Science.gov

Sample records for ethyl vinyl ether

  1. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2010-02-01

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected π* shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  2. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  3. Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

  4. Reactions of NO 3 with the man-made emissions 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene, ethyl vinyl ether, and the stress-induced plant emission ethyl vinyl ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfrang, Christian; Tooze, Christopher; Nalty, Andrew; Canosa-Mas, Carlos E.; Wayne, Richard P.

    Rate coefficients for reactions of nitrate radicals (NO 3) with the anthropogenic emissions 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene, ethyl vinyl ether, and the stress-induced plant emission ethyl vinyl ketone (pent-1-en-3-one) were determined to be (9.3±1.1)×10 -12, (9.3±3.2)×10 -12, (1.7±1.3)×10 -12 and (9.4±2.7)×10 -17 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. We performed kinetic experiments at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using a relative-rate technique with GC-FID analysis. Experiments with ethyl vinyl ether required a modification of our established procedure that might introduce additional uncertainties, and the errors suggested reflect these difficulties. Rate coefficients are discussed in terms of electronic and steric influences. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to important oxidants in the troposphere were calculated. NO 3-initiated oxidation is found to be the strongly dominating degradation route for 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene and ethyl vinyl ether. Atmospheric concentrations of the alkenes and their relative contribution to the total NMHC emissions from trucks can be expected to increase if plans for the introduction of particle filters for diesel engines are implemented on a global scale. Thus more kinetic data are required to better evaluate the impact of these emissions.

  5. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  6. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  7. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  8. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  9. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  10. Vinyl ethers containing an epoxy group. XVI. Reaction of glycidol vinyloxyethyl ether with acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Nedolya, N.A.; Khil'ko, M.Ya.; Trofimov, B.A.; Sigalov, M.V.

    1988-10-10

    In order to obtain branched acetals with epoxide groups (prospective monomers and intermediates) the authors investigated the reaction of acetaldehyde diethyl and di(1,1,3-trihydrotetrafluoropropyl) acetals with glycidol vinyloxyethyl ether. The addition of acetals to vinyl epoxy ethers was realized, and the first representative of compounds of this type, i.e., 9-glycidyloxy-6-ethoxy-4-methyl-3,7-dioxanonane, was obtained. It was also impossible to add a fluoroacetal to butyl vinyl ether (0.08-1.00 wt. % of catalyst CF/sub 3/COOH, BF/sub 3//times/ OEt/sub 2/, 20-80/degree/C, 0.5-3 h).

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be designed and tested to meet the rules of the American Bureau of Shipping for a head of water at... liquid. (g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong...

  12. Reactions of ruthenium hydrides with ethyl-vinyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Dahcheh, Fatme; Stephan, Douglas W

    2014-03-01

    The Ru-hydride precursors (Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)2RuHCl () and (Me2Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)2RuHCl () reacted with ethyl-vinyl-sulfide to give ((MeOCH2CH2)C3H2N2(CH2CH(OMe))RuCl(PPh3)2 () and ((MeOCH2CH2)C3Me2N2(CH2CH(OMe))RuCl(PPh3)2 (), respectively. Dissolution of () in C6D6 prompts formation of ((MeOCH2CH2)C5H6N2(CHCH)RuCl(PPh3)2 (). The analogous reactions of the bis-carbene Ru-hydride precursors (Im(OMe)2)(IMes)(PPh3)RuHCl (), (Im(OMe)2)(SIMes)(PPh3)RuHCl () and (Im(OMe)2)(IMes-Cl2)(PPh3)RuHCl () gave ((MeOCH2CH2)C3H2N2(CHCH)RuCl(PPh3)(NHC) (NHC = IMes (), SIMes (), IMes-Cl2 (), respectively. The formation of compounds () and () is thought to go through an initial insertion of the vinyl-fragment into the Ru-H prompting subsequent C-H activation and loss of diethyl sulfide. This yields () and (), while subsequent loss of methanol yields () and (-). PMID:24441082

  13. Ambient gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketone: A vinyl ether synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yumeng; Dong, Boliang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketones has been achieved for the first time, which provides direct access to various vinyl ethers. A catalytic amount of copper triflate was identified as the significant additive in promoting this transformation. Both aromatic and aliphatic alkynes are suitable substrates with good to excellent yields. PMID:24367417

  14. Atmospheric Oxidation Mechanisms for Diethyl Ether and its Oxidation Products, Ethyl Formate and Ethyl Acetate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon-containing compounds are present in the earth's atmosphere as the result of emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere, initiated by such oxidants as OH, ozone, and nitrate radicals, leads to potentially harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone, carbonyl species, organic acids and aerosols. Ethers and esters are two classes of compounds that contribute to the complex array of organic compounds found in anthropogenically-influenced air. Additional ester is present as a result of the oxidation of the ethers. In this paper, the oxidation of diethyl ether and its two main oxidation products, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate, are studied over ranges of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and NOx concentration, using an environmental chamber / FTIR absorption technique. Major end-products (the esters from diethyl ether; organic acids and anhydrides from the esters) are quantified, and these data are interpreted in terms of the chemistry of the various alkoxy and peroxy radicals generated. Emphasis is placed on the effects of chemical activation on the behavior of the alkoxy radicals, as well as on a novel peroxy radical rearrangement that may contribute to the observed products of ether oxidation under some conditions. Finally, the data are used, in conjunction with data on similar species, to provide a general representation of ether and ester oxidation in the atmosphere.

  15. Dual Behavior of Iodine Species in Condensation of Anilines and Vinyl Ethers Affording 2-Methylquinolines.

    PubMed

    Le, Song Thi; Yasuoka, Chisa; Asahara, Haruyasu; Nishiwaki, Nagatoshi

    2016-01-01

    A metal-free, mild and efficient method for the synthesis of 2-methylquinolines was successfully developed by condensation of anilines with vinyl ethers in the presence of catalytic amount of iodine. Modification of both pyridine and benzene moieties was easily achieved by changing only the vinyl ether and aniline. In this reaction, the iodine species was revealed to show dual behavior; molecular iodine serves as an oxidant, while its reduced form, hydrogen iodide, activates the vinyl ether. The redox reaction between these iodine species enables the use of a catalytic amount of iodine in this synthetic method. PMID:27347919

  16. The breakdown of vinyl ethers as a two-center synchronous reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokidova, T. S.; Shestakov, A. F.

    2009-11-01

    The experimental data on the molecular decomposition of vinyl ethers of various structures to alkanes and the corresponding aldehydes or ketones in the gas phase were analyzed using the method of intersecting parabolas. The enthalpies and kinetic parameters of decomposition were calculated for 17 reactions. The breakdown of ethers is a two-center concerted reaction characterized by a very high classical potential barrier to the thermally neutral reaction (180-190 kJ/mol). The kinetic parameters (activation energies and rate constants) of back reactions of the formation of vinyl ethers in the addition of aldehydes or ketones to alkanes were calculated using the method of intersecting parabolas. The factors that influenced the activation energy of the decomposition and formation of ethers were discussed. Quantum-chemical calculations of several vinyl ether decomposition reactions were performed. Ether formation reactions were compared with the formation of unsaturated alcohols as competitive reactions, which can occur in the interaction of carbonyl compounds with alkenes.

  17. Exploration of CO2-Philicity of Poly(vinyl acetate-co-alkyl vinyl ether) through Molecular Modeling and Dissolution Behavior Measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Pei-Qing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-09-24

    Hydrocarbon CO2-philes are of great interest for use in expanding CO2 applications as a green solvent. In this work, multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both applied to explore CO2-philicity of the poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)-based copolymer. Introduction of a favorable comonomer, i.e., vinyl ethyl ether (VEE), could significantly reduce the polymer-polymer interaction on the premise that the polymer-CO2 interaction was not weakened but enhanced. The ab initio calculated interaction of the model molecules with CO2 demonstrated that the ether group in VEE or VBE was the suitable CO2-philic segment. From the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of polymer/CO2 systems, the interaction energy and Flory-Huggins parameter (χ12) of poly(VAc-alt-VEE)/CO2 supported that poly(VAc-alt-VEE) possessed better CO2-philicity than PVAc. The dissolution behaviors of the synthesized poly(VAc-co-alkyl vinyl ether) copolymers in CO2 showed the best CO2-phile had the VEE content of about 34 mol %. The MD simulations also indicated that the interaction of random poly(VAc-co-VEE) containing about 30 mol % VEE with CO2 was the strongest and the χ12 was the smallest in these polymer/CO2 systems. Not only could the VEE monomer reduce the polymer-polymer interaction, but it could also enhance the polymer-CO2 interaction with an optimized composition. Introducing a suitable comonomer with a certain composition might be a promising strategy to form the synergistic effect of polymer-polymer interaction and polymer-CO2 interaction for screening the hydrocarbon CO2-philes.

  18. Diarylrhodates as promising active catalysts for the arylation of vinyl ethers with Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takanori; Miyata, Yoshinori; Akimoto, Ryo; Fujii, Yuuki; Kuniyasu, Hitoshi; Kambe, Nobuaki

    2014-07-01

    Anionic diarylrhodium complexes, generated by reacting [RhCl(cod)]2 with 2 equiv of aryl Grignard reagents, were found to be effective active catalysts in cross-coupling reactions of vinyl ethers with aryl Grignard reagents, giving rise to the production of vinyl arenes. In this catalytic system, vinyl-O bonds were preferably cleaved over Ar-O or Ar-Br bonds. A lithium rhodate complex was isolated, and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. PMID:24957673

  19. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm-2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2) × 1015 cm-2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work was also based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Maleate/vinyl ether UV-cured coatings: Effects of composition on curing and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Noren, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the composition of the maleate polyester and the vinyl ether terminated compound on their UV-curing and properties has been investigated. Linear unsaturated polyester resins based on maleic anhydride and 1,5-pentane diol were synthesized. The molecular weight of the unsaturated polyesters was varied by changing the ratio of maleic anhydride to 1,5-pentane diol and the double bond equivalent weight was varied by replacing maleic anhydride with succinic anhydride. Coating formulations containing these unsaturated polyesters, triethylene glycol divinyl ether and a free radical photoinitiator were crosslinked in the presence of UV light. The coatings were very brittle, exhibiting tensile strengths in the range of 1.5-4.0 MPa and elongations of only 3-7%. Diethyl maleate and isobutyl vinyl ether were effective diluents for reducing viscosity but reduced the cure speed. A vinyl ether urethane oligomer was synthesized and enhanced the flexibility and toughness of the coatings when substituted for triethylene glycol divinyl ether.

  1. Oil compositions containing alkyl amine or alkyl mercaptan derivatives of copolymers of an alpha olefin or an alkyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.T.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes an oil composition. It comprises a major amount of an oil selected from a crude oil or fuel oil and a minor amount of an alkyl amine or alkyl mercaptan derivative of an alpha olefin or alkyl vinyl ether and an unsaturated alpha, beta-dicarboxylic compound copolymer having pour point depressant ;properties. The copolymer comprising the reaction product of an alpha olefin having from about 2 to about 30 carbon atoms or mixtures of alpha olefins having from about 2 to about 30 carbon atoms or an alkyl vinyl ether or mixture of alkyl vinyl ethers.

  2. Radical Reactions of Alkyl 2-Bromo-2,2-difluoroacetates with Vinyl Ethers: "Omitted" Examples and Application for the Synthesis of 3,3-Difluoro-GABA.

    PubMed

    Kondratov, Ivan S; Bugera, Maksym Ya; Tolmachova, Nataliya A; Posternak, Ganna G; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Haufe, Günter

    2015-12-18

    Addition reactions of perfluoroalkyl radicals to ordinary or polyfluorinated alkenes have been frequently used to synthesize perfluoroalkylated organic compounds. Here ethyl/methyl 2-bromo-2,2-difluoroacetate, diethyl (bromodifluoromethyl)phosphonate, [(bromodifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]benzene, and ethyl 2-bromo-2-fluoroacetate were involved in Na2S2O4-mediated radical additions to vinyl ethers in the presence of alcohols to give difluoro or monofluoroacetyl-substituted acetals or corresponding difluoromethylphosphonate- and (difluoromethylphenyl)sulfonyl-substituted alkyl acetals. This methodology has also been applied as a key step in the synthesis of hitherto unknown 3,3-difluoro-GABA, completing the series of isomeric difluoro GABAs. Comparison of the pKa values of 3-fluoro- and 3,3-difluoro-GABA with that of the fluorine free parent compound showed that introduction of each fluorine lead to acidification of both the amino and the carboxyl functions by approximately one unit.

  3. Reactivity of vinyl ethers and vinyl ribosides in UV-initiated free radical copolymerization with acceptor monomers.

    PubMed

    Pichavant, Loic; Guillermain, Céline; Coqueret, Xavier

    2010-09-13

    The reactivity of various vinyl ethers and vinyloxy derivatives of ribose in the presence of diethyl fumarate or diethyl maleate was investigated for evaluating the potential of donor-acceptor-type copolymerization applied to unsaturated monomers derived from renewable feedstock. The photochemically induced polymerization of model monomer blends in the bulk state was monitored by infrared spectroscopy. The method allowed us to examine the influence of monomer pair structure on the kinetic profiles. The simultaneous consumption of both monomers was observed, supporting an alternating copolymerization mechanism. A lower reactivity of the blends containing maleates compared with fumarates was confirmed. The obtained kinetic data revealed a general correlation between the initial polymerization rate and the Hansen parameter δ(H) associated with the H-bonding aptitude of the donor monomer.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) released the draft Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). Consistent with the 2013 IRIS Enhancements, draft IRIS assessments are released prior to e...

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2016, EPA released the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) for public comment and discussion. The draft assessment was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent ...

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Tertiary Amyl Ethyl Ether (Taee)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is EPA's first assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE). The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate health effects information available for TAEE, and current risk assessment methods. T...

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) (External Review Draft, 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  8. 40 CFR 721.5500 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1), epoxidized. 721.5500 Section 721...-Oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1... 7-oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5500 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1), epoxidized. 721.5500 Section 721...-Oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1... 7-oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol...

  10. Thermo-responsive devices using poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, R.; Ichijo, H.; Hirasa, O.

    1993-10-01

    Aqueous solution of poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) shows phase transition around 38 C. PVME hydrogel cross-linked by gamma-ray irradiation is also a thermally responsive hydrogel and undergoes volume change at the same temperature; it swells below and shrinks above 38 C. PVME hydrogel prepared near phase transition temperature has heterogeneous and macroporous structure. The volume change of the macroporous hydrogel takes place rapidly with changing temperature. An attempt has been made to develop thermally activated chemomechanical devices such as an artificial muscle model, an automatic separation system, an artificial finger model, and a photo-responsive device.

  11. Microwave Spectroscopy of Trans-Ethyl Methyl Ether in the Torsionally Excited State 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Murata, Keigo; Tsunekawa, Shozo; Ohashi, Nobukimi

    2010-06-01

    The trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) has two methyl group internal rotors which are equivalent to the two vibrational motions, ν28 and ν29. There is another low-lying torsional motion which is a skeltal torsion (ν30) and does not cause splitting. The microwave spectra of the trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule in the ν28 = 1, ν29 = 1, and ν30 = 1 have been studied and interactions between these states were discussed. In this paper we report results on the ν30 = 2, and 3 state. The analysis based on Hougen's tunneling matrix formulation considering two methyl groups are used. We try to interpret tunneling parameters obtained in the present analysis quantitatively from the viewpoint of torsion-torsion interaction.

  12. Novel chlorhexidine releasing system developed from thermosensitive vinyl ether-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kiremitçi, Arlin S; Ciftçi, Arzu; Ozalp, Meral; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effective concentrations of chlorhexidine on the release for prolonged periods of time from a novel hydrogel system. A hydrogel that exhibits a volume phase transition in response to temperature was synthesized by radiation copolymerization of ethylene glycol vinyl ether and butyl vinyl ether in the presence of crosslinking agent, diethylene glycol divinyl ether. Hydrogel samples in the disc form (diameter, 10 mm and height, 1.5 mm) were utilized as a matrix for the release of an antimicrobial agent, chlorhexidine diacetate. Chlorhexidine loading into the hydrogel was performed by water sorption at 4 degrees C, which allows high swelling and thus high loading capacity, i.e., approximately 36 mg drug per gram of dry gel. Chlorhexidine release was examined as short-term (24 h) and long-term (27 days) by UV spectrophotometer. Microbial studies were carried out by micro-dilution method in order to determine the effectiveness of the drug release. Minimum inhibitory concentration values for the pathogens of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei were determined. The long-term chlorhexidine release is initially very fast. After that, the drug release reaches a slow but a steady rate. Such a release pattern provides an effective drug release. The prolonged release of chlorhexidine is continued up to the 27th day. MIC values for the two pathogens have been shown that the release rate from disc is effective to inhibit the growth of pathogens. These in vitro drug release results suggested that the thermosensitive hydrogel system developed in this study can be evaluated as a delivery system for the release of chlorhexidine.

  13. A Novel, Poly(Ethyl Ethylene Ether) Inhibitor to Trypsin from Marine Cyanobacteria, Lyngbya confervoides.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ambika; Prasanth, Shankar; Murugesh, Easwaran; Haridas, Karickal R; Sabu, Abdulhameed; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakathu

    2016-03-01

    A novel, poly(ethyl ethylene ether) inhibitor to trypsin was purified from marine cyanobacteria, Lyngbya confervoides from the coastal areas of Thalassery, North Kerala. The kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters of its interactions with the enzyme were also studied. It was demonstrated that the substrate binding, catalytic triad of the enzyme could be blocked by the inhibitor, as expressed by molecular simulation studies. The study also showed that the cyanobacterial group could prove to be a potential source of novel enzyme inhibitors for various applications.

  14. A Mild Synthesis of New Aryl Vinyl Ethers and Diethyl 1-[(Alkyl)(cyano)methyl]vinylphosphonates via the Substitution of a 2,3-Difunctional Allyl Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Ben Kraïem, Jihène; Arfaoui, Aïcha; Amri, Hassen

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of aryl vinyl ethers 3 and diethyl 3-cyano-3-alkylprop-1-en-2-ylphosphonates 4 has been prepared, respectively, from coupling reaction of diethyl 1-(bromomethyl)-2-cyanovinylphosphonate 2 with phenols and Gilman reagents. PMID:24688373

  15. Coupled torsional and bending motions in s-cis methyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Rolf; Ha, Tae-Kyu; Oldani, Markus; Caminati, Walther

    1987-02-01

    New microwave measurements on s-cis methyl vinyl ether and a study of the interactions among skeletal and methyl torsions and COC bending are reported. Using pulsed microwave Fourier transform spectroscopy, the small methyl torsional A-E splitting (0.16 MHz) in the vibrational ground state has been resolved for the first time. Large splittings are observed in the first excited states of skeletal torsion and COC bending. Ab initio results on the torsional coupling, allowing for structural relaxation, are reported and used to specify, in part, a flexible model for the torsional and bending motions. The spectroscopic properties of this three-dimensional model sytem, as estimated from the results for the one-dimensional and two-dimensional subsystems, explain the relevant experimental data. The gearing type torsional interaction predicted ab initio is confirmed by this treatment. The adjusted potential function as well as the structural relaxations upon torsion suggest repulsive interaction between the methyl hydrogen atoms and the methylenic hydrogen atom next to the methyl group.

  16. Radiation grafting of oligo(ethylene glycol) ethyl ether methacrylate on polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komasa, Justyna; Miłek, Andrzej; Ulański, Piotr; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    2014-01-01

    Oligo(ethylene glycol) ethyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) can be grafted onto polypropylene (PP) films by post-irradiation grafting, forming a thermosensitive polymer layer, as indicated by FT-IR and contact angle measurements. In the first step, PP foils are irradiated by electron beam (5.5 kGy/min, up to 300 kGy) in the presence of air. Subsequently, the irradiated foils react with the monomer in oxygen-free solutions in isopropanol (up to 2 M of monomer) at 70 °C. Degree of grafting of OEGMA can be controlled by proper selection of absorbed dose, monomer concentration and reaction time. This work is a part of a broader project on thermosensitive materials facilitating cell growth and detachment for optimizing cell layer engineering techniques in the treatment of burn wounds.

  17. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL★,★★

    PubMed Central

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm−2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 1015 cm−2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. PMID:26869726

  18. Microwave Spectroscopy of Trans-Ethyl Methyl Ether in the Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kaori; Sakai, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shozo; Miyamoto, Taihei; Fujitake, Masaharu; Ohashi, Nobukimi

    2013-06-01

    The trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) has two inequivalent methyl group internal rotors which corresponds to the two vibrational motions, ν_{28} and ν_{29}. Due to these internal rotations, a rotational transition could be split into maximum five components. The skeletal torsion (ν_{30}) is another low-lying state (ν_{30}) that interacts with the ν_{28} and ν_{29} modes. The microwave spectra of the trans-ethyl methyl ether molecule in the ν_{28} = 1, ν_{29} = 1, and ν_{30} = 1, 2 and 3 have been extensively studied by using Hougen's tunneling matrix formalism. The microwave spectroscopy in the ground state was studied by several groups. The splitting due to the ν_{28} mode (C-CH_3 internal rotation) is small in the ground state and was not fully resolved in most of the previous studied rotational transitions. In this paper, we report the results of the pulsed nozzle-jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy so as to measure the fully resolved spectra. The submillmeter wave spectroscopy was also carried out. Our analysis including the previously reported transitions would be useful for astronomical observations. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, N. Mori, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc. {269}, 242 2011. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc. {255}, 164 2009. K. Kobayashi, T. Matsui, N. Mori, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi J. Mol. Spectrosc.{251}, 301 2008. K. Kobayashi, K. Murata, S. Tsunekawa, and N. Ohashi Int. Symposium on Mol. Spectrosc., 65th Meeting TH15 2010.} M. Hayashi, and K. Kuwada J. Mol. Structure {28}, 147 1975. M. Hayashi, and M. Adachi J. Mol. Structure {78}, 53 1982. S. Tsunekawa, Y. Kinai, Y. Kondo, H. Odashima, and K. Takagi Molecules {8}, 103 2003. U. Fuchs, G. Winnewisser, P. Groner, F. C. De Lucia, and E. Herbst Astrophys. J. Suppl. {144}, 277 2003.

  19. Quasielastic neutron scattering study of hydrogen motions in an aqueous poly(vinyl methyl ether) solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capponi, S.; Arbe, A.; Cerveny, S.; Busselez, R.; Frick, B.; Embs, J. P.; Colmenero, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present a quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) investigation of the component dynamics in an aqueous Poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) solution (30% water content in weight). In the glassy state, an important shift in the Boson peak of PVME is found upon hydration. At higher temperatures, the diffusive-like motions of the components take place with very different characteristic times, revealing a strong dynamic asymmetry that increases with decreasing T. For both components, we observe stretching of the scattering functions with respect to those in the bulk and non-Gaussian behavior in the whole momentum transfer range investigated. To explain these observations we invoke a distribution of mobilities for both components, probably originated from structural heterogeneities. The diffusive-like motion of PVME in solution takes place faster and apparently in a more continuous way than in bulk. We find that the T-dependence of the characteristic relaxation time of water changes at T ≲ 225 K, near the temperature where a crossover from a low temperature Arrhenius to a high temperature cooperative behavior has been observed by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) [S. Cerveny, J. Colmenero and A. Alegría, Macromolecules, 38, 7056 (2005), 10.1021/ma050811t]. This observation might be a signature of the onset of confined dynamics of water due to the freezing of the PVME dynamics, that has been selectively followed by these QENS experiments. On the other hand, revisiting the BDS results on this system we could identify an additional "fast" process that can be attributed to water motions coupled with PVME local relaxations that could strongly affect the QENS results. Both kinds of interpretations, confinement effects due to the increasing dynamic asymmetry and influence of localized motions, could provide alternative scenarios to the invoked "strong-to-fragile" transition.

  20. Release kinetics of bovine serum albumin from pH-sensitive poly(vinyl ether) based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Kesgin, Didehan

    2005-01-20

    pH-Sensitive amphiphilic hydrogels were synthesized by radiation copolymerization of ethylene glycol vinyl ether (EGVE), butyl vinyl ether (BVE) and acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of crosslinking agent, diethylene glycol divinyl ether (DEGDVE). The results of the swelling experiments indicated that the hydrogel which has 60:40:5 comonomer ratio (mol% of EGVE:BVE:AA in monomeric mixture) is pH-sensitive. While the hydrogel is in a fully hydrated form at pH>6, it extensively dehydrates below pH 6. A two-stage volume phase transition was observed in the range of pH 6.0-7.0 and 7.5-8.0. In addition, the equilibrium water contents of the gels decreased with increasing temperature from 4 to 37 degrees C by following the non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The utility of pH-sensitive gels in delivery of protein based drugs was investigated. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded gels were prepared and protein release was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy in the range of pH 2-9. While the protein release was very low at pH 2, readily high amount of BSA were released at pH>6. It was concluded that the pH-sensitive EGVE-BVE-AA terpolymers may be suitable for the oral administration of protein based drugs as a carrier through gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

  1. Uses of thermoresponsive and RGD/insulin-modified poly(vinyl ether)-based hydrogels in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Karakeçili, Ayşe Gönen

    2003-01-01

    Thermoresponsive hydrogels were synthesized by radiation copolymerization of ethylene glycol vinyl ether (1) and butyl vinyl ether (2) in the presence of cross-linking agent diethylene glycol divinyl ether. The comonomer ratio (monomer 1/monomer 2) and the cross-linker concentration were kept constant at 60:40 (mole percentage in the monomeric mixture) and 4% (mole basis), respectively. The hydrogels showed a volume-phase transition in the temperature range 10-25 degrees C and their swelling behaviour was reversible. The gels were modified by a cell adhesion factor, the RGD sequence of fibronectin, and a cell growth factor, insulin. However, they lost their thermoresponsive character after modification. The use of the gels in cell culture was investigated without using a proteolytic enzyme or serum. Cell culture studies realized by human skin fibroblasts (HS An1) showed that the cells can attach and proliferate on the surface of a thermoresponsive polymer. 80% of the cultured cells were readily detached from the polymer surface by lowering the incubation temperature from 37 degrees C to 10 degrees C for 30 min. In the studies carried out with RGD or insulin-modified hydrogels in serum-free cultures, higher values of cell proliferation (9 x 10(5) cells/ml) were obtained on the insulin-modified hydrogels, whereas higher values of cell attachment were obtained on the RGD-immobilized surfaces.

  2. Gold-catalyzed annulations of 2-alkynyl benzaldehydes with vinyl ethers: synthesis of dihydronaphthalene, isochromene, and bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepika; Liu, Le-Ping; Mashuta, Mark S; Hammond, G B

    2013-03-18

    With the suitable selection of a gold catalyst as well as the appropriate control of the reaction conditions, various new gold-catalyzed cyclizations of 2-alkynyl benzaldehyde with acyclic or cyclic vinyl ethers have been developed. Acetal-tethered dihydronaphthalene and isochromenes were obtained from the reactions of 2-alkynyl benzaldehydes with acyclic vinyl ethers under mild conditions. And, more interestingly, the gold-catalyzed reactions of 2-alkynyl benzaldehyde with a cyclic vinyl ether afforded the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivative involving two molecules of cyclic vinyl ethers. These products contain interesting substructures that have been found in many biologically active molecules and natural products. In addition, a gold-catalyzed homo-dimerization of 2-phenylethynyl benzaldehyde 1a was observed when the reaction was carried out in the absence of vinyl ether, affording a set of separable diastereomeric products. Plausible mechanisms for these transformations are discussed; a gold-containing benzopyrylium was regarded as the crucial intermediate by which a number of these new transformations took place. PMID:23362089

  3. Gold-catalyzed annulations of 2-alkynyl benzaldehydes with vinyl ethers: synthesis of dihydronaphthalene, isochromene, and bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivatives.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepika; Liu, Le-Ping; Mashuta, Mark S; Hammond, G B

    2013-03-18

    With the suitable selection of a gold catalyst as well as the appropriate control of the reaction conditions, various new gold-catalyzed cyclizations of 2-alkynyl benzaldehyde with acyclic or cyclic vinyl ethers have been developed. Acetal-tethered dihydronaphthalene and isochromenes were obtained from the reactions of 2-alkynyl benzaldehydes with acyclic vinyl ethers under mild conditions. And, more interestingly, the gold-catalyzed reactions of 2-alkynyl benzaldehyde with a cyclic vinyl ether afforded the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane derivative involving two molecules of cyclic vinyl ethers. These products contain interesting substructures that have been found in many biologically active molecules and natural products. In addition, a gold-catalyzed homo-dimerization of 2-phenylethynyl benzaldehyde 1a was observed when the reaction was carried out in the absence of vinyl ether, affording a set of separable diastereomeric products. Plausible mechanisms for these transformations are discussed; a gold-containing benzopyrylium was regarded as the crucial intermediate by which a number of these new transformations took place.

  4. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone targeted poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery to MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Ghazzavi, Jila

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a targeted anti-cancer drug delivery system for breast cancer. Therefore, doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Zn(2+) ions. To optimise the effect of DOX/polymer ratio, Zn/polymer ratio, and stirrer rate a full factorial design was used and their effects on particle size, zeta potential, loading efficiency (LE, %), and release efficiency in 72 h (RE72, %) were studied. Targeted NPs were prepared by chemical coating of tiptorelin/polyallylamin conjugate on the surface of NPs by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboiimid HCl as cross-linking agent. Conjugation efficiency was measured by Bradford assay. Conjugated triptorelin and targeted NPs were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The cytotoxicity of DOX loaded in targeted NPs and non-targeted ones were studied on MCF-7 cells which overexpress luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors and SKOV3 cells as negative LHRH receptors using Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. The best results obtained from NPs prepared by DOX/polymer ratio of 5%, Zn/polymer ratio of 50%, and stirrer rate of 960 rpm. FTIR spectrum confirmed successful conjugation of triptorelin to NPs. The conjugation efficiency was about 70%. The targeted NPs showed significantly less IC50 for MCF-7 cells compared to free DOX and non-targeted NPs. PMID:27463791

  5. Aerobic addition of secondary phosphine oxides to vinyl sulfides: a shortcut to 1-hydroxy-2-(organosulfanyl)ethyl(diorganyl)phosphine oxides

    PubMed Central

    Malysheva, Svetlana F; Artem’ev, Alexander V; Gusarova, Nina K; Belogorlova, Nataliya A; Albanov, Alexander I; Liu, C W

    2015-01-01

    Summary Secondary phosphine oxides react with vinyl sulfides (both alkyl- and aryl-substituted sulfides) under aerobic and solvent-free conditions (80 °C, air, 7–30 h) to afford 1-hydroxy-2-(organosulfanyl)ethyl(diorganyl)phosphine oxides in 70–93% yields. PMID:26664618

  6. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  7. The Absolute Rates of the Solution Phase Addition of Atomic Hydrogen to a Vinyl Ether and a Vinyl Ester. The Effect of Oxygen Substitution on Hydrogen Atom Reactivity with Olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, D. D.; Kandanarachchi, P.; Das, N. C.; Franz, James A.

    2003-04-08

    The reactions of vinyl butyl ether and vinyl butyrate with atomic hydrogen and deuterium lead to addition of atomic hydrogen to the terminal position of the olefins. This observation is consistent with the reactions carried out earlier with other olefins. Both the absolute rates of addition to vinylbutyl ether and vinyl butyrate in acetone and hexane were carried out at several temperatures. The relative rates are consistent with only modest stabilization of the transition state of the radical adduct by the ??-o substituent compared with hydrogen atom addition to 1-octene. The relative rates measured in acetone and hexane indicate no significant differential solvation of ground state relative to the transition structures of the hydrogen atom addition. The kinetics reveal that the early transition states of hydrogen atom addition exhibit little selectivity (vinyl ether versus simple olefin) in either abstraction of hydrogen ??- to the oxygen or by terminal addition to the olefinic ether, reflecting the modest influence of the increased enthalpy of reaction associated with resonance stabilization by the oxygen substituent at the developing radical site.

  8. Absolute Rates of the Solution-Phase Addition of Atomic Hydrogen to a Vinyl Ether and a Vinyl Ester: Effect of Oxygen Substitution on Hydrogen Atom Reactivity with Olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, D D.; Kandanarachchi, P; Das, N. C.; Franz, James A.

    2003-04-08

    The reactions of vinyl butyl ether and vinyl butyrate with atomic hydrogen and deuterium lead to addition at the terminal position of the olefins. This observation is consistent with the reactions carried out earlier with other olefins. Both of the absolute rates of addition to vinylbutyl ether and vinyl butyrate, in acetone and hexane, were measured at several temperatures. The relative rates are consistent with only modest stabilization of the transition state of the radical adduct by the R-O substituent compared with that of hydrogen atom addition to 1-octene. The relative rates measured in acetone and hexane indicate no significant differential solvation of the ground state relative to the transition structures of the hydrogen atom addition. The kinetics reveal that the early transition states for hydrogen atom addition exhibit little selectivity (vinyl ether versus simple olefin) in either the abstraction of hydrogen R to the oxygen or by terminal addition to the olefinic ether and reflects the modest influence of the increased enthalpy of reaction associated with resonance stabilization by the oxygen substituent at the developing radical site.

  9. 40 CFR 721.7700 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-Ï... Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3... substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7700 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-Ï... Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3... substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10400 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oxirane, mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers. 721.10400 Section 721.10400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10401 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oxirane, mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers. 721.10401 Section 721.10401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10401 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oxirane, mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers. 721.10401 Section 721.10401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10400 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oxirane, mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers. 721.10400 Section 721.10400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  15. Propargyl Vinyl Ethers and Tertiary Skipped Diynes: Two Pluripotent Molecular Platforms for Diversity-Oriented Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, David; López-Tosco, Sara; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; Cotos, Leandro; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2016-04-19

    During the last years, we have been involved in the development of a diversity-oriented synthetic strategy aimed at transforming simple, linear, and densely functionalized molecular platforms into collections of topologically diverse scaffolds incorporating biologically relevant structural motifs such as N- and O- heterocycles, multifunctionalized aromatic rings, fused macrocycles, etc. The strategy merges the concepts of pluripotency (the property of an array of chemical functionalities to express different chemical outcomes under different chemical environments) and domino chemistry (chemistry based on processes involving two or more bond-forming transformations that take place while the initial reaction conditions are maintained, with the subsequent reaction resulting as a consequence of the functionality installed in the previous one) to transform common multifunctional substrates into complex and diverse molecular frameworks. This design concept constitutes the ethos of the so-called branching cascade strategy, a branch of diversity-oriented synthesis focused on scaffold diversity generation. Two pluripotent molecular platforms have been extensively studied under this merging (branching) paradigm: C4-O-C3 propargyl vinyl ethers (PVEs) and C7 tertiary skipped diynes (TSDs). These are conveniently constructed from simple and commercially available raw materials (alkyl propiolates, ketones, aldehydes, acid chlorides) through multicomponent manifolds (ABB' three-component reaction for PVEs; A2BB' four-component reaction for TSDs) or a simple two-step procedure (for PVEs). Their modular origin facilitates their structural/functional diversification without increasing the number of synthetic steps for their assembly. These two pluripotent molecular platforms accommodate a well-defined and dense array of through-bond/through-space interrelated functionalities on their structures, which defines their primary reactivity principles and establishes the reactivity profile

  16. Subchronic exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether resulting in genetic damage in Aldh2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2013-09-15

    Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) is biofuel additive recently used in Japan and some other countries. Limited evidence shows that ETBE has low toxicity. Acetaldehyde (AA), however, as one primary metabolite of ETBE, is clearly genotoxic and has been considered to be a potential carcinogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ALDH2 gene on ETBE-induced genotoxicity and metabolism of its metabolites after inhalation exposure to ETBE. A group of wild-type (WT) and Aldh2 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 500ppm ETBE for 1-6h, and the blood concentrations of ETBE metabolites, including AA, tert-butyl alcohol and 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol, were measured. Another group of mice of WT and KO were exposed to 0, 500, 1750, or 5000ppm ETBE for 6h/day with 5 days per weeks for 13 weeks. Genotoxic effects of ETBE in these mice were measured by the alkaline comet assay, 8-hydroxyguanine DNA-glycosylase modified comet assay and micronucleus test. With short-term exposure to ETBE, the blood concentrations of all the three metabolites in KO mice were significantly higher than the corresponding concentrations of those in WT mice of both sexes. After subchronic exposure to ETBE, there was significant increase in DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner in KO male mice, while only 5000ppm exposure significantly increased DNA damage in male WT mice. Overall, there was a significant sex difference in genetic damage in both genetic types of mice. These results showed that ALDH2 is involved in the detoxification of ETBE and lack of enzyme activity may greatly increase the sensitivity to the genotoxic effects of ETBE, and male mice were more sensitive than females. PMID:23810710

  17. Ethyl t-butyl ether: review of reproductive and developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    de Peyster, Ann

    2010-06-01

    Ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE) is a motor fuel oxygenate used in reformulated gasoline. Knowledge of developmental and reproductive toxicity potential of ETBE is critical for making informed decisions about acceptance and regulations. This review discusses toxicology studies providing information about effects on reproduction and the conceptus. Seven GLP-compliant studies following widely accepted protocols have focused specifically on developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) in rats and rabbits exposed to ETBE by gavage with doses up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day, the limit specified in standardized test guidelines. Other repeat-dose general toxicology studies have administered ETBE to rodents for up to 180 days, and included reproductive organ weights, histology, or other indications of reproductive system structure or function. DART potential of the main ETBE metabolite t-butyl alcohol and class-related MTBE has also been studied. More GLP-compliant studies exist for evaluating ETBE using well-established, currently recommended protocols than are available for many other chemicals used today. The database for determining ETBE DART potential is adequate, although not all study details are currently easily accessible for peer-review. ETBE does not appear to be selectively toxic to reproduction or embryofetal development in the absence of other manifestations of general toxicity. Studies using recommended methods for sample preservation and analysis have shown no targeted effect on the reproductive system. No embryofetal effects were observed in rabbits. Early postnatal rat pup deaths show no clear dose-response and have largely been attributed to total litter losses with accompanying evidence of maternal neglect or frank maternal morbidity. PMID:20544807

  18. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for enhanced stability and cellular internalization.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Almeida, Patrick V; Mäkilä, Ermei; Correia, Alexandra; Ferreira, Mónica P A; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-03-01

    Currently, developing a stable nanocarrier with high cellular internalization and low toxicity is a key bottleneck in nanomedicine. Here, we have developed a successful method to covalently conjugate poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE-MA) copolymer on the surface of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-functionalized thermally carbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (APSTCPSi NPs), forming a surface negatively charged nanovehicle with unique properties. This polymer conjugated NPs could modify surface smoothness, charge, and hydrophilicity of the developed NPs, leading to considerable improvement in the colloidal and plasma stabilities via enhanced suspensibility and charge repulsion. Furthermore, despite the surface negative charge of the polymer-conjugated NPs, the cellular internalization was increased in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results provide a proof-of-concept evidence that such polymer-based PSi nanocomposite can be extensively used as a promising candidate for intracellular drug delivery.

  19. Colloidal Properties of Aqueous Poly(vinyl acetate)-Borate Dispersions with Short-Chain Glycol Ethers.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Teresa T; Berrie, Barbara H; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-08-18

    We report the influence of adding five short-chain glycol ethers (SCGEs) on the structure, stability, and viscoelastic properties of aqueous dispersions of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) and borax. The properties of these gel-like materials have been investigated as a function of the structure of the added SCGE both below and above the critical aggregation (or micellar) concentrations using (11) B and (13) C NMR, rheology, and small-angle neutron scattering. The results indicate that the SCGE aggregation behavior is not affected by incorporation into the gel-like network. However, changes in the viscoelasticity and structural properties of the dispersions were detected that can be correlated to the nature of the solvent system. Also, the ability of these materials to clean an unvarnished acrylic paint surface coated with synthetic soil has been evaluated using colorimetery, and the surface of the dispersion after cleaning was visualized with scanning electron microscopy. PMID:27387383

  20. Development of a Vinyl Ether-Functionalized Polyphosphoester as a Template for Multiple Postpolymerization Conjugation Chemistries and Study of Core Degradable Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel polyphosphoester (PPE) with vinyl ether side chain functionality was developed as a versatile template for postpolymerization modifications, and its degradability and biocompatibility were evaluated. An organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ethylene glycol vinyl ether-pendant cyclic phosphotriester monomer allowed for construction of poly(ethylene glycol vinyl ether phosphotriester) (PEVEP). This vinyl ether-functionalized PPE scaffold was coupled with hydroxyl- or thiol-containing model small molecules via three different types of conjugation chemistries—thiol–ene “click” reaction, acetalization, or thio-acetalization reaction—to afford modified polymers that accommodated either stable thio–ether or hydrolytically labile acetal or thio–acetal linkages. Amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and PEVEP formed well-defined micelles with a narrow and monomodal size distribution in water, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The stability of the micelles and the hydrolytic degradability of the backbone and side chains of the PEVEP block segment were assessed by DLS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H and 31P), respectively, in aqueous buffer solutions at pH values of 5.0 and 7.4 and at temperatures of 25 and 37 °C. The hydrolytic degradation products of the PEVEP segments of the block copolymers were then identified by electrospray ionization, gas chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The parent micelles and their degradation products were found to be non-cytotoxic at concentrations up to 3 mg/mL, when evaluated with RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages and OVCAR-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:25601803

  1. Poly(arlyene ether sulfone) based semi-interpenetrating polymer network membranes containing cross-linked poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) chains for fuel cell applications at high temperature and low humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kihyun; Heo, Pilwon; Ko, Taeyun; Kim, Ki-hyun; Kim, Sung-Kon; Pak, Chanho; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-10-01

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) membranes are prepared by in-situ casting and thermal-initiated radical polymerization of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and bis(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl) phosphate (BMAEP) in N,N-dimethylacetamide solutions of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES). The incorporation of VPA units into the SPAES membranes improves proton conductivity especially at high temperature and low humidity conditions. In addition the cross-linker, BMAEP, prevents the decrease of the mechanical and chemical stabilities by the aliphatic linear poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) chains in the semi-IPN membranes, and furthermore the phosphonic acid group in BMAEP can prevent the decrease of the proton conductivity by the formation of cross-linked structures. Therefore, the resulting semi-IPN membranes show high proton conductivities up to 15 mS cm-1 at 120 °C and 40% RH. The fuel cell performance (187 mW cm-2 at 120 °C and 40% RH) of membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) from the semi-IPN membrane is found to be superior to that (145 mW cm-2 at 120 °C and 40% RH) of MEA from the SPAES membrane. The durability test result at the operating conditions indicates that the semi-IPN membrane is electrochemically very stable maintaining the low hydrogen cross-over and high power densities.

  2. Preparation and solution behavior of a thermoresponsive diblock copolymer of poly(ethyl glycidyl ether) and poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Ogura, Michihiro; Tokuda, Hiroyuki; Imabayashi, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2007-08-28

    A thermoresponsive diblock copolymer, poly(ethyl glycidyl ether)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEGE-b-PEO), is synthesized by successive anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethyl glycidyl ether and ethylene oxide using 2-phenoxyethanol as a starting material, and its solution behavior is elucidated in water. In a dilute 1 wt % solution, the temperature-dependent alteration in the polymer hydrodynamic radius (RH) is measured in the temperature range between 5 and 45 degrees C by pulse-gradient spin-echo NMR and dynamic light scattering. The RH value increased with temperature in two steps, where the first step at 15 degrees C corresponds to the core-shell micelle formation and the second step at 40 degrees C corresponds to the aggregation of the core-shell micelles. The formation of the core-shell micelles is supported by the solubilization of a dye (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) in the hydrophobic core, which is recognized for a copolymer solution in the temperature range between 20 and 40 degrees C. In this temperature range, the core-shell micelles and the unimers coexist and the fraction of the former gradually increases with increasing temperature, suggesting equilibrium between the micelles and the unimers. In the concentrated regime (40 wt % solution), the solution forms a gel and the small-angle X-ray scattering measurements reveal the successive formation of hexagonal and lamellar liquid crystal phases with increasing temperature.

  3. Development of Stereocontrolled Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Domino Heck/Suzuki β,α-Diarylation Reactions with Chelating Vinyl Ethers and Arylboronic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Trejos, Alejandro; Odell, Luke R; Larhed, Mats

    2012-01-01

    A stereoselective and 1,4-benzoquinone-mediated palladium(II)-catalyzed Heck/Suzuki domino reaction involving metal coordinating cyclic methylamino vinyl ethers and a number of electronically diverse arylboronic acids has been developed and studied. Diastereomeric ratios up to 39:1 and 78 % isolated yields were obtained. The stereoselectivity of the reaction was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the arylboronic acid and the amount of water present in the reaction mixture. Thus, a domino β,α-diarylation–reduction of chelating vinyl ethers can now be accomplished and stereochemically controlled, given that optimized conditions and an appropriate chiral auxiliary are used. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first example of a stereoselective, oxidative Heck/Suzuki domino reaction in the literature. PMID:24551492

  4. Radiation synthesis of hydrogels based on copolymers of vinyl ethers of monoethanolamine and ethyleneglycol and their interaction with poly(acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, G. A.; Nurkeeva, Z. S.; Khutoryanskiy, V. V.; Yermukhambetova, B. B.; Koblanov, S. M.; Arkhipova, I. A.

    2003-08-01

    Novel hydrogels of cationic nature were synthesized by gamma-radiation copolymerization of vinyl ethers of monoethanolamine and ethyleneglycol in the presence of cross-linking agent. The effect of absorbed dose on the gel fraction and equilibrium swelling degree of hydrogels in water is shown. It was demonstrated that the hydrogels are able to bind poly(acrylic acid) to form polyelectrolyte complexes with swelling properties typical for polyampholytes.

  5. Toxic effect and genotoxicity of the semisynthetic derivatives dillapiole ethyl ether and dillapiole n-butyl ether for control of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    da Fonseca Meireles, Sabrina; Domingos, Pedro Rauel Cândido; da Silva Pinto, Ana Cristina; Rafael, Míriam Silva

    2016-09-01

    Two derivatives of dillapiole, dillapiole ethyl ether (1KL39-B) and butyl ether-n dillapiole (1KL43-C), were studied for their toxicity and genotoxicity against Aedes albopictus, to help develop new strategies for the control of this potential vector of dengue and other arboviruses, because it is resistant to synthetic insecticides. Eggs and larvae exposed to different concentrations of 1KL39-B (25, 30, 50, 70, and 80μg/mL) and of 1KL43-C (12.5, 20, 25, 30 and 40μg/mL) exhibited toxicity and susceptibility, with 100% mortality. The LC50 was 55.86±1.57μg/mL for 1KL39-B and 25.60±1.24μg/mL for 1KL43-C, while the LC90 was 70.12μg/mL for 1KL39-B and 41.51μg/mL for 1KL43-C. The gradual decrease in oviposition of the females of the G1 to G4 generations was proportional to the increase in concentrations of these compounds, which could be related to the cumulative effect of cell anomalies in neuroblasts and oocytes (P<0.05), including micronuclei, budding, multinucleated cells and nuclear bridges. These findings showed that both 1KL39-B and 1KL43-C can serve as potential alternatives in the control of A. albopictus. PMID:27542709

  6. Determination of low level methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether and methyl tert-amyl ether in human urine by HS-SPME gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scibetta, Licia; Campo, Laura; Mercadante, Rosa; Foà, Vito; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are oxygenated compounds added to gasoline to enhance octane rating and to improve combustion. They may be found as pollutants of living and working environments. In this work a robotized method for the quantification of low level MTBE, ETBE and TAME in human urine was developed and validated. The analytes were sampled in the headspace of urine by SPME in the presence of MTBE-d12 as internal standard. Different fibers were compared for their linearity and extraction efficiency: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene, and polydimethylsiloxane. The first, although highly efficient, was discarded due to deviation of linearity for competitive displacement, and the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber was chosen instead. The analysis was performed by GC/MS operating in the electron impact mode. The method is very specific, with range of linearity 30-4600 ng L(-1), within- and between-run precision, as coefficient of variation, <22 and <16%, accuracy within 20% the theoretical level, and limit of detection of 6 ng L(-1) for all the analytes. The influence of the matrix on the quantification of these ethers was evaluated analysing the specimens of seven traffic policemen exposed to autovehicular emissions: using the calibration curve and the method of standard additions comparable levels of MTBE (68-528 ng L(-1)), ETBE (<6 ng L(-1)), and TAME (<6 ng L(-1)) were obtained.

  7. Prolonged Hypocalcemic Effect by Pulmonary Delivery of Calcitonin Loaded Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether Maleic Acid) Bioadhesive Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, J.; Minaiyan, M.; Forghanian, M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design a pulmonary controlled release system of salmon calcitonin (sCT). Therefore, poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) [P(MVEMA)] nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The stability of sCT in the optimized nanoparticles was studied by electrophoretic gel method. Plasma calcium levels until 48 h were determined in rats as pulmonary-free sCT solution or nanoparticles (25 μg·kg−1), iv solution of sCT (5 μg·kg−1), and pulmonary blank nanoparticles. The drug remained stable during fabrication and tests on nanoparticles. The optimized nanoparticles showed proper physicochemical properties. Normalized reduction of plasma calcium levels was at least 2.76 times higher in pulmonary sCT nanoparticles compared to free solution. The duration of hypocalcemic effect of pulmonary sCT nanoparticles was 24 h, while it was just 1 h for the iv solution. There was not any significant difference between normalized blood calcium levels reduction in pulmonary drug solution and iv injection. Pharmacological activity of nanoparticles after pulmonary delivery was 65% of the iv route. Pulmonary delivery of P(MVEMA) nanoparticles of sCT enhanced and prolonged the hypocalcemic effect of the drug significantly. PMID:24701588

  8. Immobilization of saccharides and peptides on 96-well microtiter plates coated with methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer.

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Kojima, K; Koyama, T; Ogawa, H; Matsumoto, I

    1998-06-15

    We have previously reported a method to immobilize protein ligands on microtiter plates coated with methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (MMAC) [Isosaki, K., et al. (1992) J. Chromatogr. 597, 123-128]. In this study, we improved the MMAC method to efficiently immobilize not only small ligands such as peptides and oligosaccharides, which could not be efficiently immobilized previously, but also heparin via its reducing end. Amino and hydrazino groups were introduced to MMAC-coated microtiter plate wells by coupling to acid anhydride groups of MMAC with 1,6-hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid dihydrazide, respectively. The amino groups introduced were allowed to react with peptides by use of divalent cross-linkers. Hydrazino groups were allowed to react with formyl groups of saccharides by reductive amination. Peptides and oligosaccharides were immobilized in a dose-dependent manner by these methods. In the case of the angiotensin peptide thus immobilized, the detection limit by monoclonal antibodies was as low as 0.1-1 fmol peptide per well. Application of 20-200 nmol oligosaccharides to the well was sufficient to immobilize and subsequently detect lectins. Furthermore, heparin immobilized on the hydrazinocoated wells was successfully used for the binding assay of annexin IV. PMID:9648659

  9. A subchronic (180-day) oral toxicity study of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether, a bioethanol, in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Katsumi; Koga, Takayuki; Aso, Sunao; Hoshuyama, Satsuki; Ajimi, Syozo; Furukawa, Kotaro

    2014-07-01

    A subchronic (180-day) toxicity study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), a biomass fuel, in male and female rats. ETBE was administered at dose levels of 0, 5, 25, 100 and 400 mg/kg/body weight (b.w.)/day by gavage. No treatment-related adverse effects were observed at 5, 25 or 100 mg/kg. Centrilobular hypertrophy of hepatocytes was observed in males and females and their relative liver weights were increased, suggesting enhanced metabolic activity. From these results, we concluded that the no observed adverse effect level of ETBE was 100 mg/kg b.w./day under the conditions tested. PMID:24252074

  10. Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) synthesis on H-Mordenite: Gas-phase kinetics and DRIFTS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, G.; Lotero, E.; Marquez, M.

    1995-12-01

    The ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) formation between 313 and 363 K over an H-mordenite catalyst was studied in a packed-bed flow catalytic reactor at atmospheric pressure. An activation energy of 82 kJ/mol and reaction orders in isobutene and ethanol of 0.8 and -0.8 were found. In situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to study the state of the catalyst under reaction conditions. The IR studies, coupled with the reaction kinetics information, are consistent with the idea that the stability of the H-mordenite catalyst requires the protective action of ethanol to prevent the occurrence of isobutene oligomerization products. The high ethanol concentrations found in the zeolite pores under the temperature and pressure conditions employed is also responsible for reaction inhibition. 27 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10401 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers. 721.10401 Section 721.10401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10400 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers. 721.10400 Section 721.10400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  15. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl... waterways at the loading and unloading points. (f) The special requirements of § 151.50-41 for...

  18. Crystal growth, structural investigation and characterization of newly grown quinolinium derivative single crystal: 1-Ethyl-2-(2-p-tolyl-vinyl)-quinolinium; iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthigha, S.; Kalainathan, S.

    2016-11-01

    A new N-ethyl quinolinium derivative of 1-Ethyl-2-(2-p-tolyl-vinyl)-quinoliniumiodide (PTQI) was synthesized by knoevenagel condensation reaction and single crystal was successfully grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystal exhibit a centric monoclinic space group P21/C with a third order nonlinear optical response in their crystalline form. The molecular structure of the crystal was studied by single crystal XRD and NMR spectral analysis. FTIR reveal the existence of vinyl group and functional groups of the grown crystal. The melting point and thermal behaviour of PTQI were investigated using TG/DTA analysis. The linear optical study was done by UV-vis-NIR analysis show that the crystal is transparent in the wavelength range of 472-1100 nm. Photoluminescence study shows that PTQI crystal has green luminescence emission property. The etching study reveals that the title crystal encompasses good crystalline nature and lesser amount of dislocations. Third order nonlinear optical property was determined by Z scan technique and the results making grown crystal as a promising material in the field of nonlinear optical devices.

  19. The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, Widayat; Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M.

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m 2 / gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation borth as feed. The operation condition is 150° C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

  20. Reaction products and mechanisms for the reaction of n-butyl vinyl ether with the oxidants OH and Cl: Atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenar, Inmaculada; Martín, Pilar; Cabañas, Beatriz; Salgado, Sagrario; Tapia, Araceli; Martínez, Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    A reaction product study for the degradation of butyl vinyl ether (CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2) by reaction with chlorine atoms (Cl) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) has been carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and/or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Time of Flight analyzer (GC-TOFMS). The rate coefficient for the reaction of butyl vinyl ether (BVE) with chlorine atoms has also been evaluated for the first time at room temperature (298 ± 2) K and atmospheric pressure (708 ± 8) Torr. The rate coefficient obtained was (9.9 ± 1.5) × 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 and this indicates the high reactivity of butyl vinyl ether with Cl atoms. However, this value may be affected by the dark reaction of BVE with Cl2. The results of a qualitative study of the Cl reaction show that the main oxidation products are butyl formate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)H), butyl chloroacetate (CH3(CH2)3OC(O)CH2Cl and formyl chloride (HCOCl). Individual yields in the ranges ∼16-40% and 30-70% in the absence and presence of NOx, respectively, have been estimated for these products. In the OH reaction, butyl formate and formic acid were identified as the main products, with yields of around 50 and 20%, respectively. Based on the results of this work and a literature survey, the addition of OH radicals and Cl atoms at the terminal C atom of the double bond in CH3(CH2)3OCHdbnd CH2 has been proposed as the first step in the reaction mechanism for both of the studied oxidants. The tropospheric lifetime of butyl vinyl ether is very short and, as a consequence, it will be rapidly degraded and will only be involved in tropospheric chemistry at a local level. The degradation products of these reactions should be considered when evaluating the atmospheric impact.

  1. Promotion of liver and kidney carcinogenesis by ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Doi, Yuko; Imai, Norio; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Tamano, Seiko; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-promoting effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) were investigated in a 2-stage carcinogenesis bioassay with regard to hepatic and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Male 6-week-old Wistar rats were given drinking water containing N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nitrosamine (EHEN), as an initiator, at a dose of 500 ppm for 2 weeks. Starting one week thereafter, the animals were administered ETBE at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg/day by gavage for 19 weeks from week 4 to 22. Necropsy of all rats was performed at week 23, and livers and kidneys were examined histopathologically. Incidences of hepatocellular adenomas, and those of combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were significantly elevated in rats given 1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE, but not 100‒500 mg/kg/day ETBE, and there was a significant increase in the average numbers of lesions. No significant differences in incidences and average numbers of renal tubule neoplasms were found in rats administered 100‒1,000 mg/kg/day ETBE. However, the average numbers of atypical tubule hyperplasias, considered to be preneoplastic lesions, were significantly increased in rats given ETBE at 1,000 mg/kg/day, but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses. Thus, these results imply that ETBE has hepatic and renal tumor-promoting activities that affect EHEN-induced carcinogenesis in male rats, and the no-observed-effect level is 500 mg/kg/day under the present experimental conditions. PMID:26538808

  2. Aldh2 knockout mice were more sensitive to DNA damage in leukocytes due to ethyl tertiary butyl ether exposure.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the genotoxicity of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), a gasoline additive, male and female C57BL/6 mice of Aldh2+/+ and Aldh2-/- genotypes, aged 8 wk, were exposed to 0, 500, 1,750, or 5,000 ppm ETBE for 6 h/day, 5 d per week for 13 wk. DNA damage in leukocytes was measured by the alkaline comet assay and expressed quantitatively as Tail Intensity (TI). For male mice, TI was significantly higher in all three groups exposed to ETBE than in those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice, whereas within Aldh2+/+ mice, TI increased only in those exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with mice without exposure. For female mice, a significant increase in TI values was observed in the group exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice; TI in Aldh2-/- mice exposed to 1,750 and 5,000 ppm was significantly higher than in Aldh2+/+ mice without exposure. TI did not significantly increase in any of the groups exposed to ETBE within female Aldh2+/+ mice. Based on the results we suggest that Aldh2-/- mice are more sensitive to DNA damage caused by ETBE than Aldh2+/+ mice and that males seem more susceptible to this effect than females. PMID:21372431

  3. Poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels at temperatures below the freezing point of water-molecular interactions and states of water.

    PubMed

    Pastorczak, Marcin; Dominguez-Espinosa, Gustavo; Okrasa, Lidia; Pyda, Marek; Kozanecki, Marcin; Kadlubowski, Slawomir; Rosiak, Janusz M; Ulanski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Water interacting with a polymer reveals a number of properties very different to bulk water. These interactions lead to the redistribution of hydrogen bonds in water. It results in modification of thermodynamic properties of water and the molecular dynamics of water. That kind of water is particularly well observable at temperatures below the freezing point of water, when the bulk water crystallizes. In this work, we determine the amount of water bound to the polymer and of the so-called pre-melting water in poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels with the use of Raman spectroscopy, dielectric spectroscopy, and calorimetry. This analysis allows us to compare various physical properties of the bulk and the pre-melting water. We also postulate the molecular mechanism responsible for the pre-melting of part of water in poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels. We suggest that above -60 °C, the first segmental motions of the polymer chain are activated, which trigger the process of the pre-melting.

  4. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  5. Oxidation-Responsive and "Clickable" Poly(ethylene glycol) via Copolymerization of 2-(Methylthio)ethyl Glycidyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Herzberger, Jana; Fischer, Karl; Leibig, Daniel; Bros, Matthias; Thiermann, Raphael; Frey, Holger

    2016-07-27

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used biocompatible polymer. We describe a novel epoxide monomer with methyl-thioether moiety, 2-(methylthio)ethyl glycidyl ether (MTEGE), which enables the synthesis of well-defined thioether-functional poly(ethylene glycol). Random and block mPEG-b-PMTEGE copolymers (Mw/Mn = 1.05-1.17) were obtained via anionic ring opening polymerization (AROP) with molecular weights ranging from 5 600 to 12 000 g·mol(-1). The statistical copolymerization of MTEGE with ethylene oxide results in a random microstructure (rEO = 0.92 ± 0.02 and rMTEG E = 1.06 ± 0.02), which was confirmed by in situ (1)H NMR kinetic studies. The random copolymers are thermoresponsive in aqueous solution, with a wide range of tunable transition temperatures of 88 to 28 °C. In contrast, mPEG-b-PMTEGE block copolymers formed well-defined micelles (Rh ≈ 9-15 nm) in water, studied by detailed light scattering (DLS and SLS). Intriguingly, the thioether moieties of MTEGE can be selectively oxidized into sulfoxide units, leading to full disassembly of the micelles, as confirmed by detection of pure unimers (DLS and SLS). Oxidation-responsive release of encapsulated Nile Red demonstrates the potential of these micelles as redox-responsive nanocarriers. MTT assays showed only minor effects of the thioethers and their oxidized derivatives on the cellular metabolism of WEHI-164 and HEK-293T cell lines (1-1000 μg·mL(-1)). Further, sulfonium PEG polyelectrolytes can be obtained via alkylation or alkoxylation of MTEGE, providing access to a large variety of functional groups at the charged sulfur atom. PMID:27375132

  6. Use of anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride)-coated beads for capture of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-08-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children, and a major public health concern in pediatrics. However, current diagnostic methods for RSV are not sufficiently sensitive. In addition, there is no simple method for enhancing RSV detection. Here, a method for capturing RSV from nasal fluid has been developed using magnetic beads coated with an anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydrate). The beads were incubated with RSV-infected nasal fluid, then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnet field and washed. The adsorption [corrected] of RSV by the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which indicated the presence of nucleocapsid protein, fusion protein, and the viral genome of RSV on the incubated beads. Therefore, this capture method will contribute to the improvement of RSV detection.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture tert-Butyl ethyl ether C6H14O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1111, LB4723_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture tert-Butyl ethyl ether C6H14O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1111, LB4723_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture tert-Butyl ethyl ether C6H14O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1212, LB4714_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture tert-Butyl ethyl ether C6H14O + C14H30 Tetradecane (VMSD1212, LB4714_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  9. Enantio- and Diastereoselective Synthesis of syn-β-Hydroxy-α-Vinyl Carboxylic Esters via Reductive Aldol Reactions of Ethyl Allenecarboxylate with 10-TMS-9-Borabicyclo[3.3.2]decane and DFT Analysis of the Hydroboration Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kister, Jeremy; Ess, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    An enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of syn-β-hydroxy-α-vinyl carboxylate esters 3 via the reductive aldol reaction of ethyl allenecarboxylate (2) with 10-trimethylsilyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.2]decane (1R, Soderquist’s borane) has been developed. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the allene hydroboration involves the 1,4-reduction of 2 with the chiral borane 1R, leading directly to dienolborinate Z-(O)-8a. PMID:24138187

  10. Anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride)-coated beads-based capture of human influenza A and B virus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Baba, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Okada, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kawashita, Norihito; Takagi, Tatsuya; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-01-15

    An anionic magnetic beads-based method was developed for the capture of human influenza A and B viruses from nasal aspirates, allantoic fluid and culture medium. A polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride) [poly(MVE-MA)], was used to endow magnetic beads with a negative charge and bioadhesive properties. After incubation with samples containing human influenza virus, the beads were separated from supernatants by applying a magnetic field. The adsorption [corrected] of the virus by the beads was confirmed by hemagglutinin assay, immunochromatography, Western blotting, egg infection, and cell infection. Successful capture was proved using 5 H1N1 influenza A viruses, 10 H3N2 influenza A viruses, and 6 influenza B viruses. Furthermore, the infectivity in chicken embryonated eggs and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells of the captured human influenza virus was similar to that of the total viral quantity of starting materials. Therefore, this method of capture using magnetic beads coated with poly(MVE-MA) can be broadly used for the recovery of infectious human influenza viruses.

  11. Preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive nanoparticles of poly (methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) containing glycyrrhizic acid intended for vaginal administration.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Llera-Rojas, Viridiana; Ganem-Rondero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Traditional vaginal preparations reside in the vaginal cavity for relatively a short period of time, requiring multiple doses in order to attain the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, mucoadhesive systems appear to be appropriate to prolong the residence time in the vaginal cavity. In the current study, mucoadhesive nanoparticles based on poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) intended for vaginal delivery of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) (a drug with well-known antiviral properties) were prepared and characterized. Nanoparticles were generated by a solvent displacement method. Incorporation of GA was performed during nanoprecipitation, followed by adsorption of drug once nanoparticles were formed. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, Z-potential, morphology, drug loading, interaction of GA with PVM/MA (by differential scanning calorimetry) and the in vitro interaction of nanoparticles with pig mucin (at two pH values, 3.6 and 5; with and without GA adsorbed). The preparation method led to nanoparticles of a mean diameter of 198.5 ± 24.3 nm, zeta potential of -44.8 ± 2.8 mV and drug loading of 15.07 ± 0.86 µg/mg polymer. The highest mucin interaction resulted at pH 3.6 for nanoparticles without GA adsorbed. The data obtained suggest the promise of using mucoadhesive nanoparticles of PVM/MA for intravaginal delivery of GA.

  12. Self-assembly behavior of amphiphilic C₆₀-end-capped poly(vinyl ether)s in water and dissociation of the aggregates by the complexing of the C₆₀ moieties with externally added γ-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Motoyanagi, Jin; Kurata, Akihiro; Minoda, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    C60-end-capped polymers consisting of an amphiphilic poly(2-methoxyethyl vinyl ether) (PMOVE) main chain were synthesized by living cationic polymerization using a C60-functionalized initiator (C60VE-TFA) in the presence of EtAlCl2 as an activator and dioxane as an added base. The obtained polymers (C60-PMOVE) dissolved in a wide range of solvents including water and exhibited solvatochromism depending on the polarity of the media employed. This phenomenon was attributed to self-assembly in polar media due to hydrophobicity of the C60 moieties at the terminus of the amphiphilic polymer chain. Furthermore, the addition of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), a strong host molecule for fullerenes, to the self-assembled system brought about the dissociation of the aggregates into molecularly dispersed free polymer chains. Titration of the aqueous solution of the self-assembly of C60-PMOVE with γ-CD indicated the possible formation of inclusion complexes of C60-PMOVE and γ-CD, and this binding process occurs in a positive cooperative manner. PMID:25658224

  13. Thermo-responsive cell culture carriers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether)—the effect of biomolecular ligands to balance cell adhesion and stimulated detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, Juliane; Nitschke, Mirko; Pette, Dagmar; Valtink, Monika; Gramm, Stefan; Härtel, Frauke V.; Noll, Thomas; Funk, Richard H. W.; Engelmann, Katrin; Werner, Carsten

    2015-08-01

    Two established material systems for thermally stimulated detachment of adherent cells were combined in a cross-linked polymer blend to merge favorable properties. Through this approach poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) with its superior switching characteristic was paired with a poly(vinyl methyl ether)-based composition that allows adjusting physico-chemical and biomolecular properties in a wide range. Beyond pure PNiPAAm, the proposed thermo-responsive coating provides thickness, stiffness and swelling behavior, as well as an apposite density of reactive sites for biomolecular functionalization, as effective tuning parameters to meet specific requirements of a particular cell type regarding initial adhesion and ease of detachment. To illustrate the strength of this approach, the novel cell culture carrier was applied to generate transplantable sheets of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC). Sheets were grown, detached, and transferred onto planar targets. Cell morphology, viability and functionality were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and determination of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) before and after sheet detachment and transfer. HCEC layers showed regular morphology with appropriate TEER. Cells were positive for function-associated marker proteins ZO-1, Na+/K+-ATPase, and paxillin, and extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV before and after transfer. Sheet detachment and transfer did not impair cell viability. Subsequently, a potential application in ophthalmology was demonstrated by transplantation onto de-endothelialized porcine corneas in vitro. The novel thermo-responsive cell culture carrier facilitates the generation and transfer of functional HCEC sheets. This paves the way to generate tissue engineered human corneal endothelium as an alternative transplant source for endothelial keratoplasty.

  14. Acid-labile mPEG-vinyl ether-1,2-dioleylglycerol lipids with tunable pH sensitivity: synthesis and structural effects on hydrolysis rates, DOPE liposome release performance, and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Junhwa; Shum, Pochi; Grey, Jessica; Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Malhotra, Guarov S; González-Bonet, Andres; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Moase, Elaine; Allen, Theresa M; Thompson, David H

    2012-11-01

    A family of 3-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-vinyl ether-1,2-dioleylglycerol (mPEG-VE-DOG) lipopolymer conjugates, designed on the basis of DFT calculations to possess a wide range of proton affinities, was synthesized and tested for their hydrolysis kinetics in neutral and acidic buffers. Extruded ∼100 nm liposomes containing these constructs in ≥90 mol % 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) produced dispersions that retained their calcein cargo for more than 2 days at pH 7.5, but released the encapsulated contents over a wide range of time scales as a function of the electronic properties of the vinyl ether linkage, the solution pH, and the mPEG-VE-DOG composition in the membrane. The in vivo performance of two different 90:10 DOPE:mPEG-VE-DOG compositions was also evaluated for blood circulation time and biodistribution in mice, using (125)I-tyraminylinulin as a label. The pharmacokinetic profiles gave a t(1/2) of 7 and 3 h for 90:10 DOPE:ST302 and 90:10 DOPE:ST502, respectively, with the liposomes being cleared predominantly by liver and spleen uptake. The behavior of these DOPE:mPEG-VE-DOG formulations is consistent with their relative rates of vinyl ether hydrolysis, i.e., the more acid-sensitive mPEG-VE-DOG derivatives produced faster leakage rates from DOPE:mPEG-VE-DOG liposomes, but decreased the blood circulation times in mice. These findings suggest that the vinyl ether-based PEG-lipid derivatives are promising agents for stabilizing acid-sensitive DOPE liposomes to produce formulations with a priori control over their pH responsiveness in vitro. Our data also suggest, however, that the same factors that contribute to enhanced acid sensitivity of the DOPE:mPEG-VE-DOG dispersions are also likely responsible for their reduced pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:23030381

  15. Acid-labile mPEG-vinyl ether-1,2-dioleylglycerol lipids with tunable pH sensitivity: synthesis and structural effects on hydrolysis rates, DOPE liposome release performance, and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Junhwa; Shum, Pochi; Grey, Jessica; Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Malhotra, Guarov S; González-Bonet, Andres; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Moase, Elaine; Allen, Theresa M; Thompson, David H

    2012-11-01

    A family of 3-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-vinyl ether-1,2-dioleylglycerol (mPEG-VE-DOG) lipopolymer conjugates, designed on the basis of DFT calculations to possess a wide range of proton affinities, was synthesized and tested for their hydrolysis kinetics in neutral and acidic buffers. Extruded ∼100 nm liposomes containing these constructs in ≥90 mol % 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) produced dispersions that retained their calcein cargo for more than 2 days at pH 7.5, but released the encapsulated contents over a wide range of time scales as a function of the electronic properties of the vinyl ether linkage, the solution pH, and the mPEG-VE-DOG composition in the membrane. The in vivo performance of two different 90:10 DOPE:mPEG-VE-DOG compositions was also evaluated for blood circulation time and biodistribution in mice, using (125)I-tyraminylinulin as a label. The pharmacokinetic profiles gave a t(1/2) of 7 and 3 h for 90:10 DOPE:ST302 and 90:10 DOPE:ST502, respectively, with the liposomes being cleared predominantly by liver and spleen uptake. The behavior of these DOPE:mPEG-VE-DOG formulations is consistent with their relative rates of vinyl ether hydrolysis, i.e., the more acid-sensitive mPEG-VE-DOG derivatives produced faster leakage rates from DOPE:mPEG-VE-DOG liposomes, but decreased the blood circulation times in mice. These findings suggest that the vinyl ether-based PEG-lipid derivatives are promising agents for stabilizing acid-sensitive DOPE liposomes to produce formulations with a priori control over their pH responsiveness in vitro. Our data also suggest, however, that the same factors that contribute to enhanced acid sensitivity of the DOPE:mPEG-VE-DOG dispersions are also likely responsible for their reduced pharmacokinetic profiles.

  16. Simultaneous determination of organotin compounds in textiles by gas chromatography-flame photometry following liquid/liquid partitioning with tert-butyl ethyl ether after reflux-extraction.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Tetsuo

    2013-10-15

    A rapid and relatively clean method for determining six organotin compounds (OtC) in textile goods with a gas chromatograph equipped with a conventional flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) has been developed. After the reflux-extraction to use methanol containing 1% (v/v) of hydrochloric acid, five hydrophobic OtC (e.g. tributyltin: TBT) and slightly less hydrophobic dibutyltin (DBT) could be drawn out through partitioning between the methanolic buffer solution and tert-butyl ethyl ether instead of hazardous dichloromethane, of which usage is provided by the official-methods notified in Japan, and following the ethylation procedure to use sodium tetraethylborate, the OtC were determined with the GC-FPD. The recoveries of DBT, TBT, tetrabutyltin, triphenyltin, dioctyltin, and trioctyltin from textile products (cloth diaper, socks, and undershirt) were 60-77, 89-98, 86-94, 71-78, 85-109, and 70-79% respectively, and their coefficients of variation were 2.5-16.5%. Calibration curves for OtC were linear (0.01-0.20 μg as Sn mL(-1)), and the correlation coefficients were 0.9922-1.0000. Their detection limits were estimated to be 2.7-9.7 n gas Sn g(-1). These data suggested that this method would be applicable to their simultaneous determination. Five retailed textile goods were analyzed by this proposed method, and 0.013-0.65 µg as Sn g(-1) of OtC (e.g. DBT) were determined in three. Moreover, a possibility that various OtC including non-targeted species in textile would be specifically detected by applying the studying speciation-technique of controlling signal intensity-flame fuel gas pressures of the GC-FPD was found.

  17. Evaluation of ethyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by compound-specific isotope analysis and in situ microcosms.

    PubMed

    Bombach, Petra; Nägele, Norbert; Rosell, Mònica; Richnow, Hans H; Fischer, Anko

    2015-04-01

    Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is an upcoming groundwater pollutant in Europe whose environmental fate has been less investigated, thus far. In the present study, we investigated the in situ biodegradation of ETBE in a fuel-contaminated aquifer using compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA), and in situ microcosms in combination with total lipid fatty acid (TLFA)-stable isotope probing (SIP). In a first field investigation, CSIA revealed insignificant carbon isotope fractionation, but low hydrogen isotope fractionation of up to +14‰ along the prevailing anoxic ETBE plume suggesting biodegradation of ETBE. Ten months later, oxygen injection was conducted to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) at the field site. Within the framework of this remediation measure, in situ microcosms loaded with [(13)C6]-ETBE (BACTRAP(®)s) were exposed for 119 days in selected groundwater wells to assess the biodegradation of ETBE by TLFA-SIP under the following conditions: (i) ETBE as main contaminant; (ii) ETBE as main contaminant subjected to oxygen injection; (iii) ETBE plus other PH; (iv) ETBE plus other PH subjected to oxygen injection. Under all conditions investigated, significant (13)C-incorporation into microbial total lipid fatty acids extracted from the in situ microcosms was found, providing clear evidence of ETBE biodegradation.

  18. No Promoting Effect of Ethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (ETBE) on Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis Initiated with N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Doi, Yuko; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male F344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were investigated at various dose levels with regard to possible promoting activity. Groups of 30 rats were given drinking water containing 500 ppm BBN, as an initiator, for 4 weeks and starting one week thereafter received ETBE by gavage (daily, 7 days/week) at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day until experimental week 36. No statistically significant differences in incidences of preneoplastic lesions, papillomas, and carcinomas of the urinary bladder were evident in rats treated with 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE as compared with control values. Furthermore, the average numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions per unit length of basement membrane in rats given 100-1000 mg/kg/day ETBE were also comparable to control values. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder was found in 4 out of 30 rats (13%) in the group given 1000 mg/kg/day ETBE, and soft stones in the urinary bladder were found in 3 out of these 4 rats. The results thus demonstrated that ETBE did not exert promotional activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder developed in small numbers of the rats given ETBE at 1000 mg/kg/day but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses.

  19. No Promoting Effect of Ethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (ETBE) on Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis Initiated with N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Doi, Yuko; Suguro, Mayuko; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male F344 rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were investigated at various dose levels with regard to possible promoting activity. Groups of 30 rats were given drinking water containing 500 ppm BBN, as an initiator, for 4 weeks and starting one week thereafter received ETBE by gavage (daily, 7 days/week) at dose levels of 0 (control), 100, 300, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day until experimental week 36. No statistically significant differences in incidences of preneoplastic lesions, papillomas, and carcinomas of the urinary bladder were evident in rats treated with 100–1000 mg/kg/day ETBE as compared with control values. Furthermore, the average numbers of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions per unit length of basement membrane in rats given 100–1000 mg/kg/day ETBE were also comparable to control values. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder was found in 4 out of 30 rats (13%) in the group given 1000 mg/kg/day ETBE, and soft stones in the urinary bladder were found in 3 out of these 4 rats. The results thus demonstrated that ETBE did not exert promotional activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis. However, papillomatosis of the urinary bladder developed in small numbers of the rats given ETBE at 1000 mg/kg/day but not in rats given 500 mg/kg/day or lower doses. PMID:24526807

  20. Multifunctional Poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-graft-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Amphiphilic Copolymer as an Oral High-Performance Delivery Carrier of Tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Pan, Xiaolei; Wang, Shang; Zhai, Yinglei; Guan, Jibin; Fu, Qiang; Hao, Xiaoli; Qi, Wanpeng; Wang, Yingli; Lian, He; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yongjun; Sun, Yinghua; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve oral bioavailability of tacrolimus (FK506), a novel poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-graft-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin amphiphilic copolymer (CD-PVM/MA) is developed, combining the bioadhesiveness of PVM/MA, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cytochrome P450-inhibitory effect of CD into one. The FK506-loaded nanoparticles (CD-PVM/MA-NPs) were obtained by solvent evaporation method. The physiochemical properties and intestinal absorption mechanism of FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs were characterized, and the pharmacokinetic behavior was investigated in rats. FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs exhibited nanometer-sized particles of 273.7 nm, with encapsulation efficiency as high as 73.3%. FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs maintained structural stability in the simulated gastric fluid, and about 80% FK506 was released within 24 h in the simulated intestinal fluid. The permeability of FK506 was improved dramatically by CD-PVM/MA-NPs compared to its solution, probably due to the synergistic inhibition effect of P-gp and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). The intestinal biodistribution of fluorescence-labeled CD-PVM/MA-NPs confirmed its good bioadhesion to the rat intestinal wall. Two endocytosis pathways, clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were involved in the cellular uptake of CD-PVM/MA-NPs. The important role of lymphatic transport in nanoparticles' access to the systemic circulation, about half of the contribution to oral bioavailability, was observed in mesenteric lymph duct ligated rats. The AUC0-24 of FK506 loaded in nanoparticles was enhanced up to 20-fold compared to FK506 solutions after oral administration. The present study suggested that the novel multifunctional CD-PVM/MA is a promising efficient oral delivery carrier for FK506, due to its ability in solubilization, inhibitory effects on both P-gp and CYP 3A, high bioadhesion, and sustained release capability. PMID:26024817

  1. Rh(I)-catalyzed transformation of propargyl vinyl ethers into (E,Z)-dienals: stereoelectronic role of trans effect in a metal-mediated pericyclic process and a shift from homogeneous to heterogeneous catalysis during a one-pot reaction.

    PubMed

    Vidhani, Dinesh V; Krafft, Marie E; Alabugin, Igor V

    2014-01-01

    The combination of experiments and computations reveals unusual features of stereoselective Rh(I)-catalyzed transformation of propargyl vinyl ethers into (E,Z)-dienals. The first step, the conversion of propargyl vinyl ethers into allene aldehydes, proceeds under homogeneous conditions via a "cyclization-mediated" mechanism initiated by Rh(I) coordination at the alkyne. This path agrees well with the small experimental effects of substituents on the carbinol carbon. The key feature revealed by the computational study is the stereoelectronic effect of the ligand arrangement at the catalytic center. The rearrangement barriers significantly decrease due to the greater transfer of electron density from the catalytic metal center to the CO ligand oriented trans to the alkyne. This effect increases electrophilicity of the metal and lowers the calculated barriers by 9.0 kcal/mol. Subsequent evolution of the catalyst leads to the in situ formation of Rh(I) nanoclusters that catalyze stereoselective tautomerization. The intermediacy of heterogeneous catalysis by nanoclusters was confirmed by mercury poisoning, temperature-dependent sigmoidal kinetic curves, and dynamic light scattering. The combination of experiments and computations suggests that the initially formed allene-aldehyde product assists in the transformation of a homogeneous catalyst (or "a cocktail of catalysts") into nanoclusters, which in turn catalyze and control the stereochemistry of subsequent transformations.

  2. Spectrometric measurements and DFT studies on new complex of copper (II) with 2-((E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoyang; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    The molecular structure of a new complex of copper (II) with (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole ([Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2) was optimized with B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level. The ligand, (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole (emppc), binds to Cu(II) ions with a bi-dentate mode, two Cl(-) serve as bridging ligand, each Cu(II) ion has a highly distorted tetrahedron coordination geometry. With M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level, the calculated interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms N are between 183.3-200.0kJmol(-1) for α spin and 319.4-324.9kJmol(-1) for β spin, and interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms Cl atom are 248.0-252.4kJmol(-1) for α spin and 332.6-333.6kJmol(-1) for β spin. The experimental Fourier transform infrared spectrum was assigned. The calculated IR based on B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ methods were performed and compared with experimental results. The UV-Vis experimental spectra of [Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2 was measured in methanol solution. The calculated electronic spectrum was performed with TD/M062X and PCM-TD/M062X methods with LanL2DZ basis set. The nature bond orbital analysis and temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties were calculated with the same methods. PMID:27285472

  3. Spectrometric measurements and DFT studies on new complex of copper (II) with 2-((E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haoyang; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    The molecular structure of a new complex of copper (II) with (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole ([Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2) was optimized with B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level. The ligand, (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole (emppc), binds to Cu(II) ions with a bi-dentate mode, two Cl- serve as bridging ligand, each Cu(II) ion has a highly distorted tetrahedron coordination geometry. With M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level, the calculated interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms N are between 183.3-200.0 kJ mol- 1 for α spin and 319.4-324.9 kJ mol- 1 for β spin, and interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms Cl atom are 248.0-252.4 kJ mol- 1 for α spin and 332.6-333.6 kJ mol- 1 for β spin. The experimental Fourier transform infrared spectrum was assigned. The calculated IR based on B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ methods were performed and compared with experimental results. The UV-Vis experimental spectra of [Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2 was measured in methanol solution. The calculated electronic spectrum was performed with TD/M062X and PCM-TD/M062X methods with LanL2DZ basis set. The nature bond orbital analysis and temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties were calculated with the same methods.

  4. Molecular engineering of liquid crystal polymers by living polymerization. Part 11: Synthesis and characterization of poly(11-((4-cyano 4'trans-a-cyanostilbene)oxy)undecanyl vinyl ether)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percec, Virgil; Gomes, A. S.; Lee, M.

    1991-04-01

    A convenient method for the synthesis of 11 (4-cyano-4' trans-alpha cyanostibene) oxyundecanyl vinyl ether (6) which is the first member of a new class of mesogenic monomers is described. The polymerization of 6 initiated with CF3SO3H/S(CH3)2 in methylene chloride proceeds through a living cationic mechanism leading to polymers with controllable molecular weights and polydispersities narrower than 1.10. The mesomorphic behavior of both 6 and poly(6)s with various molecular weights was determined by using a combination of thermal optical polarized microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Six is only crystalline. Poly(6)s with degrees of polymerization from 4 to 30 exhibit an enantiotropic smectic A mesophase and side chain crystallization.

  5. Vinyl stilbazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, John A. (Inventor); Heimbuch, Alvin H. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Vinyl pyridines including vinyl stilbazole materials and vinyl styrylpyridine oligomer materials are disclosed. These vinylpyridines form copolymers with bismaleimides which copolymers have good fire retardancy and decreased brittleness. The cure temperatures of the copolymers are substantially below the cure temperatures of the bismaleimides alone. Reinforced composites made from the cured copolymers are disclosed as well.

  6. Ether modifications to 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503): effects on binding affinity and selectivity for sigma receptors and monoamine transporters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Lord, Sarah A; Peterson, Ryan M; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A; Lever, John R; Lever, Susan Z

    2015-01-01

    Two series of novel ether analogs of the sigma (σ) receptor ligand 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503) have been prepared. In one series, the alkyl portion of the 4-methoxy group was replaced with allyl, propyl, bromoethyl, benzyl, phenethyl, and phenylpropyl moieties. In the second series, the 3,4-dimethoxy was replaced with cyclic methylenedioxy, ethylenedioxy and propylenedioxy groups. These ligands, along with 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, were evaluated for σ1 and σ2 receptor affinity, and compared to SA4503 and several known ether analogs. SA4503 and a subset of ether analogs were also evaluated for dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) affinity. The highest σ1 receptor affinities, Ki values of 1.75-4.63 nM, were observed for 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, SA4503 and the methylenedioxy analog. As steric bulk increased, σ1 receptor affinity decreased, but only to a point. Allyl, propyl and bromoethyl substitutions gave σ1 receptor Ki values in the 20-30 nM range, while bulkier analogs having phenylalkyl, and Z- and E-iodoallyl, ether substitutions showed higher σ1 affinities, with Ki values in the 13-21 nM range. Most ligands studied exhibited comparable σ1 and σ2 affinities, resulting in little to no subtype selectivity. SA4503, the fluoroethyl analog and the methylenedioxy congener showed modest six- to fourteen-fold selectivity for σ1 sites. DAT and SERT interactions proved much more sensitive than σ receptor interactions to these structural modifications. For example, the benzyl congener (σ1Ki=20.8 nM; σ2Ki=16.4 nM) showed over 100-fold higher DAT affinity (Ki=121 nM) and 6-fold higher SERT affinity (Ki=128nM) than the parent SA4503 (DAT Ki=12650 nM; SERT Ki=760 nM). Thus, ether modifications to the SA4503 scaffold can provide polyfunctional ligands having a broader spectrum of possible pharmacological actions.

  7. The Search for a Complex Molecule in a Selected Hot Core Region: A Rigorous Attempt to Confirm Trans-ethyl Methyl Ether toward W51 e1/e2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, P. Brandon; McGuire, Brett A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Apponi, A. J.; Ziurys, L. M.; Remijan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    An extensive search has been conducted to confirm transitions of trans-ethyl methyl ether (tEME, C2H5OCH3), toward the high-mass star forming region W51 e1/e2 using the 12 m Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory at wavelengths from 2 mm and 3 mm. In short, we cannot confirm the detection of tEME toward W51 e1/e2 and our results call into question the initial identification of this species by Fuchs et al. Additionally, re-evaluation of the data from the original detection indicates that tEME is not present toward W51 e1/e2 in the abundance reported by Fuchs and colleagues. Typical peak-to-peak noise levels for the present observations of W51 e1/e2 were between 10 and 30 mK, yielding an upper limit of the tEME column density of <=1.5 × 1015 cm-2. This would make tEME at least a factor of two times less abundant than dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) toward W51 e1/e2. We also performed an extensive search for this species toward the high-mass star forming region Sgr B2(N-LMH) with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory 100 m Green Bank Telescope. No transitions of tEME were detected and we were able to set an upper limit to the tEME column density of <=4 × 1014 cm-2 toward this source. Thus, we are able to show that tEME is not a new molecular component of the interstellar medium and that an exacting assessment must be carried out when assigning transitions of new molecular species to astronomical spectra to support the identification of large organic interstellar molecules.

  8. DIPPR Project 871 For 1995 - Thermodynamic Properties and Ideal-Gas Enthalpies of Formation for Methyl Benzoate, Ethyl Benzoate, (R)-(+)-Limonene, Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether, Trans-Crotonaldehyde, and

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.

    2002-07-01

    Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, (R)-(+)-limonene, tert-amyl methyl ether, trans-crotonaldehyde, and diethylene glycol are reported. The standard energy of combustion and hence standard enthalpy of formation of each compound in the liquid phase has been measured using an oxygen rotating-bomb calorimeter without rotation. Vapor pressures were measured to a pressure limit of 270 kPa or the lower decomposition point for each of the six compounds using a twin ebulliometric apparatus. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for each compound over a range of temperature (ambient to a maximum of 548 K). A differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure two-phase (liquid + vapor) heat capacities for each compound in the temperature region ambient to the critical temperature or lower decomposition point. For methyl benzoate and tert-amyl methyl ether, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the DSC results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, critical pressures, and critical densities for each of the remaining compounds. The results of the measurements were combined to derive a series of thermophysical properties including critical temperature, critical density, critical pressure, acentric factor, enthalpies of vaporization (restricted to within {+-}50 K of the temperature region of the experimentally determined vapor pressures), and heat capacities along the saturation line. Wagner-type vapor-pressure equations were derived for each compound. All measured and derived values were compared with those obtained in a search of the literature. Recommended critical parameters are listed for each of the compounds studied. Group-additivity parameters, useful in the application of the Benson gas-phase group-contribution correlations, were derived.

  9. Lack of micronucleus induction activity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in the bone marrow of F344 rats by sub-chronic drinking-water treatment, inhalation exposure, or acute intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tadashi; Kamigaito, Tomoyuki; Katagiri, Taku; Kondou, Hitomi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is an oxygenated gasoline additive synthesized from ethanol and isobutene that is used to reduce CO2 emissions. To support the Kyoto Protocol, the production of ETBE has undergone a marked increase. Previous reports have indicated that exposure to ETBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether resulted in liver and kidney tumors in rats and/or mice. These reports raise concern about the effects of human exposure being brought about by the increased use of ETBE. The present study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of ETBE using micronucleus induction of polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of male and female rats treated with ETBE in the drinking-water at concentrations of 0, 1,600, 4,000 or 10,000 ppm or exposed to ETBE vapor at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no significant increases in micronucleus induction in either the drinking water-administered or inhalation-administered groups at any concentration of ETBE; although, in both groups red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were slightly reduced in the peripheral blood in rats administered the highest concentration of ETBE. In addition, two consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at doses of 0, 250, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg did not increase the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells in either sex; all rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg died after treatment day 1. These data suggest that ETBE is not genotoxic in vivo.

  10. Vinyl bromide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl bromide ; CASRN 593 - 60 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  11. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 01 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  12. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  13. Comparison of removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid and citric acid in primary teeth: A scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Rahul J.; Bapna, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Root canal irrigants are considered momentous in their tissue dissolving property, eliminating microorganisms, and removing smear layer. The present study was aimed to compare the removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and citric acid solutions with saline as a control in primary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty primary anterior teeth were chosen for the study. The teeth were distributed into three groups having ten teeth each. Following instrumentation, root canals of the first group were treated with 17% EGTA and the second group with 6% citric acid. Only saline was used as an irrigant for the control group. Then, the teeth were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study. The scale given by Rome et al. for the smear layer removal was used in the present study. Results: The pictures from the SEM showed that among the tested irrigants, 17% EGTA + 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) group showed the best results when compared to other groups. Conclusion: The results advocate that the sequential irrigation of the pulp canal walls with 17% EGTA followed by 5% NaOCl produced efficacious and smear-free root canal walls. PMID:27307670

  14. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  15. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  16. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  17. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  18. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  19. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions. (a) The additive is a cellulose ether having the...

  20. THE SEARCH FOR A COMPLEX MOLECULE IN A SELECTED HOT CORE REGION: A RIGOROUS ATTEMPT TO CONFIRM TRANS-ETHYL METHYL ETHER TOWARD W51 e1/e2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, P. Brandon; McGuire, Brett A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Apponi, A. J.; Ziurys, L. M.; Remijan, Anthony

    2015-01-20

    An extensive search has been conducted to confirm transitions of trans-ethyl methyl ether (tEME, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OCH{sub 3}), toward the high-mass star forming region W51 e1/e2 using the 12 m Telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory at wavelengths from 2 mm and 3 mm. In short, we cannot confirm the detection of tEME toward W51 e1/e2 and our results call into question the initial identification of this species by Fuchs et al. Additionally, re-evaluation of the data from the original detection indicates that tEME is not present toward W51 e1/e2 in the abundance reported by Fuchs and colleagues. Typical peak-to-peak noise levels for the present observations of W51 e1/e2 were between 10 and 30 mK, yielding an upper limit of the tEME column density of ≤1.5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –2}. This would make tEME at least a factor of two times less abundant than dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) toward W51 e1/e2. We also performed an extensive search for this species toward the high-mass star forming region Sgr B2(N-LMH) with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory 100 m Green Bank Telescope. No transitions of tEME were detected and we were able to set an upper limit to the tEME column density of ≤4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup –2} toward this source. Thus, we are able to show that tEME is not a new molecular component of the interstellar medium and that an exacting assessment must be carried out when assigning transitions of new molecular species to astronomical spectra to support the identification of large organic interstellar molecules.

  1. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to icosapent ethyl; fish, including shellfish (clams, scallops, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crab, ... and ticlopidine (Ticlid); aspirin or aspirin-containing products; beta-blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol ( ...

  2. Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kakehashi, Anna; Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Nagano, Kasuke; Nishimaki, Fukumi; Banton, Marcy; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-12-01

    To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: • We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. • ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. • Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. • ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. • The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

  3. Preparation of hydrophilic vinyl chloride copolymer hollow fiber membranes with antifouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Sano, Rie; Ishigami, Toru; Kakihana, Yuriko; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophilic vinyl chloride copolymer hollow fiber membranes with antifouling properties were prepared from brominated vinyl chloride-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (poly(VC-co-HEMA-Br)). The base membrane was grafted with two different zwitterionic monomers, (2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine) (MPC) and [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) (MEDSAH), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). The effect of the grafting on the base membrane hydrophilicity and antifouling properties was investigated. For comparison of the results, the pure water permeabilities and pore sizes at the outer surfaces of the grafted hollow fiber membranes were controlled to be similar. A poly(VC-co-HEMA-Br) hollow fiber membrane with similar pure water permeability and pore size was also prepared as a control membrane. A BSA solution was used as a model fouling solution for evaluation of the antifouling properties. Grafting with zwitterionic monomers and PEGMA improved the antifouling properties compared with the control membrane. The PEGMA grafted membrane showed the best antifouling properties among the grafted membranes

  4. Ethyl carbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl carbamate ; CASRN 51 - 79 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  5. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  7. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  8. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  9. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  10. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyimide resins having improved thermo-oxidative stability are provided having aromatic vinyl end-caps. The polyimides are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a diamine, (2) an ester of tetracarboxylic acid and (3) an aromatic vinyl compound in a molar ratio of 1:2:3 of n: (n + 1):2 when the aromatic vinyl compound contains nitrogen and in a ratio of (n + 1):n:2 when the aromatic vinyl compound does not contain nitrogen, wherein n ranges from about 5 to about 20.

  11. Ether production

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a multistage process for etherifying a mixed C{sub 4} + olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock containing isoalkene. It comprises: contacting the olefinic feedstock and aliphatic alcohol in a first reaction stage under partial etherification conditions with a regenerable inorganic metal oxide acid solid catalyst to convert a major amount of the isoalkene to C{sub 5} + tertiary-alkyl ether; recovering a reactant effluent from the first stage containing ether product, unreacted alcohol and unreacted olefin including isoalkene; charging the first stage effluent to a second stage catalytic distillation column containing solid acid resin etherification catalyst in a plurality of fixed bed catalysis-distillation zones to complete substantially full etherification of isoalkene; recovering C{sub 5} + ether as a liquid from the catalytic distillation column; regenerating the first stage catalyst to remove feedstock impurity and coke and to acid activity; and continuing ether production with regenerated catalyst.

  12. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  13. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  14. Oligomer formation during gas-phase ozonolysis of small alkenes and enol ethers: new evidence for the central role of the Criegee Intermediate as oligomer chain unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadezky, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Kanawati, B.; Römpp, A.; Spengler, B.; Mellouki, A.; Le Bras, G.; Chaimbault, P.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2008-05-01

    An important fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by atmospheric oxidation of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOC) has recently been shown to consist of high-molecular weight oligomeric species. In our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006), we reported the identification and characterization of oligomers as main constituents of SOA from gas-phase ozonolysis of small enol ethers. These oligomers contained repeated chain units of the same chemical composition as the main Criegee Intermediates (CI) formed during the ozonolysis reaction, which were CH2O2 (mass 46) for alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE) and C2H4O2 (mass 60) for ethyl propenyl ether (EPE). In the present work, we extend our previous study to another enol ether (ethyl butenyl ether EBE) and a variety of structurally related small alkenes (trans-3-hexene, trans-4-octene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene). Experiments have been carried out in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric conditions in the absence of seed aerosol. SOA formation was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). SOA filter samples were collected and chemically characterized off-line by ESI(+)/TOF MS and ESI(+)/TOF MS/MS, and elemental compositions were determined by ESI(+)/FTICR MS and ESI(+)/FTICR MS/MS. The results for all investigated unsaturated compounds are in excellent agreement with the observations of our previous study. Analysis of the collected SOA filter samples reveal the presence of oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as major constituents. The repeated chain units of these oligomers are shown to systematically have the same chemical composition as the respective main Criegee Intermediate (CI) formed during ozonolysis of the unsaturated compounds, which is C3H6O2 (mass 74) for ethyl butenyl ether (EBE), trans-3-hexene, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, and C4H8O2 (mass 88) for trans-4-octene. Analogous fragmentation pathways among the oligomers formed by gas-phase ozonolysis of the different

  15. Oligomer formation during gas-phase ozonolysis of small alkenes and enol ethers: new evidence for the central role of the Criegee Intermediate as oligomer chain unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadezky, A.; Winterhalter, R.; Kanawati, B.; Römpp, A.; Spengler, B.; Mellouki, A.; Le Bras, G.; Chaimbault, P.; Moortgat, G. K.

    2007-10-01

    An important fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by atmospheric oxidation of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOC) has recently been shown to consist of high-molecular weight oligomeric species. In our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006), we reported the identification and characterization of oligomers as main constituents of SOA from gas-phase ozonolysis of small enol ethers. These oligomers contained repeated chain units of the same chemical composition as the main Criegee Intermediates (CI) formed during the ozonolysis reaction, which were CH2O2 (mass 46) for alkyl vinyl ethers (AVE) and C2H4O2 (mass 60) for ethyl propenyl ether (EPE). In the present work, we extend our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006) to another enol ether (ethyl butenyl ether EBE) and a variety of structurally related small alkenes (trans-3-hexene, trans-4-octene and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene). Experiments have been carried out in a 570 l spherical glass reactor at atmospheric conditions in the absence of seed aerosol. SOA formation was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). SOA filter samples were collected and chemically characterized off-line by ESI(+)/MS-TOF and ESI(+)/MS/MS-TOF, and elemental compositions were confirmed by ESI(+)/MS/MS-FTICR. The results for all investigated unsaturated compounds are in excellent agreement with the observations of our previous study (Sadezky et al., 2006). Analysis of the collected SOA filter samples reveal the presence of oligomeric compounds in the mass range 200 to 800 u as major constituents. The repeated chain units of these oligomers are shown to systematically have the same chemical composition as the respective main Criegee Intermediate (CI) formed during ozonolysis of the unsaturated compounds, which is C3H6O2 (mass 74) for ethyl butenyl ether (EBE), trans-3-hexene, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, and C4H8O2 (mass 88) for trans-4-octene. Analogous fragmentation pathways among the oligomers formed by gas

  16. Validation of infrared spectroscopy for assessment of vinyl polymers of bile-pigment gallstones.

    PubMed Central

    Rege, R V; Webster, C C; Ostrow, J D; Carr, S H; Ohkubo, H

    1984-01-01

    The i.r. spectra of bilirubin isomers that differ in number and position of vinyl groups were examined to verify the assignment of the 988 cm-1 peak of bilirubin (991 cm-1 peak in calcium bilirubinate) to its pendant vinyl groups. There were only small changes in this peak with changes in position of vinyl groups (exo-2- and -18-vinyl versus endo-3- and -17-vinyl), but progressive loss of peaks in this region was observed when vinyl groups were reduced to ethyl groups (dihydrobilirubin and mesobilirubin). Methylvinylmaleimide, a monopyrrole derived from the outer (A and D) rings of bilirubin, has a pendant vinyl group and exhibits a prominent peak at 986 cm-1, but haematinic acid methyl ester derived from the inner (B and C) rings has no vinyl group and shows no peak near 988 cm-1. These observations verify the assignment of the 988 cm-1 peak of bilirubin to its pendant vinyl groups. This supports our previous proposal that a decrease in the peak at 985-995 cm-1 in the i.r. spectra of pigment gallstones, as compared with unconjugated bilirubin or calcium bilirubinate, indicates a consumption of vinyl groups in the process of formation of the polymer in the pigment stones. PMID:6525179

  17. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  18. Tetrabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetrabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 40088 - 47 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  19. Pentabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Pentabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32534 - 81 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  20. Hexabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 36483 - 60 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  1. Octabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32536 - 52 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  2. Tribromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tribromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 49690 - 94 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  3. Nonabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nonabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 63936 - 56 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  4. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  5. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  6. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  7. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  8. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  9. Labeled 1,N6-ethenoadenosine and 3,N4-ethenocytidine in hepatic RNA of mice given[ethyl-1,2(-3)H or ethyl-1(-14)C]ethyl carbamate (urethan).

    PubMed

    Ribovich, M L; Miller, J A; Miller, E C; Timmins, L G

    1982-01-01

    Injection of a single dose of[ethyl-1,2(-3)H]or[ethyl-1(-14C]- ethyl carbamate into 12-day old male[C57BL/6 x C3H/He]F1 mice or of[ethyl-1,2(-3H]ethyl carbamate into adult male A/Jax mice resulted in the formation of labeled 1,N6-ethenoadenosine and 3,N4-ethenocytidine adducts in the hepatic RNA. These adducts were characterized by comigration on h.p.l.c. of 3H or 14C in enzymatic hydrolysates of the RNA with synthetic standards. Both the ethenoadenosine and ethenocytidine were further characterized by their conversion to acetylated products that comigrated with acetylated synthetic standards. The ethenoadenosine was also converted by anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid to a product that comigrated with synthetic 1,N6-ethenoadenine. The levels of adducts in the hepatic RNA 12 h after a single injection of 0.5-0.6 mg of ethyl carbamate/g body weight were 6-10 and 2-3 pmol/mg RNA of ethenoadenosine and ethenocytidine, respectively. No labeled ethenoadenosine or ethenocytidine could be detected in the hepatic RNA of mice given[1-14C]ethanol, an enzymatic hydrolysis product of ethyl carbamate. These data indicate that ethyl carbamate may be metabolically activated by dehydrogenation to vinyl carbamate and subsequent epoxidation of the latter compound as previously proposed. Vinyl carbamate epoxide may form etheno derivatives in a manner analogous to that demonstrated for chloroethylene oxide, an electrophilic metabolite of vinyl chloride. Vinyl carbamate has been shown to have the same spectrum of tumor induction as ethyl carbamate but to be much more active than the latter carcinogen. PMID:6178529

  10. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  14. The direct polymerization of vinyl alcohol and vinyl alcohol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, B.M.; Cederstav, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    The copolymerization of vinyl alcohol with a number of electron deficient olefins is reported. Vinyl alcohol was formed through the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ketene methyl vinyl acetal. Under water starved conditions, the kinetics of tautomerization have a zero order dependence upon the concentration of vinyl alcohol (k{sub obs} = 3.5 x 10{sup -6} M/s). Hence, under these conditions, the half life of vinyl alcohol can be several hours at room temperature. We found that this meta-stable species could be quantitatively polymerized in a copolymerization (AIBN, h{upsilon}, -10 to 25{degrees}C) with maleic anhydride, maleimide or acrylonitrile.

  15. Vintage Vinyl Record Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacco, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project in which his ninth-grade art students utilized a vinyl record as an unusual medium to create a work that exhibited solid design, great creativity, and strong craftsmanship. Students presented their pieces to the class for critique, explained the process, the media, and their feelings about their…

  16. The interaction of ethyl alcohol and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hills, B W; Venable, H L

    1982-01-01

    A serious, relatively unrecognized, occupational health problem involves the interaction of ethyl alcohol and chemical agents used in industry. Workers who drink alcohol and are exposed to certain chemical agents may experience adverse health effects such as nausea, dizziness, headache, and liver damage. This report reviews the synergistic interactions of ethanol with compounds such as the thiurams, amides, oximes, halogenated hydrocarbons, and metals. Also discussed is the effect of ethanol as a cofactor with vinyl chloride in the etiology of cancer.

  17. Solubility parameter of poly(vinyl methyl ether)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  18. Solubility parameter of poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoromethyl vinyl ether)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  19. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2) may be safely used as articles...

  20. Prenyl Ethers: Novel Fungal Volatiles Formed by Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Frey, Peter; Meier, Roberto; Baumann, Heidi; Tanner, Miriam; Gassenmeier, Klaus F

    2014-10-01

    Prenyl ethyl ether (PEE) was previously described as the cause for a solvent-like off-note in ground hazelnuts, but its origin remained unclear. Investigations were carried out by analytical groups of Coop and Givaudan over four years to elucidate this phenomenon. From mouldy citrus fruits a strain of Penicillium digitatum was isolated and found to form PEE. Formation on citrus and other fruits was prominent and contributed to the particular smell of decayed fruits. Several strains of P. digitatum formed PEE, while other fungal species did not. In contrast to citrus fruit, prenyl methyl ether (PME) was formed as dominant prenyl ether on hazelnuts while only small amounts of PEE were found. PME has not been previously described as volatile metabolite of fungi or as a food-taint. Spiking experiments with deuterated ethanol showed that the ethyl group is likely incorporated into PEE via the aldehyde form. On hazelnuts strongly decayed by P. digitatum yet another prenyl ether was tentatively identified: Prenyl isopropyl ether. Prenyl ethers present a novel group of volatile metabolites of P. digitatum. They are likely typical for this species and have not been described before. Prenyl ethers seem to play a significant role in the smell of food decayed by P. digitatum and should be considered in cases of off-notes and taints. PMID:25437159

  1. Antioxidant activity of alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers in unsaturated lipids.

    PubMed

    Cert, Rosa; Madrona, Andrés; Espartero, José Luis; Pérez-Camino, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of ethyl and octyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers toward lipids was determined using the Rancimat and open cup methods at high temperatures and 50 °C, respectively. The effect of the unsaturation of the matrix was evaluated using sunflower, soya, and fish refined oils. The antioxidant activities of alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers (HTy ethers), hydroxytyrosyl esters, and free hydroxytyrosol are similar, and are much higher than that of α-tocopherol at the same millimolar concentration. The relationship between the induction period and the concentration of the HTy ethers is a sigmoidal curve; an accurate concentration of HTy ethers is necessary to achieve maximum activity, as it increases with the level of matrix unsaturation. The presence of tocopherols in commercial oils affects the antioxidant effect of HTy ethers. Thus, the addition of a low concentration of HTy ethers results in a positive effect, whereas the effect of the addition of high amounts of ethers is slightly less than that of the phenol alone. The addition of HTy ethers to commercial refined oils increases the stability of the oils and preserves tocopherols and polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation, enabling the oils to maintain their nutritional properties for longer periods of time.

  2. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... not exceed 0.03 weight-percent when extracted with water at 150 °F for 2 hours. (ii) Total extractives...) Reagents—(i) Water. All water used in these procedures shall be demineralized (deionized), freshly distilled water. (ii) n-Heptane. Reagent grade, freshly distilled n-heptane shall be used. (2)...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... not exceed 0.03 weight-percent when extracted with water at 150 °F for 2 hours. (ii) Total extractives...) Reagents—(i) Water. All water used in these procedures shall be demineralized (deionized), freshly distilled water. (ii) n-Heptane. Reagent grade, freshly distilled n-heptane shall be used. (2)...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... not exceed 0.03 weight-percent when extracted with water at 150 °F for 2 hours. (ii) Total extractives...) Reagents—(i) Water. All water used in these procedures shall be demineralized (deionized), freshly distilled water. (ii) n-Heptane. Reagent grade, freshly distilled n-heptane shall be used. (2)...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-percent when extracted with water at 150 °F for 2 hours. (ii) Total extractives do not exceed 0.60 weight... than 10 percent will pass through a U.S. Standard Sieve No. 200. (1) Reagents—(i) Water. All water used in these procedures shall be demineralized (deionized), freshly distilled water. (ii)...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... not exceed 0.03 weight-percent when extracted with water at 150 °F for 2 hours. (ii) Total extractives...) Reagents—(i) Water. All water used in these procedures shall be demineralized (deionized), freshly distilled water. (ii) n-Heptane. Reagent grade, freshly distilled n-heptane shall be used. (2)...

  7. AVOIDING HYDROLYSIS OF FUEL ETHER OXYGENATES DURING STATIC HEADSPACE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A headspace autosampler, gas chromatograph and ion trap mass spectrometer (headspace GC/MS) were used for trace analysis of fuel oxygenates and related compounds and aromatics in water. A method has been developed for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-b...

  8. Regiochemical control in the metal-catalyzed transposition of allylic silyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric C; Lee, Daesung

    2006-06-28

    A novel mode of regiochemical control over the allylic [1,3]-transposition of silyloxy groups catalyzed by Re2O7 has been developed. This strategy relies on a cis-oriented vinyl boronate, generated from the Alder-ene reaction of homoallylic silyl ethers and alkynyl boronates, to trap out the allylic hydroxyl group. The resulting cyclic boronic acids are excellent partners for cross-coupling reactions. High chirality transfer is observed for the rearrangement of enantioenriched allylic silyl ethers.

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (e) No electrical equipment except for approved lighting fixtures shall be installed in enclosed spaces adjacent to the cargo tanks. Lighting fixtures must be approved for use in Class I, Group...

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be designed and tested to meet the rules of the American Bureau of Shipping for a head of water at... design pressure of the tank. (d) Inert gas displacement may be used for discharging cargo from...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the design pressure be less than 50 pounds per square inch gauge. All openings shall be in the top of... does not exceed 50 pounds per square inch gauge or the design pressure of the tank, whichever is less... surrounding the cargo tanks. (c) Pressure relief valve settings shall not be less than 3 pounds per...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the design pressure be less than 50 pounds per square inch gauge. All openings shall be in the top of... does not exceed 50 pounds per square inch gauge or the design pressure of the tank, whichever is less... surrounding the cargo tanks. (c) Pressure relief valve settings shall not be less than 3 pounds per...

  13. A novel biobased plasticizer of epoxidized cardanol glycidylether: Synthesis and application in soft poly(vinyl chloride) films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel plasticizer derived from cardanol, epoxied cardanol glycidyl ether (ECGE), was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Effects of the ECGE combined with dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a commercial plasticizer, in soft poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films were studied. Dynamic mechanical a...

  14. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  15. Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups and poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups are readily prepared from bisphenols containing ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups. The resulting polymers are cured up to 350.degree. C. to provide crosslinked poly(arylene ether)s with good solvent resistance, high strength and modulus.

  16. Oxidative acetoxylation of the silyl ethers of ketone enols

    SciTech Connect

    Brunovlenskaya, I.I.; Kusainova, K.M.; Kashin, A.K.

    1988-07-20

    The authors studied the reaction of (dicarboxyiodo)benzenes with the trimethylsilyl ethers of ketone enols having various structures. They also undertook a comparative investigation of the oxidation of these compounds with lead tetraacetate. The reaction of (diacetoxyiodo)benzene with the trimethylsilyl ethers of ketone enols takes place with retention of the (CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si group in two directions, i.e., substitution of the vinylic hydrogen or diacetoxylation of the double bond. The reaction can be used for the regioselective synthesis of /alpha/-acetoxy ketones, since the trimethylsilyl group is readily eliminated from the obtained products by the action of fluoride ion or boron trifluoride etherate with the formation of the corresponding substituted ketones.

  17. Radiation-chemical synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel containing dicyclohexano-18-crown-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakurdaeva, O. A.; Nesterov, S. V.; Shmakova, N. A.; Semenova, G. K.; Sozontova, E. O.; Feldman, V. I.

    2007-12-01

    Radiation-chemical synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels containing physically immobilized dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 was carried out. Remarkable gel fraction of 40-70% was observed at absorbed dose of about 5 kGy. Increasing degree of poly(vinyl alcohol) crosslinking led to growth of the efficiency of crown ether immobilization. Post-irradiation thermal annealing of the hydrogel samples at 120 °C for 0.5-5 h resulted in an increase of crown ether retention as compared with non-annealed samples by approximately 20% at the same absorbed dose. Preliminary results on a sorption behavior of the crown-containing hydrogels with respect to Sr 2+ cations in 2.4 M HNO 3 solution are presented.

  18. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  19. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  20. Chlorimuron-ethyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorimuron - ethyl ; CASRN 90982 - 32 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  1. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    Jones, J H

    1981-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases.

  2. Crown ethers in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  3. Crown ethers in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basicmore » structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.« less

  4. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  5. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M.; Muller, Jochen A.; Rosner, Bettina M.; Von Abendroth, Gregory; Meshulam-Simon, Galit; McCarty, Perry L

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  6. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  7. Upper limits for the ethyl-cyanide abundances in TMC-1 and L134N: chemical implications.

    PubMed

    Minh, Y C; Irvine, W M

    1991-01-01

    We have sought interstellar ethyl-cyanide via its 2(02)-1(01) transition towards two cold, dark clouds and report upper limits of the total column densities of 3 x 10(12) cm-2 and 2 x 10(12) cm-2 for TMC-1 and L134N, respectively. We also observed the 2(02)-1(01) transition of vinyl cyanide previously identified in TMC-1 by Matthews and Sears (1983b). The detection of vinyl cyanide and the non-detection of ethyl cyanide in TMC-1 are consistent with gas phase ion-molecule chemical models, and there is thus no necessity of invoking grain surface synthesis for vinyl cyanide in cold clouds.

  8. Vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R

    1999-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is an important plastic resin for construction, pipe and tubing, siding, and other uses. Exposures to vinyl chloride monomer during the early years of production resulted in an important sentinel health event: the recognition of an excess of a rare liver cancer, hepatic angiosarcoma, at facilities throughout the world. Several other syndromes, including acro-osteolysis, also have been associated with PVC, but less clearly with vinyl chloride. Extensive research ranging from large-scale epidemiologic studies to biomarker research into molecular mechanisms continues to provide valuable insight into the pathogenesis of occupational cancer.

  9. Two Unrelated 8-Vinyl Reductases Ensure Production of Mature Chlorophylls in Acaryochloris marina

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangyu E.; Hitchcock, Andrew; Jackson, Philip J.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Dickman, Mark J.; Hunter, C. Neil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major photopigment of the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is chlorophyll d, while its direct biosynthetic precursor, chlorophyll a, is also present in the cell. These pigments, along with the majority of chlorophylls utilized by oxygenic phototrophs, carry an ethyl group at the C-8 position of the molecule, having undergone reduction of a vinyl group during biosynthesis. Two unrelated classes of 8-vinyl reductase involved in the biosynthesis of chlorophylls are known to exist, BciA and BciB. The genome of Acaryochloris marina contains open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins displaying high sequence similarity to BciA or BciB, although they are annotated as genes involved in transcriptional control (nmrA) and methanogenesis (frhB), respectively. These genes were introduced into an 8-vinyl chlorophyll a-producing ΔbciB strain of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, and both were shown to restore synthesis of the pigment with an ethyl group at C-8, demonstrating their activities as 8-vinyl reductases. We propose that nmrA and frhB be reassigned as bciA and bciB, respectively; transcript and proteomic analysis of Acaryochloris marina reveal that both bciA and bciB are expressed and their encoded proteins are present in the cell, possibly in order to ensure that all synthesized chlorophyll pigment carries an ethyl group at C-8. Potential reasons for the presence of two 8-vinyl reductases in this strain, which is unique for cyanobacteria, are discussed. IMPORTANCE The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is the best-studied phototrophic organism that uses chlorophyll d for photosynthesis. Unique among cyanobacteria sequenced to date, its genome contains ORFs encoding two unrelated enzymes that catalyze the reduction of the C-8 vinyl group of a precursor molecule to an ethyl group. Carrying a reduced C-8 group may be of particular importance to organisms containing chlorophyll d. Plant genomes also contain orthologs of both of these genes; thus, the

  10. Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang; Johnston, Christina M.; Li, Qing

    2016-05-10

    A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.

  11. Comparison of surface modification of poly(ether urethanes) on physical properties and blood compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Hermes, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Because of their good elastomeric properties including the ability to undergo repeated flexing without failure, polyurethanes are used in a number of biomedical applications including flexing diaphragms or coatings on surfaces in artificial hearts and heart assist devices. In particular, the poly(ether urethanes), are preferred for use in biomedical applications because of their greater hydrolytic stability as compared to poly(ester urethanes). However, poly(ether urethanes), as other polymeric materials in contact with blood, cause formation of thrombus and bacterial infections. These problems might be overcome by incorporation of antithrombogenic substances and/or antibacterial agents in the surface of the polymer. We have explored both of these methods by examining the infusion of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into commercially available poly(ether urethanes) and the graft polymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone onto poly(ether urethanes). Preliminary results are presented here. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of covalently immobilized bis-crown ether based potassium ionophore.

    PubMed

    Bereczki, Róbert; Gyurcsányi, Róbert E; Agai, Béla; Tóth, Klára

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of a novel covalently immobilized crown ether based potassium ionophore is presented. Apart from previously proposed methods for the preparation of PVC linked ionophores based on the chemical modification of functionalized PVC polymers, the hereby proposed procedure involves the direct copolymerization of a suitable derivative of the bis-crown ether type potassium ionophore (BME 44) and vinyl chloride monomer. The analytical performance of the potentiometric ion selective electrodes incorporating the PVC bound ionophore were optimized and determined. Compared with electrodes based on other bis-crown ether type immobilized potassium selective ionophores a slightly improved logK(K, Na)(Pot) and a longer lifetime was found. Spectral imaging and chronoamperometry were used to study the mobility of different bis-crown ether derivatives in plasticized PVC membranes.

  13. Synthesis of cinnamyl ethers from α-vinylbenzyl alcohol using iodine as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Yoshio; Uzawa, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Nishida, Tadasuke; Murakami, Keiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Reactions of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol with other alcohols using iodine as a catalyst were investigated. The corresponding cinnamyl ethers were obtained as products. This suggested that α-vinylbenzyl alcohol was converted to cinnamyl ethers via 1-phenylallyl cation. Cinnamyl ethyl ether was obtained in 75% yield by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and ethanol in acetonitrile with iodine under the following conditions: temperature = 50 °C, molar ratio of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol:ethanol:iodine = 1:3.0:0.2, and time period = 6 h. Generally, the yields of the reactions using primary alcohols were higher than those using secondary and tertiary alcohols. Ether interchange also occurred by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and iodine, but proceeded smoothly only when an allyl group was used as the other substituent of the starting ether.

  14. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  15. Novel syntheses of 1-propenyl ethers and dialkylphenacylsulfonium salts and their applications in cationic photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shengqian

    2000-10-01

    Two investigations in the area of photoinduced cationic polymerization have been conducted. These research efforts were intended to provide efficient, low cost preparation of cationically polymerizable monomers and cationic photoinitiators and to evaluate these compounds in photopolymerization applications. In the first project, a new, convenient method for the isomerization of allyl ethers and related compounds has been developed. Alkyl and aryl allyl ethers can be smoothly isomerized to the desired 1-propenyl ethers by refluxing in a basic ethanol/water solution containing pentacarbonyliron as a catalyst. This method was combined with Williamson ether synthesis to make 1-propenyl ether compounds in a one-pot fashion. Further, cationic polymerizations of aryl 1-propenyl ethers were studied using diaryliodonium salt photoinitiators. These compounds fail to undergo efficient cationic polymerization due to chain-transfer by Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The second project involves the development of a new, simplified method for the synthesis of dialkylphenacylsulfonium salt cationic photoinitiators. This novel method was successfully used for the preparation of dialkylphenacylsulfonium salts bearing a wide variation in the length and structure of the alkyl chains as well as the light absorbing aryl ketone chromophores and the anions. Photopolymerization studies revealed that these photoinitiators are capable of initiating the cationic polymerization of a wide variety of epoxy and vinyl ether monomers directly on irradiation with UV light or by using visible light irradiation in the presence of photosensitizers. Kinetic studies show that they compare favorably with respect to their reactivity to diaryliodonium and triarylsulfonium salt photoinitiators in the polymerization of epoxides. The photopolymerizations of vinyl and 1-propenyl ethers display a marked induction period consistent with termination of the growing chains by reaction with the photogenerated ylides

  16. Aqueous DMSO Mediated Conversion of (2-(Arylsulfonyl)vinyl)iodonium Salts to Aldehydes and Vinyl Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Zawia, Eman; Moran, Wesley J

    2016-01-01

    Vinyl(aryl)iodonium salts are useful compounds in organic synthesis but they are under-utilized and their chemistry is under-developed. Herein is described the solvolysis of some vinyl(phenyl)iodonium salts, bearing an arylsulfonyl group, in aqueous DMSO leading to aldehyde formation. This unusual process is selective and operates under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the addition of aqueous HCl and DMSO to these vinyl(aryl)iodonium salts allows their facile conversion to vinyl chlorides. PMID:27537866

  17. Ruthenium Vinyl Carbene Intermediates in Enyne Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Diver, Steven T.

    2009-01-01

    This review provides an overview of ruthenium vinyl carbene reactivity as it relates to enyne metathesis. Methods for the synthesis of metathesis-active and metathesis-inactive complexes are also summarized. Some of the early hypotheses about vinyl carbene intermediates in enyne metatheses were tested in the arena of synthetic chemistry and subsequently led to mechanistic studies. In these two areas, studies from the author's labs are described. There are still many unresolved questions in enyne metathesis that trace back to vinyl carbene reactivity. Hopefully this review will stimulate further investigation into vinyl carbene reactivity which should further refine our understanding of catalytic enyne metathesis. PMID:19590747

  18. Laboratory Method for Analysis of Small Concentrations of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Ether Gasoline Oxygenates in Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Donna L.; Connor, Brooke F.; Abney, Sonja R.; Raese, Jon W.

    1998-01-01

    This Fact Sheet presents data for analysis of nanogram-per-liter concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and three other ether gasoline oxygenates, including methyl tert-pentyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), by purge- and-trap capillary-column gas chromatography. Long-term method detection levels (LT-MDLs) for MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE ranged from 15 to 83 nanograms per liter (0.015 to 0.083 microgram per liter). Nanogram-per-liter-concentration detections are reported if all of the identification criteria are met, whereas previous methods censored detections at a pre-determined method reporting level. The reporting level for this method is defined as two times the LT-MDL, does not censor detections at less than this concentration, and is referred to as the nondetection value (NDV). Bias and variability data from multiple analyses, analysts, and instruments over a 60-day period show the oxygenate recoveries ranging from 100 to 109 percent, with 6 to 8 percent relative standard deviation. MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE were not detected in the analysis of 225 laboratory reagent blanks from January to December 1997. A preservation study in ground water and surface water indicates that all the oxygenates are stable at pH 2 for up to 216 days, with recoveries ranging from 94 to 115 percent on day 216, and relative standard deviations ranging from 5 to 9 percent for the duration of the study.

  19. Chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chloromethyl methyl ether ( CMME ) ; CASRN 107 - 30 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  20. Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 112 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  1. Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether ; CASRN 143 - 22 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  2. p-Bromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Bromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 101 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  3. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 52125 - 53 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  4. Preparation and properties of UV curable acrylic PSA by vinyl bonded graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Beili; Ryu, Chong-Min; Jin, Xin; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2013-11-01

    Acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with higher thermal stability for thin wafer handling were successfully prepared by forming composite with the graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles modified to have vinyl groups via subsequent reaction with isophorone diisocyanate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The acrylic copolymer was synthesized as a base resin for PSAs by solution radical polymerization of ethyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and acrylic acid followed by further modification with GMA to have the vinyl groups available for UV curing. The peel strength of PSA decreased with the increase of gel content which was dependent on both modified GO content and UV dose. Thermal stability of UV-cured PSA was improved noticeably with increasing the modified GO content mainly due to the strong and extensive interfacial bonding formed between the acrylic copolymer matrix and GO fillers

  5. EPA dashes ethyl`s hopes for MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, K.

    1992-01-15

    Up until the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington) decided to deny Ethyl`s (Richmond, VA) petition to sell manganese-based gasoline additive MMT, many on Wall Street were bullish. Bets were that MMT sales could create an up to $200 million/year sales windfall for Ethyl with $60 million/year income, and push its near $26/share price up by at least 50 cts. But EPA ruled January 8 against MMT in unleaded gas due to its potential to increase hydrocarbon emissions. What kept analysts hoping is that octane enhancer MMT`s environmental impacts are mixed. An Ethyl spokesman says that MMT cut tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxide by 20% and carbon monoxide by 7%. Ethyl also points out that MMT could save as much as 85,000 barrels/day of imported oil because of lower energy requirements in blending. And the product has sold for 13 years in Canada with no reported ill health effects. But, points out Smith, Barney (New York) analyst James Wilbur, Canada is not the congested Los Angeles basin, where the unknown effects of small amounts of heavy metal manganese would show up a lot faster if every car burnt MMT. For now, the financial effect of the decision is negligible, although at some point Ethyl may have to take a write-down on its Orangeburg, NC plant.

  6. Ethyl`s MMT ready to hit the road

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.

    1996-01-03

    After spending two decades and about $30 million on the fight to sell the fuel octane booster methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), Ethyl has started marketing the product. Ethyl president and chief operating officer Thomas Gottwald says he expects a profit from MMT from the outset. {open_quotes}MMT is a gangbuster new product,{close_quotes} says Paul Raman, an analyst with S.G. Warburg (New York), {open_quotes}and it will be very profitable for Ethyl.{close_quotes} Ethyl`s effort to bring MMT to market faced pressure from EPA and automakers. EPA says MMT should not be marketed until more research is done on health effects of the manganese-based additive. US automakers oppose MMT, fearing it will damage catalytic converters. Last October Ethyl won a federal appeals court decision compelling EPA to approve MMT use. Gottwald says the MMT fight has been well worth it: {open_quotes}We fought with our eye on the bottom line.{close_quotes}

  7. A novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and cross-linked membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Gang; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Han, Miaomiao; Lin, Haidan; Zhu, Jing; Na, Hui

    A novel poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) containing pendant carboxyl groups has been synthesized by a nucleophilic polycondensation reaction. Sulfonated polymers (SPEEKs) with different ion exchange capacity are then obtained by post-sulfonation process. The structures of PEEK and SPEEKs are characterized by both FT-IR and 1H NMR. The properties of SPEEKs as candidates for proton exchange membranes are studied. The cross-linking reaction is performed at 140 °C using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the cross-linker. In comparison with the non-cross-linked membranes, some properties of the cross-linked membranes are significantly improved, such as water uptake, methanol resistance, mechanical and oxidative stabilities, while the proton conductivity decreases. The effect of PVA content on proton conductivity, water uptake, swelling ratio, and methanol permeability is also investigated. Among all the membranes, SPEEK-C-8 shows the highest selectivity of 50.5 × 10 4 S s cm -3, which indicates that it is a suitable candidate for applications in direct methanol fuel cells.

  8. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  9. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-10-22

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  10. Rate constant calculations of H-atom abstraction reactions from ethers by HȮ2 radicals.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Jorge; Zhou, Chong-Wen; Curran, Henry J

    2014-02-27

    In this work, we detail hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from six ethers by the hydroperoxyl radical, including dimethyl ether, ethyl methyl ether, propyl methyl ether, isopropyl methyl ether, butyl methyl ether, and isobutyl methyl ether, in order to test the effect of the functional group on the rate constant calculations. The Møller-Plesset (MP2) method with the 6-311G(d,p) basis set has been employed in the geometry optimizations and frequency calculations of all of the species involved in the above reaction systems. The connections between each transition state and the corresponding local minima have been determined by intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations. Energies are reported at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level of theory and include the zero-point energy corrections. As a benchmark in the electronic energy calculations, the CCSD(T)/CBS extrapolation was used for the reactions of dimethyl ether + HȮ2 radicals. A systematic calculation of the high-pressure limit rate constants has been performed using conventional transition-state theory, including asymmetric Eckart tunneling corrections, in the temperature range of 500-2000 K. The one dimensional hindrance potentials obtained at MP2/6-311G(d,p) for the reactants and transition states have been used to describe the low frequency torsional modes. Herein, we report the calculated individual, average, and total rate constants. A branching ratio analysis for every reaction site has also been performed. PMID:24483837

  11. Thermal and photochemical solvolysis of (E)- and (Z)-2-phenyl-1-propenyl(phenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate: benzenium and primary vinylic cation intermediates.

    PubMed

    Gronheid, R; Lodder, G; Ochiai, M; Sueda, T; Okuyama, T

    2001-09-12

    The thermal and photochemical solvolysis of the two stereoisomeric 2-phenyl-1-propenyl(phenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborates has been investigated in alcoholic solvents of varying nucleophilicity. The product profiles and rates of product formation in the thermal reaction are all compatible with a mechanism involving cleavage of the vinylic C-I bond assisted by the group in the trans position (methyl or phenyl), always leading to rearranged products. Depending on the nucleophilicity of the solvent, the primarily formed cations may or may not further rearrange to more stable isomers. The less reactive Z compound also yields some unrearranged vinyl ether product in the more nucleophilic solvents via an in-plane S(N)2 mechanism. The mechanism of the photolysis involves direct, unassisted cleavage of the vinylic, and aromatic, C-I bond in an S(N)1 mechanism. This produces a primary vinyl cation, which is partially trapped prior to rearrangement in methanol. The unrearranged vinyl ethers are mainly formed with retention of configuration via a lambda3-iodonium/solvent complex in an S(N)i mechanism. Thermal and photochemical solvolyses of iodonium salts are complementary techniques for the generation of different cation intermediates from the same substrate.

  12. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  13. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  14. Upper limits for the ethyl-cyanide abundances in TMC-1 and L134N - Chemical implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    Interstellar ethyl-cyanide has been sought via its 2(02)-1(01) transition towards two cold, dark clouds, and upper limits of the total column densities of 3 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm and 2 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm for TMC-1 and L134N, respectively. The 2(02)-1(01) transition of vynil cyanide, previously identified in TMC-1 by Matthews and Sears (1983b), was also observed. The detection of vinyl cyanide and the nondetection of ethyl cyanide in TMC-1 are consistent with gas phase ion-molecule chemical models, and there is thus no necessity of invoking grain surface synthesis for vinyl cyanide in cold clouds.

  15. Ether and hydrocarbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes a continuous process for converting lower aliphatic alkanol and olefinic hydrocarbon to alkyl tertiary-alkyl ethers and C{sub 5} + gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons. It comprises contacting alkanol and a light olefinic hydrocarbon stream rich in isobutylene and other C{sub 4} isomeric hydrocarbons under iso-olefin etherification conditions in an etherification reaction zone containing acid etherification catalyst; separating etherification effluent to recover a light stream comprising unreacted alkanol and light olefinic hydrocarbon and a liquid product stream containing alkyl tertiary-butyl ether; and contacting the light stream with acidic, medium pore metallosilicate catalyst under alkanol and hydrocarbon conversion conditions whereby C{sub 5} + gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons are produced.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. PMID:23673223

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of bis(Tetrahydrofurfuryl) Ether.

    PubMed

    Stenger-Smith, John D; Baldwin, Lawrence; Chafin, Andrew; Goodman, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability of a large number of alkyl tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers that have a wide range of applications, pure bis(tetrahydrofurfuryl) ether (BTHFE) has not been previously synthesized. Here, we report the synthesis of BTHFE (consisting of the RR, SS, and meso stereoisomers) at greater than 99 % purity from tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, using (tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl methanesulfonate as an intermediate. Additionally, we demonstrate that BTHFE can be used as a non-volatile solvent in poly(3,4-propylenedioxythiophene)-based supercapacitors. Supercapacitor devices employing solutions of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidizolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide in BTHFE display similar performances to those prepared by using the neat ionic liquid as an electrolyte, although solution-based devices exhibit a somewhat higher resistance. PMID:27547636

  19. Comparison of surface modifications of poly(ether urethanes) by chemical infusion and graft polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Hermes, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Our approach to surface modification uses the chemical infusion process to introduce materials into the outermost layer of the polymeric material, thereby altering the surface without changing the bulk properties of the polymer. The infused materials may slowly diffuse out of the infusion layer if they are volatile or highly mobile. However, if polymeric infusant materials are employed, they may become chain entangled with the host polymer and result in a permanently modified surface. A second approach utilizes photo-initiated graft polymerization of poly(ether urethanes) with an appropriate monomer. We have explored both of these methods by examining the infusion of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into commercially available poly(ether urethanes) and the graft polymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone onto poly(ether urethanes). Results are presented here. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Cel vinyls: materials and methods.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S J

    1983-12-01

    Many commercial uses of media are applicable to medical/scientific media production and illustration, not the least of which are techniques pioneered in the commercial cartooning field. Whether or not the illustrative effort culminates in a "cartoon," the production techniques of the cartooning industry cannot be overlooked by the illustrator faced with providing projection graphics, whether animated or still, for slides, motion pictures, television or even print media. When Walt Disney introduced Mickey Mouse as "Steamboat Willie" in 1928, his technology opened the door for exploration of cartooning media by all artists. Only in comparatively recent years have these tools been used by the scientific illustrator. In this article cel vinyl acrylics or cartoon colors will be discussed: the rationale for the use of this medium, materials and methods, and considerations related to the photography of this art form.

  1. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  2. Cel vinyls: materials and methods.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S J

    1983-12-01

    Many commercial uses of media are applicable to medical/scientific media production and illustration, not the least of which are techniques pioneered in the commercial cartooning field. Whether or not the illustrative effort culminates in a "cartoon," the production techniques of the cartooning industry cannot be overlooked by the illustrator faced with providing projection graphics, whether animated or still, for slides, motion pictures, television or even print media. When Walt Disney introduced Mickey Mouse as "Steamboat Willie" in 1928, his technology opened the door for exploration of cartooning media by all artists. Only in comparatively recent years have these tools been used by the scientific illustrator. In this article cel vinyl acrylics or cartoon colors will be discussed: the rationale for the use of this medium, materials and methods, and considerations related to the photography of this art form. PMID:6677644

  3. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-11-15

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

  4. Vinyl chloride-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berk, P D; Martin, J F; Young, R S; Creech, J; Selikoff, I J; Falk, H; Watanabe, P; Popper, H; Thomas, L

    1976-06-01

    Although polyvinyl chloride has been produced from vinyl chlride monomer for more than 40 years, recognition of toxicity among vinyl chloride polymerization workers is more recent. In the mid 1960s, workers involved in cleaning polymerization tanks were found to have acro-osteolysis. In 1974, the same population of workers was found to be at risk for an unusual type of hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcoma of the liver. We describe two cases of vinyl chloride-associated liver injury, one of hepatic fibrosis and one of angiosarcoma. Histologic features of these lesions are similar to the hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcomas resulting from chronic exposure to inorganic arsenicals. Preliminary studies suggest that the toxicity of vinyl chloride may result from formation, during high-dose exposure, of active metabolites by mixed function oxidases of the liver. Epidemiologic studies indicate an increased incidence not only of liver disease, but also of cancers of the brain, lung, and possibly other organs.

  5. Pure Rotational Spectroscopy of Vinyl Mercaptan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Zingsheim, Oliver; Thorwirth, Sven; Müller, Holger S. P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    Vinyl mercaptan (ethenethiol, CH_2=CHSH) exists in the gas phase in two distinct rotameric forms, syn (planar) and anti (quasi-planar in the ground vibrational state). The microwave spectra of these two isomers were investigated previously, however not exceeding frequencies of about 65 GHz. In the present investigation, the pure rotational spectra of both species have been investigated at millimeter wavelengths. Vinyl mercaptan was produced in a radiofrequency discharge through a constant flow of ethanedithiol at low pressure. Both syn and anti rotamers were observed and new extensive sets of molecular parameters were obtained. Owing to its close structural relationship to vinyl alcohol and the astronomical abundance of complex sulfur-bearing molecules, vinyl mercaptan is a plausible candidate for future radio astronomical searches. M. Tanimoto et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 78, 95--105 & 106--119 (1979)

  6. [Determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ghengyun; Zhang, Weiya; Li, Lixia; Shen, Yalei; Lin, Junfeng; Xie, Tangtang; Chu, Naiqing

    2014-08-01

    An effective method was established for the simultaneous determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Glycol ethers in leather and leather products were ultrasonically extracted at 45 °C, using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. The extracts were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. The content of each analyte was calibrated by external standard method. The limit of detection of ethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE) was 0. 10 mg/kg under the condition of signal to noise (S/N) of 3 and the limits of the other 11 glycol ethers were all less than 0.05 mg/kg. The spiked recoveries varied from 81. 2% to 95. 5% at three different spiked levels with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 1.4% to 6. 6%. The proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate, with the limits of detection much less than the requirements of the Regulation Concerning Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) of European Union. It is applicable to the determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products, and provides a reference for the relevant testing standards.

  7. Poly(arylene ether)s That Resist Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing phosphine oxide (PAEPO's) made via aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions of activated aromatic dihalides (or, in some cases, activated aromatic dinitro compounds) with new bisphenol monomers containing phosphine oxide. Exhibited favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties and resistance to monatomic oxygen in oxygen plasma environment. Useful as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, moldings, and composite matrices.

  8. Electrical conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes containing sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celso, Fabricio; Mikhailenko, Serguei D.; Rodrigues, Marco A. S.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-02-01

    Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship.

  9. Ping-pong polymerization by allylation and hydroformylation for alternating vinyl alcohol-vinyl monomer copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shingo; Noguchi, Masaki; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2012-11-01

    Inspired by the enzymatic ping-pong mechanism, we designed a novel "ping-pong polymerization", which employs allylation and hydroformylation in an iterative and alternating manner. Thus, alternating and regioregular vinyl alcohol-vinyl monomer copolymers possessing multiple hydroxy groups in a periodical manner were successfully synthesized.

  10. S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    S - Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate ( EPTC ) ; CASRN 759 - 94 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  11. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  12. Grafting of Methacrylonitrile and Ethyl Methacrylate onto Jute Fibre: Physico-chemical Characteristics of Grafted Jute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Md. Ibrahim H.; Islam Farouqui, Faisul; Abu Hanif, Md.; Shafiur Rahman, G. M.; Asadul Hoque, Md.

    2005-10-01

    Modification of bleached jute fibre was done by graft co-polymerization with vinyl monomers e.g. methacrylonitrile and ethyl methacrylate, in aqueous medium using H2O2-Na2S2O3 as redox initiators. To make the process efficient, the optimized polymerization condition was established. The maximum percent grafting and grafting efficiency obtained at optimum grafting condition were 11.3 and 20.4% for MAN, respectively and that of 17.6 and 27.5% for EMA. Modification of bleached jute fibre with MAN and EMA reduced the loss in breaking strength and the yellowing on exposure to sunlight in air.

  13. THE COMPLETE, TEMPERATURE-RESOLVED EXPERIMENTAL SPECTRUM OF VINYL CYANIDE (H{sub 2}CCHCN) BETWEEN 210 AND 270 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Fortman, Sarah M.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2011-08-10

    The results of an experimental approach to the identification and characterization of the astrophysical weed vinyl cyanide in the 210-270 GHz region are reported. This approach is based on spectrally complete, intensity-calibrated spectra taken at more than 400 different temperatures in the 210-270 GHz region and is used to produce catalogs in the usual astrophysical format: line frequency, line strength, and lower state energy. As in our earlier study of ethyl cyanide, we also include the results of a frequency point-by-point analysis, which is especially well suited for characterizing weak lines and blended lines in crowded spectra. This study shows substantial incompleteness in the quantum-mechanical (QM) models used to calculate astrophysical catalogs, primarily due to their omission of many low-lying vibrational states of vinyl cyanide, but also due to the exclusion of perturbed rotational transitions. Unlike ethyl cyanide, the QM catalogs for vinyl cyanide include analyses of perturbed excited vibrational states, whose modeling is more challenging. Accordingly, we include an empirical study of the frequency accuracy of these QM models. We observe modest frequency differences for some vibrationally excited lines.

  14. Tandem Bond-Forming Reactions of 1-Alkynyl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Minehan, Thomas G

    2016-06-21

    -acceptor cyclobutanones in good to excellent yields and diastereoselectivities. This process, which takes place under neutral conditions and proceeds through an aldoketene intermediate, obviates the need to employ moisture-sensitive and/or unstable acid chlorides under basic conditions for intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions. Furthermore, Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular condensations of both ethyl and tert-butyl ynol ethers with tethered acetals efficiently provide protected five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic Baylis-Hilman adducts. Metalated ethoxyacetylene can also participate in multiple bond-forming reactions that avoid isolation of the alkynyl ether intermediate. Lewis acid-promoted tandem additions employing epoxides/oxetanes and carbonyl compounds give rise to (Z)-α-alkylidene and α-benzylidene lactones stereoselectively in high overall yields. Three new carbon-carbon bonds and a ring are formed in this atom-economical single-flask transformation, resulting in a significant increase in molecular complexity. This Account provides a detailed overview of these useful transformations with the intention of stimulating further interest in and research on ynol ethers and their application in organic synthesis. PMID:27195605

  15. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose...

  16. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose...

  17. Vinyl chloride loss during laboratory holding time.

    PubMed

    Soule, R; Symonik, D; Jones, D; Turgeon, D; Gerbec, B

    1996-06-01

    Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it is important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure to groundwater users. This study investigated the current allowable holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. Samples containing an initial concentration of 2 microg/liter of vinyl chloride showed progressive, increasing losses when held for 1, 2, 7, and 14 days. Due to the inherent variability of low-level laboratory results, the most statistically significant loss (alpha = 0.05) was seen for samples held for 14 days. No statistically significant differences in degradation pattern were noted between analytical detectors used (PID versus Hall) or sample type (lab versus field). There also was a loss of vinyl chloride observed during sample collection and handling. These results suggest that analytical variability at low concentrations and the establishment of health-based guidelines near the analytical detection limit require multiple samples be collected from a single location when highly accurate results are needed. These findings should be considered in public health exposure assessments and the implementation of health-based recommendations at sites with vinyl chloride groundwater contamination.

  18. Amphiphilic Cellulose Ethers Designed for Amorphous Solid Dispersion via Olefin Cross-Metathesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yifan; Mosquera-Giraldo, Laura I; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2016-02-01

    The design of cellulose ether-based amphiphiles has been difficult and limited because of the harsh conditions typically required for appending ether moieties to cellulose. Olefin cross-metathesis recently has been shown to be a valuable approach for appending a variety of functional groups to cellulose ethers and esters, provided that an olefin handle for metathesis can be attached. This synthetic pathway gives access to these functional derivatives under very mild conditions and at high efficiency. Modification of ethyl cellulose by metathesis to prepare useful derivatives, for example, for solubility and bioavailability enhancement of drugs by amorphous solid dispersion (ASD), has been limited by the low DS(OH) of commercial ethyl cellulose derivatives. This is problematic because ethyl cellulose is otherwise a very attractive substrate for synthesis of amphiphilic derivatives by olefin metathesis. Herein we explore two methods for opening up this design space for ether-based amphiphiles, for example, permitting synthesis of more hydrophilic derivatives. One approach is to start with the more hydrophilic commercial methyl cellulose, which contains much higher DS(OH) and therefore is better suited for introduction of high DS of olefin metathesis "handles". In another approach, we explored a homogeneous one-pot synthesis methodology from cellulose, where controlled DS of ethyl groups was introduced at the same time as the ω-unsaturated alkyl groups, thereby permitting complete control of DS(OH), DS(Et), and ultimately DS of the functional group added by metathesis. We describe the functionalized derivatives available by these successful approaches. In addition, we explore new methods for reduction of the unsaturation in initial metathesis products to provide robust methods for enhancing product stability against further radical-catalyzed reactions. We demonstrate initial evidence that the products show strong promise as amphiphilic matrix polymers for amorphous

  19. Amphiphilic Cellulose Ethers Designed for Amorphous Solid Dispersion via Olefin Cross-Metathesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yifan; Mosquera-Giraldo, Laura I; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2016-02-01

    The design of cellulose ether-based amphiphiles has been difficult and limited because of the harsh conditions typically required for appending ether moieties to cellulose. Olefin cross-metathesis recently has been shown to be a valuable approach for appending a variety of functional groups to cellulose ethers and esters, provided that an olefin handle for metathesis can be attached. This synthetic pathway gives access to these functional derivatives under very mild conditions and at high efficiency. Modification of ethyl cellulose by metathesis to prepare useful derivatives, for example, for solubility and bioavailability enhancement of drugs by amorphous solid dispersion (ASD), has been limited by the low DS(OH) of commercial ethyl cellulose derivatives. This is problematic because ethyl cellulose is otherwise a very attractive substrate for synthesis of amphiphilic derivatives by olefin metathesis. Herein we explore two methods for opening up this design space for ether-based amphiphiles, for example, permitting synthesis of more hydrophilic derivatives. One approach is to start with the more hydrophilic commercial methyl cellulose, which contains much higher DS(OH) and therefore is better suited for introduction of high DS of olefin metathesis "handles". In another approach, we explored a homogeneous one-pot synthesis methodology from cellulose, where controlled DS of ethyl groups was introduced at the same time as the ω-unsaturated alkyl groups, thereby permitting complete control of DS(OH), DS(Et), and ultimately DS of the functional group added by metathesis. We describe the functionalized derivatives available by these successful approaches. In addition, we explore new methods for reduction of the unsaturation in initial metathesis products to provide robust methods for enhancing product stability against further radical-catalyzed reactions. We demonstrate initial evidence that the products show strong promise as amphiphilic matrix polymers for amorphous

  20. Polyarylene Ethers with Improved Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor); Jensen, B. J. (Inventor); Havens, S. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to novel polyarylene ethers which possess the combination of high strength, toughness, and high use temperature with ease of extrusion and formation into complex objects. These polyarylene ethers are suitable for use in adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, and composite matrices. The polyarylene ethers of this invention are the polycondensation products from the reaction of either 1,3-bis (4-chloro or fluorobenzoyl) benzene with any one of the following bisphenolic compounds: bis (3-hydroxyphenyl) methane; bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) methane; 1,1-dimethyl-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, or 9,9-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene. Random and block copolymers are also comprehended.

  1. Biodegradation of gasoline ether oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Ether oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) are added to gasoline to improve fuel combustion and decrease exhaust emissions. Ether oxygenates and their tertiary alcohol metabolites are now an important group of groundwater pollutants. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the microorganisms, enzymes and pathways involved in both the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of these compounds. This review also aims to illustrate how these microbiological and biochemical studies have guided, and have helped refine, molecular and stable isotope-based analytical approaches that are increasingly being used to detect and quantify biodegradation of these compounds in contaminated environments.

  2. Determination of fuel ethers in water by membrane extraction ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Sanna; Nousiainen, Marjaana; Sillanpää, Mika

    2013-03-15

    Fuel oxygenates are environmentally detrimental compounds due to their rapid migration to groundwater. Fuel oxygenates have been reported to cause taste and odour problems in drinking water, and they also have long-term health effects. Feasible analytical methods are required to observe the presence of fuel oxygenates in drinking and natural water. The authors studied ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to determinate isomeric fuel ether oxygenates; ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), separated from aqueous matrices with a pervaporation membrane module. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was also membrane extracted and detected with IMS. The authors demonstrated that fuel ethers (MTBE, ETBE, DIPE, and TAME) can be quantified at μg/L level with membrane extraction IMS. A membrane extraction module coupled to IMS is a time and cost effective analysis method because sampling can be performed in a single procedure and from different natural water matrices within a few minutes. Consequently, IMS combined with membrane extraction is suitable not only for waterworks and other online applications but also in the field monitoring the quality of drinking and natural water.

  3. Degradable vinyl polymers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delplace, Vianney; Nicolas, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Vinyl polymers have been the focus of intensive research over the past few decades and are attractive materials owing to their ease of synthesis and their broad diversity of architectures, compositions and functionalities. Their carbon-carbon backbones are extremely resistant to degradation, however, and this property limits their uses. Degradable polymers are an important field of research in polymer science and have been used in a wide range of applications spanning from (nano)medicine to microelectronics and environmental protection. The development of synthetic strategies to enable complete or partial degradation of vinyl polymers is, therefore, of great importance because it will offer new opportunities for the application of these materials. This Review captures the most recent and promising approaches to the design of degradable vinyl polymers and discusses the potential of these materials for biomedical applications.

  4. Degradable vinyl polymers for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Delplace, Vianney; Nicolas, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Vinyl polymers have been the focus of intensive research over the past few decades and are attractive materials owing to their ease of synthesis and their broad diversity of architectures, compositions and functionalities. Their carbon-carbon backbones are extremely resistant to degradation, however, and this property limits their uses. Degradable polymers are an important field of research in polymer science and have been used in a wide range of applications spanning from (nano)medicine to microelectronics and environmental protection. The development of synthetic strategies to enable complete or partial degradation of vinyl polymers is, therefore, of great importance because it will offer new opportunities for the application of these materials. This Review captures the most recent and promising approaches to the design of degradable vinyl polymers and discusses the potential of these materials for biomedical applications.

  5. Radical addition-initiated domino reactions of conjugated oxime ethers.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    The application of conjugated oxime ethers to the synthesis of complex chemical scaffolds using domino radical reactions has been described in detail. The triethylborane-mediated hydroxysulfenylation reaction allows for the regioselective construction of a carbon-sulfur bond and a carbon-oxygen bond in a single operation for the formation of β-hydroxy sulfides. This reaction proceeds via a radical pathway involving regioselective thiyl addition and the subsequent trapping of the resulting α-imino radical with O₂, where the imino group enhances the stability of the intermediate radical. Hydroxyalkylation reactions that occur via a carbon radical addition reaction followed by the hydroxylation of the resulting N-borylenamine with O₂ have also been developed. We investigated sequential radical addition aldol-type reactions in detail to explore the novel domino reactions that occur via the generation of N-borylenamine. The radical reaction of a conjugated oxime ether with triethylborane in the presence of an aldehyde affords γ-butyrolactone via sequential processes including ethyl radical addition, the generation of N-borylenamine, an aldol-type reaction with an aldehyde, and a lactonization reaction. A novel domino reaction has also been developed involving the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of N-boryl-N-phenoxyenamine. The triethylborane-mediated domino reactions of O-phenyl-conjugated oxime ethers afforded the corresponding benzofuro[2,3-b]pyrrol-2-ones via a radical addition/[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement/cyclization/lactamization cascade.

  6. Constitutive Expression of the Cytochrome P450 EthABCD Monooxygenase System Enables Degradation of Synthetic Dialkyl Ethers in Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Purswani, Jessica; Breuer, Uta; Pozo, Clementina; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2013-01-01

    In Rhodococcus ruber IFP 2001, Rhodococcus zopfii IFP 2005, and Gordonia sp. strain IFP 2009, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase EthABCD catalyzes hydroxylation of methoxy and ethoxy residues in the fuel oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The expression of the IS3-type transposase-flanked eth genes is ETBE dependent and controlled by the regulator EthR (C. Malandain et al., FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 72:289–296, 2010). In contrast, we demonstrated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) that the betaproteobacterium Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, which possesses the ethABCD genes but lacks ethR, constitutively expresses the P450 system at high levels even when growing on nonether substrates, such as glucose. The mutant strain A. tertiaricarbonis L10, which is unable to degrade dialkyl ethers, resulted from a transposition event mediated by a rolling-circle IS91-type element flanking the eth gene cluster in the wild-type strain L108. The constitutive expression of Eth monooxygenase is likely initiated by the housekeeping sigma factor σ70, as indicated by the presence in strain L108 of characteristic −10 and −35 binding sites upstream of ethA which are lacking in strain IFP 2001. This enables efficient degradation of diethyl ether, diisopropyl ether, MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) without any lag phase in strain L108. However, ethers with larger residues, n-hexyl methyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, and alkyl aryl ethers, were not attacked by the Eth system at significant rates in resting-cell experiments, indicating that the residue in the ether molecule which is not hydroxylated also contributes to the determination of substrate specificity. PMID:23354715

  7. Reactivity of vinyl chloride ionic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martrenchard, S.; Dedonder-Lardeux, C.; Dimicoli, I.; Grégoire, G.; Jouvet, C.; Mons, M.; Solgadi, D.

    1998-12-01

    The reactivity of vinyl chloride ionic clusters has been investigated by the Threshold PhotoElectron PhotoIon COincidences technique. In the case of the dimer, the competition between the three reactive channels (HCl, Cl ṡ and CH 2Cl elimination) has been studied. The main reactive channel is HCl elimination which proceeds through a 0.2 eV barrier. This elimination reaction is still observed in the trimer but not in larger clusters. For these clusters, cooling by evaporation of neutral vinyl chloride monomers seems to be the favored channel that hinders the HCl elimination step.

  8. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section may be safely used as components of food-contact coatings...

  9. Designer discodermolide segments via ozonolysis of vinyl phosphonates.

    PubMed

    Mollat du Jourdin, Xavier; Noshi, Mohammad; Fuchs, P L

    2009-02-01

    To apply our collection of enantiopure 7-ring vinyl sulfones to probe the anticancer SAR of a series of computer-designed (+)-discodermolide analogs, the ozonolytic reactivity of transposed cyclic vinyl phosphonates was explored. Successful preparation of the desired aldehyde-esters and lactones from vinyl phosphonates via an oxidative cleavage-phosphite/methanol exchange sequence is described.

  10. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section may be safely used as components of food-contact coatings...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10262 - Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10262 Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, Me vinyl silane (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10262 - Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10262 Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, Me vinyl silane (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10262 - Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10262 Oxime, Me vinyl silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, Me vinyl silane (PMN...

  19. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all completely assembled respirators which are designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into...

  20. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all completely assembled respirators which are designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into...

  1. Chemoselective Deprotection of Triethylsilyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Tilak; Broderick, William E.; Broderick, Joan B.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and selective method was developed for the deprotection of triethylsilyl (TES) ethers using formic acid in methanol (5–10%) or in methylene chloride 2–5%) with excellent yields. TES ethers are selectively deprotected to the corresponding alcohols in high yields using formic acid in methanol under mild reaction conditions. Other hydroxyl protecting groups like t-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) remain unaffected. PMID:20183570

  2. Imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and by chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The resulting block copolymers have one glass transition temperature or two, depending upon the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these block copolymers form tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties.

  3. Rearrangements of Cycloalkenyl Aryl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Törincsi, Mercedesz; Nagy, Melinda; Bihari, Tamás; Stirling, András; Kolonits, Pál; Novak, Lajos

    2016-01-01

    Rearrangement reactions of cycloalkenyl phenol and naphthyl ethers and the acid-catalyzed cyclization of the resulting product were investigated. Claisen rearrangement afforded 2-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. Combined Claisen and Cope rearrangement resulted in the formation of 4-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. In the case of cycloocthylphenyl ether the consecutive Claisen and Cope rearrangements were followed by an alkyl migration. The mechanism of this novel rearrangement reaction is also discussed. PMID:27104504

  4. Gasoline range ether synthesis from light naphtha products of fluid catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch wax

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking of Fischer-Tropsch wax (C{sub 20}{sup +} paraffins) produces two to four time the concentration of reactive iso-olefins (isobutylene, isoamylenes, isohexenes) than observed from conventional gas oil feedstocks. Methanol reacts with these olefins to form the corresponding tertiary alkyl ethyl ethers: MTBE, TAME and MTHE`s. These etherification reactions are mildly exothermic and equilibrium limited. The reaction temperature and the olefin molecular structure are important variables for maximum ether yields. The base naphtha research octane number increases by 2-4 numbers after the etherification reaction. The presence of hydrogen has a detrimental affect on ether yields because of hydrogenation of reactive olefins to paraffins. The catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch wax provides a non-conventional source of olefins for ether synthesis that can supplement existing and dwindling petroleum supplies.

  5. Space, Time, Ether, and Kant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wing-Chun Godwin

    This dissertation focused on Kant's conception of physical matter in the Opus postumum. In this work, Kant postulates the existence of an ether which fills the whole of space and time with its moving forces. Kant's arguments for the existence of an ether in the so-called Ubergang have been acutely criticized by commentators. Guyer, for instance, thinks that Kant pushes the technique of transcendental deduction too far in trying to deduce the empirical ether. In defense of Kant, I held that it is not the actual existence of the empirical ether, but the concept of the ether as a space-time filler that is subject to a transcendental deduction. I suggested that Kant is doing three things in the Ubergang: First, he deduces the pure concept of a space-time filler as a conceptual hybrid of the transcendental object and permanent substance to replace the category of substance in the Critique. Then he tries to prove the existence of such a space-time filler as a reworking of the First Analogy. Finally, he takes into consideration the empirical determinations of the ether by adding the concept of moving forces to the space -time filler. In reconstructing Kant's proofs, I pointed out that Kant is absolutely committed to the impossibility of action-at-a-distance. If we add this new principle of no-action-at-a-distance to the Third Analogy, the existence of a space-time filler follows. I argued with textual evidence that Kant's conception of ether satisfies the basic structure of a field: (1) the ether is a material continuum; (2) a physical quantity is definable on each point in the continuum; and (3) the ether provides a medium to support the continuous transmission of action. The thrust of Kant's conception of ether is to provide a holistic ontology for the transition to physics, which can best be understood from a field-theoretical point of view. This is the main thesis I attempted to establish in this dissertation.

  6. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  7. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  8. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous...

  11. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  12. The Reaction between a Vinylic Ether and 2,4-Dinitrobenzenesulfenyl Chloride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1979-01-01

    This reaction can form the basis of a laboratory experiment for students who have mastered basic spectroscopy. The structure of the product can be assigned from four reasonable possibilities on the basis of the nmr spectrum. (BB)

  13. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and....1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH. (b) The ingredient meets...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  16. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  18. Ether resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Deery, B J; Parsons, P A

    1972-01-01

    Strains set up from single inseminated females of D. melanogaster from the wild differ in their resistance to the anaesthetics, ether and chloroform. The main differences between four selected extreme strains could be explained by additive genes, which in the case of ether resistance were located to regions of chromosomes 2 and 3. The lack of correspondence between ether and chloroform resistance between strains indicates that although the type of genetic architecture controlling the traits is similar, the actual genes differ, which is reasonable in view of their differing chemical structures. Quite high heritabilities were found for resistance to ether based on five inbred strains. No significant associations between resistance to ether and body weight, developmental rate or longevity were found.It is clear that resistance to both anaesthetics would be amenable to more detailed genetic analyses. It is pointed out that the general conclusions reached from such studies will have implications with respect to the effect of chemicals such as insecticides, not naturally present in nature.

  19. Ethereal embodiment of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    van der Riet, P

    1999-10-01

    Ethereal embodiment is the attending and focusing on the body through discourses such as meditation, visualisation and massage, and the experiencing a new sense of the embodied being as balanced, connected, centred and of being made whole. This paper continues a previous article titled 'Massaged embodiment of cancer patients'. Data from my doctoral studies are analysed utilising crucial concepts of poststructuralism such as subjectivity, discourse, power and history to examine ethereal embodiment. This paper will address the advantages of visualisation and discusses the link between spirituality, embodiment, and memory.

  20. Grignard Reactions in "Wet" Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David H.

    1999-10-01

    A small laboratory ultrasonic bath can be used to initiate the Grignard reaction of alkyl or aryl bromides in regular laboratory-quality, undried, diethyl ether and in simple undried test tubes. The reaction typically starts within 30 to 45 seconds and is self-sustaining. Yields and products are the same as obtained with carefully dried ether and equipment. We normally run this reaction at the 1.5-gram scale, but the procedure can be scaled up to at least 10 g of the bromide.

  1. Development and characterization of poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer based polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Sa'adun, Nurul Nadiah; Subramaniam, Ramesh; Kasi, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) are developed using poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [P(VP-co-VAc)] as the host polymer, lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide [LiTFSI] as the lithium salt and ionic liquid, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [EMImTFSI] by using solution casting technique. The effect of ionic liquid on ionic conductivity is studied and the optimum ionic conductivity at room temperature is found to be 2.14 × 10(-6) S cm(-1) for sample containing 25 wt% of EMImTFSI. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity from 303 K to 353 K exhibits Arrhenius plot behaviour. The thermal stability of the polymer electrolyte system is studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) while the structural and morphological properties of the polymer electrolyte is studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. PMID:25431781

  2. Modular Synthesis of N-Vinyl Benzotriazoles

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Govindra; Kumar, Rakesh; Swett, Jorge; Zajc, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A modular approach to N1-vinyl benzotriazoles by azide–aryne cycloadditions and Julia–Kocienski reactions is described. Reactions of azidomethyl phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl (PT) sulfide with arynes gave methyl(PT-sulfanyl)-substituted benzotriazoles in 68–89% yields. Oxidation of the sulfides to the sulfones gave the benzotriazole-substituted Julia–Kocienski reagents. Olefination reactions of aldehydes and a ketone with reagents derived from benzyne, 2,3-naphthyne, and 4,5-dimethoxybenzyne precursors proceeded to give various N1-vinyl benzotriazole derivatives. Olefination stereoselectivities are tunable for electron-rich aldehydes, but not for electron-deficient aldehydes and alkanals, where they proceed with good to excellent Z-stereoselectivity. PMID:23915255

  3. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3374 - Alkylenediolalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylenediolalkyl ether. 721.3374... Substances § 721.3374 Alkylenediolalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an alkylenediolalkyl ether (PMN P-93-362) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3374 - Alkylenediolalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylenediolalkyl ether. 721.3374... Substances § 721.3374 Alkylenediolalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an alkylenediolalkyl ether (PMN P-93-362) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3437 - Dialkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkyl ether. 721.3437 Section 721... Dialkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dialkyl ether (PMN P-93-1308) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3380 - Anilino ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anilino ether. 721.3380 Section 721... Anilino ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as anilino ether (P-83-910) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3380 - Anilino ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anilino ether. 721.3380 Section 721... Anilino ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as anilino ether (P-83-910) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3437 - Dialkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl ether. 721.3437 Section 721... Dialkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dialkyl ether (PMN P-93-1308) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. Diastereoselective Ring-Closing Metathesis as a Means to Construct Medium-Sized Cyclic Ethers: Application to the Synthesis of a Photoactivatable Gambierol Derivative.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Yu; Hirota, Kazuaki; Suga, Yuto; Konoki, Keiichi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Sasaki, Makoto; Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2016-09-16

    This paper describes a concise synthesis of six- to eight-membered α,α'-substituted cyclic ethers by exploiting diastereoselective ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of 1,4-pentadien-3-yl ether derivatives. The RCM precursors could be efficiently prepared via a vinylation of the corresponding α-acetoxy ether derivatives using divinylzinc. Diastereoselective RCM of 1,4-pentadien-3-yl ether derivatives afforded a series of six- to eight-membered α,α'-substituted cyclic ethers with moderate to good diastereoselectivity. The stereochemical consequence of the diastereoselective RCM appeared to be dependent on the structure of the ring being forged. The diastereoselectivity of six- and seven-membered cyclic ethers appeared to be largely under kinetic control irrespective of the catalyst reactivity, whereas that of an eight-membered cyclic ether could be controlled by the catalyst reactivity. Finally, the diastereoselective RCM chemistry was applied to the synthesis of a biotin-tagged photoactivatable derivative of gambierol. PMID:27529493

  17. Method for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether and its degradation products in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, C.D.; Isabelle, L.M.; Pankow, J.F.; Rose, D.L.; Tratnyek, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method can also give simultaneous identification of polar compounds that might occur as degradation products of gasoline oxygenates, such as TBA, TBF, TAA, methyl acetate, and acetone. When the method was applied to effluent from a column microcosm prepared with core material from an urban site in New Jersey, conversion of MTBE to TBA was observed after a lag period of 35 days. However, to date, analyses of water samples from six field sites using the DAI-GC/MS method have not produced evidence for the expected products of in situ degradation of MTBE.An analytical method is described that can detect the major alkyl ether compounds that are used as gasoline oxygenates (methyl tert-butyl ether, MTBE; ethyl tert-butyl ether, ETBE; and tert-amyl methyl ether, TAME) and their most characteristic degradation products (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA; tert-butyl formate, TBF; and tert-amyl alcohol, TAA) in water at sub-ppb concentrations. The new method involves gas chromatography (GC) with direct aqueous injection (DAI) onto a polar column via a splitless injector, coupled with detection by mass spectrometry (MS). DAI-GC/MS gives excellent agreement with conventional purge-and-trap methods for MTBE over a wide range of environmentally relevant concentrations. The new method

  18. Bis(chloroethyl)ether (BCEE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloroethyl ) ether ( BCEE ) ; CASRN 111 - 44 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  19. p,p\\'-Dibromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p , p ' - Dibromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 2050 - 47 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  20. Bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloromethyl ) ether ( BCME ) ; CASRN 542 - 88 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  1. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monomethyl ether ( PGME ) ; CASRN 107 - 98 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  2. Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells....

  3. Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl-ether

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells...

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2013, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for ETBE to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in ...

  5. Reactions of Vinyl Groups on a Model Chromia Surface: Vinyl Chloride on Stoichiometric Alpha-Cr2O3 (1012)

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, M.; Ma, Q; Mullins, D; Neurock, M; Cox, D

    2009-01-01

    The thermal reaction of vinyl chloride on nearly-stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3 View the MathML source produces gas phase acetylene, ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, and dihydrogen, and results in the deposition of chlorine adatoms. No surface carbon or combustion products (CO, CO2, H2O) are observed. Thermal desorption and spectroscopic studies indicate that the surface reaction of vinyl chloride proceeds through C-Cl bond cleavage to form Cl adatoms and surface vinyl groups which dehydrogenate to acetylene, hydrogenate to ethylene, and couple to form butadiene. Cl adatoms affect surface reactivity in two ways: (1) by increasing the barrier to vinyl dehydrogenation from 145 to 160 kJ/mol, and (2) by blocking Cr3+ sites which shuts down the surface chemistry. Selectivity to butadiene is dependent on Cl adatom coverage, where the increased stability of vinyl intermediates at lower Cl coverages gives rise to more butadiene coupling product. At higher Cl coverages, Cl appears to inhibit the mobility of surface vinyl and decreases the reaction probability for coupling. Photoemission and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra show that a mixed monolayer of molecular and dissociated vinyl chloride is formed at 130 K. The polarization dependence of the NEXAFS indicates that vinyl chloride ?-bonds with the molecular plane nominally parallel to the surface, while vinyl intermediates ?-bond at Cr centers with the molecular plane nominally perpendicular to the surface, in agreement with DFT predictions of the adsorption geometries.

  6. a Fourier Transform Infrared Study of Competing Equilibrium in P-Vinyl Phenol) Blends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichkus, Andrew Murray

    In this thesis a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study of polymer blends containing poly(p -vinyl phenol) (PVPh) is presented. The characteristics of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding arising from the interaction between the phenolic hydroxyl and carbonyl groups of the different polyacrylates are discussed. The experimental work is focussed primarily on the PVPh with polyacrylate blend systems which include poly(methyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate), poly(n-butyl acrylate), poly(n-pentyl acrylate) and poly(2-ethyl-hexyl acrylate). The infrared bands associated with the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the phenolic hydroxyl and acrylate carbonyl group are identified. The proportion of hydrogen bonded carbonyl groups in these blends is quantified both as a function of composition and temperature. The effect of the pendant group on the extent of the intermolecular interaction is discussed. The experimental results from this study, including those obtained by other workers, are recast into theoretical phase diagrams via the application of an association model describing binary blends involving hydrogen bonds. The phase diagrams are compared with experimental observations and found to be in broad general agreement. The theoretical predictions of the model with respect to the effect of molecular weight and polymer repeat unit size on the predicted phase behavior is discussed. This study confirms that the phase behavior of polymer blends exhibiting hydrogen bonding can be adequately described by a model employing a competing equilibrium scheme which includes an excess free energy function to account for the specific interactions.

  7. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    PubMed

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8 N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264 N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890 N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective.

  8. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    PubMed

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8 N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264 N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890 N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective

  9. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    PubMed Central

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  10. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    PubMed Central

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  11. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1995-12-19

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

  12. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

  13. Measuring exposures to glycol ethers.

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, D E; Zaebst, D D; Herrick, R F

    1984-01-01

    In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Toxicologic research was begun by NIOSH and other researchers which suggested substantial reproductive effects in animals. These animal data motivated a study of human exposures in the occupational setting. In 1981 and 1982 NIOSH conducted several walk-through surveys which included preliminary measurements of exposures in a variety of industries including painting trades, coal mining, production blending and distribution facilities, aircraft fueling, and communications equipment repair facilities. The human exposure data from these surveys is summarized in this paper with most results well below 1 parts per million (ppm) and only a few values approaching 10 ppm. Blood samples were collected at one site resulting in GE concentrations below the limit of detection. Exposures to airborne glycol ethers, in the industries investigated during the collection of this data, revealed several problems in reliably sampling GE at low concentrations. It became apparent, from the data and observations of work practices, that air monitoring alone provided an inadequate index of GE exposure. Further field studies of exposure to GE are anticipated, pending location of additional groups of exposed workers and development of more reliable methods for characterizing exposure, especially biological monitoring. PMID:6499824

  14. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10255 - Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10255 Vinyl carboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... carboxylic acid ester (PMN P-09-400) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  18. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; West; Ryan M.

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  19. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  20. Transesterification of propylene glycol methyl ether in chromatographic reactors using anion exchange resin as a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jungmin; Sreedhar, Balamurali; Donaldson, Megan E; Frank, Timothy C; Schultz, Alfred K; Bommarius, Andreas S; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki

    2016-09-30

    Reactive chromatography using an anion exchange resin is proposed for a transesterification reaction of propylene glycol methyl ether (DOWANOL™ PM) with ethyl acetate to produce propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (DOWANOL™ PMA). This reaction is studied in batch and chromatographic reactors catalyzed by an anion exchange resin. Several anion exchange resins are tested and compared based on the performance of resin as an adsorbent and a catalyst. A chromatographic column is packed with a selected catalyst, AMBERLITE™ IRA904, and both reaction and chromatographic elution are studied at different temperatures and feed concentrations. The resulting chromatograms are fitted to a mathematical model to obtain adsorption equilibrium and reaction kinetic parameters by the inverse method. Compared to esterification investigated in a previous study, transesterification has advantages such as a higher conversion at lower temperature and easy removal of the byproduct which may lead to higher productivity. Deactivation of anion exchange resins is observed and potential solutions are suggested.

  1. Transesterification of propylene glycol methyl ether in chromatographic reactors using anion exchange resin as a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jungmin; Sreedhar, Balamurali; Donaldson, Megan E; Frank, Timothy C; Schultz, Alfred K; Bommarius, Andreas S; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki

    2016-09-30

    Reactive chromatography using an anion exchange resin is proposed for a transesterification reaction of propylene glycol methyl ether (DOWANOL™ PM) with ethyl acetate to produce propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (DOWANOL™ PMA). This reaction is studied in batch and chromatographic reactors catalyzed by an anion exchange resin. Several anion exchange resins are tested and compared based on the performance of resin as an adsorbent and a catalyst. A chromatographic column is packed with a selected catalyst, AMBERLITE™ IRA904, and both reaction and chromatographic elution are studied at different temperatures and feed concentrations. The resulting chromatograms are fitted to a mathematical model to obtain adsorption equilibrium and reaction kinetic parameters by the inverse method. Compared to esterification investigated in a previous study, transesterification has advantages such as a higher conversion at lower temperature and easy removal of the byproduct which may lead to higher productivity. Deactivation of anion exchange resins is observed and potential solutions are suggested. PMID:27623064

  2. The identification of Isopar H in vinyl flooring.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sharee Booke

    2005-07-01

    Vinyl flooring manufacturers use plasticizers to decrease the viscosity and increase the pliability of vinyl. Several ignitable liquid plasticizers used in the manufacture of vinyl flooring were identified and investigated in this study. Twenty-nine collections from five major vinyl manufacturers, a total of 72 samples, were analyzed using passive headspace concentration in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM E 1412-00) and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis as described in ASTM E 1618-01 (1,2). Norpar products and TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) are ignitable liquids common to the manufacture of vinyl flooring and were identified in all recently obtained samples. Isopar H is an ignitable liquid found in various products such as charcoal starters, copier toners, and some solvents (2). Of the 29 collections analyzed, Isopar H was only identified in Armstrong's Interflex-Traditions pattern. PMID:16078489

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants 2. Saturated aliphatics: Acetaldehyde, dioxane, ethylene glycol ethers, propylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-11-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the saturated aliphatic contaminants acetaldehyde, dioxane, ethylene glycol ethers (methyl, ethyl, n-butyl) and propylene oxide. In-situ formation is of major importance for acetaldehyde. In-situ removal involves reaction with OH (all compounds) and, for acetaldehyde, photolysis and reaction with NO{sub 3}. Acetaldehyde, dioxane, and the ethers are rapidly removed (half-lives of less than one day), leading to PAN (acetaldehyde) and to 2-oxodioxane and formaldehyde (dioxane). Reaction products of the glycol ethers include a large number of hydroxyesters, hydroxyacids, and hydroxycarbonyls. Propylene oxide reacts only slowly with OH, with an atmospheric half-life of 3 - 10 days, to yeild formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAN. Uncertainties in the reaction mechanisms for dioxane, the glycol ethers, and propylene oxide are discussed and include C-C vs C-O bond scission in alkoxy radicals as well as alkoxy radical unimolecular decomposition vs reaction with oxygen.

  4. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  5. Energetic Trinitro- and Fluorodinitroethyl Ethers of 1,2,4,5-Tetrazines.

    PubMed

    Chavez, David E; Parrish, Damon A; Mitchell, Lauren

    2016-07-18

    Several new energetic ethyl ethers of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine have been synthesized. These molecules display good thermal stability, good oxygen balance, and high densities. Included in these studies are a 2,2,2-trinitroethoxy 1,2,4,5-tetrazine and two fluorodinitroethoxy 1,2,4,5-tetrazines. One of these compounds was converted into the di-N-oxide derivative. The sensitivity of these materials towards destructive stimuli was determined, and overall the materials show promising energetic performance properties.

  6. Preparation of Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) Microspheres with Radiopacity Using Suspension Copolymerization and Saponification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok Lyoo, Won; Wook Cha, Jin; Young Kwak, Kun; Jae Lee, Young; Yong Jeon, Han; Sik Chung, Yong; Kyun Noh, Seok

    2010-06-01

    To prepare Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) [P(VPi/VAc)] microspheres with radiopacity, the suspension copolymerization approach in the presence of aqueous radiopaque nanoparticles was used. After, The P(VPi/VAc) microspheres with radiopacity were saponified in heterogeneous system, and then P(VPi/VAc) microspheres without aggregates were converted to s-PVA/P(VPi/VAc) microspheres of skin/core structure through the heterogeneous surface saponification. Radiopacity of microspheres was confirmed with Computed tomography (CT).

  7. Polyphenylene ethers with imide linking groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Novel polyphenylene ethers with imide linking units are disclosed. These polymers incorporate the solvent and thermal resistance of polyimides and the processability of polyphenylene ethers. Improved physical properties over those of the prior art are obtained by incorporating meta linked ethers and/or polyphenylene oxides into the polymer backbone. A novel process for making polymers of this type is also disclosed. The process is unique in that the expected need of high process temperatures and/or special atmospheres are eliminated.

  8. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  9. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  10. Review of pulmonary effects of poly(vinyl chloride) and vinyl chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Lilis, R

    1981-10-01

    The contributions of several recent reports to the definition of pulmonary effects of PVC dust inhalation are reviewed. Granulomatous reaction, with inclusion of PVC particles in macrophages and histocytes, and associated interstitial pulmonary fibrosis have been found to lead to exertional dyspnoea, diffuse micronodular chest radiographic opacities and restrictive pulmonary dysfunction. The effects of vinyl chloride (VC) monomer (gas) on proteins and the immunologic mechanisms triggered by the altered protein are possible mechanisms for the development in some cases of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis secondary to VC exposure. Vinyl chloride, a confirmed carcinogen, has been associated with, among other malignant tumors, a significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer. The magnitude of this effect has not yet been completely evaluated.

  11. Flow-Induced Crystallization of Poly(ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Behzad; Rhoades, Alicyn; Colby, Ralph

    The effects of an interval of shear above the melting temperature Tm on subsequent isothermal crystallization below Tm is reported for the premier engineering thermoplastic, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). The effect of shear on the crystallization rate of PEEK is investigated by means of rheological techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under a protocol of imposing shear in a rotational cone and plate rheometer and monitoring crystallization after quenching. The rate of crystallization at 320 °C was not affected by shear for shear rates <7 s-1 at 350 °C, whereas intervals of adequate shear at higher shear rates prior to the quench to 320 °C accelerated crystallization significantly. As the duration of the interval of shear above 7 s-1 is increased, the crystallization time decreases but at each shear rate eventually saturates once the applied specific work exceeds ~120 MPa. The annealing of the flow-induced precursors was also investigated. The nuclei were fairly persistent at temperatures close to 350 °C, however very unstable at temperatures above 375 °C. This suggests that the nanostructures formed under shear might be akin to crystalline lamellae of greater thickness, compared to quiescently crystallized lamellae.

  12. Vibrational Study Of Poly(Ether Ether Ketone).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosiere, M.

    1989-12-01

    The medium infrared region (4000-400cm-1) has been widely used to study crystallinity because differences could be observed in the vibrational spectrum of several polymers which could be related to crystallinity as determined by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and density measurements. However, as crystallinity is concerned with packing of chains and interactions between neighboor chains, the absorption bands arising from such vibrations appear therefore at wavenumbers below 400 cm -1. Poly-(oxy-1,4-phenyleneoxy-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl-1,4-phenylene) or poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK),commercially introduced by ICI1, has been attracting increasing interest. It is a semicrystalline polymer with an unusual combination of properties such as high chemical resistance, excellent thermal stability as good mechanical properties. Taking into account of its high temperature high strength characteristics and melt processability, PEEK is generating interest for applications such as reinforced composites, coatings, electrical connectors, impeller housings... Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a quick and powerful tool to investigate orientation and/or crystallinity in polymeric materials.

  13. Poly(vinyl chloride) processes and products.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R N

    1981-10-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) resins are produced by four basic processes: suspension, emulsion, bulk and solution polymerization. PVC suspensions resins are usually relatively dust-free and granular with varying degrees of particle porosity. PVC emulsion resins are small particle powders containing very little free monomer. Bulk PVC resins are similar to suspension PVC resins, though the particles tend to be more porous. Solution PVC resins are smaller in particle size than suspension PVC with high porosity particles containing essentially no free monomer. The variety of PVC resin products does not lend itself to broad generalizations concerning health hazards. In studying occupational hazards the particular PVC process and the product must be considered and identified in the study.

  14. Compound oxidized styrylphosphine. [flame resistant vinyl polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. J. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for preparing flame resistant, nontoxic vinyl polymers which contain phosphazene groups and which do not emit any toxic or corrosive products when they are oxidatively degraded. Homopolymers, copolymers, and terpolymers of a styrene based monomer are prepared by polymerizing at least one oxidized styrylphosphine monomer from a group of organic azides, or by polymerizing p-diphenylphosphinestyrene and then oxidizing that monomer with an organoazide from the group of (C6H5)2P(O)N3, (C6H5O)2P(O)N3, (C6H5)2C3N3(N3), and C6H5C3N3(N3)2. Copolymers can also be prepared by copolymerizing styrene with at least one oxidized styrylphosphine monomer.

  15. Cationic vinyl pyridine copolymers and products thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Quaternized, cross-linked, insoluble copolymers of unsubstituted and substituted vinyl pyridines and a dihalo organic compound are spontaneously formed at ambient temperature on mixing the two monomers in bulk, in solution or in suspension. The amount of cross-linking may be varied according to the composition and reaction conditions. The polymer product exhibits ion exchange capacity and undergoes a reversible color change from black at a pH above 7 to yellow at a pH below 7. The polymer may be formed in the presence of preformed polymers, substrates such as porous or impervious particles or films to deposit an ion exchange film in situ or on the surface of the substrate. The coated or resin impregnated substrate may be utilized for separation of anionic species from aqueous solution.

  16. Kinetics of radiational hydrosilylation of vinyl chloride by methyldichlorosilane

    SciTech Connect

    Bryantseva, N.V.; Lugovoi, Yu.M.; Garsiya, I.K.; Shostenko, A.G.

    1988-03-01

    The main product of the radiational interaction of methyldichlorosilane with vinyl chloride is 2-chloroethylmethyldichlorosilane, formed according to a radical-chain addition scheme. The energy of activation of the addition reaction of the methyldichlorosilyl radical to vinyl chloride is 14 +/- 4 kJ/mole. Its low value is explained by the p..pi..-d..pi.. interaction in the transition state of the reaction. This interaction also explains the similar values of the energies of activation of the radical addition reactions of methyldichlorosilane to 1-hexene and vinyl chloride.

  17. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. An expedient synthesis of linden ether.

    PubMed

    Serra, Stefano; Cominetti, Alessandra A

    2014-03-01

    We here describe a comprehensive study on the preparation of the intensive flavor 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,4(8)-diene (1). Key steps of the presented synthesis are the selective addition of MeLi to the keto-ester 7, the regioselective cyclization of the obtained triol to give the ethers 4 and 8 and the selective dehydration of ether 4 through the use of POCI3 and pyridine. It is worth noting that the presented synthesis represents the first expedient and reliable entry to ether 1. Being present in linden honey, 1 is also known as linden ether and it has been regarded as a potential marker for the authentication of the linden honey origin. Therefore, ether 1 can be used as a useful reference standard for the analysis of the natural flavors, as we demonstrated by means of its identification in a sample ofunifloral linden honey.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  2. Vinyl chloride removal from an air stream by biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Faraj, S H Esmaeili; Esfahany, M Nasr; Kadivar, M; Zilouei, H

    2012-01-01

    A biofiltration process was used for degradation of vinyl chloride as a hazardous material in the air stream. Three biotrickling filters in series-parallel allowing uniform feed and moisture distribution all over the bed were used. Granular activated carbon mixed with compost was employed as carrier bed. The biological culture consisted of mixture of activated sludge from PVC wastewater treatment plant. Concurrent flow of gas and liquid was used in the bed. Results indicated that during the operation period of 110 days, the biotrickling bed was able to remove over 35% of inlet vinyl chloride. Maximum elimination capacity was calculated to be 0.56 g.m(-3).hr(-1). The amount of chlorine accumulated in the circulating liquid due to the degradation of vinyl chloride was measured to be equal to the vinyl chloride removed from the air stream.

  3. Vibrational spectroscopic study of vinyl substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Anju; Rastogi, Shantanu

    2015-12-01

    The mid infrared emission features observed in various astrophysical sources are attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. The models of emission spectra from a collection of PAHs show uncertainty in matching the 6.2 μm feature. This indicates the need to consider a larger variety of PAHs and PAH derivatives. Chemical pathways towards formation of PAHs in the astrophysical environments involve vinyl substituted PAHs as intermediate products. Vibrational spectroscopic study of vinyl-PAHs is reported in the present work. The vinyl group is substituted at similar positions in eight different PAHs. The obtained optimized structures show that vinyl substitution at 2 position in acenes gives planar geometry, while all other vinyl-PAHs are non-planar. Infrared spectra is simulated for neutrals as well as for cations. The results are compared with the spectra of corresponding plain PAHs and analyzed for possible match with astrophysical observations. New features, due to vinyl group in the composite spectra, identified at 6.64, 6.92, 7.27, 8.77 and 10.35 μm fall close to some sub features of the observed emission spectra. The paper provides data that may be used in the emission models particularly along proto planetary nebulae type cool objects. PMID:26117194

  4. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Anti-Vinyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol can exist in two rotameric forms, known as syn- and anti- vinyl alcohol, where syn is the most stable. Both rotamers have been observed in the interstellar medium towards Sagittarius B2(N) making them of particular astrophysical importance. Vinyl alcohol has been subject to various spectroscopic investigations, however, the anti rotamer has only been obsvered in the microwave region. We report the high resolution (0.001 wn) FTIR spectrum of anti-vinyl alcohol collected at the infrared beamline facility of the Australian Synchrotron. Vinyl alcohol was produced via the pyrolysis of 2-chloroethanol at 900°C, and its far infrared spectrum reveals the presence of the strong νb{15} fundamental and hot band of anti-vinyl alcohol. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of this higher energy rotamer have since been determined for the νb{15} and 2νb{15} states, and the ground state constants have been refined. B. E. Turner, A. J. Apponi, ApJ 561, 207 (2001) M. Rodler, J. Mol. Spec. 114, 23 (1985) D-L Joo, et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  5. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  6. Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl p - nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate ( EPN ) ; CASRN 2104 - 64 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Ha

  7. Cutaneous metabolism of glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Lockley, David J; Howes, Douglas; Williams, Faith M

    2005-03-01

    The toxicity of glycol ethers is associated with their oxidation to the corresponding aldehyde and alkoxyacetic acid by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1.) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; 1.2.1.3). Dermal exposure to these compounds can result in localised or systemic toxicity including skin sensitisation and irritancy, reproductive, developmental and haemotological effects. It has previously been shown that skin has the capacity for local metabolism of applied chemicals. Therefore, there is a requirement to consider metabolism during dermal absorption of these compounds in risk assessment for humans. Cytosolic fractions were prepared from rat liver, and whole and dermatomed skin by differential centrifugation. Rat skin cytosolic fractions were also prepared following multiple dermal exposure to dexamethasone, ethanol or 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE). The rate of ethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE), ethylene glycol, 2-phenoxyethanol (2-PE) and 2-BE conversion to alkoxyacetic acid by ADH/ALDH in these fractions was continuously monitored by UV spectrophotometry via the conversion of NAD+ to NADH at 340 nm. Rates of ADH oxidation by rat liver cytosol were greatest for ethanol followed by 2-EE >ethylene glycol >2-PE >2-BE. However, the order of metabolism changed to 2-BE >2-PE >ethylene glycol >2-EE >ethanol using whole and dermatomed rat skin cytosolic fractions, with approximately twice the specific activity in dermatomed skin cytosol relative to whole rat skin. This suggests that ADH and ALDH are localised in the epidermis that constitutes more of the protein in dermatomed skin than whole skin cytosol. Inhibition of ADH oxidation in rat liver cytosol by pyrazole was greatest for ethanol followed by 2-EE >ethylene glycol >2-PE >2-BE, but it only inhibited ethanol metabolism by 40% in skin cytosol. Disulfiram completely inhibited alcohol and glycol ether metabolism in the liver and skin cytosolic fractions. Although ADH1, ADH2 and ADH3 are expressed at the

  8. Acetogenic microbial degradation of vinyl chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C- acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries, respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and humic acids- reducing conditions.Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C-acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopy and computational studies of some novel π-conjugated vinyl N-alkylated quinolinium salts and their precursor's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nycz, Jacek E.; Czyż, Karolina; Szala, Marcin; Malecki, Jan G.; Shaw, George; Gilmore, Brendan; Jon, Marek

    2016-02-01

    A series of π-conjugated vinyl N-methylated quinolinium salts (3) and their precursor's N-alkylated quinolinium salts (2) were prepared and characterized by NMR, IR, UV-Vis and MS spectroscopy. It was confirmed that the hydroxyl and amino derivatives of vinyl N-methylated quinolinium salts lead to spiro type compounds (4). The syntheses of N-alkylated quinolinium salts were successful, and even multigram scale was achievable. The structures of 1,2-dimethylquinolinium iodide (2a) and 1-ethyl-2-methylquinolinium iodide (2b) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. NMR spectra showed readily diagnostic H-1 and C-13 signals from methyl and N-alkyl groups for both 2 and 3. The geometries of the studied compounds were optimized in singlet states using the density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP functional. In general, the predicted bond lengths and angles are in a good agreement with the values based on the X-ray crystal structure data.

  10. Vinyl chloride-induced hepatic angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, H

    1987-01-01

    In early 1974, an alert plant physician reported the occurrence of several cases of the otherwise rare hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) at a single polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production facility in Louisville, Kentucky (U.S.A.). Upon further investigation, the relative risk for HAS at this plant appeared to be approximately 5,000, strongly indicating a causal relationship with some factor at the plant. Epidemiologic studies at this and other PVC polymerization plants identified vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) as the causative agent. Experimental studies reported in early 1974 confirmed VCM as a hepatic carcinogen capable of producing HAS and other tumors. Follow-up epidemiologic studies revealed that: 1) HAS is the end stage of a progressive liver disease consisting of hepatocytic and sinusoidal cell hyperplasia, sinusoidal dilatation, and hepatic fibrosis; 2) over 100 cases of VCM-induced HAS have occurred worldwide; and 3) an increased risk of lung cancer has been reported in some cohort studies of PVC polymerization workers, although this outcome may be related to PVC dust or factors other than VCM. A national study of HAS in the United States identified 3 other causes of HAS: Thorotrast, inorganic arsenic, and androgenic-anabolic steroids. Of 168 cases found to occur during 1964 through 1974, 42 cases (25%) were associated with the 4 known etiologic agents, while 126 cases (75%) were of unknown etiology.

  11. Heat resistance poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshii, F.; Makuuchi, K.; Darwis, D.; Iriawan, T.; Razzak, M. T.; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    1995-08-01

    Six methods were used to evaluate the heat resistance of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel prepared by a combination of electron beam irradiation and acetalization of PVA. The physical properties of the hydrogel depended on the degree of acetilization which was affected by content of water in PVA sheet of acetalization in formaldehyde solution at 60°C. It was found that the optimum water content was 20-30%. The acetalized PVA sheet gave maximum tensile strength in electron beams irradiation at 100 kGy. The tensile strength of the hydrogel film increased to 20 MPa from 14 MPa by the irradiation. Heat resistance of the hydrogel was evaluated by measuring the mechanical properties after sterilization in a steam autoclave at 121°C for 90 min. The tensile strength decreased to 10 MPa whereas the elongation at break increased to 300%. The tackiness of the hydrogel was improved by radiation grafting of acrylic acid. Wholesomeness of the hydrogel as a wound dressing was evaluated by attaching to a burn or wound of the back skin of marmots. Advantages of the hydrogel over a gauze dressing were homogeneous adhesion to the affected parts, easy removal without damage to renewed skin and slightly faster rate of reconstruction of the injured skin.

  12. Rotational Spectroscopy of Methyl Vinyl Ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, Olena; Motiyenko, R. A.; Aviles Moreno, Juan-Ramon; Huet, T. R.

    2015-06-01

    Methyl vinyl ketone, MVK, along with previously studied by our team methacrolein, is a major oxidation product of isoprene, which is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. In this talk we present the analysis of the rotational spectrum of MVK recorded at room temperature in the 50 -- 650 GHz region using the Lille spectrometer. The spectroscopic characterization of MVK ground state will be useful in the detailed analysis of high resolution infrared spectra. Our study is supported by high level quantum chemical calculations to model the structure of the two stable s-trans and s-cis conformers and to obtain the harmonic force field parameters, internal rotation barrier heights, and vibrational frequencies. In the Doppler-limited spectra the splittings due to the internal rotation of methyl group are resolved, therefore for analysis of this molecule we used the Rho-Axis-Method Hamiltonian and RAM36 code to fit the rotational transitions. At the present time the ground state of two conformers is analyzed. Also we intend to study some low lying excited states. The analysis is in progress and the latest results will be presented. Support from the French Laboratoire d'Excellence CaPPA (Chemical and Physical Properties of the Atmosphere) through contract ANR-10-LABX-0005 of the Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir is acknowledged.

  13. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  15. Chemical bonding and the equilibrium composition of Grignard reagents in ethereal solutions.

    PubMed

    Henriques, André M; Barbosa, André G H

    2011-11-10

    A thorough analysis of the electronic structure and thermodynamic aspects of Grignard reagents and its associated equilibrium composition in ethereal solutions is performed. Considering methylmagnesium halides containing fluorine, chlorine, and bromine, we studied the neutral, charged, and radical species associated with their chemical equilibrium in solution. The ethereal solvents considered, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and ethyl ether (Et(2)O), were modeled using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) and also by explicit coordination to the Mg atoms in a cluster. The chemical bonding of the species that constitute the Grignard reagent is analyzed in detail with generalized valence bond (GVB) wave functions. Equilibrium constants were calculated with the DFT/M06 functional and GVB wave functions, yielding similar results. According to our calculations and existing kinetic and electrochemical evidence, the species R(•), R(-), (•)MgX, and RMgX(2)(-) must be present in low concentration in the equilibrium. We conclude that depending on the halogen, a different route must be followed to produce the relevant equilibrium species in each case. Chloride and bromide must preferably follow a "radical-based" pathway, and fluoride must follow a "carbanionic-based" pathway. These different mechanisms are contrasted against the available experimental results and are proven to be consistent with the existing thermodynamic data on the Grignard reagent equilibria.

  16. Bio-based alternative to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with controlled materials properties.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Anthony; Spinella, Stephen; Gross, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    A series of biobased epoxy monomers were prepared from diphenolic acid (DPA) by transforming the free acid into n-alkyl esters and the phenolic hydroxyl groups into diglycidyl ethers. NMR experiments confirmed that the diglycidyl ethers of diphenolates (DGEDP) with methyl and ethyl esters have 6 and 3 mol % of glycidyl ester. Increasing the chain length of DGEDP n-alkyl esters from methyl to n-pentyl resulted in large decreases in epoxy resin viscosity (700-to-11 Pa·s). Storage modulus of DPA epoxy resins, cured with isophorone diamine, also varied with n-alkyl ester chain length (e.g., 3300 and 2100 MPa for the methyl and n-pentyl esters). The alpha transition temperature of the cured materials showed a linear decrease from 158 to 86 °C as the ester length increases. The Young's modulus and tensile strengths were about 1150 and 40 MPa, respectively, for all the cured resins tested (including DGEBA) and varied little as a function of ester length. Degree of cure for the different epoxy resins, determined by FTIR and DSC, closely approached the theoretical maximum. The result of this work demonstrates that diglycidyl ethers of n-alkyl diphenolates represent a new family of biobased liquid epoxy resins that, when cured, have similar properties to those from DGEBA. PMID:25633466

  17. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inhalation exposure to vinyl chloride. Furthermore, vinyl chloride has recently been linked to liver disease, including liver cancer, in workers engaged in the polymerization of vinyl chloride. It is the view of...

  18. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  19. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  20. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  1. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  2. Phenylethynl-terminated poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) are prepared in a wide range of molecular weights by adjusting monomer ratio and adding an appropriate amount of 4-fluoro- 4'-phenylethynyl benzophenone during polymer synthesis. The resulting phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) react and crosslink upon curing for one hour at 350 C to provide materials with improved solvent resistance, higher modulus, and better high temperature properties than the linear, uncrosslinked polymers.

  3. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  4. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  5. The rheology of aqueous solutions of ethyl hydroxy-ethyl cellulose (EHEC) and its hydrophobically modified analogue (hmEHEC): extensional flow response in capillary break-up, jetting (ROJER) and in a cross-slot extensional rheometer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Haward, Simon J; Serdy, James; Keshavarz, Bavand; Soderlund, Asa; Threlfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-04-28

    Cellulose derivatives containing associating hydrophobic groups along their hydrophilic backbone are used as rheology modifiers in the formulation of water-based spray paints, medicinal sprays, cosmetics and printable inks. Jetting and spraying applications of these materials involve progressive thinning and break-up of a fluid column or sheet into drops. Strong extensional kinematics develop in the thinning fluid neck. In viscous Newtonian fluids, inertial and viscous stresses oppose the surface tension-driven instability. In aqueous solutions of polymers such as Ethyl Hydroxy-Ethyl Cellulose (EHEC), chain elongation provides additional elastic stresses that can delay the capillary-driven pinch-off, influencing the sprayability or jettability of the complex fluid. In this study, we quantify the transient response of thinning filaments of cellulose ether solutions to extensional flows in a Capillary Break-up Extensional Rheometer (CaBER) and in a forced jet undergoing break-up using Rayleigh Ohnesorge Jetting Extensional Rheometry (ROJER). We also characterize the steady state molecular deformations using measurements of the flow-induced birefringence and excess pressure drop in an extensional stagnation point flow using a Cross-Slot Extensional Rheometer (CSER). We show that under the high extension rates encountered in jetting and spraying, the semi-dilute solutions of hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxy-ethyl cellulose (hmEHEC) exhibit extensional thinning, while the unmodified bare chains of EHEC display an increase in extensional viscosity, up to a plateau value. For both EHEC and hmEHEC dispersions, the low extensibility of the cellulose derivatives limits the Trouton ratio observed at the highest extension rates attained (close to 10(5) s(-1)) to around 10-20. The reduction in extensional viscosity with increasing extension rate for the hydrophobically modified cellulose ether is primarily caused by the disruption of a transient elastic network that is

  6. The rheology of aqueous solutions of ethyl hydroxy-ethyl cellulose (EHEC) and its hydrophobically modified analogue (hmEHEC): extensional flow response in capillary break-up, jetting (ROJER) and in a cross-slot extensional rheometer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Haward, Simon J; Serdy, James; Keshavarz, Bavand; Soderlund, Asa; Threlfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-04-28

    Cellulose derivatives containing associating hydrophobic groups along their hydrophilic backbone are used as rheology modifiers in the formulation of water-based spray paints, medicinal sprays, cosmetics and printable inks. Jetting and spraying applications of these materials involve progressive thinning and break-up of a fluid column or sheet into drops. Strong extensional kinematics develop in the thinning fluid neck. In viscous Newtonian fluids, inertial and viscous stresses oppose the surface tension-driven instability. In aqueous solutions of polymers such as Ethyl Hydroxy-Ethyl Cellulose (EHEC), chain elongation provides additional elastic stresses that can delay the capillary-driven pinch-off, influencing the sprayability or jettability of the complex fluid. In this study, we quantify the transient response of thinning filaments of cellulose ether solutions to extensional flows in a Capillary Break-up Extensional Rheometer (CaBER) and in a forced jet undergoing break-up using Rayleigh Ohnesorge Jetting Extensional Rheometry (ROJER). We also characterize the steady state molecular deformations using measurements of the flow-induced birefringence and excess pressure drop in an extensional stagnation point flow using a Cross-Slot Extensional Rheometer (CSER). We show that under the high extension rates encountered in jetting and spraying, the semi-dilute solutions of hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxy-ethyl cellulose (hmEHEC) exhibit extensional thinning, while the unmodified bare chains of EHEC display an increase in extensional viscosity, up to a plateau value. For both EHEC and hmEHEC dispersions, the low extensibility of the cellulose derivatives limits the Trouton ratio observed at the highest extension rates attained (close to 10(5) s(-1)) to around 10-20. The reduction in extensional viscosity with increasing extension rate for the hydrophobically modified cellulose ether is primarily caused by the disruption of a transient elastic network that is

  7. Development and Characterization of Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) Copolymer Based Polymer Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Sa'adun, Nurul Nadiah; Subramaniam, Ramesh; Kasi, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) are developed using poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [P(VP-co-VAc)] as the host polymer, lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide [LiTFSI] as the lithium salt and ionic liquid, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [EMImTFSI] by using solution casting technique. The effect of ionic liquid on ionic conductivity is studied and the optimum ionic conductivity at room temperature is found to be 2.14 × 10−6 S cm−1 for sample containing 25 wt% of EMImTFSI. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity from 303 K to 353 K exhibits Arrhenius plot behaviour. The thermal stability of the polymer electrolyte system is studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) while the structural and morphological properties of the polymer electrolyte is studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. PMID:25431781

  8. Computer assisted modeling of ethyl sulfate pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Halter, Claudia C; Aderjan, Rolf; Auwaerter, Volker; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-30

    For 12 volunteers of a drinking experiment the concentration-time-courses of ethyl sulfate (EtS) and ethanol were simulated and fitted to the experimental data. The concentration-time-courses were described with the same mathematical model as previously used for ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The kinetic model based on the following assumptions and simplifications: a velocity constant k(form) for the first order formation of ethyl sulfate from ethanol and an exponential elimination constant k(el). The mean values (and standard deviations) obtained for k(form) and k(el) were 0.00052 h(-1) (0.00014) and 0.561 h(-1) (0.131), respectively. Using the ranges of these parameters it is possible to calculate minimum and maximum serum concentrations of EtS based on stated ethanol doses and drinking times. The comparison of calculated and measured concentrations can prove the plausibility of alleged ethanol consumption and add evidence to the retrospective calculation of ethanol concentrations based on EtG concentrations. PMID:19913378

  9. Catalyst activity maintenance study for the liquid phase dimethyl ether process

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, X.D.; Toseland, B.A.; Underwood, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    The co-production of dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol from syngas is a process of considerable commercial attractiveness. DME coproduction can double the productivity of a LPMEOH process when using coal-derived syngas. This in itself may offer chemical producers and power companies increased flexibility and more profitable operation. DME is also known as a clean burning liquid fuel; Amoco and Haldor-Topsoe have recently announced the use of DME as an alternative diesel fuel. Moreover, DME can be an interesting intermediate in the production of chemicals such as olefins and vinyl acetate. The current APCl liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) process utilizes a physical mixture of a commercial methanol synthesis catalyst and a dehydration catalyst (e.g., {gamma}-alumina). While this arrangement provides a synergy that results in much higher syngas conversion per pass compared to the methanol-only process, the stability of the catalyst system suffers. The present project is aimed at reducing catalyst deactivation both by understanding the cause(s) of catalyst deactivation and by developing modified catalyst systems. This paper describes the current understanding of the deactivation mechanism.

  10. Vinyl chloride: still a cause for concern.

    PubMed Central

    Kielhorn, J; Melber, C; Wahnschaffe, U; Aitio, A; Mangelsdorf, I

    2000-01-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is both a known carcinogen and a regulated chemical, and its production capacity has almost doubled over the last 20 years, currently 27 million tons/year worldwide. According to recent reports it is still a cause for concern. VC has been found as a degradation product of chloroethylene solvents (perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene) and in landfill gas and groundwater at concentrations up to 200 mg/m(3) and 10 mg/L, respectively. Worldwide occupational exposure to VC still seems to be high in some countries (e.g., averages of approximately 1,300 mg/m(3) until 1987 in one factory), and exposure may also be high in others where VC is not regulated. By combining the most relevant epidemiologic studies from several countries, we observed a 5-fold excess of liver cancer, primarily because of a 45-fold excess risk from angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL). The number of ASL cases reported up to the end of 1998 was 197 worldwide. The average latency for ASL is 22 years. Some studies show a small excess risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, and others suggest a possible risk of brain tumors among highly exposed workers. Lung cancer, lymphomas, or leukemia do not seem to be related to VC exposure according to recent results. The mutation spectra observed in rat and human liver tumors (ASL and/or hepatocellular carcinoma) that are associated with exposure to VC are clearly distinct from those observed in sporadic liver tumors or hepatic tumors that are associated with other exposures. In rats, the substitution mutations found at A:T base pairs in the ras and p53 genes are consistent with the promutagenic properties of the DNA adduct 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine formed from VC metabolites. Risk assessments derived from animal studies seem to overestimate the actual risk of cancer when comparing estimated and reported cases of ASL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10905993

  11. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value.

  12. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:23969233

  13. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  14. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  15. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  16. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or purification is not to exceed 10 ppm (average for...

  17. U.S. Geological Survey laboratory method for methyl tert-Butyl ether and other fuel oxygenates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.; Rose, Donna L.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was found in shallow ground-water samples in a study of 8 urban and 20 agricultural areas throughout the United States in 1993 and 1994 (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 1). The compound is added to gasoline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels in the air. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), near Denver, uses state-of-the-art technology to analyze samples for MTBE as part of the USGS water-quality studies. In addition, the NWQL offers custom analyses to determine two other fuel oxygenates--ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The NWQL was not able to obtain a reference standard for tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), another possible fuel oxygenate (Shelley and Fouhy, 1994, p. 63). The shallow ground-water samples were collected as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These samples were collected from 211 urban wells or springs and 562 agricultural wells sampled by the USGS in 1993 and 1994. The wells were keyed to specific land-use areas to assess the effects of different uses on ground-water quality (Squillace and others, 1995, p. 2). Ground-water samples were preserved on site to pH less than or equal to 2 with a solution of 1:1 hydrochloric acid. All samples were analyzed at the NWQL within 2 weeks after collection. The purpose of this fact sheet is to explain briefly the analytical method implemented by the USGS for determining MTBE and other fuel oxygenates. The scope is necessarily limited to an overview of the analytical method (instrumentation, sample preparation, calibration and quantitation, identification, and preservation of samples) and method performance (reagent blanks, accuracy, and precision).

  18. Synthesis and multitopic complex formation of a photochromic bis(crown ether) based on benzobis(thiazole).

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Yu V; Fedorova, O; Schepel, N; Alfimov, M; Turek, A M; Saltiel, J

    2005-09-29

    2,7-Bis[2-(6,7,9,10,12,13,15,16-octahydro-5,8,11,14,17-pentaoxabenzocyclopentadecen-2-yl)vinyl]-benzo[1,2-d;3,4-d']bisthiazole, 2, with crown ether styryl moieties substituted on a heterocyclic core, was synthesized and its complex forming ability with several metal cations was evaluated in acetonitrile by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results are compared to those for the analogous ligand possessing a single crown ether styryl moiety. Selective binding of the metal cation at the heterocyclic core of both ligands was observed only for Hg2+. Alkali and alkaline earth cations bind selectively at the crown ether moieties. Stability constants and pure spectra of defined stoichiometry were determined with the use of HYPERQUAD, a least-squares fitting program, and the results were validated in one case by subjecting the titration spectral matrix to singular value decomposition with self-modeling (SVD-SM). The multitopic ligand 2 forms relatively strong 2:2 stoichiometric complexes with K+, among the alkali metal cations, and Ba2+, among the alkaline earth metal cations, and is a promising selective optical sensor for these ions.

  19. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  20. Vasculitic purpura in vinyl chloride disease: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Magnavita, N.; Bergamaschi, A.; Garcovich, A.; Giuliano, G.

    1986-05-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC), a volatile substance mostly used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) synthesis, is a systemic toxicant particularly noxious to endothelium. Angiosarcoma of the liver, Raynaud's phenomenon, scleroderma-like lesions, acroosteolysis and neuritis are known to be typical vinyl chloride-associated manifestations (VC disease). A so far unknown feature of the disease is purpura. This was first observed by the authors in a worker of a PVC-producing plant. The skin eruption was characterized by small purpuric maculae with tiny, palpable spots and papulae, mostly concentrated on the lower part of the legs, changing into bullae, pustules and crusts and tending to spontaneous regression after withdrawal from VC exposure. A skin biopsy revealed marked inflammatory reaction with a mostly lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration around and in the walls of dermal arterioles. The finding of increased circulating immune complexes and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies strengthens the hypothesis that immunologic changes play a role in the appearance of ''vinylic purpura.''

  1. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  2. Theoretical study of the decomposition of ethyl and ethyl 3-phenyl glycidate.

    PubMed

    Josa, Daniela; Peña-Gallego, Angeles; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of the decomposition of ethyl and ethyl 3-phenyl glycidate in gas phase was studied by density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 methods. A proposed mechanism for the reaction indicates that the ethyl side of the ester is eliminated as ethylene through a concerted six-membered cyclic transition state, and the unstable intermediate glycidic acid decarboxylates rapidly to give the corresponding aldehyde. Two possible pathways for glycidic acid decarboxylation were studied: one via a five-membered cyclic transition state, and the other via a four-membered cyclic transition state. The results of the calculations indicate that the decarboxylation reaction occurs via a mechanism with five-membered cyclic transition state.

  3. Thermochemical study of 1-acetyl vinyl p-nitrobenzoate: vinyl bond enthalpy in captodative olefins.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Aarón; Valdés-Ordoñez, Alejandro; Martínez-Herrera, Melchor; Torres, Luis Alfonso; Campos, Myriam; Hernández-Obregón, Javier; Herrera, Rafael; Tamariz, Joaquín

    2015-05-21

    Captodative olefins are highly reactive and selective substrates in Diels-Alder and 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions. Seeking an explanation of this fact based on molecular energetics, the thermochemical analysis of 1-acetyl vinyl p-nitrobenzoate, a captodative olefin, has been performed using semi-micro-combustion calorimetry, effusion measurements through a quartz crystal microbalance, and differential scanning calorimetry. The molar standard combustion energy and enthalpy as well as the molar standard formation enthalpy are reported along with sublimation and melting enthalpies. From these data, experimental formation enthalpy of the gas-phase is derived and compared with the theoretical value calculated through the density functional theory procedure. The olefinic bond enthalpy is also computed from experimental data, and the relevance of the results is discussed.

  4. Dissociative Photoionization of Diethyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Krisztina; Mozaffari Easter, Chrissa M; Covert, Kyle J; Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick; Sztáray, Bálint

    2015-10-29

    The dissociative photoionization of internal energy selected diethyl ether ions was investigated by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. In a large, 5 eV energy range Et2O(+) cations decay by two parallel and three sequential dissociative photoionization channels, which can be modeled well using statistical theory. The 0 K appearance energies of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (H-loss, m/z = 73) and CH3CH2O═CH2(+) (methyl-loss, m/z = 59) fragment ions were determined to be 10.419 ± 0.015 and 10.484 ± 0.008 eV, respectively. The reemergence of the hydrogen-loss ion above 11 eV is attributed to transition-state (TS) switching, in which the second, outer TS is rate-determining at high internal energies. At 11.81 ± 0.05 eV, a secondary fragment of the CH3CHOCH2CH3(+) (m/z = 73) ion, protonated acetaldehyde, CH3CH═OH(+) (m/z = 45) appears. On the basis of the known thermochemical onset of this fragment, a reverse barrier of 325 meV was found. Two more sequential dissociation reactions were examined, namely, ethylene and formaldehyde losses from the methyl-loss daughter ion. The 0 K appearance energies of 11.85 ± 0.07 and 12.20 ± 0.08 eV, respectively, indicate no reverse barrier in these processes. The statistical model of the dissociative photoionization can also be used to predict the fractional ion abundances in threshold photoionization at large temperatures, which could be of use in, for example, combustion diagnostics. PMID:26444101

  5. Reactor-chromatographic determination of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Berezkin, V.G.

    1986-08-01

    The authors carry out a chromatographic study of the volatile products that evolve when various grades of domestic polyvinyl chloride are heated, to determine the concentration of residual monomer. To find vinyl chloride in complex mixtures of air pollutants the authors used sorptive reaction concentration of impurities. This new combination of methods is based on preliminary separation at the sampling stage of impurities that interfere in the analysis, followed by concentration of the desired components in a trap with an adsorbent, and chromatographic determination of the concentrated trace materials. The method obtains low vinyl chloride concentrations (down to 10/sup -4/-10/sup -5/ wt. %) with +/-5 relative error.

  6. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.93 - Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. 3201.93... FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.93 Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. (a) Definition. Products that help clean, nourish, protect, and restore leather, vinyl, and rubber surfaces,...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.93 - Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. 3201.93... FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.93 Leather, vinyl, and rubber care products. (a) Definition. Products that help clean, nourish, protect, and restore leather, vinyl, and rubber surfaces,...

  15. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  16. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  18. 75 FR 42311 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Vinyl Plastic Film: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1611 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Vinyl Plastic Film... regulations under the Flammable Fabrics Act relating to vinyl plastic film. The Commission is issuing this... Products; Vinyl Plastic Film: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Assessment...

  19. Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethyl acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safrany, A.; Biro, A.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1993-10-01

    Ethyl- and hydroxy ethyl acrylate show high reactivities with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical intermediates of water radiolysis. The electron adduct reversibly protonate with pK values of 5.7 and 7.3. The adducts may take part in irreversible protonation at the β carbon atom forming α-carboxyl alkyl radicals. Same type of radical forms in reaction of acrylates with OH: at low concentration the adduct mainly disappear in self termination reactions. Above 5 mmol dm -1 the signals showed the startup of oligomerization.

  20. Optimization of ethyl ester production assisted by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Noipin, K; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of the continuous flow potassium hydroxide-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl ester from palm oil with ultrasonic assistance. The process was optimized by application of factorial design and response surface methodology. The independent variables considered were ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and ultrasonic amplitude; and the response was ethyl ester yield. The results show that ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and ultrasonic amplitude have positive effect on ethyl ester yield, whereas reaction temperature has negative influence on ethyl ester yield. Second-order models were developed to predict the responses analyzed as a function of these three variables, and the developed models predicts the results in the experimental ranges studied adequately. This study shows that ultrasonic irradiation improved the ethyl ester production process to achieve ethyl ester yields above 92%. PMID:25116594

  1. Production of liquid hydrocarbon and ether mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1989-05-16

    An integrated process is described for the production of ether-rich liquid fuels, comprising: (a) etherifying a mixture of excess lower alkyl alcohol and aliphatic hydrocarbon feedstock rich in C/sub 4/+isoalkenes in the presence of acid etherification catalyst whereby lower alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers are produced; (b) separating etherification effluent from step(a) to provide a gasoline stream rich in C/sub 5/+ ethers and a stream comprising unreacted alcohol and alkenes; (c) contacting the unreacted alcohol and alkenes with an acidic metallosilicate zeolite conversion catalyst under olefinic and oxygenates conversion conditions at a temperature of at least 200/sup 0/C (392/sup 0/F) whereby a conversion effluent stream rich in C/sub 4/+ isoalkenes is produced; (d) recycling at least a portion of the conversion effluent stream to step (a) for etherification.

  2. Determination of vinyl chloride monomer residue in poly(vinyl chloride) at the parts-per-billion level with an automatic purge-and-trap technique.

    PubMed

    Poy, F; Cobelli, L; Banfi, S; Fossati, F

    1987-06-12

    A method for the determination of vinyl chloride residue in poly(vinyl chloride) using a commercial purge-and-trap ancillary unit has been developed. Concentrations lower than 10 ppb (10(9] with relative standard deviations in the region of 10% in up to 24 samples are detectable with fully automatic operation without operator attendance. With multiple extraction of the same sample an external standard is used; the matrix does not have any influence on the recovery of vinyl chloride.

  3. Acidizing using N-vinyl lactum/unsaturated amide copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, L.D.; Stahl, G.A.

    1987-09-01

    A process is described for acidizing a subterranean formation penetrated by at least one well comprising injecting into the formation, without a crosslinking agent, a water soluble thickened acid composition comprising: (1) water; (2) acid; and (3) a linear copolymer prepared from the monomers consisting of a N-vinyl lactam monomer and an alpha, beta-unsaturated amide monomer.

  4. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF...

  5. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF...

  6. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of...

  7. Lead and Cadmium in Vinyl Children's Products. A Greenpeace Expose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gangi, Joseph

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is a substance widely used in children's products. Because children in contact with these products may ingest substantial quantities of potentially harmful chemicals during normal play, especially when they chew on the product, this Greenpeace study examined the levels of lead and cadmium in a variety of consumer…

  8. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... copolymerization of ethylene and vinyl acetate, followed by reaction with maleic anhydride. Such polymers shall... prior to reaction with maleic anhydride, and not more than 2 percent of grafted maleic anhydride by... ASTM method D 1238-82, “Standard Test Method for Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion...

  9. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Syn-Vinyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol has been extensively studied in both the microwave and mid-IR spectral regions, where 9 out of 15 vibrational modes have been identified. Here we present the first far-IR spectrum of vinyl alcohol, collected below 700 wn at the Australian Synchrotron. The high resolution (0.001 wn) spectrum reveals the νb{11} and νb{15} fundamentals of syn-vinyl alcohol at 489 wn and 407 wn, in addition to two hot bands of the νb{15} mode at 369 wn and 323 wn. High J transitions in the R-branch of the νb{15} band were found to be perturbed by an a-axis Coriolis interaction with the nearby νb{11} state. The νb{15} torsional mode of syn-vinyl alcohol was fit using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian to yield rotational, centrifugal distortion, and Coriolis coupling parameters. S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 42, 3 (1976) M. Rodler et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 4029 (1948) Y. Koga et al., J. Mol. Spec. 145, 315 (1991) D-L. Joo et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  10. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740 Section 154.1740 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745 Section 154.1745 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design...

  12. EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ON THE SOUTHEAST SIDE OF THE UNIT - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Electrospun nanofibers of poly (vinyl alcohol) reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, nanofibers of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils (CnF) were produced by electrospinning. The effects of applied voltage, polymer concentration and injection rate, tip-to-collector distance (TCD), rotation speed of the collector, and relative humidity on m...

  14. Crystalline imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly)arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The block copolymers of the invention have one glass transition temperature or two, depending on the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these crystalline block copolymers for tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties. While all of the copolymers produced by the present invention are crystalline, testing reveals that copolymers with longer imide blocks or higher imide content have increased crystallinity.

  15. Ethyl Lithiodiazoacetate: Extremely Unstable Intermediate Handled Efficiently in Flow.

    PubMed

    Müller, Simon T R; Hokamp, Tobias; Ehrmann, Svenja; Hellier, Paul; Wirth, Thomas

    2016-08-16

    Ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) is one of the most prominent diazo reagents. It is frequently used in metal-carbene-type reactions. However, EDA can also be used as a nucleophile under base catalysis. Whilst the addition of EDA to aldehydes can be performed using organic bases, the addition of EDA to other carbonyl electrophiles requires the use of organometallics such as lithium diisopropylamide (LDA). The generated ethyl lithiodiazoacetate is highly reactive and decomposes rapidly, even at low temperatures. Herein, we report a continuous flow protocol that overcomes the problems associated with the instantaneous decomposition of ethyl lithiodiazoacetate. The addition of ethyl lithiodiazoacetate to ketones provides direct access to tertiary diazoalcohols in good yields.

  16. 37. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 521 (ETHER VAULT) IN BACKGROUND LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  17. 41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, (LEFT) AND BUILDING NO. 521, ETHER VAULT, (RIGHT) IN FOREGROUND - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. Testing for ethanol markers in hair: discrepancies after simultaneous quantification of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Nicholson, D

    2014-10-01

    The hair of 97 cases were analysed for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE, including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate) according to the Society of Hair Testing guidelines to examine the role of both tests in documenting chronic excessive alcohol drinking, particularly when the results are in contradiction. 27 (27.8%) results were EtG negative and FAEE positive, when applying the SoHT cut-offs, probably due to the use of alcohol-containing hair products. Four cases (4.1%) were EtG positive and FAEE negative that were attributed to the use of herbal lotions containing EtG. PMID:24794020

  19. Ultrasound promoted N-alkylation of pyrrole using potassium superoxide as base in crown ether.

    PubMed

    Yim, E S; Park, M K; Han, B H

    1997-04-01

    Ultrasound accelerates the N-alkylation of pyrrole by alkylating reagents using potassium superoxide as base in the presence of 18-crown-6. A much lower yield of N-alkylated pyrrole was realized in the absence of ultrasound. N-alkylating reagents employed for pyrrole are methyl iodide, ethyl bromide, benzyl bromide, as well as acrylonitrile allyl cyanide and methyl acrylate. In an extension of this work, we have found that ultrasound was not necessary for the N-alkylation of indole and alkyl amine, such as diphenyl amine and piperidine with alkyl halides using our reagents. In all cases we observed that the 18-crown-6 catalyzed N-alkylation reaction gives higher yields of N-alkylated products than that without crown ether, when potassium superoxide was used as base. These observations are probably due to the potassium-crown complex which can be released when the reaction goes to completion. PMID:11237050

  20. Distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Marie; Guertal, William R.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001, to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site. This report provides a summary assessment of the distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and a preliminary screening of selected constituents that may affect natural attenuation and remediation demonstrations at the Dover National Test Site. The information gathered during this study is designed to assist potential remedial investigators who are considering conducting a methyl tert-butyl ether remedial demonstration at the test site. In addition, the study supported a planned enhanced bioremediation demonstration and assisted the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. A direct-push drill rig was used to collect a total of 147 ground-water samples (115 VOC samples and 32 quality-assurance samples) at varying depths. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloro-ethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloro-ethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloro-ethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether were detected in the surficial aquifer from ?4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level; however, methyl tert

  1. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-13-78) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10453 - Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10453 Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-02-796) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10453 - Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10453 Polyglycerin alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-02-796) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-13-78) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks....

  9. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks....

  10. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks....

  11. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks....

  12. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks....

  13. 39. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER WITH BUILDING NO. 521, ETHER VAULT, AND BUILDING NO. 519-A, ETHER & ALOCOHL STORAGE TANKS, IN BACKGROUND RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  14. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3440 - Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers... Substances § 721.3440 Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers (PMN P-85-368 and...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-nonylphenyl) ether (PMN P-94-2230) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3440 - Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers... Substances § 721.3440 Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers (PMN P-85-368 and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3500 - Perhalo alkoxy ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perhalo alkoxy ether. 721.3500 Section... Substances § 721.3500 Perhalo alkoxy ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perhalo alkoxy ether (PMN P-83-1227)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3420 - Brominated arylalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brominated arylalkyl ether. 721.3420... Substances § 721.3420 Brominated arylalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated arylalkyl ether (P-83-906)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3465 - Stilbene diglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stilbene diglycidyl ether. 721.3465... Substances § 721.3465 Stilbene diglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as stilbene diglycidyl ether (PMN P-96-1427) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3465 - Stilbene diglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stilbene diglycidyl ether. 721.3465... Substances § 721.3465 Stilbene diglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as stilbene diglycidyl ether (PMN P-96-1427) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3500 - Perhalo alkoxy ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Perhalo alkoxy ether. 721.3500 Section... Substances § 721.3500 Perhalo alkoxy ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perhalo alkoxy ether (PMN P-83-1227)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3430 - 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. 721.3430... Substances § 721.3430 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether (CAS No. 101-55-3) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-nonylphenyl) ether (PMN P-94-2230) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3420 - Brominated arylalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brominated arylalkyl ether. 721.3420... Substances § 721.3420 Brominated arylalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated arylalkyl ether (P-83-906)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3430 - 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. 721.3430... Substances § 721.3430 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether (CAS No. 101-55-3) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  18. UV spectroscopic characterization of dimethyl- and ethyl-substituted carbonyl oxides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Beames, Joseph M; Green, Amy M; Lester, Marsha I

    2014-03-27

    Dimethyl- and ethyl-substituted Criegee intermediates, (CH3)2COO and CH3CH2CHOO, are photolytically generated from diiodo precursors, detected by VUV photoionization at 118 nm, and spectroscopically characterized via UV-induced depletion of the m/z = 74 signals under jet-cooled conditions. In each case, UV excitation resonant with the B-X transition results in significant ground-state depletion, reflecting the large absorption cross section and rapid dynamics in the excited B state. The broad UV absorption spectra of both (CH3)2COO and CH3CH2CHOO peak at ~320 nm with absorption cross sections approaching ~4 × 10(-17) cm(2) molec(-1). The UV absorption spectra for (CH3)2COO and CH3CH2CHOO are similar to that reported previously for syn-CH3CHOO, suggesting analogous intramolecular interactions between the α-H and terminal O of the COO groups. Hydroxyl radical products generated concurrently with the Criegee intermediates are detected by 1 + 1' resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization. The OH signals, scaled relative to those for the Criegee intermediates, are compared with prior studies of OH yield from alkene ozonolysis. The stationary points along the reaction coordinates from the alkyl-substituted Criegee intermediates to vinyl hydroperoxides and OH products are also computed to provide insight on the OH yields.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-100) induces mitochondrial impairment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2013-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants are used in various consumer products to increase their resistance to fire and/or high temperatures. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are representatives of this class and among the most widely used congeners, and BDE-100 is produced on a large scale. There is a lack of toxicological data about these compounds, which has recently become a matter of concern to the scientific community. The mitochondria are recognized as the main energy-producing organelles, as well as playing a vital role in the maintenance of many cell functions. Therefore, mitochondria were used in the present work as an experimental model to evaluate the effects of the BDE-100 congeners at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 50 μM. The results showed that high concentrations of BDE-100 were able to induce mitochondrial alterations. It was observed that the substance had an affinity for the hydrophilic portion of the mitochondrial membrane, as monitored by ANS, inhibiting the glutamate + malate-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and also inducing dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, deregulation of calcium homoeostasis and mitochondrial swelling, the latter being insensitive to cyclosporin A (CsA) but partially inhibited by Ruthenium Red and N-ethyl maleimide. In addition, a significant reduction in mitochondrial ATP content was found, but on the other hand, no oxidative stress was observed after exposure of the mitochondria to BDE-100. These results show the key role of mitochondria in the cytotoxicity induced by BDE-100.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-100) induces mitochondrial impairment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2013-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants are used in various consumer products to increase their resistance to fire and/or high temperatures. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are representatives of this class and among the most widely used congeners, and BDE-100 is produced on a large scale. There is a lack of toxicological data about these compounds, which has recently become a matter of concern to the scientific community. The mitochondria are recognized as the main energy-producing organelles, as well as playing a vital role in the maintenance of many cell functions. Therefore, mitochondria were used in the present work as an experimental model to evaluate the effects of the BDE-100 congeners at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 50 μM. The results showed that high concentrations of BDE-100 were able to induce mitochondrial alterations. It was observed that the substance had an affinity for the hydrophilic portion of the mitochondrial membrane, as monitored by ANS, inhibiting the glutamate + malate-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and also inducing dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, deregulation of calcium homoeostasis and mitochondrial swelling, the latter being insensitive to cyclosporin A (CsA) but partially inhibited by Ruthenium Red and N-ethyl maleimide. In addition, a significant reduction in mitochondrial ATP content was found, but on the other hand, no oxidative stress was observed after exposure of the mitochondria to BDE-100. These results show the key role of mitochondria in the cytotoxicity induced by BDE-100. PMID:23302053

  1. Synthesis and characterizations of electrospun sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbullah, N.; Sekak, K. A.; Ibrahim, I.

    2016-07-01

    A novel electrospun polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) based on Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ketone) were prepared and characterized. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature for 60 hours reaction time. The degree sulfonation (DS) of the SPEEK are 58% was determined by H1 NMR using area under the peak of the hydrogen shielding at aromatic ring of the SPEEK. Then, the functional group of the SPEEK was determined using Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) showed O-H vibration at 3433 cm-1 of the sulfonated group (SO2-OH). The effect of the solvent and polymer concentration toward the electrospinning process was investigated which, the DMAc has electrospun ability compared to the DMSO. While, at 20 wt.% of the polymer concentration able to form a fine and uniform nanofiber, this was confirmed by FESEM that shown electrospun fiber mat SPEEK surface at nano scale diameter.

  2. Dimensionally Stable Ether-Containing Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C. (Inventor); St.Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Novel polyimide copolymers containing ether linkages were prepared by the reaction of an equimolar amount of dianhydride and a combination of diamines. The polyimide copolymers described herein possess the unique features of low moisture uptake, dimensional stability, good mechanical properties, and moderate glass transition temperatures. These materials have potential application as encapsulants and interlayer dielectrics.

  3. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI CATFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  4. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl tert - butyl ether ( MTBE ) ; CASRN 1634 - 04 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  5. Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( 2 - chloro - 1 - methylethyl ) ether ; CASRN 108 - 60 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  6. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (2-Butoxyethanol)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether ( EGBE ) ( 2 - Butoxyethanol ) ; CASRN 111 - 76 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I (

  7. Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling.

  8. Imide/arylene ether block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Two series of imide/arylene either block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semi-crystalline imide block. The resulting copolymers were characterized and selected physical and mechanical properties were determined. These results, as well as comparisons to the homopolymer properties, are discussed.

  9. "Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

  10. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN US SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analysis of thirty-three soil samples from 15 US states reveals Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs), in every sample.PBDE concentrations rangefrom 0.09 to 1200 parts per billion by mass. These data are the first analysis of soil concentrations of PBDEs in soils from a...

  11. Cognitive effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan; Kritikos, Minos; Tiplady, Brian

    2009-12-01

    Supplementation with creatine-based substances as a means of enhancing athletic performance has become widespread. Until recently, however, the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance has been given little attention. This study used a new form of creatine--creatine ethyl ester--to investigate whether supplementation would improve performance in five cognitive tasks, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Creatine dosing led to an improvement over the placebo condition on several measures. Although creatine seems to facilitate cognition on some tasks, these results require replication using objective measures of compliance. The improvement is discussed in the context of research examining the influence of brain energy capacity on cognitive performance. PMID:19773644

  12. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions. (a) The additive...

  13. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  14. Electronic structure and normal vibrations of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate ion pair.

    PubMed

    Dhumal, Nilesh R; Kim, Hyung J; Kiefer, Johannes

    2011-04-21

    Electronic and structural properties of the ion pair 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate are studied using density functional methods. Three locally stable conformers of the ion pair complex are considered to analyze molecular interactions between its cation and anion. Manifestations of these interactions in the vibrational spectra are discussed and compared with experimental IR and Raman spectroscopy data. NBO analysis and difference electron density coupled with molecular electron density topography are used to interpret the frequency shifts of the normal vibrations of the ion pair, compared to the free anion and cation. Excitation energies of low-lying singlet excited states of the conformers are also studied. The density functional theory results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental UV/vis absorption spectra.

  15. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  16. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-01-23

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} (V) wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether, and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  17. Preparation and characterization of new low melting ammonium-based ionic liquids with ether functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärnä, Minna; Lahtinen, Manu; Valkonen, Jussi

    2009-03-01

    Eighteen new and three previously known but insufficiently characterized RŔ 3N +A - and R 2Ŕ 2N +A - type ( R = 2-ethoxyethyl or 4-methoxybenzyl, Ŕ = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl or n-hexyl, A = Br, BF 4 or PF 6) quaternary ammonium (QA) salts were synthesized and characterized by using 1H and 13C NMR techniques, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The bromide salts were synthesized either by treating dimethyl formamide with an ether functionalized alkyl bromide in the presence of potassium carbonate or by treating a tertiary amine with an ether functionalized alkyl bromide. The QA tetrafluoroborates and hexafluorophosphates were synthesized by metathesis reaction between a prepared QA bromide and HBF 4 or KPF 6. The crystal structures of four compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction and powder diffraction was used to study the crystallinity of the solid compounds and to compare the structural similarities between the single crystals and the microcrystalline bulk form. Thermal properties of all compounds were studied by using TG/DTA and DSC methods. The anion exchange had a clear lowering effect on the melting points and enhanced the thermal stability of the BF4- and PF6- salts compared to the analogous bromides. Most of the compounds melted clearly below 100 °C, of which four are liquid at room temperature.

  18. 40 CFR 180.483 - O-[2-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-5-pyrimidinyl] O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.483 O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues. Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide O-...

  19. Spectroscopy reveals that ethyl esters interact with proteins in wine.

    PubMed

    Di Gaspero, Mattia; Ruzza, Paolo; Hussain, Rohanah; Vincenzi, Simone; Biondi, Barbara; Gazzola, Diana; Siligardi, Giuliano; Curioni, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Impairment of wine aroma after vinification is frequently associated to bentonite treatments and this can be the result of protein removal, as recently demonstrated for ethyl esters. To evaluate the existence of an interaction between wine proteins and ethyl esters, the effects induced by these fermentative aroma compounds on the secondary structure and stability of VVTL1, a Thaumatin-like protein purified from wine, was analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The secondary structure of wine VVTL1 was not strongly affected by the presence of selected ethyl esters. In contrast, VVTL1 stability was slightly increased by the addition of ethyl-octanoate, -decanoate and -dodecanoate, but decreased by ethyl-hexanoate. This indicates the existence of an interaction between VVTL1 and at least some aroma compounds produced during fermentation. The data suggest that proteins removal from wine by bentonite can result in indirect removal of at least some aroma compounds associated with them. PMID:27664648

  20. Mechanistic insight into alkylation of the ethyl acetoacetate anion with different ethyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, S.; Đurđević, J.; Vukosavljević, M.; Petrović, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The alkylation reactions of the ambident ethyl acetoacetate anion with C2H5X (X = F, Cl, Br, and I) in the O2, C3, and O4 positions of the anion were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G( d,p) level of theory. It was found that the ethylation reaction does not occur in the position O4, as well as with ethyl fluoride in any position of the anion, due to very high activation energies and thermodynamic instability of the hypothetic products. The activation energies for the reactions in the position O2 are lower in comparison to the position C3, but the products of the reactions in the C3 position are more stable than those in the position O4, implying that the C/O products ratio is controlled by both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, leading to the O2-product with the chloride, and C3-product with the iodide as leaving group.

  1. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and alginate cross-linked matrix with immobilized Prussian blue and ion exchange resin for cesium removal from waters.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chen; Chang, Yin-Ru; Chen, Man-Li; Lo, Yu-Kuo; Lai, Juin-Yih; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Cesium (Cs) removal from contaminated water bodies is an emerging issue after the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The Prussian blue (PB) is an effective Cs adsorbent but will release hexacyanoferrate fragments from the adsorbent matrix during adsorption. Alginate is an affordable biopolymer for PB particles immobilization. This study synthesized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and alginate cross-linked matrix for immobilization of PB nano-sized particles and a surface-modified styrene-ethyl styrene divinyl benzene resin and tested their swelling stability and Cs adsorption performance in fresh water and in seawater. The PVA-alginate granules have high structural stability in both fresh water and seawater, with the Cs adsorption capability higher for the former than the latter. The adopted resin effectively remove released PB fragments from the tested granules. The transport and reaction parameters for the granules and for the sand filter bed were estimated. PMID:27132227

  2. Parameters Affecting Ethyl Ester Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Saerens, S. M. G.; Delvaux, F.; Verstrepen, K. J.; Van Dijck, P.; Thevelein, J. M.; Delvaux, F. R.

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  3. Certain glycol ethers eliminated from toxic chemical release reporting requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Effective June 28, 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) eliminated high molecular weight glycol ethers from the reporting requirements of section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA). EPCRA (42 U.S.C. 11023) is also referred to as Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. EPA redefined the glycol ethers category list of chemicals subject to reporting based on an EPA review of available human health data on short-chain glycol ethers. EPA is removing only the surfactant glycol ethers, which are high molecular weight glycol ethers, i.e., those with pendant alkyl groups and that typically have eight or more carbon atoms. The redefinition retains certain glycol ethers (i.e., ethylene glycol ethers where there are 1,2, or 3 repeating ethylene oxide groups) in the category. These are reasonably anticipated to cause adverse human health effects.

  4. Characterisation of poly(vinyl alcohol) by liquid chromatography techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, E.; Warner, F.P.; Patterson, M.

    1995-12-01

    The molecular weight distribution of poly (vinyl alcohol) can be measured by aqueous size exclusion chromatography methods but the choice of eluent is critical in eliminating non size exclusion behavior. Aqueous size exclusion experiments have been carried out using a number of eluents including standard electrolytes and surfactants. The most favorable molecular size separation was obtained using 0.25% w/v sodium lauryl sulphate as eluent. Compositional distributions in copolymer systems can be assessed using high performance liquid chromatography employing a reverse phase separation mechanism. For poly (vinyl alcohol) gradient elution with water/tetrahydrofuran was found to produce a separation according to composition. Fast gradient elution (>10% tetrahydrofuran/minute) suggested abroad distribution of composition which was verified using a column packed with non-porous beads. Slower gradient elution (<1% tetrahydrofuran/minute) suggested that this was not due to a gradual composition change but rather discrete fractions of similarly hydrophobic material.

  5. Poly[aqua(μ-vinyl-phospho-nato)cadmium].

    PubMed

    Congiardo, Laura K Byington; Mague, Joel T; Funk, Aaron R; Yngard, Ria; Knight, D Andrew

    2011-04-01

    The title compound, [Cd(C(2)H(3)O(3)P)(H(2)O)](n), was obtained from vinyl-phospho-nic acid and cadmium nitrate. The vinyl groups project into the inter-lamellar space and the structure is held together via van der Waals forces. The Cd(2+) ion is six-coordinate and the geometry is best described as distorted octa-hedral, with O-Cd-O angles falling within the range 61.72 (13)-101.82 (14)°. Five of the coordinated oxygen atoms originate from the phospho-nate group and the sixth from a bound water molecule. Cd-O distances lie between 2.220 (3) and 2.394 (2) Å. The water mol-ecule is hydrogen bonded to a phospho-nate oxygen atom. PMID:21753970

  6. Methyltriphenylphosphonium Methylcarbonate, an All-In-One Wittig Vinylation Reagent.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Lisa; Noè, Marco; Selva, Maurizio; Demitri, Nicola; Perosa, Alvise

    2015-12-01

    The methyltriphenylphosphonium methylcarbonate salt [Ph3 PCH3 ][CH3 OCO2 ], obtained directly by quaternarization of triphenylphosphine with dimethylcarbonate, is a latent ylide that promotes Wittig vinylation of aldehydes and ketones. Alkenes are obtained simply by mixing [Ph3 PCH3 ][CH3 OCO2 ] and the carbonyl and heating in a solvent (no base, no halides, and no inorganic byproducts). Deuterium exchange experiments and the particularly short anion-cation distance measured by XRD in [Ph3 PCH3 ][CH3 OCO2 ] allowed to explain the nature and reactivity of this species. Green chemistry metrics (atom economy, mass index, environmental factor) indicate that this vinylation procedure is more efficient than comparable ones. Deuterated [Ph3 PCD3 ][CH3 OCO2 ] promoted the synthesis of deuterated olefins. PMID:26383135

  7. 76 FR 36349 - Diethylene Glycol MonoEthyl Ether (DEGEE); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...) 305-5805. II. Petition for Exemption In the Federal Register of July 9, 2008 (73 FR 39291) (FRL-8371-2... actions from review under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735... Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001) or Executive Order...

  8. Thermal Rearrangements of Polybutadienes with Different Vinyl Contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the loss of double bonds in equibinary (1,4-1,2) polybutadiene (EB) and in polybutadienes with 30% 1,2, 70% 1,4 (FI), and 10% 1,2, 90% 1,4 (DI) double-bond content, when heated in vacuum under nonpyrolitic conditions (temperature range 220-280 C). These polymers were found to undergo second-order loss of 1,2 unsaturation with similar activation energies (E(sub a) = 34.0 +/- 3 kcal/mole), by analogy to the previously reported thermally induced loss of double bonds in 1,2-polybutadiene (VB) (E(sub a) = 33.6 +/- 3 kcal/mole). Moreover, EB and Fl exhibited also second-order loss of 1,4 unsaturation, with E(sub a) ca. 36 and 40 kcal/mole, respectively, while DI showed negligible loss of 1,4 unsaturation below 260 C, in common with cis-1,4-polybutadiene (CB) (with 2% 1,2 double bonds) examined earlier. The loss of 1,2 double bonds in the various polybutadienes with different vinyl contents is accompanied by substantial methyl production, ranging from about one methyl group formed for every 4-5 vinyl units lost in VB, to one methyl for every two vinyls lost in EB,and to almost one methyl for each vinyl lost in DI or CB. Mechanisms are proposed for the thermally induced loss of 1,2 and 1,4 unsaturation in various polybutadienes and for the accompanying methyl production.

  9. Visible Light Sensitization of Vinyl Azides by Transition Metal Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Farney, Elliot P.; Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of vinyl and aryl azides with visible light in the presence of Ru photocatalysts results in the formation of reactive nitrenes, which can undergo a variety of C–N bond-forming reactions. The ability to use low-energy visible light instead of UV in the photochemical activation of azides avoids competitive photodecomposition processes that have long been a significant limitation on the synthetic utility of these reactions. PMID:24281908

  10. Amphiphilic vinyl polymers effectively prolong liposome circulation time in vivo.

    PubMed

    Torchilin, V P; Shtilman, M I; Trubetskoy, V S; Whiteman, K; Milstein, A M

    1994-10-12

    Newly synthesized amphiphilic polyacrylamide and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), single terminus-modified with long-chain fatty acyl groups, are able to incorporate into the liposomal membrane, and similar to poly(ethylene glycol) prolong liposome circulation in vivo and decrease liposome accumulation in the liver. Protective efficacy of modified polymers increases with the increase in the length of acyl moiety and decreases for higher molecular weight polymers. The data on amphiphilic polymer-modified liposome biodistribution are presented.

  11. Study on the preirradiation polymerization of vinyl monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Ming, Liu; Yue-Qi, Yang; Zue-Teh, Ma

    This paper presents mainly the polymerization, copolymerization and crosslinking of monomers off-source induced by peroxides which are formed by high energy irradiation of vinyl monomers such as styrene (St), acrylonitrile (AN), methylmethacrylate (MMA), vinyl acetate (VAc) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The peroxides produced by irradiation of the above-mentioned monomers can not only induce the monomers themselves, but also another non-irradiated monomer to carry out copolymerization efficiently. The activation energy of peroxide formation, the apparent activation energy of polymerization and the activation energy of peroxide initiation by irradiation of vinyl monomers are: Ef(MMA) = 11, Ef(St) = 9.6, Ef(AN) = 8.5, EMMA = EVA = 11.4, Ei(MMA) = Ei(VA) = 13 kcal/mol. The rate of decomposition of monomer peroxides is smoother than that of BPO during the polymerization and so a smooth kinetic progress is obtained. The initiating ability of forming peroxides by irradiation of the vinyl monomers depends mainly on the chemical structure of the monomers. For instance, the main structure of peroxides formed during preirradiation MMA are: alternating peroxy-copolymer ? and random peroxy-copolymer ? Owing to the peroxy-bond which is unstable and in which homolytic breakage easily occurs to yield a pair of radicals, RO . is formed within the above-mentioned structural compounds, so that they possess stronger initiating reactivity. It is quite evident that the initiating reactivity of AN peroxide will be greatly reduced because of the conjugate double bond. In other words, the initiating ability of AN peroxide is lower than MMA peroxide and St peroxide.

  12. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  14. Scientists Toast the Discovery of Vinyl Alcohol in Interstellar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, have discovered the complex organic molecule vinyl alcohol in an interstellar cloud of dust and gas near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The discovery of this long-sought compound could reveal tantalizing clues to the mysterious origin of complex organic molecules in space. Vinyl Alcohol and its fellow isomers "The discovery of vinyl alcohol is significant," said Barry Turner, a scientist at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Va., "because it gives us an important tool for understanding the formation of complex organic compounds in interstellar space. It may also help us better understand how life might arise elsewhere in the Cosmos." Vinyl alcohol is an important intermediary in many organic chemistry reactions on Earth, and the last of the three stable members of the C2H4O group of isomers (molecules with the same atoms, but in different arrangements) to be discovered in interstellar space. Turner and his colleague A. J. Apponi of the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory in Tucson detected the vinyl alcohol in Sagittarius B -- a massive molecular cloud located some 26,000 light-years from Earth near the center of our Galaxy. The astronomers were able to detect the specific radio signature of vinyl alcohol during the observational period of May and June of 2001. Their results have been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Of the approximately 125 molecules detected in interstellar space, scientists believe that most are formed by gas-phase chemistry, in which smaller molecules (and occasionally atoms) manage to "lock horns" when they collide in space. This process, though efficient at creating simple molecules, cannot explain how vinyl alcohol and other complex chemicals are formed in detectable amounts. For many years now, scientists have been searching for the right mechanism to explain how the building

  15. H sub 3 PMo sub 12 O sub 40 -doped polyacetylene as a catalyst for ethyl alcohol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pozniczek, J.; Bielanski, A. ); Kulszewicz-Bajer, I.; Zagorska, M. ); Kruczala, K.; Dyrek, K. ); Pron, A. )

    1991-12-01

    A new and highly efficient catalyst was obtained by exploiting the unique ability of polyacetylene to incorporate heteropolyanions (HPA) of the Keggin type via oxidative doping. 12-Molybdophosphoric acid, 20.8 wt%, was introduced into the polymer. A uniform distribution of HPA over the cross section of the polymer film was found. However, the concentration of HPA seemed to be higher at the surface of the polymer fibers than in their bulk. The conversion of ethyl alcohol was used as a catalytic test reaction. The catalyst exhibited both acid-base activity (formation of ethylene and diethyl ether) as well as redox activity (formation of acetaldehyde). The acid-base activity was 10 times higher than that of unsupported H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}, and the redox activity was about 40 times higher.

  16. Modifying theophylline microparticle surfaces via the sequential deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanjun; Alas'ad, Mannar A; Jones, Stuart A

    2014-03-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers (PVA-Ac) assembled on drug surfaces and use this information to generate a novel bi-layer polymer coating for a theophylline microparticle. Three grades of PVA-Ac, differing in hydrolysis degree and monomer distribution, were synthesised, characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to interact with theophylline when suspended in water. PVA-Ac deposition at the solid/liquid interface was driven by polymer hydrogen bond formation in a process that induced consequential structural changes in the macromolecule architecture. The most hydrophobic grades of the copolymer appeared to adsorb in a multistage process that passed through a series of equilibrium points. The PVA-Ac surface allowed two grades of the copolymer to be sequentially adsorbed and this resulted in the fabrication of a microparticle with desirable characteristics for pharmaceutical formulation production. PMID:24355619

  17. Modifying theophylline microparticle surfaces via the sequential deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanjun; Alas'ad, Mannar A; Jones, Stuart A

    2014-03-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) copolymers (PVA-Ac) assembled on drug surfaces and use this information to generate a novel bi-layer polymer coating for a theophylline microparticle. Three grades of PVA-Ac, differing in hydrolysis degree and monomer distribution, were synthesised, characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to interact with theophylline when suspended in water. PVA-Ac deposition at the solid/liquid interface was driven by polymer hydrogen bond formation in a process that induced consequential structural changes in the macromolecule architecture. The most hydrophobic grades of the copolymer appeared to adsorb in a multistage process that passed through a series of equilibrium points. The PVA-Ac surface allowed two grades of the copolymer to be sequentially adsorbed and this resulted in the fabrication of a microparticle with desirable characteristics for pharmaceutical formulation production.

  18. Biodegradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by Acinetobacter sp. CW17.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhui; Du, Liangwei; Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Xiaomao; Tan, Huihua; Bai, Lianyang; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2012-03-01

    The pyrazosulfuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium, designated as CW17, was isolated from contaminated soil near the warehouse of the factory producing pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in Changsha city, China. The strain CW17 was identified as Acinetobacter sp. based on analyses of 94 carbon source utilization or chemical sensitivity in Biolog microplates, conventional phenotypic characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. When pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was provided as the sole carbon source, the effects of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl concentration, pH, and temperature on biodegradation were examined. The degradation rates of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at initial concentrations of 5.0, 20.0, and 50.0 mg/L were 48.0%, 77.0%, and 32.6%, respectively, after inoculation for 7 days. The growth of the strain was inhibited at low pH buffers. The chemical degradation occurs much faster at low pH than at neutral and basic pH conditions. The degradation rate of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 30°C was faster than those at 20 and 37°C by CW17 strains. Two metabolites of degradation were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Based on the identified products, strain CW17 seemed to be able to degrade pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge. PMID:22388979

  19. Cyclic ethers adsorbed on Ru(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M. M.; Thiel, P. A.

    1990-11-01

    The three cyclic ethers 1,3-dioxane. 1,4-dioxane and 1,3,5-trioxane all exhibit multiple desorption states from Ru(001) between 200 and 310 K, in addition to the multilayer and metastable states at lower temperature. Most distinctive are the two low-temperature α-states. which are similar in shape, position, and relative population for all three compounds. This suggests that these states are associated with configurations which are accessible to all three molecules. The data also indicate that there is some molecular decomposition to gaseous CO and H 2. 1,4-Dioxane yields the largest amounts of these decomposition products, suggesting that this molecule is most susceptible to surface-catalyzed decomposition. The desorption data for the three cyclic ethers are grossly similar to each other, and also to the straight-chain diethers which we have previously studied.

  20. Ether bridge formation in loline alkaloid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Faulkner, Jerome R.; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Charlton, Nikki D.; Higashi, Richard M.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Young, Carolyn A.; Grossman, Robert B.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Lolines are potent insecticidal agents produced by endophytic fungi of cool-season grasses. These alkaloids are composed of a pyrrolizidine ring system and an uncommon ether bridge linking carbons 2 and 7. Previous results indicated that 1-aminopyrrolizidine was a pathway intermediate. We used RNA interference to knock down expression of lolO, resulting in the accumulation of a novel alkaloid identified as exo-1-acetamidopyrrolizidine based on high-resolution MS and NMR. Genomes of endophytes differing in alkaloid profiles were sequenced, revealing that those with mutated lolO accumulated exo-1-acetamidopyrrolizidine but no lolines. Heterologous expression of wild-type lolO complemented a lolO mutant, resulting in the production of N-acetylnorloline. These results indicated that the non-heme iron oxygenase, LolO, is required for ether bridge formation, probably through oxidation of exo-1-acetamidopyrrolizidine. PMID:24374065