to predators and, perhaps, to aggressive dominant conspecifics as well. Overall, the aim of this review is to bring into focus a more global and comprehensive view of the systems organizing fear responses. PMID:22450374

  2. An ethological analysis of the influence of perinatally-administered diazepam on murine behaviour.

    PubMed

    Grimm, V E; McAllister, K H; Brain, P F; Benton, D

    1984-01-01

    A number of studies have found that the perinatal exposure of rodents to various tranquilizing agents alters their adult behaviour. Given the known anti-aggressive influence of acute doses of diazepam it was hypothesized that, when administered during pregnancy, this drug would change the adult social behaviour. The social interactions of adult male mice whose mothers were treated with diazepam or appropriate controls during pregnancy were video-taped and subjected to an ethological analysis that involved counting the incidences of 43 distinct postures. Prenatal but not postnatal diazepam treatment was associated with a large increase in the incidence of the sideways offensive posture. No significant differences resulted, however, in the case of other postures; in general exposure to prenatal diazepam produced few changes in adult social behaviour.

  3. Tactile communication, cooperation, and performance: an ethological study of the NBA.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael W; Huang, Cassey; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-10-01

    Tactile communication, or physical touch, promotes cooperation between people, communicates distinct emotions, soothes in times of stress, and is used to make inferences of warmth and trust. Based on this conceptual analysis, we predicted that in group competition, physical touch would predict increases in both individual and group performance. In an ethological study, we coded the touch behavior of players from the National Basketball Association (NBA) during the 2008-2009 regular season. Consistent with hypotheses, early season touch predicted greater performance for individuals as well as teams later in the season. Additional analyses confirmed that touch predicted improved performance even after accounting for player status, preseason expectations, and early season performance. Moreover, coded cooperative behaviors between teammates explained the association between touch and team performance. Discussion focused on the contributions touch makes to cooperative groups and the potential implications for other group settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M; Queiroz, Claudio M

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.

  5. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M.; Queiroz, Claudio M.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress. PMID:26869895

  6. Neural representations of ethologically relevant hand/mouth synergies in the human precentral gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Desmurget, Michel; Richard, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Baraduc, Pierre; Szathmari, Alexandru; Mottolese, Carmine; Sirigu, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Complex motor responses are often thought to result from the combination of elemental movements represented at different neural sites. However, in monkeys, evidence indicates that some behaviors with critical ethological value, such as self-feeding, are represented as motor primitives in the precentral gyrus (PrG). In humans, such primitives have not yet been described. This could reflect well-known interspecies differences in the organization of sensorimotor regions (including PrG) or the difficulty of identifying complex neural representations in peroperative settings. To settle this alternative, we focused on the neural bases of hand/mouth synergies, a prominent example of human behavior with high ethological value. By recording motor- and somatosensory-evoked potentials in the PrG of patients undergoing brain surgery (2–60 y), we show that two complex nested neural representations can mediate hand/mouth actions within this structure: (i) a motor representation, resembling self-feeding, where electrical stimulation causes the closing hand to approach the opening mouth, and (ii) a motor–sensory representation, likely associated with perioral exploration, where cross-signal integration is accomplished at a cortical site that generates hand/arm actions while receiving mouth sensory inputs. The first finding extends to humans’ previous observations in monkeys. The second provides evidence that complex neural representations also exist for perioral exploration, a finely tuned skill requiring the combination of motor and sensory signals within a common control loop. These representations likely underlie the ability of human children and newborns to accurately produce coordinated hand/mouth movements, in an otherwise general context of motor immaturity. PMID:24706796

  7. Neural representations of ethologically relevant hand/mouth synergies in the human precentral gyrus.

    PubMed

    Desmurget, Michel; Richard, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Baraduc, Pierre; Szathmari, Alexandru; Mottolese, Carmine; Sirigu, Angela

    2014-04-15

    Complex motor responses are often thought to result from the combination of elemental movements represented at different neural sites. However, in monkeys, evidence indicates that some behaviors with critical ethological value, such as self-feeding, are represented as motor primitives in the precentral gyrus (PrG). In humans, such primitives have not yet been described. This could reflect well-known interspecies differences in the organization of sensorimotor regions (including PrG) or the difficulty of identifying complex neural representations in peroperative settings. To settle this alternative, we focused on the neural bases of hand/mouth synergies, a prominent example of human behavior with high ethological value. By recording motor- and somatosensory-evoked potentials in the PrG of patients undergoing brain surgery (2-60 y), we show that two complex nested neural representations can mediate hand/mouth actions within this structure: (i) a motor representation, resembling self-feeding, where electrical stimulation causes the closing hand to approach the opening mouth, and (ii) a motor-sensory representation, likely associated with perioral exploration, where cross-signal integration is accomplished at a cortical site that generates hand/arm actions while receiving mouth sensory inputs. The first finding extends to humans' previous observations in monkeys. The second provides evidence that complex neural representations also exist for perioral exploration, a finely tuned skill requiring the combination of motor and sensory signals within a common control loop. These representations likely underlie the ability of human children and newborns to accurately produce coordinated hand/mouth movements, in an otherwise general context of motor immaturity.

  8. Ethological experiments on human orientation behavior within a three-dimensional space--in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Tafforin, C; Campan, R

    1994-01-01

    In weightlessness situation the subject has to realize domestic and professional tasks comparable to those performed under normal gravity, whereas the "body tool" available to him has been placed in new conditions which require significant behavioral changes. The loss of weight, the disappearance or modification of some ideothetic and allothetic cues, notably the absence of gravity for the body's referential verticality have the most obvious effect of diversifying the astronaut's orientations. The vertical position is thus no longer the only one possible. This means that in order to efficiently accomplish his tasks, the subject has to invent new motor strategies which transform the quality of displacements and manipulations on the basis of the new orientation possibilities in a three-dimensional space. The previous ethological studies have dealt, in a global way, with the astronaut's motor behavior in microgravity, revealed according to an exhaustive quantitative description of the behavioral manifestions as a whole in terms of movement, posture and orientation. We now propose focusing more specifically on his spatial behavior in a three-dimensional space in microgravity. Such a situation is an exceptional experimental paradigm since at every moment, the relationships of the body referential to the surrounding space are infinitely variable: a man in space has to extract, process or use spatial information between the referentials of his moving body in all directions of the three-dimensional space and the fixed referentials of the physical environment of the space habitat. Furthermore, in the temporal dynamics, the previous ethological results showed that the behavioral events change according to the duration of the space mission, passing through different adaptative stages from a large behavioral diversity to complete behavioral reorganization. On the first day of his space mission the astronaut has however acquired experience of microgravity through his training

  9. The Mars-500 crew in daily life activities: An ethological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole

    2013-10-01

    A Mars mission is a new challenge for scientific investigators in the space field. What would be the behavioral profile of an interplanetary crew with long-duration social isolation and spatial restriction? The current study addresses this question with the first ethological data from the Mars-500 experiment. It took place in Moscow, Russia from June 3, 2010 to November 4, 2011. It was designed to simulate the living and working conditions of an isolated and confined crew over 250 days for reaching Mars, 30 days for Mars orbiting with Mars landing and 240 days for returning to Earth. The Mars-500 crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans and one Chinese. The Mars-500 facilities comprised four hermetically sealed, interconnected modules and a Martian surface module. We applied the ethological method based on observation, description and quantification of the individual and inter-individual behaviors in terms of personal actions, visual interactions, object interactions, body interactions, facial expressions and collateral acts. These events were scored on the Observer XT® software, from video recordings made every two weeks at breakfast time inside the habitat module. We found the following results: a diminishing collective time from the first phase corresponding to the 250-day trip to Mars to the second phase corresponding to the 240-day return to Earth; 35-day cycles then 70-day cycles of high duration of personal actions within these phases; periodic oscillations of duration of inter-personal actions; decreasing then increasing occurrences of facial expressions with temporal points of decrements, around day 159 and day 355, after 6 months and one year of simulation; increasing occurrences of collateral acts over the full 520-day journey. We discuss the findings with regard to a Mars mission scenario. Time has a major impact on the behavioral profile, as shown by indicators of physical and psychological states of fatigue, stress, well being and good

  10. Synthesis of ethological studies on behavioural adaptation of the astronaut to space flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole

    The motor behaviour of the astronaut as revealed in his movement, posture and orientation is treated as observable evidence of the subject's adaptation to space flight conditions. In addition to the conservative physiological homeostasies, the quantitative description of the astronaut's motor activity in microgravity is postulated in terms of an innovative regulation, within a temporal dynamic. The proposed ethological method consists of first drawing up a specific behavioural repertoire and then of using video recordings of space missions to describe each of the behavioural units observed in the ongoing flux context in which it occurred. Finally the data is quantified into frequencies of occurrence, transition and association and completed with factorial correlation analysis. Comparison of ground training ( g = 1) and space flight ( g = 0) between the first and last day of a mission up to return to Earth gravity simulated by an anti-orthostatic decubitus experiment, reveals the nature of the adaptive strategies implemented. These strategies are evidence of changes in the behavioural repertoire including the search for predominantly visual environmental cues and the progression of motor skill during the flight. The pre-flight period is defined as a phase involving automizing of motor patterns and the post-flight period as rehabituation of strategies which have already been acquired. The phenomena observed are discussed in terms of the new spatial representation and the body image, constructed by the astronaut during his adaptation. They are considered to be optimizing for the subject's relation to his environment.

  11. The father of ethology and the foster mother of ducks: Konrad Lorenz as expert on motherhood.

    PubMed

    Vicedo, Marga

    2009-06-01

    Konrad Lorenz's popularity in the United States has to be understood in the context of social concern about the mother-infant dyad after World War II. Child analysts David Levy, René Spitz, Margarethe Ribble, Therese Benedek, and John Bowlby argued that many psychopathologies were caused by a disruption in the mother-infant bond. Lorenz extended his work on imprinting to humans and argued that maternal care was also instinctual. The conjunction of psychoanalysis and ethology helped shore up the view that the mother-child dyad rests on an instinctual basis and is the cradle of personality formation. Amidst the Cold War emphasis on rebuilding an emotionally sound society, these views received widespread attention. Thus Lorenz built on the social relevance of psychoanalysis, while analysts gained legitimacy by drawing on the scientific authority of biology. Lorenz's work was central in a rising discourse that blamed the mother for emotional degeneration and helped him recast his eugenic fears in a socially acceptable way.

  12. A social ethological perspective applied to care of and research on songbirds.

    PubMed

    White, David J

    2010-01-01

    The interrelationships among individuals in gregarious species can have profound effects on the animals' behavior, physiology, and even health. Captive housing should address the social needs of such species because failure to do so can result in the development and expression of abnormal behavior. But determining what social stimuli to provide for any given species poses many challenges. I review recent work on brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) that was designed to identify the social stimuli critical for effective development and breeding. The work demonstrates the importance of social experiences in organizing reproductive physiology and behavior, so much so that inattention to these experiences can lead to misinterpretation of the function and mechanisms of the birds' behavior. There are no general rules applicable to all social species, however. Determining the social conditions needed for members of any species requires an ethological approach that evaluates the sensory, cognitive, and ecological characteristics of the species and considers those characteristics in the design of captive housing and research.

  13. Confinement vs. isolation as analogue environments for Mars missions from a human ethology viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tafforin, Carole

    2015-02-01

    This study compares observational data from two situations designed as planetary exploration missions: the Tara expedition and the Mars-500 experiment. We examined the issue of distinct environmental factors, isolation vs. confinement, which may have different or similar impacts on crews' behavioral manifestations for long-term adaptation, such as on a Mars mission. The Tara expedition was a 507-d polar drift of the Tara schooner embedded in the Arctic ice with two successive periods of summer and winter-over in an isolated environment. The Mars-500 experiment took place in Moscow and was a 520-d simulation of a trip to Mars, the Mars landing, and the return trip to Earth in a confined environment. We used the ethological method based on observation, description, and quantification of individual and interindividual behaviors. These events were scored from video recordings made during daily life activities and aggregated according to the summer period and to the outgoing trip for the whole crew (N = 6) for each situation, respectively. We did not observe differences in the frequency of facial expressions and in the duration of body interactions. Conversely, there were differences in the frequency of collateral acts and in the duration of personal actions with the highest levels during the Mars-500 experiment (0.52 /min and 41,799 s); the highest level of visual interactions was observed during the Tara expedition (33,167 s). We found that confinement generates stress manifestations vs. isolation, that isolation enhances social relashionships vs. confinement, and that the crew adapted positively to both environments.

  14. The meaning of the 'variations' in the babbler 'shout': A musical-ethological approach.

    PubMed

    Katsir, Z

    1995-09-01

    This study is focused on the shout of the babbler Turdoides squamiceps, as a model for interpreting the meaning of the variations in animal vocal expressions, using a 'musical-ethological approach'. Vocalizations were recorded in nature, where all babblers were individually marked. The field events were classified into different communicative categories, and the recordings of 170 shouts of the eight most intensively studied babblers, were analyzed with respect to the 'basic rules' observed in music. Visually defined 'variation types' and mathematically defined musical variables of the variations were related to the birds' field behaviour in order to determine the correlations between the variations and the different categories. The results indicate the existence of variations in the babbler shout that may be important for communication. Border situations were accompanied by longer 'syllable variations' and by an increase in the musical variables, which were defined according to the 'basic rules' observed in music. Other, more subtle variations of the intensity curves could be related to motivations such as joining the group members or searching for affiliation. An increase in the distance between communicating babblers was accompanied by an increase in the number of syllables per shout. It is suggested that this is because the variations in the tempo and staccato are better identified in long shouts with many syllables. It is suggested that variations in vocal expressions play a role in animal communication. The resemblance of the 'basic musical factors' of the variations in the babbler shout to the basic rules observed in human speech intonation and in music suggests that the same set of rules may be found in many other animals. Thus, it is appropriate to apply certain musical terms to animal communication.

  15. Disruption of exploratory and habituation behavior in mice with mutation of DISC1: an ethologically based analysis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J; Desbonnet, L; Clarke, N; Waddington, J L; O'Tuathaigh, C M P

    2012-07-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is a gene that has been functionally linked with neurodevelopmental processes and structural plasticity in the brain. Clinical genetic investigations have implicated DISC1 as a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia and related psychoses. Studies using mutant mouse models of DISC1 gene function have demonstrated schizophrenia-related anatomical and behavioral endophenotypes. In the present study, ethologically based assessment of exploratory and habituation behavior in the open field was conducted in DISC1 (L100P), wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HET), and homozygous (HOM) mutant mice of both sexes. Ethological assessment was conducted in an open-field environment to explore specific topographies of murine exploratory behavior across the extended course of interaction from initial exploration through subsequent habituation (the ethogram). During initial exploration, HET and HOM DISC1 mutants evidenced increased levels of locomotion and rearing to wall compared with WT. A HOM-specific increase in total rearing and a HET-specific increase in sifting behavior and reduction in rearing seated were also observed. Over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing, total rearing, rearing to wall, rearing free, and rearing seated were increased in HET and HOM mutants vs. WT. Overall, grooming was increased in HOM relative to other genotypes. HET mice displayed a selective decrease in habituation of sifting behavior. These data demonstrate impairment in both initial exploratory and habituation of exploration in a novel environment in mice with mutation of DISC1. This is discussed in the context of the functional role of the gene vis à vis a schizophrenia phenotype as well as the value of ethologically based approaches to behavioral phenotyping.

  16. Understanding the neurophysiological basis of auditory abilities for social communication: a perspective on the value of ethological paradigms.

    PubMed

    Bennur, Sharath; Tsunada, Joji; Cohen, Yale E; Liu, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Acoustic communication between animals requires them to detect, discriminate, and categorize conspecific or heterospecific vocalizations in their natural environment. Laboratory studies of the auditory-processing abilities that facilitate these tasks have typically employed a broad range of acoustic stimuli, ranging from natural sounds like vocalizations to "artificial" sounds like pure tones and noise bursts. However, even when using vocalizations, laboratory studies often test abilities like categorization in relatively artificial contexts. Consequently, it is not clear whether neural and behavioral correlates of these tasks (1) reflect extensive operant training, which drives plastic changes in auditory pathways, or (2) the innate capacity of the animal and its auditory system. Here, we review a number of recent studies, which suggest that adopting more ethological paradigms utilizing natural communication contexts are scientifically important for elucidating how the auditory system normally processes and learns communication sounds. Additionally, since learning the meaning of communication sounds generally involves social interactions that engage neuromodulatory systems differently than laboratory-based conditioning paradigms, we argue that scientists need to pursue more ethological approaches to more fully inform our understanding of how the auditory system is engaged during acoustic communication. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives".

  17. The role of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) in the global development of animal welfare science and its relationship with the OIE; strength through partnership

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this presentation is to introduce the ISAE and to highlight members’ roles in the development and implementation of OIE’s animal welfare standards. Animal welfare science is a young discipline. Originally, welfare science was heavily focused on animal behavior (ethology), but it is ...

  18. Semaphorin 6A knockout mice display abnormalities across ethologically-based topographies of exploration and in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Kerstin; Runker, Annette E; O'Sullivan, Gerard J; Mitchell, Kevin J; Waddington, John L; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2017-02-22

    Semaphorins are secreted or membrane-bound proteins implicated in neurodevelopmental processes of axon guidance and cell migration. Exploratory behaviour and motor learning was examined ethologically in Semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) mutant mice. The ethogram of initial exploration in Sema6A knockout mice was characterised by increased rearing to wall with decreased sifting; over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing and rearing to wall were increased, with reduced habituation of rearing seated. Rotarod analysis indicated delayed motor learning in Sema6A heterozygous mutants. Disruption to the axonal guidance and cell migration processes regulated by Sema6A is associated with topographically specific disruption to fundamental aspects of behaviour, namely the ethogram of initial exploration and subsequent habituation to the environment, and motor learning.

  19. Morphological features of larvae of Drusus plicatus Radovanović (Insecta, Trichoptera) from the Republic of Macedonia with molecular, ecological, ethological, and distributional notes

    PubMed Central

    Kučinić, Mladen; Previšić, Ana; Mihoci, Iva; Krpač, Vladimir; Živić, Ivana; Stojanović, Katarina; Vojvoda, Ana Mrnjavčić; Katušić, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A description of the larva of Drusus plicatus Radovanović is given for the first time. The most important diagnostic characters enabling separation from larvae of the other Drusinae from the southeast Europe are listed. Molecular, ecological, and ethological features and distribution patterns of the species are given. Additionally, information on the sympatric caddisfly species of the three springs where larvae and adults of Drusus plicatus were found and presented. PMID:27408591

  20. Morphological features of larvae of Drusus plicatus Radovanović (Insecta, Trichoptera) from the Republic of Macedonia with molecular, ecological, ethological, and distributional notes.

    PubMed

    Kučinić, Mladen; Previšić, Ana; Mihoci, Iva; Krpač, Vladimir; Živić, Ivana; Stojanović, Katarina; Vojvoda, Ana Mrnjavčić; Katušić, Luka

    2016-01-01

    A description of the larva of Drusus plicatus Radovanović is given for the first time. The most important diagnostic characters enabling separation from larvae of the other Drusinae from the southeast Europe are listed. Molecular, ecological, and ethological features and distribution patterns of the species are given. Additionally, information on the sympatric caddisfly species of the three springs where larvae and adults of Drusus plicatus were found and presented.

  1. [Thinking and practice of animal ethology in study of cold and hot nature of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yanling; Kong, Weijun; Jia, Lei; Wang, Jiabo; Yan, Dan; Li, Ruisheng; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-02-01

    From the view of macroscopic animal ethology combined with computer and modem image processing technique, by monitoring the temperature tropism of animal affected by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with different Cold and Hot natures and obtaining many behavior parameters which were difficult to assess in direct observation, the differences between the Cold and Hot nature of TCM were evaluated and presented. This method could real-time, intuitively and objectively, qualitatively and quantitatively monitor the temperature tropism of experimental animals with no disturbance. Further, the Cold and Hot nature of TCM can be expressed from the whole animal level. This method met to the application peculiarity of TCM and suited for the TCM theoretical system. It is a attempt for the study of drug nature of TCM. It also contributed to elucidate the objective authenticity and scientific connotation of Cold and Hot nature of TCM, and express the inherent connection of this nature and the temperature tropism of animal. In this review, a new point and technology platform was provided for establishing an objective method for evaluating the Cold and Hot nature of TCM, which are corresponding with the feature of the application of TCM.

  2. Aquatic animals, cognitive ethology, and ethics: questions about sentience and other troubling issues that lurk in turbid water.

    PubMed

    Bekoff, Marc

    2007-05-04

    In this general, strongly pro-animal, and somewhat utopian and personal essay, I argue that we owe aquatic animals respect and moral consideration just as we owe respect and moral consideration to all other animal beings, regardless of the taxonomic group to which they belong. In many ways it is more difficult to convince some people of our ethical obligations to numerous aquatic animals because we do not identify or empathize with them as we do with animals with whom we are more familiar or to whom we are more closely related, including those species (usually terrestrial) to whom we refer as charismatic megafauna. Many of my examples come from animals that are more well studied but they can be used as models for aquatic animals. I follow Darwinian notions of evolutionary continuity to argue that if we feel pain, then so too do many other animals, including those that live in aquatic environs. Recent scientific data ('science sense') show clearly that many aquatic organisms, much to some people's surprise, likely suffer at our hands and feel their own sorts of pain. Throughout I discuss how cognitive ethology (the study of animal minds) is the unifying science for understanding the subjective, emotional, empathic, and moral lives of animals because it is essential to know what animals do, think, and feel as they go about their daily routines. Lastly, I argue that when we are uncertain if we are inflicting pain due to our incessant, annoying, and frequently unnecessary intrusions into the lives of other animals as we go about 'redecorating nature' (removing animals or moving them from place to place), we should err on the side of the animals and stop engaging in activities that cause pain and suffering.

  3. The ethology of empathy: a taxonomy of real-world targets of need and their effect on observers

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Stephanie D.; Hofelich, Alicia J.; Stansfield, R. Brent

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is inherently interpersonal, but the majority of research has only examined observers. Targets of need have been largely held constant through hypothetical and fictionalized depictions of sympathetic distress and need. In the real world, people's response to life stressors varies widely—from stoicism to resilience to complete breakdown—variations that should profoundly influence the prosocial exchange. The current study examined naturally-varying affect in real hospital patients with serious chronic or terminal illness during videotaped interviews about quality of life. Participants viewed each video while psychophysiological data were recorded and then rated each patient's and their own emotion. Patients displayed three major emotion factors (disturbed, softhearted, and amused) that were used to classify them into five basic types (distraught, resilient, sanguine, reticent, wistful). These types elicited four major emotions in observers [personal distress (PD), empathic concern (EC), horror, pleasure], two of which were never discovered previously with fictionalized targets. Across studies and measures, distraught targets usually received the greatest aid, but approximately as many observers preferred the positive and likeable resilient patients or the quietly sad wistful targets, with multiple observers even giving their greatest aid to sanguine or reticent targets who did not display distress or need. Trait empathy motivated aid toward more emotive targets while perspective taking (PT) motivated aid for those who did not overtly display distress. A second study replicated key results without even providing the content of patients' speech. Through an ecological examination of real need we discovered variation and commonality in the emotional response to need that interacts strongly with the preferences of observers. Social interactions need to be studied in ethological contexts that retain the complex interplay between senders and receivers. PMID

  4. Ethological analysis of a polar team in the French Antarctic station Dumont d'Urville as simulation of space teams for future interplanetary missions.

    PubMed

    Tafforin, Carole

    2004-07-01

    This new ethological study focuses on the co-adaptation of the crew's spatial behavior to social isolation in a polar base thus simulating long-term living and working of a space team. The method consisted in drawing the subjects' position (n=13) on an observation map at the midday and evening meals at the Dumont d'Urville French station in Antarctica, daily during the summer campaigns and weekly during the winter-over of the TA46 mission. Quantitative data are presented in geocentric (positions), allocentric (distances) and egocentric (orientations) analyses with an emphasis on three adaptative periods (first 3 months, intermediary 2 months and last 3 months of isolation). Results show a large space occupancy during the first week after arrival and the last week before departure from the polar base, and a team-members' grouping during the winter-over. On the over-all time, the inter-individual distances increase. The social orientations are higher at the beginning than at the end of the mission. Discussion underlies the pertinent use of such ethological indicators collected from polar stations as predictors of well-being and optimal-working of the future orbital and planetary stations users.

  5. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    PubMed

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  6. [Paradigms of fetal ethology].

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2006-03-19

    In utero, the fetus is protected against biological and social influences of the outside world. This circumstance offers an opportunity for sonographic investigation of inherited fetal behavior free of extraneous effects. Observation of fetal activities with ultrasound permits the recognition of certain uniform features of fetal behavior. Immediately after birth, the neonate continues repeating those activities that he/she became accustomed to in the womb. Later these become modified by environmental influences. Nonetheless, basic inherited behavioral characteristics continue to be expressed and may remain recognizable even during adulthood. Some aspects of adult behavior may derive from experience acquired during fetal life. These include the hand-face reflex, various types of facial expression, such as smiling, crying, yawning, grimaces of dissatification and desperation as well as sticking out one's tongue.

  7. Ethology and Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biology and Human Affairs, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews four texts and compilations of papers in an effort to assess the relevance of animal behavior studies to anthropology and sociology. Concludes that where a basic element of behavior occurs widely throughout the animal kingdom, especially in the higher mammals and primates, we may expect to find a manifestation in man." Limitations of the…

  8. [Ethology, the real trauma and neurosis. Attempt at an evaluation of the contribution of John Bowlby in understanding the origin of emotional disorders].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S O

    1986-01-01

    This paper tries to trace back the contribution of John Bowlby to the concept of development of psychic disorders. The characteristic features of Bowlby's conception, which centers around the preservation and impairment of the behavioural system "attachment", are presented and their origins especially from psychoanalysis, biology and ethology are shown. This research study was initiated by the psychoanalytic criticism of John Bowlby's positions, and one of its aims is to clarify their concordance with or deviation from psychoanalysis. Finally clinical contributions of Bowlby are presented which are scarcely known in Germany (for instance the discrimination of phobia and pseudophobia). In trying to appreciate the significance of Bowlby for the further scientific development of psychoanalysis an important task is assigned to him, since he insists in providing evidence of those psychoanalytic theories he applies.

  9. Cross-centre replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour as an ethologically relevant pain outcome measure in the rat: a prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Wodarski, Rachel; Delaney, Ada; Ultenius, Camilla; Morland, Rosie; Andrews, Nick; Baastrup, Catherine; Bryden, Luke A.; Caspani, Ombretta; Christoph, Thomas; Gardiner, Natalie J.; Huang, Wenlong; Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Koyama, Suguru; Li, Dominic; Ligocki, Marcin; Lindsten, Annika; Machin, Ian; Pekcec, Anton; Robens, Angela; Rotariu, Sanziana M.; Voß, Sabrina; Segerdahl, Marta; Stenfors, Carina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Uto, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Rutten, Kris; Rice, Andrew S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Burrowing, an ethologically relevant rodent behaviour, has been proposed as a novel outcome measure to assess the global impact of pain in rats. In a prospective multicentre study using male rats (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley), replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour in the complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of inflammatory pain (unilateral, 1 mg/mL in 100 µL) was evaluated in 11 studies across 8 centres. Following a standard protocol, data from participating centres were collected centrally and analysed with a restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. The total population (TP—all animals allocated to treatment; n = 249) and a selected population (SP—TP animals burrowing over 500 g at baseline; n = 200) were analysed separately, assessing the effect of excluding “poor” burrowers. Mean baseline burrowing across studies was 1113 g (95% confidence interval: 1041-1185 g) for TP and 1329 g (1271-1387 g) for SP. Burrowing was significantly suppressed in the majority of studies 24 hours (7 studies/population) and 48 hours (7 TP, 6 SP) after CFA injections. Across all centres, significantly suppressed burrowing peaked 24 hours after CFA injections, with a burrowing deficit of −374 g (−479 to −269 g) for TP and −498 g (−609 to −386 g) for SP. This unique multicentre approach first provided high-quality evidence evaluating suppressed burrowing as robust and reproducible, supporting its use as tool to infer the global effect of pain on rodents. Second, our approach provided important informative value for the use of multicentre studies in the future. PMID:27643836

  10. PCP-induced deficits in murine nest building activity: employment of an ethological rodent behavior to mimic negative-like symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christian Spang; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Parachikova, Anna I; Plath, Niels

    2014-10-15

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by three symptom domains, positive (hallucinations, obsession), negative (social withdrawal, apathy, self-neglect) and cognitive (impairment in attention, memory and executive function). Whereas current medication ameliorates positive symptomatology, negative symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunctions remain untreated. The development of improved therapies for negative symptoms has proven particularly difficult, in part due to the inability of mimicking these in rodents. Here, we address the predictive validity of combining an ethologically well preserved behavior in rodents, namely nest building activity, with an established animal model of schizophrenia, the sub-chronic PCP model, for negative symptoms. Decline in rodent nesting activity has been suggested to mirror domains of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, including social withdrawal, anhedonia and self-neglect, whereas repeated treatment with the NMDAR antagonist PCP induces and exacerbates schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents and human subjects. Using a back-translational approach of pharmacological validation, we tested the effects of two agents targeting the nicotinic α7 receptor (EVP-6124 and TC-5619) that were reported to exert some beneficial effect on negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Sub-chronic PCP treatment resulted in a significant nest building deficit in mice and treatment with EVP-6124 and TC-5619 reversed this PCP-induced deficit. In contrast, the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone remained ineffective in this assay. In addition, EVP-6124, TC-5619 and risperidone were tested in the Social Interaction Test (SIT), an assay suggested to address negative-like symptoms. Results obtained in SIT were comparable to results in the nest building test (NEST). Based on these findings, we propose nest building in combination with the sub-chronic PCP model as a novel approach to assess negative-like symptoms of schizophrenia

  11. Effect of differently structured and processed feedstuffs on diverse parameters of ethology and digestibility of growing rabbits and their influence on morphological structures in small intestine.

    PubMed

    Lang, Caroline; Hinchliffe, David; Brendle, Julia; Weirichl, Carmen; Hoy, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different feedstuffs on parameters of digestion and ethology in growing rabbits (duration and number of feed intake, needed masticatory movements, pH value in stomach and small intestine, dry matter content of stomach chyme, level of destruction of cell structures in small intestine) was analysed. 384 five weeks old rabbits were fed with one of three feedstuffs: pellets (mean fibre length = 3 mm), fibre blocks (mean fibre length = 40 mm) and hay-oat-beat-ration (length of hay fibre ≥ 70 mm). The masticatory movements and duration for uptake 0.1 g of feedstuffs were measured in a special observation box. Rabbits in group cages were observed by 24 h video recording and duration and numbers of feed intakes were documented. After 8 weeks rabbits were slaughtered and pH values measured in stomach chyme (and dry matter content) and small intestine. Samples of them were taken and histologically examined (total length of villi and crypts, width of villi and degree of destruction determined by scores from 0 [= no destruction] to 3 [= severe destruction of villi]). Pellets lead to a faster feed intake with a lower number of masticatory movements. This equates a minor feeding time per feed intake and a higher amount of feedstuff in a shorter time. The dry matter content in stomach chyme increases and pH value was significantly higher there, but lower in duodenum. They also showed a significantly higher degree of destruction of villi, a shorter length and a larger width of villi than others.

  12. Sociometric and ethological approach to the assessment of individual and group behavior in extra long-term isolation during simulated interplanetary mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushin, Vadim; Tafforin, Carole; Kuznetsova, Polina; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina

    Several factors, such as hazard to life, reduced social communications, isolation, high workload, monotony, etc., can cause deconditioning of individual status and group dynamics in long-term spaceflight. New approaches to the assessment of group behavior are being developed in order to create necessary counter-measures and to keep optimal psychological climate in the crew. Psychological methods combined with ethological approach to dynamic monitoring of the isolated crew had been tested and validated in Mars-500 experiment. The experiment (duration of 520 days) was designed to simulate the living and working conditions of a piloted mission to Mars. The Mars-500 crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans and one Chinese. We used psychological tests: sociometric questionnaire to assess group status (popularity) of the crewmembers (monthly), color choice test to assess the level of frustration and anxiety (twice a month). We performed observations from video recordings of group discussions (monthly) and during breakfast time (twice a month). The video analysis was supplied with a software based-solution: The Observer XT®. The results showed that occurrence of collateral acts may indicate psychological stress and fatigue in crewmembers under isolation and that facial expressions may indicate less anxiety. The data of psychological tests allowed to define two subgroups in the crew. The first one consisted of the subjects with high group status and lower level of frustration (not anxious), the second one consisted of less popular subjects, having respectively higher anxiety level. The video analysis showed two times more manifestations of facial expressions and interpersonal communications for the first subgroup. We also identified the subgroups on the basis of their verbal expressions in Russian and in English. Video observation of individual and group behavior, combined with other psychological tests gives opportunity to emphasize more objectively the signs

  13. Human Ethology: Personal Space Reiterated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barash, David P.

    1973-01-01

    A study of human personal space and flight distance in terms of the responses of college students to intrusions upon their presumed personal space. Investigates the elicitation of aggressive or defensive behavior. (LK)

  14. An Experimental Fish Ethology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ronald L., Jr.; Novak, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of four experiments designed for small group involvement (each requiring 6 days) emphasizing students' scientific methodology. Topics include: feeding behavior; light/temperature effects on reproduction; effect of density on feeding; and altered male/female ratios on male behavior. Each experiment includes introduction, material…

  15. Human Ethology: Personal Space Reiterated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barash, David P.

    1973-01-01

    A study of human personal space and flight distance in terms of the responses of college students to intrusions upon their presumed personal space. Investigates the elicitation of aggressive or defensive behavior. (LK)

  16. An Experimental Fish Ethology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ronald L., Jr.; Novak, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of four experiments designed for small group involvement (each requiring 6 days) emphasizing students' scientific methodology. Topics include: feeding behavior; light/temperature effects on reproduction; effect of density on feeding; and altered male/female ratios on male behavior. Each experiment includes introduction, material…

  17. Human Ethology: Exchanging Cheetahs for Chevrolets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barash, David P.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the frequency of looking both ways before crossing a street revealed that both males and females tend to look both ways more often when accompanied by juveniles than when alone, and that when males and females are together, males look both ways more often than do females. (Author/MA)

  18. Darwin's Legacy to Comparative Psychology and Ethology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, Gordon M.

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin made numerous seminal contributions to the study of animal behavior over his long career. This essay places these contributions in the context of Darwin's life, showing his long-standing interest in psychological and behavioral issues encompassing all species, including humans. Ten areas are highlighted: natural history;…

  19. Darwin's legacy to comparative psychology and ethology.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Gordon M

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin made numerous seminal contributions to the study of animal behavior over his long career. This essay places these contributions in the context of Darwin's life, showing his long-standing interest in psychological and behavioral issues encompassing all species, including humans. Ten areas are highlighted: natural history; communication; sexual selection and courtship; comparative cognition; emotion; instinct and behavioral development; inheritance of behavior; phylogeny of behavior; sociobiology and behavioral ecology; and applied animal behavior, animal welfare, and conservation. Several newer emphases that Darwin anticipated are briefly discussed. Darwin, while not always correct by current standards, crucially aided the process of firmly embedding psychological phenomena in a naturalistic scientific ethos.

  20. Play and Development From an Ethological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1978-01-01

    A review of play in nonhuman animals indicates that play increases with phylogenetic status, is important for mature social development in more advanced species, reflects intentional activity, and is essential for the development of tool-using strategies. (Author)

  1. Darwin's Legacy to Comparative Psychology and Ethology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, Gordon M.

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin made numerous seminal contributions to the study of animal behavior over his long career. This essay places these contributions in the context of Darwin's life, showing his long-standing interest in psychological and behavioral issues encompassing all species, including humans. Ten areas are highlighted: natural history;…

  2. Human Ethology: Exchanging Cheetahs for Chevrolets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barash, David P.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the frequency of looking both ways before crossing a street revealed that both males and females tend to look both ways more often when accompanied by juveniles than when alone, and that when males and females are together, males look both ways more often than do females. (Author/MA)

  3. Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology.

    PubMed

    Kohl, J V; Atzmueller, M; Fink, B; Grammer, K

    2001-10-01

    The effect of sensory input on hormones is essential to any explanation of mammalian behavior, including aspects of physical attraction. The chemical signals we send have direct and developmental effects on hormone levels in other people. Since we don t know either if, or how, visual cues might have direct and developmental effects on hormone levels in other people, the biological basis for the development of visually perceived human physical attraction is currently somewhat questionable. In contrast, the biological basis for the development of physical attraction based on chemical signals is well detailed.

  4. Simultaneous determination of three alkaloids, four ginsenosides and limonin in the plasma of normal and headache rats after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction by a novel ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: application to a comparative pharmacokinetics and ethological study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huarong; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Lv, Chunxiao; Sun, Wanyang; He, Bosai; Liu, Ran; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2013-04-01

    A novel, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of eight main active ingredients (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1) in rat plasma after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu (WZY) decoction, which is a celebrated and widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine formula for the treatment of headache. The analytes and internal standard (IS) were separated on a SHIM-PACK XR-ODS II column, and the detection was performed on a UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source. The lower limits of quantification were 1.5, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.2 ng ml(-1) for evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, gensenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1, respectively. Linearity, accuracy, precision and absolute recoveries of the eight analytes were all within satisfaction. The IS-normalized matrix factor was adopted for assessing the matrix effect and accompanied with a satisfactory result. The validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the eight active ingredients in rat plasma between normal and headache rats after administration. Exact pharmaceutical effect of WZY decoction on headache was demonstrated by the ethological response of headache rats induced by nitric oxide donor after administration. The results indicated that the absorption of evodiamine, rutaecarpine, gensenoside Rb1, Re and Rg1 in headache group were significantly higher than those in normal group with similar concentration-time curves while no significant differences existed in limonin and ginsenoside Rd between the two groups.

  5. Using the Blue Gourami in Ethological and Embryological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Theresa; Pollak, Edward I.

    1981-01-01

    Lists advantages in the use of the blue gourami in laboratory experiments on reproduction and embryogenesis. Materials and procedures for maintaining and spawning blue gouramis are provided. Also includes details on microscopic examination of developing embryos and histological techniques for microscope slide preparation. (CS)

  6. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  7. The Emergence of Compositional Communication in a Synthetic Ethology Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-12

    differentiation in the Modeling Field Theory framework 26 Language acquisition and category discrimination in the Modeling Field...Fontanari and Leonid I. Perlovsky, " Language acquisition and category discrimination in the Modeling Field Theory framework", Proceedings of the...somehow from its parent is ft = 1 — (1 — u)2. Henceforth, we will refer to [i as the proba- bility of error in language acquisition . To facilitate

  8. Using the Blue Gourami in Ethological and Embryological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Theresa; Pollak, Edward I.

    1981-01-01

    Lists advantages in the use of the blue gourami in laboratory experiments on reproduction and embryogenesis. Materials and procedures for maintaining and spawning blue gouramis are provided. Also includes details on microscopic examination of developing embryos and histological techniques for microscope slide preparation. (CS)

  9. Experimental-Ethological Studies of Social Reinforcement in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Scott G.; Cairns, Robert B.

    The effectiveness of positive and negative evaluative comments for children's learning was assessed in a two-choice discrimination task. Results indicate that negative comments after incorrect responses greatly facilitated learning while positive comments after correct responses had little effect. To explain the findings, a naturalistic analysis…

  10. Marmoset conspecific confrontation: an ethologically-based model of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Cilia, J; Piper, D C

    1997-09-01

    A method of measuring confrontation-induced behavioural changes in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) together with automated monitoring of locomotor activity has been developed as a possible model of anxiety. Recording both affiliative and agonistic behaviours between male/female pairs of marmosets and using diazepam as a reference drug, it has been possible to define a profile of behavioural changes which could be regarded as representing an anxiolytic response. Unfamiliar male/female pairs of marmosets were brought into close (non-contact) proximity in a controlled environment, in which their locomotor activity was recorded automatically. Simultaneously, their interactive behaviour was assessed by an independent observer via closed-circuit television. The following behaviours were analysed: aggressive postures, allogrooming, scratching, anxiety-related behaviours, social contact and self-grooming. Administration of diazepam at 1 and 3.5 mg/kg PO induced a significant (compared to control) reduction in scratching, aggressive behaviours, anxiety-related behaviours and an increase in allogrooming without affecting locomotor activity during confrontation. Differing responses dependent on gender were not found, nor did gender influence the effect of treatment on behaviour. Habituation to repeated confrontation did not occur. The results from this study demonstrate that this method can be used to measure anxiolytic activity in an objective manner.

  11. Philosophical, Psychological, and Ethological Approaches to the Search for Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, S.

    2010-04-01

    How we define intelligence determines how we will look for it, as well as what explanatory approaches we will accept. This paper discusses the gaps between disciplines that study intelligence, and seeks to develop a more complete and expansive understanding of intelligence.

  12. PTSD after childbirth: A predictive ethological model for symptom development.

    PubMed

    Haagen, Joris F G; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Olde, Eelco; van der Hart, Onno; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-10-01

    Childbirth can be a traumatic experience occasionally leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to assess childbirth-related PTSD risk-factors using an etiological model inspired by the transactional model of stress and coping. 348 out of 505 (70%) Dutch women completed questionnaires during pregnancy, one week postpartum, and three months postpartum. A further 284 (56%) also completed questionnaires ten months postpartum. The model was tested using path analysis. Antenatal depressive symptoms (β=.15, p<.05), state anxiety (β=.17, p<.01), and perinatal psychoform (β=.17, p<.01) and somatoform (β=.17, p<.01) dissociation were identified as PTSD symptom risk factors three months postpartum. Antenatal depressive symptoms (β=.31, p<.001) and perinatal somatoform dissociation (β=.14, p<.05) predicted symptoms ten months postpartum. Almost a third of our sample was lost at three months postpartum, and 44% at ten months. The sample size was relatively small. The present study did not control for prior PTSD. The PTSD A criterion was not considered an exclusion criteria for model testing, and the fit index of the ten months model was just below suggested cut-off values. Screening for high risk pregnant women should focus on antenatal depression, anxiety and dissociative tendencies. Hospital staff and midwives are advised to be vigilant for perinatal dissociation after intense negative emotions. To help regulate perinatal negative emotional responses, hospital staff and midwifes are recommended to provide information about birth procedures and be attentive to women's birth-related needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethological principles predict the neuropeptides co-opted to influence parenting

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Christopher B.; Badgett, Majors J.; Meagher, Richard B.; Orlando, Ron; Moore, Allen J.

    2017-01-01

    Ethologists predicted that parental care evolves by modifying behavioural precursors in the asocial ancestor. As a corollary, we predict that the evolved mechanistic changes reside in genetic pathways underlying these traits. Here we test our hypothesis in female burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect where caring adults regurgitate food to begging, dependent offspring. We quantify neuropeptide abundance in brains collected from three behavioural states: solitary virgins, individuals actively parenting or post-parenting solitary adults and quantify 133 peptides belonging to 18 neuropeptides. Eight neuropeptides differ in abundance in one or more states, with increased abundance during parenting in seven. None of these eight neuropeptides have been associated with parental care previously, but all have roles in predicted behavioural precursors for parenting. Our study supports the hypothesis that predictable traits and pathways are targets of selection during the evolution of parenting and suggests additional candidate neuropeptides to study in the context of parenting. PMID:28145404

  14. The "Specters" of Bodies and Affects in the Classroom: A Rhizo-Ethological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the poststructuralist notions of the body and affect by Gilles Deleuze, the author will show that bodies and affects in the classroom may be redefined as intensities and energies that "produce" new affective and embodied "connections". What he suggests is that reconceiving teaching and learning as a plane for the production of intense…

  15. Formation and Stabilization of Vertical Hierarchies among Adolescents: Towards a Quantitative Ethology of Dominance among Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John Levi

    2009-01-01

    Social psychological investigations of hierarchy formation have been almost entirely confined to the case of task-oriented groups and hence have produced theories that turn on the existence of such a task. But other forms of vertical hierarchy may emerge in non-task groups. One form, orderings of dominance, has been studied among animals using…

  16. Affiliative Subgroups in Preschool Classrooms: Integrating Constructs and Methods from Social Ethology and Sociometric Traditions

    PubMed Central

    Santos, António J.; Daniel, João R.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of school-age children and adolescents have used social network analyses to characterize selection and socialization aspects of peer groups. Fewer network studies have been reported for preschool classrooms and many of those have focused on structural descriptions of peer networks, and/or, on selection processes rather than on social functions of subgroup membership. In this study we started by identifying and describing different types of affiliative subgroups (HMP- high mutual proximity, LMP- low mutual proximity, and ungrouped children) in a sample of 240 Portuguese preschool children using nearest neighbor observations. Next, we used additional behavioral observations and sociometric data to show that HMP and LMP subgroups are functionally distinct: HMP subgroups appear to reflect friendship relations, whereas LMP subgroups appear to reflect common social goals, but without strong, within-subgroup dyadic ties. Finally, we examined the longitudinal implications of subgroup membership and show that children classified as HMP in consecutive years had more reciprocated friendships than did children whose subgroup classification changed from LMP or ungrouped to HMP. These results extend previous findings reported for North American peer groups. PMID:26134139

  17. Ethological study of African carpenter bees of the genus Xylocopa (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).

    PubMed

    Anzenberger, G

    1977-08-01

    Over 200 bees of 4 African Xylocopa species were observed for 3 months on the island of Rubondo (L. Victoria, Tanzania). Some 40 burrows were investigated, 100 bees marked. Building techniques are minutely reported; burrow construction simplifies defence and allows re-use by succeeding generations. Food plants, collecting, provisioning and all aspects of ontogenesis are treated, insight given into pupal leg mobility and the much-debated emergence order after eclosion: the first-hatched bee, in the rearmost cell, prepares the way for siblings. Copulation and the copulatory hold are studied using tethered femalefemale, and illustrated. A few colonization experiments are described and s spectrogram of begging sounds given. Meeting of the generations, feeding of the young and nest-defence by young siblings throw light on the evolution of primitively eusocial communities. The known literature is reviewed in each chapter.

  18. Ethological analyses of crayfish behavior: a new invertebrate system for measuring the rewarding properties of psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jules B.; Huber, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations in invertebrate neurobiology have opened up a new line of research into the basic behavioral, neurochemical and genomic alterations that accompany psychostimulant drug exposure. However, the extent to which such findings relate to changes in motivational and learning processes, such as those that typify drug addictions, remains unclear. The present study addressed this issue in the crayfish, Orconectes rusticus. The first set of experiments demonstrated that intramuscular injections of cocaine and amphetamine have robust and distinguishable effects on crayfish behavior. In the second part of the study, the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants were tested in a series of conditioned place preference experiments. Amphetamine and, to a lesser extent, cocaine were both found to serve as rewards when their intra-circulatory infusion was coupled to a distinct visual environment. The monoaminergic regulation of behavior has been extensively studied in decapod crustaceans and the present experiments demonstrated that (mammalian) drugs of abuse, capable of interfering with monoamine chemistry, are similarly rewarding to crayfish. Behavioral studies in crayfish can provide a complementary approach to using other invertebrate species in addiction research. PMID:15219718

  19. [Ethological analysis of the action of medazepam and diazepam on the zoosocial behavior of isolated mice].

    PubMed

    Poshivalov, V P

    1978-01-01

    Tests set up with isolated mice of two groups (aggressive and "fearful") evidenced that diazepam and medazepam weaken the behavioral manifestations of the partner's avoidance, increase sociability in "fearful" mice and help to regain the ability for elementary intraspecies contacts. These drugs have a biphasic action on the behavior of aggressive mice, small doses (medazepam 0.1 mg/kg) facilitating aggression and large one (medazepam, diazepam--5 mg/kg) suppressing it.

  20. Affiliative Subgroups in Preschool Classrooms: Integrating Constructs and Methods from Social Ethology and Sociometric Traditions.

    PubMed

    Santos, António J; Daniel, João R; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of school-age children and adolescents have used social network analyses to characterize selection and socialization aspects of peer groups. Fewer network studies have been reported for preschool classrooms and many of those have focused on structural descriptions of peer networks, and/or, on selection processes rather than on social functions of subgroup membership. In this study we started by identifying and describing different types of affiliative subgroups (HMP- high mutual proximity, LMP- low mutual proximity, and ungrouped children) in a sample of 240 Portuguese preschool children using nearest neighbor observations. Next, we used additional behavioral observations and sociometric data to show that HMP and LMP subgroups are functionally distinct: HMP subgroups appear to reflect friendship relations, whereas LMP subgroups appear to reflect common social goals, but without strong, within-subgroup dyadic ties. Finally, we examined the longitudinal implications of subgroup membership and show that children classified as HMP in consecutive years had more reciprocated friendships than did children whose subgroup classification changed from LMP or ungrouped to HMP. These results extend previous findings reported for North American peer groups.

  1. Ethological analysis of scopolamine treatment or pretreatment in morphine dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Wei-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Zhao, Yan

    2006-06-15

    Although scopolamine is currently used to treat morphine addiction in humans, its extensive actions on behaviors have not been systematically analyzed yet, and the underlying mechanisms of its effects still remain ambiguous. The present study was carried out to clarify the possible mechanisms by evaluating the effects of scopolamine pretreatment and treatment on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs and some of other general behaviors in morphine dependent rats. Our results showed that scopolamine pretreatment and treatment attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs including jumping, writhing posture, weight loss, genital grooming, teeth-chattering, ptosis, diarrhea and irritability, except for wet dog shakes, while general behaviors such as water intake, urine volume and morphine excretion in urine were increased. Our findings suggest that scopolamine has significant actions in the treatment of opiate addiction, which might result from increasing morphine excretion from urine.

  2. [Ethological, physiological and histological aspects of pain and stress in cattle when being dehorned].

    PubMed

    Taschke, A C; Fölsch, D W

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of 101 calves was evaluated during (n = 73) and after (n = 28) thermical dehorning without anaesthesia. Cortisol in saliva (n = 68) was measured in 68 calves. A simulation of dehorning was carried out as a control in most of the animals. The area around the horn bud was examined histologically in 20 calves of different ages (newborn until 3-4 months old). Additionally, the influence of dehorning cows with a wire-saw under anaesthesia on behaviour (n = 16), cortisol in saliva (n = 23), and the milk yield was examined. Independent of the calves' age, the horn bud and the surrounding hairy area were well innervated. For all calves dehorning without anaesthesia was a painful experience. During dehorning calves showed distinct pain and defense reactions. Most reactions were observed more often when the calves were dehorned as when dehorning was simulated. The cortisol in saliva was significantly increased after dehorning. In summary, we have to conclude that calves have a well developed nociceptive system from birth on. Therefore calves should only be dehorned using anaesthesia. Despite the anaesthesia, dehorning was stressful for the cows, as measured by a significant increase of cortisol in saliva. Moreover, cows showed pain reactions when the effects of the anaesthesia diminished. Dehorning had only a short effect on the milk yield of the cows.

  3. Lord of the Flies: An Ethological Study of Dominance Ordering in a Group of Human Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard C.

    A stable, ordered dominance hierarchy was found via observational and sociometric methods for a group of 13-year-old boys during a five-week summer camp. This group structure was formed early in camp and was stable across settings, time, and types of dominance interactions. The hierarchy correlated significantly with the rank-orderings bed…

  4. How can social network analysis contribute to social behavior research in applied ethology?

    PubMed Central

    Makagon, Maja M.; McCowan, Brenda; Mench, Joy A.

    2013-01-01

    Social network analysis is increasingly used by behavioral ecologists and primatologists to describe the patterns and quality of interactions among individuals. We provide an overview of this methodology, with examples illustrating how it can be used to study social behavior in applied contexts. Like most kinds of social interaction analyses, social network analysis provides information about direct relationships (e.g. dominant–subordinate relationships). However, it also generates a more global model of social organization that determines how individual patterns of social interaction relate to individual and group characteristics. A particular strength of this approach is that it provides standardized mathematical methods for calculating metrics of sociality across levels of social organization, from the population and group levels to the individual level. At the group level these metrics can be used to track changes in social network structures over time, evaluate the effect of the environment on social network structure, or compare social structures across groups, populations or species. At the individual level, the metrics allow quantification of the heterogeneity of social experience within groups and identification of individuals who may play especially important roles in maintaining social stability or information flow throughout the network. PMID:24357888

  5. Effect of antidepressants on body weight, ethology and tumor growth of human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Shang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yu-Yuan

    2008-07-21

    To investigate the effects of mirtazapine and fluoxetine, representatives of the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant respectively, on body weight, ingestive behavior, locomotor activity and tumor growth of human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. A subcutaneous xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 was established in nude mice. The tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into mirtazapine group (10 mg/kg per day), fluoxetine group (10 mg/kg per day) and control group (an equivalent normal saline solution) (7 mice in each group). Doses of all drugs were administered orally, once a day for 42 d. Tumor volume and body weight were measured biweekly. Food intake was recorded once a week. Locomotor activity was detected weekly using an open field test (OFT). Compared to the fluoxetine, mirtazapine significantly increased food intake from d 14 to 42 and attenuated the rate of weight loss from d 28 to 42 (t = 4.38, P < 0.05). Compared to the control group, food intake was significantly suppressed from d 21 to 42 and weight loss was promoted from d 35 to 42 in the fluoxetine group (t = 2.52, P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in body weight of the mice after removal of tumors among the three groups. The body weight of mice was the heaviest (13.66 +/- 1.55 g) in the mirtazapine group and the lightest (11.39 +/- 1.45 g) in the fluoxetine group (F( (2,12) ) = 11.43, P < 0.01). The behavioral test on d 7 showed that the horizontal and vertical activities were significantly increased in the mirtazapine group compared with the fluoxetine and control groups (F( (2,18) ) = 10.89, P < 0.01). These effects disappeared in the mirtazapine and fluoxetine groups during 2-6 wk. The grooming activity was higher in the mirtazapine group than in the fluoxetine group (10.1 +/- 2.1 vs 7.1 +/- 1.9 ) (t = 2.40, P < 0.05) in the second week. There was no significant difference in tumor volume and tumor weight of the three groups. Mirtazapine and fluoxetine have no effect on the growth of pancreatic tumor. However, mirtazapine can significantly increase food intake and improve nutrition compared with fluoxetine in a pancreatic cancer mouse model.

  6. Assessment of Incising Ethology in the Absence and Presence of Jaw Muscle Hyperalgesia in a Mouse Home Cage Environment

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, C. G.; Morris-Wiman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of oral motor behavior in a mouse is challenging due to the lack of currently available techniques that are non-invasive and allow long-term assessment in a home cage environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate incising behavior using mouse chow attached to a three-dimensional force transducer that was mounted on the existing home cage. In addition, a persistent hyperalgesia condition was introduced to evaluate the sensitivity of the technique to identify incising behavioral changes. Methods Incising activity of CD-1 male and female mice (n=48) was evaluated over a 24 hour recording session during four baseline and six longitudinal hyperalgesia assessment sessions using custom written software. A pre-clinical persistent pain model was used to induce hyperalgesia in the masseter muscle by repetitive acidic saline injections. Sex and age differences were evaluated for multiple incising variables during both light and dark cycles during baseline and hyperalgesia conditions. Results Significant sex differences were found for multiple incising variables but not for age. Discrete incising frequencies were identified in the range of 4.6-10.4 Hz and were reproducibly found in both female and male mice. A significant shift to lower incising frequencies was observed after repetitive acidic saline injections compared to neutral saline injections. This shift to lower frequencies of incising returned to baseline levels after approximately four weeks but was statistically longer in female compared to male mice. Significant differences were also found for chow intake (reduced) and weight change during the hyperalgesia condition. No significant differences were found for total number of incisions or number of incising episodes per day or incising force. Conclusions The findings from this study support the use of recording three dimensional incising forces as a sensitive measure of incising behavior. This novel technique allowed the identification of specific incising variables that were differentially affected in female and male mice during a persistent hyperalgesia. The data were collected in the home cage environment with minimal bias such as experimenter interaction. Similar to other dental pain studies, mice were able to maintain normal incising activity levels per day (total incisions, total number of incising episodes) even in the presence of hyperalgesia. PMID:26074204

  7. 77 FR 55847 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... . Name of Committee: Brain Disorders and Clinical Neuroscience Integrated Review Group; Neural Basis of... and Behavioral Processes Integrated Review Group; Biobehavioral Regulation, Learning and Ethology... Review Special Emphasis Panel; Biobehavioral Regulation, Learning and Ethology Academic...

  8. Anti-aversive effects of cannabidiol on innate fear-induced behaviors evoked by an ethological model of panic attacks based on a prey vs the wild snake Epicrates cenchria crassus confrontation paradigm.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Francisco, Audrey; Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria Angélica; Twardowschy, André; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2012-01-01

    Several pharmacological targets have been proposed as modulators of panic-like reactions. However, interest should be given to other potential therapeutic neurochemical agents. Recent attention has been given to the potential anxiolytic properties of cannabidiol, because of its complex actions on the endocannabinoid system together with its effects on other neurotransmitter systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on innate fear-related behaviors evoked by a prey vs predator paradigm. Male Swiss mice were submitted to habituation in an arena containing a burrow and subsequently pre-treated with intraperitoneal administrations of vehicle or cannabidiol. A constrictor snake was placed inside the arena, and defensive and non-defensive behaviors were recorded. Cannabidiol caused a clear anti-aversive effect, decreasing explosive escape and defensive immobility behaviors outside and inside the burrow. These results show that cannabidiol modulates defensive behaviors evoked by the presence of threatening stimuli, even in a potentially safe environment following a fear response, suggesting a panicolytic effect.

  9. Badis laspiophilus, a new miniature addition to the ichthyofauna of West Bengal, north-eastern India, with observations on its ecology and preliminary notes on its ethology (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Badidae).

    PubMed

    Valdesalici, Stefano; Van Der Voort, Stefan

    2015-07-16

    Badis laspiophilus is described from the Torsa River drainage, West Bengal, India. It can be distinguished from congeners by a combination of characters which include a small size (15.7-21.0 mm SL), 14-16 circumpeduncular row scales, interorbital width 6.7-8.9% SL, upper and lower jaws 8.2-9.2 and 10.2-13.4% SL, respectively, presence of two dorsal-fin blotches and a single round blotch on the anal fin, and absence of cleithral, opercle and dorsolateral caudal peduncle blotches. Its benthic ecology is discussed and the Badis singenensis species group is diagnosed, of which B. laspiophilus and B. singenensis are considered members.

  10. Anti-Aversive Effects of Cannabidiol on Innate Fear-Induced Behaviors Evoked by an Ethological Model of Panic Attacks Based on a Prey vs the Wild Snake Epicrates cenchria crassus Confrontation Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Francisco, Audrey; Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria Angélica; Twardowschy, André; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2012-01-01

    Several pharmacological targets have been proposed as modulators of panic-like reactions. However, interest should be given to other potential therapeutic neurochemical agents. Recent attention has been given to the potential anxiolytic properties of cannabidiol, because of its complex actions on the endocannabinoid system together with its effects on other neurotransmitter systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on innate fear-related behaviors evoked by a prey vs predator paradigm. Male Swiss mice were submitted to habituation in an arena containing a burrow and subsequently pre-treated with intraperitoneal administrations of vehicle or cannabidiol. A constrictor snake was placed inside the arena, and defensive and non-defensive behaviors were recorded. Cannabidiol caused a clear anti-aversive effect, decreasing explosive escape and defensive immobility behaviors outside and inside the burrow. These results show that cannabidiol modulates defensive behaviors evoked by the presence of threatening stimuli, even in a potentially safe environment following a fear response, suggesting a panicolytic effect. PMID:21918503

  11. A Mouse's Spontaneous Eating Repertoire Aids Performance on Laboratory Skilled Reaching Tasks: A Motoric Example of Instinctual Drift With an Ethological Description of the Withdraw Movements in Freely-Moving and Head-Fixed Mice.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, Ian Q; Faraji, Jamshid; Agha, Behroo Mirza; Kuntz, Jessica R; Metz, Gerlinde A S; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-09-27

    Rodents display a spontaneous "order-common" pattern of food eating: they pick up food using the mouth, sit on their haunches, and transfer the food to the hands for handling/chewing. The present study examines how this pattern of behavior influences performance on "skilled-reaching" tasks, in which mice purchase food with a single hand. Here five types of withdraw movement, the retraction of the hand, in three reaching tasks: freely-moving single-pellet, head-fixed single-pellet, and head-fixed pasta-eating is described. The withdraw movement varied depending upon whether a reach was anticipatory, no food present, or was unsuccessful or successful with food present. Ease of withdraw dependent upon the extent to which animals used order-common movements. For freely-moving mice, a hand-to-mouth movement was assisted by a mouth-to-hand movement and food transfer to the mouth depended upon a sitting posture and using the other hand to assist food holding, both order-common movements. In the head-fixed single-pellet task, with postural and head movements prevented, withdraw was made with difficulty and tongue protrude movements assisted food transfer to the mouth once the hand reached the mouth. Only when a head-fixed mouse made a bilateral hand-to-mouth movement, a component of order-common eating, was the withdraw movement made with ease. The results are discussed with respect to the use of order-common movements in skilled-reaching tasks and with respect to the optimal design of tasks used to assess rodent skilled hand movement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Ethologically based resolution of D2-like dopamine receptor agonist-versus antagonist-induced behavioral topography in dopamine- and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa "knockout" mutants congenic on the C57BL/6 genetic background.

    PubMed

    Nally, Rachel E; Kinsella, Anthony; Tighe, Orna; Croke, David T; Fienberg, Allen A; Greengard, Paul; Waddington, John L

    2004-09-01

    Given the critical role of dopamine- and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) in the regulation of dopaminergic function, DARPP-32-null mutant mice congenic on the inbred C57BL/6 strain for 10 generations were examined phenotypically for their ethogram of responsivity to the selective D2-like receptor agonist RU 24213 (N-n-propyl-N-phenylethyl-p-3-hydroxyphenylethylamine) and the selective D2-like receptor antagonist YM 09151-2 (cis-N-[1-benzyl-2-methyl-pyrrolidin-3-yl]-5-chloro-2-methoxy-4-methylaminobenzamide), using procedures that resolve all topographies of behavior in the natural repertoire. After vehicle challenge, levels of sniffing and rearing seated were reduced in DARPP-32 mutants; the injection procedure seems to constitute a "stressor" that reveals phenotypic effects of DARPP-32 deletion not apparent under natural conditions. Topographical effects of 0.3 to 10.0 mg/kg RU 24213, primarily induction of sniffing and ponderous locomotion with accompanying reductions in rearing, grooming, sifting and chewing, were not altered to any material extent in DARPP-32-null mice. However, topographical effects of 0.005 to 0.625 mg/kg YM 09151-2, namely, reduction in sniffing, locomotion, rearing, grooming, and chewing but not sifting, were essentially absent in DARPP-32 mutants. Thus, the D2-like receptor agonist-mediated ethogram was essentially conserved, whereas major elements of the corresponding D2-like receptor antagonist-mediated ethogram were essentially absent in DARPP-32-null mice. This suggests some relationship between 1) extent of tonic dopaminergic activation of DARPP-32 mechanisms and 2) compensatory mechanisms consequent to the developmental absence of DARPP-32, which may emerge to act differentially on individual elements of the DARPP-32 system. Critically, the present data indicate that phenotypic effects of a given gene deletion using an agonist acting on the system disrupted cannot be generalized to a corresponding antagonist, and vice versa.

  13. 76 FR 1444 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Committee: Integrative, Functional and Cognitive Neuroscience Integrated Review Group, Sensorimotor... Special Emphasis Panel, Biobehavioral Regulation, Learning and Ethology. Date: February 4, 2011. Time: 10.... (301) 435- 1171. rosenl@csr.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Brain Disorders and Clinical...

  14. 76 FR 24891 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... . Name of Committee: Emerging Technologies and Training Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. Molecular... Committee: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neuroscience Integrated Review Group, Neurotransporters... Review Group, Biobehavioral Regulation, Learning and Ethology Study Section. Date: June 9, 2011. Time:...

  15. 78 FR 59361 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... . Name of Committee: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neuroscience Integrated Review Group; Cellular... Regulation, Learning and Ethology Study Section. Date: October 21-22, 2013. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00...

  16. 76 FR 28793 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ..., Learning and Ethology. Date: June 8, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant....lindner@csr.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neuroscience...

  17. Hands-on Experiments on Predatory Behaviour with Antlion Larvae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klokocovnik, Vesna; Šorgo, Andrej; Devetak, Dušan

    2016-01-01

    One of the innovations in the Slovenian school system has been the introduction of elective subjects in the curricula of primary and secondary schools, thus there is a lack of teaching manuals for practical exercises and hands-on classroom experience. This situation is reflected in the Ethology classroom and for that purpose we prepared…

  18. Role of Amygdala and Hippocampus in the Neural Circuit Subserving Conditioned Defeat in Syrian Hamsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Chris M.; Taylor, Stacie L.; Huhman, Kim L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the roles of the amygdala and hippocampus in the formation of emotionally relevant memories using an ethological model of conditioned fear termed conditioned defeat (CD). Temporary inactivation of the ventral, but not dorsal hippocampus (VH, DH, respectively) using muscimol disrupted the acquisition of CD, whereas pretraining VH…

  19. Role of Amygdala and Hippocampus in the Neural Circuit Subserving Conditioned Defeat in Syrian Hamsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Chris M.; Taylor, Stacie L.; Huhman, Kim L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the roles of the amygdala and hippocampus in the formation of emotionally relevant memories using an ethological model of conditioned fear termed conditioned defeat (CD). Temporary inactivation of the ventral, but not dorsal hippocampus (VH, DH, respectively) using muscimol disrupted the acquisition of CD, whereas pretraining VH…

  20. Visual Reinforcement in the Female Siamese Fighting Fish, "Betta Splendens"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcoro, Mirari; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Operant conditioning with "Betta splendens" ("Bettas") has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female "Bettas" have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male "Bettas". Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female "Bettas" to examine the…

  1. Mental Health in the Perspectives of Biological Evolution and Cultural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, V.

    1979-01-01

    Outlines and discusses characteristics of an ethological perspective on mental illness, which emphasizes the evolutionary background of humanity, his recent background since the agricultural and industrial revolutions, and the physiological and psychosomatic factors of the human species in dealing with stress. (CS)

  2. Jean-Jacques Is Alive and Well: Rousseau and Contemporary Sociobiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the author's personal fascination with and study of Rousseau's life. Discusses Rousseau's many questions that are relevant to evolutionary biology, sociobiology, anthropology, and ethology. Questions concern the nature of human nature, the origin of human society, nurture-nature influences on humans, and the nature of male-female…

  3. Animal Navigation in the Classroom: Lessons from a Pilot Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanini, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    In response to a direct request from science teachers, researchers initiated a pilot experience on animal orientation and navigation, which was delivered to 61 13-year-old students in Florence, Italy. The aim was to explain the approach to ethology and to link animal navigation with geography, focusing on species crossing the Italian territory.…

  4. Exploring Ethograms in the Schoolyard: A Lesson on Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graszer, Christina L.; Gnau, Katie; Melber, Leah M.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights a core lesson that has been used in a number of Lincoln Park Zoo educational programs. The lesson teaches students to conduct an ethological, or animal behavior, study on a bird. This study can be implemented in a variety of outdoor settings, including a park, schoolyard, or zoo. Using an ethogram, students will practice…

  5. 77 FR 61009 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Regulation, Learning and Ethology. Date: October 29, 2012. Time: 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and... Emphasis Panel; Review of Neuroscience AREA Grant Applications. Date: November 1-2, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to...

  6. 77 FR 15113 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Conflict: Integrative Neuroscience. Date: March 28, 2012. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and...: Biobehavioral Regulation, Learning and Ethology. Date: April 4, 2012. Time: 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Agenda: To...

  7. 75 FR 56115 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ..., Biobehavioral Regulation, Learning and Ethology Study Section. Date: October 7-8, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m... Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel, Biobehavioral Regulation, Learning and... Neuroscience Integrated Review Group, Biophysics of Neural Systems Study Section. Date: October 14, 2010....

  8. The Non-Verbal Behavior of Children in a Listening Situation; Theoretical Implications and Practical Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Raffler-Engel, Walburga

    The present paper is part of a long range research project in Developmental Kinesics. The gist of the project is empirical: the object is to find out what happens rather than look for anything in particular or test a hypothesis. The methodology for the analysis is ethological in approach. Empirical observations are carefully described.…

  9. The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB): Furthering the Understanding and Measurement of Neurodevelopmental Competence in Preterm and Full-Term Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise; Butler, Samantha; Kosta, Sandra; McAnulty, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB) is a newborn neurobehavioral assessment appropriate for preterm, at risk, and full-term newborns, from birth to 1 month after expected due date. The APIB is based in ethological--evolutionary thought and focuses on the assessment of mutually interacting behavioral subsystems in simultaneous…

  10. The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB): Furthering the Understanding and Measurement of Neurodevelopmental Competence in Preterm and Full-Term Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise; Butler, Samantha; Kosta, Sandra; McAnulty, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB) is a newborn neurobehavioral assessment appropriate for preterm, at risk, and full-term newborns, from birth to 1 month after expected due date. The APIB is based in ethological--evolutionary thought and focuses on the assessment of mutually interacting behavioral subsystems in simultaneous…

  11. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  12. Crying in the First Year: An Opertant Interpretation of the Bell and Ainsworth (1972) Findings. (sic)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsley, Nancy J.; Rabinowitz, F. Michael

    1975-01-01

    Attempts to integrate the ethological interpretation of the Bell and Ainsworth findings on the promptness of mother reaction to infant crying, with operant laboratory infant research. Suggests an alternative operant interpretation based on the concept of counter conditioning. (Author/ED)

  13. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  14. Visual Reinforcement in the Female Siamese Fighting Fish, "Betta Splendens"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcoro, Mirari; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Operant conditioning with "Betta splendens" ("Bettas") has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female "Bettas" have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male "Bettas". Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female "Bettas" to examine the…

  15. Attachment and Social Problem Solving in Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others

    This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…

  16. Proxemics and Kinesics of Adolescents in Dual-Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Malone, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    Ethological research indicates that during courtship, men and women usually communicate their interests via body language and interpersonal space (kinesics and proxemics). Many studies have validated the usage of kinesics and the ebb and flow of proximity during the process of courtship. Although the majority of studies have focused on young…

  17. "A Human Ethogram: Its Scientific Acceptability and Importance." A Treatise Assessing Modern Theories of Personality Development and Proposing a New Comprehensive Theory of Behavior and Behavioral Development, key chapters and sections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesness, Bradley

    Written by a methodological behaviorist, this treatise critiques neo-Hullian, Freudian, Eriksonian, and Piagetian theories and presents an ethological perspective on behavior and personality development. The critique is extended to cover social learning, cognitive-developmental, neo-Freudian, and Skinnerian theories, as well as the ideas of…

  18. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  19. Hands-on Experiments on Predatory Behaviour with Antlion Larvae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klokocovnik, Vesna; Šorgo, Andrej; Devetak, Dušan

    2016-01-01

    One of the innovations in the Slovenian school system has been the introduction of elective subjects in the curricula of primary and secondary schools, thus there is a lack of teaching manuals for practical exercises and hands-on classroom experience. This situation is reflected in the Ethology classroom and for that purpose we prepared…

  20. Emotional Development. Student Readings No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Diane

    This paper provides a broad perspective on theories of emotional development and evaluates the implications of different theories for the practicing teacher. Not only psychoanalytic theories but also many theories of emotion contribute to the understanding of children. For example, behaviorist, experimental, ethological, humanist, developmental,…

  1. Social Expressivity During the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, David

    1978-01-01

    A number of infantile nonverbal behaviors are listed that can be interpreted as signs of a child's fundamental psychosocial orientations to others during the first year. Ethological studies of child and adult nonverbal communication suggest a considerable degree of neoteny in the human sign system. (SW)

  2. Imitation of Tongue Protrusion in Human Neonates: Specificity of the Response in a Large Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Orvos, Hajnalka; Molnar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although a large body of evidence has accumulated on the young human infant's ability to imitate, the phenomenon has failed to gain unanimous acceptance. Imitation of tongue protrusion, the most tested gesture to date, was examined in a sample of 115 newborns in the first 5 days of life in 3 seating positions. An ethologically based…

  3. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  4. Prolonged Inhibition of Motor Activity Following Repeated Exposure to Low Levels of Chemical Warfare Agent VX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    constriction, which can then lead to asphyxiation and death [21]. In addition, symptoms of sleep disturbances, psychomotor retardation, and intellectual...afforded by clonidine , Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 29 (1988) 309-313. [5] E. Choleris, A.W. Thomas, M. Kavaliers and F.S. Prato, A detailed ethological

  5. On the Shortcomings of Our Organisational Forms: With Implications for Educational Change and School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    This article informs school improvement and educational change from a radically different perspective. Building upon work done recently in neural psychology, primatology and ethology, the article examines four common and general types of organisational form: the cell, the silo, the pyramidal, and the network types of organisational structures.…

  6. Six Species of Signs: Some Propositions and Strictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebeok, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with the relationship existing between the signifier and the signified components of signs, and with problems in the definition of signs. It is also concerned with recognizing the relationship of semiotics to developmental psychology and ethology. (Available from Semiotica, Co-Libri, P.O. Box 482, The Hague 2076, The Netherlands)

  7. Pets, Attachment, and Well-Being across the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)

  8. Crying in the First Year: An Opertant Interpretation of the Bell and Ainsworth (1972) Findings. (sic)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsley, Nancy J.; Rabinowitz, F. Michael

    1975-01-01

    Attempts to integrate the ethological interpretation of the Bell and Ainsworth findings on the promptness of mother reaction to infant crying, with operant laboratory infant research. Suggests an alternative operant interpretation based on the concept of counter conditioning. (Author/ED)

  9. Environmental Biology Programs at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Lowell L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the programs of the Department of Ecology, Ethology, and Evolution at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign). Focuses on the graduate degrees offered in environmental biology. Lists research interests and courses in plant biology, entomology, forestry, civil engineering, and landscape architecture. (TW)

  10. Proxemics and Kinesics of Adolescents in Dual-Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Malone, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    Ethological research indicates that during courtship, men and women usually communicate their interests via body language and interpersonal space (kinesics and proxemics). Many studies have validated the usage of kinesics and the ebb and flow of proximity during the process of courtship. Although the majority of studies have focused on young…

  11. Nonverbal Behavior Generator for Embodied Conversational Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    position for alternatives or items in a list. Ekman [10] describes eyebrow movements for emotional expressions and conversational signals. Some...2005) 10. Ekman , P.: About brows: emotional and conversational signals. In von Cranach, M., Foppa, K., Lepenies, W., Ploog, D., eds.: Human Ethology...behavior can in turn influence the beliefs, emotions , and behavior of observers. Embodied conversational agents (ECA) with appropriate nonverbal

  12. On the Shortcomings of Our Organisational Forms: With Implications for Educational Change and School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    This article informs school improvement and educational change from a radically different perspective. Building upon work done recently in neural psychology, primatology and ethology, the article examines four common and general types of organisational form: the cell, the silo, the pyramidal, and the network types of organisational structures.…

  13. Animal Navigation in the Classroom: Lessons from a Pilot Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanini, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    In response to a direct request from science teachers, researchers initiated a pilot experience on animal orientation and navigation, which was delivered to 61 13-year-old students in Florence, Italy. The aim was to explain the approach to ethology and to link animal navigation with geography, focusing on species crossing the Italian territory.…

  14. Environmental Biology Programs at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Lowell L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the programs of the Department of Ecology, Ethology, and Evolution at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign). Focuses on the graduate degrees offered in environmental biology. Lists research interests and courses in plant biology, entomology, forestry, civil engineering, and landscape architecture. (TW)

  15. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  16. Six Species of Signs: Some Propositions and Strictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebeok, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with the relationship existing between the signifier and the signified components of signs, and with problems in the definition of signs. It is also concerned with recognizing the relationship of semiotics to developmental psychology and ethology. (Available from Semiotica, Co-Libri, P.O. Box 482, The Hague 2076, The Netherlands)

  17. Imitation of Tongue Protrusion in Human Neonates: Specificity of the Response in a Large Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Orvos, Hajnalka; Molnar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although a large body of evidence has accumulated on the young human infant's ability to imitate, the phenomenon has failed to gain unanimous acceptance. Imitation of tongue protrusion, the most tested gesture to date, was examined in a sample of 115 newborns in the first 5 days of life in 3 seating positions. An ethologically based…

  18. Exploring Ethograms in the Schoolyard: A Lesson on Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graszer, Christina L.; Gnau, Katie; Melber, Leah M.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights a core lesson that has been used in a number of Lincoln Park Zoo educational programs. The lesson teaches students to conduct an ethological, or animal behavior, study on a bird. This study can be implemented in a variety of outdoor settings, including a park, schoolyard, or zoo. Using an ethogram, students will practice…

  19. Pets, Attachment, and Well-Being across the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)

  20. Jean-Jacques Is Alive and Well: Rousseau and Contemporary Sociobiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the author's personal fascination with and study of Rousseau's life. Discusses Rousseau's many questions that are relevant to evolutionary biology, sociobiology, anthropology, and ethology. Questions concern the nature of human nature, the origin of human society, nurture-nature influences on humans, and the nature of male-female…

  1. Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.

    PubMed

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one.

  2. Attachment in integrative neuroscientific perspective.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Radovan; Hasto, Jozef; Minarik, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory is a very influential general concept of human social and emotional development, which emphasizes the role of early mother-infant interactions for infant's adaptive behavioural and stress copying strategies, personality organization and mental health. Individuals with disrupted development of secure attachment to mother/primary caregiver are at higher risk of developing mental disorders. This theory consists of the complex developmental psycho-neurobiological model of attachment and emerges from principles of psychoanalysis, evolutionary biology, cognitive-developmental psychology, ethology, physiology and control systems theory. The progress of modern neuroscience enables interpretation of neurobiological aspects of the theory as multi-level neural interactions and functional development of important neural structures, effects of neuromediattors, hormones and essential neurobiological processes including emotional, cognitive, social interactions and the special key role of mentalizing. It has multiple neurobiological, neuroendocrine, neurophysiological, ethological, genetic, developmental, psychological, psychotherapeutic and neuropsychiatric consequences and is a prototype of complex neuroscientific concept as interpretation of modern integrated neuroscience.

  3. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  4. Using chronic social stress to model postpartum depression in lactating rodents.

    PubMed

    Carini, Lindsay M; Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2013-06-10

    Exposure to chronic stress is a reliable predictor of depressive disorders, and social stress is a common ethologically relevant stressor in both animals and humans. However, many animal models of depression were developed in males and are not applicable or effective in studies of postpartum females. Recent studies have reported significant effects of chronic social stress during lactation, an ethologically relevant and effective stressor, on maternal behavior, growth, and behavioral neuroendocrinology. This manuscript will describe this chronic social stress paradigm using repeated exposure of a lactating dam to a novel male intruder, and the assessment of the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine effects of this model. Chronic social stress (CSS) is a valuable model for studying the effects of stress on the behavior and physiology of the dam as well as her offspring and future generations. The exposure of pups to CSS can also be used as an early life stress that has long term effects on behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrinology.

  5. Introductory keynote. The state of the art in animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Enrico; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

    2004-01-01

    This issue of Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità critically evaluates the progression in the ethical relationship between humans and animals (i.e., between biomedical researchers and laboratory animals). The main goal of this publication is in fact to provide a basis for an in-depth discussion of highly debated topics in the contemporary bioethics of animal experimentation, with particular focus on ethological issues and the question of minimal sample size and its contribution to reducing the number of experimental animals. The ethological issues addressed in this publication cover all behavioural patterns specifically moulded by the phylogenetic and ontogenetical history of a given species, a perspective that is often neglected when discussing the promotion of animal welfare.

  6. [I. P. Pavlov and K. Lorenz].

    PubMed

    Gorokhovskaia, E A

    2000-01-01

    In the thirtieth, the founder of ethology Austrian zoologist Konrad Lorenz put forward the new theory of behavior, which was met with considerable resistance of the dominant views on the mechanisms of behavior, including Pavlov's concept. From his first theoretical works and later on Lorenz debated with Pavlov. However, these debates were not reduced to a disagreement. He appreciated greatly the scientific contribution of Pavlov, and the ideas of the Russian physiologist were often the starting point of his own speculations. His polemics with Pavlov differed very much from his uncompromising controversies with behaviorists. When Lorenz compared Pavlov's views with behaviorism, he often preferred Pavlov's ideas. Lorenz also draw some parallels between the Pavlov's understanding of behavior and the ethological approach. Lorenz's discussion with Pavlov about the nature of conditioned reflex is of particular interest, since it stimulated Lorenz to develop the theory of this phenomenon.

  7. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 'Standing on the shoulders of giants' at the ISAE international congress.

    PubMed

    2016-09-17

    The 50th anniversary of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) was celebrated in July, with the return of its annual international congress to Edinburgh, the city where the society was founded in 1966. Scientific legacy was a prevalent topic at the meeting, in line with the congress theme: standing on the shoulders of giants. The event was the biggest in the ISAE's history, spanning five days, from July 12 to 16, and comprising almost 200 talks. Rachel Orritt reflects on proceedings.

  9. Behavioural Profiles in Captive-Bred Cynomolgus Macaques: Towards Monkey Models of Mental Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Sandrine M. J.; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, experimental and preclinical studies on neuropsychiatric conditions have almost exclusively been performed in experimentally-induced animal models and have only rarely relied upon an ethological approach where animals have been observed in more naturalistic settings. The laboratory species of choice has been the rodent while the potential of more closely-related non-human primates have remained largely underexplored. Methods The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 cynomolgus macaques in captive conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering. Results The study identified five distinct profiles (groups A to E) that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, gaze directions and locations in the cage environment. We suggest that animals from the low n groups (D and E) present depressive-like and anxious-like symptoms, reminiscent of depressive and generalized anxiety disorders. Inter-individual differences were highlighted through unbiased ethological observations of spontaneous behaviours and associated parameters, although these were not associated with differences in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid levels of either stress-related hormones or monoamines, i.e. in accordance with the human situation. Conclusions No interventional behavioural testing was required to discriminate between 3 typical and 2 atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like and anxiety-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might, thus, allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups. PMID:23658620

  10. Norman Cousins Lecture. The uses and abuses of psychoneuroimmunology: a global overview.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicholas

    2006-03-01

    Studies of interactions between the nervous and immune systems that effect immunological and behavioral changes are relevant to our understanding biological issues pertinent to evolution, ethology, ecology, and aging, in addition to our understanding the immune and nervous systems per se. Psychoneuroimmunology also relates to homeland security, science education, and the practice of conventional as well as complementary and alternative medicine. This paper will highlight just some of these global implications of psychoneuroimmunology.

  11. Surgical and Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Combination Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carlino, Paolo; Pettini, Francesco; Cantore, Stefania; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Pepe, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this report is to analyze the clinical symptoms, ethologic factors, and prosthetic rehabilitation in a case of Combination Syndrome (CS). The treatment of CS can be conventional or surgical, with or without the bone reconstruction of maxilla. The correct prosthetic treatment helps this kind of patients to restore the physiologic occlusion plane to allow a correct masticatory and aesthetic function. Management of this kind of patients can be a challenge for a dental practitioner. PMID:24511397

  12. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    PubMed

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  13. Compendium of crane behavior. Part 1: Individual (nonsocial) behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Archibald, G.W.; Swengel, S.R.; Kepler, C.B.; Harris, James

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides the organizational framework, nomenclature, and abbreviated descriptions for all conspicuous nonsocial behavioral units for all 15 species of crane. We present eight generalized functional classes of behavior. These classes include about 90 discrete motor patterns that constitute the nonsocial repertoire of all cranes. We present this compendium to facilitate information exchanges among students of crane behavior and to encourage interest in future detailed studies of the descriptive ethology of each species.

  14. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  15. [An objective of the education of mankind: delegated destructiveness. Mass murder of psychiatric patients in Hitler Germany].

    PubMed

    Scharfetter, C

    1984-01-01

    The extermination of 100,000 inpatients of mental hospitals and 5,000 mentally retarded children in NAZI-Germany under the Hitler régime between 1939 and 1941 is reported. The ideological precursors of these actions are traced. The ethological and anthropological aspects of inner-species destruction in the phylogenesis of mankind are traced. Psychological and social conditions of social destructiveness under "normal" and exceptional conditions are discussed and the consequences for education drawn.

  16. Macaques Exhibit a Naturally-Occurring Depression Similar to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17–22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  17. The birds, the bees, and the virtual flowers: can pollinator behavior drive ecological speciation in flowering plants?

    PubMed

    Gegear, Robert J; Burns, James G

    2007-10-01

    Biologists have long assumed that pollinator behavior is an important force in angiosperm speciation, yet there is surprisingly little direct evidence that floral preferences in pollinators can drive floral divergence and the evolution of reproductive (ethological) isolation between incipient plant species. In this study, we expose computer-generated plant populations with a wide variation in flower color to selection by live and virtual hummingbirds and bumblebees and track evolutionary changes in flower color over multiple generations. Flower color, which was derived from the known genetic architecture and phenotypic variance of naturally occurring plant species pollinated by both groups, evolved in simulations through a genetic algorithm in which pollinator preference determined changes in flower color between generations. The observed preferences of live hummingbirds and bumblebees were strong enough to cause adaptive divergence in flower color between plant populations but did not lead to ethological isolation. However, stronger preferences assigned to virtual pollinators in sympatric and allopatric scenarios rapidly produced ethological isolation. Pollinators can thus drive ecological speciation in flowering plants, but more rigorous and comprehensive behavioral studies are required to specify conditions that produce sufficient preference levels in pollinators.

  18. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  19. Criteria of validity for animal models of psychiatric disorders: focus on anxiety disorders and depression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of psychiatric disorders are usually discussed with regard to three criteria first elaborated by Willner; face, predictive and construct validity. Here, we draw the history of these concepts and then try to redraw and refine these criteria, using the framework of the diathesis model of depression that has been proposed by several authors. We thus propose a set of five major criteria (with sub-categories for some of them); homological validity (including species validity and strain validity), pathogenic validity (including ontopathogenic validity and triggering validity), mechanistic validity, face validity (including ethological and biomarker validity) and predictive validity (including induction and remission validity). Homological validity requires that an adequate species and strain be chosen: considering species validity, primates will be considered to have a higher score than drosophila, and considering strains, a high stress reactivity in a strain scores higher than a low stress reactivity in another strain. Pathological validity corresponds to the fact that, in order to shape pathological characteristics, the organism has been manipulated both during the developmental period (for example, maternal separation: ontopathogenic validity) and during adulthood (for example, stress: triggering validity). Mechanistic validity corresponds to the fact that the cognitive (for example, cognitive bias) or biological mechanisms (such as dysfunction of the hormonal stress axis regulation) underlying the disorder are identical in both humans and animals. Face validity corresponds to the observable behavioral (ethological validity) or biological (biomarker validity) outcomes: for example anhedonic behavior (ethological validity) or elevated corticosterone (biomarker validity). Finally, predictive validity corresponds to the identity of the relationship between the triggering factor and the outcome (induction validity) and between the effects of the treatments

  20. Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described. PMID:17152401

  1. Current Trends in Canine Problem-Solving and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs have occupied a central place in modern comparative cognition, partly because of their specific past and present relationship with humans. Over the years, we have gained insights about the functioning of the dog’s mind, which has helped us to understand how dogs’ problem-solving abilities differ from those present in related species such as the wolf. Novel methodologies are also emerging that allow for the study of neural and genetic mechanisms that control mental functions. By providing an overview from an ethological perspective, we call for greater integration of the field and a better understanding of natural dog behavior as a way to generate scientific hypotheses. PMID:28503035

  2. [Welfare or absence of welfare in farm animals (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Van Limborgh, C L

    1976-02-01

    A particular adjustment of the Live-Stock Act in the Netherlands is advocated in a brief comment on problems of welfare in intensive live-stock farming. The appointment of veterinary inspectors under the Veterinary Service may provide both temporary solutions and permanent supervision. The necessary knowledge and flexibility as well as a committee of arbitration will be essential in this scheme. This would also appear to be in accordance with suggestions by the Minister of Agriculture. International co-ordination and settlement of financial consequences are a prerequisite. Further studies on the veterinary criteria of animal welfare will be required in addition to an ethological approach.

  3. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  4. Towards a standard framework to describe behaviours in the common-sloth (Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825): novel interactions data observed in distinct fragments of the Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, S M; Clozato, C L; Moraes-Barros, N; Morgante, J S

    2013-08-01

    The common three-toed sloth is a widespread species, but the location and the observation of its individuals are greatly hindered by its biological features. Their camouflaged pelage, its slow and quiet movements, and the strictly arboreal habits resulted in the publication of sparse, fragmented and not patterned information on the common sloth behaviour. Thus, herein we propose an updated standardized behavioural categories' framework to the study of the species. Furthermore we describe two never reported interaction behaviours: a probable mating / courtship ritual between male and female; and apparent recognition behaviour between two males. Finally we highlight the contribution of small-duration field works in this elusive species ethological study.

  5. [Double post-acute myocardial infarction complication: rupture of the interventricular septum and acute mitral insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Curcio Ruigómez, A; Martín Jiménez, J; Wilhelmi Ayza, M; Soria Delgado, J L

    1997-02-01

    We present a case of double post acute myocardial infarction complication: ventricular septal defect and acute and severe mitral insufficiency. As a consequence of the delay in the diagnosis, the patient developed pulmonary hypertension with values at the systemic level. The patient underwent surgery in order to close the ventricular septal defect and aneurysmectomy, resulting in posterior regression of mitral insufficiency and pulmonary circuit values became normal. The ethology, diagnosis, evolution and treatment of this exceptional association of acute post myocardial infarction complications are discussed.

  6. The squirrel monkey as a candidate for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Kaack, B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of its size and other unique diurnal-primate characteristics, the squirrel monkey is used in: (1) actual bioflight missions, (2) in laboratory tests designed to clarify the risks to man during launch and recovery as well as in hazardous spaceflight environments; and (3) in the acquisition of data on unknown risks encountered in long duration space exploration. Pertinent data concerning samiri sciureus as described in published and unpublished reports are summarized. Topics include: taxonomy, ethology, life history, sensory-learning-motor capabilities in primate perspective, anatomy and physiology (including homeostatic adaptation to stress), susceptibility to environmental hazards, reproduction, care and clinical management, and previous use in aerospace biomedical research.

  7. [Symbol-based communication in non-human primates: a C. S. Peirce's semiotic analysis].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, João

    2003-12-01

    Are (or were) there any other symbolic species? This question has been addressed by researchers from many different fields and is responsible for a historical controversy on the existence of a threshold between "symbolic creatures" vs "simple forms of language creatures". According to the mainstream ethology and comparative psychology only the Homo sapiens is cognitively equiped to produce and interpret symbols. Here, I introduce an empirically testable model of symbolic semiosis ("symbolic action of sign") supported by C.S.Peirce logical-phenomenological theory of categories. I suggest that a specific sign-user pattern of behavior, observed in non-human primate communication, indicate a transition from indexical to symbolic semiosis.

  8. Sex-Partner Roles in Homoerotic Relations: An Attempt of Classification.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Jerzy Adam

    2016-01-01

    The attempt is made to initially arrange in the terms of methodology the area of the research on partner roles in homoerotic relations. These issues have been noticed very early in human history (e.g., different roles performed or bimodal polarization), but only recently has science become interested in this subject. It is suggested to cover all such roles by the term sex-partner roles (SPR) instead of various other terms used and to classify them according to the ethological evolutionary approach into the appetitive and consummatory SPR. Further details of the division are discussed, and the utility of such classification is marked.

  9. Aggression: destructive and constructive aspects.

    PubMed

    Smith, G J; Lilja, A

    2000-04-01

    The concept of aggression was long relegated to the shadow of the libido in psychoanalytic theory, placed among the negative affects by some theoreticians, denied the role of a primary drive among leading writers in clinical psychology, brought to the fore as an adaptive force in ethology, and proved to be a decisive factor in the development of psychosomatic ailments. The second part of the paper reviews experiments using projective techniques, showing that highly creative subjects as opposed to ones low in creativity seem inclined to accept their aggressive impulses. A total denial of these impulses has been typical of women with breast cancer.

  10. [Formation of probabilistic structure of motor behavior in bottlenose dolphins in captivity].

    PubMed

    Chechina, O N; Kondrat'eva, N L

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic structure of the motor behavior was analyzed in dolphin calves Tursiops truncatus in the prenatal period and adult dolphins in an oceanarium. Ethograms were recorded and subjected to a computer analysis. Ranking probabilities of transitions between behavioral acts revealed a highly determined sequence of operations underlying the newborn dolphins' behavior. The principle of formation of the variation ethologic structures providing a contact between a developing organism and the environment was determined. The results are discussed in terms of the concept of the informational brain-environment interaction.

  11. To Act or Not to Act: Endocannabinoid/Dopamine Interactions in Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Giovanni; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making is an ethologically adaptive construct that is impaired in multiple psychiatric disorders. Activity within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system has been traditionally associated with decision-making. The endocannabinoid system through its actions on inhibitory and excitatory synapses modulates dopamine activity and decision-making. The aim of this brief review is to present a synopsis of available data obtained when the endocannabinoid system is manipulated and dopamine activity recorded. To this end, we review research using different behavioral paradigms to provide further insight into how this ubiquitous signaling system biases dopamine-related behaviors to regulate decision-making. PMID:26733830

  12. Differential diagnosis and management of human-directed aggression in cats.

    PubMed

    Frank, Diane; Dehasse, Joel

    2003-03-01

    Human-directed aggression in cats should be evaluated as a multifactorial problem. It results from the combined actions of heredity, environment, learning, human social requirements (or needs), client interactions, lack of understanding of normal feline behavior, unrealistic client expectations, and lack of meeting the cat's basic ethologic needs. Managing human-directed aggression in cats encompasses the use of environmental modification, therapies, and, when and if needed, regulatory drugs so as to increase learning capabilities and adaptation and decrease danger to the human victims.

  13. A diagnostic classification of problem behavior in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, J S

    1997-05-01

    Veterinary clinical ethology is a relatively new field in veterinary practice; with the development of a new discipline, problems often arise regarding diagnosis and the use of terminology. This article proposes a diagnostic system that can be applied by practitioners and researchers. The classification is divided into six main etiologic categories of behavior problems: (1) problems of a genetic origin, (2) problems caused during the animal's developmental stages, (3) ethogram deviations, (4) disturbed social interaction, (5) disease-related behavior, and (6) adaptation inabilities. Conditions may overlap, and all categories involved in a diagnosis should be mentioned for the sake of clarity and completeness.

  14. Ants Can Expect the Time of an Event on Basis of Previous Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Cammaerts, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Working on three ant species of the genus Myrmica, M. ruginodis, M. rubra, and M. sabuleti, we showed that foragers can expect the subsequent time at which food will be available on the basis of the previous times at which food was present. The ants acquired this expectative ability right after having experienced two time shifts of food delivery. Moreover, the ants' learning score appeared to be a logarithmic function of time (i.e., of the number of training days). This ability to expect subsequent times at which an event will occur may be an advantageous ethological trait. PMID:27403457

  15. An introduction to comparative evolutionary psychology.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Jennifer; Shackelford, Todd K

    2013-07-18

    Previously we (Vonk and Shackelford, 2012, in press) proposed an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology into a new field of "comparative evolutionary psychology." This integrative discipline incorporates principles from ethology, ecology, biology, anthropology, and psychology, broadly defined. We present in this special issue a collection of original empirical and theoretical review articles in which leading researchers propose ways to successfully integrate comparative and evolutionary approaches within their particular areas of study. We showcase the key contributions of these articles and highlight several empirical and theoretical challenges, as well as key future directions, for comparative evolutionary psychology.

  16. History of Allied Force Headquarters - Part Three December 1943 - July 1944, Section 4. Period of the Italian Campaign from the Winter Line to Rome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-01-01

    r\\<~ j a H 0) "f 3 a> co J C u^"* 5 ^ •HIM • x~S O •H I O JT? 49 4^ 0 1eo cy o T) 1* $3 s s ••• r~ — . •WMJ OHH^ - suty Director Ethology | S recto...3 o1 - 1025 This situation lasted until 17 March 1944 when the See- 16 tion finally was transferred to Hq 803 NATOUSA. d. Personnel » Comparative ...Supervised the American Army News Service in the Theater in order to improve the content of news articles and radio script and insure prompt

  17. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility.

    PubMed

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E; Miracle, Preston T; Stevens, Rhiannon E; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2016-01-01

    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns.

  18. Interview with daniel C. Dennett.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Daniel Dennett was educated at Harvard and Oxford, receiving his D.Phil. in 1965. After six years at University of California Irvine, he moved to Tufts, where he is Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences and Director of the Center for Cognitive Studies. It is the author of articles on many issues in artificial intelligence, psychology, and cognitive ethology, as well as in philosophy. His books are Content and Consciousness (1969), Brainstorms (1978), The Mind's I (with Douglas Hofstadter, 1981). Elbow Room (1984), The Intentional Stance (1987), and Consciousness Explained (1991). His new book, Darwin's Dangerous Idea, will be published by Simon & Schuster in spring, 1995.

  19. The surveillance state of behavioral automation

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Andreas T; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Genetics’ demand for increased throughput is driving automatization of behavior analysis far beyond experimental workhorses like circadian monitors and the operant conditioning box. However, the new automation is not just faster: it is also allowing new kinds of experiments, many of which erase the boundaries of the traditional neuroscience disciplines (psychology, ethology and physiology) while producing insight into problems that were otherwise opaque. Ironically, a central theme of current automatization is to improve observation of animals in increasingly naturalistic environments. This is not just a return to 19th century priorities: the new observational methods provide unprecedented quantitation of actions and ever-closer integration with experimentation. PMID:22119142

  20. Violence and youth.

    PubMed

    Shamsie, S J

    1985-11-01

    Violence is looked at from ethological, biological and anthropological points of view. The family is examined to determine the roots of violence. Various prospective studies are reviewed to assess the role of temperament, social, familial and economic factors facilitating the development of antisocial and violent behaviour in the youth. There is also a look at the violence committed by groups, nations or governments in the name of God, flag or a just cause. The role that mental health professionals could play in preventing the development of violent behaviour is discussed.

  1. Called home: The creation of family life.

    PubMed

    Hutch, R A

    1992-09-01

    Engendering family life is a spiritual process (theosis) based on human ethological constants of gender difference and generational turnover. Recent studies on ethnicity suggest that such a process retrieves a primordial sense of the human species as a whole, "humankind." Families, especially in this broad sense, link together the living and the dead and, at their best, morally empower individuals who link their destinies to such a vision of creation and human health. Reference is made to work on human strengths and speciation by Erik Erikson and to that on maternal thinking by Sara Ruddick. A political program by which an ideology of "familism" can be made is offered.

  2. Wind spectra and the response of the cercal system in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Rinberg, D; Davidowitz, H

    2003-12-01

    Experiments on the cercal wind-sensing system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, showed that the firing rate of the interneurons coding wind information depends on the bandwidth of random noise wind stimuli. The firing rate was shown to increase with decreases in the stimulus bandwidth, and be independent of changes in the total power of the stimulus with constant spectral composition. A detailed analysis of ethologically relevant stimulus parameters is presented. A phenomenological model of these relationships and their relevance to wind-mediated cockroach behavior is proposed.

  3. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E.; Miracle, Preston T.; Stevens, Rhiannon E.; O’Connell, Tamsin C.

    2016-01-01

    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns. PMID:27275784

  4. The squirrel monkey as a candidate for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Kaack, B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of its size and other unique diurnal-primate characteristics, the squirrel monkey is used in: (1) actual bioflight missions, (2) in laboratory tests designed to clarify the risks to man during launch and recovery as well as in hazardous spaceflight environments; and (3) in the acquisition of data on unknown risks encountered in long duration space exploration. Pertinent data concerning samiri sciureus as described in published and unpublished reports are summarized. Topics include: taxonomy, ethology, life history, sensory-learning-motor capabilities in primate perspective, anatomy and physiology (including homeostatic adaptation to stress), susceptibility to environmental hazards, reproduction, care and clinical management, and previous use in aerospace biomedical research.

  5. Environmental enrichment as a therapeutic avenue for anxiety in aged Wistar rats: Effect on cat odor exposition and GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Castilla-Ortega, E; Zancada-Menendez, C; Santín, L J; Begega, A

    2016-08-25

    The use of more ethological animal models to study the neurobiology of anxiety has increased in recent years. We assessed the effect of an environmental enrichment (EE) protocol (24h/day over a period of two months) on anxiety-related behaviors when aged Wistar rats (21months old) were confronted with cat odor stimuli. Owing to the relationship between GABAergic interneurons and the anxiety-related neuronal network, we examined changes in the expression of Parvalbumin (PV) and 67kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67) immunoreactive cells in different brain regions involved in stress response. Behavioral results revealed that enriched rats traveled further and made more grooming behaviors during the habituation session. In the cat odor session, they traveled longer distances and they showed more active interaction with the odor stimuli and less time in freezing behavior. Zone analysis revealed that the enriched group spent more time in the intermediate zone according to the proximity of the predator odor. Regarding the neurobiological data, the EE increased the expression of PV-positive cells in some medial prefrontal regions (cingulate (Cg) and prelimbic (PL) cortices), whereas the GAD-67 expression in the basolateral amygdala was reduced in the enriched group. Our results suggest that EE is able to reduce anxiety-like behaviors in aged animals even when ethologically relevant stimuli are used. Moreover, GABAergic interneurons could be involved in mediating this resilient behavior. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are animals stuck in time or are they chronesthetic creatures?

    PubMed

    Clayton, N S; Russell, J; Dickinson, A

    2009-01-01

    Although psychologists study both the objective (behavior) and the subjective (phenomenology) components of cognition, we argue that an overemphasis on the subjective drives a wedge between psychology and other closely related scientific disciplines, such as comparative studies of cognition and artificial intelligence. This wedge is particularly apparent in contemporary studies of episodic recollection and future planning, two related abilities that many have assumed to be unique to humans. We shall challenge this doctrine. To do so, we shall adopt an ethological approach to comparative cognition and this necessitates two requirements. The first is that memory and planning need to be characterized in terms of objectively defined properties as opposed to purely phenomenological ones; the ability to remember what happened, where, and how long ago is a critical behavioral criterion for episodic memory. The second requirement is the identification of an ethological context in which these memories would confer a selective advantage. As a consequence, we turn this debate into an empirical evaluation in nonlinguistic animals and one embodied in synthetic creatures. Indeed, our behavioral conception of flexibly deployable information about "what, where, and when" has so far supported a comparative cognition in animals as diverse as corvids and primates. We argue that this approach may clarify and challenge ideas that have been based solely on research with human subjects, without the need to be constrained by phenomenological assumptions based on human-centric ways of thinking.

  7. Molecular Organization of Vomeronasal Chemoreception

    PubMed Central

    Isogai, Yoh; Si, Sheng; Pont-Lezica, Lorena; Tan, Taralyn; Kapoor, Vikrant; Murthy, Venkatesh N.; Dulac, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) plays a key role in mediating the social and defensive responses of many terrestrial vertebrates to species- and sex-specific chemosignals1. Over 250 putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the mouse VNO2,3, but the nature of the signals detected by individual VNO receptors has not yet been elucidated. In order to gain insight into the molecular logic of VNO detection leading to mating, aggression, or defensive responses, we sought to uncover the response profiles of individual vomeronasal receptors to a wide range of animal cues. We describe here the repertoire of ethological and physiological stimuli detected by a large number of individual vomeronasal receptors, and define a global map of vomeronasal signal detection. We demonstrate that the two classes of vomeronasal receptors V1Rs and V2Rs use fundamentally different strategies to encode chemosensory information, and that distinct receptor subfamilies have evolved towards the specific recognition of certain animal groups or chemical structures. The association of large subsets of vomeronasal receptors with cognate, ethologically and physiologically relevant stimuli establishes the molecular foundation of vomeronasal information coding, and opens new avenues for further investigating the neural mechanisms underlying behavior specificity. PMID:21937988

  8. Understanding Societies from Inside the Organisms. Leo Pardi's Work on Social Dominance in Polistes Wasps (1937-1952).

    PubMed

    Caniglia, Guido

    2015-08-01

    Leo Pardi (1915-1990) was the initiator of ethological research in Italy. During more than 50 years of active scientific career, he gave groundbreaking contributions to the understanding of social life in insects, especially in Polistes wasps, an important model organism in sociobiology. In the 1940s, Pardi showed that Polistes societies are organized in a linear social hierarchy that relies on reproductive dominance and on the physiological and developmental mechanisms that regulate it, i.e. on the status of ovarian development of single wasps. Pardi's work set the stage for further research on the regulatory mechanisms governing social life in primitively eusocial organisms both in wasps and in other insect species. This article reconstructs Pardi's investigative pathway between 1937 and 1952 in the context of European ethology and American animal sociology. This reconstruction focuses on the development of Pardi's physiological approach and presents a new perspective on the interacting development of these two fields at the origins of our current understanding of animal social behavior.

  9. Critical neuropsychobiological analysis of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents confronted with snakes in polygonal arenas and complex labyrinths: a comparison to the elevated plus- and T-maze behavioral tests.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Norberto C; Paschoalin-Maurin, Tatiana; Bassi, Gabriel S; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Biagioni, Audrey F; Felippotti, Tatiana T; Elias-Filho, Daoud H; Mendes-Gomes, Joyce; Cysne-Coimbra, Jade P; Almada, Rafael C; Lobão-Soares, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    To compare prey and snake paradigms performed in complex environments to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and T-maze (ETM) tests for the study of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. PubMed was reviewed in search of articles focusing on the plus maze test, EPM, and ETM, as well as on defensive behaviors displayed by threatened rodents. In addition, the authors' research with polygonal arenas and complex labyrinth (designed by the first author for confrontation between snakes and small rodents) was examined. The EPM and ETM tests evoke anxiety/fear-related defensive responses that are pharmacologically validated, whereas the confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas with or without shelters or in the complex labyrinth offers ethological conditions for studying more complex defensive behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs. Prey vs. predator paradigms also allow discrimination between non-oriented and oriented escape behavior. Both EPM and ETM simple labyrinths are excellent apparatuses for the study of anxiety- and instinctive fear-related responses, respectively. The confrontation between rodents and snakes in polygonal arenas, however, offers a more ethological environment for addressing both unconditioned and conditioned fear-induced behaviors and the effects of anxiolytic and panicolytic drugs.

  10. Birth Origin Differentially Affects Depressive-Like Behaviours: Are Captive-Born Cynomolgus Monkeys More Vulnerable to Depression than Their Wild-Born Counterparts?

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Sandrine MJ.; Rochais, Céline; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse early-life experience might lead to the expression of abnormal behaviours in animals and the predisposition to psychiatric disorder (e.g. major depressive disorder) in Humans. Common breeding processes employ weaning and housing conditions different from what happens in the wild. Methods The present study, therefore, investigated whether birth origin impacts the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 captive-born and 40 wild-born socially-housed cynomolgus macaques in farming conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses. Results We identified 10 distinct profiles (groups A to J) that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, distances between individuals and locations in the cage. Data suggest that 4 captive-born and 1 wild-born animals (groups G and J) present depressive-like symptoms, unnatural early life events thereby increasing the risk of developing pathological symptoms. General differences were also highlighted between the captive- and wild-born populations, implying the expression of differential coping mechanisms in response to the same captive environment. Conclusions Birth origin thus impacts the development of atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups. PMID:23861787

  11. Eco-HAB as a fully automated and ecologically relevant assessment of social impairments in mouse models of autism

    PubMed Central

    Puścian, Alicja; Łęski, Szymon; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Winiarski, Maciej; Borowska, Joanna; Nikolaev, Tomasz; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Knapska, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    Eco-HAB is an open source, RFID-based system for automated measurement and analysis of social preference and in-cohort sociability in mice. The system closely follows murine ethology. It requires no contact between a human experimenter and tested animals, overcoming the confounding factors that lead to irreproducible assessment of murine social behavior between laboratories. In Eco-HAB, group-housed animals live in a spacious, four-compartment apparatus with shadowed areas and narrow tunnels, resembling natural burrows. Eco-HAB allows for assessment of the tendency of mice to voluntarily spend time together in ethologically relevant mouse group sizes. Custom-made software for automated tracking, data extraction, and analysis enables quick evaluation of social impairments. The developed protocols and standardized behavioral measures demonstrate high replicability. Unlike classic three-chambered sociability tests, Eco-HAB provides measurements of spontaneous, ecologically relevant social behaviors in group-housed animals. Results are obtained faster, with less manpower, and without confounding factors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19532.001 PMID:27731798

  12. Eco-HAB as a fully automated and ecologically relevant assessment of social impairments in mouse models of autism.

    PubMed

    Puścian, Alicja; Łęski, Szymon; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Winiarski, Maciej; Borowska, Joanna; Nikolaev, Tomasz; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Knapska, Ewelina

    2016-10-12

    Eco-HAB is an open source, RFID-based system for automated measurement and analysis of social preference and in-cohort sociability in mice. The system closely follows murine ethology. It requires no contact between a human experimenter and tested animals, overcoming the confounding factors that lead to irreproducible assessment of murine social behavior between laboratories. In Eco-HAB, group-housed animals live in a spacious, four-compartment apparatus with shadowed areas and narrow tunnels, resembling natural burrows. Eco-HAB allows for assessment of the tendency of mice to voluntarily spend time together in ethologically relevant mouse group sizes. Custom-made software for automated tracking, data extraction, and analysis enables quick evaluation of social impairments. The developed protocols and standardized behavioral measures demonstrate high replicability. Unlike classic three-chambered sociability tests, Eco-HAB provides measurements of spontaneous, ecologically relevant social behaviors in group-housed animals. Results are obtained faster, with less manpower, and without confounding factors.

  13. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  14. Anxiolytic effects of Lavandula angustifolia odour on the Mongolian gerbil elevated plus maze.

    PubMed

    Bradley, B F; Starkey, N J; Brown, S L; Lea, R W

    2007-05-22

    Lavender is a popular treatment for stress and mild anxiety in Europe and the USA. The present study investigated the effects of (Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae)) lavender odour inhalation over 2 weeks or 24 h periods, on gerbil behaviour in the elevated plus maze in mature male and female gerbils, and compared results with the effects of diazepam (1 mg/kg) i.p. after 30 min and 2-week administration. Traditional measures of open entries showed an increasing trend over the 2 weeks exposure, whereas ethological measures indicative of anxiety; stretch-attend frequency and percentage protected head-dips, were significantly lower. Exploratory behaviour, total head-dip frequency, increased after 24 h lavender and 2 weeks exposure. These results are comparable with diazepam administration. There were sex differences in protected head-dip an ethological indicator of anxiety: females showed a significant decrease in protected head-dips compared to both males and to female controls. In conclusion exposure to lavender odour may have an anxiolytic profile in gerbils similar to that of the anxiolytic diazepam. In addition, prolonged, 2-week lavender odour exposure increased exploratory behaviour in females indicating a further decrease in anxiety in this sex.

  15. PhenoWorld: a new paradigm to screen rodent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Castelhano-Carlos, M; Costa, P S; Russig, H; Sousa, N

    2014-01-01

    Modeling depression in animals has inherent complexities that are augmented by intrinsic difficulties to measure the characteristic features of the disorder. Herein, we describe the PhenoWorld (PhW), a new setting in which groups of six rats lived in an ethological enriched environment, and have their feeding, locomotor activity, sleeping and social behavior automatically monitored. A battery of emotional and cognitive tests was used to characterize the behavioral phenotype of animals living in the PhW and in standard conditions (in groups of six and two rats), after exposure to an unpredictable chronic mild stress paradigm (uCMS) and antidepressants. Data reveal that animals living in the PhW displayed similar, but more striking, behavioral differences when exposed to uCMS, such as increased behavioral despair shown in the forced swimming test, resting/sleep behavior disturbances and reduced social interactions. Moreover, several PhW-cage behaviors, such as spontaneous will to go for food or exercise in running wheels, proved to be sensitive indicators of depressive-like behavior. In summary, this new ethological enriched paradigm adds significant discriminative power to screen depressive-like behavior, in particularly rodent's hedonic behavior. PMID:26126181

  16. World, environment, Umwelt, and innerworld: a biological perspective on visual awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2013-03-01

    The world is all physical reality (Higgs bosons, and so forth), the "environment" is a geographical locality (your city, …), the "Umwelt" is the totality of possible actions of the environment on the sensitive body surface of an agent (you, your dog, …) and the possible actions of the agent on the environment (mechanical, chemical, …), whereas the "innerworld" is what it is for the agent to be, that is awareness. Awareness is pre-personal, proto-conscious, and (perhaps) proto-rational. The various "worlds" described above are on distinct ontological levels. The world, and the environment are studied in the exact sciences, the Umwelt is studied by physiology and ethology. Ethology is like behavioristic psychology, with the difference that it applies to all animals. It skips the innerworld, e.g., it considers speech to be a movement of air molecules.The innerworld can only be known through first person reports, thus is intrinsically subjective. It can only be approached through "experimental phenomenology", which is based on intersubjectivity among humans. In this setting speech may mean something in addition to the movements of molecules. These views lead to a model of vision as an "optical user interface". It has consequences for many applications.

  17. Defectors Cannot Be Detected during“Small Talk” with Strangers

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Joseph H.; Gervais, Matthew M.; Kline, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    To account for the widespread human tendency to cooperate in one-shot social dilemmas, some theorists have proposed that cooperators can be reliably detected based on ethological displays that are difficult to fake. Experimental findings have supported the view that cooperators can be distinguished from defectors based on “thin slices” of behavior, but the relevant cues have remained elusive, and the role of the judge's perspective remains unclear. In this study, we followed triadic conversations among unacquainted same-sex college students with unannounced dyadic one-shot prisoner's dilemmas, and asked participants to guess the PD decisions made toward them and among the other two participants. Two other sets of participants guessed the PD decisions after viewing videotape of the conversations, either with foreknowledge (informed), or without foreknowledge (naïve), of the post-conversation PD. Only naïve video viewers approached better-than-chance prediction accuracy, and they were significantly accurate at predicting the PD decisions of only opposite-sexed conversation participants. Four ethological displays recently proposed to cue defection in one-shot social dilemmas (arms crossed, lean back, hand touch, and face touch) failed to predict either actual defection or guesses of defection by any category of observer. Our results cast doubt on the role of “greenbeard” signals in the evolution of human prosociality, although they suggest that eavesdropping may be more informative about others' cooperative propensities than direct interaction. PMID:24358201

  18. Breed-specific companions--inter-individual distances reflect isolating mechanisms within domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus f.d.).

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2008-06-15

    White Crested Polish (WCP) chickens are an interesting breed because of skull anatomy (crest), brain size and composition. This makes them attractive to investigate processes of selection that could parallel a step towards speciation in terms of ethological isolation. Lohmann Brown Classic (BL) and Red Leghorn (RL) were selected as comparative breeds to detect whether WCPs flock together as shown by shorter inter-individual distances within WCP than across breeds. WCP and BL were observed in the first year whereas RL served as comparative breed to WCP in the second year. Eggs of both breeds of each year were incubated at the same time, and chicks hatched and were raised together. Three young hens of each breed were randomly chosen and observed weekly in an open field situation for 20 min between the first and 31st week of life. Intra-breed distances differed significantly from those distances measured across breeds. Results demonstrate breed-specific flocking within observed breeds. This flocking behaviour may reflect breed-specific social and sexual preferences. Our observations indicate that domestic breeds may represent an ethological entity. Selective processes controlled by human intervention as given in domestication may therefore to be set in parallel to evolutionary processes.

  19. Green tea polyphenols protect against okadaic acid-induced acute learning and memory impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Wu, Xiukui; Wu, Qiong; Gong, Dezheng; Shi, Meijun; Guan, Lili; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Bo; Han, Guozhu; Zou, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) are now being considered possible protective agents in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies suggested that GTPs could inhibit amyloid fibril formation and protect neurons from toxicity induced by β-amyloid. However, whether GTPs can ameliorate learning and memory impairments and also reduce tau hyperphosphorylation induced by okadaic acid (OA) in rats remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine if GTPs have neuroprotection against OA-induced neurotoxicity. In this work, rats were pretreated with GTPs by intragastric administration for 4 wk. Then OA was microinjected into the right dorsal hippocampus. Morris water maze tests were used to test the ethologic changes in all groups, and tau protein hyperphosphorylation was detected both in vivo and in vitro. The ethologic test indicated that the staying time and swimming distance in the target quadrant were significantly decreased after OA treatment, whereas rats pretreated with GTPs stayed longer in the target quadrant. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and lactate dehydrogenase leakage showed that GTPs greatly ameliorated primary hippocampal neurons damage induced by OA. Furthermore, reduced hyperphosphorylated tau protein was detected with GTPs pretreatment. Taken together, our results suggest that GTPs have neuroprotection against OA-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Xingbi gel on leukotriene E4 and immunoglobulin E production and nasal eosinophilia in a guinea pig model for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ai, Si; Zheng, Jian; Chu, Ke-Dan; Zhang, Hong-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal airways.Many therapies do not have immediate effects,even which have side-effects.However,the effects of Xingbi gel for the treatment of AR was investigated. We investigated the effects of Xingbi gel on serum levels of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and immunoglobulin E (IgE), as well as eosinophil counts in the nasal mucosa using a guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis (AR). In addition to a healthy control group without AR, guinea pigs with AR were randomly divided into untreated AR control group, low-dose Xingbi gel (0.2483 g/mL) group, high-dose Xingbi gel (0.4966 g/mL) group, and budesonide group. Compared to the healthy controls, untreated AR guinea pigs had significantly higher ethology scores, serum LTE4 and IgE levels, and nasal mucosa eosinophil counts (p <0.01). Treatments with low-dose Xingbi gel, high-dose Xingbi gel, and budesonide significantly reduced the ethology scores, serum LTE4 and IgE levels, and nasal mucosa eosinophil counts as compared to untreated AR model guinea pigs (p <0.01). Xingbi gel alleviates AR in part through inhibiting LTE4 and IgE production and reducing eosinophilia in the nasal mucosa.

  1. Dynamic systems and inferential information processing in human communication.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Renninger, LeeAnn

    2002-12-01

    Research in human communication on an ethological basis is almost obsolete. The reasons for this are manifold and lie partially in methodological problems connected to the observation and description of behavior, as well as the nature of human behavior itself. In this chapter, we present a new, non-intrusive, technical approach to the analysis of human non-verbal behavior, which could help to solve the problem of categorization that plagues the traditional approaches. We utilize evolutionary theory to propose a new theory-driven methodological approach to the 'multi-unit multi-channel modulation' problem of human nonverbal communication. Within this concept, communication is seen as context-dependent (the meaning of a signal is adapted to the situation), as a multi-channel and a multi-unit process (a string of many events interrelated in 'communicative' space and time), and as related to the function it serves. Such an approach can be utilized to successfully bridge the gap between evolutionary psychological research, which focuses on social cognition adaptations, and human ethology, which describes every day behavior in an objective, systematic way.

  2. An extract of neem leaves reduces anxiety without causing motor side effects in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Thaxter, K A; Young, L E; Young, R E; Parshad, O; Addae, J

    2010-06-01

    Anxiety modulation often requires pharmaceutical intervention, and though effective in the short-term, benzodiazepines may cause impaired motor function. As a potential alternative, anxiety-modulating effects of a neem leaf (Azadirachta indica, A Juss) extract were investigated using ethological analysis of rat behaviour on an elevated X maze and compared with diazepam treatment. Sexually immature female Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.07 or 7 mg/kg neem leaf steroidal extract, a sham injection, a 1% DMSO/saline vehicle, 2 mg/kg diazepam or no treatment one hour prior to a recorded five-minute exploration of the elevated X maze. Neem matched diazepam in anxiety reduction as both treatments caused a decrease in per cent protected stretched-attend postures (PPSAP). Neem treatment had no effect on closed arm entries or total rears, distinguishing it pharmacologically from diazepam which resulted in a predictable decrease in those locomotor measures. Whereas both neem and diazepam reduced anxiety in complex ethological behavioural indices, only neem produced anxiolysis without motor deficiency.

  3. Visual reinforcement in the female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Elcoro, Mirari; Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-07-01

    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10-s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior.

  4. The psychology and neuroscience of curiosity

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Celeste; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Curiosity is a basic element of our cognition, yet its biological function, mechanisms, and neural underpinning remain poorly understood. It is nonetheless a motivator for learning, influential in decision-making, and crucial for healthy development. One factor limiting our understanding of it is the lack of a widely agreed upon delineation of what is and is not curiosity; another factor is the dearth of standardized laboratory tasks that manipulate curiosity in the lab. Despite these barriers, recent years have seen a major growth of interest in both the neuroscience and psychology of curiosity. In this Perspective, we advocate for the importance of the field, provide a selective overview of its current state, and describe tasks that are used to study curiosity and information-seeking. We propose that, rather than worry about defining curiosity, it is more helpful to consider the motivations for information-seeking behavior and to study it in its ethological context. PMID:26539887

  5. Positive Emotions, Spirituality and the Practice of Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love (attachment), trust (faith), compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology; rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions rather than focusing only on negative emotions. PMID:22013350

  6. [Pedophilia and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Knecht, T

    2001-11-01

    Pedophilia is a frequent cause of infringement of children's sexual integrity. It's a widely spread deviant pattern of sexual arousal and behavior, which seems to be deeply rooted in human nature, as shown by impressive ethological and cultural historical evidence. Aetiology and pathogenesis of pedophilia are still not clarified, but there is a number of interesting findings suggesting multifactorial developmental disorder as the basis of pedophilia. Regarding the treatment of pedophiles, there is usually drawn a distinction between somatic and non-somatic methods. The latter aim at relapse-prevention by augmentation of self-control. The former mean drive-reduction on a hormonal basis. Antiandrogens, progestogens and LHRH-agonists have proven themselves as having significant effects on sexual drive, whereas their side effects are quite tolerable on the whole.

  7. Leg-tracking and automated behavioural classification in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Jamey; Stokes, Chris; Gaudry, Quentin; Song, Xiangzhi; Foley, James; Wilson, Rachel; de Bivort, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Much remains unknown about how the nervous system of an animal generates behaviour, and even less is known about the evolution of behaviour. How does evolution alter existing behaviours or invent novel ones? Progress in computational techniques and equipment will allow these broad, complex questions to be explored in great detail. Here we present a method for tracking each leg of a fruit fly behaving spontaneously upon a trackball, in real time. Legs were tracked with infrared-fluorescent dyes invisible to the fly, and compatible with two-photon microscopy and controlled visual stimuli. We developed machine-learning classifiers to identify instances of numerous behavioural features (for example, walking, turning and grooming), thus producing the highest-resolution ethological profiles for individual flies. PMID:23715269

  8. Social attention with real versus reel stimuli: toward an empirical approach to concerns about ecological validity

    PubMed Central

    Risko, Evan F.; Laidlaw, Kaitlin E. W.; Freeth, Megan; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists often study social cognition by using simple but socially relevant stimuli, such as schematic faces or images of other people. Whilst this research is valuable, important aspects of genuine social encounters are absent from these studies, a fact that has recently drawn criticism. In the present review we argue for an empirical approach to the determination of the equivalence of different social stimuli. This approach involves the systematic comparison of different types of social stimuli ranging in their approximation to a real social interaction. In garnering support for this cognitive ethological approach, we focus on recent research in social attention that has involved stimuli ranging from simple schematic faces to real social interactions. We highlight both meaningful similarities and differences in various social attentional phenomena across these different types of social stimuli thus validating the utility of the research initiative. Furthermore, we argue that exploring these similarities and differences will provide new insights into social cognition and social neuroscience. PMID:22654747

  9. A role for molecular genetics in biological conservation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, S J

    1994-06-21

    The recognition of recent accelerated depletion of species as a consequence of human industrial development has spawned a wide interest in identifying threats to endangered species. In addition to ecological and demographic perils, it has become clear that small populations that narrowly survive demographic contraction may undergo close inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of overall genomic variation due to allelic loss or reduction to homozygosity. I review here the consequences of such genetic depletion revealed by applying molecular population genetic analysis to four endangered mammals: African cheetah, lion, Florida panther, and humpback whale. The accumulated genetic results, combined with physiological, ecological, and ethological data, provide a multifaceted perspective of the process of species diminution. An emerging role of population genetics, phylogenetics, and phylogeography as indicators of a population's natural history and its future prognosis provides valuable data of use in the development of conservation management plans for endangered species.

  10. Conjugating time and frequency: hemispheric specialization, acoustic uncertainty, and the mustached bat.

    PubMed

    Washington, Stuart D; Tillinghast, John S

    2015-01-01

    A prominent hypothesis of hemispheric specialization for human speech and music states that the left and right auditory cortices (ACs) are respectively specialized for precise calculation of two canonically-conjugate variables: time and frequency. This spectral-temporal asymmetry does not account for sex, brain-volume, or handedness, and is in opposition to closed-system hypotheses that restrict this asymmetry to humans. Mustached bats have smaller brains, but greater ethological pressures to develop such a spectral-temporal asymmetry, than humans. Using the Heisenberg-Gabor Limit (i.e., the mathematical basis of the spectral-temporal asymmetry) to frame mustached bat literature, we show that recent findings in bat AC (1) support the notion that hemispheric specialization for speech and music is based on hemispheric differences in temporal and spectral resolution, (2) discredit closed-system, handedness, and brain-volume theories, (3) underscore the importance of sex differences, and (4) provide new avenues for phonological research.

  11. Signs of intelligence in cross-fostered chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B T; Gardner, R A

    1985-02-13

    In cross-fostering, the young of one species are reared by adults of another, as in the classical ethological studies of imprinting and song-learning. In our laboratory, infant chimpanzees were reared under human conditions that included two-way communication in American Sign Language (A.S.L.), the gestural language of the deaf in North America. A large body of evidence from five chimpanzees demonstrated stage by stage replication of basic aspects of the acquisition of speech and signs by hearing and deaf children. Here we review evidence that, under double-blind conditions: (i) the chimpanzees communicated information in A.S.L. to human observers; (ii) independent human observers agreed in their identification of the chimpanzee signs, (iii) the chimpanzees could use the signs to refer to natural language categories: DOG for any dog, FLOWER for any flower, SHOE for any shoe.

  12. ELOPTA: a novel microcontroller-based operant device.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Adam M; Song, Jianjian; Tuttle, Elaina M

    2007-11-01

    Operant devices have been used for many years in animal behavior research, yet such devices a regenerally highly specialized and quite expensive. Although commercial models are somewhat adaptable and resilient, they are also extremely expensive and are controlled by difficult to learn proprietary software. As an alternative to commercial devices, we have designed and produced a fully functional, programmable operant device, using a PICmicro microcontroller (Microchip Technology, Inc.). The electronic operant testing apparatus (ELOPTA) is designed to deliver food when a study animal, in this case a bird, successfully depresses the correct sequence of illuminated keys. The device logs each keypress and can detect and log whenever a test animal i spositioned at the device. Data can be easily transferred to a computer and imported into any statistical analysis software. At about 3% the cost of a commercial device, ELOPTA will advance behavioral sciences, including behavioral ecology, animal learning and cognition, and ethology.

  13. Shocking Revelations and Saccharin Sweetness in the Study of Drosophila Olfactory Memory

    PubMed Central

    Perisse, Emmanuel; Burke, Christopher; Huetteroth, Wolf; Waddell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    It is now almost forty years since the first description of learning in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Various incarnations of the classic mutagenesis approach envisaged in the early days have provided around one hundred learning defective mutant fly strains. Recent technological advances permit temporal control of neural function in the behaving fly. These approaches have radically changed experiments in the field and have provided a neural circuit perspective of memory formation, consolidation and retrieval. Combining neural perturbations with more classical mutant intervention allows investigators to interrogate the molecular and cellular processes of memory within the defined neural circuits. Here, we summarize some of the progress made in the last ten years that indicates a remarkable conservation of the neural mechanisms of memory formation between flies and mammals. We emphasize that considering an ethologically-relevant viewpoint might provide additional experimental power in studies of Drosophila memory. PMID:24028959

  14. The Psychology and Neuroscience of Curiosity.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Celeste; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2015-11-04

    Curiosity is a basic element of our cognition, but its biological function, mechanisms, and neural underpinning remain poorly understood. It is nonetheless a motivator for learning, influential in decision-making, and crucial for healthy development. One factor limiting our understanding of it is the lack of a widely agreed upon delineation of what is and is not curiosity. Another factor is the dearth of standardized laboratory tasks that manipulate curiosity in the lab. Despite these barriers, recent years have seen a major growth of interest in both the neuroscience and psychology of curiosity. In this Perspective, we advocate for the importance of the field, provide a selective overview of its current state, and describe tasks that are used to study curiosity and information-seeking. We propose that, rather than worry about defining curiosity, it is more helpful to consider the motivations for information-seeking behavior and to study it in its ethological context.

  15. Social defense: an evolutionary-developmental model of children's strategies for coping with threat in the peer group.

    PubMed

    Martin, Meredith J; Davies, Patrick T; MacNeill, Leigha A

    2014-04-29

    Navigating the ubiquitous conflict, competition, and complex group dynamics of the peer group is a pivotal developmental task of childhood. Difficulty negotiating these challenges represents a substantial source of risk for psychopathology. Evolutionary developmental psychology offers a unique perspective with the potential to reorganize the way we think about the role of peer relationships in shaping how children cope with the everyday challenges of establishing a social niche. To address this gap, we utilize the ethological reformulation of the emotional security theory as a guide to developing an evolutionary framework for advancing an understanding of the defense strategies children use to manage antagonistic peer relationships and protect themselves from interpersonal threat (Davies and Sturge-Apple, 2007). In this way, we hope to illustrate the value of an evolutionary developmental lens in generating unique theoretical insight and novel research directions into the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology.

  16. [What is Machiavellian intelligence? Views on a little appreciated side of the psyche].

    PubMed

    Knecht, T

    2004-01-01

    Ethological and evolutionary psychological research has produced evidence that intelligence is not a monolithic functional entity but includes a number of specialized mental abilities to cope with life which even stem from diverse evolutionary origins. One of these subforms of intelligence is called "Machiavellian intelligence," named after the 15/16th century Italian politician and author, Niccolo Machiavelli. It provides individuals or groups with a means of social manipulation in order to attain particular goals. Thus, it builds the psychological basis for the display of power in social groups. Machiavellian intelligence can be observed and evaluated in bands of primates as well as in humans, and there are even tools for measurement in the latter.

  17. Decision theory, reinforcement learning, and the brain.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Peter; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2008-12-01

    Decision making is a core competence for animals and humans acting and surviving in environments they only partially comprehend, gaining rewards and punishments for their troubles. Decision-theoretic concepts permeate experiments and computational models in ethology, psychology, and neuroscience. Here, we review a well-known, coherent Bayesian approach to decision making, showing how it unifies issues in Markovian decision problems, signal detection psychophysics, sequential sampling, and optimal exploration and discuss paradigmatic psychological and neural examples of each problem. We discuss computational issues concerning what subjects know about their task and how ambitious they are in seeking optimal solutions; we address algorithmic topics concerning model-based and model-free methods for making choices; and we highlight key aspects of the neural implementation of decision making.

  18. Animal Models of Depression: Molecular Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current understanding about the pathogenesis of altered mood, impaired concentration and neurovegetative symptoms in major depression has come from animal models. However, because of the unique and complex features of human depression, the generation of valid and insightful depression models has been less straightforward than modeling other disabling diseases like cancer or autoimmune conditions. Today’s popular depression models creatively merge ethologically valid behavioral assays with the latest technological advances in molecular biology and automated video-tracking. This chapter reviews depression assays involving acute stress (e.g., forced swim test), models consisting of prolonged physical or social stress (e.g., social defeat), models of secondary depression, genetic models, and experiments designed to elucidate the mechanisms of antidepressant action. These paradigms are critically evaluated in relation to their ease, validity and replicability, the molecular insights that they have provided, and their capacity to offer the next generation of therapeutics for depression. PMID:21225412

  19. On the Utilization of Social Animals as a Model for Social Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2012-01-01

    Social robotics is a thriving field in building artificial agents. The possibility to construct agents that can engage in meaningful social interaction with humans presents new challenges for engineers. In general, social robotics has been inspired primarily by psychologists with the aim of building human-like robots. Only a small subcategory of “companion robots” (also referred to as robotic pets) was built to mimic animals. In this opinion essay we argue that all social robots should be seen as companions and more conceptual emphasis should be put on the inter-specific interaction between humans and social robots. This view is underlined by the means of an ethological analysis and critical evaluation of present day companion robots. We suggest that human–animal interaction provides a rich source of knowledge for designing social robots that are able to interact with humans under a wide range of conditions. PMID:22457658

  20. The surveillance state of behavioral automation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Andreas T; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2012-02-01

    Genetics' demand for increased throughput is driving automatization of behavior analysis far beyond experimental workhorses like circadian monitors and the operant conditioning box. However, the new automation is not just faster: it is also allowing new kinds of experiments, many of which erase the boundaries of the traditional neuroscience disciplines (psychology, ethology and physiology) while producing insight into problems that were otherwise opaque. Ironically, a central theme of current automatization is to improve observation of animals in increasingly naturalistic environments. This is not just a return to 19th century priorities: the new observational methods provide unprecedented quantitation of actions and ever-closer integration with experimentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How hierarchical is language use?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  2. Men in Groups: Anthropology and Aggression, 1965-84.

    PubMed

    Milam, Erika Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    By the late 1950s, Harry Frank Guggenheim was concerned with understanding why some charismatic leaders fought for freedom, while others sought power and domination. He believed that best-selling books on ethological approaches to animal and human behavior, especially those by playwright and screenwriter Robert Ardrey, promised a key to this dilemma, and he created a foundation that would fund research addressing problems of violence, aggression, and dominance. Under the directorship of Rutgers University professors Robin Fox and Lionel Tiger, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation fostered scientific investigations into the biological basis of human nature. This essay analyzes their discussions of aggression as fundamental to the behavior of men in groups in order to elucidate the private and professional dimensions of masculine networks of US philanthropic and academic authority in the late 1960s and 1970s.

  3. Attachment theory, metacognitive functions and the therapeutic relationship in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Ardovini, C

    2002-12-01

    J. Bowlby's attachment theory is used to explore a fundamental motivational force in human behaviour, namely the search for physical and emotional protective intimacy according to an integrated viewpoint remote from Freud's drive-based approach. This theory has received contributions from ethology, the neurosciences, psychoanalysis, cognitive psychology and evolutionary epistemology. Attachment patterns or styles express both the mental and behavioural strategies adopted by individuals to cope with their attachment needs, and their relational history in this area. Experiences of adequate quality promote metacognitive functions, namely a set of mental processes whose role is to protect the individual from psychopathological suffering and construct and articulate a sense of self. Attachment theory and metacognition are the underlying assumptions of reflections on the dynamics marking the development of sometimes very difficult relationships between therapists and eating disorder (ED) patients, who are being increasingly classed as "severe patients" on account of their interpersonal characteristics.

  4. Toward an architecture of attachment disorganization: John Bowlby's published and unpublished reflections.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Judith; Duschinsky, Robbie; Bakkum, Lianne; Schuengel, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    This article examines the construct of disorganized attachment originally proposed by Main and Solomon, developing some new conjectures based on inspiration from a largely unknown source: John Bowlby's unpublished texts, housed at the Wellcome Trust Library Archive in London (with permission from the Bowlby family). We explore Bowlby's discussions of disorganized attachment, which he understood from the perspective of ethological theories of conflict behavior. Bowlby's reflections regarding differences among the behaviors used to code disorganized attachment will be used to explore distinctions that may underlie the structure of the current coding system. The article closes with an emphasis on the importance Bowlby placed on Popper's distinction between the context of discovery and the context of justification in developmental science.

  5. Attachment theory and John Bowlby: some reflections.

    PubMed

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan

    2007-12-01

    The 100th anniversary of Edward John Mostyn Bowlby's birth (February 26th, 1907) was celebrated at the Tavistock Clinic in London by his family and colleagues, with presentations of ongoing research as well as reflections on both the person and his theory. My own reflections include the influence of ethological thinking on the development of attachment theory, Bowlby's focus on observations followed by explanation, his appreciation of emotional communication as well as behavior, and his recognition of the role of the family as well as the child/caregiver dyad. While always remaining open to new avenues of research, John Bowlby was firmly insistent on the precise use of attachment terminology, and quite rightly too!

  6. Current issues in child psychiatry: a dialogue with John Bowlby.

    PubMed

    Warme, G E; Bowlby, J; Crowcroft, A; Rae-Grant, Q

    1980-08-01

    A condensed account of Bowlby's work, particularly his advocacy of an ethological approach and of attachment theory, is followed by comments by three child psychiatrists. His work is critically discussed and ranges from questions concerning the theoretical status of Bowlby's work, to concerns about the de-emphasis of constitutional and temperamental factors, and to concerns that current realities render impractical (and perhaps unnecessary) the traditional models of child rearing. Dr. Bowlby responds to each discussant. In this three days at Lake Couchiching, John Bowlby was the most available and charming of guests. He welcomed discussion with delegates in his every free moment, including mealtimes. It was a privilege to have him in dialogue with us.

  7. Perceptual learning in the developing auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shaowen

    2015-03-01

    A hallmark of the developing auditory cortex is the heightened plasticity in the critical period, during which acoustic inputs can indelibly alter cortical function. However, not all sounds in the natural acoustic environment are ethologically relevant. How does the auditory system resolve relevant sounds from the acoustic environment in such an early developmental stage when most associative learning mechanisms are not yet fully functional? What can the auditory system learn from one of the most important classes of sounds, animal vocalizations? How does naturalistic acoustic experience shape cortical sound representation and perception? To answer these questions, we need to consider an unusual strategy, statistical learning, where what the system needs to learn is embedded in the sensory input. Here, I will review recent findings on how certain statistical structures of natural animal vocalizations shape auditory cortical acoustic representations, and how cortical plasticity may underlie learned categorical sound perception. These results will be discussed in the context of human speech perception.

  8. Geographic dialects in blind mole rats: role of vocal communication in active speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, E; Heth, G; Beiles, A; Frankenberg, E

    1987-01-01

    We compared and contrasted the physical structure of male "courtship" calls of 59 subterranean mole rats belonging to the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel, comprising 11 populations of four chromosomal species (2N = 52, 54, 58, and 60). We also conducted behavioral auditory discrimination tests of 144 females of the four species in the laboratory. The results indicate that each chromosomal species has a vocal dialect significantly different from all others, although the call of 2N = 60, the last derivative of speciation, is not yet fully differentiated. Females of 2N = 52, 54, and 58 preferred their homospecific mates' calls, whereas females of 2N = 60 did not. We conclude that call differentiation builds up gradually and provides an efficient ethological reproductive premating isolation mechanism between the emerging species in the active speciation of mole rats in Israel. PMID:3472211

  9. Commentary: What are behavior systems and what use are they?

    PubMed

    Shettleworth, S J

    1994-12-01

    The contributions of this symposium on behavior systems are summarized and evaluated by considering two questions: (1) What is a behavior system? (2) What use to the learning theorist are behavior systems? Two examples of behavior systems from the classical ethological literature are compared with the behavior systems discussed in the symposium, and some similarities and differences in the type of analyses used are discussed. Analysis of the pre-organized species-typical behavior systems relevant to the unconditioned stimuli or reinforcers in learning experiments can contribute performance rules and better understanding of the conditions and contents of learning. The organization of behavior systems can also provide important clues to the neural circuitry underlying behavior, and a behavior systems approach can raise novel questions concerning learning and behavioral development. Possible future directions for the behavior systems approach are briefly discussed.

  10. On the history of biological theories of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Herrn, R

    1995-01-01

    Biological theories of homosexuality fit into the discourse on reproduction and sexuality that began in the nineteenth century. They arose in the context of the early homosexual rights movement, with its claim for natural rights, and the psychiatric discussions about sexual perversions. With the classification of homosexuality as a distinct category, homosexuals were excluded from the "normal". Biological theories of homosexuality were attempts not only to explain its causes, but also to maintain the exclusion of homosexuals as the "other". Biological explanations can be categorized as genetic, constitutional, endocrinological, and ethological. On the one hand, biological theories were used in the struggle for homosexual rights. On the other hand, they were used to "cure"e homosexuals. Every theory led to a specific therapy. This paper points out the roots of this thinking, traces the development of various theories, and shows the utilization of biological theories in treating homosexuality.

  11. On cuteness: unlocking the parental brain and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Kringelbach, M.L.; Stark, E.A.; Alexander, C.; Bornstein, M.H.; Stein, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cuteness in offspring is a potent protective mechanism that ensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants. Previous research has linked cuteness to early ethological ideas of a “kindchenschema” (infant schema) where infant facial features serve as “innate releasing mechanisms” for instinctual caregiving behaviours. We propose extending the concept of cuteness beyond visual features to include positive infant sounds and smells. Evidence from behavioural and neuroimaging studies links this extended concept of cuteness to simple “instinctual” behaviours and to caregiving, protection and complex emotions. We review how cuteness supports key parental capacities by igniting fast privileged neural activity followed by slower processing in large brain networks also involved in play, empathy, and perhaps even higher-order moral emotions. PMID:27211583

  12. Neural mechanisms of insect navigation.

    PubMed

    Webb, Barbara; Wystrach, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    We know more about the ethology of insect navigation than the neural substrates. Few studies have shown direct effects of brain manipulation on navigational behaviour; or measure brain responses that clearly relate to the animal's current location or spatial target, independently of specific sensory cues. This is partly due to the methodological problems of obtaining neural data in a naturally behaving animal. However, substantial indirect evidence, such as comparative anatomy and knowledge of the neural circuits that provide relevant sensory inputs provide converging arguments for the role of some specific brain areas: the mushroom bodies; and the central complex. Finally, modelling can help bridge the gap by relating the computational requirements of a given navigational task to the type of computation offered by different brain areas.

  13. Nonverbal behavior during clinical interviews: similarities and dissimilarities among schizophrenia, mania, and depression.

    PubMed

    Annen, Sigrid; Roser, Patrik; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia and depression differ from nonclinical subjects in nonverbal behavior. In contrast, there is a paucity of studies addressing differences in nonverbal communication between diagnostic groups and as to what extent nonverbal communication feeds into standard ratings of psychopathology. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia were compared with 24 patients with affective disorders (13 depressed, 11 manic) regarding their nonverbal behavior using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptom severity was rated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Patients with mania displayed more illustrative gestures than did patients with schizophrenia or depression. Subtler behavioral differences between the groups occurred regarding assertive behaviors and displacement activities suggestive of hostility and motivational conflict, respectively. Distinct correlations between nonverbal communication and psychopathology ratings emerged in all three groups. Patients with schizophrenia, depression, and mania differ in nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal communication seems to be a significant contributor to clinicians' intuitive ratings.

  14. Some conceptual problems with the classical theory of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    Behaviour is usually assumed to depend on the reach of a critical intensity--termed reactivity threshold--by its motivation. This view represents a simple, predictive theoretical framework in ethology and animal psychology. However, it is here argued that only the influence of an isolated motivation on behaviour can be explained that way; that such a view fails to account for behaviour when several motivations are jointly activated. Upon analysis, the classical theory of behaviour (CTB) proves to be under-specified and thus leads to three conceptual problems that make it logically inconsistent for the study of multiple motivations. A revision of the CTB, called anticipatory dynamics model (ADM), is then developed in order to bring a theoretical solution to these conceptual problems. The ADM hypothesizes that an organism's motivational interactions are due to the limitation of the organism's attentional resources.

  15. Revisiting the concept of behavior patterns in animal behavior with an example from food-caching sequences in wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Gadbois, Simon; Sievert, Olivia; Reeve, Catherine; Harrington, F H; Fentress, J C

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the history, conceptualization, and relevance of behavior patterns in modern ethology by explaining the evolution of the concepts of fixed action patterns and modal action patterns. We present the movement toward a more flexible concept of natural action sequences with significant degrees of (production and expressive) freedom. An example is presented with the food caching behavior of three Canidae species: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), coyote (Canis latrans) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). Evolutionary, ecological, and neuroecological/neuroethological arguments are presented to explain the difference in levels of complexity and stereotypy between Canis and Vulpes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Janus-faced nature of comparative psychology--strength or weakness?

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Gordon M

    2013-07-18

    What is the nature of comparative psychology and how does or should it relate to evolutionary psychology? This is a time of reassessment of both fields and this article reviews the history of comparative psychology and its relationships with evolutionary psychology, ethology, and other approaches to behavior from the perspective of a former editor of the Journal of Comparative Psychology who has spent many decades engaged in research in animal behavior. Special attention is given to a reassessment of comparative psychology that was carried out in 1987. The various tensions and orientations that seem endemic to comparative psychology may, in fact, be both a strength and weakness as comparative psychology and evolutionary approaches to human psychology return to issues prominent in the late 19th Century, when both fields were just becoming established.

  17. Endocannabinoids shape accumbal encoding of cue-motivated behavior via CB1 receptor activation in the ventral tegmentum

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B.; Beckert, Michael V.; Morra, Joshua T.; Lansink, Carien S.; Cachope, Roger; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Loriaux, Amy L.; Schetters, Dustin; Pattij, Tommy; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Transient increases in nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine concentration are observed when animals are presented with motivationally salient stimuli and are theorized to energize reward seeking. They arise from high frequency firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which also results in the release of endocannabinoids from dopamine cell bodies. In this context, endocannabinoids are thought to regulate reward seeking by modulating dopamine signaling, although a direct link has never been demonstrated. To test this, we pharmacologically manipulated endocannabinoid neurotransmission in the VTA while measuring transient changes in dopamine concentration in the NAc during reward seeking. Disrupting endocannabinoid signaling dramatically reduced, whereas augmenting levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) increased, cue-evoked dopamine concentrations and reward seeking. These data suggest that 2AG in the VTA regulates reward seeking by sculpting ethologically relevant patterns of dopamine release during reward-directed behavior. PMID:22284189

  18. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  19. An Ethogram to Quantify Operating Room Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Laura K.; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski; Goelz, Ryan M.; Haythorn, Kent W.; Zivot, Joel B.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The operating room (OR) is a highly social and hierarchical setting where interprofessional team members must work interdependently under pressure. Due primarily to methodological challenges, the social and behavioral sciences have had trouble offering insight into OR dynamics. Purpose We adopted a method from the field of ethology for observing and quantifying the interpersonal interactions of OR team members. Methods We created and refined an ethogram, a catalog of all our subjects’ observable social behaviors. The ethogram was then assessed for its feasibility and interobserver reliability. Results It was feasible to use an ethogram to gather data in the OR. The high interobserver reliability (Cohen’s Kappa coefficients of 81 % and higher) indicates its utility for yielding largely objective, descriptive, quantitative data on OR behavior. Conclusions The method we propose has potential for social research conducted in healthcare settings as complex as the OR. PMID:26813263

  20. The Structure of Cognition: Attentional Episodes in Mind and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, John

    2013-01-01

    Cognition is organized in a structured series of attentional episodes, allowing complex problems to be addressed through solution of simpler subproblems. A “multiple-demand” (MD) system of frontal and parietal cortex is active in many different kinds of tasks, and using data from neuroimaging, electrophysiology, neuropsychology, and cognitive studies of intelligence, I propose a core role for MD regions in assembly of the attentional episode. Monkey and human data show dynamic neural coding of attended information across multiple MD regions, with rapid communication within and between regions. Neuropsychological and imaging data link MD function to fluid intelligence, explaining some but not all “executive” deficits after frontal lobe lesions. Cognitive studies link fluid intelligence to goal neglect, and the problem of dividing complex task requirements into focused parts. Like the innate releasing mechanism of ethology, I suggest that construction of the attentional episode provides a core organizational principle for complex, adaptive cognition. PMID:24094101

  1. Mass homicide: the civil massacre.

    PubMed

    Cantor, C H; Mullen, P E; Alpers, P A

    2000-01-01

    Seven cases of mass homicide in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain between 1987 and 1996 are presented. These cases add to the world literature on these rare crimes and balance previous, mostly North American reports. These acts were committed by socially unsuccessful, self-absorbed, and resentful individuals. Lengthy fantasy comprising identification, modeling, and rehearsal preceded the incidents, even where the final acts had impulsive elements. Most had a long-standing fascination with firearms fueling their fantasies and providing the means for mass killing. Their targets were mostly unprotected strangers. Overt suicidal intent or a preparedness to die while committing the homicides was invariable. Ethological theories of status acquisition may provide a useful understanding of mass homicide.

  2. A confusion of tongues or whose reality is it?

    PubMed

    Modell, A H

    1991-04-01

    In a 1933 paper Ferenczi implied that conflict between the adult's and the child's construction of reality is traumatic for the child. As all individuals construct their own view of reality, it is inevitable that there will be conflicting constructions between child and adult--and between analyst and analysand. This may be biologically rooted; recent ethological studies suggest that parent-child conflict is ubiquitous because of a divergence of needs. When a child perceives a marked divergence between his or her construction of reality and that of the caretaker, the child may tend to reject the information proffered by the caretaker. This may appear later as a resistance to learning from the analyst. The divergence of needs between child and caretaker may have a profound influence on the child's cognitive development. The capacity to share other constructions of reality is a developmental achievement which may be facilitated by the psychoanalytic process.

  3. A role for molecular genetics in biological conservation.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S J

    1994-01-01

    The recognition of recent accelerated depletion of species as a consequence of human industrial development has spawned a wide interest in identifying threats to endangered species. In addition to ecological and demographic perils, it has become clear that small populations that narrowly survive demographic contraction may undergo close inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of overall genomic variation due to allelic loss or reduction to homozygosity. I review here the consequences of such genetic depletion revealed by applying molecular population genetic analysis to four endangered mammals: African cheetah, lion, Florida panther, and humpback whale. The accumulated genetic results, combined with physiological, ecological, and ethological data, provide a multifaceted perspective of the process of species diminution. An emerging role of population genetics, phylogenetics, and phylogeography as indicators of a population's natural history and its future prognosis provides valuable data of use in the development of conservation management plans for endangered species. PMID:7912434

  4. On the Socio-Sexual Behaviour of the Extinct Ursid Indarctos arctoides: An Approach Based on Its Baculum Size and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Abella, Juan; Valenciano, Alberto; Pérez-Ramos, Alejandro; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The fossil bacula, or os penis, constitutes a rare subject of study due to its scarcity in the fossil record. In the present paper we describe five bacula attributed to the bear Indarctos arctoides Depéret, 1895 from the Batallones-3 site (Madrid Basin, Spain). Both the length and morphology of this fossil bacula enabled us to make interpretative approaches to a series of ecological and ethological characters of this bear. Thus, we suggest that I. arctoides could have had prolonged periods of intromission and/or maintenance of intromission during the post-ejaculatory intervals, a multi-male mating system and large home range sizes and/or lower population density. Its size might also have helped females to choose from among the available males. PMID:24058484

  5. [Lamarck needs Darwin: the search for purpose in the study of evolution and of history].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Lamarck's theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics and immediate responses to environmental challenges has offered a promise of protagonism of human beings and their fellow travellers, the other organisms, in the evolutionary process. Darwin's theory about evolution by natural selection does not offer this consolation and does not presuppose anything else other than gradual changes in the composition of natural populations. The study of ecology, ethology, neurobiology, animal culture, psychology and human history reveals that the lamarckian interpretations of change and character transmission processes always assume what they intend to explain, that is previous processes of darwinian evolution that guarantee the adaptive nature of the observed responses. The permanent search of direction and intentionality in evolutionary processes by many scientists suggests the limited acceptance of materialistic explanations as those offered by Darwin's theory.

  6. Social defeat stress produces prolonged alterations in acoustic startle and body weight gain in male Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Pulliam, John V K; Dawaghreh, Ahmad M; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Plotsky, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals exposed to psychological stressors may experience a long-term resetting of behavioral and neuroendocrine aspects of their "stress response" so that they either hyper or hypo-respond to subsequent stressors. These effects of psychological or traumatic stressors may be mimicked in rats using the resident-intruder model of social defeat. The social defeat model has been characterized to model aspects of the physiology and behavior associated with anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to determine if behaviors elicited following repeated social defeat can also reflect aspects of ethologically relevant stresses associated with existing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) models. Socially defeated rats displayed weight loss and an enhanced and prolonged response to acoustic startle which was displayed for up to 10days following repeated social defeat. These data indicate that the severe stress of social defeat can produce physiologic and behavioral outcomes which may reflect aspects of traumatic psychosocial stress.

  7. The first ant-termite syninclusion in amber with CT-scan analysis of taphonomy.

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Aria, Cédric; Garrouste, Romain; Wils, Patricia; Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a co-occurrence (i.e. a syninclusion) of ants and termites in a piece of Mexican amber (Totolapa deposit, Chiapas), whose importance is two-fold. First, this finding suggests at least a middle Miocene antiquity for the modern, though poorly documented, relationship between Azteca ants and Nasutitermes termites. Second, the presence of a Neivamyrmex army ant documents an in situ raiding behaviour of the same age and within the same community, confirmed by the fact that the army ant is holding one of the termite worker between its mandibles and by the presence of a termite with bitten abdomen. In addition, we present how CT-scan imaging can be an efficient tool to describe the topology of resin flows within amber pieces, and to point out the different states of preservation of the embedded insects. This can help achieving a better understanding of taphonomical processes, and tests ethological and ecological hypotheses in such complex syninclusions.

  8. Personality Traits: A View From the Animal Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander

    2017-02-25

    Given their backgrounds in classical ethology and in comparative psychology, researchers who study animal personality in biology and psychology, respectively, differ in how they measure personality, what questions they see as important, and how they address these questions. Despite these differences, both comparative psychologists and biologists embrace personality traits. By doing so, they have solved empirical and conceptual problems in animal behavior. Studies of animal personality have provided answers to questions about the evolution of human personality and have presented conceptual and empirical anomalies for sociocognitive theories. Animal personality research does not break from trait theories of personality. Instead, it enriches trait theories by conceiving of traits as not belonging to a species, but as expressed, with some modifications, across species. Broadening trait theory in this way has the potential to further enhance its ability to answer questions related to animal and human personality.

  9. Ethorobotics: A New Approach to Human-Robot Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Miklósi, Ádám; Korondi, Péter; Matellán, Vicente; Gácsi, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Here we aim to lay the theoretical foundations of human-robot relationship drawing upon insights from disciplines that govern relevant human behaviors: ecology and ethology. We show how the paradox of the so called “uncanny valley hypothesis” can be solved by applying the “niche” concept to social robots, and relying on the natural behavior of humans. Instead of striving to build human-like social robots, engineers should construct robots that are able to maximize their performance in their niche (being optimal for some specific functions), and if they are endowed with appropriate form of social competence then humans will eventually interact with them independent of their embodiment. This new discipline, which we call ethorobotics, could change social robotics, giving a boost to new technical approaches and applications. PMID:28649213

  10. Ethorobotics: A New Approach to Human-Robot Relationship.

    PubMed

    Miklósi, Ádám; Korondi, Péter; Matellán, Vicente; Gácsi, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Here we aim to lay the theoretical foundations of human-robot relationship drawing upon insights from disciplines that govern relevant human behaviors: ecology and ethology. We show how the paradox of the so called "uncanny valley hypothesis" can be solved by applying the "niche" concept to social robots, and relying on the natural behavior of humans. Instead of striving to build human-like social robots, engineers should construct robots that are able to maximize their performance in their niche (being optimal for some specific functions), and if they are endowed with appropriate form of social competence then humans will eventually interact with them independent of their embodiment. This new discipline, which we call ethorobotics, could change social robotics, giving a boost to new technical approaches and applications.

  11. Nonverbal communication of patients with borderline personality disorder during clinical interviews: a double-blind placebo-controlled study using intranasal oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Brüne, Martin; Kolb, Meike; Ebert, Andreas; Roser, Patrik; Edel, Marc-Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Interpersonal dysfunction is central to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent research has focused on the role of oxytocin (OT) in BPD, with mixed results regarding the processing of social information. Fifteen BPD patients and 15 controls participated in two clinical interviews, one under OT and one under placebo, which were randomly conducted 1 week apart in a double-blind fashion. Nonverbal behavior was evaluated using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Childhood trauma was examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The patients with BPD showed less affiliative behavior than the controls. Notably, the controls, but not the patients, displayed more affiliation when OT was given at T1 compared with OT given at T2. OT was also associated with less flight behavior in both groups when given at T1 compared with placebo. OT responses were unrelated to the patients' history of childhood trauma. The present findings are informative with respect to patients' nonverbal prosocial behavior in clinical settings.

  12. [Thermoregulation behavior in necrophagous dipteran larvae].

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Hédouin, Valéry; Charabidzé, Damien

    2017-01-01

    The forensic entomology is the use of insects to date the death. The forensic expert assessment is based on the development of necrophagous insects which are growing on the cadaver, to calculate their age and then estimate the Post-Mortem Interval. This development depends on a number of parameters like temperature, species or behavior. The French Forensic Taphonomy unit, the only expert team on the subject in France, works on the biology, physiology and ethology of the necrophagous insects. Their works are focused on thermoregulation behavior and thermal preferendum of maggot masses, aggregation phenomenon and social interaction or on food intake. These works are particularly of interest to understand the pre-social parameters and evolution strategies. More importantly, their aim is to better understand the development of necrophagous insects and, in fine, to improve the forensic expert assessment. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  13. Is microhabitat segregation between two cicada species (Tibicina haematodes and Cicada orni) due to calling song propagation constraints?

    PubMed

    Sueur, J; Aubin, T

    2003-07-01

    The cicada species Tibicina haematodes and Cicada orni are two sympatric species often inhabiting vineyards. We show that they occupy two distinct levels: males of T. haematodes produce their calling songs from a high position in vine foliage while males of C. orni call from a low position near the ground on vine trunks. Experiments consisting of broadcasting and re-recording experimental signals in natural habitats from low and high positions show that signals are more and more modified as sender-receiver distance increases. T. haematodes would have an advantage when calling on trunks rather than on branches whereas C. orni would be able to call indiscriminately from both low and high positions. Thus, the microhabitat segregation observed between T. haematodes and C orni in vineyards does not seem to be related to calling song propagation constraints, but may be due to other ethological or ecological factors.

  14. Magnetic tracking of eye position in freely behaving chickens

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jason S.; Sridharan, Devarajan; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the visual system of non-primates, such as birds and rodents, is increasing. Evidence that neural responses can differ dramatically between head-immobilized and freely behaving animals underlines the importance of studying visual processing in ethologically relevant contexts. In order to systematically study visual responses in freely behaving animals, an unobtrusive system for monitoring eye-in-orbit position in real time is essential. We describe a novel system for monitoring eye position that utilizes a head-mounted magnetic displacement sensor coupled with an eye-implanted magnet. This system is small, lightweight, and offers high temporal and spatial resolution in real time. We use the system to demonstrate the stability of the eye and the stereotypy of eye position during two different behavioral tasks in chickens. This approach offers a viable alternative to search coil and optical eye tracking techniques for high resolution tracking of eye-in-orbit position in behaving animals. PMID:24312023

  15. The evolutionary ecology of the major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Piertney, S B; Oliver, M K

    2006-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has become a paradigm for how selection can act to maintain adaptively important genetic diversity in natural populations. Here, we review the contribution of studies on the MHC in non-model species to our understanding of how selection affects MHC diversity, emphasising how ecological and ethological processes influence the tempo and mode of evolution at the MHC, and conversely, how variability at the MHC affects individual fitness, population dynamics and viability. We focus on three main areas: the types of information that have been used to detect the action of selection on MHC genes; the relative contributions of parasite-mediated and sexual selection on the maintenance of MHC diversity; and possible future lines of research that may help resolve some of the unanswered issues associated with MHC evolution.

  16. Communication in Natural and Artificial Organisms: Experiments in Evolutionary Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, Davide; Nolfi, Stefano

    In the field of ethological studies many efforts of researchers are devoted to understand how animals communicate and what is the role of communication from an evolutionary and functional point of view. Progress in this area might also have an impact on our understanding of human communication since animal and human communication systems share several features (Hauser, 1996). The social function played by human language, for instance, is one of the first traits that allows us to place language in the same evolutionary field as other animal communication systems. Moreover, recently also the idea of the uniqueness of human language regarding the representational fashion of the knowledge and the compositionality of signals is challenged by new findings in primate research that indicate that, in baboons, knowledge is representational, based on properties that have discrete values and, from a certain point of view, propositional (Seyfarth et al., 2005).

  17. Modelling engagement in dementia through behaviour. Contribution for socially interactive robotics.

    PubMed

    Perugia, Giulia; Diaz Doladeras, Marta; Mallofre, Andreu Catala; Rauterberg, Matthias; Barakova, Emilia

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel tool to measure engagement in people with dementia playing board games and interacting with a social robot, Pleo. We carried out two studies to reach a comprehensive inventory of behaviours accounting for engagement in dementia. The first one is an exploratory study aimed at modelling engagement in cognitive board games. The second one is a longitudinal study to investigate how people with dementia express engagement in cognitive games and in interactions with social robots. We adopted a technique coming from Ethology to mould behaviour, the ethogram. Ethogram is founded on low level behaviours, and allows hierarchical structuring. Herein, we present preliminary results consisting in the description of two ethograms and in their structuring obtained through thematic analysis. Such results show that an underlying structure of engagement exists across activities, and that different activities trigger different behavioural displays of engagement that adhere to such a structure.

  18. Novel Consequences of Bird Pollination for Plant Mating.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Siegfried L; Phillips, Ryan D; Karron, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Steven D; Roberts, David G; Hopper, Stephen D

    2017-05-01

    Pollinator behaviour has profound effects on plant mating. Pollinators are predicted to minimise energetic costs during foraging bouts by moving between nearby flowers. However, a review of plant mating system studies reveals a mismatch between behavioural predictions and pollen-mediated gene dispersal in bird-pollinated plants. Paternal diversity of these plants is twice that of plants pollinated solely by insects. Comparison with the behaviour of other pollinator groups suggests that birds promote pollen dispersal through a combination of high mobility, limited grooming, and intra- and interspecies aggression. Future opportunities to test these predictions include seed paternity assignment following pollinator exclusion experiments, single pollen grain genotyping, new tracking technologies for small pollinators, and motion-triggered cameras and ethological experimentation for quantifying pollinator behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How hierarchical is language use?

    PubMed

    Frank, Stefan L; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-11-22

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science.

  20. Popularizing the ancestry of man: Robert Ardrey and the killer instinct.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Nadine

    2011-06-01

    This essay examines Robert Ardrey (1908-1980)-American playwright, screenwriter, and prolific author-as a case study in the popularization of science. Bringing together evidence from both paleoanthropology and ethology, Ardrey became in the 1960s a vocal proponent of the theory that human beings are innately violent. The essay shows that Ardrey used his popular scientific books not only to consolidate a new science of human nature but also to question the popularizer's standard role, to reverse conventional hierarchies of scientific expertise, and to test the boundaries of professional scientific authority. Understanding how he did this can help us reassess the meanings and uses of popular science as critique in Cold War America. The essay also shows that E. O. Wilson's sociobiology was in part a reaction to the subversive political message of Ardrey's science.

  1. A Brief Review of Neurotoxicity Induced by Melamine.

    PubMed

    An, Lei; Sun, Wei

    2017-08-01

    In September 2008, in China, tens of thousands of children were hospitalized, several even died, as a result of infant-formula milk adulterated with a synthetic chemical compound, melamine, and in the next few months, this crisis became the focus of attention worldwide. Although there are a number of articles about nephrotoxicity of melamine, the evidence of melamine toxicity on other organs is still scanty. Specially, several recent studies indicated that melamine can perturb the central nervous system (CNS) function and induce cognitive deficits, breaking the previous view that melamine toxicity is limited to the urinary system. This review focuses on some developmental consequences of melamine exposures through various routes in vitro and in vivo, from ethology to molecular and cellular assessments. The evidences demonstrate that the neurotoxic effects of melamine were varied from different route exposure. Finally, the relevant literature on the mechanisms of these aspects has been discussed, and some suggestions towards further researches have been presented.

  2. State-dependent sensorimotor processing: gaze and posture stability during simulated flight in birds

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular responses play an important role in maintaining gaze and posture stability during rotational motion. Previous studies suggest that these responses are state dependent, their expression varying with the environmental and locomotor conditions of the animal. In this study, we simulated an ethologically relevant state in the laboratory to study state-dependent vestibular responses in birds. We used frontal airflow to simulate gliding flight and measured pigeons′ eye, head, and tail responses to rotational motion in darkness, under both head-fixed and head-free conditions. We show that both eye and head response gains are significantly higher during flight, thus enhancing gaze and head-in-space stability. We also characterize state-specific tail responses to pitch and roll rotation that would help to maintain body-in-space orientation during flight. These results demonstrate that vestibular sensorimotor processing is not fixed but depends instead on the animal's behavioral state. PMID:21307332

  3. Communication in Natural and Artificial Organisms: Experiments in Evolutionary Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, Davide; Nolfi, Stefano

    In the field of ethological studies many efforts of researchers are devoted to understand how animals communicate and what is the role of communication from an evolutionary and functional point of view. Progress in this area might also have an impact on our understanding of human communication since animal and human communication systems share several features (Hauser, 1996). The social function played by human language, for instance, is one of the first traits that allows us to place language in the same evolutionary field as other animal communication systems. Moreover, recently also the idea of the uniqueness of human language regarding the representational fashion of the knowledge and the compositionality of signals is challenged by new findings in primate research that indicate that, in baboons, knowledge is representational, based on properties that have discrete values and, from a certain point of view, propositional (Seyfarth et al., 2005).

  4. [Women and mental illness : a cultural problem?].

    PubMed

    Lamarre, S

    1979-01-01

    The author tries with the help of a cultural model to explain the increase of mental illnessess in women since the last world war. Her parameters, taken from Bateson, are ; group systems (complementary, symetrical and reciprocal différenciation) and some aspects : cultural, structural, pragmatical and ethological linked to conformism, needs and emotions. Following her analysis she concludes that four factors are responsible for this increase of feminine mental illness : 1) change in social aspirations now more oriented towards self-fullfilment than usefulness 2) necessity to be happy for two in marriage without the benifice of an autonomous position 3) difficulty to self-assert and know her own needs 4) repression of the anger caused by the frustrations of her situation. The author ends her thesis with helping suggestions on how to live this transitory period.

  5. Shoot first, ask questions later: Interpretative narratives of Neanderthal hunting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mark; Pettitt, Paul; Schreve, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the hunting strategies employed by Neanderthals at a series of kill or near-kill sites from the Middle Palaeolithic of Europe (Mauran, La Borde, Taubach, Zwoleń and Salzgitter Lebenstedt). Using palaeolandscape reconstructions and animal ethology as our context, we adopt a multifaceted approach that views hunting as a chaîne opératoire involving the decisions and actions of both the hunter and the hunted, which together help reconstruct a forensic picture of past events as they unfolded. Our conclusions indicate that Neanderthals did not necessarily pre-select individuals from a herd, who they then isolated, pursued and killed, but rather ambushed whole groups, which they slaughtered indiscriminately. There is strong evidence, however, that Neanderthals were highly selective in the carcasses they then chose to process. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals were excellent tacticians, casual executioners and discerning diners.

  6. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones.

  7. Temporal Segmentation of Human Short-Term Behavior in Everyday Activities and Interview Sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Matthias R.; Schleidt, Margret

    Human behavior is structured by serial order and timing of functionally related groups of movements with a duration of a few seconds. These elementary action units have been described in ethological studies during unstaged everyday behavior, but not during interview sessions. Psychomotor alterations are relevant for differential diagnosis and treatment, and psychiatric patients are generally evaluated during interview sessions. Therefore the time structure of upper limb movements (n=764) of healthy subjects (n=22) were studied using videotaped interviews and frame-by-frame analysis and compared to movements (n=530) of unstaged human everyday behavior (n=154). The number of action units, but not their duration, was correlated inversely with self-reported impairment of mood and pleasure experience in healthy persons. The temporal distribution of movements in interview sessions did not differ from the time patterns of everyday behavior. This method could be a promising tool to investigate time patterns of movements and psychomotor alterations in psychiatric patients during interview sessions.

  8. The Ecology of Social Learning in Animals and its Link with Intelligence.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel; Graber, Sereina; Schuppli, Caroline; Burkart, Judith

    2017-01-09

    Classical ethology and behavioral ecology did not pay much attention to learning. However, studies of social learning in nature reviewed here reveal the near-ubiquity of reliance on social information for skill acquisition by developing birds and mammals. This conclusion strengthens the plausibility of the cultural intelligence hypothesis for the evolution of intelligence, which assumes that selection on social learning abilities automatically improves individual learning ability. Thus, intelligent species will generally be cultural species. Direct tests of the cultural intelligence hypothesis require good estimates of the amount and kind of social learning taking place in nature in a broad variety of species. These estimates are lacking so far. Here, we start the process of developing a functional classification of social learning, in the form of the social learning spectrum, which should help to predict the mechanisms of social learning involved. Once validated, the categories can be used to estimate the cognitive demands of social learning in the wild.

  9. Illness, body and relationship: Giovanni Jervis and the field of clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Williams, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most of his contemporaries, Jervis felt it was necessary to give new answers to last century's clinical psychology crisis. He managed to show the relevance that psychological knowledge coming from other sectors (such as philosophy, evolutionary biology, cybernetics, ethology and, nowadays, neuroscience) could have for clinical psychology. He realized that the clinical world was at risk of loosing its cultural models of reference and threatened to break up with the scientific tradition with which it had not been able to establish a profitable dialogue. Jervis' views on mental functioning allowed him to delimit the field of action of clinical psychology. The focus on pathology and existential distress suggested that correct clinical evaluation and diagnosis are at the core of the activity of clinical psychologists. The tension between relational expectations, self-deceptive aspects of identity and the bodily sources of mental life show the dynamic field on which clinical psychology can deploy its transformative action.

  10. Visual Reinforcement in the Female Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens

    PubMed Central

    Elcoro, Mirari; da Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-01-01

    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10–s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:18683612

  11. The case of the missing third.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Robin

    2005-01-01

    How is it that form arises out of chaos? In attempting to deal with this primary question, time and again a "Missing Third" is posited that lies between extremes. The problem of the "Missing Third" can be traced through nearly the entire history of thought. The form it takes, the problems that arise from it, the solutions suggested for resolving it, are each representative of an age. This paper traces the issue from Plato and Parmenides in the 4th--5th centuries, B.C.; to Neoplatonism in the 3rd--5th centuries; to Locke and Descartes in the 17th century; on to Berkeley and Kant in the 18th century; Fechner and Wundt in the 19th century; to behaviorism and Gestalt psychology, Jung, early in the 20th century, ethology and cybernetics later in the 20th century, then culminates late in the 20th century, with chaos theory.

  12. The swimming behavior of Artemia (Anostraca): new experimental and observational data.

    PubMed

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2014-12-01

    Artemia (Anostraca) is among the most primitive and ancient groups of crustaceans. Artemia spp. play a dominant role in the ecosystems of hypersaline waters, and often they are the only animals in these extreme biotopes. Most ethological studies on Artemia have been conducted on nauplii and metanauplii. We made ethological observations on Artemia under laboratory conditions and in the natural waters of Crimea, where we studied growth and ontogenetic changes of swimming behavior. Growth occurred during the first 50 days up to a size of 9.5-10.5mm, after which time the size did not increase (some females lived up to 6.5 months). A strong positive relation was found between maximal speed and individual length, which varied between 0.4 and 10.5mm; it may be approximated by the power equation: Vmax=1.205·K(0.820), where Vmax is the maximal speed of Artemia (in mms(-1)) of the length K (in mm). There is no similar relation between average speed and length of Artemia. The average speed of adults was 40-60% lower in environments with microalgae compared to media without food. The duration of the "riding position" for mating pairs of Artemia urmiana in our experiments varied from 10 to 27 days. In lakes we observed different Artemia aggregations varying in size and form. We conclude that the swimming behavior of Artemia is quite complex and diverse, and develops during ontogeny. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Contrast Enhancement without Transient Map Expansion for Species-Specific Vocalizations in Core Auditory Cortex during Learning

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Kathryn N.; Chong, Kelly K.

    2016-01-01

    Tonotopic map plasticity in the adult auditory cortex (AC) is a well established and oft-cited measure of auditory associative learning in classical conditioning paradigms. However, its necessity as an enduring memory trace has been debated, especially given a recent finding that the areal expansion of core AC tuned to a newly relevant frequency range may arise only transiently to support auditory learning. This has been reinforced by an ethological paradigm showing that map expansion is not observed for ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) or for ultrasound frequencies in postweaning dams for whom USVs emitted by pups acquire behavioral relevance. However, whether transient expansion occurs during maternal experience is not known, and could help to reveal the generality of cortical map expansion as a correlate for auditory learning. We thus mapped the auditory cortices of maternal mice at postnatal time points surrounding the peak in pup USV emission, but found no evidence of frequency map expansion for the behaviorally relevant high ultrasound range in AC. Instead, regions tuned to low frequencies outside of the ultrasound range show progressively greater suppression of activity in response to the playback of ultrasounds or pup USVs for maternally experienced animals assessed at their pups’ postnatal day 9 (P9) to P10, or postweaning. This provides new evidence for a lateral-band suppression mechanism elicited by behaviorally meaningful USVs, likely enhancing their population-level signal-to-noise ratio. These results demonstrate that tonotopic map enlargement has limits as a construct for conceptualizing how experience leaves neural memory traces within sensory cortex in the context of ethological auditory learning. PMID:27957529

  14. Advice to young behavioral and cognitive scientists.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Ronald G

    2008-02-01

    Modeled on Medawar's Advice to a Young Scientist [Medawar, P.B., 1979. Advice to a Young Scientist. Basic Books, New York], this article provides advice to behavioral and cognitive scientists. An important guiding principle is that the study of comparative cognition and behavior are natural sciences tasked with explaining nature. The author advises young scientists to begin with a natural phenomenon and then bring it into the laboratory, rather than beginning in the laboratory and hoping for an application in nature. He suggests collaboration as a way to include research outside the scientist's normal competence. He then discusses several guides to good science. These guides include Tinbergen's [Tinbergen, N., 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410-433. This journal was renamed Ethology in 1986. Also reprinted in Anim. Biol. 55, 297-321, 2005] four "why" questions, Platt's [Platt, J.R., 1964. Strong inference. Science 146, 347-353, (http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jmoore/courses/Platt1964.pdf)] notion of strong inference using multiple alternative hypotheses, and the idea that positive controls help scientists to follow Popper's [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books, New York, p. 41] advice about disproving hypotheses. The author also recommends Strunk and White's [Strunk, W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York] rules for sound writing, and he provides his personal advice on how to use the anticipation of peer review to improve research and how to decode editors' and reviewers' comments about submitted articles.

  15. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Hjalmar K.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders. PMID:26500583

  16. Is silence golden? Effects of auditory stimuli and their absence on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kirste, Imke; Nicola, Zeina; Kronenberg, Golo; Walker, Tara L; Liu, Robert C; Kempermann, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    We have previously hypothesized that the reason why physical activity increases precursor cell proliferation in adult neurogenesis is that movement serves as non-specific signal to evoke the alertness required to meet cognitive demands. Thereby a pool of immature neurons is generated that are potentially recruitable by subsequent cognitive stimuli. Along these lines, we here tested whether auditory stimuli might exert a similar non-specific effect on adult neurogenesis in mice. We used the standard noise level in the animal facility as baseline and compared this condition to white noise, pup calls, and silence. In addition, as patterned auditory stimulus without ethological relevance to mice we used piano music by Mozart (KV 448). All stimuli were transposed to the frequency range of C57BL/6 and hearing was objectified with acoustic evoked potentials. We found that except for white noise all stimuli, including silence, increased precursor cell proliferation (assessed 24 h after labeling with bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU). This could be explained by significant increases in BrdU-labeled Sox2-positive cells (type-1/2a). But after 7 days, only silence remained associated with increased numbers of BrdU-labeled cells. Compared to controls at this stage, exposure to silence had generated significantly increased numbers of BrdU/NeuN-labeled neurons. Our results indicate that the unnatural absence of auditory input as well as spectrotemporally rich albeit ethological irrelevant stimuli activate precursor cells-in the case of silence also leading to greater numbers of newborn immature neurons-whereas ambient and unstructured background auditory stimuli do not.

  17. Depressive-like behavioral profiles in captive-bred single- and socially-housed rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: a species comparison

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Sandrine M. J.; Rochais, Céline; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2014-01-01

    Background: To unravel the causes of major depressive disorder (MDD), the third leading cause of disease burden around the world, ethological animal models have recently been proposed. Our previous studies highlighted a depressive-like profile among single- and socially-housed farm-bred cynomolgus macaques. Although phylogenetically close, cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly used macaque species in biomedical research, differ on several levels such as patterns of aggression, reconciliation, temperament, or dominance styles. The question of whether one captive macaque species was more vulnerable than another in the development of a pathological profile reminiscent of MDD symptoms was explored. Methods: Behavioral data (including body postures, orientations, gaze directions, inter-individual distances, and locations in the cage) were collected in farming conditions. Using an unbiased validated ethological scan-sampling method, followed by multiple correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses, 40 single- and 35 socially-housed rhesus macaques were assessed. Independently, for each housing condition, inter-species comparisons were made with previously acquired data on farm-bred cynomolgus monkeys. Results: Consistent with our previous studies, we found depressive-like characteristics (e.g., inactivity, low level of investigation and maintenance, long time spent inactive while facing the wall) among single- and socially-housed rhesus macaques. Species-specificities were reported in non-depressive time budgets and in the prevalence of the pathological profiles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that rhesus may be more vulnerable to developing a despair-like state than cynomolgus macaques, both in single- and in social-housing conditions. Therefore, rhesus macaques are more suitable for use as a “spontaneous” model of depressive disorders. PMID:24600363

  18. Depressive-like behavioral profiles in captive-bred single- and socially-housed rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: a species comparison.

    PubMed

    Camus, Sandrine M J; Rochais, Céline; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2014-01-01

    To unravel the causes of major depressive disorder (MDD), the third leading cause of disease burden around the world, ethological animal models have recently been proposed. Our previous studies highlighted a depressive-like profile among single- and socially-housed farm-bred cynomolgus macaques. Although phylogenetically close, cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly used macaque species in biomedical research, differ on several levels such as patterns of aggression, reconciliation, temperament, or dominance styles. The question of whether one captive macaque species was more vulnerable than another in the development of a pathological profile reminiscent of MDD symptoms was explored. Behavioral data (including body postures, orientations, gaze directions, inter-individual distances, and locations in the cage) were collected in farming conditions. Using an unbiased validated ethological scan-sampling method, followed by multiple correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses, 40 single- and 35 socially-housed rhesus macaques were assessed. Independently, for each housing condition, inter-species comparisons were made with previously acquired data on farm-bred cynomolgus monkeys. Consistent with our previous studies, we found depressive-like characteristics (e.g., inactivity, low level of investigation and maintenance, long time spent inactive while facing the wall) among single- and socially-housed rhesus macaques. Species-specificities were reported in non-depressive time budgets and in the prevalence of the pathological profiles. Our results suggest that rhesus may be more vulnerable to developing a despair-like state than cynomolgus macaques, both in single- and in social-housing conditions. Therefore, rhesus macaques are more suitable for use as a "spontaneous" model of depressive disorders.

  19. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    PubMed

    Turesson, Hjalmar K; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  20. [Calculation of underwater decompression schedule for the simulated 100 m Trimix conventional diving and verification of the schedule with animal experiment].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yang; Shi, Lu; Zhang, Yan-meng; Xiao, Chan-juan; Liu, Hong-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the underwater decompression schedule for 100 m Trimix conventional diving operations and evaluate its safety through a simulated rabbits Trimix conventional diving. According to the Haldane theory, the assumed time units, the classification of tissue compartments, the nitrogen super-saturation safety coefficient and the selection of methods used for the calculation of the simulated 100 m Trimix conventional diving schedule were properly selected, and the calculating method for the dive decompression schedule was thus firmly established. In our experiments, five tissue compartments were selected during the calculation of decompression schedule: 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 40 min and 75 min, and the nitrogen super-saturation safety coefficient was calculated by 1.6. Eight New Zealand rabbits were performed a simulated 100 m Trimix dive program which was established according to the Haldane theory, and eight rabbits for intact group. The tissues wet/dry ratio and ethology were detected and observed before and after the simulated diving to evaluate the safety of decompression schedule. By using the developed underwater decompression schedule, abnormal ethology changes in rabbits could not be observed after compression and decompression to the surface; and the tissues wet/dry ratio of simulated diving rabbits had no significant changes compared with the intact group (P > 0.05). The decompression schedule calculated by Haldane theory seemed to be safe and reliable, the diving breathing gas concentration did not cause oxygen toxicity and nitrogen narcosis among the dive rabbits, and dive efficiency was greatly improved by using enriched oxygen gas in UPTD safety range during decompression.

  1. Animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder: rationale to understanding psychobiology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Korff, Schaun; Harvey, Brian H

    2006-06-01

    Animal models have shown progressive development and have undoubtedly proven their supportive value in OCD research. Thus, various animal models have confirmed the importance of the 5-HT [72-74] and dopamine systems [104,111] in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Given the neurochemical, emotional, and cognitive complexity of the disorder, how-ever, animal models are being used to investigate more and more complicated neurochemical and behavioral theories purported to underlie OCD. The lever-press model, for example, has implicated deficient response feed-back in a neural system that regulates operant behavior [74]. Studies on stereotypic movement disorder [89] have opened a new avenue of investigation into the neurobiology of stereotypy that may be applicable to more complex syndromes such as OCD. Models that have focused on specific neuropsychologic aspects of OCD such as reward [74], displacement behavior[63,101], perseveration and indecisiveness [73,102], and spontaneous stereotypy [90,94] are important in their attempt to unify the diverse behavioral manifestations of this disorder. It is clear that for a deeper, more holistic understanding of OCD, multiple animal models will be needed to allow investigation of the various aspects of the disorder and to provide convergent validation of the research findings. The heterogeneous nature of OCD, the various subtypes that exist within the disorder, and the range of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders suggest that particular questions regarding OCD may be addressed best by us-ing a particular ethologic model, whereas other questions might require a pharmacologic model or a combination of both for meaningful results[62,115]. Genetic models will be extremely useful for studying the genetics of pathologic behavior and for relating these findings to neuroanatomic and neurochemical changes in the model (eg, DICT-7 mice as a model for Tourette's syndrome and OCD). Neither ethologic nor pharmacologic models, however

  2. Wireless Adaptive Therapeutic TeleGaming in a Pervasive Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, James F.; Szturm, Tony; Borkowski, Maciej; Lockery, Dan; Ramanna, Sheela; Shay, Barbara

    This chapter introduces a wireless, pervasive computing approach to adaptive therapeutic telegaming considered in the context of near set theory. Near set theory provides a formal basis for observation, comparison and classification of perceptual granules. A perceptual granule is defined by a collection of objects that are graspable by the senses or by the mind. In the proposed pervasive computing approach to telegaming, a handicapped person (e.g., stroke patient with limited hand, finger, arm function) plays a video game by interacting with familiar instrumented objects such as cups, cutlery, soccer balls, nozzles, screw top-lids, spoons, so that the technology that makes therapeutic exercise game-playing possible is largely invisible (Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89:2213-2217, 2008). The basic approach to adaptive learning (AL) in the proposed telegaming environment is ethology-inspired and is quite different from the traditional approach to reinforcement learning. In biologically-inspired learning, organisms learn to achieve some goal by durable modification of behaviours in response to signals from the environment resulting from specific experiences (Animal Behavior, 1995). The term adaptive is used here in an ethological sense, where learning by an organism results from modifying behaviour in response to perceived changes in the environment. To instill adaptivity in a video game, it is assumed that learning by a video game is episodic. During an episode, the behaviour of a player is measured indirectly by tracking the occurrence of gaming events such as a hit or a miss of a target (e.g., hitting a moving ball with a game paddle). An ethogram provides a record of behaviour feature values that provide a basis a functional registry for handicapped players for gaming adaptivity. An important practical application of adaptive gaming is therapeutic rehabilitation exercise carried out in parallel with playing action video games. Enjoyable and

  3. Correlation of etho-social and psycho-social data from "Mars-500" interplanetary simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina; Gushin, Vadim

    2015-06-01

    Studies of social groups under isolation and confinement for the needs of space psychology were mostly limited by questionnaires completed with batteries of subjective tests, and they needed to be correlated with video recordings for objective analyses in space ethology. The aim of the present study is to identify crewmembers' behavioral profiles for better understanding group dynamics during a 520-day isolation and confinement of the international crew (n=6) participating to the "Mars-500" interplanetary simulation. We propose to correlate data from PSPA (Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes) computerized test, sociometric questionnaires and color choices test (Luscher test) used to measure anxiety levels, with data of video analysis during group discussion (GD) and breakfast time (BT). All the procedures were implemented monthly - GD, or twice a month - BT. Firstly, we used descriptive statistics for displaying quantitative subjects' behavioral profiles, supplied with a software based-solution: the Observer XT®. Secondly, we used Spearmen's nonparametric correlation analysis. The results show that for each subject, the level of non-verbal behavior ("visual interactions", "object interactions", "body interaction", "personal actions", "facial expressions", and "collateral acts") is higher than the level of verbal behavior ("interpersonal communication in Russian", and "interpersonal communication in English"). From the video analyses, dynamics profiles over months are different between the crewmembers. From the correlative analyses, we found highly negative correlations between anxiety and interpersonal communications; and between the sociometric parameter "popularity in leisure environment" and anxiety level. We also found highly significant positive correlations between the sociometric parameter "popularity in working environment" and interpersonal communications, and facial expressions; and between the sociometric parameter "popularity in leisure environment

  4. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research - suggestion for an operational tool.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, L V; Dagnæs-Hansen, F; Herskin, M S

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, increasing interest in using the pig (Sus scrofa) for biomedical research has become evident. Today, the pig is considered an advantageous alternative animal model for various human diseases and conditions. However, even though a considerable amount of biomedical research has been done on pigs, hardly any studies include systematic welfare assessment. Still, it is essential to assess welfare of laboratory pigs, both domestic pig breeds and smaller purpose-bred breeds, as (1) scientific obligations entail responsibility to ensure and document a fair welfare standard for animals used for experimental purposes; and (2) the scientific outcome can be dependent upon the welfare state of the animals. In order to be able to quantify and control laboratory pig welfare, a practical tool is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest a method for monitoring the welfare status of individual laboratory pigs, intended to relieve the practical scoring of the welfare of individual pigs as well as the interpretation of the findings.

  5. Pharmacological stimulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α facilitates the corticosterone response to a mild acute stressor.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Constance S; Rowson, Sydney A; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2015-07-23

    While both glucocorticoids (the principal output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and oxidative stress have been implicated in outcomes due to an excessive or prolonged stress response, the precise mechanisms linking these two systems remain poorly elucidated. One potential mediator between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and oxidative stress is the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway. HIF-1 is an oxygen-responsive transcription factor with diverse effects including changes in cellular metabolism. The experiments in this manuscript sought to determine if pharmacological stimulation of HIF-1α via administration of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) would facilitate the corticosterone response to a mild acute stressor. DMOG administration significantly increased plasma corticosterone 5 min after an acute airpuff without changing baseline plasma corticosterone or plasma corticosterone level two hours post-startle. DMOG administration also reduced hippocampal gene expression of the pro-translocation co-chaperone for the glucocorticoid receptor, FKBP4, two hours after airpuff startle. At this same two-hour time point, hippocampal expression of FKBP5, an anti-translocation co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor, in the DMOG-treated group was also positively correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. These data indicate that there is significant crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis and the HIF-1 pathway and extend the current knowledge of glucocorticoid and hypoxia interactions in an ethologically relevant stress model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacological stimulation of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α facilitates the corticosterone response to a mild acute stressor

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Constance S.; Rowson, Sydney A.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2015-01-01

    While both glucocorticoids (the principal output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and oxidative stress have been implicated in outcomes due to an excessive or prolonged stress response, the precise mechanisms linking these two systems remain poorly elucidated. One potential mediator between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and oxidative stress is the Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway. HIF-1 is an oxygen-responsive transcription factor with diverse effects including changes in cellular metabolism. The experiments in this manuscript sought to determine if pharmacological stimulation of HIF-1α via administration of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) would facilitate the corticosterone response to a mild acute stressor. DMOG administration significantly increased plasma corticosterone five minutes after an acute airpuff without changing baseline plasma corticosterone or plasma corticosterone level two hours post-startle. DMOG administration also reduced hippocampal gene expression of the pro-translocation co-chaperone for the glucocorticoid receptor, FKBP4, two hours after airpuff startle. At this same two-hour time point, hippocampal expression of FKBP5, an anti-translocation co-chaperone of glucocorticoid receptor, in the DMOG-treated group was also positively correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. These data indicate that there is significant crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis and the HIF-1 pathway and extend the current knowledge of glucocorticoid and hypoxia interactions in an ethologically relevant stress model. PMID:26037418

  7. In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    McGrew, W C

    2010-10-27

    Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage.

  8. Genome-wide association study for posthitis in the free-living population of European bison (Bison bonasus).

    PubMed

    Oleński, Kamil; Tokarska, Małgorzata; Hering, Dorota; Puckowska, Paulina; Ruść, Anna; Pertoldi, Cino; Kamiński, Stanisław

    2015-01-14

    About 5-6% of the European bison (Bison bonasus) males are affected by posthitis (necrotic inflammation of the prepuce) and die in the wild forest. Despite many years of study, pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been determined. The main aim of the study was to find SNP markers significantly associated with the incidence of posthitis and mine the genome for candidate genes potentially involved in the development of the disease. It was shown that relatively small number of SNPs effects reached genome-wide significance after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Among 25 significant markers, the highest effects were found for two SNPs (rs110456748 and rs136792896) located at the distance of 23846 bp and 37742 bp, respectively, from OR10A3 gene (olfactory receptor genes), known to be involved in atopic dermatitis in humans. It was also observed that five other significant SNP markers were located in the proximity of candidate genes involved in severe diseases of skin tissue and cancer/tumour development of epithelial or testicular germ cells, which suggest their potential participation in the posthitis. The 25 investigated SNPs showed marked differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies between the healthy and affected bison groups. The 2 Mb region of the BTA15 chromosome is involved in genetic background of posthitis and should be closer examined to find causal mutations helpful in better understanding of the disease ethology and to control its incidence in the future.

  9. Ablation of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells generates mice with seizures, dystonia, hyperactivity, and impaired oral behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gantois, Ilse; Fang, Ke; Jiang, Luning; Babovic, Daniela; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Ferreri, Vincenzo; Teper, Yaroslav; Jupp, Bianca; Ziebell, Jenna; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina M.; O'Brien, Terence J.; Nally, Rachel; Schütz, Günter; Waddington, John; Egan, Gary F.; Drago, John

    2007-01-01

    Huntington's disease is characterized by death of striatal projection neurons. We used a Cre/Lox transgenic approach to generate an animal model in which D1 dopamine receptor (Drd1a)+ cells are progressively ablated in the postnatal brain. Striatal Drd1a, substance P, and dynorphin expression is progressively lost, whereas D2 dopamine receptor (Drd2) and enkephalin expression is up-regulated. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis demonstrated early elevation of the striatal choline/creatine ratio, a finding associated with extensive reactive striatal astrogliosis. Sequential MRI demonstrated a progressive reduction in striatal volume and secondary ventricular enlargement confirmed to be due to loss of striatal cells. Mutant mice had normal gait and rotarod performance but displayed hindlimb dystonia, locomotor hyperactivity, and handling-induced electrographically verified spontaneous seizures. Ethological assessment identified an increase in rearing and impairments in the oral behaviors of sifting and chewing. In line with the limbic seizure profile, cell loss, astrogliosis, microgliosis, and down-regulated dynorphin expression were seen in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This study specifically implicates Drd1a+ cell loss with tail suspension hindlimb dystonia, hyperactivity, and abnormal oral function. The latter may relate to the speech and swallowing disturbances and the classic sign of tongue-protrusion motor impersistence observed in Huntington's disease. In addition, the findings of this study support the notion that Drd1a and Drd2 are segregated on striatal projection neurons. PMID:17360497

  10. In-silico experiments of zebrafish behaviour: modeling swimming in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-10

    Zebrafish is fast becoming a species of choice in biomedical research for the investigation of functional and dysfunctional processes coupled with their genetic and pharmacological modulation. As with mammals, experimentation with zebrafish constitutes a complicated ethical issue that calls for the exploration of alternative testing methods to reduce the number of subjects, refine experimental designs, and replace live animals. Inspired by the demonstrated advantages of computational studies in other life science domains, we establish an authentic data-driven modelling framework to simulate zebrafish swimming in three dimensions. The model encapsulates burst-and-coast swimming style, speed modulation, and wall interaction, laying the foundations for in-silico experiments of zebrafish behaviour. Through computational studies, we demonstrate the ability of the model to replicate common ethological observables such as speed and spatial preference, and anticipate experimental observations on the correlation between tank dimensions on zebrafish behaviour. Reaching to other experimental paradigms, our framework is expected to contribute to a reduction in animal use and suffering.

  11. The power of associative learning and the ontogeny of optimal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Magnus; Lind, Johan; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Behaving efficiently (optimally or near-optimally) is central to animals' adaptation to their environment. Much evolutionary biology assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that optimal behavioural strategies are genetically inherited, yet the behaviour of many animals depends crucially on learning. The question of how learning contributes to optimal behaviour is largely open. Here we propose an associative learning model that can learn optimal behaviour in a wide variety of ecologically relevant circumstances. The model learns through chaining, a term introduced by Skinner to indicate learning of behaviour sequences by linking together shorter sequences or single behaviours. Our model formalizes the concept of conditioned reinforcement (the learning process that underlies chaining) and is closely related to optimization algorithms from machine learning. Our analysis dispels the common belief that associative learning is too limited to produce 'intelligent' behaviour such as tool use, social learning, self-control or expectations of the future. Furthermore, the model readily accounts for both instinctual and learned aspects of behaviour, clarifying how genetic evolution and individual learning complement each other, and bridging a long-standing divide between ethology and psychology. We conclude that associative learning, supported by genetic predispositions and including the oft-neglected phenomenon of conditioned reinforcement, may suffice to explain the ontogeny of optimal behaviour in most, if not all, non-human animals. Our results establish associative learning as a more powerful optimizing mechanism than acknowledged by current opinion.

  12. Defensive responses of Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) to chronic predatory stress.

    PubMed

    Hegab, Ibrahim M; Shang, Guoshen; Ye, Manhong; Jin, Yajuan; Wang, Aiqin; Yin, Baofa; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2014-03-14

    Predator odors are non-intrusive natural stressors of high ethological relevance. The objective of this study was to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus during repeated prolonged presentation to Brandt's voles. One hundred and twenty voles were tested by repeated presentation of cat feces in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Voles exposed to feces for short periods showed more avoidance, more concealment in the hide box, less contact time with the odor source, more freezing behavior, less grooming, more jumping, and more vigilant rearing than did non-exposed voles, and those exposed for longer periods. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone increased significantly when animals were repeatedly exposed to cat feces for short periods. The behavioral and endocrine responses habituated during prolonged presentation of cat feces. ΔfosB mRNA expression level was highest in voles exposed to cat feces for 6 and 12 consecutive days, and subsequently declined in animals exposed to cat feces for 24 days. We therefore conclude that the behavioral and endocrine responses to repeated exposure to cat feces undergo a process of habituation, while ΔfosB changes in the medial hypothalamic region exhibit sensitization. We propose that habituation and sensitization are complementary rather than contradictory processes that occur in the same individual upon repeated presentation of the same stressor.

  13. In search of the last common ancestor: new findings on wild chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Modelling the behaviour of extinct hominins is essential in order to devise useful hypotheses of our species' evolutionary origins for testing in the palaeontological and archaeological records. One approach is to model the last common ancestor (LCA) of living apes and humans, based on current ethological and ecological knowledge of our closest living relations. Such referential modelling is based on rigorous, ongoing field studies of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). This paper reviews recent findings from nature, focusing on those with direct implications for hominin evolution, e.g. apes, using elementary technology to access basic resources such as food and water, or sheltering in caves or bathing as thermoregulatory adaptations. I give preference to studies that directly address key issues, such as whether stone artefacts are detectible before the Oldowan, based on the percussive technology of hammer and anvil use by living apes. Detailed comparative studies of chimpanzees living in varied habitats, from rainforest to savannah, reveal that some behavioural patterns are universal (e.g. shelter construction), while others show marked (e.g. extractive foraging) or nuanced (e.g. courtship) cross-populational variation. These findings allow us to distinguish between retained, primitive traits of the LCA versus derived ones in the human lineage. PMID:20855301

  14. Etologia aplicada al manejo de especies amenazadas: el caso del turon de patas negras (Mustela nigripes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, A.; Biggins, D.; Miller, B.

    1999-01-01

    de esta especie de un modo más eficaz y rentable. Black-footed ferrets are considered one of the world's most endangered mammals. The last wild population was discovered in 1981 in Meteetsee, Wyoming, and, in 1985 it collapsed due to an epizootic of canine distemper in combination with sylvatic plague. Prior to the extinction of the last remnant population, 18 wild black-footed ferrets were captured to initiate captive propagation efforts. Captive breeding has been successful and, during the last 11 years, more than 2600 black-footed ferrets have been born in captive breeding centers. Since 1991, approximately 870 ferrets have been reintroduced in 5 areas located within the ferret's original geographic distribution, including sites in Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Arizona. Scientific research has been, and continues to be, a critical tool to direct recovery efforts. Studies in applied ethology conducted on captive and reintroduced ferret populations have demonstrated that a naturalistic captive environment, particularly during early developmental periods, enhances the expression of behaviors necessary for survival in nature. Ferrets raised in a naturalistic environment develop better predatory skills, are able to recognize prairie dog burrows as a home and shelter from predators, and are more physically fit. Results from these studies have been adapted into management strategies to help implement a more cost-effective road to black-footed ferret recovery.

  15. Defensive responses of Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) to stored cat feces.

    PubMed

    Hegab, Ibrahim M; Jin, Yajuan; Ye, Manhong; Wang, Aiqin; Yin, Baofa; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2014-01-17

    Predator odors are non-intrusive natural stressors of high ethological relevance. Animals are daily challenged with stressors of varying intensity and it is essential for their survival to respond to a wide range of threats. Behavioral and hormonal responses and changes in the level of medial hypothalamic c-fos mRNA were examined in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) exposed to the feces of a domestic cat (Felis catus) stored for different periods. One hundred voles were tested in the defensive withdrawal apparatus. The voles showed an aversion to freshly collected cat feces, indicated by high levels of flight-related behaviors, increased freezing behavior, and more vigilant rearing compared to old feces. The serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone significantly increased when the voles were exposed to fresh cat feces. The level of c-fos mRNA in the medial hypothalamic region was highest in the individuals exposed to fresh cat feces. All of these behavioral, endocrine and c-fos-mRNA responses were lower when voles were subjected to older cat feces. We conclude that these responses depend on volatile chemical constituents of cat feces rather than their physical characteristics and that this accounts for the lower responses to feces stored for longer periods. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproductive resource partitioning in two sympatric Goniothalamus species (Annonaceae) from Borneo: floral biology, pollinator trapping and plant breeding system

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jenny Y. Y.; Pang, Chun-Chiu; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23–25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families. Analysis of floral scents revealed three volatiles (3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 2-phenylethanol) that are known to be nitidulid attractants in the floral scent of G. suaveolens, but absent from that of G. tapisoides. An effective pollinator trapping mechanism is demonstrated for both species, representing the first such report for the family. Trapping is achieved by the compression of the outer petals against the apertures between the inner petals. This trapping mechanism is likely to be a key evolutionary innovation for Goniothalamus, increasing pollination efficiency by increasing pollen loading on beetles during the staminate phase, promoting effective interfloral pollinator movements, and increasing seed-set by enabling rapid turn-over of flowers. PMID:27767040

  17. Arthrophycus in the Silurian of Alabama (USA) and the problem of compound trace fossils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rindsberg, A.K.; Martin, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Arthrophycus brongniartii (Harlan, 1832) is common in marginal-marine deposits in the Silurian Red Mountain Formation of Alabama. The ichnospecies, the second to be named in North America, is revived and emended after long disuse. Transitional forms to Rusophycus isp. and other morphologic evidence indicate that the maker of Arthrophycus was an arthropod, perhaps a trinucleine (raphiophorid?) trilobite. Interconnection of Arthrophycus and Nereites biserialis, as well as intergradation of Arthrophycus with Cruziana aff. quadrata, Phycodes flabellum, and Asterosoma ludwigae, indicate that these Red Mountain trace fossils were made by the same species of arthropod. Possible relationships with Arthrophycus alleghaniensis (Harlan, 1831) in the Silurian belt from Ontario to Tennessee are also explored. Ichnofamily Arthrophycidae Schimper, 1879 is emended. The ichnofamily is interpreted as chiefly the work of arthropods. Arthrophycus and other trace fossils from the Silurian of Alabama constitute a test case to build criteria for recognizing the members of complexes of trace fossils. In general, criteria such as interconnection of different forms, intergradation among unconnected forms, similarity of size, similarity of morphologic elements, and co-occurrence should be examined in order to determine the biologic and ethologic interrelationships of trace fossils. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB): furthering the understanding and measurement of neurodevelopmental competence in preterm and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Als, Heidelise; Butler, Samantha; Kosta, Sandra; McAnulty, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB) is a newborn neurobehavioral assessment appropriate for preterm, at risk, and full-term newborns, from birth to 1 month after expected due date. The APIB is based in ethological-evolutionary thought and focuses on the assessment of mutually interacting behavioral subsystems in simultaneous interaction with the environment. The subsystems of functioning assessed include the autonomic (respiration, digestion, color), motor (tone, movement, postures), state organization (range, robustness, transition patterns), attention (robustness, transitions), and self-regulation (effort, success) systems as well as the degree of facilitation required to support reorganization and subsystem balance. The environment is represented by a sequence of distal, proximal, tactile, and vestibular challenges, derived from the BNBAS. The APIB conceptualizes infant competence as the degree of differentiation of subsystem function and degree of modulation of subsystem balance at any stage in infant development. Infants are understood as actively seeking their next differentiation, while counting on good enough environments to assure progressing developmental competence. In the case of interference such as premature birth, the mismatch of expectation and actual experience causes misalignment, which may become developmentally costly. The assessment is a finely tuned dialogue between examiner and infant, which requires training, skill and self-knowledge. The APIB has well established inter-rater-reliability, concurrent and construct validity, and is clinically relevant for behavioral intervention and individually appropriate and supportive care. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  19. Space transformation for understanding group movement.

    PubMed

    Andrienko, Natalia; Andrienko, Gennady; Barrett, Louise; Dostie, Marcus; Henzi, Peter

    2013-12-01

    We suggest a methodology for analyzing movement behaviors of individuals moving in a group. Group movement is analyzed at two levels of granularity: the group as a whole and the individuals it comprises. For analyzing the relative positions and movements of the individuals with respect to the rest of the group, we apply space transformation, in which the trajectories of the individuals are converted from geographical space to an abstract 'group space'. The group space reference system is defined by both the position of the group center, which is taken as the coordinate origin, and the direction of the group's movement. Based on the individuals' positions mapped onto the group space, we can compare the behaviors of different individuals, determine their roles and/or ranks within the groups, and, possibly, understand how group movement is organized. The utility of the methodology has been evaluated by applying it to a set of real data concerning movements of wild social animals and discussing the results with experts in animal ethology.

  20. Multisensory integration of colors and scents: insights from bees and flowers.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anne S; Masek, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Karl von Frisch's studies of bees' color vision and chemical senses opened a window into the perceptual world of a species other than our own. A century of subsequent research on bees' visual and olfactory systems has developed along two productive but independent trajectories, leaving the questions of how and why bees use these two senses in concert largely unexplored. Given current interest in multimodal communication and recently discovered interplay between olfaction and vision in humans and Drosophila, understanding multisensory integration in bees is an opportunity to advance knowledge across fields. Using a classic ethological framework, we formulate proximate and ultimate perspectives on bees' use of multisensory stimuli. We discuss interactions between scent and color in the context of bee cognition and perception, focusing on mechanistic and functional approaches, and we highlight opportunities to further explore the development and evolution of multisensory integration. We argue that although the visual and olfactory worlds of bees are perhaps the best-studied of any non-human species, research focusing on the interactions between these two sensory modalities is vitally needed.

  1. [Biosocial phenomena in unicellular organisms (exemplified by data concerning Prokaryota)].

    PubMed

    Oleskin, A V

    2009-01-01

    This review deals with the issue of applicability of biosocial concepts and terms to microorganisms. The main emphasis is placed on recent data obtained in studies of bacteria. They demonstrate various forms of collective behavior including affiliation (cohesion), cooperation, coordinated aggression, and avoidance behavior (vis-a-vis "outgroups"). Bacterial systems are also characterized by contact and distant communication; the latter mediated by chemical signals (including pheromones/autoinducers employed by quorum-sensing systems) or physical factors. Bacteria form supracellular systems (colonies, biofilms, flocs, etc.) that can be regarded as bacterial biosocial systems, by analogy to animal congregations. These bacterial biosocial systems are characterized by coherence, life-cycle ("culture ontogeny" in N.D. Yerusalimsky's usage), and hierarchical or network organization. Bacterial cells in biosocial systems are morphologically differentiated and, in a large number of bacterial species, functionally specialized. Cells collectively form structures that function as "organs" of the whole biosocial system (exemplified by water channels, colony-coating membranes, hemoprotein-containing hemosomes, and extracellular matrix as the structural basis of a colony/biofilm). The biosocial approach to microorganisms promotes interactions between microbiology, cytology, and ethology. It is also of practical value for medicine and biotechnology.

  2. The age of anxiety: role of animal models of anxiolytic action in drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, John F; Sweeney, Fabian F

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common, serious and a growing health problem worldwide. However, the causative factors, aetiology and underlying mechanisms of anxiety disorders, as for most psychiatric disorders, remain relatively poorly understood. Animal models are an important aid in giving insight into the aetiology, neurobiology and, ultimately, the therapy of human anxiety disorders. The approach, however, is challenged with a number of complexities. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of anxiety disorders in humans coupled with the associated multifaceted and descriptive diagnostic criteria, creates challenges in both animal modelling and in clinical research. In this paper, we describe some of the more widely used approaches for assessing the anxiolytic activity of known and potential therapeutic agents. These include ethological, conflict-based, hyponeophagia, vocalization-based, physiological and cognitive-based paradigms. Developments in the characterization of translational models are also summarized, as are the challenges facing researchers in their drug discovery efforts in developing new anxiolytic drugs, not least the ever-shifting clinical conceptualization of anxiety disorders. In conclusion, to date, although animal models of anxiety have relatively good validity, anxiolytic drugs with novel mechanisms have been slow to emerge. It is clear that a better alignment of the interactions between basic and clinical scientists is needed if this is to change. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21545412

  3. Divergent Human Cortical Regions for Processing Distinct Acoustic-Semantic Categories of Natural Sounds: Animal Action Sounds vs. Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Paula J.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Frum, Chris A.; Still, Hayley N.; Ward, B. Douglas; Lewis, James W.

    2017-01-01

    A major gap in our understanding of natural sound processing is knowledge of where or how in a cortical hierarchy differential processing leads to categorical perception at a semantic level. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we sought to determine if and where cortical pathways in humans might diverge for processing action sounds vs. vocalizations as distinct acoustic-semantic categories of real-world sound when matched for duration and intensity. This was tested by using relatively less semantically complex natural sounds produced by non-conspecific animals rather than humans. Our results revealed a striking double-dissociation of activated networks bilaterally. This included a previously well described pathway preferential for processing vocalization signals directed laterally from functionally defined primary auditory cortices to the anterior superior temporal gyri, and a less well-described pathway preferential for processing animal action sounds directed medially to the posterior insulae. We additionally found that some of these regions and associated cortical networks showed parametric sensitivity to high-order quantifiable acoustic signal attributes and/or to perceptual features of the natural stimuli, such as the degree of perceived recognition or intentional understanding. Overall, these results supported a neurobiological theoretical framework for how the mammalian brain may be fundamentally organized to process acoustically and acoustic-semantically distinct categories of ethologically valid, real-world sounds. PMID:28111538

  4. Rats Synchronize Locomotion with Ultrasonic Vocalizations at the Subsecond Time Scale

    PubMed Central

    Laplagne, Diego A.; Elías Costa, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic signals have the potential for transmitting information fast across distances. Rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations of two distinct classes: “22-kHz” or “alarm” calls and “50-kHz” calls. The latter comprises brief sounds in the 30–80-kHz range, whose ethological role is not fully understood. We recorded ultrasonic vocalizations from pairs of rats freely behaving in neighboring but separated arenas. 50-kHz vocalizations in this condition were tightly linked to the locomotion of the emitter at the subsecond time scale, their rate sharply increasing and decreasing prior to the onset and offset of movement respectively. This locomotion-linked vocalization behavior showed a clear “audience effect,” as rats recorded alone displayed lower vocal production than rats in social settings for equivalent speeds of locomotion. Furthermore, calls from different categories across the 50 and 22-kHz families displayed markedly different correlations with locomotor activity. Our results show that rat vocalizations in the high ultrasonic range are social signals carrying spatial information about the emitter and highlight the possibility that they may play a role in the social coordination of spatial behaviors. PMID:27746726

  5. Brain disorders and the biological role of music

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Downey, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its evident universality and high social value, the ultimate biological role of music and its connection to brain disorders remain poorly understood. Recent findings from basic neuroscience have shed fresh light on these old problems. New insights provided by clinical neuroscience concerning the effects of brain disorders promise to be particularly valuable in uncovering the underlying cognitive and neural architecture of music and for assessing candidate accounts of the biological role of music. Here we advance a new model of the biological role of music in human evolution and the link to brain disorders, drawing on diverse lines of evidence derived from comparative ethology, cognitive neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies in the normal and the disordered brain. We propose that music evolved from the call signals of our hominid ancestors as a means mentally to rehearse and predict potentially costly, affectively laden social routines in surrogate, coded, low-cost form: essentially, a mechanism for transforming emotional mental states efficiently and adaptively into social signals. This biological role of music has its legacy today in the disordered processing of music and mental states that characterizes certain developmental and acquired clinical syndromes of brain network disintegration. PMID:24847111

  6. On a quantum mechanical system theory of the origin of life: from the Stapp-model to the origin of natural symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, András

    2016-01-01

    The Heisenberg-James-Stapp (quantum mechanical) mind model is surveyed and criticized briefly. The criticism points out that the model, while being essentially consistent concerning (human) consciousness, fundamentally lacks the evolutional point of view both onto- and phylogenetically. Ethology and other than Jamesian psychology is quoted and a quantum mechanical theoretical scheme is suggested to essentially extend Stapp's frame in an evolutionary context. It is proposed that its central supposition, spontaneous quantum measurement can be better utilized in an investigation of the origin of the "subjective" process, having come about concomitantly with the chemistry of the origin of life. We dwell on its applicability at this latter process, at its heart standing, it is supposed, the endophysical nonlinear "self-measurement" of (quantum mechanically describable) matter, and so our investigation is extended to this primeval phenomenon. It is suggested that the life phenomenon is an indirect C* → (W*) → C* quantum algebraic process transition, where the (W*) system would represent the living state. Summarized also are our previous results on an internalized, "reversed", time process, introduced originally by Gunji, which is subordinated to the external "forwards" time evolution, driving towards symmetry by gradual space-mappings, where the original splitting-up must have come about in a spontaneous symmetry breaking nonlinear "self-measurement" of matter in an endophysical World.

  7. Investigation of the differences between the "Cold" and "Hot" nature of Coptis chinensis Franch and its processed materials based on animal's temperature tropism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, CanPing; Wang, JiaBo; Zhang, XueRu; Zhao, YanLing; Xia, XinHua; Zhao, HaiPing; Ren, YongShen; Xiao, XiaoHe

    2009-11-01

    The description and differentiation of the so-called "Cold" and "Hot" natures, the primary "Drug Naure" of Chinese medicine, is the focus of theoretical research. In this study, the divergency between the "Cold" and the "Hot" natures was investigated through examining the temperature tropism of mice affected by Coptis chinensis Franch and its processed materials by using a cold/hot plate differentiating technology. After exposure to C. chinensis Franch, the macroscopic behavioral index of the remaining rate (RR) on a warm pad (40 degrees C) significantly increased (P<0.05), suggesting the enhancement of Hot tropism. The internal indexes of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and oxygen consuming volume decreased significantly (P<0.05), suggesting the decapability of energy metabolism. This external behavior of Hot tropism might reflect the internal Cold nature of C. chinensis Franch. However, the processed materials of C. chinensis Franch exhibited a different Cold nature in temperature tropism compared with crude C. chinensis Franch (CC): the Cold nature of bile-processed C. chinensis Franch (BC) enhanced while the ginger-processed C. chinensis Franch (GC) changed inversely. The changing sequence was consistent with the theoretical prognostication. It is indicated that the external Cold & Hot natures of Chinese medicine may possibly reflect in an ethological way for the changes of animal's temperature tropism which might be internally regulated by the body's energy metabolism.

  8. Oral hapsis guides accurate hand preshaping for grasping food targets in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Karl, Jenni M; Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Doan, Jon B; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-08-01

    Preshaping the digits and orienting the hand when reaching to grasp a distal target is proposed to be optimal when guided by vision. A reach-to-grasp movement to an object in one's own mouth is a natural and commonly used movement, but there has been no previous description of how it is performed. The movement requires accuracy but likely depends upon haptic rather than visual guidance, leading to the question of whether the kinematics of this movement are similar to those with vision or whether the movement depends upon an alternate strategy. The present study used frame-by-frame video analysis and linear kinematics to analyze hand movements as participants reached for ethologically relevant food targets placed either at a distal location or in the mouth. When reaching for small and medium-sized food items (blueberries and donut balls) that had maximal lip-to-target contact, hand preshaping was equivalent to that used for visually guided reaching. When reaching for a large food item (orange slice) that extended beyond the edges of the mouth, hand preshaping was suboptimal compared to vision. Nevertheless, hapsis from the reaching hand was used to reshape and reorient the hand after first contact with the large target. The equally precise guidance of hand preshaping under oral hapsis is discussed in relation to the idea that hand preshaping, and its requisite neural circuitry, may have originated under somatosensory control, with secondary access by vision.

  9. Electrochemical techniques for subsecond neurotransmitter detection in live rodents.

    PubMed

    Hascup, Kevin N; Hascup, Erin R

    2014-08-01

    Alterations in neurotransmission have been implicated in numerous neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Unfortunately, few techniques support the measurement of real-time changes in neurotransmitter levels over multiple days, as is essential for ethologic and pharmacodynamic testing. Microdialysis is commonly used for these research paradigms, but its poor temporal and spatial resolution make this technique inadequate for measuring the rapid dynamics (milliseconds to seconds) of fast signaling neurotransmitters, such as glutamate and acetylcholine. Enzymatic microelectrode arrays (biosensors) coupled with electrochemical recording techniques have demonstrated fast temporal resolution (less than 1 s), excellent spatial resolution (micron-scale), low detection limits (≤200 nM), and minimal damage (50 to 100 μm) to surrounding brain tissue. Here we discuss the benefits, methods, and animal welfare considerations of using platinum microelectrodes on a ceramic substrate for enzyme-based electrochemical recording techniques for real-time in vivo neurotransmitter recordings in both anesthetized and awake, freely moving rodents.

  10. G-autonomy of EEG recordings of psychotic patients undergoing the primitive expression form of dance therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventouras, E.-C.; Lardi, I.; Dimitriou, S.; Margariti, A.; Chondraki, P.; Kalatzis, I.; Economou, N.-T.; Tsekou, H.; Paparrigopoulos, T.; Ktonas, P. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Primitive expression (PE) is a form of dance therapy (DT) that involves an interaction of ethologically and socially based forms which are supplied for re-enactment. Brain connectivity has been measured in electroencephalographic (EEG) data of patients with schizophrenia undergoing PE DT, using the correlation coefficient and mutual information. These parameters do not measure the existence or absence of directionality in the connectivity. The present study investigates the use of the G-autonomy measure of EEG electrode voltages of the same group of schizophrenic patients. G-autonomy is a measure of the “autonomy” of a system. It indicates the degree by which prediction of the system's future evolution is enhanced by taking into account its own past states, in comparison to predictions based on past states of a set of external variables. In the present research, “own” past states refer to voltage values in the time series recorded at a specific electrode and “external” variables refer to the voltage values recorded at other electrodes. Indication is provided for an acute effect of early-stage PE DT expressed by the augmentation of G-autonomy in the delta rhythm and an acute effect of late- stage PE DT expressed by the reduction of G-autonomy in the theta and alpha rhythms.

  11. Complex and transitive synchronization in a frustrated system of calling frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ikkyu; Takeda, Ryu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Takahashi, Toru; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    This letter reports synchronization phenomena and mathematical modeling on a frustrated system of living beings, or Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica). While an isolated male Japanese tree frog calls nearly periodically, he can hear sounds including calls of other males. Therefore, the spontaneous calling behavior of interacting males can be understood as a system of coupled oscillators. We construct a simple but biologically reasonable model based on the experimental results of two frogs, extend the model to a system of three frogs, and theoretically predict the occurrence of rich synchronization phenomena, such as triphase synchronization and 1:2 antiphase synchronization. In addition, we experimentally verify the theoretical prediction by ethological experiments on the calling behavior of three frogs and time series analysis on recorded sound data. Note that the calling behavior of three male Japanese tree frogs is frustrated because almost perfect antiphase synchronization is robustly observed in a system of two male frogs. Thus, nonlinear dynamics of the three-frogs system should be far from trivial.

  12. The universality of the von Bertalanffy growth curve. Comment on: ;Physics of metabolic organization; by Marko Jusup et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maino, James L.; Kearney, Michael R.

    2017-03-01

    A key strength of the DEB approach, in contrast to other metabolic theories, is that its foundational principles are general to all of life. Other theories have attempted to explain patterns in metabolism in terms of taxon-specific processes, such as the geometry of vascular network supply constraints [1,2], or heat dissipation requirements of endotherms [3], but DEB theory presents constraints on metabolic processes that apply to a wide range of taxa, including bacteria, invertebrates, birds, or mammals [4]. The price of this generalisability is abstraction, but there is much to gain from a general and unifying metabolic theory. Abstracting individuals into simple energy processors would seem to overlook many other important aspects of their biology, such as their unique phylogeny, physiology, or ethology, but this strategy has facilitated great advances in one of the grand challenges in biology: making sense of interacting phenomena occurring across wide scales in space, time, and organisational complexity. The study of cells, individuals, communities and ecosystems have benefited from such a regime [5,6]. Similarly, the simple abstraction of partitioning individual organisms into compartments of reserve biomass and structural biomass allows one to account for an astounding variety of energetic transformations that occur between species and as an organism develops.

  13. Comparative biology of pain: What invertebrates can tell us about how nociception works.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Brian D

    2017-04-01

    The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component, and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain, and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights toward this goal. Both vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit segregated sensory pathways for nociceptive and nonnociceptive information, injury-induced sensitization to nociceptive and nonnociceptive stimuli, and even similar antinociceptive modulatory processes. In a number of invertebrate species, the central nervous system is understood in considerable detail, and it is often possible to record from and/or manipulate single identifiable neurons through either molecular genetic or physiological approaches. Invertebrates also provide an opportunity to study nociception in an ethologically relevant context that can provide novel insights into the nature of how injury-inducing stimuli produce persistent changes in behavior. Despite these advantages, invertebrates have been underutilized in nociception research. In this review, findings from invertebrate nociception studies are summarized, and proposals for how research using invertebrates can address questions about the fundamental mechanisms of nociception are presented. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Assessment of social cognition in non-human primates using a network of computerized automated learning device (ALDM) test systems.

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Marzouki, Yousri; Huguet, Pascal; Gullstrand, Julie; Claidière, Nicolas

    2015-05-05

    Fagot & Paleressompoulle(1) and Fagot & Bonte(2) have published an automated learning device (ALDM) for the study of cognitive abilities of monkeys maintained in semi-free ranging conditions. Data accumulated during the last five years have consistently demonstrated the efficiency of this protocol to investigate individual/physical cognition in monkeys, and have further shown that this procedure reduces stress level during animal testing(3). This paper demonstrates that networks of ALDM can also be used to investigate different facets of social cognition and in-group expressed behaviors in monkeys, and describes three illustrative protocols developed for that purpose. The first study demonstrates how ethological assessments of social behavior and computerized assessments of cognitive performance could be integrated to investigate the effects of socially exhibited moods on the cognitive performance of individuals. The second study shows that batteries of ALDM running in parallel can provide unique information on the influence of the presence of others on task performance. Finally, the last study shows that networks of ALDM test units can also be used to study issues related to social transmission and cultural evolution. Combined together, these three studies demonstrate clearly that ALDM testing is a highly promising experimental tool for bridging the gap in the animal literature between research on individual cognition and research on social cognition.

  15. Game theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wako; Dolan, Ray J; Friston, Karl J

    2008-12-01

    This paper introduces a model of 'theory of mind', namely, how we represent the intentions and goals of others to optimise our mutual interactions. We draw on ideas from optimum control and game theory to provide a 'game theory of mind'. First, we consider the representations of goals in terms of value functions that are prescribed by utility or rewards. Critically, the joint value functions and ensuing behaviour are optimised recursively, under the assumption that I represent your value function, your representation of mine, your representation of my representation of yours, and so on ad infinitum. However, if we assume that the degree of recursion is bounded, then players need to estimate the opponent's degree of recursion (i.e., sophistication) to respond optimally. This induces a problem of inferring the opponent's sophistication, given behavioural exchanges. We show it is possible to deduce whether players make inferences about each other and quantify their sophistication on the basis of choices in sequential games. This rests on comparing generative models of choices with, and without, inference. Model comparison is demonstrated using simulated and real data from a 'stag-hunt'. Finally, we note that exactly the same sophisticated behaviour can be achieved by optimising the utility function itself (through prosocial utility), producing unsophisticated but apparently altruistic agents. This may be relevant ethologically in hierarchal game theory and coevolution.

  16. Westermarck's altruism.

    PubMed

    Salter, Frank

    2008-09-01

    The ethologically oriented method of social analysis developed by Edward Westermarck is applied to the subjects of charitable behavior, the welfare ethic, and the link between them. Westermarck dealt with these topics, but not in the depth he accorded the subjects of incest aversion, the incest prohibition, and the connection between them. Westermarck's approach to analyzing incest behavior and regulating institutions is also useful in the case of charitableness and the welfare ethic. Westermarck would have analyzed the welfare ethic as an institution derived from human nature--secundam naturam--in addition to an authoritative discipliner of behavior as proposed by Freud. Evidence is presented that this is the case with the welfare ethic in modern societies. This evidence includes the sensitivity of welfare to ethnic diversity. The latter decreases public altruism, whether expressed as charitableness to beggars, national charities, or public goods. The parochial leaning of charity and the welfare ethic is allowed for by Westermarck's empirically grounded ethics. Despite the passage of nearly a century, Edward Westermarck can still be an instructive guide to the biosociological enterprise. This continuing relevance shows what could have been, and can still be, done with the conceptual tools offered by an evolutionarily informed sociology.

  17. A small pool of vesicles maintains synaptic activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Denker, Annette; Bethani, Ioanna; Kröhnert, Katharina; Körber, Christoph; Horstmann, Heinz; Wilhelm, Benjamin G.; Barysch, Sina V.; Kuner, Thomas; Neher, Erwin; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical synapses contain substantial numbers of neurotransmitter-filled synaptic vesicles, ranging from approximately 100 to many thousands. The vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release neurotransmitter and are subsequently reformed and recycled. Stimulation of synapses in vitro generally causes the majority of the synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitter, leading to the assumption that synapses contain numerous vesicles to sustain transmission during high activity. We tested this assumption by an approach we termed cellular ethology, monitoring vesicle function in behaving animals (10 animal models, nematodes to mammals). Using FM dye photooxidation, pHluorin imaging, and HRP uptake we found that only approximately 1–5% of the vesicles recycled over several hours, in both CNS synapses and neuromuscular junctions. These vesicles recycle repeatedly, intermixing slowly (over hours) with the reserve vesicles. The latter can eventually release when recycling is inhibited in vivo but do not seem to participate under normal activity. Vesicle recycling increased only to ≈5% in animals subjected to an extreme stress situation (frog predation on locusts). Synapsin, a molecule binding both vesicles and the cytoskeleton, may be a marker for the reserve vesicles: the proportion of vesicles recycling in vivo increased to 30% in synapsin-null Drosophila. We conclude that synapses do not require numerous reserve vesicles to sustain neurotransmitter release and thus may use them for other purposes, examined in the accompanying paper. PMID:21903928

  18. An ethopharmacological assessment of the effects of zuclopenthixol on agonistic interactions in male mice.

    PubMed

    Manzaneque, J M; Navarro, J F

    1999-01-01

    Zuclopenthixol is a thioxanthene derivative which acts as a mixed dopamine D1/D2 receptor antagonist. Although the antiaggressive action of neuroleptic drugs is well known, the effects of zuclopenthixol on agonistic interactions have not been explored and there are no studies comparing acute and subchronic effects of this compound on aggression in rodents. In this work, we examined the action of zuclopenthixol (0.025-0.4 mg/kg), administered acutely or subchronically for 10 days, on agonistic behavior elicited by isolation in male mice. Individually housed mice were exposed to anosmic "standard opponents" 30 min after the drug administration, and encounters were videotaped and evaluated using an ethologically based analysis. After acute treatment, zuclopenthixol (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg)-treated animals exhibited ethopharmacological profiles characterized by a decrease in offensive behaviors without impairment of motor activity (0.2 mg/kg). In contrast, the antiaggressive action of the highest dose used (0.4 mg/kg) was accompanied by a marked increase of immobility. After subchronic treatment, no tolerance to zuclopenthixol antiaggressive or motor activity was observed. Overall, this behavioral profile is similar to that observed with other typical neuroleptics.

  19. Encoding of Coordinated Grasp Trajectories in Primary Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazutaka; Amit, Yali; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how the cortex encodes the pre-shaping of the hand as an object is grasped, an ethological movement referred to as prehension. We developed an encoding model of hand kinematics to test whether single motor cortical (MI) neurons encode temporally extensive combinations of joint motions that characterize a prehensile movement. Two female rhesus macaque monkeys were trained to grasp 4 different objects presented by a robot while their arm was held in place by a thermoplastic brace. We used multi-electrode arrays to record MI neurons and an infrared camera motion tracking system to record the 3D positions of 14 markers placed on the monkeys’ wrist and digits. A generalized linear model framework was used to predict the firing rate of each neuron in a 4ms time interval, based on its own spiking history and the spatiotemporal kinematics of the joint angles of the hand. Our results show that the variability of the firing rate of MI neurons is better described by temporally extensive combinations of finger and wrist joint angle kinematics rather than any individual joint motion or any combination of static kinematic parameters at their optimal lag. Moreover, a higher percentage of neurons encoded joint angular velocities than joint angular positions. These results suggest that neurons encode the co-varying trajectories of the hand’s joints during a prehensile movement. PMID:21159978

  20. Ranking of simultaneously presented choice options in animal preference experiments.

    PubMed

    Halekoh, Ulrich; Jørgensen, Erik; Bak Jensen, Margit; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Studnitz, Merete; Højsgaard, Søren

    2007-08-01

    We considered experiments where animals chose one of all possible simultaneously presented options. The animals might be observed at repeated occasions. In the ethological literature the analysis is often focused on testing the global hypothesis of no difference in preferences by non-parametric methods. This fails to address the estimation of a ranking. Often this approach cannot adequately reflect the experimental setting and the repeated measurement structure. Therefore, we propose to model the choice probabilities for the options with a multinomial logistic model. The correlation induced by repeated measurements is incorporated by animal specific random intercepts. The ranking of the options is taken as the order of the choice probabilities. Adopting a Bayesian approach samples from the posterior distribution of the choice probabilities provide directly samples from the posterior of the rankings. Based on this an estimate of the ranking and description of its variability can be derived. The computation was performed via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and was implemented using WinBUGS. We illustrate our approach with an experiment to determine the preference of pigs for three different rooting materials. The proposed method allowed deriving an overall ranking for different combinations of the materials and the spatial positioning.

  1. The reformulation of emotional security theory: the role of children's social defense in developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J

    2013-11-01

    Although children's security in the context of the interparental relationship has been identified as a key explanatory mechanism in pathways between family discord and child psychopathology, little is known about the inner workings of emotional security as a goal system. Thus, the objective of this paper is to describe how our reformulation of emotional security theory within an ethological and evolutionary framework may advance the characterization of the architecture and operation of emotional security and, in the process, cultivate sustainable growing points in developmental psychopathology. The first section of the paper describes how children's security in the interparental relationship is organized around a distinctive behavioral system designed to defend against interpersonal threat. Building on this evolutionary foundation for emotional security, the paper offers an innovative taxonomy for identifying qualitatively different ways children try to preserve their security and its innovative implications for more precisely informing understanding of the mechanisms in pathways between family and developmental precursors and children's trajectories of mental health. In the final section, the paper highlights the potential of the reformulation of emotional security theory to stimulate new generations of research on understanding how children defend against social threats in ecologies beyond the interparental dyad, including both familial and extrafamilial settings.

  2. Time effects, cultural influences, and individual differences in crew behavior during the Mars-500 experiment.

    PubMed

    Tafforin, Carole

    2013-10-01

    This note provides an overview of salient factors that could have an impact on the behavior of a crew in an isolated and confined environment during a very long-term adaptive process. We present the Mars-500 experiment, which took place in Moscow, Russia, over 520 d from June 5, 2010, to November 4, 2011. It was designed to simulate a 250-d interplanetary mission from Earth to Mars, a 30-d orbital stay with a Mars landing, and a 240-d interplanetary mission from Mars back to Earth. The six-person crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans, and one Chinese. We applied the ethological method based on observation, description, and quantification of nonverbal behavior expressed by actions and interactions, as well as verbal behavior expressed through positions and communications. These events were scored with The Observer XT software from video recordings made every 2 wk during a daily life activity at breakfast time and every month during a group discussion task. We show that the frequency of occurrences of personal actions, visual interactions, facial expressions and collateral acts are linked to certain phases, periods, and temporal points of the mission. Verbal communications in English and in Russian involve prevalent language associated with place preferences and preferential relationships among the crewmembers. We found evidence that the Mars-500 crew behavior was dependent on time, culture, and the individual.

  3. Neurobehavioural Effects of Hypergravity Exposure in CD-1 Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santucci, Daniela; Francia, Nadia; Aloe, Luigi; Enrico, Alleva

    The effects of spaceflight on the nervous system physiology could have important implications for the prolonged stay outside Earth's gravitational field. In this view, both ground-based and space research using animal models represent useful tools to investigate the impact of gravity (hypergravity, microgravity and weightlessness) on the nervous system and behaviour. Data coming from these studies, besides acquisition of knowledge relevant for spaceflights and pro-longed permanence of both humans and animals in space, could provide insight into basic bio-logical phenomena underlying the plasticity of the nervous system and its adaptive responses to a changing environment. Most ground experiments employing animal models use the paradigm of hypergravity exposure with the expectation that behavioural and physiological reactions to this environment might help to explain reactions to the microgravity challenge faced by or-biting animals. An overview of ground-based experiments set up to investigate the effects of changes of gravitational environment on the neurobehavioural responses of CD-1 mouse will be reported, and will illustrate the short-, medium-and long-term behavioural and neurobiological consequences of hypergravity exposure both at adulthood and during early and late postnatal development. Moreover, since mother-pup interaction is critical for the survival and the devel-opment of neonatal rodents, especially in an extreme environment such as that of space, we characterized, exploiting ethological methods, changes in maternal behaviour of CD-1 outbred mouse dams exposed to mild hypergravity. The results of these experiments will be discussed.

  4. [Early attachement relationships and epigenetic customization].

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Giordana; Serio, Valentina; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Zaccagni, Michela; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Aceti, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new findings in epigenetic science switched the focus from the observation of physiological intragenomic dynamics to the idea of an environmental co-construction of phenotypic expression. In psichodynamic field, objectual relations and attachement theoreticians emphasized the interpersonal dimension of individual development, focusing the attention on the relational matrix of self organization. The construction of stable affective-behavioral traits throughout different parenting styles has actually found a coincidence in ethological studies, which have explored the epigenetic processes underlying the relationship between caregiving and HPA stress responsiveness. An adequate parenting style seems to support affective regulation throughout psychobiological hidden moderators, which would tend to rebalance the physiological systems homeostasis; an unconfident attachment style would promote, on the other hand, the allostatic load rise. Sites of longlife epigenetic susceptibility have also been identified in humans; although associated with risk of maladaptive developing in adverse environmental conditions, they seem to confer protection under favorable conditions. This persisting possibility of reorganization of stable traits throughout lifetime, which seems to be activated by a relevant environmental input, grant to significant relationships, and to therapeutical one as well, an implicit reconditioning potential which could result into the configuration of new stable affective-behavioral styles.

  5. Phylogenetic studies of dogs with emphasis on Japanese and Asian breeds

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Yuichi

    2006-01-01

    The first domestication of the dog occurred in East Asia, and major ancestor of the dog was a wolf subspecies, Canis lupus chanco. This finding derives from data on the nucleotide sequences of mtDNA and the frequency of genes controlling blood protein polymorphisms in various subspecies of wolves and dog breeds around the world. The results of the allele frequency distribution of genes controlling 16 blood protein polymorphisms, and the incidence of dogs possessing erythrocytes with high potassium (HK) in Japan, East Asia and Europe allowed us to posturate the following hypothesis about the origins of Japanese dogs and the history of their development. In the Jomon period the first dogs entered the Japanese archipelago from southern or northern continental Asia. These dogs eventually spread throughout Japan. Then, during the Yayoi and Kofun periods, other dogs were brought over via the Korean Peninsula, and crossbreeding occurred with the original dogs. The resulted offspring can be assumed to be the ancestors of most of the Japanese breeds that exist today. Ethological studies have revealed a significant breed difference in behavioral traits among canine breeds with Japanese dogs, showing more aggressive dispositions than most of European dogs. PMID:25792769

  6. Game Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Wako; Dolan, Ray J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model of ‘theory of mind’, namely, how we represent the intentions and goals of others to optimise our mutual interactions. We draw on ideas from optimum control and game theory to provide a ‘game theory of mind’. First, we consider the representations of goals in terms of value functions that are prescribed by utility or rewards. Critically, the joint value functions and ensuing behaviour are optimised recursively, under the assumption that I represent your value function, your representation of mine, your representation of my representation of yours, and so on ad infinitum. However, if we assume that the degree of recursion is bounded, then players need to estimate the opponent's degree of recursion (i.e., sophistication) to respond optimally. This induces a problem of inferring the opponent's sophistication, given behavioural exchanges. We show it is possible to deduce whether players make inferences about each other and quantify their sophistication on the basis of choices in sequential games. This rests on comparing generative models of choices with, and without, inference. Model comparison is demonstrated using simulated and real data from a ‘stag-hunt’. Finally, we note that exactly the same sophisticated behaviour can be achieved by optimising the utility function itself (through prosocial utility), producing unsophisticated but apparently altruistic agents. This may be relevant ethologically in hierarchal game theory and coevolution. PMID:19112488

  7. Changing organisms in rapidly changing anthropogenic landscapes: the significance of the ‘Umwelt’-concept and functional habitat for animal conservation

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing recognition for the significance of evolutionary thinking in ecology and conservation biology. However, ecology and conservation studies often work with species-specific, fixed traits that ignore intraspecific variation. The way the habitat of a species is considered is an example of typological thinking biased by human perception. Structural habitat units (e.g., land cover types) as perceived by humans may not represent functional habitat units for other organisms. Human activity may also interfere with the environmental information used by organisms. Therefore, the Umwelt-concept from ethology needs to be integrated in the way we think about habitat and habitat selection. It states that different organisms live in different perceptual worlds dealing with specific subsamples of the environment as a result of their evolutionary and developmental history. The resource-based habitat concept is a functional habitat model based on resource distributions (consumables and conditions) and individual movements. This behavioural approach takes into account aspects that relate to the perceptual world of organisms. This approach may offer new opportunities for conservation and may help avoid failures with habitat restoration. Perceptual ability may be subject to adaptive change, but it may also constrain organisms from showing adaptive behaviours in rapidly changing environments. PMID:25568037

  8. Molecular identification of chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Favia, G; Louis, C

    1999-09-01

    The Afrotropical malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis, responsible for more than 3/4 of the world Plasmodium falciparum inoculations, are members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, a group consisting of six sibling species. The nominal species (An. gambiae s.s.) is by far the most anthropophilic vector and its adaptation to man and his environment involves further ongoing speciation processes. This fact is shown by the existence of a number of incipient taxonomic units characterised by different chromosomal arrangements derived from the presence of polymorphic paracentric inversions. This speciation process is centered in West Africa, where five so-called 'chromosomal forms' have been described, designated with a non-Linnean nomenclature: Forest, Bissau, Savanna, Bamako, and Mopti. Studies on the distribution and the ecology of these incipient species have highlighted specific adaptations to eco-ethological parameters, which might reflect on their relative efficiency as malaria vectors. Cytogenetic analysis, in spite of some inherent difficulties, has proved to be a powerful tool for the identification of An. gambiae sibling species and the individual chromosomal forms. Yet, modern molecular tools are now available, providing alternative faster low-cost technologies, and we discuss here their relative merits.

  9. Biogeography and taxonomy of racket-tail hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae: Ocreatus): evidence for species delimitation from morphology and display behavior.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, Karl-L; Weller, André-A; Jürgens, Dietmar

    2016-11-27

    We analyzed geographic variation, biogeography, and intrageneric relationships of racket-tail hummingbirds Ocreatus (Aves, Trochilidae). Presently, the genus is usually considered monospecific, with O. underwoodii including eight subspecies (polystictus, discifer, underwoodii, incommodus, melanantherus, peruanus, annae, addae), although up to three species have been recognized by some authors. In order to evaluate the current taxonomy we studied geographic variation in coloration, mensural characters, and behavioral data of all Ocreatus taxa. We briefly review the taxonomic history of the genus. Applying the Biological Species Concept, species delimitation was based on a qualitative-quantitative criteria analysis including an evaluation of character states. Our results indicate that the genus should be considered a superspecies with four species, the monotypic Ocreatus addae, O. annae, and O. peruanus, and the polytypic O. underwoodii (including the subspecies underwoodii, discifer, incommodus, melanantherus, polystictus). In this taxonomic treatment, O. annae becomes an endemic species to Peru and O. addae is endemic to Bolivia. We recommend additional sampling of distributional, ethological, and molecular data for an improved resolution of the evolutionary history of Ocreatus.

  10. Universals and cultural variation in turn-taking in conversation

    PubMed Central

    Stivers, Tanya; Enfield, N. J.; Brown, Penelope; Englert, Christina; Hayashi, Makoto; Heinemann, Trine; Hoymann, Gertie; Rossano, Federico; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Yoon, Kyung-Eun; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Informal verbal interaction is the core matrix for human social life. A mechanism for coordinating this basic mode of interaction is a system of turn-taking that regulates who is to speak and when. Yet relatively little is known about how this system varies across cultures. The anthropological literature reports significant cultural differences in the timing of turn-taking in ordinary conversation. We test these claims and show that in fact there are striking universals in the underlying pattern of response latency in conversation. Using a worldwide sample of 10 languages drawn from traditional indigenous communities to major world languages, we show that all of the languages tested provide clear evidence for a general avoidance of overlapping talk and a minimization of silence between conversational turns. In addition, all of the languages show the same factors explaining within-language variation in speed of response. We do, however, find differences across the languages in the average gap between turns, within a range of 250 ms from the cross-language mean. We believe that a natural sensitivity to these tempo differences leads to a subjective perception of dramatic or even fundamental differences as offered in ethnographic reports of conversational style. Our empirical evidence suggests robust human universals in this domain, where local variations are quantitative only, pointing to a single shared infrastructure for language use with likely ethological foundations. PMID:19553212

  11. Genetic architecture of fear conditioning in chromosome substitution strains: relationship to measures of innate (unlearned) anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Ponder, Christine A; Munoz, Michaelanne; Gilliam, T Conrad; Palmer, Abraham A

    2007-04-01

    We measured fear conditioning (FC) in a panel of chromosome substitution strains (CSS) created using the C57BL/6J (B6) and A/J (AJ) inbred strains. Mice were trained to associate a specific context and tone with a foot shock. FC was measured by observing freezing behavior during re-exposure to the context and tone. Freezing to context was more than twofold greater in the AJ strain relative to the B6 strain. Among the CSS we identified four strains with higher (CSS-6, -10, -11, and -18) and two strains with lower (CSS-7 and -14) freezing to context. CSS-10 and -18 also showed higher freezing to tone, while CSS-12 showed less freezing to tone. CSS-1 has been implicated in open-field (OF) and light-dark box (LDB); we observed significant activity differences prior to training but no differences in FC. Chromosomes 6 and 10 have been associated with differences in anxiety-like behaviors, suggesting the existence of pleiotropic alleles that influence both learned and innate fear. By utilizing a genetic reference population, we have identified chromosomes that pleiotropically influence multiple phenotypes hypothesized to reflect a common ethologic construct that has been termed emotionality. The CSS provide a straightforward means of isolating the underlying genetic factors.

  12. Effects of predictable and unpredictable food restriction on the stress response in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Glassman, Laura W; Cyr, Nicole E; Romero, L Michael

    2011-11-01

    This study tested whether an ethologically relevant stressor, a three-week period of food restriction where food was unavailable for four hours a day, caused chronic stress in molting and non-molting captive European starlings. Although all birds increased weight during the Food Restriction period, only non-molting birds increased food intake. Morning baseline heart rates increased during the Food Restriction period and all birds showed a decrease in heart rate when food was absent from the cage. In non-molting birds, there were no differences in either baseline or stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) concentrations, whereas molting birds showed attenuated baseline CORT, stress-induced CORT, and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels over the Food Restriction period. Although several parameters, such as increased morning heart rate, are consistent with chronic stress, the majority of these data suggest that restricting food availability is not chronically stressful. Furthermore, making the timing of food removal less predictable by randomizing when food was removed during the day did not enhance any of the above responses, but did alter the frequency of maintenance and feeding behaviors. In conclusion, starlings appear resistant to developing symptoms of chronic stress from repeated food restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical perspectives accounting for adolescent homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, R C

    1988-03-01

    Few topics in sexology elicit such a diversity of opinions and emotions as the question of etiology of homosexuality. Views frequently carry with them implicit or explicit messages concerning the psychologic health of this sexual orientation. Theories of sexual development usually portray adolescence as a critical time in the life course because of changes in: 1) anatomy and physiology; 2) psychologic functioning: the reawakening, renewal, and reliving of previously established sexual relations and drives; and/or 3) social conditions: an increased exposure and adherence to societal messages concerning appropriate and inappropriate social and sexual behaviors and relationships. This paper provides a brief overview of several major theories--evolutionary biology, psychoanalysis, and social processes--as they relate to the development of sexual orientation. In addition, an ethologic perspective that synthesizes various etiologic theories, as they relate to homosexuality during adolescence, is briefly reviewed. In these discussions, the issue of whether homosexuality is a normal or abnormal developmental state during adolescence is also addressed.

  14. The novel anticonvulsant, gabapentin, protects against both convulsant and anxiogenic aspects of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Watson, W P; Robinson, E; Little, H J

    1997-10-01

    The effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, were investigated, in mice, on the withdrawal convulsive behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour that are produced by cessation of prolonged intake of ethanol. When given at 50 or 100 mg/kg, this compound decreased the rise in handling-induced hyperexcitability which occurs during the withdrawal period; the effects were most pronounced for the first 4 hr after administration. Gabapentin also decreased the convulsive response to an audiogenic stimulus during the withdrawal period. The elevated plus-maze, with both traditional and ethological indices of activity was used as a test of anxiety-related behaviour after cessation of chronic ethanol treatment. Gabapentin, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, was found to decrease some, although not all, of the signs of withdrawal-induced anxiety. At doses up to and including 200 mg/kg, gabapentin had no effect on motor co-ordination or spontaneous locomotor activity in control animals. The results demonstrated that gabapentin has a selective action in decreasing both convulsive and anxiety-related aspects of withdrawal behaviour after chronic ethanol treatment. It is possible that further studies with this compound may shed further light on the mechanisms involved in the withdrawal syndrome.

  15. Programming of stress-related behavior and epigenetic neural gene regulation in mice offspring through maternal exposure to predator odor.

    PubMed

    St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring.

  16. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice

    PubMed Central

    Waters, R.Parrish; Pringle, R.B.; Forster, G.L.; Renner, K.J.; Malisch, J.L.; Garland, T.; Swallow, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. PMID:23352668

  17. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice.

    PubMed

    Waters, R Parrish; Pringle, R B; Forster, G L; Renner, K J; Malisch, J L; Garland, T; Swallow, J G

    2013-05-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Moving beyond the welfare standard of psychological well-being for nonhuman primates: the case of chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gluck, John P

    2014-04-01

    Since 1985, the US Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service policy have required that researchers using nonhuman primates in biomedical and behavioral research develop a plan "for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates." In pursuing this charge, housing attributes such as social companionship, opportunities to express species-typical behavior, suitable space for expanded locomotor activity, and nonstressful relationships with laboratory personnel are dimensions that have dominated the discussion. Regulators were careful not to direct a specific set of prescriptions (i.e., engineering standards) for the attainment of these goals, but to leave the design of the programs substantially up to "professional judgment" at the local level. Recently, however, the Institute of Medicine, in its path-finding 2011 report on the necessity of chimpanzee use in research, bypassed this flexible and contingent concept, and instead, required as a central precondition that chimpanzees be housed in "ethologically appropriate" environments. In so doing, obligations of ethical treatment of one great ape species were elevated above the needs of some research. The evolution and significance of this change are discussed.

  19. Salubrious effects of oxytocin on social stress-induced deficits

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to mental and physical health. In contrast, social support can ameliorate stress-induced physiological and immunological deficits, reducing the risk of subsequent psychological distress and improving an individual's overall well-being. For better clinical treatment of these physiological and mental pathologies, it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of stress-induced pathologies as well as determine the underlying biological mechanisms that regulate social buffering of the stress system. A number of ethologically relevant animal models of social stress and species that form strong adult social bonds have been utilized to study the etiology, treatment, and prevention of stress-related disorders. While undoubtedly a number of biological pathways contribute to the social buffering of the stress response, the convergence of evidence denotes the regulatory effects of oxytocin in facilitating social bond-promoting behaviors and their effect on the stress response. Thus, oxytocin may be perceived as a common regulatory element of the social environment, stress response, and stress-induced risks on mental and physical health. PMID:22178036

  20. [The placebo mystery or neurobiology of the soul].

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    The "placebo" concept started with Saint Jerome's mistranslation of the first word of the ninth line of Psalm 116: instead of "I will walk before the Lord", he wrote "I will please the Lord" (Placebo Domino instead of ambulabo coram Domino). The placebo story is filled with quiproquos, mistakes and abuses. After many avatars, the placebo notion became firmly linked to medicine, and especially pharmacology. Nowadays, all new treatments are required to have proved their efficacy in randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. After a plethora of hypotheses based on psychology, behavorism, ethology, anthropology and sociology, proposing mechanisms of action based on patients' suggestibility and expectations induced by doctors' enthusiasm and beliefs, the past two decades have seen several new findings focusing on pharmacobiological phenomena. Animal studies provide fascinating information on immunological mechanisms and cancer outcomes in conditions of stress and pain. Placebo and nocebo mechanisms are now explained in terms of pain, endorphins, cholecystokinin and dopamine system activation, and possibly inflammation control. PET scans have been used to investigate these effects in depression and Parkinson's disease. A role of genetic mechanisms is also emerging in the field of placebo neurobiology. In fact, the placebo effect might simply result from the medical art. Further studies are needed to maximize the placebo effect and to make it more consistent.

  1. Effects of psychological stress and housing conditions on the delay of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Óscar; VanBuskirk, JoAnne; Richardson, Steven; Parfitt, David; Helmreich, Dana; Rempel, Max; Moynihan, Jan; Tausk, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    This study explores the effects of stress and housing conditions on the healing of cutaneous wounds and its relationship with circulating levels of corticosterone. Specifically, we set out to examine the effect of combined physical (restraint stress and ultrasound) and psychological (predator scent) stressors on the cutaneous wound healing of female mice that had been housed either in groups (with social support; n= 16) or individually (without social support; n= 16). In contrast with other studies, the model of multiple ethological mild stressors utilized in this study significantly increased the levels of corticosterone, but failed to dramatically alter the healing of skin wounds. However, the results of this study provide evidence of the importance of housing conditions, suggesting that positive social interactions in females accelerate the rate of wound healing, and reduce levels of anxiety and circulating corticosterone. The level of anxiety, as well as the basal levels of corticosterone, proved to be valid predictors of the healing rates during different stages of cutaneous wound healing.

  2. [Variation of the orchid bees community (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in three altered habitats of the Colombian "llano" piedmont].

    PubMed

    Parra-H, Alejandro; Nates-Parra, Guiomar

    2007-01-01

    Orchid bees subsist in vast tropical forest areas because they maintain close relationships with particular plant species in diverse micro-habitats. Based on the relationships among the environment and biological features (food preference, morphologic and ethologic diversity), it is possible to determine habitat quality using the euglossine array. This work proposes the use of this ecological information, in addition to diversity indices, for the evaluation of environmental quality. Fifteen localities in three landscape types (urban, rural and conserved) were sampled in the eastern llanos foothill (Meta, Colombia), between March and December of 2003 using entomological nets, and Cineol and Metil Salicylate as baits. Of the 26 species known to occur in the area, 17 were registered. Eulaema nigrita was the most frequent, while E. speciosa E. bombiformis, Euglossa magnipes, E. cybelia, E. heterosticta, E. singularis and Exaerete frontalis were mostly found in habitats rated "good to acceptable". The vegetation composition and proximity of forest fragments seem to favor some species in disturbed habitats. Relative diversity of bee body shapes and sizes is proportional to habitat quality.

  3. Skimming behaviour and spreading potential of Stenus species and Dianous coerulescens (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Carolin; Seifert, Karlheinz; Dettner, Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Rove beetles of the genus Stenus Latreille and the genus Dianous Leach possess pygidial glands containing a multifunctional secretion of piperidine and pyridine-derived alkaloids as well as several terpenes. One important character of this secretion is the spreading potential of its different compounds, stenusine, norstenusine, 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine, cicindeloine, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole and 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one. The individual secretion composition enables the beetles to skim rapidly and far over the water surface, even when just a small amount of secretion is emitted. Ethological investigations of several Stenus species revealed that the skimming ability, skimming velocity and the skimming behaviour differ between the Stenus species. These differences can be linked to varied habitat claims and secretion saving mechanisms. By means of tensiometer measurements using the pendant drop method, the spreading pressure of all secretion constituents as well as some naturally identical beetle secretions on the water surface could be established. The compound 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine excelled stenusine believed to date to be mainly responsible for skimming relating to its surface activity. The naturally identical secretions are not subject to synergistic effects of the single compounds concerning the spreading potential. Furthermore, evolutionary aspects of the Steninae's pygidial gland secretion are discussed.

  4. Archeological insights into hominin cognitive evolution.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2016-07-01

    How did the human mind evolve? How and when did we come to think in the ways we do? The last thirty years have seen an explosion in research related to the brain and cognition. This research has encompassed a range of biological and social sciences, from epigenetics and cognitive neuroscience to social and developmental psychology. Following naturally on this efflorescence has been a heightened interest in the evolution of the brain and cognition. Evolutionary scholars, including paleoanthropologists, have deployed the standard array of evolutionary methods. Ethological and experimental evidence has added significantly to our understanding of nonhuman brains and cognition, especially those of nonhuman primates. Studies of fossil brains through endocasts and sophisticated imaging techniques have revealed evolutionary changes in gross neural anatomy. Psychologists have also gotten into the game through application of reverse engineering to experimentally based descriptions of cognitive functions. For hominin evolution, there is another rich source of evidence of cognition, the archeological record. Using the methods of Paleolithic archeology and the theories and models of cognitive science, evolutionary cognitive archeology documents developments in the hominin mind that would otherwise be inaccessible. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Validation of Individual-Based Markov-Like Stochastic Process Model of Insect Behavior and a "Virtual Farm" Concept for Enhancement of Site-Specific IPM.

    PubMed

    Lux, Slawomir A; Wnuk, Andrzej; Vogt, Heidrun; Belien, Tim; Spornberger, Andreas; Studnicki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a "virtual farm" concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a "bottom-up ethological" approach and emulates behavior of the "primary IPM actors"-large cohorts of individual insects-within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R. cerasi. Model parametrization was based on compiled published information about R. cerasi and the results of auxiliary on-farm experiments. The experiments were conducted on sweet cherry farms located in Austria, Germany, and Belgium. For each farm, a customized model-module was prepared, reflecting its spatiotemporal features. Historical data about pest monitoring, IPM treatments and fruit infestation were used to specify the model assumptions and calibrate it further. Finally, for each of the farms, virtual IPM experiments were simulated and the model-generated results were compared with the results of the real experiments conducted on the same farms. Implications of the findings for broader applicability of the model and the "virtual farm" approach-were discussed.

  6. Recovering data from historical collections: stratigraphic and spatial reconstruction of the outstanding carnivoran record from the Late Pleistocene Equi cave (Apuane Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzo, Elena; Palchetti, Alessandro; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-07-01

    Equi Terme is a hamlet located in northern Tuscany, in Apuan Alps regional Park. An outstanding fossil vertebrate collection housed in Florence is the result of excavations in the Equi cave and shelter during the period 1911-1919. This faunal assemblage (associated with Mousterian artefacts) may be correlated with the middle of MIS 3. All of the specimens recovered at Equi early in the last century were collected with attention to their stratigraphical positions. Detailed field annotation for nearly every specimen allowed us to organize them and attempt a stratigraphical and spatial reconstruction of the fossiliferous deposits. We present the results of the study of the spatial and stratigraphic distribution of the carnivoran species in the Equi cave and shelter, and re-evaluate the taphonomic agents of accumulation and the fossil distribution within the stratigraphic record. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of Panthera pardus, which, unusually for Europe, is abundant in the Equi cave assemblage. This analysis highlights the importance of the re-evaluation of historical collections and allows for future comparisons with data from more recent excavations at the Equi site. The analysis also provides an account of the distribution of carnivorans throughout the stratigraphic record. The constant presence and the predominance of leopards and wolves over lions and smaller carnivorans, allow for evaluations of their ethology and may be related to a short period of sediment accumulation.

  7. Behavioral observations on the White-breasted Thrasher (Ramphocinclus brachyurus brachyurus): conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Gros-Desormeaux, Jean-Raphael; Lesales, Thierry; Tayalay, Alexis-Georges

    The White-breasted Thrasher (Ramphocinclus brachyurus brachyurus) is surviving at the tip of the Caravelle peninsula in Martinique, on a 5 km(2) territory. Once widespread throughout the island, this passerine was on the verge of extinction in the 1950s but managed to recover. The creation of the Caravelle Nature Reserve in 1976 contributed to the protection of its habitat, but little is known about the factors behind the slow population growth registered in the past decades. A year-long ethological study was launched by the Regional Natural Park of Martinique (PNRM) in order to understand the status of this endangered species. In spite of some limitations, original observations shed new light on the behavior of this endemic species. New calls and a song were identified for the White-breasted Thrasher. The study highlights seasonal variations in the bird's feeding behaviors and some behavioral plasticity in its reproductive strategies. Individuals appear to be exposed to strong predation pressure, especially during the breeding season. The confirmation of the modus operandi of rats against White-breasted Thrashers' nests should help improve the conservation policy of this bird.

  8. Marble burying as a test of the delayed anxiogenic effects of acute immobilisation stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sonal; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-08-15

    A majority of rodent studies characterizing the anxiogenic effects of stress have utilized exploration-based models, such as the elevated plus-maze. An alternative strategy has relied on ethologically natural behavior such as defensive burying. One such paradigm, marble burying, has proven to be an effective behavioral assay of the anxiolytic effects of pharmacological manipulations, and of genetically modified mouse models. Relatively little, however, is known about the sensitivity of this test in assessing the anxiogenic effects of stress. Most of the earlier reports have examined the immediate, but not more long-term, effects of pharmacological or environmental manipulations in mice. Hence, we used the marble burying test to examine if acute immobilization stress leads to enhanced anxiety-like behavior in C57Bl/6 mice if the test is employed with a significant time delay. We find this test to be sensitive enough to detect the anxiogenic effects even 10 days after a single episode of 2-h immobilization stress. Our results suggest that the marble burying test could serve as a useful behavioral paradigm for not only estimating the gradual progression of the anxiogenic impact of stress over time, but also raises the possibility of using the temporal delay after stress to test the potential efficacy of post-stress interventions with anxiolytic drugs.

  9. Differential effects of weekly and daily exposure to the hot plate on the rat's behavior.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E F; Mir, D

    1994-06-01

    Animals were assigned to two groups: weekly stimulated (WS, n = 30) and daily stimulated (DS, n = 30). Three hot plate tests (55.0 +/- 0.5 degree C, 45 s exposure time) were carried out for each rat. Behavior was videotaped and analyzed by a 14-pattern ethogram and a software package. A cluster analysis revealed that naive rats mainly displayed: i) exploratory patterns (walk-sniff, immobile-sniff), ii) primary noxious-evoked elements (forepaw licking, hindpaw licking, stamping), iii) escape responses (learning posture, jumping), and iv) hindleg withdrawal, an independent noxious-evoked element. The main behavioral changes over time were: i) exploratory behavior was habituated in both groups, ii) sensitization of primary noxious-evoked elements was observed only in the WS group, iii) escape elements were enhanced in both groups, although to less extent in the DS group, and iv) hindleg withdrawal was enhanced in both groups. Furthermore, in the WS group, the nociceptive threshold was significantly decreased, and cluster analysis indicated reliable changes over time. Results suggest that a sensitization phenomenon came about when rats were tested weekly, but was minimized by using the daily testing schedule. This study indicated that an ethological analysis is useful to categorize the rat's patterns in the hot plate test, as well as to follow the gradual changes in responses when repeated measures are used.

  10. The advent of equitation science.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Paul D

    2007-11-01

    The lengthy association of humans with horses has established traditional equestrian techniques that have served military and transport needs well. Although effective, these techniques have by-passed the research findings of modern psychologists, who developed the fundamentals of learning theory. That said, the pools of equestrian debate are far from stagnant. The latest wave of horse whisperers has offered some refinements and some novel interpretations of the motivation of horses undergoing training. Additionally, the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) has introduced the concept of the 'happy equine athlete' and, in the light of the hyperflexion (Rollkür) debate, recently examined the possible effects of some novel dressage modalities on equine 'happiness'. However, many still question the welfare of the ridden horse since it is largely trained using negative reinforcement, has to respond to pressure-based signals and is seldom asked to work for positive rewards. Science holds tremendous promise for removing emotiveness from the horse-riding welfare debate by establishing how much rein tension is too much; how much contact is neutral; how contact can be measured; how discomfort can be measured; how pain can be measured; and how learned helplessness manifests in horses. These are some of the topics addressed by equitation science, an emerging discipline that combines learning theory, physics and ethology to examine the salience and efficacy of horse-training techniques.

  11. Multivariate analysis of the modifications induced by an environmental acoustic cue on rat exploratory behavior.

    PubMed

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Sorbera, Filippina; Crescimanno, Giuseppe

    2008-03-18

    The aim of the present paper is to study by means of a multivariate analysis the modifications induced by an environmental acoustic cue on the structure of rat exploratory behavior. Adult male Wistar rats were observed during the exploration of a soundproof observation box. Each rat was acoustically stimulated after 150 s from the beginning of the experimental session, lasting 300 s, and recorded through a digital videocamera. A frame by frame analysis was thereafter carried out using a professional video-recording system. Thirteen behavioral patterns were selected: immobility, immobile-sniffing, walking, rearing, climbing, chewing, paw-licking, face-grooming, body-grooming, head-turning, tuning, oriented-sniffing, focusing. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses (cluster, stochastic, adjusted residuals) were carried out. Through descriptive statistical analysis, latencies and per cent distribution of each pattern were studied. A multivariate cluster analysis revealed the presence of three main behavioral clusters, an additional one being identified following acoustic stimulation. Multivariate stochastic analysis showed that all the patterns converged on immobile-sniffing which could represent a key component in behavioral switching processes related to environmental exploration. Moreover, through adjusted residuals, the degree of relationship among different patterns was shown according to statistic Z-distribution. Our data assign new ethological meanings to different behavioral patterns. Notably, head-turning is suggested to be considered as a generic directional search and tuning as a subtle activity of stimulus localization.

  12. Spatiotemporal properties of the BOLD response in the songbirds' auditory circuit during a variety of listening tasks.

    PubMed

    Van Meir, Vincent; Boumans, Tiny; De Groof, Geert; Van Audekerke, Johan; Smolders, Alain; Scheunders, Paul; Sijbers, Jan; Verhoye, Marleen; Balthazart, Jacques; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2005-05-01

    Auditory fMRI in humans has recently received increasing attention from cognitive neuroscientists as a tool to understand mental processing of learned acoustic sequences and analyzing speech recognition and development of musical skills. The present study introduces this tool in a well-documented animal model for vocal learning, the songbird, and provides fundamental insight in the main technical issues associated with auditory fMRI in these songbirds. Stimulation protocols with various listening tasks lead to appropriate activation of successive relays in the songbirds' auditory pathway. The elicited BOLD response is also region and stimulus specific, and its temporal aspects provide accurate measures of the changes in brain physiology induced by the acoustic stimuli. Extensive repetition of an identical stimulus does not lead to habituation of the response in the primary or secondary telencephalic auditory regions of anesthetized subjects. The BOLD signal intensity changes during a stimulation and subsequent rest period have a very specific time course which shows a remarkable resemblance to auditory evoked BOLD responses commonly observed in human subjects. This observation indicates that auditory fMRI in the songbird may establish a link between auditory related neuro-imaging studies done in humans and the large body of neuro-ethological research on song learning and neuro-plasticity performed in songbirds.

  13. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning Technology in the Study of Rodent Behavior.

    PubMed

    Gris, Katsiaryna V; Coutu, Jean-Philippe; Gris, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying behavior is a challenge for scientists studying neuroscience, ethology, psychology, pathology, etc. Until now, behavior was mostly considered as qualitative descriptions of postures or labor intensive counting of bouts of individual movements. Many prominent behavioral scientists conducted studies describing postures of mice and rats, depicting step by step eating, grooming, courting, and other behaviors. Automated video assessment technologies permit scientists to quantify daily behavioral patterns/routines, social interactions, and postural changes in an unbiased manner. Here, we extensively reviewed published research on the topic of the structural blocks of behavior and proposed a structure of behavior based on the latest publications. We discuss the importance of defining a clear structure of behavior to allow professionals to write viable algorithms. We presented a discussion of technologies that are used in automated video assessment of behavior in mice and rats. We considered advantages and limitations of supervised and unsupervised learning. We presented the latest scientific discoveries that were made using automated video assessment. In conclusion, we proposed that the automated quantitative approach to evaluating animal behavior is the future of understanding the effect of brain signaling, pathologies, genetic content, and environment on behavior.

  14. Animal experimentation in forensic sciences: How far have we come?

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Maderna, E; Rendinelli, A; Gibelli, D

    2015-09-01

    In the third millennium where ethical, ethological and cultural evolution seem to be leading more and more towards an inter-species society, the issue of animal experimentation is a moral dilemma. Speaking from a self-interested human perspective, avoiding all animal testing where human disease and therapy are concerned may be very difficult or even impossible; such testing may not be so easily justifiable when suffering-or killing-of non human animals is inflicted for forensic research. In order to verify how forensic scientists are evolving in this ethical issue, we undertook a systematic review of the current literature. We investigated the frequency of animal experimentation in forensic studies in the past 15 years and trends in publication in the main forensic science journals. Types of species, lesions inflicted, manner of sedation or anesthesia and euthanasia were examined in a total of 404 articles reviewed, among which 279 (69.1%) concerned studies involving animals sacrificed exclusively for the sake of the experiment. Killing still frequently includes painful methods such as blunt trauma, electrocution, mechanical asphyxia, hypothermia, and even exsanguination; of all these animals, apparently only 60.8% were anesthetized. The most recent call for a severe reduction if not a total halt to the use of animals in forensic sciences was made by Bernard Knight in 1992. In fact the principle of reduction and replacement, frequently respected in clinical research, must be considered the basis for forensic science research needing animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternally inherited architecture in tertiary leaf beetles: paleoichnology of cryptocephaline fecal cases in Dominican and Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Chaboo, Caroline S; Engel, Michael S; Chamorro-Lacayo, Maria Lourdes

    2009-09-01

    Complex ethological adaptations and intraspecific interactions leave few fossil traces. We document three Dominican (20 million years old [myo]) and Baltic (45 myo) amber fossils that exhibit firm evidence of highly integrated interactions between mothers and offspring in the diverse camptosomate lineage of beetles (Chrysomelidae, leaf beetles). As in contemporary species, these hard cases were initially constructed by mothers, then inherited and retained by offspring, which then elaborate this protective domicile with an unusual but economical building material, their feces. The three fossils are classified in the Subfamily Cryptocephalinae; two are classified in the tribe Chlamisini based on morphological evidence-the flattened head lacking a sharp keel and long legs with simple recurved untoothed claws. These diagnostic features are not clearly visible in the third specimen to permit more refined identification. These fossils provide more precise paleontological dating of tribal nodes within the cryptocephaline radiation of leaf beetles. These fossils are the first and earliest evidence of mother-offspring interaction, building behavior, and fecal recycling in Camptosomata beetles and of inheritance of architectural structures in beetles.

  16. In-silico experiments of zebrafish behaviour: modeling swimming in three dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish is fast becoming a species of choice in biomedical research for the investigation of functional and dysfunctional processes coupled with their genetic and pharmacological modulation. As with mammals, experimentation with zebrafish constitutes a complicated ethical issue that calls for the exploration of alternative testing methods to reduce the number of subjects, refine experimental designs, and replace live animals. Inspired by the demonstrated advantages of computational studies in other life science domains, we establish an authentic data-driven modelling framework to simulate zebrafish swimming in three dimensions. The model encapsulates burst-and-coast swimming style, speed modulation, and wall interaction, laying the foundations for in-silico experiments of zebrafish behaviour. Through computational studies, we demonstrate the ability of the model to replicate common ethological observables such as speed and spatial preference, and anticipate experimental observations on the correlation between tank dimensions on zebrafish behaviour. Reaching to other experimental paradigms, our framework is expected to contribute to a reduction in animal use and suffering. PMID:28071731

  17. Neurocomputational model of moral behaviour.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of human morality has dramatically improved in the last decades, thanks to efforts carried out with scientific methods, in addition to the traditional speculative approach. Substantial contributions and relevant empirical data have come from neuroscience, psychology, genetics, comparative ethology, anthropology, and the social sciences. In this fruitful synergy, one useful approach is still missing: computational modeling. More precisely, a neurocomputational model aimed at simulating forms of moral behavior, to our knowledge, has not yet been designed. The purpose of this work is to start filling this gap, proposing MOral Neural Engine (MONE), a model that simulates the emergence of moral cognition. The neural engine in this model is assumed to be based in frontal areas, specifically the orbitofrontal and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and in connections to limbic areas involved in emotions and reward, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala. Moral cognition is probably the result of a collection of several different neural processes, activated depending on the type of moral problem, each associated with a variety of emotions. This model, in its first implementation, deals with only a single moral situation: stealing someone's food, a transgression that typically elicits guilt, learned in the model from the angry facial expressions of the victim.

  18. The 'Disadapted' Animal: Niko Tinbergen on Human Nature and the Human Predicament.

    PubMed

    Vicedo, Marga

    2017-07-18

    This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism. These ideas can be seen in the work he carried out with his wife, Elisabeth Tinbergen, on autism. The paper concludes that Tinbergen's vision of human nature constitutes another version of what anthropologist Clifford Geertz called in 1966 the "stratigraphic" conception of the human: a view of human nature as a composite of levels in which a universal ancestral biological core is superimposed by psychological and cultural layers that represent accidental variation at best and pathological deviation at worst.

  19. Programming of stress-related behavior and epigenetic neural gene regulation in mice offspring through maternal exposure to predator odor

    PubMed Central

    St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring. PMID:26082698

  20. Meaning in the avian auditory cortex: Neural representation of communication calls

    PubMed Central

    Elie, Julie E; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the brain extracts the behavioral meaning carried by specific vocalization types that can be emitted by various vocalizers and in different conditions is a central question in auditory research. This semantic categorization is a fundamental process required for acoustic communication and presupposes discriminative and invariance properties of the auditory system for conspecific vocalizations. Songbirds have been used extensively to study vocal learning, but the communicative function of all their vocalizations and their neural representation has yet to be examined. In our research, we first generated a library containing almost the entire zebra finch vocal repertoire and organized communication calls along 9 different categories based on their behavioral meaning. We then investigated the neural representations of these semantic categories in the primary and secondary auditory areas of 6 anesthetized zebra finches. To analyze how single units encode these call categories, we described neural responses in terms of their discrimination, selectivity and invariance properties. Quantitative measures for these neural properties were obtained using an optimal decoder based both on spike counts and spike patterns. Information theoretic metrics show that almost half of the single units encode semantic information. Neurons achieve higher discrimination of these semantic categories by being more selective and more invariant. These results demonstrate that computations necessary for semantic categorization of meaningful vocalizations are already present in the auditory cortex and emphasize the value of a neuro-ethological approach to understand vocal communication. PMID:25728175

  1. The origin of Chubutolithes Ihering, ichnofossils from the Eocene and Oligocene of Chubut Province, Argentina.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, T.M.; Ratcliffe, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    The distinctive trace fossil Chubutolithes gaimanensis n. ichnosp. occurs in Casamayoran (early Eocene) and Colhuehaupian (late Oligocene) alluvial rocks of the Sarmiento Formation in eastern Chubut Province, Argentina. Though known for nearly 70 years, its origin has remained obscure. Examination of new specimens and comparisons with modern analogs demonstrate that specimens of Chubutolithes represent the fossil nests of a mud-dauber (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Virtually identical nests are constructed today by mud-daubers in areas as disparate as southern Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, and Nebraska, confirming that quite similar trace fossils can be produced by several different taxa in a higher taxonomic clade. No satisfactory ethological term exists for trace fossils that, like Chubutolithes, were constructed by organisms above, rather than within, a substrate or medium. The new term aedificichnia is proposed. Chubutolithes occurs in alluvial paleosols and is associated with a large terrestrial ichnofauna. These trace fossils include the nests of scarab beetles, compound nests of social insects, and burrows of earthworms. -Authors

  2. Social context-dependent relationships between mouse dominance rank and plasma hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Cait M; Lee, Won; Romeo, Russell D; Curley, James P

    2017-03-15

    The associations between social status and endogenous testosterone and corticosterone have been well-studied across taxa, including rodents. Dominant social status is typically associated with higher levels of circulating testosterone and lower levels of circulating corticosterone but findings are mixed and depend upon numerous contextual factors. Here, we determine that the social environment is a key modulator of these relationships in Mus musculus. In groups of outbred CD-1 mice living in stable dominance hierarchies, we found no evidence of simple linear associations between social rank and corticosterone or testosterone plasma levels. However, in social hierarchies with highly despotic alpha males that socially suppress other group members, testosterone levels in subordinate males were significantly lower than in alpha males. In less despotic hierarchies, where all animals engage in high rates of competitive interactions, subordinate males had significantly elevated testosterone compared to agonistically inhibited subordinates from despotic hierarchies. Subordinate males from highly despotic hierarchies also had elevated levels of corticosterone compared to alpha males. In pair-housed animals, the relationship was the opposite, with alpha males exhibiting elevated levels of corticosterone compared to subordinate males. Notably, subordinate males living in social hierarchies had significantly higher levels of plasma corticosterone than pair-housed subordinate males, suggesting that living in a large group is a more socially stressful experience for less dominant individuals. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering social context when analyzing physiological data related to social behavior and using ethologically relevant behavioral paradigms to study the complex relationship between hormones and social behavior.

  3. Modulation of light localization in the iridophores of the deep-sea highlight hatchetfish Sternoptyx pseudobscura under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaka, M.; Ohtsuka, S.

    2017-05-01

    Efficient light control by certain tissue in bioluminescent fish offers potential for new optical devices. In the world's deep-seas, there are numerous fish species with such bioluminescence yet to be discovered. One such species, the deep-sea highlight hatchetfish Sternoptyx pseudobscura, which was found at depths of ca. 800-900 m in the neighboring waters off the Amami Islands, Japan, exhibits a new form of light-reflection produced in guanine crystal platelets present in the skin Strongly reflecting platelets in the dorsal and anterior-ventral region enhance its reflection in the presence of magnetic fields either in parallel or perpendicular to the incident light. A diamagnetic ordering of the platelet alignment is suggested in producing a small angular rotation of the platelets when placed in a magnetic field. The synchronized ordering of these platelets in parallel possibly modulates the localization of light in a multilayer structure inside the iridophore. The developed method should be useful for investigating the bio-ethological meaning of guanine crystal platelet arrangements in the deep sea fish reflecting light.

  4. On building meaning: a biologically-inspired experiment on symbol-based communication.

    PubMed

    Loula, Angelo; Gudwin, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Queiroz, João

    2010-01-01

    The use of an appropriate set of empirical and theoretical constraints to guide the construction of synthetic experiments leads to a better understanding of the natural phenomena under study, and allows for a greater understanding of the experimental results. We begin this chapter with a description of a general approach for conducting experiments with artificial creatures within a synthetic ethological context. Next, we describe how this approach was used to build a computational experiment regarding the emergence of self-organized symbols. Our experiment simulated a community of artificial creatures undergoing complex intra and inter-specific interactions in which meaning evolved over time, from a tabula rasa repertoire of random alarm-calls to a specific set of optimal referential alarm-calls. To design different kinds of creatures as well as innanimate elements of the environment, we applied theoretical constraints from the Peircean philosophy of sign and empirical constraints from neuroethology. Our results suggest that the constraints chosen were both necessary and sufficient to produce symbolic communication.

  5. Meaning in the avian auditory cortex: neural representation of communication calls.

    PubMed

    Elie, Julie E; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2015-03-01

    Understanding how the brain extracts the behavioral meaning carried by specific vocalization types that can be emitted by various vocalizers and in different conditions is a central question in auditory research. This semantic categorization is a fundamental process required for acoustic communication, and presupposes discriminative and invariance properties of the auditory system for conspecific vocalizations. Songbirds have been used extensively to study vocal learning, but the communicative function of all their vocalizations and their neural representation has yet to be examined. In this study, we first generated a library containing almost the entire zebra finch vocal repertoire, and organised communication calls along nine different categories according to their behavioral meaning. We then investigated the neural representations of these semantic categories in the primary and secondary auditory areas of six anesthetised zebra finches. To analyse how single units encode these call categories, we described neural responses in terms of their discrimination, selectivity and invariance properties. Quantitative measures for these neural properties were obtained with an optimal decoder using both spike counts and spike patterns. Information theoretic metrics show that almost half of the single units encode semantic information. Neurons achieve higher discrimination of these semantic categories by being more selective and more invariant. These results demonstrate that computations necessary for semantic categorization of meaningful vocalizations are already present in the auditory cortex, and emphasise the value of a neuro-ethological approach to understand vocal communication.

  6. Cognitive processes in bird song

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynx, Jeffrey

    2004-05-01

    Anthropomorphic hypotheses can alter previous ethological concepts. Songbirds have been traditionally categorized as open- or close-ended learners. Open-ended learners such as canaries and starlings continue to learn new songs throughout life. Close-ended learners such as song sparrows and zebra finches appear to learn song once and then repeat this song in a stereotyped or crystallized manner for the rest of their lives. Research over the last dozen years or so has produced evidence that whatever is close-ended in songbirds may be more than a little ajar. It is clear that adult song is a highly dynamic and closely monitored act. In these regards, it has a number of cognitive processes similar to human speech. Birds appear to continually monitor their own song, being able to stop in midsong if necessary. They also regulate the song amplitude given environmental and social conditions, and show song perturbations when experiencing delayed auditory feedback. However, so far as is known, close-ended learners cannot learn new song elements from a model, although there are hints to the contrary, including both behavioral and physiological results.

  7. The future of research on electroreception and electrocommunication

    PubMed

    Bullock

    1999-05-01

    Beyond continuation of currently active areas, some less studied ones are selected for predictions of marked advance. (1) Most discoveries will be in cellular components and molecular mechanisms for different classes of receptor or central pathways. (2) More major taxa, possibly birds, reptiles or invertebrates, will be found to have electroreceptive species representing independent evolutionary 'inventions'. (3) Electric organs with weak and episodic electric discharges will be found in new taxa; first, among siluriforms. (4) New examples are to be expected, such as lampreys, where synchronized muscle action potentials sum to voltages in the range of weakly electric fish. Some of these will look like intermediates in the evolution of electric organs. (5) Ethological significance will be found for a variety of known physiological features; e.g. uranoscopids, skates and weakly electric catfish with episodic electric discharges; electroreceptive ability of animals such as lampreys, chimaeras, lungfish, sturgeons, paddlefish and salamanders with Lorenzinian-type ampullae; gymnotiform and mormyrid detection of the capacitative component of impedance. (6) The organization of some higher functions in the cerebellum and forebrain will gradually come to light.

  8. Sentinels of safety: service dogs ensure safety and enhance freedom and well-being for families with autistic children.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Kristen E; Adams, Cindy L; Spiers, Jude

    2008-12-01

    Children with autism might display unpredictable and volatile behavior that places them in considerable physical danger and creates stress for the family. Families of autistic children often have limited freedom and experience difficulty with everyday activities. In this qualitative ethology study, we examined the effect of integrating service dogs into ten families with an autistic child. Data included participant observation, video recordings of family-parent-dog interaction, and semistructured interviews with the parents. The themes were (a) the dog as a sentinel of safety, (b) gaining freedom through enhanced safety, facilitating public outings and family activities, and (c) improving social recognition and status, in which the presence of the dog promoted awareness of autism and affected social interaction. The triadic relationship between parent, autistic child, and service dog constantly evolves. This research provides valuable information for parents interested in having a service dog for their autistic child, and has implications for long-term human-animal companionship for children with special needs and their caregivers.

  9. Different susceptibility to social defeat stress of BalbC and C57BL6/J mice.

    PubMed

    Razzoli, Maria; Carboni, Lucia; Andreoli, Michela; Ballottari, Alice; Arban, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Social stress may precipitate psychopathological disorders in susceptible individuals. The present experiments were focused on the biology beyond the differential susceptibility to social stress. Social defeat, an ethologically relevant stressor known to elicit different coping strategies, was used in two mouse strains differing for baseline emotionality, such as C57BL6/J and BalbC. In separate experiments, in both strains a single social defeat decreased home-cage activity without altering social aversion; it diminished body weight only in defeated BalbC mice. In longitudinal experiments, mice experienced repeated social defeats that induced multiple long-term consequences. Defeated C57BL6/J increased their body weight and food intake; defeated BalbC mice diminished their metabolic efficiency. Only defeated BalbC subjects exhibited increased social avoidance levels; no differences from controls were seen on forced swim test response in defeated mice of either strain. No long-term effects of social defeat were detected in peripheral biomarkers of stress, metabolic, and immune responses, although the analysis of selected internal organs revealed decreases in abdominal fat and gonadal organs in all defeated subjects. These results demonstrated a strain-distinctive profile in the susceptibility to social defeat stress, either acutely or chronically, with metabolic consequences more consistently found in C57BL6/J while social aversion induced predominantly in BalbC subjects.

  10. Galloping colts, fetal feelings, and reassuring regulations: putting animal-welfare science into practice.

    PubMed

    Mellor, David J

    2010-01-01

    About a decade ago, concern was expressed that fetuses might suffer while dying in utero after the death of their dams. However, reference to already published literature provided compelling evidence that fetuses cannot consciously experience negative sensations or feelings, such as breathlessness and pain, and showed that, provided certain precautions are taken, they cannot suffer--their welfare is assured. In this article, I outline the major features of fetal and neonatal physiology that underlie this conclusion as it relates to fetuses that are neurologically exceptionally immature, moderately immature, or mature at birth. As an example of the practical application of this knowledge, I also show how the results of detailed studies reported in the biomedical literature, together with evolving understanding of the capacity of animals to experience negative sensations reported in the animal-welfare science literature, led to the development of international guidelines for the humane management of livestock fetuses when their dams are slaughtered commercially. I also highlight the notion that significant progress in the scientific understanding of animal welfare, and its applications, can be made by remaining open to knowledge developed in disciplines at the margins of or beyond those in the animal-welfare science, ethology, and veterinary sciences arenas.

  11. Specific Kinematics and Motor-Related Neurons for Aversive Chemotaxis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaojing J; Potter, Christopher J; Gohl, Daryl M; Silies, Marion; Katsov, Alexander Y

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Chemotaxis, the ability to direct movements according to chemical cues in the environment, is important for the survival of most organisms. The vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, displays robust olfactory aversion and attraction, but how these behaviors are executed via changes in locomotion remains poorly understood. In particular, it is not clear whether aversion and attraction bi-directionally modulate a shared circuit or recruit distinct circuits for execution. Results Using a quantitative behavioral assay, we determined that both aversive and attractive odorants modulate the initiation and direction of turns, but display distinct kinematics. Using genetic tools to perturb these behaviors, we identified specific populations of neurons required for aversion but not attraction. Inactivation of these populations of cells affected the completion of aversive turns but not their initiation. Optogenetic activation of the same populations of cells triggered a locomotion pattern resembling aversive turns. Perturbations in both the ellipsoid body and the ventral nerve cord, two regions involved in motor control, resulted in defects in aversion. Conclusions Aversive chemotaxis in vinegar flies triggers ethologically appropriate kinematics distinct from those of attractive chemotaxis, and requires specific motor-related neurons. PMID:23770185

  12. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)

    PubMed Central

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses. PMID:27399970

  13. The Politics of Attachment: Lines of Flight with Bowlby, Deleuze and Guattari.

    PubMed

    Duschinsky, Robbie; Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Research on attachment is widely regarded in sociology and feminist scholarship as politically conservative - oriented by a concern to police families, pathologize mothers and emphasize psychological at the expense of socio-economic factors. These critiques have presented attachment theory as constructing biological imperatives to naturalize contingent, social demands. We propose that a more effective critique of the politically conservative uses of attachment theory is offered by engaging with the 'attachment system' at the level of ontology. In developing this argument we draw on Deleuze and Guattari, making use of the common language of ethology which links their ideas to that of attachment theory. The attachment system can and has been reified into an image of the infant returning to their caregiver as an image of familial sufficiency. This has offered ammunition for discourses and institutions which isolate women from health, social and political resources. Yet Deleuze and Guattari can help attachment theory and research to be recognized as a powerful ally for progressive politics, for reflection on the movement of human individuation, and for arguing for the meaningful resourcing of those who care for someone else.

  14. Brain disorders and the biological role of music.

    PubMed

    Clark, Camilla N; Downey, Laura E; Warren, Jason D

    2015-03-01

    Despite its evident universality and high social value, the ultimate biological role of music and its connection to brain disorders remain poorly understood. Recent findings from basic neuroscience have shed fresh light on these old problems. New insights provided by clinical neuroscience concerning the effects of brain disorders promise to be particularly valuable in uncovering the underlying cognitive and neural architecture of music and for assessing candidate accounts of the biological role of music. Here we advance a new model of the biological role of music in human evolution and the link to brain disorders, drawing on diverse lines of evidence derived from comparative ethology, cognitive neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies in the normal and the disordered brain. We propose that music evolved from the call signals of our hominid ancestors as a means mentally to rehearse and predict potentially costly, affectively laden social routines in surrogate, coded, low-cost form: essentially, a mechanism for transforming emotional mental states efficiently and adaptively into social signals. This biological role of music has its legacy today in the disordered processing of music and mental states that characterizes certain developmental and acquired clinical syndromes of brain network disintegration. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. In the Beginning Was the Familiar Voice Personally Familiar Voices in the Evolutionary and Contemporary Biology of Communication

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, Diana; Kreiman, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The human voice is described in dialogic linguistics as an embodiment of self in a social context, contributing to expression, perception and mutual exchange of self, consciousness, inner life, and personhood. While these approaches are subjective and arise from phenomenological perspectives, scientific facts about personal vocal identity, and its role in biological development, support these views. It is our purpose to review studies of the biology of personal vocal identity -- the familiar voice pattern-- as providing an empirical foundation for the view that the human voice is an embodiment of self in the social context. Recent developments in the biology and evolution of communication are concordant with these notions, revealing that familiar voice recognition (also known as vocal identity recognition or individual vocal recognition) or contributed to survival in the earliest vocalizing species. Contemporary ethology documents the crucial role of familiar voices across animal species in signaling and perceiving internal states and personal identities. Neuropsychological studies of voice reveal multimodal cerebral associations arising across brain structures involved in memory, emotion, attention, and arousal in vocal perception and production, such that the voice represents the whole person. Although its roots are in evolutionary biology, human competence for processing layered social and personal meanings in the voice, as well as personal identity in a large repertory of familiar voice patterns, has achieved an immense sophistication. PMID:21710374

  16. In the beginning was the familiar voice: personally familiar voices in the evolutionary and contemporary biology of communication.

    PubMed

    Sidtis, Diana; Kreiman, Jody

    2012-06-01

    The human voice is described in dialogic linguistics as an embodiment of self in a social context, contributing to expression, perception and mutual exchange of self, consciousness, inner life, and personhood. While these approaches are subjective and arise from phenomenological perspectives, scientific facts about personal vocal identity, and its role in biological development, support these views. It is our purpose to review studies of the biology of personal vocal identity-the familiar voice pattern-as providing an empirical foundation for the view that the human voice is an embodiment of self in the social context. Recent developments in the biology and evolution of communication are concordant with these notions, revealing that familiar voice recognition (also known as vocal identity recognition or individual vocal recognition) has contributed to survival in the earliest vocalizing species. Contemporary ethology documents the crucial role of familiar voices across animal species in signaling and perceiving internal states and personal identities. Neuropsychological studies of voice reveal multimodal cerebral associations arising across brain structures involved in memory, emotion, attention, and arousal in vocal perception and production, such that the voice represents the whole person. Although its roots are in evolutionary biology, human competence for processing layered social and personal meanings in the voice, as well as personal identity in a large repertory of familiar voice patterns, has achieved an immense sophistication.

  17. The microbiota-gut-brain axis: neurobehavioral correlates, health and sociality.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Castro, Augusto J; González-Cervantes, Rina M; Bravo-Ruiseco, Gabriela; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2013-10-07

    Recent data suggest that the human body is not such a neatly self-sufficient island after all. It is more like a super-complex ecosystem containing trillions of bacteria and other microorganisms that inhabit all our surfaces; skin, mouth, sexual organs, and specially intestines. It has recently become evident that such microbiota, specifically within the gut, can greatly influence many physiological parameters, including cognitive functions, such as learning, memory and decision making processes. Human microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem, which has evolved in a mutualistic relationship with its host. Ontogenetically, it is vertically inoculated from the mother during birth, established during the first year of life and during lifespan, horizontally transferred among relatives, mates or close community members. This micro-ecosystem serves the host by protecting it against pathogens, metabolizing complex lipids and polysaccharides that otherwise would be inaccessible nutrients, neutralizing drugs and carcinogens, modulating intestinal motility, and making visceral perception possible. It is now evident that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, mainly through the vagus nerve, the so called "microbiota-gut-vagus-brain axis," is vital for maintaining homeostasis and it may be also involved in the etiology of several metabolic and mental dysfunctions/disorders. Here we review evidence on the ability of the gut microbiota to communicate with the brain and thus modulate behavior, and also elaborate on the ethological and cultural strategies of human and non-human primates to select, transfer and eliminate microorganisms for selecting the commensal profile.

  18. [Role of modern hunting in wildlife management].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shi; Zhou, Xue-Hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Although modern hunting is different from traditional hunting, it remains a controversial topic. A large number of scholars in the world have studied the effects of hunting on wild animals from an ecological, ethological, genetic and economic aspect. This paper reviewed the role of controlled hunting in wildlife production from population dynamics, behavior, genetic and a phenotypic level, and by integrating a large number of domestic and foreign literatures. Many studies have shown that regulated hunting is an efficient approach in managing wildlife populations, which could be beneficial to the recovery and possibly even growth of wildlife populations. Meanwhile, over-exploitation or inappropriate hunting could affect the sex, birth and mortality ratios of wildlife populations, change foraging behavior and socio-spatial behavior and generate artificial selection of their genotype and phenotype. To apply modern hunting properly to wildlife management, China could learn from successful hunting programs implemented in many other countries, which are based on ecological and economic principles to formulate scientifically determined hunting quotas and set up an effective system to regulate and manage the hunting of wildlife populations.

  19. Post-fledging brood and care division in the roseate tern (Sterna dougallii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, M.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hatch, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Extended post-fledging parental care is an important aspect of parental care in birds, although little studied due to logistic difficulties. Commonly, the brood is split physically (brood division) and/or preferential care is given to a subset of the brood by one parent or the other (care division). Among gulls and tern (Laridae), males and females generally share parental activities during the pre-fledging period, but the allocation of parental care after fledging is little documented. This study examined the behaviour of male and female roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) during the late chick-rearing and early post-fledging periods, and in particular the amount of feeds and the time spent in attendance given to individual chicks/fledglings. Pre-fledging parental care was biparental in all cases. Post-fledging parental care was dependent on the number of fledglings in the brood. Males and females continued biparental care in clutches with one surviving fledgling, while in two-fledgling clutches, males fed the A-fledgling while females fed the B-fledgling. Overall, there was no difference in attendance, only in feeds. This division of care may be influenced by the male only being certain of the paternity of the A-chick but not by chick sex. ?? 2011 Japan Ethological Society and Springer.

  20. Neural metabolite changes in corpus striatum after rat multipotent mesenchymal stem cells transplanted in hemiparkinsonian rats by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wenyu; Zheng, Zhijuan; Zhuang, Wenxin; Chen, Dandan; Wang, Xiaocui; Sun, Xihe; Wang, Xin

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the biochemical changes in striatum after rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transplanted into hemiparkinsonian rats and to further confirm the therapeutic effects of rat MSCs for Parkinson's disease (PD). 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled MSCs were transplanted into the corpus striatum of the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-injected side of six PD model rats. Before and 8 weeks after MSC transplantation, ethological changes in PD rats were assessed. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum were measured using immunohistochemical methods. The differentiation of MSCs was detected by double immunofluorescence techniques. The concentrations of neural metabolites of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) were measured by ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Relative concentrations of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were calculated. The behavior of PD rats in rotarod tests improved, and there were statistical differences in TH-positive cells in SN and TH-positive terminals in striatum after the transplantation of BrdU-labeled MSCs. Transplanted MSCs differentiated into MAP-2-positive neurons. Especially compared with pre-MSC transplantation, the neural metabolite NAA/Cr ratio of the 6-OHDA-injected side of the striatum increased (P < 0.05) and the Cho/Cr ratio decreased (P < 0.05). MSCs transplantation apparently improves neuronal function in the striatum of PD rats.

  1. Behavioural differentiation induced by environmental variation when crossing a toxic zone in an amoeba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunita, Itsuki; Ueda, Kei-Ichi; Akita, Dai; Kuroda, Shigeru; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-01

    Organisms choose from among various courses of action in response to a wide variety of environmental conditions and the mechanism by which various behaviours are induced is an open question. Interesting behaviour was recently reported: that a unicellular organism of slime mold Physarum polycephalum known as an amoeba had multiple responses (crossing, returning, etc) when the amoeba encounters a zone with toxic levels of quinine, even under carefully controlled conditions. We here examined this elegant example in more detail to obtain insight into behavioural differentiation. We found that the statistical distribution of passage times across a quinine zone switch from unimodal to bimodal (with peaks corresponding to fast crossing and no crossing) when a periodic light stimulation to modulate a biorhythm in amoeba is applied homogeneously across the space, even under the same level of chemical stimuli. Based on a mathematical model for cell movement in amoeba, we successfully reproduced the stimulation-induced differentiation, which was observed experimentally. These dynamics may be explained by a saddle structure around a canard solution. Our results imply that the differentiation of behavioural types in amoeba is modified step-by-step via the compounding of stimulation inputs. The complex behaviour like the differentiation in amoeba may provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of behaviour selection in higher animals from an ethological perspective.

  2. Ontogeny of orientation flight in the honeybee revealed by harmonic radar.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, E A; Smith, A D; Osborne, J L; Fahrbach, S E; Farris, S M; Reynolds, D R; Edwards, A S; Martin, A; Robinson, G E; Poppy, G M; Riley, J R

    2000-02-03

    Cognitive ethology focuses on the study of animals under natural conditions to reveal ecologically adapted modes of learning. But biologists can more easily study what an animal learns than how it learns. For example, honeybees take repeated 'orientation' flights before becoming foragers at about three weeks of age. These flights are a prerequisite for successful homing. Little is known about these flights because orienting bees rapidly fly out of the range of human observation. Using harmonic radar, we show for the first time a striking ontogeny to honeybee orientation flights. With increased experience, bees hold trip duration constant but fly faster, so later trips cover a larger area than earlier trips. In addition, each flight is typically restricted to a narrow sector around the hive. Orientation flights provide honeybees with repeated opportunities to view the hive and landscape features from different viewpoints, suggesting that bees learn the local landscape in a progressive fashion. We also show that these changes in orientation flight are related to the number of previous flights taken instead of chronological age, suggesting a learning process adapted to changes in weather conditions, flower availability and the needs of bee colonies.

  3. Assessing Anxiety in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kristine; Pierre, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety can be broadly described as a psychological state in which normally innocuous environmental stimuli trigger negative emotional expectations. Human anxiety disorders are multidimensional and may be organic or acquired, situational or pervasive. The broad ranging nature of the anxiety phenotype speaks to the need for models that identify its various components and root causes to develop effective clinical treatments. The cross-species comparative approach to modeling anxiety disorders in animals aims to understand mechanisms that both contribute to and modulate anxiety. Nonhuman primate models provide an important bridge from nonprimate model systems because of the complexity of nonhuman primates’ biobehavioral capacities and their commonalities with human emotion. The broad goal of this review is to provide an overview of various procedures available to study anxiety in the nonhuman primate, with a focus on the behavioral aspects of anxiety. Commonly used methods covered in this review include assessing animals in their home environment or in response to an ethologically relevant threat, associative conditioning and startle response tests, and cognitive bias tests. We also discuss how these procedures can help veterinarians and researchers care for captive nonhuman primates. PMID:25225310

  4. Role of sexual selection in speciation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Bashisth N

    2014-02-01

    The power of sexual selection to drive changes in the mate recognition system through divergence in sexually selected traits gives it the potential to be a potent force in speciation. To know how sexual selection can bring such type of divergence in the genus Drosophila, comparative studies based on intra- and inter-sexual selection are documented in this review. The studies provide evidence that both mate choice and male-male competition can cause selection of trait and preference which thereby leads to divergence among species. In the case of intrasexual selection, various kinds of signals play significant role in affecting the species mate recognition system and hence causing divergence between the species. However, intrasexual selection can bring the intraspecific divergence at the level of pre- and post-copulatory stage. This has been better explained through Hawaiian Drosophila which has been suggested a wonderful model system in explaining the events of speciation via sexual selection. This is due to their elaborate mating displays and some kind of ethological isolation persisting among them. Similarly, the genetic basis of sexually selected variations can provide yet another path in understanding the speciation genetics via sexual selection more closely.

  5. Data-Driven Classification of Animal Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2012-02-01

    The last decades have seen an explosion in our ability to characterize the molecular, cellular and genetic building blocks of life; the ingredients out of which we try to explain the rich and compelling behavior of living organisms. Our characterization of behavior itself, however, has advanced more slowly. Since modern ethology was founded over a century ago, behavioral experiments have focused largely on a restricted set of behaviors within the scope of a limited environment. Moreover, the set of behaviors to be examined is often user-defined, creating the potential for human bias and anthropomorphism. The research presented here describes a data-driven methodology for analyzing animal behavior, focusing on the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as a model system. Towards this end, we have built an imaging system that can track single flies as they move about a relatively unencumbered environment. Utilizing this capacity to generate large data sets of animal behavior, we have developed a method for automatically identifying behavioral states using techniques from image analysis, machine learning, and nonlinear dynamics. Identifying these states provides the starting point for many analyses and creates the possibility for automatic phenotyping of subtle behavioral traits.

  6. Implicit self-other discrimination affects the interplay between multisensory affordances of mental representations of faces.

    PubMed

    Zeugin, David; Arfa, Norhan; Notter, Michael; Murray, Micah M; Ionta, Silvio

    2017-08-30

    Face recognition is an apparently straightforward but, in fact, complex ability, encompassing the activation of at least visual and somatosensory representations. Understanding how identity shapes the interplay between these face-related affordances could clarify the mechanisms of self-other discrimination. To this aim, we exploited the so-called "face inversion effect" (FIE), a specific bias in the mental rotation of face images (of other people): with respect to inanimate objects, face images require longer time to be mentally rotated from the upside-down. Via the FIE, which suggests the activation of somatosensory mechanisms, we assessed identity-related changes in the interplay between visual and somatosensory affordances between self- and other-face representations. Methodologically, to avoid the potential interference of the somatosensory feedback associated with musculoskeletal movements, we introduced the tracking of gaze direction to record participants' response. Response times from twenty healthy participants showed the larger FIE for self- than other-faces, suggesting that the impact of somatosensory affordances on mental representation of faces varies according to identity. The present study lays the foundations of a quantifiable method to implicitly assess self-other discrimination, with possible translational benefits for early diagnosis of face processing disturbances (e.g. prosopagnosia), and for neurophysiological studies on self-other discrimination in ethological settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of (+)SKF 10047, a sigma-1 selective agonist, on isolation-induced aggression in male mice.

    PubMed

    Beltran, D; Cavas, M; Navarro, J F

    2006-11-01

    sigma-1 Receptors have been identified in numerous brain regions, including areas such as hypothalamus and amygdala, which have long been linked to the regulation of aggression. However, there is no clear information with respect to the possible effects of sigma-1 ligands on aggressive behavior in laboratory animals. Consequently, the present study examined the effects of (+)SKF 10047 (0.5-6 mg/kg, i.p.), a sigma-1 prototypical agonist, on isolation-induced aggression in male mice, using an ethopharmacological approach. Individually housed mice were exposed to anosmic "standard opponents" 30 min after drug administration. Ten minutes of diadic interactions were staged between a singly housed and an anosmic mouse in a neutral area. The encounters were videotaped, and the accumulated time allocated by subjects to 10 broad behavioral categories was estimated using an ethologically based analysis. Results showed that (+)SKF 10047 (6 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction of offensive behaviors, without affecting immobility. Social investigation behaviors were also slightly increased after drug treatment (2-6 mg/kg). These results suggest a role for sigma-1 receptors in aggression modulation in mice.

  8. Analytical methods for chemical and sensory characterization of scent-markings in large wild mammals: a review.

    PubMed

    Soso, Simone B; Koziel, Jacek A; Johnson, Anna; Lee, Young Jin; Fairbanks, W Sue

    2014-03-05

    In conjoining the disciplines of "ethology" and "chemistry" the field of "Ethochemistry" has been instituted. Ethochemistry is an effective tool in conservation efforts of endangered species and the understanding of behavioral patterns across all species. Chemical constituents of scent-markings have an important, yet poorly understood function in territoriality, reproduction, dominance, and impact on evolutionary biology, especially in large mammals. Particular attention has recently been focused on scent-marking analysis of great cats (Kalahari leopards (Panthera pardus), puma (Puma concolor) snow leopard (Panthera uncia), African lions (Panthera leo), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and tigers (Panthera tigris)) for the purpose of conservation. Sensory analyses of scent-markings could address knowledge gaps in ethochemistry. The objective of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the art of both the chemical and sensory analyses of scent-markings in wild mammals. Specific focus is placed on sampling and sample preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses. Constituents of exocrine and endocrine secretions have been most commonly studied with chromatography-based analytical separations. Odor analysis of scent-markings provides an insight into the animal's sensory perception. A limited number of articles have been published in the area of sensory characterization of scent marks. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses with chromatography-olfactometry hyphenation could potentially aid conservation efforts by linking perceived odor, compounds responsible for odor, and resulting behavior.

  9. Modelling honeybee visual guidance in a 3-D environment.

    PubMed

    Portelli, G; Serres, J; Ruffier, F; Franceschini, N

    2010-01-01

    In view of the behavioral findings published on bees during the last two decades, it was proposed to decipher the principles underlying bees' autopilot system, focusing in particular on these insects' use of the optic flow (OF). Based on computer-simulated experiments, we developed a vision-based autopilot that enables a "simulated bee" to travel along a tunnel, controlling both its speed and its clearance from the right wall, left wall, ground, and roof. The flying agent thus equipped enjoys three translational degrees of freedom on the surge (x), sway (y), and heave (z) axes, which are uncoupled. This visuo-motor control system, which is called ALIS (AutopiLot using an Insect based vision System), is a dual OF regulator consisting of two interdependent feedback loops, each of which has its own OF set-point. The experiments presented here showed that the simulated bee was able to navigate safely along a straight or tapered tunnel and to react appropriately to any untoward OF perturbations, such as those resulting from the occasional lack of texture on one wall or the tapering of the tunnel. The minimalistic visual system used here (involving only eight pixels) suffices to jointly control both the clearance from the four walls and the forward speed, without having to measure any speeds or distances. The OF sensors and the simple visuo-motor control system we have developed account well for the results of ethological studies performed on honeybees flying freely along straight and tapered corridors.

  10. Pheromones in the life of insects.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Ingolf; Schmolz, Erik; Schricker, Burkhard

    2008-09-01

    Life in insect societies asks for a permanent flow of information, often carried by rather simple organic molecules. Some originate from plants as odours of blossoms or exudates from trees. Especially important are the intra- and interspecific combinations of compounds produced by the insects themselves. These are called pheromones or ecto-hormones and serve a variety of tasks. The paper deals mainly with honeybee pheromones, but takes also into consideration those of wasps and hornets. Effects of pheromones are monitored ethologically by direct observation and filming as well as in a more quantitative manner with using direct and indirect calorimetry. In all experimental set-ups alarm pheromones were used as controls. They show an up to fourfold increase of activity after a few seconds, determined for small groups of insects as well as for a whole hornet nest placed in a 25-l calorimeter. A variety of cosmetics like soaps, shampoos, lotions and perfumes are included in the investigations because of repeated reports about unwarranted insect attacks which are said to be provoked by such products. None of the applied substances provoked a significant reaction of the bees (p > 0.05). A short appendix discusses the still questionable existence of pheromones in man, which were confirmed under laboratory conditions, but not yet for daily life.

  11. Human sound localization: measurements in untrained, head-unrestrained subjects using gaze as a pointer.

    PubMed

    Populin, Luis C

    2008-09-01

    Studies of sound localization in humans have used various behavioral measures to quantify the observers' perceptions; a non-comprehensive list includes verbal reports, head pointing, gun pointing, stylus pointing, and laser aiming. Comparison of localization performance reveals that in humans, just as in animals, different results are obtained with different experimental tasks. Accordingly, to circumvent problems associated with task selection and training, this study used gaze, an ethologically valid behavior for spatial pointing in species with a specialized area of the fovea, to measure sound localization perception of human subjects. Orienting using gaze as a pointer does not require training, preserves the natural link between perception and action, and allows for direct behavioral comparisons across species. The results revealed, unexpectedly, a large degree of variability across subjects in both accuracy and precision. The magnitude of the average angular localization errors for the most eccentric horizontal targets, however, were very similar to those documented in studies that used head pointing, whereas the magnitude of the localization errors for the frontal targets were considerably larger. In addition, an overall improvement in sound localization in the context of the memory-saccade task, as well as a lack of effect of initial eye and head position on perceived sound location were documented.

  12. The Reformulation of Emotional Security Theory: The Role of Children’s Social Defense in Developmental Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.

    2014-01-01

    Although children’s security in the context of the interparental relationship has been identified as a key explanatory mechanism in pathways between family discord and child psychopathology, little is known about the inner workings of emotional security as a goal system. Accordingly, the objective of this paper is to describe how our reformulation of emotional security theory (EST-R) within an ethological and evolutionary framework may advance the characterization of the architecture and operation of emotional security and, in the process, cultivate sustainable growing points in developmental psychopathology. The first section of the paper describes how children’s security in the interparental relationship is organized around a distinctive behavioral system designed to defend against interpersonal threat. Building on this evolutionary foundation for emotional security, the paper offers an innovative taxonomy for identifying qualitatively different ways children try to preserve their security and its innovative implications for more precisely informing understanding of the mechanisms in pathways between family and developmental precursors and children’s trajectories of mental health. In the final section, the paper highlights the potential of EST-R to stimulate new generations of research on understanding how children defend against social threats in ecologies beyond the interparental dyad, including both familial and extrafamilial settings. PMID:24342849

  13. Lower attention to daily environment: a novel cue for detecting chronic horses’ back pain?

    PubMed Central

    Rochais, C.; Fureix, C.; Lesimple, C.; Hausberger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is thought to affect patients’ cognitive functioning, including attention. Loss of attention is likely to have an impact on the execution of daily tasks, and, therefore, to have negative effects. However, relationships between chronic pain and cognitive deficits are still debated. Pre-clinical studies using laboratory animals prove useful to model pain-related cognitive impairment, but animal models had to predict effects in the real world. This study investigates attentional engagement of domestic horses by comparing observations in a home setting and evaluations of vertebral disorders. We found that lower attentional engagement and the level of back disorders were correlated. Two different evaluation techniques of the state of horses’ spines gave similar results. We suggest that novel animal models would prove useful for identifying spontaneous behaviours indicative of chronic pain. We suggest that more ethological studies in human patients’ home environments would help to improve our understanding of the processes involved. Finally, these results yield interesting indications for evaluating animal welfare, as attentional engagement could become a reliable indicator of chronic pain and thus a useful tool for identification of suffering individuals. PMID:26823123

  14. Mapping patterns of depression-related brain regions with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry: relevance of animal affective systems to human disorders, with a focus on resilience to adverse events.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Matrov, Denis; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    The search for novel antidepressants may be facilitated by pre-clinical animal models that relay on specific neural circuit and related neurochemical endpoint measures, which are anchored in concrete neuro-anatomical and functional neural-network analyzes. One of the most important initial considerations must be which regions of the brain are candidates for the maladaptive response to depressogenic challenges. Consideration of persistent differences or changes in the activity of cerebral networks can be achieved by mapping oxidative metabolism in ethologically or pathogenetically relevant animal models. Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry is a technique suitable to detect regional long-term brain activity changes relative to control conditions and has been used in a variety of animal models. This work is summarized and indicates that major changes occur mainly in subcortical areas, highlighting specific brain regions where some alterations in regional oxidative metabolism may represent adaptive changes to depressogenic adverse life events, while others may reflect failures of adaptation. Many of these changes in oxidative metabolism may depend upon the integrity of serotonergic neurotransmission, and occur in several brain regions shown by other techniques to be involved in endogenous affective circuits that control emotional behaviors as well as related higher brain regions that integrate learning and cognitive information processing. These brain regions appear as primary targets for further identification of endophenotypes specific to affective disorders.

  15. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer.

    PubMed

    Begall, Sabine; Cerveny, Jaroslav; Neef, Julia; Vojtech, Oldrich; Burda, Hynek

    2008-09-09

    We demonstrate by means of simple, noninvasive methods (analysis of satellite images, field observations, and measuring "deer beds" in snow) that domestic cattle (n = 8,510 in 308 pastures) across the globe, and grazing and resting red and roe deer (n = 2,974 at 241 localities), align their body axes in roughly a north-south direction. Direct observations of roe deer revealed that animals orient their heads northward when grazing or resting. Amazingly, this ubiquitous phenomenon does not seem to have been noticed by herdsmen, ranchers, or hunters. Because wind and light conditions could be excluded as a common denominator determining the body axis orientation, magnetic alignment is the most parsimonious explanation. To test the hypothesis that cattle orient their body axes along the field lines of the Earth's magnetic field, we analyzed the body orientation of cattle from localities with high magnetic declination. Here, magnetic north was a better predictor than geographic north. This study reveals the magnetic alignment in large mammals based on statistically sufficient sample sizes. Our findings open horizons for the study of magnetoreception in general and are of potential significance for applied ethology (husbandry, animal welfare). They challenge neuroscientists and biophysics to explain the proximate mechanisms.

  16. A framework for integrating the songbird brain

    PubMed Central

    Smith, V.A.; Wada, K.; Rivas, M.V.; McElroy, M.; Smulders, T.V.; Carninci, P.; Hayashizaki, Y.; Dietrich, F.; Wu, X.; McConnell, P.; Yu, J.; Wang, P.P.; Hartemink, A.J.; Lin, S.

    2008-01-01

    Biological systems by default involve complex components with complex relationships. To decipher how biological systems work, we assume that one needs to integrate information over multiple levels of complexity. The songbird vocal communication system is ideal for such integration due to many years of ethological investigation and a discreet dedicated brain network. Here we announce the beginnings of a songbird brain integrative project that involves high-throughput, molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral levels of analysis. We first formed a rationale for inclusion of specific biological levels of analysis, then developed high-throughput molecular technologies on songbird brains, developed technologies for combined analysis of electrophysiological activity and gene regulation in awake behaving animals, and developed bioinformatic tools that predict causal interactions within and between biological levels of organization. This integrative brain project is fitting for the interdisciplinary approaches taken in the current songbird issue of the Journal of Comparative Physiology A and is expected to be conducive to deciphering how brains generate and perceive complex behaviors. PMID:12471494

  17. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    PubMed Central

    Begall, Sabine; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, Julia; Vojtěch, Oldřich; Burda, Hynek

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate by means of simple, noninvasive methods (analysis of satellite images, field observations, and measuring “deer beds” in snow) that domestic cattle (n = 8,510 in 308 pastures) across the globe, and grazing and resting red and roe deer (n = 2,974 at 241 localities), align their body axes in roughly a north–south direction. Direct observations of roe deer revealed that animals orient their heads northward when grazing or resting. Amazingly, this ubiquitous phenomenon does not seem to have been noticed by herdsmen, ranchers, or hunters. Because wind and light conditions could be excluded as a common denominator determining the body axis orientation, magnetic alignment is the most parsimonious explanation. To test the hypothesis that cattle orient their body axes along the field lines of the Earth's magnetic field, we analyzed the body orientation of cattle from localities with high magnetic declination. Here, magnetic north was a better predictor than geographic north. This study reveals the magnetic alignment in large mammals based on statistically sufficient sample sizes. Our findings open horizons for the study of magnetoreception in general and are of potential significance for applied ethology (husbandry, animal welfare). They challenge neuroscientists and biophysics to explain the proximate mechanisms. PMID:18725629

  18. Nocturnal behavior and rhythmic period gene expression in a lancelet, Branchiostoma lanceolatum.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, Christof; Korf, Horst-Werner; Laedtke, Elke; Moret, Frédéric; Zhang, Qian; Wicht, Helmut

    2008-04-01

    The authors here present the first anatomical, molecular biological, and ethological data on the organization of the circadian system of a lancelet, Branchiostoma lanceolatum, a close invertebrate relative of vertebrates. B. lanceolatum was found to be a nocturnal animal and, since its rhythmic activity persisted under constant darkness, it also appears to possess an endogenous, circadian oscillator. The authors cloned a homolog of the clock gene Period (Per), which plays a central (inhibitory) role in the biochemical machinery of the circadian oscillators of both vertebrates and protostomians. This gene from B. lanceolatum was designated as amphiPer. Both the sequence of its cDNA and that of the predicted protein are more similar to those of the Per paralogs of vertebrates than to those of the single protostomian Per gene. A strong expression of amphiPer was found in a small cell group in the anterior neural tube. The amphiPer mRNA levels fluctuated in a rhythmic manner, being high early in the day and low late at night. The authors' data suggest a homology of the amphiPer expessing cells to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of vertebrates.

  19. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alline C; Fogaça, Manoela V; Aguiar, Daniele C; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents). The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mechanisms and potential clinical effects of several drugs. Animal models of anxiety are based on conflict situations that can generate opposite motivational states induced by approach-avoidance situations. The present review revisited the main rodent models of anxiety and stress responses used worldwide. Here we defined as "ethological" the tests that assess unlearned/unpunished responses (such as the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open field), whereas models that involve learned/punished responses are referred to as "conditioned operant conflict tests" (such as the Vogel conflict test). We also discussed models that involve mainly classical conditioning tests (fear conditioning). Finally, we addressed the main protocols used to induce stress responses in rodents, including psychosocial (social defeat and neonatal isolation stress), physical (restraint stress), and chronic unpredictable stress.

  20. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication.

  1. Behavioural methods used in rodent models of autism spectrum disorders: current standards and new developments.

    PubMed

    Wöhr, Markus; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

    2013-08-15

    Autism is a behaviourally defined disorder including attenuated or abnormal social interaction and communication, as well as aberrant repetitive behaviour, with symptoms emerging early in childhood. Although the cause of autism has not been discovered, several data strongly support the role of genetic factors in autism aetiology. For this reason, preclinical research is now focusing on generating transgenic and knockout mice, and more recently also rats, with mutations in genes identified in autistic children, with the main aim of understanding the role of those genes in autism aetiology, discovering the biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviours detected in these mutant lines and evaluating potential treatments. Over the last years, a huge number of behavioural phenotyping assays for rodent models of autism and related disorders have been designed. In the first part of our review, we focus on current standards, i.e. state-of-the-art behavioural phenotyping tasks to assess autism core symptoms in rodent models. The second part is devoted to some few, in our view, very promising examples of new developments, namely an autism severity score, scent marking behaviour as an additional, ethologically valid measure for communication, plus a number of new developments in the behavioural domains of social facilitation, observational learning, and empathy. Finally, we will highlight the huge potential impact of newly generated rat knockout models of autism.

  2. An implantable electrical stimulator used for peripheral nerve rehabilitation in rats

    PubMed Central

    RUI, BIYU; GUO, SHANGCHUN; ZENG, BINGFANG; WANG, JINGWU; CHEN, XIN

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated an implantable electrical stimulator using a sciatic nerve injury animal model, and ethological, electrophysiological and histological assessments. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study, and were subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve with a micro-vessel clamp. Electrical stimulators were implanted in twenty of the rats (the implantation group), while the remaining twenty rats were assigned to the control group. At three and six weeks following the surgery, the sciatic nerve function index (SFI) and the motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) were demonstrated to be significantly higher in the implantation group compared with the control group (P<0.05). Histological analysis, using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, showed the typical pathological atrophy, and an assessment of the nerve that had been crushed revealed distal axonal breakdown in the control group. These results suggest that the implantable electrical stimulator was effective, and was suitable for implantation in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. PMID:23935712

  3. Topographically based search for an "Ethogram" among a series of novel D(4) dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Clifford, J J; Waddington, J L

    2000-05-01

    The effects of three selective D(4) antagonists [CP-293,019, L-745, 870, and Ro 61-6270] and two putative selective D(4) agonists [CP-226,269 and PD 168077] were compared with those of the generic D(2)-like [D(2L/S),D(3), D(4)] antagonist haloperidol to identify any characteristic "ethogram," in terms of individual topographies of behavior within the natural rodent repertoire, as evaluated using ethologically based approaches. Among the D(4) antagonists, neither L-745,870 (0.0016-1.0 mg/kg) nor Ro 61-6270 (0.2-25.0 mg/kg) influenced any behavior; whereas, CP-293,019 (0.2-25.0 mg/kg) induced episodes of nonstereotyped sniffing, sifting, and vacuous chewing; there were no consistent effects on responsivity to the D(2)-like agonist RU 24213. Among the putative D(4) agonists, CP-226, 269 (0.2-25.0 mg/kg) failed to influence any behavior; whereas, PD 168077 (0.2-25.0 mg/kg) induced nonstereotyped shuffling locomotion with uncoordinated movements, jerking, and yawning, which were insensitive to antagonism by CP-293,019, L-745,870, or haloperidol. These findings fail to indicate any "ethogram" for selective manipulation of D(4) receptor function at the level of the interaction between motoric and psychological processes in sculpting behavioral topography over habituation of exploration through to quiescence and focus attention on social, cognitive, or other levels of examination.

  4. Fasting increases and satiation decreases olfactory detection for a neutral odor in rats.

    PubMed

    Aimé, P; Duchamp-Viret, P; Chaput, M A; Savigner, A; Mahfouz, M; Julliard, A K

    2007-05-16

    Olfaction plays a fundamental role in feeding behavior, but changes in olfactory acuity according to feeding states have never been precisely demonstrated in animals. The present study assesses the olfactory detection performance of fasted or satiated rats placed under a strictly controlled food-intake regimen. We did this using a conditioned odor aversion (COA) protocol which induced in rats an almost total aversion to an ISO-odorized drink at 10(-5) (1 microl in 100 ml of water). The rats (either fasted or satiated) were then presented with different concentrations of ISO-odorized water to compare their ability to detect and so avoid the ISO drink. In both states, the rats consumed significantly larger volumes of ISO at 10(-10), 10(-9) and 10(-8) than at 10(-5), suggesting lower detection at these three concentrations, although the fasted rats consumed significantly less ISO drink than did the satiated ones, showing better ISO detection at these concentrations. These experiments provide original data demonstrating the expected fact that olfactory sensitivity increases in fasted animals. Since these results were obtained using a neutral odor, we suggest that olfactory acuity increases during fasting, enabling animals to more easily detect both food and environmental odors such as those of predators. This would have an obvious eco-ethological role by increasing the relevance of olfactory inputs when seeking food.

  5. Late Carboniferous paleoichnology reveals the oldest full-body impression of a flying insect.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Richard J; Engel, Michael S; Benner, Jacob S

    2011-04-19

    Insects were the first animals to evolve powered flight and did so perhaps 90 million years before the first flight among vertebrates. However, the earliest fossil record of flying insect lineages (Pterygota) is poor, with scant indirect evidence from the Devonian and a nearly complete dearth of material from the Early Carboniferous. By the Late Carboniferous a diversity of flying lineages is known, mostly from isolated wings but without true insights into the paleoethology of these taxa. Here, we report evidence of a full-body impression of a flying insect from the Late Carboniferous Wamsutta Formation of Massachusetts, representing the oldest trace fossil of Pterygota. Through ethological and morphological analysis, the trace fossil provides evidence that its maker was a flying insect and probably was representative of a stem-group lineage of mayflies. The nature of this current full-body impression somewhat blurs distinctions between the systematics of traces and trace makers, thus adding to the debate surrounding ichnotaxonomy for traces with well-associated trace makers.

  6. In-silico experiments of zebrafish behaviour: modeling swimming in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish is fast becoming a species of choice in biomedical research for the investigation of functional and dysfunctional processes coupled with their genetic and pharmacological modulation. As with mammals, experimentation with zebrafish constitutes a complicated ethical issue that calls for the exploration of alternative testing methods to reduce the number of subjects, refine experimental designs, and replace live animals. Inspired by the demonstrated advantages of computational studies in other life science domains, we establish an authentic data-driven modelling framework to simulate zebrafish swimming in three dimensions. The model encapsulates burst-and-coast swimming style, speed modulation, and wall interaction, laying the foundations for in-silico experiments of zebrafish behaviour. Through computational studies, we demonstrate the ability of the model to replicate common ethological observables such as speed and spatial preference, and anticipate experimental observations on the correlation between tank dimensions on zebrafish behaviour. Reaching to other experimental paradigms, our framework is expected to contribute to a reduction in animal use and suffering.

  7. Conjugating time and frequency: hemispheric specialization, acoustic uncertainty, and the mustached bat

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Stuart D.; Tillinghast, John S.

    2015-01-01

    A prominent hypothesis of hemispheric specialization for human speech and music states that the left and right auditory cortices (ACs) are respectively specialized for precise calculation of two canonically-conjugate variables: time and frequency. This spectral-temporal asymmetry does not account for sex, brain-volume, or handedness, and is in opposition to closed-system hypotheses that restrict this asymmetry to humans. Mustached bats have smaller brains, but greater ethological pressures to develop such a spectral-temporal asymmetry, than humans. Using the Heisenberg-Gabor Limit (i.e., the mathematical basis of the spectral-temporal asymmetry) to frame mustached bat literature, we show that recent findings in bat AC (1) support the notion that hemispheric specialization for speech and music is based on hemispheric differences in temporal and spectral resolution, (2) discredit closed-system, handedness, and brain-volume theories, (3) underscore the importance of sex differences, and (4) provide new avenues for phonological research. PMID:25926767

  8. The C.E.B.A.S.-Aquarack project: the laboratory prototype and first results of the scientific frame program.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Kreuzberg, K

    1992-01-01

    The paper explains the basic conception of a "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) incorporated in a Aquarack as a research tool for zoological, botanical and interdisciplinary research in space biology and describes the construction principle of laboratory prototype consisting of a modular habitat for aquatic animals a semi-biological/physical water recycling system and a computerized control unit. Further on the running scientific frame program in which as well five german and two U.S.-universities as the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine are involved is presented which includes the subtopics reproductive biology, genetics, embryology/teratology, neurobiology, vestibularis research, stress research general endocrinology, ethology, gerontology and skeleton research. Within this the choice of the experimental animals, the teleost Xiphophorus helleri (vertebrate model) and the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata (invertebrate model) is explained. Examples of results of the scientific program mainly derive from the hardware-related research and from the reproductive biology subproject with X. helleri.

  9. Models and mechanisms of anxiety: evidence from startle studies

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Preclinical data indicates that threat stimuli elicit two classes of defensive behaviors, those that are associated with imminent danger and are characterized by avoidance or fight (fear), and those that are associated with temporally uncertain danger and are characterized by sustained apprehension and hypervigilance (anxiety). Objective To 1) review evidence for a distinction between fear and anxiety in animal and human experimental models using the startle reflex as an operational measure of aversive states, 2) describe experimental models of anxiety, as opposed to fear, in humans, 3) examine the relevance of these models to clinical anxiety. Results The distinction between phasic fear to imminent threat and sustained anxiety to temporally uncertain danger is suggested by psychopharmacological and behavioral evidence from ethological studies and can be traced back to distinct neuroanatomical systems, the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Experimental models of anxiety, not fear, are relevant to non-phobic anxiety disorders. Conclusions Progress in our understanding of normal and abnormal anxiety is critically dependent on our ability to model sustained aversive states to temporally uncertain threat. PMID:18058089

  10. Late Carboniferous paleoichnology reveals the oldest full-body impression of a flying insect

    PubMed Central

    Knecht, Richard J.; Engel, Michael S.; Benner, Jacob S.

    2011-01-01

    Insects were the first animals to evolve powered flight and did so perhaps 90 million years before the first flight among vertebrates. However, the earliest fossil record of flying insect lineages (Pterygota) is poor, with scant indirect evidence from the Devonian and a nearly complete dearth of material from the Early Carboniferous. By the Late Carboniferous a diversity of flying lineages is known, mostly from isolated wings but without true insights into the paleoethology of these taxa. Here, we report evidence of a full-body impression of a flying insect from the Late Carboniferous Wamsutta Formation of Massachusetts, representing the oldest trace fossil of Pterygota. Through ethological and morphological analysis, the trace fossil provides evidence that its maker was a flying insect and probably was representative of a stem-group lineage of mayflies. The nature of this current full-body impression somewhat blurs distinctions between the systematics of traces and trace makers, thus adding to the debate surrounding ichnotaxonomy for traces with well-associated trace makers. PMID:21464315

  11. [Buffon, the director of 'Jardin du Roi' in the 1700s].

    PubMed

    Jeune, Bernard; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    Buffon and Linné were the two greatest naturalists of the 1700s. As they were both born in 1707, their 300 anniversaries were therefore celebrated in France and Sweden. At the celebration meeting at the University of Bourgogne in Dijon - The Buffon Legacy - September 3-6, 2007, we presented the following paper: "Buffon and the longevity of species". In the present paper the life and work of Buffon is introduced on the basis of recent literature, including Jacques Roger's famous biography. Among non-biologists Buffon has nearly been forgotten, even though in the 1700s he was considered to be at the same level as the most famous French thinkers of the Enlightenment - Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot. His largest contributions were the publication of his comprehensive "Histoire naturelle" and his long and significant leadership of "Jardin du Roi", which he built up to become one of the best scientific institutions of Europe. Buffon's scientific contributions wereas overshadowed by those of Linné, as it was his classification system, which became dominant all overn Europe. Buffon's student Lamarck and later Darwin contributed by pushing Buffon in oblivion of history, even though Darwin valued him highly. However, in recent decades Buffon is experiencing a renaissance in connection with the increasing interest in biological anthropology, biogeography, ethology, and ecology, as well as on account of his modern species concept.

  12. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel C T; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects.

  13. Animats and what they can tell us.

    PubMed

    Dean, J

    1998-02-01

    Animats-autonomous robots or simulations of animals-and the animat approach represent the most recent attempt to comprehend the capacity of animals for autonomous generation of adaptive, intelligent behavior in complex, changing environments. Motivated by perceived limitations in classical artificial intelligence (AI), the animat approach promulgates an alternative, bottom-up route to understanding intelligent behavior. Important tenets include: (1) that adaptive behavior is best understood by focusing on the interaction between a behaving individual and its environment, hence the interest in `embodied' physical robots `situated' in natural environments; (2) that specific abilities, `behaviors', are more natural units of analysis and design than general, information-processing functions and world models; and (3) that high-level behaviors will emerge as systems composed of simple behavioral competences become more complex. Thus, animat research often begins with low-level sensorimotor abilities and then moves up towards higher, cognitive functions. Both in analysis and in design, the animat approach borrows heavily from ethology, psychology, neurobiology and evolutionary biology, as well as from connectionism. For AI and robotics researchers, understanding the mechanisms behind adaptive behavior is secondary to creating them, but natural scientists can hope for tools and concepts to aid understanding of biological systems.

  14. Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition-induced changes in plasma corticosterone levels, anxiety and locomotor activity in male CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Aliczki, Mano; Zelena, Dora; Mikics, Eva; Varga, Zoltan K; Pinter, Otto; Bakos, Nikoletta Venczkone; Varga, Janos; Haller, Jozsef

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis is strongly controlled by the endocannabinoid system. The specific impact of enhanced 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling on corticosterone plasma levels, however, was not investigated so far. Here we studied the effects of the recently developed monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 on basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels in male CD1 mice, and found that this compound dramatically increased basal levels without affecting stress responses. Since acute changes in corticosterone levels can affect behavior, JZL184 was administered concurrently with the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, to investigate whether the previously shown behavioral effects of JZL184 are dependent on corticosterone. We found that in the elevated plus-maze, the effects of JZL184 on "classical" anxiety-related measures were abolished by corticosterone synthesis blockade. By contrast, effects on the "ethological" measures of anxiety (i.e. risk assessment) were not affected by metyrapone. In the open-field, the locomotion-enhancing effects of the compound were not changed either. These findings show that monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition dramatically increases basal levels of corticosterone. This endocrine effect partly affects the anxiolytic, but not the locomotion-enhancing effects of monoacylglycerol lipase blockade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the evolution of polar and brown bears. Evidence from a critical review of mitochondrial and nuclear genome analyses.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    In this report, I review recent molecular studies dealing with the origin and evolution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), with special emphasis on their relationships with brown bears (U. arctos). On the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear data, different hypotheses have been proposed, including rapid morphological differentiation of U. maritimus, genetic introgression from U. arctos into U. maritimus, or inversely from U. maritimus into U. arctos, involving either male- or female-mediated gene flow. In the light of available molecular and eco-ethological data, I suggest, firstly, that all divergences among major clades of large bears can be linked to glacial periods, secondly, that polar bears diverged from brown bears before 530 thousand years ago (ka), during one of the three glacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 14, 15.2 or 16, and, thirdly, that genetic introgression had occurred from female polar bears into brown bear populations during at least two glacial periods, at 340 ± 10 ka (MIS 10) in western Europe, and at 155 ± 5 ka (MIS 6) on the ABC islands of southeastern Alaska, and probably also in Beringia and Ireland based on ancient DNA sequences. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical and chemical supports for a transnatal olfactory continuity through sow maternal fluids.

    PubMed

    Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Pageat, Patrick; Malosse, Christian; Cain, Anne-Hélène; Orgeur, Pierre; Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia

    2005-03-01

    Recognition of the mother is of major importance for the survival of mammalian neonates. This recognition is based, immediately after birth, on the detection of odours that have been learned by the fetus in utero. If the ethological basis of a transnatal olfactory continuity is well established, little is known on the nature of its olfactory cues, and nothing about the presence of potential carrier proteins in the maternal fluids such as amniotic fluid, colostrum and milk. We have identified the components of the pig putative maternal pheromone in these fluids of the sow. We also used a ligand-oriented approach to functionally characterize carrier proteins for these compounds in the maternal fluids. Six proteins were identified, using binding assay, immunodetection and peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. These proteins are known to transport hydrophobic ligands in biological fluids. Among them, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and odorant-binding protein (OBP) have been described in the oral sphere of piglets as being involved in the detection of pig putative maternal pheromone components. These are the first chemical and biochemical data supporting a transnatal olfactory continuity between the fetal and the postnatal environments.

  17. The hidden sexuality of the yawn and the future of chasmology.

    PubMed

    Seuntjens, Wolter

    2010-01-01

    Chasmology is the scientific study of yawning. Though its official history started only recently, its unofficial history stretches back to antiquity. This chapter outlines the history and current state of chasmology, through textual research and analysis, and offers a vision of its future. Particular emphasis is placed upon the author's favorite theory: the hidden sexuality of the human yawn. The 'First Law of Chasmology' states that a yawn occurs: (1) if the yawner cannot do what he would like to do, or (2) if the yawner must do something that he would rather not do. The 'Second Law of Chasmology', which is a special instance of the more general First Law, states that the yawn has an erotic and even a sexual aspect. A critical mass of proof for the validity of this Second Law is derived from various sciences and disciplines, ranging from theology and (the history of) art to ethology and pharmacology. The process of evidencing the Second Law has also established chasmology as an emerging science, i.e. a science that uses the data and information of primary sciences to make a synthesis that transforms and transcends the original scope and results of the auxiliary disciplines. The Second Law allows at least two concrete predictions about future corroborations or refutations in chasmological research. Chasmology has a bright future and may yield some surprising results in the near future. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The First Ant-Termite Syninclusion in Amber with CT-Scan Analysis of Taphonomy

    PubMed Central

    Coty, David; Aria, Cédric; Garrouste, Romain; Wils, Patricia; Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a co-occurrence (i.e. a syninclusion) of ants and termites in a piece of Mexican amber (Totolapa deposit, Chiapas), whose importance is two-fold. First, this finding suggests at least a middle Miocene antiquity for the modern, though poorly documented, relationship between Azteca ants and Nasutitermes termites. Second, the presence of a Neivamyrmex army ant documents an in situ raiding behaviour of the same age and within the same community, confirmed by the fact that the army ant is holding one of the termite worker between its mandibles and by the presence of a termite with bitten abdomen. In addition, we present how CT-scan imaging can be an efficient tool to describe the topology of resin flows within amber pieces, and to point out the different states of preservation of the embedded insects. This can help achieving a better understanding of taphonomical processes, and tests ethological and ecological hypotheses in such complex syninclusions. PMID:25140873

  19. An infrared motion detector system for lossless real-time monitoring of animal preference tests.

    PubMed

    Pogány, A; Heszberger, J; Szurovecz, Zita; Vincze, E; Székely, T

    2014-12-01

    Automated behavioural observations are routinely used in many fields of biology, including ethology, behavioural ecology and physiology. When preferences for certain resources are investigated, the focus is often on simple response variables, such as duration and frequency of visits to choice chambers. Here we present an automated motion detector system that use passive infrared sensors to eliminate many drawbacks of currently existing methods. Signals from the sensors are processed by a custom-built interface, and after unnecessary data is filtered by a computer software, the total time and frequency of the subject's visits to each of the choice chambers are calculated. We validate the detector system by monitoring (using the system) and in the same time video recording mating preferences of zebra finches in a four-way choice apparatus. Manual scoring of the video recordings showed very high consistency with data from the detector system both for time and for frequency of visits. Furthermore, the validation revealed that if we used micro-switches or light barriers, the most commonly applied automatic detection techniques, this would have resulted in approximately 22% less information compared to our lossless system. The system provides a low-cost alternative for monitoring animal movements, and we discuss its further applicability.

  20. [A functional explanation of normative prescriptive-evaluative judgments and the concept of "evolutionary ethics"].

    PubMed

    Dorschel, A

    1992-01-01

    Neodarwinian ethology, today above all represented by sociobiology, is conceived of by responsible exponents as a descriptive and explanatory theory that cannot include any normative declarations. Still other, indeed notable, authors belonging to the discipline in question, either underhand or frankly employ prescriptive or evaluative judgments, or they claim (what is not an insight of natural science) that it is impossible to provide a rational foundation for prescriptive or evaluative judgments. (Michael Ruse and Edward O. Wilson even assert the latter without relinquishing the former.) Several functional explanations of normative validity claims advanced by Michael Ruse, Edward O. Wilson, Donald T. Campbell, Florian von Schilcher and Neil Tennant are designed to show that prescriptive or evaluative judgments cannot be justified. The reasonableness of this move is, however, dubious, because it implies strategies of raising oneself into a privileged status or of rendering the position of oneself immune from criticism by shifting it among the objects of the theory. Then Wilson's concept of 'evolutionary ethics' is thoroughly--and critically--analyzed. The suspicion that Wilson's fallacies in the transition from biological facts to moral norms are of exemplary nature is finally examined on the basis of tenets advanced by Herbert Spencer, Wolfgang Wickler, and Hans Mohr.

  1. Systematic analysis of emotionality in consomic mouse strains established from C57BL/6J and wild-derived MSM/Ms

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, A; Nishi, A; Ishii, A; Shiroishi, T; Koide, T

    2008-01-01

    Consomic strains have recently attracted attention as an advantageous method to screen for genes related to developmental, physiological, and behavioral phenotypes. Recently, a new set of consomic strains was established from the Japanese wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms and C57BL/6JJcl. By analyzing the entire consomic panel, we were able to identify a number of chromosomes associated with anxiety-like behaviors in the open-field (OF) test, a light–dark box and an elevated plus maze. Detailed observation of the OF behavior allowed us to identify chromosomes associated with those ethological traits, such as stretch attend, rearing, and jumping. Repeated OF test trials have different meanings for animals, and we found that some chromosomes responded to only the first or second trial, while others were consistent across both trials. By examining both male and female mice, sex-dependent effects were found in several measurements. Principal component analysis of anxiety-like behaviors extracted five factors: ‘general locomotor activity’, ‘thigmotaxis’, ‘risk assessment’, ‘open-arm exploration’ and ‘autonomic emotionality’. We mapped chromosomes associated with these five factors of emotionality. PMID:18616609

  2. Do aphids actively search for ant partners?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christophe Y; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges C; Detrain, Claire; Verheggen, François J

    2015-04-01

    The aphid-ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e., aphids' most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these aphids including a lower predation pressure through ant presence and enhanced chances of establishing mutuaslistic interactions with neighbor ant colonies. In the field, aphid colonies are often observed in higher densities around ant nests, which is probably linked to a better survival ensured by ants' services. Nevertheless, this could also result from a preferential establishment of winged aphids in ant-frequented areas. We tested this last hypothesis through different ethological assays and show that the facultative myrmecophilous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae L., does not orientate its search for a host plant preferentially toward ant-frequented plants. However, our results suggest that ants reduce the number of winged aphids leaving the newly colonized plant. Thus, ants involved in facultative myrmecophilous interactions with aphids appear to contribute to structure aphid populations in the field by ensuring a better establishment and survival of newly established colonies rather than by inducing a deliberate plant selection by aphid partners based on the proximity of ant colonies.

  3. Psychoanalysis and cognitive-evolutionary psychology: an attempt at integration.

    PubMed

    Migone, P; Liotti, G

    1998-12-01

    The authors argue that the abandonment of the theory of trauma in 1897 was a trauma for Freud himself, who was led to 'despair', and possibly reacted with an overemphasis on inner fantasies and drive discharge. They suggest that today we are facing a second trauma in the history of psychoanalysis that we might call the 'abandonment of drive theory', i.e. the notion that human beings strive not primarily to reduce sexual and aggressive drives but rather seek objects, assign meanings, test previous beliefs and assimilate new schemes. Our task is to recover as Freud was able to do, giving a new impetus to psychoanalysis. The current challenge is, on the one hand, a revision of the psychoanalytic conception of inherited information, and, on the other, a theory of motivation based on converging evidence from cognitive science, ethology, infant research and psychotherapy research. Many clinical models are current in contemporary psychoanalysis. Only as one example among these models, some concepts used in Weiss & Sampson's 'Control-Mastery Theory' will be discussed in light of cognitive science and evolutionary epistemology within the framework of (a) the 1960 classic, 'Plans and Structure of Behavior' by Miller, Galanter and Pribram (b) Edelman's neurobiological theory and (c) Bowlby's attachment theory.

  4. Comparison of the genomes of human and mouse lays the foundation of genome zoology.

    PubMed

    Emes, Richard D; Goodstadt, Leo; Winter, Eitan E; Ponting, Chris P

    2003-04-01

    The extensive similarities between the genomes of human and model organisms are the foundation of much of modern biology, with model organism experimentation permitting valuable insights into biological function and the aetiology of human disease. In contrast, differences among genomes have received less attention. Yet these can be expected to govern the physiological and morphological distinctions apparent among species, especially if such differences are the result of evolutionary adaptation. A recent comparison of the draft sequences of mouse and human genomes has shed light on the selective forces that have predominated in their recent evolutionary histories. In particular, mouse-specific clusters of homologues associated with roles in reproduction, immunity and host defence appear to be under diversifying positive selective pressure, as indicated by high ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. These clusters are also frequently punctuated by homologous pseudogenes. They thus have experienced numerous gene death, as well as gene birth, events. These regions appear, therefore, to have borne the brunt of adaptive evolution that underlies physiological and behavioural innovation in mice. We predict that the availability of numerous animal genomes will give rise to a new field of genome zoology in which differences in animal physiology and ethology are illuminated by the study of genomic sequence variations.

  5. Avian cestodes affect the behaviour of their intermediate host Artemia parthenogenetica: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M I; Georgiev, B B; Green, A J

    2007-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) is intermediate host for several cestode species whose final hosts are waterbirds. Previous field studies have shown that brine shrimps infected with cestodes have a bright red colour and are spatially segregated in the water column. However, the ethological mechanisms explaining such field observations are unknown. Changes in appearance and behaviour induced by trophically transmitted parasites have been shown to increase the risk of predation by the final host. In this experimental study, we compared the behaviour of uninfected Artemia and those infected by avian cestodes. We found that parasitised individuals behave differently from unparasitised ones in several ways. In contrast to uninfected individuals, infected brine shrimps were photophilous and showed increased surface-swimming behaviour. These observations suggest that the modified behaviour (in addition to the bright red colour of the majority of the infected individuals) results in infected brine shrimps becoming more vulnerable to avian final hosts, which facilitates parasite transmission. We discuss our results in terms of the adaptive nature of behavioural changes and their potential implications for the hypersaline ecosystem.

  6. Assessing recent and remote associative olfactory memory in rats using the social transmission of food preference paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bessières, Benjamin; Nicole, Olivier; Bontempi, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    Rats have the ability to learn about potential food sources by sampling their odors on the breath of conspecifics. Although this ethologically based social behavior has been transposed to the laboratory to probe nonspatial associative olfactory memory, only a few studies have taken full advantage of its unique features to examine the organization of recently and remotely acquired information. We provide a set of standardized procedures and technical refinements that are particularly useful in achieving this goal while minimizing confounding factors. These procedures, built upon a three-stage protocol (odor exposure, social interaction and preference test), are designed to optimize performance across variable retention delays, thus enabling the reliable assessment of recent and remote memory, and underlying processes, including encoding, consolidation, retrieval and forgetting. The different variants of the social transmission of food preference paradigm, which take a few days to several weeks to perform, make it an attractive and versatile tool that can be coupled to many applications in CNS research. The paradigm can be easily implemented in a typical rodent facility by personnel with standard animal behavioral expertise.

  7. Domesticating nature? Surveillance and conservation of migratory shorebirds in the "Atlantic Flyway".

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kristoffer

    2014-03-01

    Using a recent environmental controversy on the U.S. east coast over the conservation of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) as a lens, I present a history of North American efforts to understand and conserve migratory shorebirds. Focusing on a few signal pieces of American legislation and their associated bureaucracies, I show the ways in which migratory wildlife have been thoroughly enrolled in efforts to quantify and protect their populations. Interactions between wildlife biologists and endangered species have been described by some scholars as "domestication"-a level of surveillance and intervention into nonhuman nature that constitutes a form of dependence. I pause to reflect on this historical trajectory, pointing out the breaks and continuities with older forms of natural history. Using the oft-mobilized Foucauldian metaphor of the panopticon as a foil, I question the utility and ethics of too-easily declaring "domesticated" wildlife an act of "biopower." Instead, I argue that Jacob von Uexküll's "umwelt" from early ecology and ethology, and more contemporary Science and Technology Studies (STS) analyses emphasizing multiple ontologies, offer more illuminating accounts of endangered species science. Neither science, conservation, nor history are well-served by the conflation of wildlife "surveillance" with the language of Foucauldian discipline.

  8. [Factors of stress in a local population of water vole].

    PubMed

    Zav'ialov, E L; Gerlinskaia, L A; Moshkin, M P

    2012-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms of stress have a multiple influence on the implementation of the adaptive capacity of individuals. From this perspective, analysis of factors determining the stress level of animals in changing environment acquires important ecological and evolutionary significance. In the paper the results are presented of long-term studies carried out at a site of irrigative channel being populated by water voles every year. The results show that high stress level of males is observed in connection with shortages of environmentally significant resources--food and sexual partners. An activation of adrenocortical function due to resources deficit is formed as a result of exacerbation of intraspecific competition that occurs at both low food supply and reducion in proportion of females in the local population. The effects of these factors are mediated through changes in spatio-ethological structure of the studied populations which are manifested in increased overlapping of individual home ranges. Food supply and lack of females have different effects on the level of glucocorticoids in resident and nonresident males. These results indicate that social interactions in water vole is the real stress factor even when total population is significantly depleted, which in North Baraba occurs when territory watering is reduced and suitable summer habitats are not plenty enough.

  9. [Relationship between characteristics of sexual behavior and male sperm competitive ability in taxa of superspecies complex Mus musculus sensu lato].

    PubMed

    Ambaryan, A B; Maltzev, A N; Kotenkova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Some physiological parameters that determine quality of male sperm (its concentration, spermatozoa morphology) and testicle size vary in integrity, i.e. the bigger are testicles the higher is sperm quality. Therefore, the estimate of testicles relative mass is often used as a characteristic of sperm competitive ability when comparing phylogenetically close mammal species. In house mice belonging to the superspecies complex Mus musculus s.l., testicles relative mass is greater in exoanthropic species than in synanthropic ones. It is shown in our study that this pattern is apparent also at the intraspecies level since testicles mass index, sperm concentration, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa in subspecies Mus musculus wagneri, which is facultatively synanthropic, are higher compared with synanthropic subspecies M m. musculus. An analysis of sexual behavior of the three forms (namely, exoanthropic species M. spicilegus and two subspecies mentioned above) indicates that in M. spicilegus both sexual behavior efficiency and ejaculation rate during coupling were higher as compared with other two subspecies. Based on the analysis of life pattern, reproduction systems, and group spatial-ethological structure, the hypotheses are formulated that explain the maintenance of selection directed to increase of sperm competitive ability in exoanthropic house mice species.

  10. Ethopharmacology of maternal aggression in mice: effects of diazepam and SM-3997.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Ogawa, N

    1991-07-23

    The present study investigated whether there is any difference between the effects of benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine anxiolytics on maternal aggression in lactating mice, using an ethological technique. We used SM-3997, a 5-HT1A receptor ligand, as a non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic. Behavior towards an intruder male mouse was assessed on postpartum days 5 and 7 in female mice that had been housed alone since the end of the 4-day mating period. Acute oral administration of diazepam had a biphasic effect on the frequency of bites: 1 mg/kg diazepam significantly increased bite frequency, while 2.5 mg/kg diazepam significantly decreased it. However, 2.5 mg/kg diazepam also caused a significant decrease in locomotor activity. In contrast, SM-3997 (1, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the frequency of bites in a dose-dependent manner without causing motor dysfunction. Chronic treatment with 5 mg/kg SM-3997 significantly decreased the frequency of bites when compared with vehicle, whereas diazepam was ineffective at the doses used (0.5 and 1 mg/kg p.o.). The findings suggest that the proaggressive effect is specific to benzodiazepines, and that 5-HT1A receptors may be involved in the suppression of maternal aggression in mice.

  11. Efficacy of Chronic Antidepressant Treatments in a New Model of Extreme Anxiety in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Javelot, Hervé; Weiner, Luisa; Terramorsi, Roxane; Rougeot, Catherine; Lalonde, Robert; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of anxious disorders found in humans, such as panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, usually include spontaneous and conditioned fear that triggers escape and avoidance behaviors. The development of a panic disorder model with a learned component should increase knowledge of mechanisms involved in anxiety disorders. In our ethological model of extreme anxiety in the rat, forced apnea was combined with cold water vaporization in an inescapable situation. Based on the reactions of vehicle controls, behaviors involved in paroxysmic fear were passive (freezing) and active (jumping) reactions. Our results show that subchronic fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, IP, 21 days) and imipramine (10 mg/kg, IP, 14 days) administration alleviated freezing and jumping behaviors, whereas acute fluoxetine (1 mg/kg, IP) provoked opposite effects. Acute low dose of diazepam (1 mg/kg, IP) was not effective, whereas the higher dose of 3 mg/kg, IP, and clonazepam (1 mg/kg, IP) only had an effect on jumping. Paroxysmic fear generated in this experimental condition may therefore mimic the symptomatology observed in patients with anxiety disorders. PMID:21808731

  12. Differential roles of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Melissa E; Fraize, Nicolas P; Yin, Linda; Yuan, Robin K; Petsagourakis, Despina; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2013-06-01

    The study of fear memory is important for understanding various anxiety disorders in which patients experience persistent recollections of traumatic events. These memories often involve associations of contextual cues with aversive events; consequently, Pavlovian classical conditioning is commonly used to study contextual fear learning. The use of predator odor as a fearful stimulus in contextual fear conditioning has become increasingly important as an animal model of anxiety disorders. Innate fear responses to predator odors are well characterized and reliable; however, attempts to use these odors as unconditioned stimuli in fear conditioning paradigms have proven inconsistent. Here we characterize a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using coyote urine as the unconditioned stimulus. We found that contextual conditioning induced by exposure to coyote urine produces long-term freezing, a stereotypic response to fear observed in mice. This paradigm is context-specific and parallels shock-induced contextual conditioning in that it is responsive to extinction training and manipulations of predator odor intensity. Region-specific lesions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus indicate that both areas are independently required for the long-term expression of learned fear. These results in conjunction with c-fos immunostaining data suggest that while both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are required for forming a contextual representation, the ventral region also modulates defensive behaviors associated with predators. This study provides information about the individual contributions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to ethologically relevant fear learning.

  13. Effect of social and environmental factors on ant aggregation: a general response?

    PubMed

    Depickère, Stéphanie; Fresneau, Dominique; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2008-09-01

    In social species, the interactions that occur between individuals and also between individuals and their environment can lead to various spatial distributions. Our goal was to understand how both factors (social and environmental) can affect such spatial distribution of individuals. Aggregation experiments were conducted on the ant Crematogaster scutellaris: the level of inter-attraction between individuals was characterized and the influence of an environmental factor (light intensity) was studied. Two ethological castes (brood-tenders and foragers) were tested, showing a strong and similar aggregation pattern-although faster for foragers. This difference could be explained by a higher degree of inter-attraction for brood-tenders, resulting in longer interaction time and therefore a slower aggregation rate. We also showed the influence of light conditions by carrying out experiments in total darkness and under red light. C. scutellaris appeared highly sensitive to the red light, aggregating just underneath it. Nevertheless, the level of aggregation is not affected by the luminosity condition. These results are discussed in relation to the ecology of the species, and are compared with results obtained in another ant species, Lasius niger, which exhibits a similar response to aggregation. We propose, therefore, a general link between the level/pattern of aggregation and polyethism in ants.

  14. Darwin, Hume, Morgan, and the verae causae of psychology.

    PubMed

    Clatterbuck, Hayley

    2016-12-01

    Charles Darwin and C. Lloyd Morgan forward two influential principles of cognitive ethological inference that yield conflicting results about the extent of continuity in the cognitive traits of humans and other animals. While these principles have been interpreted as reflecting commitments to different senses of parsimony, in fact, both principles result from the same vera causa inferential strategy, according to which "We ought to admit no more causes of natural things, than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances". Instead, the conflict stems from Darwin's and Morgan's views about the true causes of human psychology. Darwin holds a thoroughly Humean philosophy of the human mind, from which he infers significant continuity between human and animal minds. In contrast, Morgan argues that Humean cognitive mechanisms cannot account for a class of uniquely human behaviors, and therefore, he concludes that there is a significant discontinuity between human and animal cognition. This historical debate is informative for current controversies in comparative psychology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual differences in the effects of environmental stimuli on cocaine choice in socially housed male cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W; Nader, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated an influence of environmentally derived stress and enrichment on the reinforcing effects of stimulants. To characterize the effects of acute exposure to ethologically valid environmental stimuli on the reinforcing strength of cocaine relative to food in socially housed monkeys. Choice between cocaine and food was assessed in subsets of 16 socially housed (4/pen) male cynomolgus monkeys immediately after the following manipulations: (1) treats placed in home cage, (2) a 10-min exposure to a rubber snake, or (3) 3 to 7 days of living in a larger environment without cage mates. Placing treats in the home cage shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the left in five monkeys tested and to the right in 4 of 12 animals. The rubber snake significantly shifted the cocaine choice curve to the left in dominant monkeys. Exposure to an enlarged environment decreased cocaine choice in 9 of 15 monkeys; this effect was transient and not related to social rank. Repeated testing did not affect cocaine choice. Brief exposure to environmental events hypothesized to be stressors or enrichment altered cocaine choice, although not all individuals were affected and the effects were transient. Importantly, the data suggest that implementing positive changes in the environment produced effects that are clinically desirable. Understanding the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms mediating sensitivity to environmental events in socially housed animals will lead to better treatment strategies for drug addiction.

  16. Maternally inherited architecture in tertiary leaf beetles: paleoichnology of cryptocephaline fecal cases in Dominican and Baltic amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboo, Caroline S.; Engel, Michael S.; Chamorro-Lacayo, Maria Lourdes

    2009-09-01

    Complex ethological adaptations and intraspecific interactions leave few fossil traces. We document three Dominican (20 million years old [myo]) and Baltic (45 myo) amber fossils that exhibit firm evidence of highly integrated interactions between mothers and offspring in the diverse camptosomate lineage of beetles (Chrysomelidae, leaf beetles). As in contemporary species, these hard cases were initially constructed by mothers, then inherited and retained by offspring, which then elaborate this protective domicile with an unusual but economical building material, their feces. The three fossils are classified in the Subfamily Cryptocephalinae; two are classified in the tribe Chlamisini based on morphological evidence—the flattened head lacking a sharp keel and long legs with simple recurved untoothed claws. These diagnostic features are not clearly visible in the third specimen to permit more refined identification. These fossils provide more precise paleontological dating of tribal nodes within the cryptocephaline radiation of leaf beetles. These fossils are the first and earliest evidence of mother-offspring interaction, building behavior, and fecal recycling in Camptosomata beetles and of inheritance of architectural structures in beetles.

  17. Ablating adult neurogenesis in the rat has no effect on spatial processing: evidence from a novel pharmacogenetic model.

    PubMed

    Groves, James O; Leslie, Isla; Huang, Guo-Jen; McHugh, Stephen B; Taylor, Amy; Mott, Richard; Munafò, Marcus; Bannerman, David M; Flint, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The function of adult neurogenesis in the rodent brain remains unclear. Ablation of adult born neurons has yielded conflicting results about emotional and cognitive impairments. One hypothesis is that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus enables spatial pattern separation, allowing animals to distinguish between similar stimuli. We investigated whether spatial pattern separation and other putative hippocampal functions of adult neurogenesis were altered in a novel genetic model of neurogenesis ablation in the rat. In rats engineered to express thymidine kinase (TK) from a promoter of the rat glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ganciclovir treatment reduced new neurons by 98%. GFAP-TK rats showed no significant difference from controls in spatial pattern separation on the radial maze, spatial learning in the water maze, contextual or cued fear conditioning. Meta-analysis of all published studies found no significant effects for ablation of adult neurogenesis on spatial memory, cue conditioning or ethological measures of anxiety. An effect on contextual freezing was significant at a threshold of 5% (P = 0.04), but not at a threshold corrected for multiple testing. The meta-analysis revealed remarkably high levels of heterogeneity among studies of hippocampal function. The source of this heterogeneity remains unclear and poses a challenge for studies of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  18. The Politics of Attachment: Lines of Flight with Bowlby, Deleuze and Guattari

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Monica; Solomon, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Research on attachment is widely regarded in sociology and feminist scholarship as politically conservative – oriented by a concern to police families, pathologize mothers and emphasize psychological at the expense of socio-economic factors. These critiques have presented attachment theory as constructing biological imperatives to naturalize contingent, social demands. We propose that a more effective critique of the politically conservative uses of attachment theory is offered by engaging with the ‘attachment system’ at the level of ontology. In developing this argument we draw on Deleuze and Guattari, making use of the common language of ethology which links their ideas to that of attachment theory. The attachment system can and has been reified into an image of the infant returning to their caregiver as an image of familial sufficiency. This has offered ammunition for discourses and institutions which isolate women from health, social and political resources. Yet Deleuze and Guattari can help attachment theory and research to be recognized as a powerful ally for progressive politics, for reflection on the movement of human individuation, and for arguing for the meaningful resourcing of those who care for someone else. PMID:27110049

  19. Neurofuzzy approaches to anticipation: a new paradigm for intelligent systems.

    PubMed

    Tsoukalas, L H

    1998-01-01

    Anticipatory systems are systems whose change of state is based on predictions about the future of the system and/or its environment. Planning and acting on the basis of anticipations of the future is an omnipresent feature of human control strategies, deeply permeating our daily experience; the human attribute of foresight may be considered as the hallmark of natural intelligence. Yet, as the eminent mathematical biologist Robert Rosen has pointed out, such control strategies are curiously absent from existing formal approaches to automatic control and decision-making processes. Recent developments in biology, ethology and cognitive sciences, however, as well as advancements in the technology of computer-based predictive models, compel us to reconsider the role of anticipation in intelligent systems and to the extent possible incorporate predictions about the future in our formal approaches to control. Significant improvements in neural predictive computing when combined with the flexibility of fuzzy systems, supports the development of neurofuzzy anticipatory control architectures that integrate planning and control sequencing functions with feedback control algorithms. In this paper the role of anticipation in intelligent systems is reviewed and a new approach is presented for anticipatory control algorithms which use the predictive capabilities of neural models in conjunction with the descriptive power of fuzzy if/then rules.

  20. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Paula Madeira; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Vasconcelos, Mailton; Ascoli, Bruna Maria; Menegolla, Ana Paula; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2017-01-01

    Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation), or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  1. Assessment of Social Cognition in Non-human Primates Using a Network of Computerized Automated Learning Device (ALDM) Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fagot, Joël; Marzouki, Yousri; Huguet, Pascal; Gullstrand, Julie; Claidière, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Fagot & Paleressompoulle1 and Fagot & Bonte2 have published an automated learning device (ALDM) for the study of cognitive abilities of monkeys maintained in semi-free ranging conditions. Data accumulated during the last five years have consistently demonstrated the efficiency of this protocol to investigate individual/physical cognition in monkeys, and have further shown that this procedure reduces stress level during animal testing3. This paper demonstrates that networks of ALDM can also be used to investigate different facets of social cognition and in-group expressed behaviors in monkeys, and describes three illustrative protocols developed for that purpose. The first study demonstrates how ethological assessments of social behavior and computerized assessments of cognitive performance could be integrated to investigate the effects of socially exhibited moods on the cognitive performance of individuals. The second study shows that batteries of ALDM running in parallel can provide unique information on the influence of the presence of others on task performance. Finally, the last study shows that networks of ALDM test units can also be used to study issues related to social transmission and cultural evolution. Combined together, these three studies demonstrate clearly that ALDM testing is a highly promising experimental tool for bridging the gap in the animal literature between research on individual cognition and research on social cognition. PMID:25992495

  2. Genetic influences on social attention in free-ranging rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Watson, K. K.; Li, D.; Brent, L. J. N.; Horvath, J. E.; Gonzalez-Martinez, J.; Lambides, Ruiz- A.; Robinson, A. G.; Skene, J. H. P; Platt, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    An ethological approach to attention predicts that organisms orient preferentially to valuable sources of information in the environment. For many gregarious species, orienting to other individuals provides valuable social information but competes with food acquisition, water consumption and predator avoidance. Individual variation in vigilance behaviour in humans spans a continuum from inattentive to pathological levels of interest in others. To assess the comparative biology of this behavioural variation, we probed vigilance rates in free-ranging macaques during water drinking, a behaviour incompatible with the gaze and postural demands of vigilance. Males were significantly more vigilant than females. Moreover, vigilance showed a clear genetic component, with an estimated heritability of 12%. Monkeys carrying a relatively infrequent ‘long’ allele of TPH2, a regulatory gene that influences serotonin production in the brain, were significantly less vigilant compared to monkeys that did not carry the allele. These findings resonate with the hypothesis that the serotonin pathway regulates vigilance in primates and by extension provoke the idea that individual variation in vigilance and its underlying biology may be adaptive rather than pathological. PMID:26034313

  3. Comparison between two different methods for evaluating rumen papillae measures related to different diets.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paola; Brusaferro, Andrea; Catorci, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Although the Geographical Information System (GIS), which integrates computerized drawing computer assisted design (CAD) and relational databases (data base management system (DBMS)), is best known for applications in geographical and planning cartography, it can also use many kinds of information concerning the territory. A multidisciplinary project was initiated since 5 years a multidisciplinary study was initiated to use GIS to integrate environmental and ecological data with findings on animal health, ethology, and anatomy. This study is chiefly aimed at comparing two different methods for measuring the absorptive surface of rumen papillae. To this scope, 21 female sheep (Ovis aries) on different alimentary regimes (e.g., milk and forage mixed diet, early herbaceous diet, dry hay diet, and fresh hay diet at the maximum of pasture flowering and at the maximum of pasture dryness) were used; after slaughtering, 20 papillae were randomly removed from each sample collected from four indicator regions of rumen wall, placed near a metric reference and digitally photographed. The images were developed with the ArcGIS™ software to calculate the area of rumen papillae by means of GIS and to measure their mid-level width and length to calculate the papillae area as previously performed with a different method. Spatial measurements were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. This work demonstrates that the GIS methodology can be efficiently used for measuring the absorptive surface of rumen papillae. In addition, GIS demonstrated to be a rapid, precise, and objective tool when compared with previously used method.

  4. Innateness and the instinct to learn.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Concepts of innateness were at the heart of Darwin's approach to behavior and central to the ethological theorizing of Lorenz and, at least to start with, of Tinbergen. Then Tinbergen did an about face, and for some twenty years the term 'innate' became highly suspect. He attributed the change to Lehrman's famous 1953 critique in which he asserted that classifying behaviors as innate tells us nothing about how they develop. Although Lehrman made many valid points, I will argue that this exchange also led to profound misunderstandings that were ultimately damaging to progress in research on the development of behavior. The concept of 'instincts to learn', receiving renewed support from current theorizing among geneticists about phenotypic plasticity, provides a potential resolution of some of the controversies that Lehrman created. Bioacoustical studies, particularly on song learning in birds, serve both to confirm some of Lehrman's anxieties about the term 'innate', but also to make a case that he threw out the genetic baby with the bathwater. The breathtaking progress in molecular and developmental genetics has prepared the way for a fuller understanding of the complexities underlying even the simplest notions of innate behavior, necessary before we can begin to comprehend the ontogeny of behavior.

  5. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    PubMed Central

    Chabout, Jonathan; Sarkar, Abhra; Dunson, David B.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, Holy and Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other) and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for. PMID:25883559

  6. Effect of different housing systems on fattening performance, slaughter and carcass characteristics of Akkeçi (White Goat) male kids.

    PubMed

    Kor, Aşkin; Karaca, Serhat; Ertuğrul, Mehmet

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fattening performance and the slaughter and carcass characteristics of Akkeçi (Saanen × Kilis (B(1)) crossbred) male kids raised in individual crates (IC) or in group pen housing (GP). In both GP and IC groups, total 13 heads of male kids, whose initial body weights were 21.43 ± 1.03 kg and 20.61 ± 0.98 kg, respectively, evaluated for their fattening performances. After 56 days of the fattening period, the final body weights and average daily weight gains of the GP and IC kids were recorded as 30.84 ± 0.82 kg and 25.84 ± 0.76 kg; 182.42 ± 14.77 g and 92.09 ± 13.76 g, respectively (P < 0.001). Adrenal gland weights of the GP and IC groups were similar as 1.66 ± 0.25 g and 1.77 ± 0.22 g, respectively. Although, the carcass conformation of kids was similar between groups, there were significant differences between GP and IC groups for some slaughter and carcass characteristics. In general, although housing kids reared in individual crates provides opportunity to individually feed and monitor a kid, the results obtained from the individual crates in the present study were not satisfactorily from the ethological and production points of view.

  7. Neural and neurochemical basis of reinforcement-guided decision making.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Rainer, Gregor

    2016-08-01

    Decision making is an adaptive behavior that takes into account several internal and external input variables and leads to the choice of a course of action over other available and often competing alternatives. While it has been studied in diverse fields ranging from mathematics, economics, ecology, and ethology to psychology and neuroscience, recent cross talk among perspectives from different fields has yielded novel descriptions of decision processes. Reinforcement-guided decision making models are based on economic and reinforcement learning theories, and their focus is on the maximization of acquired benefit over a defined period of time. Studies based on reinforcement-guided decision making have implicated a large network of neural circuits across the brain. This network includes a wide range of cortical (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and subcortical (e.g., nucleus accumbens and subthalamic nucleus) brain areas and uses several neurotransmitter systems (e.g., dopaminergic and serotonergic systems) to communicate and process decision-related information. This review discusses distinct as well as overlapping contributions of these networks and neurotransmitter systems to the processing of decision making. We end the review by touching on neural circuitry and neuromodulatory regulation of exploratory decision making.

  8. Contrasting specializations for facial motion within the macaque face-processing system.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Clark; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2015-01-19

    Facial motion transmits rich and ethologically vital information, but how the brain interprets this complex signal is poorly understood. Facial form is analyzed by anatomically distinct face patches in the macaque brain, and facial motion activates these patches and surrounding areas. Yet, it is not known whether facial motion is processed by its own distinct and specialized neural machinery, and if so, what that machinery's organization might be. To address these questions, we used fMRI to monitor the brain activity of macaque monkeys while they viewed low- and high-level motion and form stimuli. We found that, beyond classical motion areas and the known face patch system, moving faces recruited a heretofore unrecognized face patch. Although all face patches displayed distinctive selectivity for face motion over object motion, only two face patches preferred naturally moving faces, while three others preferred randomized, rapidly varying sequences of facial form. This functional divide was anatomically specific, segregating dorsal from ventral face patches, thereby revealing a new organizational principle of the macaque face-processing system.

  9. Contrasting Specializations for Facial Motion Within the Macaque Face-Processing System

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Clark; Freiwald, Winrich A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Facial motion transmits rich and ethologically vital information [1, 2], but how the brain interprets this complex signal is poorly understood. Facial form is analyzed by anatomically distinct face patches in the macaque brain [3, 4], and facial motion activates these patches and surrounding areas [5, 6]. Yet it is not known whether facial motion is processed by its own distinct and specialized neural machinery, and if so, what that machinery’s organization might be. To address these questions, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor the brain activity of macaque monkeys while they viewed low- and high-level motion and form stimuli. We found that, beyond classical motion areas and the known face patch system, moving faces recruited a heretofore-unrecognized face patch. Although all face patches displayed distinctive selectivity for face motion over object motion, only two face patches preferred naturally moving faces, while three others preferred randomized, rapidly varying sequences of facial form. This functional divide was anatomically specific, segregating dorsal from ventral face patches, thereby revealing a new organizational principle of the macaque face-processing system. PMID:25578903

  10. Sex steroid profiles in zebra finches: Effects of reproductive state and domestication.

    PubMed

    Prior, Nora H; Yap, Kang Nian; Mainwaring, Mark C; Adomat, Hans H; Crino, Ondi L; Ma, Chunqi; Guns, Emma S; Griffith, Simon C; Buchanan, Katherine L; Soma, Kiran K

    2017-04-01

    The zebra finch is a common model organism in neuroscience, endocrinology, and ethology. Zebra finches are generally considered opportunistic breeders, but the extent of their opportunism depends on the predictability of their habitat. This plasticity in the timing of breeding raises the question of how domestication, a process that increases environmental predictability, has affected their reproductive physiology. Here, we compared circulating steroid levels in various "strains" of zebra finches. In Study 1, using radioimmunoassay, we examined circulating testosterone levels in several strains of zebra finches (males and females). Subjects were wild or captive (Captive Wild-Caught, Wild-Derived, or Domesticated). In Study 2, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we examined circulating sex steroid profiles in wild and domesticated zebra finches (males and females). In Study 1, circulating testosterone levels in males differed across strains. In Study 2, six steroids were detectable in plasma from wild zebra finches (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, androsterone, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT)). Only pregnenolone and progesterone levels changed across reproductive states in wild finches. Compared to wild zebra finches, domesticated zebra finches had elevated levels of circulating pregnenolone, progesterone, DHEA, testosterone, androstenedione, and androsterone. These data suggest that domestication has profoundly altered the endocrinology of this common model organism. These results have implications for interpreting studies of domesticated zebra finches, as well as studies of other domesticated species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid Consolidation to a radish and Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Memory after Single-Session Appetitive Olfactory Conditioning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Krashes, Michael J.; Waddell, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila, formation of aversive olfactory long-term memory (LTM) requires multiple training sessions pairing odor and electric shock punishment with rest intervals. In contrast, here we show that a single 2 min training session pairing odor with a more ethologically relevant sugar reinforcement forms long-term appetitive memory that lasts for days. Appetitive LTM has some mechanistic similarity to aversive LTM in that it can be disrupted by cycloheximide, the dCreb2-b transcriptional repressor, and the crammer and tequila LTM-specific mutations. However, appetitive LTM is completely disrupted by the radish mutation that apparently represents a distinct mechanistic phase of consolidated aversive memory. Furthermore, appetitive LTM requires activity in the dorsal paired medial neuron and mushroom body α′ β′ neuron circuit during the first hour after training and mushroom body αβ neuron output during retrieval, suggesting that appetitive middle-term memory and LTM are mechanistically linked. Last, experiments feeding and/or starving flies after training reveals a critical motivational drive that enables appetitive LTM retrieval. PMID:18354013

  12. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    PubMed

    Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design.

  13. Cryptic confounding compounds: A brief consideration of the influences of anthropogenic contaminants on courtship and mating behavior.

    PubMed

    Blocker, Tomica D; Ophir, Alexander G

    2013-06-01

    Contaminants, like pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and metals, are persistent and ubiquitous and are known to threaten the environment. Traditionally, scientists have considered the direct physiological risks that these contaminants pose. However, scientists have just begun to integrate ethology and toxicology to investigate the effects that contaminants have on behavior. This review considers the potential for contaminant effects on mating behavior. Here we assess the growing body of research concerning disruptions in sexual differentiation, courtship, sexual receptivity, arousal, and mating. We discuss the implications of these disruptions on conservation efforts and highlight the importance of recognizing the potential for environmental stressors to affect behavioral experimentation. More specifically, we consider the negative implications for anthropogenic contaminants to affect the immediate behavior of animals, and their potential to have cascading and/or long-term effects on the behavioral ecology and evolution of populations. Overall, we aim to raise awareness of the confounding influence that contaminants can have, and promote caution when interpreting results where the potential for cryptic affects are possible.

  14. Cryptic confounding compounds: A brief consideration of the influences of anthropogenic contaminants on courtship and mating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blocker, Tomica D.; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    Contaminants, like pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and metals, are persistent and ubiquitous and are known to threaten the environment. Traditionally, scientists have considered the direct physiological risks that these contaminants pose. However, scientists have just begun to integrate ethology and toxicology to investigate the effects that contaminants have on behavior. This review considers the potential for contaminant effects on mating behavior. Here we assess the growing body of research concerning disruptions in sexual differentiation, courtship, sexual receptivity, arousal, and mating. We discuss the implications of these disruptions on conservation efforts and highlight the importance of recognizing the potential for environmental stressors to affect behavioral experimentation. More specifically, we consider the negative implications for anthropogenic contaminants to affect the immediate behavior of animals, and their potential to have cascading and/or long-term effects on the behavioral ecology and evolution of populations. Overall, we aim to raise awareness of the confounding influence that contaminants can have, and promote caution when interpreting results where the potential for cryptic affects are possible. PMID:24244068

  15. Altered spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis and suppressed fertility in adult male rats exposed to genistein, a non-steroidal phytoestrogen during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Meena, R; Supriya, Ch; Pratap Reddy, K; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of prenatal exposure to genistein on the mother, her pregnancy and reproductive functions of the male progeny, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. Pregnant Wistar rats received i.p. injections of genistein at a dose level of 2, 20 or 100 mg/kg body weight daily from 12(th) to 19(th) day of gestation. Male pups from control and genistein exposed animals were weaned and allowed to develop until 100 days of age; however, when they were 90 days old, twelve males from each group were cohabited with untreated 90-day old females for 8 days. Results revealed a significant decrease in indices of reproductive organs in adult male rats exposed to genistein during embryonic development. Dose dependent reduction was observed in daily sperm production and epididymal sperm density and quality in genistein treated rats. Significant decrease was observed in the activity levels of 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in testis of experimental rats with a decline in plasma testosterone levels. Histological examination of testis of genistein treated rats indicated deterioration in testicular architecture. In the fertility study, the mean number of implantations and live fetuses per dam mated with 100 mg genistein exposed males was reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Do you see what I see? The difference between dog and human visual perception may affect the outcome of experiments.

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Péter; Ujvári, Vera; Faragó, Tamás; Miklósi, Ádám; Péter, András

    2017-04-07

    The visual sense of dogs is in many aspects different than that of humans. Unfortunately, authors do not explicitly take into consideration dog-human differences in visual perception when designing their experiments. With an image manipulation program we altered stationary images, according to the present knowledge about dog-vision. Besides the effect of dogs' dichromatic vision, the software shows the effect of the lower visual acuity and brightness discrimination, too. Fifty adult humans were tested with pictures showing a female experimenter pointing, gazing or glancing to the left or right side. Half of the pictures were shown after they were altered to a setting that approximated dog vision. Participants had difficulty to find out the direction of glancing when the pictures were in dog-vision mode. Glances in dog-vision setting were followed less correctly and with a slower response time than other cues. Our results are the first that show the visual performance of humans under circumstances that model how dogs' weaker vision would affect their responses in an ethological experiment. We urge researchers to take into consideration the differences between perceptual abilities of dogs and humans, by developing visual stimuli that fit more appropriately to dogs' visual capabilities.

  17. Optogenetic feedback control of neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jonathan P; Fong, Ming-fai; Millard, Daniel C; Whitmire, Clarissa J; Stanley, Garrett B; Potter, Steve M

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic techniques enable precise excitation and inhibition of firing in specified neuronal populations and artifact-free recording of firing activity. Several studies have suggested that optical stimulation provides the precision and dynamic range requisite for closed-loop neuronal control, but no approach yet permits feedback control of neuronal firing. Here we present the ‘optoclamp’, a feedback control technology that provides continuous, real-time adjustments of bidirectional optical stimulation in order to lock spiking activity at specified targets over timescales ranging from seconds to days. We demonstrate how this system can be used to decouple neuronal firing levels from ongoing changes in network excitability due to multi-hour periods of glutamatergic or GABAergic neurotransmission blockade in vitro as well as impinging vibrissal sensory drive in vivo. This technology enables continuous, precise optical control of firing in neuronal populations in order to disentangle causally related variables of circuit activation in a physiologically and ethologically relevant manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07192.001 PMID:26140329

  18. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    PubMed Central

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Isbell, Lynne A.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225–300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature. PMID:28387376

  19. Thirty-five years of Tropical biology: a quantitative history.

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, J; Díaz, L

    1988-11-01

    Citation indices are inappropriate measures of scientific output and impact. For that reason, nonparametric statistics were preferred to analyze 35 years of publication on Tropical biology in the Revista de Biología Tropical. The most frequent subjects are animal taxonomy, human biology-including medicine- ecology and animal behavior. Botany papers are less frequent and mainly deal with morphology and taxonomy. Applied studies are not predominant. In that period, only one case of unethical experimentation with humans was discovered in a paper of Mexican origin. The proportion of foreign institutions publishing in the journal has increased from 23% (1953-1963) to 50% in the last decade; similarly, the number of studies done in the Neotropics is on the rise. English and Spanish are equally frequent, although English is the basic language of ethology and evolution and Spanish predominates in papers on animal morphology and parasitology. Most Costa Rican authors publish in Spanish, in contrast with many of their Latin American colleagues. In recent years, there is a tendency to publish shorter papers written by more than one author. The Revista de Biología Tropical, covered by 18 data bases, accounts for most exchanges and sales in the Universidad de Costa Rica and has worldwide distribution.

  20. The Receding Animal: Theorizing Anxiety and Attachment in Psychoanalysis from Freud to Imre Hermann.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Lydia; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Argument Animals played an important role in the formation of psychoanalysis as a theoretical and therapeutic enterprise. They are at the core of texts such as Freud's famous case histories of Little Hans, the Rat Man, or the Wolf Man. The infantile anxiety triggered by animals provided the essential link between the psychology of individual neuroses and the ambivalent status of the "totem" animal in so-called primitive societies in Freud's attempt to construct an anthropological basis for the Oedipus complex in Totem and Taboo. In the following, we attempt to track the status of animals as objects of indirect observation as they appear in Freud's classical texts, and in later revisionist accounts such as Otto Rank's Trauma of Birth and Imre Hermann's work on the clinging instinct. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Freudian conception of patients' animal phobias is substantially revised within Hermann's original psychoanalytic theory of instincts which draws heavily upon ethological observations of primates. Although such a reformulation remains grounded in the idea of "archaic" animal models for human development, it allows to a certain extent to empiricize the speculative elements of Freud's later instinct theory (notably the death instinct) and to come to a more embodied account of psychoanalytic practice.

  1. Optical imaging in galagos reveals parietal-frontal circuits underlying motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Stepniewska, Iwona; Friedman, Robert M; Gharbawie, Omar A; Cerkevich, Christina M; Roe, Anna W; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-09-13

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of monkeys and prosimian galagos contains a number of subregions where complex, behaviorally meaningful movements, such as reaching, grasping, and body defense, can be evoked by electrical stimulation with long trains of electrical pulses through microelectrodes. Shorter trains of pulses evoke no or simple movements. One possibility for the difference in effectiveness of intracortical microstimulation is that long trains activate much larger regions of the brain. Here, we show that long-train stimulation of PPC does not activate widespread regions of frontal motor and premotor cortex but instead, produces focal, somatotopically appropriate activations of frontal motor and premotor cortex. Shorter stimulation trains activate the same frontal foci but less strongly, showing that longer stimulus trains do not produce less specification. Because the activated sites in frontal cortex correspond to the locations of direct parietal-frontal anatomical connections from the stimulated PPC subregions, the results show the usefulness of optical imaging in conjunction with electrical stimulation in showing functional pathways between nodes in behavior-specific cortical networks. Thus, long-train stimulation is effective in evoking ethologically relevant sequences of movements by activating nodes in a cortical network for a behaviorally relevant period rather than spreading activation in a nonspecific manner.

  2. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, Jan W; Isbell, Lynne A

    2017-04-07

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225-300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature.

  3. Variability in action: Contributions of a songbird cortical-basal ganglia circuit to vocal motor learning and control.

    PubMed

    Woolley, S C; Kao, M H

    2015-06-18

    Many motor behaviors, from walking to speaking, are acquired through experience, in particular, through trial-and-error learning. The acquisition and maintenance of such motor behaviors in a wide range of species, including humans, appear to depend on cortical-basal ganglia circuits. In this review, we discuss recent studies in songbirds that have been pivotal in informing our current understanding of motor learning and cortical-basal ganglia function. Songbirds are important ethological model systems for the study of motor learning because young songbirds naturally develop and refine their songs through trial-and-error learning. In addition, reinforcement mechanisms are hypothesized to be important for the maintenance and plasticity of structured adult song. Computational and experimental studies highlight the importance of vocal motor variability as the substrate upon which reinforcement mechanisms could operate to shape developing song and to maintain adult song. Recent studies in songbirds indicate that this vocal motor variability is actively generated and modulated by a highly specialized cortical-basal ganglia circuit evolved for a single behavior, song. We argue that these and other recent findings illustrate how the tight association between a specialized neural circuit and a natural behavior make songbirds a unique and powerful model in which to investigate the neural substrates of motor learning and plasticity. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Japanese view on speciation: "Sumiwake" explosive speciation of the cichlids in Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Kawamiya, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    Imanishi's "mental" (cerebral) view of speciation is presented, in Mizuhata's revision. The key concept here is the "ethological partition" of the species. Members of each species=society (etho-species) share the same mental (brain) software, irrespective of their genetic structure. Cerebral animals perform active programmed selection, not to be confused with passive, non-programmed "natural selection" as in Neo-Darwinism. The program includes mating-choice of peculiar characters, distinct from the Neo-Darwinian sexual selection supposed due to the specific choosy genes. Speciation can occur, as a "partition of species=society", with bifurcation of mate-choosing program in the parent species. A main promoter for this bifurcation is species-specific "passion" for especially significant characters: long necks, ornamental antlers, ocelli feathers, bright nuptial colors etc. The cichlids in Lake Victoria achieved explosive speciation, while retaining their genetic homogeneity completely. Therefore it is illogical to attribute this divergence to extraordinary mutations in "action controlling genes". The origin of species=society (etho-species) can trace along to the Cambrian Period.

  5. An improved procedure for integrated behavioral z-scoring illustrated with modified Hole Board behavior of male inbred laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Labots, M Maaike; Laarakker, M C Marijke; Schetters, D Dustin; Arndt, S S Saskia; van Lith, H A Hein

    2017-09-19

    Guilloux et al. introduced: integrated behavioral z-scoring, a method for behavioral phenotyping of mice. Using this method multiple ethological variables can be combined to show an overall description of a certain behavioral dimension or motivational system. However, a problem may occur when the control group used for the calculation has a standard deviation of zero or when no control group is present to act as a reference group. In order to solve these problems, an improved procedure is suggested: taking the pooled data as reference. For this purpose a behavioral study with male mice from three inbred strains was carried out. The integrated behavioral z-scoring methodology was applied, thereby taking five different reference group options. The outcome regarding statistical significance and practical importance was compared. Significant effects and effect sizes were influenced by the choice of the reference group. In some cases it was impossible to use a certain population and condition, because one or more behavioral variables in question had a standard deviation of zero. Based on the improved method, male mice from the three inbred strains differed regarding activity and anxiety. Taking the method described by Guilloux et al. as basis, the present procedure improved the generalizability to all types of experimental designs in animal behavioral research. To solve the aforementioned problems and to avoid getting the diagnosis of data manipulation, the pooled data (combining the data from all experimental groups in a study) as reference option is recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Wireless Monitoring of Changes in Crew Relations during Long-Duration Mission Simulation.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Bernd; Sitev, Alexej S; Vinokhodova, Alla G; Salnitski, Vyacheslav P; Savchenko, Eduard G; Artyukhova, Anna E; Bubeev, Yuri A; Morukov, Boris V; Tafforin, Carole; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Rittweger, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Group structure and cohesion along with their changes over time play an important role in the success of missions where crew members spend prolonged periods of time under conditions of isolation and confinement. Therefore, an objective system for unobtrusive monitoring of crew cohesion and possible individual stress reactions is of high interest. For this purpose, an experimental wireless group structure (WLGS) monitoring system integrated into a mobile psychophysiological system was developed. In the presented study the WLGS module was evaluated separately in six male subjects (27-38 years old) participating in a 520-day simulated mission to Mars. Two days per week, each crew member wore a small sensor that registered the presence and distance of the sensors either worn by the other subjects or strategically placed throughout the isolation facility. The registration between two sensors was on average 91.0% in accordance. A correspondence of 95.7% with the survey video on day 475 confirmed external reliability. An integrated score of the "crew relation time index" was calculated and analyzed over time. Correlation analyses of a sociometric questionnaire (r = .35-.55, p< .05) and an ethological group approach (r = .45-.66, p < 05) provided initial evidence of the method's validity as a measure of cohesion when taking behavioral and activity patterns into account (e.g. only including activity phases in the afternoon). This confirms our assumption that the registered amount of time spent together during free time is associated with the intensity of personal relationships.

  7. [Consolidation of international guidelines for the management of canine populations in urban areas and proposal of performance indicators].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community.

  8. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Equitation science describes an approach to horse training and riding that focuses on embracing the cognitive abilities of horses, their natural behaviour, and how human riders can use signalling and rewards to best effect. This approach is concerned with both horse welfare and rider safety, and this review discusses how equitation science can minimise risk to humans around horses and enhance horse welfare. Abstract Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  9. Precocial bird mothers shape sex differences in the behavior of their chicks.

    PubMed

    Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie

    2014-06-01

    Compared to mammals and altricial birds, evaluations of differences related to precocial birds' sex have often been limited to sexual behavior. Nevertheless, the extensive use of precocial bird models for investigating behavioral development issues requires in depth knowledge concerning the emergence of sex differences. Here, we evaluated behavioral differences between Japanese quail chicks in relation to their sex. We know that maternal influences are strong and early social environment shapes behavioral development in this species. Therefore, we investigated the emergence of sex differences in two very different early social situations to evaluate the impact of precocial bird mothers on sex differences. We assessed behavioral differences related to sex of (1) non-brooded chicks and of (2) brooded chicks, using various ethological tests to evaluate emotional reactivity and social motivation differences related to sex. Our results show that both non-brooded and brooded chicks present behavioral differences related to sex. They differed greatly according to chicks' early experience. Sex-related differences between maternally deprived (non-brooded) chicks concerned mainly fearfulness, whereas differences between male and female brooded chicks concerned mainly their reactions to social isolation. We hypothesize that mothers attenuate sex differences related to fearfulness by being a model for responses to fear-eliciting situations and by providing a similar secure basis to both males and females. We finally propose that mothers induce differences in chicks' sociality by providing asymmetrical care toward males and females.

  10. The Development of Animal Behavior: From Lorenz to Neural Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolhuis, Johan J.

    In the study of behavioral development both causal and functional approaches have been used, and they often overlap. The concept of ontogenetic adaptations suggests that each developmental phase involves unique adaptations to the environment of the developing animal. The functional concept of optimal outbreeding has led to further experimental evidence and theoretical models concerning the role of sexual imprinting in the evolutionary process of sexual selection. From a causal perspective it has been proposed that behavioral ontogeny involves the development of various kinds of perceptual, motor, and central mechanisms and the formation of connections among them. This framework has been tested for a number of complex behavior systems such as hunger and dustbathing. Imprinting is often seen as a model system for behavioral development in general. Recent advances in imprinting research have been the result of an interdisciplinary effort involving ethology, neuroscience, and experimental psychology, with a continual interplay between these approaches. The imprinting results are consistent with Lorenz' early intuitive suggestions and are also reflected in the architecture of recent neural net models.

  11. Collective behavior in animal groups: theoretical models and empirical studies

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Collective phenomena in animal groups have attracted much attention in the last years, becoming one of the hottest topics in ethology. There are various reasons for this. On the one hand, animal grouping provides a paradigmatic example of self-organization, where collective behavior emerges in absence of centralized control. The mechanism of group formation, where local rules for the individuals lead to a coherent global state, is very general and transcends the detailed nature of its components. In this respect, collective animal behavior is a subject of great interdisciplinary interest. On the other hand, there are several important issues related to the biological function of grouping and its evolutionary success. Research in this field boasts a number of theoretical models, but much less empirical results to compare with. For this reason, even if the general mechanisms through which self-organization is achieved are qualitatively well understood, a quantitative test of the models assumptions is still lacking. New analysis on large groups, which require sophisticated technological procedures, can provide the necessary empirical data. PMID:19404431

  12. Fluvial trace fossils in the Middle Siwalik (Sarmatian-Pontian) of Darjeeling Himalayas, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Hasiotis, Stephen T.; Ghosh, Bhaskar; Bhattacharya, Harendra Nath

    2013-08-01

    Trace fossils that record animal and plant activity are described for the first time from the Middle Siwalik, Neogene deposits of Darjeeling Himalaya. Sedimentary facies association attests to a channel-interchannel floodplain fluviatile setting. The intimate association of the burrows with phytoliths, rhizoliths, leaf compressions and coal lenses suggest that the tracemakers dominated a floodplain habitat. Point bar deposits host a low diversity Planolites-Naktodemasis-Macanopsis-Cylindricum equilibrium ichnocoenosis in the heterolithic fine sandstone-siltstone-shale facies that alternates with dense, monospecific colonization of Planolites as opportunistic pioneers relocating under stressed condition. Interlayered floodplain deposits in the fluvial successions preserve enigmatic large diameter, vertical tubes within thin to thick-bedded, dark silty shale facies. These tubes bear mixed characters assignable to both crayfish burrows and large-diameter rhizoliths. Further work on these tubes is necessary to make more accurate interpretations of those structures. Shallow to moderate burrow depths; intermittent, short-lived colonization events and preservation of rhizoliths and rhizohalos under fluctuating moisture content indicate short-term fluctuations of a relatively high water table (close to the paleosurface) in an imperfectly drained proximal floodplain setting. Ichnotaxa distribution and their inferred ethology provide significant faunal data that may put constraints on the reconstruction of Middle Siwalik depositional environment.

  13. Long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure in adolescent mice on the future ovarian reserve in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Qu, Guoqiang; Dong, Xiyuan; Huang, Kai; Kumar, Molly; Ji, Licheng; Wang, Ya; Yao, Junning; Yang, Shulin; Wu, Ruxing; Zhang, Hanwang

    2016-02-03

    Currently, there is an increasing prevalence of adolescent exposure to methamphetamine (MA). However, there is a paucity of information concerning the long-term impact of early exposure to MA upon female fertility and ovarian reserve. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term MA exposure in adolescents on their ovarian reserve in adulthood. Adolescent mice received intraperitoneal injections of MA (5mg/kg, three times per week) or saline from the 21st postnatal day for an 8 week period. Morphological, histological, biochemical, hormonal and ethological parameters were evaluated. An impaired ovarian reserve and vitality was found in the group treated with MA, manifesting in morphological-apparent mitochondrial damage, an activated apoptosis pathway in the ovarian tissue, a downward expression of ovarian anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a decreased number of primordial and growing follicles, an increased number of atretic follicles, and a depressed secretion of AMH, estradiol and progesterone from granulosa cells. However, no significant difference was noticed regarding the estrous cycle, the mating ability and the fertility outcome in the reproductive age of the mice after a period of non-medication. The present results confirmed that a long term exposure to methamphetamine in adolescent mice does have an adverse impact on their ovarian reserve, which indicates that such an early abuse of MA might influence the fertility lifespan of the female mouse.

  14. The power of associative learning and the ontogeny of optimal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Enquist, Magnus; Lind, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Behaving efficiently (optimally or near-optimally) is central to animals' adaptation to their environment. Much evolutionary biology assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that optimal behavioural strategies are genetically inherited, yet the behaviour of many animals depends crucially on learning. The question of how learning contributes to optimal behaviour is largely open. Here we propose an associative learning model that can learn optimal behaviour in a wide variety of ecologically relevant circumstances. The model learns through chaining, a term introduced by Skinner to indicate learning of behaviour sequences by linking together shorter sequences or single behaviours. Our model formalizes the concept of conditioned reinforcement (the learning process that underlies chaining) and is closely related to optimization algorithms from machine learning. Our analysis dispels the common belief that associative learning is too limited to produce ‘intelligent’ behaviour such as tool use, social learning, self-control or expectations of the future. Furthermore, the model readily accounts for both instinctual and learned aspects of behaviour, clarifying how genetic evolution and individual learning complement each other, and bridging a long-standing divide between ethology and psychology. We conclude that associative learning, supported by genetic predispositions and including the oft-neglected phenomenon of conditioned reinforcement, may suffice to explain the ontogeny of optimal behaviour in most, if not all, non-human animals. Our results establish associative learning as a more powerful optimizing mechanism than acknowledged by current opinion. PMID:28018662

  15. Two identified looming detectors in the locust: ubiquitous lateral connections among their inputs contribute to selective responses to looming objects

    PubMed Central

    Rind, F. Claire; Wernitznig, Stefan; Pölt, Peter; Zankel, Armin; Gütl, Daniel; Sztarker, Julieta; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    In locusts, two lobula giant movement detector neurons (LGMDs) act as looming object detectors. Their reproducible responses to looming and their ethological significance makes them models for single neuron computation. But there is no comprehensive picture of the neurons that connect directly to each LGMD. We used high-through-put serial block-face scanning-electron-microscopy to reconstruct the network of input-synapses onto the LGMDs over spatial scales ranging from single synapses and small circuits, up to dendritic branches and total excitatory input. Reconstructions reveal that many trans-medullary-afferents (TmAs) connect the eye with each LGMD, one TmA per facet per LGMD. But when a TmA synapses with an LGMD it also connects laterally with another TmA. These inter-TmA synapses are always reciprocal. Total excitatory input to the LGMD 1 and 2 comes from 131,000 and 186,000 synapses reaching densities of 3.1 and 2.6 synapses per μm2 respectively. We explored the computational consequences of reciprocal synapses between each TmA and 6 others from neighbouring columns. Since any lateral interactions between LGMD inputs have always been inhibitory we may assume these reciprocal lateral connections are most likely inhibitory. Such reciprocal inhibitory synapses increased the LGMD’s selectivity for looming over passing objects, particularly at the beginning of object approach. PMID:27774991

  16. Two identified looming detectors in the locust: ubiquitous lateral connections among their inputs contribute to selective responses to looming objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rind, F. Claire; Wernitznig, Stefan; Pölt, Peter; Zankel, Armin; Gütl, Daniel; Sztarker, Julieta; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    In locusts, two lobula giant movement detector neurons (LGMDs) act as looming object detectors. Their reproducible responses to looming and their ethological significance makes them models for single neuron computation. But there is no comprehensive picture of the neurons that connect directly to each LGMD. We used high-through-put serial block-face scanning-electron-microscopy to reconstruct the network of input-synapses onto the LGMDs over spatial scales ranging from single synapses and small circuits, up to dendritic branches and total excitatory input. Reconstructions reveal that many trans-medullary-afferents (TmAs) connect the eye with each LGMD, one TmA per facet per LGMD. But when a TmA synapses with an LGMD it also connects laterally with another TmA. These inter-TmA synapses are always reciprocal. Total excitatory input to the LGMD 1 and 2 comes from 131,000 and 186,000 synapses reaching densities of 3.1 and 2.6 synapses per μm2 respectively. We explored the computational consequences of reciprocal synapses between each TmA and 6 others from neighbouring columns. Since any lateral interactions between LGMD inputs have always been inhibitory we may assume these reciprocal lateral connections are most likely inhibitory. Such reciprocal inhibitory synapses increased the LGMD’s selectivity for looming over passing objects, particularly at the beginning of object approach.

  17. [Food habits and winter diet of Charadrius melodus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Boca Ciega, Tamaulipas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Banda-Villanueva, Iris; Contreras-Lozano, Jorge; Garcia-Salas, Juan; González-Páez, Hugo

    2013-06-01

    The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) is a migratory endangered species that arrives, along with a great number of other winter migratory birds, to Boca Ciega every year. In spite of the importance of this ecosystem, these species, are threatened by the current habitat change caused by the dredging activities in the area. With the aim to generate new information about the importance of this area during winter, we studied C melodus activities during the winter season in Laguna Madre, from December 2009 to March 2010. Our objectives were: 1) determine the importance of the area during winter, 2) describe C. melodus ethology, feeding substrate preferences and food items, 3) to analyze and describe the sympatric diversity associated with C melodus. A total of ninety nine individuals were observed during the monitoring. The Cochran and Kendall test showed a high significance of the species with the substrate and signs tests using a binomial distribution that indicated a high preference for algal type of substrate. The highest activity recorded for this species during this winter season was feeding. The principal food items found in sediments were larvae of Diptera: Chironomidae and Ephydridae. The sympatric species of C. melodus were two families of Charadriiforms: Scolopacidae (nine species) and Charadriidae (two species). We concluded that this is an important area for feeding, protection and rest sites for this species, and its protection and management is recommended.

  18. "My goose child Martina": the multiple uses of geese in the writings of Konrad Lorenz.

    PubMed

    Munz, Tania

    2011-01-01

    In 1935, the graylag goose Martina (1935-?) hatched from an egg in the home of the zoologist Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989). Martina imprinted on Lorenz, slept in his bedroom, mated with the gander Martin, and flew off in 1937. Over the following decades, Konrad Lorenz helped to establish the discipline of ethology, received a share of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and continued to write about his famous goose Martina. This essay examines the different instantiations of the geese in general, and Martina in particular, in Lorenz's writings aimed at readerships that included prewar zoologists, National Socialist psychologists, and popular audiences from the 1930s to 1980s. By developing an animal with her own biography, Lorenz created an individual whose lived and rhetorical agency made her especially well suited to perform widely divergent aspects of his evolving science. While a significant literature in the history of science has explored the standardization and stabilization of animals in science, I show how Lorenz's creation of a highly protean and increasingly public Martina was co-constitutive of the establishment of the science and public persona.

  19. [Craniometric differences between karyotypic races of the common shrew Sorex araneus (Mammalia) as a result of limited hybridization].

    PubMed

    Orlov, V N; Sycheva, V B; Cherepanova, E V; Borisov, Iu M

    2013-04-01

    The contact points of four karyotypic races (St. Petersburg, Moscow, Seliger and West Dvina) of the common shrew Sorex araneus L. were studied at the Valdai Hills (European Russia) in an area unimpeded by geographic barriers. The populations of the races are separated by narrow hybrid zones that represent the most complex heterozygous hybrid karyotypes. At these points of contact, the morphometric differentiation of karyotype races was examined in 12 cranial measurements in 190 shrews of a known karyotype. A. comparison of the mean values in studied samples of immature shrews revealed statistically significant differences and the correlation of some measurements in order to describe the level of musculus temporalis. It has been proposed that morphometric differences in the karyotypic races were preserved and accumulated because of a 50% reduction of the frequencies of hybrids. The deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg ration in the frequencies of the genotype and haploid sets of chromosomes in the hybrid zones can be attributed to a number of fatalities of hybrid embryos or the nonrandom mating of karyotypic races. The ethological isolation might arise in the evolution of some karyotypic races from the reduced fitness of the hybrids.

  20. Essential conservation of D1 mutant phenotype at the level of individual topographies of behaviour in mice lacking both D1 and D3 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wong, John Y F; Clifford, Jeremiah J; Massalas, Jim S; Kinsella, Anthony; Waddington, John L; Drago, John

    2003-05-01

    In the absence of agonists and antagonists evidencing appropriate selectivities, individual and interactive properties of D(1) and D(3) dopamine receptors would be illuminated most powerfully by their co-deletion. To define and contrast the behavioural phenotype of D(1)/D(3) double knockout mice in comparison with wild types, and with individual D(1) and D(3 )mutants. Behavioural phenotype was characterised using an ethologically based topographical technique. On comparison with wild types, D(1)/D(3) double mutants were characterised topographically as follows: increases in sniffing and locomotion, which evidenced delayed habituation; reductions in rearing free, rearing seated, grooming, chewing and stillness. Though the D(1)/D(3) double mutant ethogram comprised elements of both single mutant D(1) and D(3) lines, this phenotype was largely reflective of the D(1) mutant component. Distinct patterns of initial exploratory behaviour and of temporal change over subsequent habituation were evident across the three genotypes, with particular conservation of the D(1) phenotype in D(1)/D(3 )double mutants. Under the present conditions, there was little systematic evidence for D(1):D(3) interactions in the regulation of these aspects of behaviour.