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Sample records for ethylene oxide production

  1. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10375 - Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, copolymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction... Substances § 721.10375 Hydroxypropyl methacrylate, reaction products with propylene oxide and ethylene oxide... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as hydroxypropyl methacrylate,...

  4. Ethylene production is associated with alleviation of cadmium-induced oxidative stress by sulfur in mustard types differing in ethylene sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Mohd; Khan, Nafees A; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Masood, Asim

    2014-08-01

    We studied the response of ethylene-sensitive (Pusa Jai Kisan) and ethylene-insensitive (SS2) mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars to 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM SO₄(2-), and the effect of 1.0 mM SO₄(2-) was studied in the amelioration of 50 µM cadmium (Cd). The Cd-induced oxidative stress and Cd accumulation were greater in SS2 than Pusa Jai Kisan, but sulfur (S) application alleviated Cd-induced oxidative stress more prominently in Pusa Jai Kisan by increasing S-metabolism and synthesis of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ethylene production; and promoted photosynthesis and plant dry mass under Cd stress. The ethylene-sensitive cultivar responded more to S treatment under Cd stress and showed increased activity of antioxidant system resulting in increased photosynthesis and growth. Cadmium treatment resulted in rapid increase in ethylene formation which adversely influenced photosynthesis and plant dry mass. However, S and ethephon application to Cd-treated plants lowered ethylene formation to optimal range responsible for maximal GSH synthesis and protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. The similarity of the effectiveness of 1.0 mM SO₄(2-) with 200 µL L(-1) ethylene source as ethephon in alleviation of 50 µM Cd further verifies that differential alleviation of Cd toxicity in the two cultivars by S was dependent on ethylene production. The results suggest that ethylene production determines Cd stress alleviation by S via regulatory interaction with antioxidant metabolism. Thus, ethylene production and sensitivity bear a prominent role in alleviation of Cd stress by S and can be used as a criterion for developing Cd tolerant genotypes.

  5. Breaking the apple embryo dormancy by nitric oxide involves the stimulation of ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Dobrzyńska, Urszula; Babańczyk, Tomasz; Bogatek, Renata

    2007-03-01

    Mature seeds of apple (Mallus domestica Borb. cv. Antonówka) are dormant and do not germinate unless their dormancy is removed by several weeks of moist-cold treatment. We investigated the effect of short-term (3 h) nitric oxide (NO) pretreatment on breaking of apple embryonic dormancy expressed as inhibition of germination and morphological abnormalities of young seedlings. Imbibition of embryos isolated from dormant apple seeds with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or S-nitroso,N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) as NO donors resulted in enhanced germination. Moreover, NO treatment removed morphological abnormalities of seedlings developing from dormant embryo. The NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-teramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3 oxide (cPTIO) removed the above effects. NO-mediated breaking of embryonic dormancy correlated well with enhanced ethylene production. Inhibitor of ethylene synthesis (AOA) reversed the stimulatory effect of NO donors on embryo germination. Additionally SNP reduced embryo sensitivity to exogenously applied ABA ensuing dormancy breakage. We can conclude that NO acts as a regulatory factor included in the control of apple embryonic dormancy breakage by stimulation of ethylene biosynthesis.

  6. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  7. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion

  8. Ethylene mediates brassinosteroid-induced stomatal closure via Gα protein-activated hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chenyu; Qi, Cheng; Ren, Hongyan; Huang, Aixia; Hei, Shumei; She, Xiaoping

    2015-04-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for plant growth and development; however, whether and how they promote stomatal closure is not fully clear. In this study, we report that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, induces stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by triggering a signal transduction pathway including ethylene synthesis, the activation of Gα protein, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production. EBR initiated a marked rise in ethylene, H(2)O(2) and NO levels, necessary for stomatal closure in the wild type. These effects were abolished in mutant bri1-301, and EBR failed to close the stomata of gpa1 mutants. Next, we found that both ethylene and Gα mediate the inductive effects of EBR on H(2)O(2) and NO production. EBR-triggered H(2)O(2) and NO accumulation were canceled in the etr1 and gpa1 mutants, but were strengthened in the eto1-1 mutant and the cGα line (constitutively overexpressing the G protein α-subunit AtGPA1). Exogenously applied H(2)O(2) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) rescued the defects of etr1-3 and gpa1 or etr1 and gpa1 mutants in EBR-induced stomatal closure, whereas the stomata of eto1-1/AtrbohF and cGα/AtrbohF or eto1-1/nia1-2 and cGα/nia1-2 constructs had an analogous response to H(2)O(2) or SNP as those of AtrbohF or Nia1-2 mutants. Moreover, we provided evidence that Gα plays an important role in the responses of guard cells to ethylene. Gα activator CTX largely restored the lesion of the etr1-3 mutant, but ethylene precursor ACC failed to rescue the defects of gpa1 mutants in EBR-induced stomatal closure. Lastly, we demonstrated that Gα-activated H(2)O(2) production is required for NO synthesis. EBR failed to induce NO synthesis in mutant AtrbohF, but it led to H(2)O(2) production in mutant Nia1-2. Exogenously applied SNP rescued the defect of AtrbohF in EBR-induced stomatal closure, but H(2)O(2) did not reverse the lesion of EBR-induced stomatal closure in Nia1-2. Together, our

  9. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... asbestos, rubber, or cast iron components in the cargo containment system and piping; (6) Not have...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... asbestos, rubber, or cast iron components in the cargo containment system and piping; (6) Not have...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... asbestos, rubber, or cast iron components in the cargo containment system and piping; (6) Not have...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... asbestos, rubber, or cast iron components in the cargo containment system and piping; (6) Not have...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... asbestos, rubber, or cast iron components in the cargo containment system and piping; (6) Not have...

  14. 49 CFR 173.323 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 173.323 Section 173.323... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.323 Ethylene oxide. (a) For packaging ethylene oxide in non-bulk packagings, silver mercury or any of its alloys or copper may not be used in...

  15. Individual Shrink Wrapping of Zucchini Fruit Improves Postharvest Chilling Tolerance Associated with a Reduction in Ethylene Production and Oxidative Stress Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Megías, Zoraida; Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; García, Alicia; Rebolloso-Fuentes, María Del Mar; Garrido, Dolores; Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Jamilena, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of individual shrink wrapping (ISW) on the postharvest performance of refrigerated fruit from two zucchini cultivars that differ in their sensitivity to cold storage: Sinatra (more sensitive) and Natura (more tolerant). The fruit was individually shrink wrapped before storing at 4°C for 0, 7 and 14 days. Quality parameters, ethylene and CO2 productions, ethylene gene expression, and oxidative stress metabolites were assessed in shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit after conditioning the fruit for 6 hours at 20°C. ISW decreased significantly the postharvest deterioration of chilled zucchini in both cultivars. Weight loss was reduced to less than 1%, pitting symptoms were completely absent in ISW fruit at 7 days, and were less than 25% those of control fruits at 14 days of cold storage, and firmness loss was significantly reduced in the cultivar Sinatra. These enhancements in quality of ISW fruit were associated with a significant reduction in cold-induced ethylene production, in the respiration rate, and in the level of oxidative stress metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide and malonyldialdehyde (MDA). A detailed expression analysis of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signaling genes demonstrated a downregulation of CpACS1 and CpACO1 genes in response to ISW, two genes that are upregulated by cold storage. However, the expression patterns of six other ethylene biosynthesis genes (CpACS2 to CpACS7) and five ethylene signal transduction pathway genes (CpCTR1, CpETR1, CpERS1, CpEIN3.1 and CpEN3.2), suggest that they do not play a major role in response to cold storage and ISW packaging. In conclusion, ISW zucchini packaging resulted in improved tolerance to chilling concomitantly with a reduction in oxidative stress, respiration rate and ethylene production, as well as in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes, but not of those involved in ethylene perception and sensitivity.

  16. Industry-wide studies report of walk-through survey of Johnson and Johnson Products, Sherman, Texas. [Ethylene oxide-carbon dioxide mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Steenland, K.; Ringenburg, V.

    1986-03-06

    A walk through survey was conducted at Johnson and Johnson Products, Sherman, Texas in January, 1984. The purpose of the survey was to determine the feasibility of including the facility in a NIOSH industry-wide study of ethylene-oxide mortality. The facility produced a large variety of gauze products, sponges, and plastic items that were sterilized with an ethylene-oxide/carbon-dioxide mixture. Cobalt-60 was also used to sterilize certain products. A review of personnel records showed that approximately 1,700 persons had been exposed to ethylene oxide for at least 3 months. The authors conclude that the facility meets all of the eligibility requirements and should be included in the NIOSH study.

  17. Storage stability of Bacillus subtilis ethylene oxide biological indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, R R

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis biological indicators, stored at ambient and freezer conditions for 24 months, demonstrated no statistical difference in ethylene oxide resistance and spore viability from initial production levels. PMID:6766701

  18. 49 CFR 173.323 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ethylene oxide in non-bulk packagings, silver mercury or any of its alloys or copper may not be used in any... transportation, may come in contact with ethylene oxide liquid or vapor. Copper alloys may be used only where gas... following: (1) In hermetically sealed glass or metal inner packagings suitably cushioned in an outer...

  19. 49 CFR 173.323 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ethylene oxide in non-bulk packagings, silver mercury or any of its alloys or copper may not be used in any... transportation, may come in contact with ethylene oxide liquid or vapor. Copper alloys may be used only where gas... following: (1) In hermetically sealed glass or metal inner packagings suitably cushioned in an outer...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1147 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1926.1147 Section 1926.1147 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1047 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1915.1047 Section 1915.1047 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1047 Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1047 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1915.1047 Section 1915.1047 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1047 Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1047 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1915.1047 Section 1915.1047 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1047 Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1147 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1926.1147 Section 1926.1147 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1147 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1926.1147 Section 1926.1147 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1047 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1915.1047 Section 1915.1047 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1047 Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1147 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethylene oxide. 1926.1147 Section 1926.1147 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Ethylene oxide. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical...

  8. Individual Shrink Wrapping of Zucchini Fruit Improves Postharvest Chilling Tolerance Associated with a Reduction in Ethylene Production and Oxidative Stress Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Megías, Zoraida; Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; García, Alicia; Rebolloso-Fuentes, María del Mar; Garrido, Dolores; Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Jamilena, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of individual shrink wrapping (ISW) on the postharvest performance of refrigerated fruit from two zucchini cultivars that differ in their sensitivity to cold storage: Sinatra (more sensitive) and Natura (more tolerant). The fruit was individually shrink wrapped before storing at 4°C for 0, 7 and 14 days. Quality parameters, ethylene and CO2 productions, ethylene gene expression, and oxidative stress metabolites were assessed in shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit after conditioning the fruit for 6 hours at 20°C. ISW decreased significantly the postharvest deterioration of chilled zucchini in both cultivars. Weight loss was reduced to less than 1%, pitting symptoms were completely absent in ISW fruit at 7 days, and were less than 25% those of control fruits at 14 days of cold storage, and firmness loss was significantly reduced in the cultivar Sinatra. These enhancements in quality of ISW fruit were associated with a significant reduction in cold-induced ethylene production, in the respiration rate, and in the level of oxidative stress metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide and malonyldialdehyde (MDA). A detailed expression analysis of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signaling genes demonstrated a downregulation of CpACS1 and CpACO1 genes in response to ISW, two genes that are upregulated by cold storage. However, the expression patterns of six other ethylene biosynthesis genes (CpACS2 to CpACS7) and five ethylene signal transduction pathway genes (CpCTR1, CpETR1, CpERS1, CpEIN3.1 and CpEN3.2), suggest that they do not play a major role in response to cold storage and ISW packaging. In conclusion, ISW zucchini packaging resulted in improved tolerance to chilling concomitantly with a reduction in oxidative stress, respiration rate and ethylene production, as well as in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes, but not of those involved in ethylene perception and sensitivity. PMID:26177024

  9. Individual Shrink Wrapping of Zucchini Fruit Improves Postharvest Chilling Tolerance Associated with a Reduction in Ethylene Production and Oxidative Stress Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Megías, Zoraida; Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; García, Alicia; Rebolloso-Fuentes, María Del Mar; Garrido, Dolores; Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Jamilena, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of individual shrink wrapping (ISW) on the postharvest performance of refrigerated fruit from two zucchini cultivars that differ in their sensitivity to cold storage: Sinatra (more sensitive) and Natura (more tolerant). The fruit was individually shrink wrapped before storing at 4°C for 0, 7 and 14 days. Quality parameters, ethylene and CO2 productions, ethylene gene expression, and oxidative stress metabolites were assessed in shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit after conditioning the fruit for 6 hours at 20°C. ISW decreased significantly the postharvest deterioration of chilled zucchini in both cultivars. Weight loss was reduced to less than 1%, pitting symptoms were completely absent in ISW fruit at 7 days, and were less than 25% those of control fruits at 14 days of cold storage, and firmness loss was significantly reduced in the cultivar Sinatra. These enhancements in quality of ISW fruit were associated with a significant reduction in cold-induced ethylene production, in the respiration rate, and in the level of oxidative stress metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide and malonyldialdehyde (MDA). A detailed expression analysis of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signaling genes demonstrated a downregulation of CpACS1 and CpACO1 genes in response to ISW, two genes that are upregulated by cold storage. However, the expression patterns of six other ethylene biosynthesis genes (CpACS2 to CpACS7) and five ethylene signal transduction pathway genes (CpCTR1, CpETR1, CpERS1, CpEIN3.1 and CpEN3.2), suggest that they do not play a major role in response to cold storage and ISW packaging. In conclusion, ISW zucchini packaging resulted in improved tolerance to chilling concomitantly with a reduction in oxidative stress, respiration rate and ethylene production, as well as in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes, but not of those involved in ethylene perception and sensitivity. PMID:26177024

  10. Physicochemical, toxicological and hygienic aspects of ethylene oxide application for the sterilization of medical products. III. Setting hygienic norms in sterilized medical products.

    PubMed

    Lyarsky, P P; Gleiberman SYe; Likhtman, T V; Kopylova, L S; Zayeva, G N; Yurchenko, V V; Kolesnikova, N I; Kareev, N V

    1988-01-01

    Some of the drawbacks are discussed associated with hygienic norms for gaseous sterilizing agents in polymeric products for medical applications. A new approach is proposed for regulating ethylene oxide (EO) in such products. To this end, limiting types of biological effect and its pathways have been determined and substantiated as well as the reliability factor for establishing hygienic norms for EO in medical products. Daily threshold EO limit values were calculated for momentary and repeated exposure of humans. The duration of long-term and short-term exposure of the patient to sterilized products was evaluated on the basis of EO extraction kinetics from a variety of materials. Using daily threshold limit values, threshold residual values (TRV) of EO were calculated for different groups of polymeric products for medical applications.

  11. Novel membrane technology for green ethylene production.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Lee, T. H.; Dorris, S. E.; Udovich, C. A.; Scouten, C. G.; Marshall, C. L.

    2008-01-01

    reactions and prolong membrane life. With the Argonne approach, oxygen does not contact the ethane/ethylene stream, so oxidation products are not formed. Consequently, higher selectivity to ethylene and fewer by-products can be achieved. Some benefits are: (1) Simplifies overall product purification and processing schemes; (2) Results in greater energy efficiency; (3) Completely eliminates greenhouse gases from the reactor section; and (4) Lowers the cost of the 'back end' purification train, which accounts for about 70% of the capital cost of a conventional ethylene production unit.

  12. Nitric oxide counters ethylene effects on ripening fruits

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Girigowda; Gupta, Kapuganti J.; Lokesh, Veeresh; Mur, Luis AJ; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene plays a key role in promoting fruit ripening, so altering its biosynthesis/signaling could be an important means to delay this process. Nitric oxide (NO)-generated signals are now being shown to regulate ethylene pathways. NO signals have been shown to transcriptionally repress the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis enzymes and post-translationally modify methionine adenosyl transferase (MAT) activity through S-nitrosylation to reduce the availably of methyl groups required to produce ethylene. Additionally, NO cross-talks with plant hormones and other signal molecules and act to orchestrate the suppression of ethylene effects by modulating enzymes/proteins that are generally triggered by ethylene signaling at post-climacteric stage. Thus, medication of endogenous NO production is suggested as a strategy to postpone the climacteric stage of many tropical fruits. PMID:22499176

  13. 21 CFR 172.770 - Ethylene oxide polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene oxide polymer. 172.770 Section 172.770... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.770 Ethylene oxide polymer. The polymer of ethylene oxide may... conditions. (a) It is the polymer of ethylene oxide having a minimum viscosity of 1,500 centipoises in a...

  14. 21 CFR 172.770 - Ethylene oxide polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene oxide polymer. 172.770 Section 172.770... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.770 Ethylene oxide polymer. The polymer of ethylene oxide may... conditions. (a) It is the polymer of ethylene oxide having a minimum viscosity of 1,500 centipoises in a...

  15. 21 CFR 172.770 - Ethylene oxide polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene oxide polymer. 172.770 Section 172.770... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.770 Ethylene oxide polymer. The polymer of ethylene oxide may... conditions. (a) It is the polymer of ethylene oxide having a minimum viscosity of 1,500 centipoises in a...

  16. 21 CFR 172.770 - Ethylene oxide polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide polymer. 172.770 Section 172.770... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.770 Ethylene oxide polymer. The polymer of ethylene oxide may... conditions. (a) It is the polymer of ethylene oxide having a minimum viscosity of 1,500 centipoises in a...

  17. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOEpatents

    Chafin, Richard B.; Warren, Barbara K.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  18. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOEpatents

    Chafin, R.B.; Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using a catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  19. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  20. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  1. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Carlin, D A; Bertolani, S J; Siegel, J B

    2015-02-11

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  2. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, DA; Bertolani, SJ; Siegel, JB

    2015-01-01

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  3. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone...

  6. Chromatographic methods for analysis of ethylene oxide in emissions from stationary sources

    SciTech Connect

    Margeson, J.H.; Steger, J.L.; Homolya, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    Chromatographic methods of analysis with FID detection are investigated for quantitation of ethylene oxide in emissions from production plants and commercial sterilizers. A column with a stationary phase of 3% Carbowax 20M on 80-100 Chromosorb 101 is used to separate ethylene oxide from potential interferents in emissions from production plants. Two columns are found that allow accurate quantitation of ethylene oxide in emissions from commercial sterilizers. Both columns elute ethylene oxide before Freon 12, the diluent in the sterilization process. One column has a stationary phase of 1% SP-1000 on 60-80 Carbopack B and can be used to quantitate ethylene oxide over a wider range of concentrations than the other column, 5% Fluorcol (a fluorinated oil) on 60-80 Carbopack B. Graphitized carbon, the solid support in both of these columns, appears to participate in the ethylene oxide-Freon 12 separation with the SP-1000 column but not with the Fluorcol column.

  7. 21 CFR 172.770 - Ethylene oxide polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene oxide polymer. 172.770 Section 172.770....770 Ethylene oxide polymer. The polymer of ethylene oxide may be safely used as a foam stabilizer in fermented malt beverages in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is the polymer of...

  8. Reactions of actinide ions with ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J K

    2001-03-01

    Naked and oxo-ligated actinide (An) monopositive ions were reacted with ethylene oxide, cyclo-C(2)H(4)O (EtO). Along with An = U, Np, Pu and Am, ions of two lanthanide (Ln) elements, Ln = Tb and Tm, were studied for comparison. Metal and metal oxide ions, M(+), MO(+) and MO(2)(+), were generated by laser ablation and immediately reacted with EtO. Unreacted and product ions were detected by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It was apparent that the overall reaction cross-sections decreased in the order U(+) > or = Np(+) > Pu(+) > Am(+). A primary reaction channel for each studied metal was the formation of MO(+) from M(+), in accord with the expected exothermicity of oxygen abstraction from EtO. For U, Np and Pu, the dioxides were also major products, indicating OAn(+)--O dissociation energies of at least 350 kJ mol(-1), the energy required for O-atom abstraction from EtO. For Am, Tb and Tm, the dioxides were only very minor products, reflecting the stabilities of the trivalent states and resistance to oxidation to higher valence states; the structures/bonding in these MO(2)(+) are intriguing given that the formal pentavalent bonding state is effectively unattainable. It was demonstrated that EtO, unlike more thermochemically favorable but kinetically restricted O-donors, is effective at achieving facile oxidation of actinide metal ions to the monoxide, and to the dioxide if the second O-abstraction reaction is exothermic. Several intriguing minor products were also identified, most of which incorporate metal--oxygen bonding and are attributed to the oxophilicity of the f-block elements; the contrast to the behavior of first-row d-block transition elements is striking in this regard. Particularly noteworthy was the formation of MH(4)(+) (and MOH(4)(+)), evidently via abstraction of all four H atoms from a single C(2)H(4)O molecule; the structures/bonding in these novel 'hydride' species are indeterminate and warrant further attention.

  9. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section 880.6860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas...

  10. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section 880.6860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas...

  11. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section 880.6860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas...

  12. Gas dynamics of ethylene oxide during sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Matthews, I. P.; Wang, C.

    1999-07-01

    This article reports a case study of the dynamics of ethylene oxide gas during sterilization using a microwave spectrometer. A diffusion equation is used to describe the processes of gas penetration, gas sorption, and chemical reactions. The three processes, although mathematically related, may be solved separately under simplified assumptions. This permits the prediction of gas penetration and sorption as well as the effect of chemical reactions upon the gas concentration for loads of differing dimensions and densities.

  13. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... sterilization. The device may include a heater to warm the circulating air. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. Energy conservation in ethylene production

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, N.

    1983-10-01

    The petrochemical industry is one of the most important industries and is of critical importance to the steel industry, petroleum refining industry and other heavy-and-chemical industries. These heavy-andchemical industries are the basis of the driving and growing force of the Japanese economic progress. And these industries consume a large amount of material and energy. Last year, the Chiba Plant won a commendation for being an excellent energy-controlling plant by the Chief of Resources and Energy Office. It was the first commendation among the many ethylene units. In light of this, the authors have prepared a review of the efforts in the field of saving energy in ethylene unit.

  15. The NO to NO{sub 2} conversion by ethylene oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.M.; Steele, R.C.; Malte, P.C.; Hori, M.

    1994-05-13

    A well-stirred reactor experiment and chemical kinetic modeling effort were performed in order to study the effect of ethylene oxidation on the conversion of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). Parameters examined in this study were temperature (1003--1260K) and input hydrocarbon concentration (220--3270 ppmv wet). The stirred reactor residence time was maintained at {approximately}2 milliseconds. Kinetic calculations indicated the NO to NO{sub 2} conversion proceeded through the ``HO{sub 2} mechanism``, NO + HO{sub 2} {yields} NO{sub 2} + OH, and the majority of the conversion occurred within the well-stirred reactor. The chemical kinetic mechanism used to model the percent conversion of the NO to NO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, CH{sub 4}, CO and CO{sub 2} concentrations showed excellent agreement with the experimental data, thereby validating the ethylene oxidation mechanism. Reaction pathway analysis and logarithmic sensitivity analysis were combined to analyze the ethylene oxidation structure and HO{sub 2} production process. The analysis revealed the primary ethylene oxidation pathway has the potential to form two HO{sub 2} radicals per ethylene consumed, thus making the ethylene a significant agent in promoting conversion of NO to NO{sub 2}. The secondary ethylene oxidation pathway is a potent chain branching process which furthers ethylene consumption and HO{sub 2} production.

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-12 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-12 Ethylene oxide. (a)(1) Ethylene oxide shall be carried in fixed, independent, pressure vessel type cargo tanks, designed, constructed... requirements of this subpart. (b)(1) All cargo tanks shall be constructed of a carbon steel or stainless...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-12 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-12 Ethylene oxide. (a)(1) Ethylene oxide shall be carried in fixed, independent, pressure vessel type cargo tanks, designed, constructed... requirements of this subpart. (b)(1) All cargo tanks shall be constructed of a carbon steel or stainless...

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-12 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-12 Ethylene oxide. (a)(1) Ethylene oxide shall be carried in fixed, independent, pressure vessel type cargo tanks, designed, constructed... requirements of this subpart. (b)(1) All cargo tanks shall be constructed of a carbon steel or stainless...

  19. A New Interstellar Cyclic Molecule, Ethylene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Ikeda, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Nummelin, A.; Hjalmarson, A.

    1997-12-01

    Ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) is only the fourth known ring molecule identified in the interstellar medium, detected in the Galactic Center cloud SgrB2(N) by Dickens et al. (1997). It is the higher energy isomer of both the more familiar interstellar species acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and the as yet undetected molecule vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH). Dickens et al. (1997) reported a c-C2H4O molecular column density about an order of magnitude less than that reported for CH3CHO in SgrB2(N). This is a factor of 200 larger than the predictions of the new standard gas phase chemistry model of Lee, Bettens, and Herbst (1996), suggesting that the formation of c-C2H4O may be related to molecular formation on interstellar grains. We present observations of the c-C2H4O to CH3CHO abundance ratio in 5 additional molecular clouds. The data were taken in October 1997 with the Swedish-European Submillimeter Telescope in Chile. The confirmation of ethylene oxide in molecular clouds provides an appealing scenario for the first link in the chain of reactions leading to the origin of life, since it has been suggested as a possible pathway to the formation of the related cyclic molecule oxiranecarbonitrile (c-C3H3NO; cf., Dickens et al. 1996), a precursor to the synthesis of sugar phosphates which comprise the backbone of our molecular genetic structure. References: Dickens, J.E., Irvine, W.M., Ohishi, M., Ikeda, M., Ishikawa, S., Nummelin, A., and Hjalmarson, A. 1997, Astrophys. J., 489 (in press). Dickens, J.E. et al. 1996, Orig. Life Evol. Biosphere, 26, 97. Lee, H.-H., Bettens, R.P.A., and Herbst, E. 1996, Astron. Astrophys. Supp., 119, 111.

  20. Evaluation of the Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  1. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers

    PubMed Central

    VACHEETHASANEE, KATANCHALEE; WANG, SHUWU; QIU, YONGXING; MARCHANT, ROGER E.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously attached to PVAm via reductive amination. Surfactant polymers with different PEO : hexanal ratios and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balances were prepared, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XPS spectroscopies. Surface active properties at the air/water interface were determined by surface tension measurements. Surface activity at a solid surface/water interface was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, showing epitaxially molecular alignment for surfactant polymers adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The surfactant polymers described in this report can be adapted for simple non-covalent surface modification of biomaterials and hydrophobic surfaces to provide highly hydrated interfaces. PMID:15027845

  2. Sublethal concentrations of salicylic acid decrease the formation of reactive oxygen species but maintain an increased nitric oxide production in the root apex of the ethylene-insensitive never ripe tomato mutants.

    PubMed

    Tari, Irma; Poór, Péter; Gémes, Katalin

    2011-09-01

    The pattern of salicylic acid (SA)-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were different in the apex of adventitious roots in wild-type and in the ethylene-insensitive never ripe (Nr) mutants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Ailsa Craig). ROS were upregulated, while NO remained at the control level in apical root tissues of wildtype plants exposed to sublethal concentrations of SA. In contrast, Nr plants expressing a defective ethylene receptor displayed a reduced level of RO S and a higher NO content in the apical root cells. In wild-type plants NO production seems to be RO S(H2O2)-dependent at cell death-inducing concentrations of SA, indicating that ROS and NO may interact to trigger oxidative cell death. In the absence of significant RO S accumulation, the increased NO production caused moderate reduction in cell viability in root apex of Nr plants exposed to 10(-3) M SA. This suggests that a functional ethylene signaling pathway is necessary for the control of ROS and NO production induced by SA.

  3. Workers exposed to ethylene oxide: a follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Harris, E C

    1989-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2876 men and women with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. Subjects were identified from employment records at four companies that have produced or used ethylene oxide since the 1950s and at eight hospitals which have had ethylene oxide sterilising units since the 1960s. The cohort represents a substantial proportion of the British workforce with a history of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. Industrial hygiene data were not available before 1977, but since then time weighted average exposures have been less than 5 ppm in almost all jobs and less than 1 ppm in many. Past exposures were probably somewhat higher. In contrast to some previous studies, no clear excess of leukaemia (three deaths observed, 2.09 expected) and no increase in stomach cancer (five deaths observed, 5.95 expected) were found. This discrepancy with earlier reports may be due in part to differences in levels of exposure. Total cancer mortality was similar to that expected from national and local death rates. Some specific cancers showed small excesses but their relevance to ethylene oxide exposure is doubtful. Again, contrary to some earlier reports, no excess of cardiovascular disease was found. This study does not exclude the possibility that ethylene oxide is a human carcinogen but suggests that any risk of cancer from currently permitted occupational exposures is small. PMID:2611160

  4. Evaluating OSHA's ethylene oxide standard: exposure determinants in Massachusetts hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    LaMontagne, A D; Kelsey, K T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify determinants of workplace exposures to ethylene oxide to assess the effect of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) 1984 ethylene oxide standard. METHODS: An in-depth survey of all hospitals in Massachusetts that used ethylene oxide from 1990 through 1992 (96% participation, N = 90) was conducted. Three types of exposure events were modeled with logistic regression: exceeding the 8-hour action level, exceeding the 15-minute excursion limit, and worker exposures during unmeasured accidental releases. Covariates were drawn from data representing an ecologic framework including direct and indirect potential exposure determinants. RESULTS: After adjustment for frequencies of ethylene oxide use and exposure monitoring, a significant inverse relation was observed between exceeding the action level and the use of combined sterilizer-aerators, an engineering control technology developed after the passage of the OSHA standard. Conversely, the use of positive-pressure sterilizers that employ ethylene oxide gas mixtures was strongly related to both exceeding the excursion limit and the occurrence of accidental releases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence of a positive effect of OSHA's ethylene oxide standard and specific targets for future prevention and control efforts. PMID:11236406

  5. [Production of soy bean inoculants. Behavior of supports based on peat from Tierra del Fuego sterilized by vapor and ethylene oxide].

    PubMed

    Balatti, A P; Mazza, L A

    1979-01-01

    The survival of Rhizobium japonicum was studied in neutralized and sterilized peats from Ushuaia and Rio Grande. The carriers were sterilized by ethylene oxide and by autoclaving. Similar counts for Rhizobium (5 x 10(8) cel/g) were obtained in peat-cultures sterilized by both methods, after eight months. A good nodulation and nitrogen fixation capacity was observed with inoculated soybean plants. Using the strain Rhizobium japonicum E-45, no appreciable difference in symbiotic effectiveness was found between the inoculants prepared with the two peats.

  6. Mutagenicity study of workers exposed to alkylene oxides (ethylene oxide/propylene oxide) and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thiess, A M; Schwegler, H; Fleig, I; Stocker, W G

    1981-05-01

    Employees of plants where alkylene oxide is manufactured or processed were subjected to mutagenicity studies carried out on lymphocyte cultures in accordance with the methods of Moorhead at al, de Jong and Anders. The employees were divided into four groups, according to their periods of exposure: (1) Long-term exposure for more than 20 years; (2) exposure for less than 20 years; (3) long-term exposure and accident (ethylene oxide inhalation or skin contact); and (4) accident, i.e., brief high exposure to ethylene oxide. Measurement of the concentrations in various sections of the plant yielded values of up to 3 ppm under conditions of normal operation. However, this figure rose briefly to 1900 ppm under plant breakdown hat workers were subjected to higher exposure in the past. One hundred metaphases per person were analyzed for chromosome aberrations. The results are given in Tables 1 through 4. A significant increase in the aberration rate was found only in employees in Group 1. This was confirmed by a control examination carried out one year later. The employees of groups 2, 3 and 4 displayed no significant increases. However, in evaluating these findings, it should be noted that the employees had been in contact with a wide range of substances and products in the course of their occupation, which means that the increased aberrations rate found cannot be attributed unequivocally to exposure to a particular substance.

  7. Ethylene dynamics in the CELSS biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Allen L.

    1994-01-01

    A material balance model for ethylene was developed and applied retrospectively to data obtained in the Biomass Production Chamber of CELSS in order to calculate true plant production rates of ethylene. Four crops were analyzed: wheat, lettuce, soybean, and potato. The model represents an effort to account for each and every source and sink for ethylene in the system. The major source of ethylene is the plant biomass and the major sink is leakage to the surroundings. The result, expressed in the units of ppd/day, were converted to nl of ethylene per gram of plant dry mass per hour and compare favorably with recent glasshouse to belljar experiments.

  8. [Decontamination of some spices by ethylene oxide. Development of 2-chloroethanol and ethylene glycol during the preservation].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M; Muraz, B

    1993-01-01

    After the disinfection by ethylene oxide and storage by ethylene oxide in definite conditions of 16 spices (parsley, chervil, tarragone, chive, thyme, rosemary, coriander, nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, allspices, clove, pepper), the authors observed the fast loss of residual ethylene oxide and ethyleneglycol. On the contrary, the persistence of 2-chloroethanol was followed up for 6 months. They turn their attention to the toxicity of this compound to ensure the protection of customers.

  9. An analysis of alternative technologies for the removal of ethylene from the CELSS biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Allen L.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of technologies were analyzed for their potential to remove ethylene from the CELSS Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). During crop production (e.g., lettuce, wheat, soybean, potato) in the BPC ethylene can accumulate in the airspace and subsequently affect plant viability. The chief source of ethylene is the plants themselves which reside in plastic trays containing nutrient solution. The main sink for ethylene is chamber leakage. The removal technology can be employed when deleterious levels (e.g., 50 ppb for potato) of ethylene are exceeded in the BPC and perhaps to optimize the plant growth process once a better understanding is developed of the relationship between exogenous ethylene concentration and plant growth. The technologies examined were catalytic oxidation, molecular sieve, cryotrapping, permanganate absorption, and UV degradation. Upon analysis, permanganate was chosen as the most suitable method. Experimental data for ethylene removal by permanganate during potato production was analyzed in order to design a system for installation in the BPC air duct. In addition, an analysis of the impact on ethylene concentration in the BPC of integrating the Breadboard Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (BSAB) with the BPC was performed. The result indicates that this unit has no significant effect on the ethylene material balance as a source or sink.

  10. Decomposition of ethylene oxide in the RF plasma environment.

    PubMed

    Liao, W T; Lee, W J; Chen, C Y; Shih, M

    2001-02-01

    A radio frequency (RF) plasma system was used to decompose the ethylene oxide (EO) contained gas in the EO/Ar, and EO/O2/Ar system, respectively. The reactants and final products were analyzed by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The effects of plasma operational parameters, including input power wattage (W), total gas flow rate (Q), feeding concentration (C) of EO and operational pressure for EO decomposition were evaluated. Due to the importance of the high-energy electrons in the RF plasma system, the EO decomposition fraction in plasma reaction increased with decreasing operational pressure, while that of thermal reaction, reported by previous investigations, increased with increasing operational pressure. However, owing to the electrophilic characteristic of oxygen atoms in the EO molecule causing the effect of electron attachment, in conditions of higher EO feeding concentration, the pressure dependence became the same for both plasma- and thermal-reaction. The EO oxidation reaction has also been investigated, the result shows that EO almost completely oxidized at 600-692 K gas temperature. The main products for the EO/Ar system are CO, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, and C2H2, and those for the EO/O2/Ar system are CO2 and H2O.

  11. Decomposition of ethylene oxide in the RF plasma environment.

    PubMed

    Liao, W T; Lee, W J; Chen, C Y; Shih, M

    2001-02-01

    A radio frequency (RF) plasma system was used to decompose the ethylene oxide (EO) contained gas in the EO/Ar, and EO/O2/Ar system, respectively. The reactants and final products were analyzed by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The effects of plasma operational parameters, including input power wattage (W), total gas flow rate (Q), feeding concentration (C) of EO and operational pressure for EO decomposition were evaluated. Due to the importance of the high-energy electrons in the RF plasma system, the EO decomposition fraction in plasma reaction increased with decreasing operational pressure, while that of thermal reaction, reported by previous investigations, increased with increasing operational pressure. However, owing to the electrophilic characteristic of oxygen atoms in the EO molecule causing the effect of electron attachment, in conditions of higher EO feeding concentration, the pressure dependence became the same for both plasma- and thermal-reaction. The EO oxidation reaction has also been investigated, the result shows that EO almost completely oxidized at 600-692 K gas temperature. The main products for the EO/Ar system are CO, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, and C2H2, and those for the EO/O2/Ar system are CO2 and H2O. PMID:11349375

  12. Photoelectrochemical investigation of a poly(ethylene oxide) cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sammells, A.F.; Ang, G.P.

    1984-03-01

    The photoelectrochemical properties of cells based on the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) poly(ethylene oxide)/NaSCN with Na2S/S as a redox species are investigated experimentally. The preparation of the SPE is described in detail. Current/voltage curves or voltage/time are shown for cells using p-InP/SPE/conducting-glass, n-GaAs/SPE/conducting-glass, and p-InP/SPE/n-CdS structures. It is concluded that practical cells based on SPE of this type will require increases in the ionic conductivity of poly(ethylene oxide). 13 references.

  13. The oxidation of copper catalysts during ethylene epoxidation.

    PubMed

    Greiner, M T; Jones, T E; Johnson, B E; Rocha, T C R; Wang, Z J; Armbrüster, M; Willinger, M; Knop-Gericke, A; Schlögl, R

    2015-10-14

    The oxidation of copper catalysts during ethylene epoxidation was characterized using in situ photoemission spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Gas chromatography, proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry and electron-ionization mass spectrometry were used to characterize the catalytic properties of the oxidized copper. We find that copper corrodes during epoxidation in a 1 : 1 mixture of oxygen and ethylene. The catalyst corrosion passes through several stages, beginning with the formation of an O-terminated surface, followed by the formation of Cu2O scale and eventually a CuO scale. The oxidized catalyst exhibits measurable activity for ethylene epoxidation, but with a low selectivity of <3%. Tests on pure Cu2O and CuO powders confirm that the oxides intrinsically exhibit partial-oxidation activity. Cu2O was found to form acetaldehyde and ethylene epoxide in roughly equal amounts (1.0% and 1.2% respectively), while CuO was found to form much less ethyl aldehyde than ethylene epoxide (0.1% and 1.0%, respectively). Metallic copper catalysts were examined in extreme dilute-O2 epoxidation conditions to try and keep the catalyst from oxidizing during the reaction. It was found that in feed of 1 part O2 to 2500 parts C2H4 (PO2 = 1.2 × 10(-4) mbar) the copper surface becomes O-terminated. The O-terminated surface was found to exhibit partial-oxidation selectivity similar to that of Cu2O. With increasing O2 concentration (>8/2500) Cu2O forms and eventually covers the surface.

  14. Carbohydrates Stimulate Ethylene Production in Tobacco Leaf Discs 1

    PubMed Central

    Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Meir, Shimon; Aharoni, Nehemia

    1985-01-01

    Galactose, sucrose, and glucose (50 millimolar) applied to tobacco leaf discs (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv `Xanthi') during a prolonged incubation (5-6 d) markedly stimulated ethylene production which, in turn, could be inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (2-amino-4-(2′-aminoethoxy)-trans-3-butenoic acid) (AVG) or Co2+ ions. These three tested sugars also stimulated the conversion of l-[3,4-14C]methionine to [14C]1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and to [14C]ethylene, thus indicating that the carbohydrates-stimulated ethylene production proceeds from methionine via the ACC pathway. Sucrose concentrations above 25 mm considerably enhanced ACC-dependent ethylene production, and this enhancement was related to the increased respiratory carbon dioxide. However, sucrose by itself could directly promote the step of ACC conversion to ethylene, since low sucrose concentrations (1-25 mm) enhanced ACC-dependent ethylene production also in the presence of 15% CO2. The data suggest that the stimulation of ethylene production by sugars in tobacco leaf discs results from enhancement of ACC formation as well as from the conversion of ACC to ethylene, when both steps could be involved in regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:16664186

  15. Novel and existing data for a future physiological toxicokinetic model of ethylene and its metabolite ethylene oxide in mouse, rat, and human.

    PubMed

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Artati, Anna; Li, Qiang; Pütz, Christian; Semder, Brigitte; Klein, Dominik; Kessler, Winfried

    2015-11-01

    The olefin ethylene is a ubiquitously found gas. It originates predominantly from plants, combustion processes and industrial sources. In mammals, inhaled ethylene is metabolized by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, particularly by cytochrome P450 2E1, to ethylene oxide, an epoxide that directly alkylates proteins and DNA. Ethylene oxide was mutagenic in vitro and in vivo in insects and mammals and carcinogenic in rats and mice. A physiological toxicokinetic model is a most useful tool for estimating the ethylene oxide burden in ethylene-exposed rodents and humans. The only published physiological toxicokinetic model for ethylene and metabolically produced ethylene oxide is discussed. Additionally, existing data required for the development of a future model and for testing its predictive accuracy are reviewed and extended by new gas uptake studies with ethylene and ethylene oxide in B6C3F1 mice and with ethylene in F344 rats.

  16. 46 CFR 151.50-12 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... either internal back pressure check valves or internal excess flow valves in conjunction with a quick... tanks, piping, valves, fittings, and similar equipment which may contain ethylene oxide in either the... prohibited. (f) In addition to the shutoff valve required, all tank connections larger than one-half...

  17. 46 CFR 151.50-12 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... either internal back pressure check valves or internal excess flow valves in conjunction with a quick... tanks, piping, valves, fittings, and similar equipment which may contain ethylene oxide in either the... prohibited. (f) In addition to the shutoff valve required, all tank connections larger than one-half...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100 Section 880.6100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... with a ventilation system designed to circulate and exchange the air in the cabinet to shorten the...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  7. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  8. Ethylene oxidation chemistry in a well-stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.; Malte, P.

    1994-09-01

    Ethylene is an important intermediate in the combustion of methane, larger aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatics. Detailed fuel-lean C{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O/air well-stirred reactor data by Thornton were used to analyze reported combustion chemistry mechanisms and the development of this study`s ethylene oxidation mechanism. The data set had been obtained for the temperature range 1,003 to 1,253 K and ethylene-oxygen equivalence ratio range 0.086 to 0.103, at atmospheric pressure. Mechanisms were derived from reaction sets of Westbrook and Pitz, and Dagaut, Cathonnet and Boettner. Examination of each reported mechanism indicated unusually large kinetic rates for the vinyl decomposition reaction were used in order to obtain agreement with the Thornton data set. An ethylene oxidation model was developed in order to address the mechanistic problems of the previous models. This study`s mechanism well simulated the overall rate of ethylene oxidation and concentration profiles of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Successful predictions by the model were dependent on a new high temperature vinyl oxidation reaction route, C{sub 2}H{sub 3} + O{sub 2} = CH{sub 2}CHO + O with a branching ratio of 1.19--1.21 at 1,053 K to 1.63--2.47 at 1,253 K. The branching ratio values were dependent upon the extent of fall-off for the C{sub 2}H{sub 3} + O{sub 2} = CH{sub 2}O + HCO reaction. 132 refs.

  9. Ethylene production by plants in a closed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    Ethylene production by 20-m^2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce and potato was monitored throughout growth and development in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Biomass Production Chamber. Chamber ethylene concentrations rose during periods of rapid growth for all four species, reaching 120 parts per billion (ppb) for wheat, 60 ppb for soybean, and 40 to 50 ppb for lettuce and potato. Following this, ethylene concentrations declined during seed fill and maturation (wheat and soybean), or remained relatively constant (potato). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. The highest ethylene production rates (unadjusted for chamber leakage) ranged from 0.04 to 0.06 ml m^-2 day^-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or approximately 0.8 to 1.1 nl g^-1 fresh weight h^-1 Results suggest that ethylene production by plants is a normal event coupled to periods of rapid metabolic activity, and that ethylene removal or control measures should be considered for growing crops in a tightly closed CELSS.

  10. Ethylene Production by Plants in a Closed Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    Ethylene production by 20-sq m stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce and potato was monitored throughout growth and development in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Biomass Production Chamber. Chamber ethylene concentrations rose during periods of rapid growth for all four species, reaching 120 parts per billion (ppb) for wheat, 60 ppb for soybean, and 40 to 50 ppb for lettuce and potato. Following this, ethylene concentrations declined during seed fill and maturation (wheat and soybean), or remained relatively constant (potato). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. The highest ethylene production rates (unadjusted for chamber leakage) ranged from 0.04 to 0.06 ml/sq m/day during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or approximately 0.8 to 1.1 ml/g fresh weight/h. Results suggest that ethylene production by plants is a normal event coupled to periods of rapid metabolic activity, and that ethylene removal or control measures should be considered for growing crops in a tightly closed CELSS.

  11. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  14. Alternative control technology document: Ethylene oxide sterilization/fumigation operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This report presents technical information that State and local agencies can use to develop strategies for reducing VOC (i.e., EO) emissions for sterilization/fumigation facilities. The information in the document will allow planners to identify available control alternatives and evaluate the VOC reduction and cost of implementing controls. The document provides information on sterilization/fumigation processes, EO (ethylene oxide) emissions, and emission reductions, and cost associated with the application of control units. Section 2.0 presents a summary of the findings of the study. Section 3.0 provides a description of sterilization/fumigation facility operations and emission sources. Section 4.0 provides a description of alternative control techniques for the reduction of ethylene oxide emissions. Section 5.0 presents a cost analysis that includes a methodology for computing annualized equipment and operating costs. A list of contacts at various Federal agencies who are knowledgeable about sterilization/fumigation processes is presented in Appendix A.

  15. Effect of nitric oxide on ethylene synthesis and softening of banana fruit slice during ripening.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guiping; Yang, En; Lu, Wangjin; Jia, Yongxia; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2009-07-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on ethylene synthesis and softening of ripening-initiated banana slice were investigated. Fruit firmness, color, and contents of starch and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were measured. In addition, ethylene production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, expression and activities of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), and activities of cell-wall-modifying enzymes, polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, were analyzed. Application of NO reduced ethylene production, inhibited degreening of the peel and delayed softening of the pulp. The decrease of ethylene production was associated with the reduction in the activity of ACO and the expression of the MA-ACO1 gene. Moreover, the NO-treated fruit showed a lower expression of the MA-ACS1 gene but higher ACS activity and ACC content. In addition, NO treatment decreased the activities of PG, PME, and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and maintained higher contents of ASP and starch, which may account for the delay of softening. We proposed that the inhibition of ACO activity and transcription of gene MA-ACO1 by NO resulted in decreased ethylene synthesis and the delay of ripening of banana slice. PMID:19534461

  16. Ethylene oxidation in a well-stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.M.; Malte, P.C.

    1994-10-01

    The detailed ethylene oxidation data set of Thornton, obtained for a well-stirred reactor operated fuel-lean at atmospheric pressure and for temperatures of 1003K to 1253K, is used as a basis for the comparison of chemical kinetic mechanisms reported in the literature and for the development of a new ethylene oxidation mechanism. The mechanisms examined are those of Westbrook and Pitz and Dagaut et al. These mechanisms indicated that unusually large rates for the vinyl decomposition reaction are required to obtain agreement with the Thornton data set. A new ethylene oxidation mechanism is developed in order to overcome some of the drawbacks of the previous mechanisms. The new mechanism closely simulates the overall rate of loss of ethylene, and the concentation of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} measured for the stirred reactor. Predictions by this mechanism are dependent on a new high temperature vinyl oxidation route, C{sub 2}H{sub 3} + O{sub 2} = CH{sub 2}CHO + O with a k{sub C2H3+O2=CH2CHO+O}/k{sub C2H3+O2=CH2O+HCO} branching ratio of 1.20 at 1053K to 2.05 at 1253K. The branching ratio values were dependent upon the extent of fall-off for the C{sub 2}H{sub 3} + O{sub 2} = CH{sub 2}O + HCO reaction.

  17. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Crusius, Johann-Philipp Hassel, Egon; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard

    2014-10-28

    A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

  18. Enhanced ethylene production via flash methanolysis of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1984-01-01

    In an on-going pyrolysis research project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the methods to increase the yield of ethylene through flash methanolysis of coal is being investigated. Flash methanolysis is defined as pyrolysis of coal under pressure in an atmosphere of methane. This study attempts to identify the influence of important process variables such as reaction temperature, gas pressure, solids residence time, gas/solids ratio etc. on the production characteristics of ethylene and other pyrolysis products.

  19. Enhanced ethylene production via flash methanolysis of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.; Steinberg, M.

    1984-04-01

    In an on-going pyrolysis research project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the methods to increase the yield of ethylene through flash methanolysis of coal is being investigated. Flash methanolysis is defined as pyrolysis of coal under pressure in an atmosphere of methane. This study attempts to identify the influence of important process variables such as reaction temperature, gas pressure, solids residence time, gas/solids ratio etc. on the production characteristics of ethylene and other pyrolysis products.

  20. Hyperbranched PEG by random copolymerization of ethylene oxide and glycidol.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Daniel; Schömer, Martina; Wurm, Frederik; Hermanns, M Iris; Kirkpatrick, C James; Frey, Holger

    2010-10-18

    The synthesis of hyperbranched poly(ethylene glycol) (hbPEG) in one step was realized by random copolymerization of ethylene oxide and glycidol, leading to a biocompatible, amorphous material with multiple hydroxyl functionalities. A series of copolymers with moderate polydispersity ($\\overline {M} _{{\\rm w}} /\\overline {M} _{{\\rm n}} $ < 1.8) was obtained with varying glycidol content (3-40 mol-%) and molecular weights up to 49 800 g mol(-1) . The randomly branched structure of the copolymers was confirmed by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry). MTS assay demonstrated low cell toxicity of the hyperbranched PEG, comparable to the highly established linear PEG.

  1. Enhanced ethylene production via flash methanolysis of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-12-01

    According to a recent report, an estimated 31 billion pounds of ethylene was produced in the US alone. Ethylene is an important raw material in the vast plastic and polymer markets. An upward trend in the demand for ethylene has been predicted for the future years. Currently, ethylene is produced mainly through thermal and catalytic hydrocracking of ethane and other hydrocarbons. Although a large amount of work has been performed on the production of gaseous and liquid fuels from coal, much less attention has been focused on the production of ehtylene using coal as the raw material. In an on-going pyrolysis research project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, methods for increasing the yield of ethylene through flash methanolysis of coal are being investigated. Flash methanolysis is defined as pyrolysis of coal under pressure in an atmosphere of methane. This study attempts to identify the influence of important process variables such as reaction temperature, gas pressure, solids residence time, gas/solids ratio etc on the production of ethylene and other pyrolysis products. We have shown that there are definite advantages in the use of methane as an atmosphere in the flash pyrolysis of coal. At temperatures higher than 800/sup 0/C, 2 to 5 times greater yields of ethylene are obtainable in methane atmosphere compared to flash pyrolysis in an inert helium atmosphere. An enhancement in the yield of ethylene and BTX are important raw materials in the vast polymer and plastic markets, flash methanolysis of coal has potential process applications. 5 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Photoionization and ion cyclotron resonance studies of the ion chemistry of ethylene oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corderman, R. R.; Williamson, A. D.; Lebreton, P. R.; Buttrill, S. E., Jr.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of the ethylene oxide molecular ion and its subsequent ion-molecule reactions leading to the products C2H5O(+) and C3H5O(+) have been studied using time-resolved photoionization mass spectroscopy, ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. An examination of the effects of internal energy on reactivity shows that the ratio of C3H5O(+) to C2H5O(+) increases by an order of magnitude with a single quantum of vibrational energy. The formation of (C2H4O/+/)-asterisk in a collision-induced isomerization is found which yields a ring-opened structure by C-C bond cleavage. The relaxed ring-opened C2H4O(+) ion reacts with neutral ethylene oxide by CH2(+) transfer to yield an intermediate product ion C3H6O(+) which gives C3H5O(+) by loss of H.

  3. Carbohydrates Stimulate Ethylene Production in Tobacco Leaf Discs 1

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Shimon; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Epstein, Ephraim; Aharoni, Nehemia

    1985-01-01

    Various naturally occurring carbohydrates, applied at a concentration range of 1 to 100 mm, stimulated ethylene production for several days in indoleacetic acid (IAA)-treated or untreated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv `Xanthi') leaf discs. The lag period for this sugar-stimulated ethylene production was 8 to 12 hours after excision in the untreated leaf discs, but less than 2 hours in the IAA-treated ones. Among the tested carbohydrates, 12 were found to increase synergistically ethylene production, with d-galactose, sucrose, and lactose being the most active; mannitol and l-glucose had no effect. The extent and duration of the increased ethylene production was dependent upon the type of sugar applied, the tissue's age, and the existence of both exogenous IAA and sugar in the medium. Sucrose appeared to elicit a continuous IAA effect for 48 hours, as expressed by increased ethylene production, even when IAA was removed from the medium after a 4-hour pulse. Sucrose stimulated both the uptake and decarboxylation of [1-14C]IAA, as well as the hydrolysis of the esteric and amide IAA conjugates formed in the tissue after application of free IAA. This gradual hydrolysis was accompanied by a further accumulation of a third IAA metabolite. Moreover, synthetic indole-3-acetyl-l-alanine increased ethylene production mainly with sucrose, and this effect was accompanied by its increased decarboxylation and turnover pattern suggesting that release of free IAA was involved. An esteric IAA conjugate, tentatively identified by GC retention time was found to be the major component (84%) of the naturally occurring IAA conjugates in tobacco leaves. Accordingly the sucrose-stimulated ethylene production in tobacco leaves can be ascribed mainly to the sucrose-stimulated hydrolysis of the esteric IAA conjugate. PMID:16664185

  4. ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination

    PubMed Central

    Arc, Erwann; Sechet, Julien; Corbineau, Françoise; Rajjou, Loïc; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. After seed dispersal, germination is preceded by a decline in ABA in imbibed seeds, which results from ABA catabolism through 8′-hydroxylation. The hormonal balance between ABA and gibberellins (GAs) has been shown to act as an integrator of environmental cues to maintain dormancy or activate germination. The interplay of ABA with other endogenous signals is however less documented. In numerous species, ethylene counteracts ABA signaling pathways and induces germination. In Brassicaceae seeds, ethylene prevents the inhibitory effects of ABA on endosperm cap weakening, thereby facilitating endosperm rupture and radicle emergence. Moreover, enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutants results from greater ABA sensitivity. Conversely, ABA limits ethylene action by down-regulating its biosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a common actor in the ABA and ethylene crosstalk in seed. Indeed, convergent evidence indicates that NO is produced rapidly after seed imbibition and promotes germination by inducing the expression of the ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene, CYP707A2, and stimulating ethylene production. The role of NO and other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, in seed dormancy breakage and germination stimulation has been reported in several species. This review will describe our current knowledge of ABA crosstalk with ethylene and NO, both volatile compounds that have been shown to counteract ABA action in seeds and to improve dormancy release and germination. PMID:23531630

  5. ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination.

    PubMed

    Arc, Erwann; Sechet, Julien; Corbineau, Françoise; Rajjou, Loïc; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. After seed dispersal, germination is preceded by a decline in ABA in imbibed seeds, which results from ABA catabolism through 8'-hydroxylation. The hormonal balance between ABA and gibberellins (GAs) has been shown to act as an integrator of environmental cues to maintain dormancy or activate germination. The interplay of ABA with other endogenous signals is however less documented. In numerous species, ethylene counteracts ABA signaling pathways and induces germination. In Brassicaceae seeds, ethylene prevents the inhibitory effects of ABA on endosperm cap weakening, thereby facilitating endosperm rupture and radicle emergence. Moreover, enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutants results from greater ABA sensitivity. Conversely, ABA limits ethylene action by down-regulating its biosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a common actor in the ABA and ethylene crosstalk in seed. Indeed, convergent evidence indicates that NO is produced rapidly after seed imbibition and promotes germination by inducing the expression of the ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene, CYP707A2, and stimulating ethylene production. The role of NO and other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, in seed dormancy breakage and germination stimulation has been reported in several species. This review will describe our current knowledge of ABA crosstalk with ethylene and NO, both volatile compounds that have been shown to counteract ABA action in seeds and to improve dormancy release and germination.

  6. Microwave cavity spectrometer for process monitoring of ethylene oxide sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Gibson, C.; Samuel, A. H.; Matthews, I. P.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports a novel and simple cavity spectrometer for process monitoring of ethylene oxide sterilization, in which the source frequency, cavity resonant frequency, and gas absorption center frequency are asynchronous with respect to each other, thus, enabling sophisticated signal enhancement techniques to be employed without the need to engage the Stark effect. The operation of the device is such that the source frequency sweeps across a given range (F1 to F2) which contains one of the absorption peaks of the analyte gas (gases) of interest while the cavity resonant frequency Fr is oscillated within the profile of the absorption peak. Signal enhancement is achieved by adding a relatively small magnitude/high-frequency ``dither'' signal to the source frequency sweep pattern. The salient information of the gas absorption due to the oscillation of the resonant frequency of the cavity is carried by the ``dither'' signal and amplified and extracted by a series of tuned amplifiers and demodulators. Although the device is still at the initial design stage, a working prototype has been constructed in order to test the feasibility of the novel asynchronous modulation technique. This was achieved by successfully demonstrating that the device operates in an expected manner to within a standard error of 8.3%. It is believed that this error largely results from mechanical components. The significance of this error is greatly reduced when the spectrometer is operated in a large signal scanning mode as is the case when we apply the ``power saturation'' technique to measure the concentration of ethylene oxide in the resonant cavity. This measurement showed that there is a good linear correlation between the output signal and the concentration of ethylene oxide gas (to within a standard error of 4%).

  7. Carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide and 1,2-propylene oxide upon intragastric administration to rats.

    PubMed Central

    Dunkelberg, H.

    1982-01-01

    Ethylene oxide and 1,2-propylene oxide were each administered intragastrically by gavage at 2 dosages (30 and 7.5 mg/kg body wt; 60 and 15 mg/kg body wt respectively) to groups of 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats twice weekly for a period of nearly 3 years using salad oil as the solvent. Both compounds induced local tumours, mainly squamous-cell carcinomas of the forestomach, dependent on the dosage. The first tumour occurred in the 79th week both in the group treated with ethylene oxide and in that treated with 1,2-propylene oxide. The following tumour rates resulted: ethylene oxide 62 and 16%; 1,2-propylene oxide 40 and 4%. In addition carcinomata in situ, papillomas and reactive changes of the squamous epithelium of the forestomach were observed in other animals, but neither ethylene oxide nor 1,2-propylene oxide induced tumours at sites away from the point of administration. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7150486

  8. Vacuum thermal degradation of poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Choukourov, Andrei; Grinevich, Andrey; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Hanus, Jan; Kousal, Jaroslav; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek

    2009-03-12

    Thermal degradation of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied under vacuum conditions. PEO macromolecules degrade predominantly by random chain scission of a backbone with elimination of oligomer fragments. The reactions include the mechanism of radical termination by disproportionation. The eliminated fragments form thin film deposits which have chemical composition close to the original PEO. Activation of the evaporated flux with a glow discharge leads to further fragmentation and recombination of the released species and can be used to tune the properties of the resulting thin films. PMID:19708261

  9. Preparation of bank bone using defatting, freeze-drying and sterilisation with ethylene oxide gas. Part 1. Experimental evaluation of its efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, M; Ono, K; Nishimura, A; Shiokawa, H

    1996-01-01

    We devised a method of sterilising bone allografts which consists of defatting in chloroform and methanol, freeze-drying and sterilisation with ethylene oxide gas. The purpose of defatting and freeze-drying was to facilitate subsequent sterilisation by eliminating the barrier to diffusion of the gas into bone, to lower residual levels of ethylene oxide and its toxic by-products, to eliminate alloantigens and to make storage possible at room temperature. The efficacy and safety of the method were evaluated by testing the sterilisation of infected bone from 6 patients with active chronic osteomyelitis, the penetration of ethylene oxide into human femoral heads treated by this or by freeze-drying or freeze-thawing, and the desorption of ethylene oxide and its toxic by-products from pieces of bone treated by these methods. All the samples of infected bone tested negative for bacteria after treatment. The gas penetrated into the central area of the femoral heads in a few hours. Residual levels of ethylene oxide and its toxic by-products were much lower in the treated bone than in freeze-dried or freeze-thawed bone, and decreased quickly in flowing air. Prior defatting and freeze-drying facilitated penetration of ethylene oxide into bone during sterilisation and the desorption of ethylene oxide and its toxic by-products after sterilisation. Preparation under clean, but not sterile, conditions and storage at room temperature make bone banking more practical and efficient. PMID:8832315

  10. Transcriptional regulation of the ethylene response factor LeERF2 in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes controls ethylene production in tomato and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijin; Zhang, Haiwen; Quan, Ruidan; Wang, Xue-Chen; Huang, Rongfeng

    2009-05-01

    Fine-tuning of ethylene production plays an important role in developmental processes and in plant responses to stress, but very little is known about the regulation of ethylene response factor (ERF) proteins in ethylene biosynthesis genes and ethylene production. Identifying cis-acting elements and transcription factors that play a role in this process, therefore, is important. Previously, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum [f. sp. Lycopersicon esculentum]) ERF protein, LeERF2, an allele of TERF2, was reported to confer ethylene triple response on plants. This paper reports the transcriptional modulation of LeERF2/TERF2 in ethylene biosynthesis in tomato and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Using overexpressing and antisense LeERF2/TERF2 transgenic tomato, we found that LeERF2/TERF2 is an important regulator in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes and the production of ethylene. Expression analysis revealed that LeERF2/TERF2 is ethylene inducible, and ethylene production stimulated by ethylene was suppressed in antisense LeERF2/TERF2 transgenic tomato, indicating LeERF2/TERF2 to be a positive regulator in the feedback loop of ethylene induction. Further research showed that LeERF2/TERF2 conservatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis in tobacco and that such regulation in tobacco is associated with the elongation of the hypocotyl and insensitivity to abscisic acid and glucose during germination and seedling development. The effects on ethylene synthesis were similar to those of another ERF protein, TERF1, because TERF1 and LeERF2/TERF2 have overlapping roles in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in tobacco. Biochemical analysis showed that LeERF2/TERF2 interacted with GCC box in the promoter of NtACS3 and with dehydration-responsive element in the promoter of LeACO3, resulting in transcriptional activation of the genes for ethylene biosynthesis in tomato and tobacco, which is a novel regulatory function of ERF proteins in plant ethylene

  11. Reduced Water Density in a Poly(ethylene oxide) Brush

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Hae-Woong; Mahynski, Nathan A.; Kim, Kyungil; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2012-09-05

    A model poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush system, prepared by spreading a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PnBA) amphiphilic diblock copolymer onto an air-water interface, was investigated under various grafting density conditions by using the X-ray reflectivity (XR) technique. The overall electron density profiles of the PEO-PnBA monolayer in the direction normal to the air-water interface were determined from the XR data. From this analysis, it was found that inside of the PEO brush, the water density is significantly lower than that of bulk water, in particular, in the region close to the PnBA-water interface. Separate XR measurements with a PnBA homopolymer monolayer confirm that the reduced water density within the PEO-PnBA monolayer is not due to unfavorable contacts between the PnBA surface and water. The above result, therefore, lends support to the notion that PEO chains provide a hydrophobic environment for the surrounding water molecules when they exist as polymer brush chains.

  12. 21 CFR 872.3450 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3450 Section 872.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive is a device composed of ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya intended to be...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3410 Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3410 Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3450 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3450 Section 872.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive is a device composed of ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya intended to be...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3450 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adhesive. 872.3450 Section 872.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive is a device composed of ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya intended to be...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3410 Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. (a) Identification. An ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive is a...

  18. New poly(ethylene oxide)-clay composites.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D. J.; Chemical Engineering

    2003-03-11

    This paper reports a new mechanism for the formation of clay intercalates containing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). This mechanism permits formation of a two-dimensional PEO crystal phase. Under acidic conditions, polymer adsorption occurs through an ion-exchange process that is mediated by oxonium cation formation. A single phase exhibiting a plateau in the d{sub 001} reflections of 19 Angstroms is formed at a polymer/clay stoichiometry of 0.5 g/g. This two-dimensional PEO crystal phase has a higher melting temperature than its three-dimensional counterpart because it is confined within the clay galleries. Unlike previously reported methods for forming PEO/clay intercalates, oxonium ion exchange produces structures whose basal spacings increase with increasing polymer molecular weight.

  19. Effect of poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer and two different poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers on morphological, optical, and mechanical properties of nanostructured unsaturated polyester.

    PubMed

    Builes, Daniel H; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; Corcuera, Ma Angeles; Mondragon, Iñaki; Tercjak, Agnieszka

    2014-01-22

    Novel nanostructured unsaturated polyester resin-based thermosets, modified with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), and two poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymers (BCP), were developed and analyzed. The effects of molecular weights, blocks ratio, and curing temperatures on the final morphological, optical, and mechanical properties were reported. The block influence on the BCP miscibility was studied through uncured and cured mixtures of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins with PEO and PPO homopolymers having molecular weights similar to molecular weights of the blocks of BCP. The final morphology of the nanostructured thermosetting systems, containing BCP or homopolymers, was investigated, and multiple mechanisms of nanostructuration were listed and explained. By considering the miscibility of each block before and after curing, it was determined that the formation of the nanostructured matrices followed a self-assembly mechanism or a polymerization-induced phase separation mechanism. The miscibility between PEO or PPO blocks with one of two phases of UP matrix was highlighted due to its importance in the final thermoset properties. Relationships between the final morphology and thermoset optical and mechanical properties were examined. The mechanisms and physics behind the morphologies lead toward the design of highly transparent, nanostructured, and toughened thermosetting UP systems. PMID:24354274

  20. Effect of poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer and two different poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers on morphological, optical, and mechanical properties of nanostructured unsaturated polyester.

    PubMed

    Builes, Daniel H; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; Corcuera, Ma Angeles; Mondragon, Iñaki; Tercjak, Agnieszka

    2014-01-22

    Novel nanostructured unsaturated polyester resin-based thermosets, modified with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), and two poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymers (BCP), were developed and analyzed. The effects of molecular weights, blocks ratio, and curing temperatures on the final morphological, optical, and mechanical properties were reported. The block influence on the BCP miscibility was studied through uncured and cured mixtures of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins with PEO and PPO homopolymers having molecular weights similar to molecular weights of the blocks of BCP. The final morphology of the nanostructured thermosetting systems, containing BCP or homopolymers, was investigated, and multiple mechanisms of nanostructuration were listed and explained. By considering the miscibility of each block before and after curing, it was determined that the formation of the nanostructured matrices followed a self-assembly mechanism or a polymerization-induced phase separation mechanism. The miscibility between PEO or PPO blocks with one of two phases of UP matrix was highlighted due to its importance in the final thermoset properties. Relationships between the final morphology and thermoset optical and mechanical properties were examined. The mechanisms and physics behind the morphologies lead toward the design of highly transparent, nanostructured, and toughened thermosetting UP systems.

  1. Polymerization of Ethylene Oxide, Propylene Oxide, and Other Alkylene Oxides: Synthesis, Novel Polymer Architectures, and Bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Herzberger, Jana; Niederer, Kerstin; Pohlit, Hannah; Seiwert, Jan; Worm, Matthias; Wurm, Frederik R; Frey, Holger

    2016-02-24

    The review summarizes current trends and developments in the polymerization of alkylene oxides in the last two decades since 1995, with a particular focus on the most important epoxide monomers ethylene oxide (EO), propylene oxide (PO), and butylene oxide (BO). Classical synthetic pathways, i.e., anionic polymerization, coordination polymerization, and cationic polymerization of epoxides (oxiranes), are briefly reviewed. The main focus of the review lies on more recent and in some cases metal-free methods for epoxide polymerization, i.e., the activated monomer strategy, the use of organocatalysts, such as N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and N-heterocyclic olefins (NHOs) as well as phosphazene bases. In addition, the commercially relevant double-metal cyanide (DMC) catalyst systems are discussed. Besides the synthetic progress, new types of multifunctional linear PEG (mf-PEG) and PPO structures accessible by copolymerization of EO or PO with functional epoxide comonomers are presented as well as complex branched, hyperbranched, and dendrimer like polyethers. Amphiphilic block copolymers based on PEO and PPO (Poloxamers and Pluronics) and advances in the area of PEGylation as the most important bioconjugation strategy are also summarized. With the ever growing toolbox for epoxide polymerization, a "polyether universe" may be envisaged that in its structural diversity parallels the immense variety of structural options available for polymers based on vinyl monomers with a purely carbon-based backbone.

  2. Clinorotation affects morphology and ethylene production in soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Peterson, B. V.; Guikema, J. A.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight influences growth, morphology and metabolism in etiolated germinating soybean. To determine if clinorotation will similarly impact these processes, we conducted ground-based studies in conjunction with two space experiment opportunities. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seeds were planted within BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) canisters and grown for seven days at 20 degrees C under clinorotation (1 rpm) conditions or in a stationary upright mode. Gas samples were taken daily and plants were harvested after seven days for measurement of growth and morphology. Compared to the stationary upright controls, plants exposed to clinorotation exhibited increased root length (125% greater) and fresh weight (42% greater), whereas shoot length and fresh weight decreased by 33% and 16% respectively. Plants grown under clinorotation produced twice as much ethylene as the stationary controls. Seedlings treated with triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA), an auxin transport inhibitor, under clinorotation produced 50% less ethylene than the untreated control subjected to the same gravity treatment, whereas a treatment with 2,4-D increased ethylene by five-fold in the clinorotated plants. These data suggest that slow clinorotation influences biomass partitioning and ethylene production in etiolated soybean plants.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3450 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive. 872.3450 Section 872.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3450 Ethylene...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3450 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or karaya denture adhesive. 872.3450 Section 872.3450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3450 Ethylene...

  7. Ethylene signalling is mediating the early cadmium-induced oxidative challenge in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Schellingen, Kerim; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Remans, Tony; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Keunen, Els; Cuypers, Ann

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stimulates ethylene biosynthesis. The phytohormone ethylene is a regulator of many developmental and physiological plant processes as well as stress responses. Previous research indicated various links between ethylene signalling and oxidative stress. Our results support a correlation between the Cd-induced oxidative challenge and ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. The effects of 24 or 72 h exposure to 5 μM Cd on plant growth and several oxidative stress-related parameters were compared between wild-type (WT) and ethylene insensitive mutants (etr1-1, ein2-1, ein3-1). Cadmium-induced responses observed in WT plants were mainly affected in etr1-1 and ein2-1 mutants, of which the growth was less inhibited by Cd exposure as compared to WT and ein3-1 mutants. Both etr1-1 and ein2-1 showed a delayed response in the glutathione (GSH) metabolism, including GSH levels and transcript levels of GSH synthesising and recycling enzymes. Furthermore, the expression of different oxidative stress marker genes was significantly lower in Cd-exposed ein2-1 mutants, evidencing that ethylene signalling is involved in early responses to Cd stress. A model for the cross-talk between ethylene signalling and oxidative stress is proposed. PMID:26398798

  8. Ethylene signalling is mediating the early cadmium-induced oxidative challenge in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Schellingen, Kerim; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Remans, Tony; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Keunen, Els; Cuypers, Ann

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stimulates ethylene biosynthesis. The phytohormone ethylene is a regulator of many developmental and physiological plant processes as well as stress responses. Previous research indicated various links between ethylene signalling and oxidative stress. Our results support a correlation between the Cd-induced oxidative challenge and ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. The effects of 24 or 72 h exposure to 5 μM Cd on plant growth and several oxidative stress-related parameters were compared between wild-type (WT) and ethylene insensitive mutants (etr1-1, ein2-1, ein3-1). Cadmium-induced responses observed in WT plants were mainly affected in etr1-1 and ein2-1 mutants, of which the growth was less inhibited by Cd exposure as compared to WT and ein3-1 mutants. Both etr1-1 and ein2-1 showed a delayed response in the glutathione (GSH) metabolism, including GSH levels and transcript levels of GSH synthesising and recycling enzymes. Furthermore, the expression of different oxidative stress marker genes was significantly lower in Cd-exposed ein2-1 mutants, evidencing that ethylene signalling is involved in early responses to Cd stress. A model for the cross-talk between ethylene signalling and oxidative stress is proposed.

  9. Thermoreversible partitioning of poly(ethylene oxide)s between water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhifeng; Nagy, Michael W; Zhao, Bin; Lodge, Timothy P

    2014-07-15

    We describe a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) homopolymer "shuttle" between water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][TFSI]). PEO homopolymers with varying molecular weight transferred reversibly and quantitatively between water at room temperature and [EMIM][TFSI] at an elevated temperature. The temperature of the transfer from water to [EMIM][TFSI] shows a linear dependence on PEO molecular weight and a dependence on polymer concentration consistent with expectation based on Flory-Huggins theory. These results are also consistent with the previously observed lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior of PEO in water. Dynamic light scattering study of the concentration and temperature dependence of the swelling degree of PEO corona of polybutadiene (PB)-PEO block copolymer micelles indicates that the solvent quality of [EMIM][TFSI] for PEO remains essentially the same as a good solvent over the temperature range of the PEO shuttle. Fundamental understanding of the PEO shuttle is of significance in development of systems for phase transfer of reagents and reaction products between ionic liquids and water. PMID:24988141

  10. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Revised Aug 2014 External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is seeking peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  11. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Revised July 2013 External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is initiating a public comment period prior to peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  12. Preliminary survey report: control technology for ethylene oxide sterilization at Selby General Hospital, Marietta, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, S.L.; Mortimer, V.D.; Todd, W.F.

    1985-08-01

    A survey of control technology for reducing exposure during ethylene oxide sterilization was conducted at Selby General Hospital, Marietta, Ohio on August 30, 1984. The Central Services Department performed ethylene oxide sterilization for obstetrics, neonatal care, respiratory therapy, cytology, isolation cases, and surgery. Engineering controls consisted of isolation of the sterilizer and aerators, local exhaust ventilation, a continuous fresh air purge on the sterilization cycle, in chamber aeration of the sterilizers, and general exhaust ventilation of the Central Services Department and the sterilizer room. The author concludes that the Central Services Department has instituted control technology that minimizes employee exposure to ethylene-oxide. The hospital should be considered a candidate for an in-depth survey in a NIOSH study of control technology for ethylene oxide sterilization in hospitals.

  13. Ethylene oxide emissions from commercial sterilization/fumigation operations: Background information for proposed standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Table of Contents: Ethylene Oxide Sterilization/Fumigation Processes and Emissions; Emission Control Techniques; Regulatory Alternatives; Environmental Impacts; Emission Control Costs, and The Economic Impacts of the Candidate Neshap Controls.

  14. [Ethylene oxide residues and aeration time after use of modern heated aerators (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Star, E G

    1980-06-01

    The aeration time after ethylene oxide sterilization is rather long, particularly for PVC materials. It can be shortened enormously by heated aerators with continuous air exchange. We used different aeration methods and determined the ethylene oxide residues in endotracheal tubes, nasal and oro-pharyngeal airways, breathing tubes, parts of heart-lung-machines as well as gastroscope- and bronchoscope linings. The analyses were performed with a Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph by the head space method. Intermittent vacuum with air irrigation was not as effective as continuous air exchange in heated aerators. The aeration time in these at 37 degrees C is longer than with 62 degrees C. After degassing in aerators with 62 degrees C the sterilized items can be used the next day already. Aerators blow the released ethylene oxide residues into the open air. The personnel is exposed to considerably smaller ethylene oxide concentrations because the long aeration time at room temperature in storage places is now eliminated.

  15. Electrospinning Bombyx mori silk with poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyoung-Joon; Fridrikh, Sergey V; Rutledge, Gregory C; Kaplan, David L

    2002-01-01

    Electrospinning for the formation of nanoscale diameter fibers has been explored for high-performance filters and biomaterial scaffolds for vascular grafts or wound dressings. Fibers with nanoscale diameters provide benefits due to high surface area. In the present study we explore electrospinning for protein-based biomaterials to fabricate scaffolds and membranes from regenerated silkworm silk, Bombyx mori, solutions. To improve processability of the protein solution, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with molecular weight of 900,000 was blended with the silk fibroin. A variety of compositions of the silk/PEO aqueous blends were successfully electrospun. The morphology of the fibers was characterized using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Fiber diameters were uniform and less than 800 nm. The composition was estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize silk/PEO surface content. Aqueous-based electrospining of silk and silk/PEO blends provides potentially useful options for the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds based on this unique fibrous protein.

  16. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectra of CO{2}-ETHYLENE Sulfide, CO{2}-ETHYLENE Oxide and CO{2}-PROPYLENE Oxide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Yukari; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2010-06-01

    We have previously examined the difference in roles of O and S in structure and dynamics of the CO-ethylene oxide (EO) and CO-ethylene sulfide (ES) complexes. We have extended the investigation to CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES for comparison. We have also observed the CO{2}-propylene oxide (PO) complex, which is an important intermediate in the reaction of PO with CO{2} leading to polycarbonate. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES, but no c-type transitions were observed at all. We also detected the {34}S and {13}C isotopic species in natural abundance and the species containing {18}OCO and C{18}O% {2}, which were synthesized by burning paper in an {18}O{2} and{% 16}O{2} mixture. By analyzing the observed spectra we concluded the CO{2} moiety of CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES located in a plane % prependicular to the three-membered ring and bisecting the COC or CSC angle of EO or ES, respectively, as in the case of CO-EO and CO-ES complexes. An % ab initio MO calculation at the level of MP2/6-311G(d, p) yielded an optimized structure in good agreement with the experimental result. We have derived from the observed spectra the distance, the stretching force constant, and the binding energy of the bonds between the constituents of the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES complexes and have found that the distances of the two complexes were shorter by 0.2Å than those in CO-EO and CO-ES, respectively, and that the intermolecular bonds were two times stronger in the CO{2} complexes than in the corresponding CO complexes. We have concluded from the observed spectra that the CO{2} moiety in CO{2}-PO is located on the PO three-membered ring plane opposite to the methyl group. The constituents in CO{2}-PO were more weakly bound than those in CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES. S. Sato, Y. Kawashima, Y. Tatamitani, and E. Hirota, 63rd International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, WF05 (2008).

  17. Ethylene Production and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Conjugation in Thermoinhibited Cicer arietinum L. Seeds.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, M; Delgado, M del M; Sánchez-Calle, I M; Matilla, A J

    1991-09-01

    The effect of supraoptimal temperatures (30 degrees C, 35 degrees C) on germination and ethylene production of Cicer arietinum (chick-pea) seeds was measured. Compared with a 25 degrees C control, these temperatures inhibited both germination and ethylene production. The effect of supraoptimal temperatures could be alleviated by treating the seeds with ethylene. It was concluded that one effect of high temperature on germination was due to its negative effect on ethylene production. This inhibitory effect of high temperature was due to increased conjugation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and to an inhibition of ethylene-forming enzyme activity.

  18. Effects of Kinetin, IAA, and Gibberellin on Ethylene Production, and Their Interactions in Growth of Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Y; Lieberman, M

    1968-12-01

    Kinetin in concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-4)m, stimulated ethylene production in 3 and 4-day old etiolated seedlings of Alaska pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska). Seedlings of other species responded similarly. The response to kinetin depended on the age of the seedlings.Kinetin alone did not influence ethylene production in 6-day old stem sections, but it greatly increased the enhancing effect of IAA.Gibberellic acid had no effect on ethylene production by pea seedlings during the first 6 days of growth. Ethylene and gibberellic acid are antagonistic in their effects on growth of the seedlings; ethylene interfered severely with the action of gibberellic acid but did not completely suppress it.The inhibitors cycloheximide, cupferron, and N-ethylmaleimide, caused considerable inhibition of kinetin-induced ethylene production but were much less effective in the endogenous ethylene-forming system. PMID:16657004

  19. Ethylene glycol ethers induce oxidative stress in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Pomierny, Bartosz; Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Smaga, Irena; Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Stankowicz, Piotr; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2014-11-01

    Ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) are components of many industrial and household products. Their hemolytic and gonadotoxic effects are relatively well known while their potential adverse effects on the central nervous system have not yet been clearly demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 4-week administration of 2-buthoxyethanol (BE), 2-phenoxyethanol (PHE) and 2-ethoxyethanol (EE) on the total antioxidant capacity, activity of some antioxidant enzymes, such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in the rat. These studies showed that BE and PHE decreased the total antioxidant activity, SOD and GPX activity, while increased lipid peroxidation in the frontal cortex. Like in the frontal cortex, also in the hippocampus BE and PHE attenuated the total antioxidant activity, however, lipid peroxidation was increased only in animals which received BE while reduction in GPX activity was present in rats administered PHE. The obtained data indicated that 4-week administration of BE and PHE, but not EE, reduced the total antioxidant activity and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In the frontal cortex, adverse effects of PHE and BE on lipid peroxidation probably depended on reduction in SOD and GPX activity, however, in the hippocampus the changes in the total antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were not connected with reduction of the investigated antioxidant enzyme activity.

  20. Sites of ethylene production in the pollinated and unpollinated senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Nichols, R

    1977-01-01

    Production of endogenous ethylene from the styles, ovary and petals of pollinated and unpollinated flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. was measured. The rate of ethylene production of cut, unpollinated flowers aged in water at 18°C was low until the onset of petal wilting, when a rapid surge of ethylene occurred in all tissues. The flower ethylene production was evolved mostly from the styles and petals. The bases of petals from unpollinated, senescing flowers evolved ethylene faster and sometimes earlier than the upper parts. Treatment of cut flowers with propylene, an ethylene analogue, accelerated wilting of flower petals and promoted endogenous ethylene production in all flower tissues. Pollination of intact flowers also promoted endogenous ethylene production and caused accelerated petal wilting within 2-3 days from pollination. Although the data are consistent with the hypothesis that ethylene forms a link between pollination of the style and petal wilting, in the unpollinated flower the style and petals can evolve a surge of ethylene independently of each other, about the time when the petals irreversibly wilt. The results are discussed in relation to the role of ethylene in flower senescence.

  1. Ethylene oxide sterilization: how hospitals can adapt to the changes.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    Ethylene oxide (EtO) gas sterilizers have been used by hospitals for over 40 years to sterilize surgical equipment and supplies that are heat sensitive or that cannot tolerate excessive moisture. However, in recent decades, EtO has been recognized as a potential mutagenic, reproductive, neurologic, and fire and explosion hazard to workers, and one agency has reportedly voted to classify EtO as carcinogenic to humans. Strict regulations concerning EtO exposure have been imposed by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the use of EtO, along with other toxic pollutants, is also being monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act. In addition, the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as EtO diluents has focused attention on the EtO-CFC mixtures used in many sterilizers because CFCs have been linked to destruction of the ozone layer. Concerns about restrictive regulations related to these issues have prompted many hospitals to examine their use of EtO sterilization and propagated the misinformation that EtO sterilization is being phased out. In this article, we address some commonly asked questions regarding the use and regulation of EtO mixtures, as well as alternative sterilization agents and methods; provide two case studies illustrating how hospitals can evaluate various sterilization options; and summarize our conclusions and recommendations for hospitals facing decisions about sterilization techniques. For related topics, also see our Evaluation Update on endoscope reprocessors and our Hazard Report on improperly connected EtO-CFC cylinders to EtO sterilizers in this issue.

  2. Local Structure and Ion Transport in Glassy Poly(ethylene oxide styrene) Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Chang; Mays, Jimmy; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Winey, Karen I.

    2014-03-01

    Polymer electrolytes have attracted attention for a wide variety of applications in energy production such as lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. The concept of free volume provides important information about ion mobility and chain dynamics in the polymer matrix. Researchers have recently demonstrated that ion transport in glassy polymer can be improved by designing a system with high free volume. We have studied the effect of temperature and humidity on the intermolecular correlations of poly(ethylene oxide styrene-block-styrene) (PEOSt- b-St) block copolymer and poly(ethylene oxide styrene) (PEOSt) homopolymer using in situ multi-angle x-ray scattering across a wide range of scattering angles (q = 0.007-1.5 Å-1) . An increase in backbone-to-backbone distance is observed, indicating an increase in free volume between different polymer main chains. Structural characterization of the polymer segments will be discussed together with conductivity and dielectric results to better understand the ion transport mechanism in the local environment of the polymer system. Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee.

  3. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Joshua J.; Davis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed. PMID:24912153

  4. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Joshua J; Davis, Mark E

    2014-06-10

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed. PMID:24912153

  5. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Joshua J; Davis, Mark E

    2014-06-10

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed.

  6. The lithium tolerance of the Arabidopsis cat2 mutant reveals a cross-talk between oxidative stress and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Bueso, Eduardo; Alejandro, Santiago; Carbonell, Pablo; Perez-Amador, Miguel A; Fayos, Joaquín; Bellés, Jose M; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Serrano, Ramón

    2007-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of a permanent increase in cellular H(2)O(2) on cation homeostasis we have studied a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Arabidopsis CATALASE 2 gene. This mutant (cat2-1) exhibits 20% of wild-type leaf catalase activity and accumulates more H(2)O(2) than the wild type under normal growth conditions. In addition to reduced size, a pale green color and great reduction in secondary roots, the cat2-1 mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to H(2)O(2), NaCl, norspermidine, high light and cold stress. On the other hand, the germination of the cat2-1 mutant is more tolerant to lithium than the wild type. This novel phenotype cannot be explained by changes in lithium transport. Actually, the uptake of lithium (and of other toxic cations such as sodium and norspermidine) is increased in the cat2-1 mutant while K(+) levels were decreased. The lithium tolerance of this mutant seems to result both from insensitivity to the inhibitory ethylene induced by this cation and a reduced capability for ethylene production. Accordingly, induction by ethylene of responsive genes such as PR4 and EBP/ERF72 is decreased in cat2-1. Mutants insensitive to ethylene such as etr1-1 and ein3-3 are lithium tolerant, and inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis with 2-aminoisobutyrate protects against lithium toxicity. Microarray analysis of gene expression indicates that the expression of genes related to cation transport and ethylene synthesis and perception was not altered in the cat2-1 mutant, suggesting that H(2)O(2) modulates these processes at the protein level. These results uncover a cross-talk between oxidative stress, cation homeostasis and ethylene.

  7. Study on thermodynamics and oxidation mechanism of ethylene glycol in the preparation of nanometer nickel powders

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Shengming . E-mail: shmjin@mail.csu.edu.cn; Yuan Liangsheng; Zhou Ying; Qiu Guanzhou; Wan Cuifeng

    2006-11-09

    Nanometer nickel powders have been prepared using the polyol method with NaOH, Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, ethylene glycol (EG), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as raw materials. The thermodynamics of the reaction system was studied, and the E-pH diagram of Ni-EG-H{sub 2}O was plotted. The oxidation products of EG were predicted from the E-pH diagram, and CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} in alkaline solutions was identified as the product through the IR spectrum and CaCO{sub 3} sediment. Field-emission scanning electron micrograph (FE-SEM) showed that spherical nanometer nickel powders were obtained.

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Copolymer Micelles in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Bedrov, Dmitry; Ayyagari, Chakravarthy; Smith, Grant D

    2006-05-01

    We present a multiscale modeling approach for simulation of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution. We rely on systematic elimination of computationally expensive degrees of freedom yet retain implicitly their influence on the remaining degrees freedom in a coarser-grained model. Quantum chemistry (QC) calculations, atomistic explicit solvent (AES) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and coarse-grained implicit solvent (CGIS) simulations have been applied to investigate physical properties of these important self-assembling triblock copolymers. High-level QC calculations have been used to parametrize classical atomistic force fields that implicitly take into account and reproduce the important energetic and structural features due to correlations of electronic degrees of freedom. AES MD simulations utilizing the QC-based force fields have been used to provide structural and conformational properties of polymers in aqueous solution which were subsequently used for parametrization of the CGIS model using the Inverted Boltzmann method. The CGIS simulations were then employed to investigate structural properties of two PEO-PPO-PEO micelles (EO13-PO30-EO13 and EO99-PO65-EO99 also known as Pluronic L64 and F127, respectively) in aqueous solution.

  9. Crystallization behaviour of poly(ethylene oxide) under confinement in the electrospun nanofibers of polystyrene/poly(ethylene oxide) blends.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Pratick; V, Thangapandian; Singh, Sajan; Srivastava, Rajiv; Nandan, Bhanu; Liu, Chien-Liang; Chen, Hsin-Lung

    2016-06-21

    We have studied the confined crystallization behaviour of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in the electrospun nanofibers of the phase-separated blends of polystyrene (PS) and PEO, where PS was present as the major component. The size and shape of PEO domains in the nanofibers were considerably different from those in the cast films, presumably because of the nano-dimensions of the nanofibers and the extensional forces experienced by the polymer solution during electrospinning. The phase-separated morphology in turn influenced the crystallization behaviour of PEO in the blend nanofibers. At a PEO weight fraction of ≥0.3, crystallization occurred through a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism similar to that in cast blend films. However, as the PEO weight fraction in the blend nanofibers was reduced from 0.3 to 0.2, an abrupt transformation of the nucleation mechanism from the heterogeneous to predominantly homogenous type was observed. The change in the nucleation mechanism implied a drastic reduction of the spatial continuity of PEO domains in the nanofibers, which was not encountered in the cast film. The melting temperature and crystallinity of the PEO crystallites developed in the nanofibers were also significantly lower than those in the corresponding cast films. The phenomena observed were reconciled by the morphological observation, which revealed that the phase separation under the radial constraint of the nanofibers led to the formation of small-sized fibrillar PEO domains with limited spatial connectivity. The thermal treatment of the PS/PEO blend nanofibers above the glass transition temperature of PS induced an even stronger confinement effect on PEO crystallization.

  10. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces an ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.

  11. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces anmore » ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.« less

  12. Ethylene promotes germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity by decreasing reactive oxygen species: evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide simulated by sodium nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingchao; Yang, Lei; Paul, Matthew; Zu, Yuangang; Tang, Zhonghua

    2013-12-01

    Both ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in modulating seed germination in adverse environments. However, the mechanisms by which they interact and affect germination have not been explained. In this study, the relationship between ethylene and NO during germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity was analysed. Application of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) largely overcame the inhibition of germination induced by salinity. The effects of ACC and SNP were decreased by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger, or by aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, indicating that ethylene and NO interact during germination under salinity. Further, we demonstrated that ACC increased NO production and that SNP greatly induced the expression of the ACS2 gene involved in ethylene synthesis in Arabidopsis seeds germinating under salinity stress, suggesting that each substance influences the production of the other. Application of exogenous ACC increased germination under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while SNP had a much smaller effect on wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) and no effect on the ethylene insensitive mutant (ein3-1) seeds, respectively. This shows that NO increased germination under salinity indirectly through H2O2 acting via the ethylene pathway. The endogenous concentration of H2O2 was increased by salinity in germinating seeds but was decreased by exogenous ACC, which stimulated germination ultimately. To explain all these results and the regulation of germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity we propose a model involving ethylene, NO and H2O2 interaction.

  13. Ethylene promotes germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity by decreasing reactive oxygen species: evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide simulated by sodium nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingchao; Yang, Lei; Paul, Matthew; Zu, Yuangang; Tang, Zhonghua

    2013-12-01

    Both ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in modulating seed germination in adverse environments. However, the mechanisms by which they interact and affect germination have not been explained. In this study, the relationship between ethylene and NO during germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity was analysed. Application of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) largely overcame the inhibition of germination induced by salinity. The effects of ACC and SNP were decreased by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger, or by aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, indicating that ethylene and NO interact during germination under salinity. Further, we demonstrated that ACC increased NO production and that SNP greatly induced the expression of the ACS2 gene involved in ethylene synthesis in Arabidopsis seeds germinating under salinity stress, suggesting that each substance influences the production of the other. Application of exogenous ACC increased germination under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while SNP had a much smaller effect on wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) and no effect on the ethylene insensitive mutant (ein3-1) seeds, respectively. This shows that NO increased germination under salinity indirectly through H2O2 acting via the ethylene pathway. The endogenous concentration of H2O2 was increased by salinity in germinating seeds but was decreased by exogenous ACC, which stimulated germination ultimately. To explain all these results and the regulation of germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity we propose a model involving ethylene, NO and H2O2 interaction. PMID:24148906

  14. Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene, Ethylene, and Diborane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, Stanley

    1957-01-01

    The net heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction of diborane with a mixture of acetylene and ethylene was found to be 20,440 +/- 150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net-heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,850 +/- 150 Btu per pound.

  15. Miscibility and degradability of poly(lactic acid)poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(ethylene glycol) blends

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, C.L.; Dave, V.; Gross, R.A.; McCarthy, S.P.

    1995-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) [PLA] was melt blended with polyethylene(oxide) [PEG] and poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] in different compositions to form blown films. It was determined that PLA was miscible with PEO in all compositions. Based on Gordon-Taylor equation, it was determined that the interactions between PLA and PEO is stronger than PEG. The addition of low molecular weight PEG improved the elongation and tear strength of the blends. Enzymatic degradation results shows that the weight loss of all the samples was more than 80% of the initial weight in 48 hours.

  16. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-03-24

    The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.

  17. Interactions between fenoprofen sodium and poly (ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Rades, T; Mueller-Goymann, C C

    1998-07-01

    Interactions of the amphiphilic drug fenoprofen sodium (FNa) in solution below and above its critical micelle concentration with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) of different chain length (PEO 400 to PEO 20000) and between a liquid crystalline formulation of fenoprofen (FLC; containing FNa, fenoprofen acid and water) and PEO were investigated, using surface tension measurements, viscometry, cloud point temperature measurements, [1H]NMR, polarised light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Interaction between FNa solutions and PEO: the investigations suggest that an interaction starts below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of FNa. This can be concluded from [1H]NMR experiments (an upfield shift of the PEO proton signal was found at FNa concentrations below the CMC of FNa), surface tension measurements (absence of a critical association concentration) and cloud point temperature determinations. The surfactant does not seem to bind quantitatively on the PEO molecules (a higher FNa concentration was needed to cause the same upfield shift of the PEO proton signal than for more lipophilic surfactants, and no plateau phase in the surface tension reduction isotherm could be determined). Interactions were found to be independent from the chain length of the PEO. Interactions between FLC and PEO/pluronics: partial or complete dissolution of the fenoprofen mesophase (detected by [1H]NMR, polarised light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) occurred after addition of PEO at concentrations between 2 and 10% (w/w), independent from the molecular weight of the PEO. A comparable amount of water added to the liquid crystalline samples does not change the mesophase into a liquid crystalline dispersion or a micellar solution. The liquid crystalline particles in the dispersion formed by the addition of PEO, had a higher transition temperature into an isotropic phase (between 54 degrees C and 57 degrees C), than in liquid

  18. Ethylene oxide: an assessment of the epidemiological evidence on carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Shore, R E; Gardner, M J; Pannett, B

    1993-01-01

    Mortality from cancer among workers exposed to ethylene oxide (EtO) has been studied in 10 distinct cohorts that include about 29,800 workers and 2540 deaths. This paper presents a review and meta-analysis of these studies, primarily for leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, and cancer of the brain and nervous system. The magnitude and consistency of the standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated for the individual and combined studies, as well as trends by intensity or frequency of exposure, by duration of exposure, and by latency (time since first exposure). Exposures to other workplace chemicals were examined as possible confounder variables. Three small studies by Hogstedt initially suggested an association between EtO and leukaemia, but in seven subsequent studies the SMRs for leukaemia have been much lower. For the combined studies the SMR = 1.06 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.73-1.48). There was a slight suggestion of a trend by duration of exposure (p = 0.19) and a suggested increase with longer latency (p = 0.07), but there was no overall trend in risk of leukaemia by intensity or frequency of exposure; nor did a cumulative exposure analysis in the largest study indicate a quantitative association. There was also an indication that in two studies with increased risks the workers had been exposed to other potential carcinogens. For non-Hodgkin's lymphoma there was a suggestive risk overall (SMR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.93-1.90). Breakdowns by exposure intensity or frequency, exposure duration, or latency did not indicate an association, but a positive trend by cumulative exposure (p = 0.05) was seen in the largest study. There was a suggested increase in the overall SMR for stomach cancer (SMR = 1.28, 95% CI 0.98-1.65 (CI 0.73-2.26 when heterogeneity among the risk estimates was taken into account)), but analyses by intensity or duration of exposure or cumulative exposure did not support a causal association for stomach

  19. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard.

  20. Role of Succinonitrile in a Poly(ethylene oxide)/LiTFSI membrane for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverri, Mauricio; Kyu, Thein

    2011-03-01

    In designing novel flexible lithium battery membranes, high conductivity, peel strength and processability are the main targets for a successful product. Crystallinity of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and lithium salts represent an obstacle to accomplish each of these specifications. We present a systematic study of ternary phase diagrams of PEO, bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide (LiTFSI) and succinonitrile (SCN) (i.e., solid plasticizer/co-solvent) mixtures by using DSC and polarized optical microscopy and map out various coexistence regions bound by the liquidus and solidus lines. The eutectic phase diagram of PEO/SCN system was calculated self-consistently using Flory-Huggins theory in conjunction with Landau-type phase field free energy for crystal solidification. Specific interactions such as hydrogen bonding were examined by FTIR. In lieu of PEO, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) were used to completely eliminate all crystals. Further, photopolymerization of PEGDA affords a solid network containing LiTFSI and SCN that shows promising improvements with a conductivity value of 10-4 S/cm at 25°C.

  1. Participation of hot electrons in oxygen adsorption and ethylene oxidation on metals

    SciTech Connect

    Maganyuk, A.P.; Starkovskii, N.I.; Yurchuk, S.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This paper reports the results obtained in the course of generating hot electrons by a device that is easier to fabricate and has more stability to chemically active compounds that a metal-insulator-metal systems: a Shottky-barrier diode having planar contact between a metal and a donor-doped semiconductor. In order to elucidate the potential effect of the promotion of chemical transformation by hot electrons, two specimens of different barrier heights were used: one a silicon-gold contact, the second a gallium arsenide film coated with layers of silver and a InNi alloy (3% Ni). These contacts were used to measure the current-voltage curve, the peak intensities curves which were proportional to the quantities of oxygen, water and carbon dioxide employed, and the peak intensities proportional to the formation rates of ethylene oxidation products.

  2. Platinum Metal-Free Catalysts for Selective Soft Oxidative Methane → Ethylene Coupling. Scope and Mechanistic Observations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Matthias; Marks, Tobin J

    2015-12-01

    Using abundant soft oxidants, a high methane-to-ethylene conversion might be achievable due to the low thermodynamic driving force for over-oxidation. Here we report on the oxidative coupling of methane by gaseous S2 (SOCM). The catalytic properties of Pd/Fe3O4 are compared with those of Fe3O4, and it is found that high ethylene selectivities can be achieved without noble metals; conversion and selectivity on Fe3O4 are stable for at least 48 h at SOCM conditions. SOCM data for 10 oxides are compared, and ethylene selectivities as high as 33% are found; the C2H4/C2H6 ratios of 9-12 observed at the highest S2 conversions are significantly higher than the C2H4/C2H6 ratios usually found in the CH4 coupling with O2. Complementary in-detail analytical studies show that, on Mg, Zr, Sm, W, and La catalysts, which strongly coke during the reaction, lower ethylene selectivities are observed than on Fe, Ti, and Cr catalysts, which only coke to a minor extent. Further catalyst-dependent changes during SOCM in surface area, surface composition, and partial conversion to oxysulfides and sulfides are discussed. Evidence concerning the reaction mechanism is obtained taking into account the selectivity for the different reaction products versus the contact time. CH4 coupling proceeds non-oxidatively with the evolution of H2 on some catalysts, and evidence is presented that C2H4 and C2H2 formation occur via C2H6 and C2H4 dehydrogenation, respectively. PMID:26551955

  3. Permeability and partitioning of ferrocene ethylene oxide and propylene oxide oligomers into electropolymerized films from acetonitrile and polyether solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pyati, R.; Murray, R.W. )

    1994-10-27

    We report the first electrochemically-based measurements of the rates of small polymer permeation into another polymer. The small polymer permeants are ferrocene ethylene oxide oligomers containing 2, 7, and 16 units and a propylene oxide oligomer containing 3 units. Their permeation into ultrathin microelectrode-supported films of the metal complex polymer poly[Ru(vbpy)[sub 3

  4. Inhibition of ethylene production by putrescine alleviates aluminium-induced root inhibition in wheat plants

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Sun, Chengliang; Wang, Jinghong; Ye, Yiquan; Zhou, Weiwei; Lu, Lingli; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of aluminium (Al) toxicity. Although putrescine (Put) has been identified as an important signaling molecule involved in Al tolerance, it is yet unknown how Put mitigates Al-induced root inhibition. Here, the possible mechanism was investigated by using two wheat genotypes differing in Al resistance: Al-tolerant Xi Aimai-1 and Al-sensitive Yangmai-5. Aluminium caused more root inhibition in Yangmai-5 and increased ethylene production at the root apices compared to Xi Aimai-1, whereas the effects were significantly reversed by ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors. The simultaneous exposure of wheat seedlings to Al and ethylene donor, ethephon, or ethylene biosynthesis precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), increased ethylene production and aggravated root inhibition, which was more pronounced in Xi Aimai-1. In contrast, Put treatment decreased ethylene production and alleviated Al-induced root inhibition in both genotypes, and the effects were more conspicuous in Yangmai-5. Furthermore, our results indicated that Al-induced ethylene production was mediated by ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase, and that Put decreased ethylene production by inhibiting ACS. Altogether, these findings indicate that ethylene is involved in Al-induced root inhibition and this process could be alleviated by Put through inhibiting ACS activity. PMID:26744061

  5. Roles of Ethylene Production and Ethylene Receptor Expression in Regulating Apple Fruitlet Abscission1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eccher, Giulia; Begheldo, Maura; Boschetti, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Botton, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) is increasingly being considered an interesting model species for studying early fruit development, during which an extremely relevant phenomenon, fruitlet abscission, may occur as a response to both endogenous and/or exogenous cues. Several studies were carried out shedding light on the main physiological and molecular events leading to the selective release of lateral fruitlets within a corymb, either occurring naturally or as a result of a thinning treatment. Several studies pointed out a clear association between a rise of ethylene biosynthetic levels in the fruitlet and its tendency to abscise. A direct mechanistic link, however, has not yet been established between this gaseous hormone and the generation of the abscission signal within the fruit. In this work, the role of ethylene during the very early stages of abscission induction was investigated in fruitlet populations with different abscission potentials due either to the natural correlative inhibitions determining the so-called physiological fruit drop or to a well-tested thinning treatment performed with the cytokinin benzyladenine. A crucial role was ascribed to the ratio between the ethylene produced by the cortex and the expression of ethylene receptor genes in the seed. This ratio would determine the final probability to abscise. A working model has been proposed consistent with the differential distribution of four receptor transcripts within the seed, which resembles a spatially progressive cell-specific immune-like mechanism evolved by apple to protect the embryo from harmful ethylene. PMID:25888617

  6. Roles of Ethylene Production and Ethylene Receptor Expression in Regulating Apple Fruitlet Abscission.

    PubMed

    Eccher, Giulia; Begheldo, Maura; Boschetti, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Botton, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) is increasingly being considered an interesting model species for studying early fruit development, during which an extremely relevant phenomenon, fruitlet abscission, may occur as a response to both endogenous and/or exogenous cues. Several studies were carried out shedding light on the main physiological and molecular events leading to the selective release of lateral fruitlets within a corymb, either occurring naturally or as a result of a thinning treatment. Several studies pointed out a clear association between a rise of ethylene biosynthetic levels in the fruitlet and its tendency to abscise. A direct mechanistic link, however, has not yet been established between this gaseous hormone and the generation of the abscission signal within the fruit. In this work, the role of ethylene during the very early stages of abscission induction was investigated in fruitlet populations with different abscission potentials due either to the natural correlative inhibitions determining the so-called physiological fruit drop or to a well-tested thinning treatment performed with the cytokinin benzyladenine. A crucial role was ascribed to the ratio between the ethylene produced by the cortex and the expression of ethylene receptor genes in the seed. This ratio would determine the final probability to abscise. A working model has been proposed consistent with the differential distribution of four receptor transcripts within the seed, which resembles a spatially progressive cell-specific immune-like mechanism evolved by apple to protect the embryo from harmful ethylene. PMID:25888617

  7. Roles of Ethylene Production and Ethylene Receptor Expression in Regulating Apple Fruitlet Abscission.

    PubMed

    Eccher, Giulia; Begheldo, Maura; Boschetti, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Botton, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) is increasingly being considered an interesting model species for studying early fruit development, during which an extremely relevant phenomenon, fruitlet abscission, may occur as a response to both endogenous and/or exogenous cues. Several studies were carried out shedding light on the main physiological and molecular events leading to the selective release of lateral fruitlets within a corymb, either occurring naturally or as a result of a thinning treatment. Several studies pointed out a clear association between a rise of ethylene biosynthetic levels in the fruitlet and its tendency to abscise. A direct mechanistic link, however, has not yet been established between this gaseous hormone and the generation of the abscission signal within the fruit. In this work, the role of ethylene during the very early stages of abscission induction was investigated in fruitlet populations with different abscission potentials due either to the natural correlative inhibitions determining the so-called physiological fruit drop or to a well-tested thinning treatment performed with the cytokinin benzyladenine. A crucial role was ascribed to the ratio between the ethylene produced by the cortex and the expression of ethylene receptor genes in the seed. This ratio would determine the final probability to abscise. A working model has been proposed consistent with the differential distribution of four receptor transcripts within the seed, which resembles a spatially progressive cell-specific immune-like mechanism evolved by apple to protect the embryo from harmful ethylene.

  8. Dormancy removal in apple embryos by nitric oxide or cyanide involves modifications in ethylene biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Krasuska, Urszula; Bogatek, Renata

    2010-11-01

    The connection between classical phytohormone-ethylene and two signaling molecules, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), was investigated in dormancy removal and germination "sensu stricto" of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos. Deep dormancy of apple embryos was removed by short-term (3-6 h) pre-treatment with NO or HCN. NO- or HCN-mediated stimulation of germination was associated with enhanced emission of ethylene by the embryos, coupled with transient increase in ROS concentration in embryos. Ethylene vapors stimulated germination of dormant apple embryos and eliminated morphological anomalies characteristic for young seedlings developed from dormant embryos. Inhibitors of ethylene receptors completely impeded beneficial effect of NO and HCN on embryo germination. NO- and HCN-induced ethylene emission by apple embryo was only slightly reduced by inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase activity during first 4 days of germination. Short-term pre-treatment of the embryos with NO and HCN modified activity of both key enzymes of ethylene biosynthetic pathway: ACC synthase and ACC oxidase. Activity of ACC synthase declined during first 4 days of germination, while activity of ACC oxidase increased markedly at that time. Additional experiments point to non-enzymatic conversion of ACC to ethylene in the presence of ROS (H(2)O(2)). The results indicate that NO and HCN may alleviate dormancy of apple embryos "via" transient accumulation of ROS, leading to enhanced ethylene emission which is required to terminate germination "sensu stricto". Therefore, ethylene seems to be a trigger factor in control of apple embryo dormancy removal and germination.

  9. A Nanoarchitecture Based on Silver and Copper Oxide with an Exceptional Response in the Chlorine-Promoted Epoxidation of Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Adrian; Hueso, Jose L; Suarez, Hugo; Mallada, Reyes; Ibarra, Alfonso; Irusta, Silvia; Santamaria, Jesus

    2016-09-01

    The selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene epoxide is highly challenging as a result of competing reaction pathways leading to the deep oxidation of both ethylene and ethylene oxide. Herein we present a novel catalyst based on silver and copper oxide with an excellent response in the selective oxidation pathway towards ethylene epoxide. The catalyst is composed of different silver nanostructures dispersed on a tubular copper oxide matrix. This type of hybrid nanoarchitecture seems to facilitate the accommodation of chlorine promoters, leading to high yields at low reaction temperatures. The stability after the addition of chlorine promoters implies a substantial improvement over the industrial practice: a single pretreatment step at ambient pressure suffices in contrast with the common practice of continuously feeding organochlorinated precursors during the reaction.

  10. A Nanoarchitecture Based on Silver and Copper Oxide with an Exceptional Response in the Chlorine-Promoted Epoxidation of Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Adrian; Hueso, Jose L; Suarez, Hugo; Mallada, Reyes; Ibarra, Alfonso; Irusta, Silvia; Santamaria, Jesus

    2016-09-01

    The selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene epoxide is highly challenging as a result of competing reaction pathways leading to the deep oxidation of both ethylene and ethylene oxide. Herein we present a novel catalyst based on silver and copper oxide with an excellent response in the selective oxidation pathway towards ethylene epoxide. The catalyst is composed of different silver nanostructures dispersed on a tubular copper oxide matrix. This type of hybrid nanoarchitecture seems to facilitate the accommodation of chlorine promoters, leading to high yields at low reaction temperatures. The stability after the addition of chlorine promoters implies a substantial improvement over the industrial practice: a single pretreatment step at ambient pressure suffices in contrast with the common practice of continuously feeding organochlorinated precursors during the reaction. PMID:27404950

  11. Industry-wide hygiene walk-through survey report of Kendall Company, Augusta Facility, Augusta, Georgia. [Ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Steenland, K.; Stayner, L.; Elliott, L.; Ringenburg, V.

    1986-03-06

    A walk-through survey was conducted at Kendall Company, Augusta, Georgia in February, 1984. The purpose of the survey was to determine the feasibility of including the facility in a NIOSH industry wide mortality and industrial hygiene study of ethylene oxide. The company produces medical supplies such as gauze pads, sponges, cotton balls, and trays that ore sterilized with ethylene oxide.

  12. Ethylene production and β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in carnation flowers.

    PubMed

    Manning, K

    1986-05-01

    The relationship between ethylene production and the CN(-)-assimilating enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS; EC 4.4.1.9) was examined in the carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower. In petals from cut flowers aged naturally or treated with ethylene to accelerate senescence the several hundred-fold increase in ethylene production which occurred during irreversible wilting was accompanied by a one- to twofold increase in CAS activity. The basal parts of the petal, which produced the most ethylene, had the highest CAS activity. Studies of flower parts (styles, ovaries, receptacles, petals) showed that the styles had a high level of CAS together with the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) system for converting 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene. The close association between CAS and EFE found in styles could also be observed in detached petals after induction by ACC or ethylene. Treatment of the cut flowers with cycloheximide reduced synthesis of CAS and EFE. The data indicate that CAS and ethylene production are associated, and are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that CN(-) is formed during the conversion of ACC to ethylene.

  13. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants 2. Saturated aliphatics: Acetaldehyde, dioxane, ethylene glycol ethers, propylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-11-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the saturated aliphatic contaminants acetaldehyde, dioxane, ethylene glycol ethers (methyl, ethyl, n-butyl) and propylene oxide. In-situ formation is of major importance for acetaldehyde. In-situ removal involves reaction with OH (all compounds) and, for acetaldehyde, photolysis and reaction with NO{sub 3}. Acetaldehyde, dioxane, and the ethers are rapidly removed (half-lives of less than one day), leading to PAN (acetaldehyde) and to 2-oxodioxane and formaldehyde (dioxane). Reaction products of the glycol ethers include a large number of hydroxyesters, hydroxyacids, and hydroxycarbonyls. Propylene oxide reacts only slowly with OH, with an atmospheric half-life of 3 - 10 days, to yeild formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAN. Uncertainties in the reaction mechanisms for dioxane, the glycol ethers, and propylene oxide are discussed and include C-C vs C-O bond scission in alkoxy radicals as well as alkoxy radical unimolecular decomposition vs reaction with oxygen.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of the interaction of phenol with ethylene oxide in the presence of ion-exchange resin wofatit SBW as catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Boeva, R.; Markov, K.; Kotov, S.

    1980-04-01

    The reaction of ethylene oxide with phenol, generally catalyzed with homogeneous catalyst in the production of detergents, was studied with an ion-exchange resin catalyst, i.e., the hydroxyl form of a microreticular gel containing trimethylammonium active groups. The reaction produced only phenoxyethanol. At sufficient excess of ethylene oxide (at least 2.5:1 mole ratio), the reaction was zero order in ethylene oxide, zero order in phenol, proportional to the catalyst amount, and had an activation energy of 17.6 kcal/mole. Under reaction conditions, a catalytically active phenolate counterion apparently formed at the resin, which was not removed by washing with benzene or ether, but was removed by dilute hydrochloric acid. These results suggested that the mechanism and kinetics were the same as with homogeneous basic nucleophilic catalysts.

  15. Production of volatiles by the red seaweed Gelidium arbuscula (Rhodophyta): emission of ethylene and dimethyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jimenez, Pilar; Brito-Romano, Olegario; Robaina, Rafael R

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different light conditions and exogenous ethylene on the emission of volatile compounds from the alga Gelidium arbuscula Bory de Saint-Vincent were studied. Special emphasis was placed on the possibility that the emission of ethylene and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) are related through the action of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase. The conversion of DMSP to DMS and acrylate, which is catalyzed by DMSP lyase, can indirectly support the synthesis of ethylene through the transformation of acrylate to ethylene. After mimicking the desiccation of G. arbuscula thalli experienced during low tides, the volatile compounds emitted were trapped in the headspace of 2 mL glass vials for 1 h. Two methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the range of organic volatile compounds released was affected by abiotic factors, such as the availability and spectral quality of light, salinity, and exogenous ethylene. Amines and methyl alkyl compounds were produced after exposure to white light and darkness but not after exposure to exogenous ethylene or red light. Volatiles potentially associated with the oxidation of fatty acids, such as alkenes and low-molecular-weight oxygenated compounds, accumu-lated after exposure to exogenous ethylene and red light. Ethylene was produced in all treatments, especially after exposure to exogenous ethylene. Levels of DMS, the most abundant sulfur-compound that was emitted in all of the conditions tested, did not increase after incubation with ethylene. Thus, although DMSP lyase is active in G. arbuscula, it is unlikely to contribute to ethylene synthesis. The generation of ethylene and DMS do not appear to be coordinated in G. arbuscula.

  16. Citric Acid-Modified Fenton's Reaction for the Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Soil Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Yongkoo; Javandel, Iraj

    2008-03-15

    Fenton's reagent, a solution of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron catalyst, is used for an in-situ chemical oxidation of organic contaminants. Sulfuric acid is commonly used to create an acidic condition needed for catalytic oxidation. Fenton's reaction often involves pressure buildup and precipitation of reaction products, which can cause safety hazards and diminish efficiency. We selected citric acid, a food-grade substance, as an acidifying agent to evaluate its efficiencies for organic contaminant removal in Fenton's reaction, and examined the impacts of using citric acid on the unwanted reaction products. A series of batch and column experiments were performed with varying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations to decompose selected chlorinated ethylenes. Either dissolved iron from soil or iron sulfate salt was added to provide the iron catalyst in the batch tests. Batch experiments revealed that both citric and sulfuric acid systems achieved over 90% contaminant removal rates, and the presence of iron catalyst was essential for effective decontamination. Batch tests with citric acid showed no signs of pressure accumulation and solid precipitations, however the results suggested that an excessive usage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} relative to iron catalysts (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < 1/330) would result in lowering the efficiency of contaminant removal by iron chelations in the citric acid system. Column tests confirmed that citric acid could provide suitable acidic conditions to achieve higher than 55% contaminant removal rates.

  17. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  20. Synthesis of Monodispersed Tantalum(V) oxide Nanospheres by an Ethylene Glycol Mediated Route

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) nanospheres have been synthesized by a very simple ethylene glycol mediated route. The two-step process involves the formation of glycolate nanoparticles and their subsequent hydrolysis and calcination to generate the final Ta2O5 nanospheres. The synthes...

  1. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 22, 2006, the draft Evaluation of the Carinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (EPA/635/R-06/003) and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. This draft was reviewed by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB)...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3410 - Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide homopolymer and/or carboxymethylcellulose sodium denture adhesive. 872.3410 Section 872.3410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730 Section 154.1730 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  7. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of ethylene and propylene by butyl nitrite and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Brechot, P.; Chauvin, Y.; Commereuc, D.; Saussine, L. )

    1990-01-01

    In the oxidative carbonylation of ethylene by carbon monoxide and butyl nitrite catalyzed by PdCl{sub 2}(PhCN){sub 2} in the presence of triphenylphosphine, the pentacoordinated tetravalent palladium complex PdCl{sub 2}(COOBu)NO(PPh{sub 3}) has been isolated and has proved to be an intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

  8. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a process for the production of ethylene from coal in commercially significant yields greater than 10% (% carbon converted to product) including the steps of: (a) reacting coal particulates entrained in a flow of gas consisting essentially of methane with the methane gas at a temperature in the approximate range of 850 degrees C to 1000 degrees C and at a partial pressure of approximately 50 psi for a period of time of approximately 1.5 seconds; and (b) recovering ethylene gas produced in the reaction from the product stream consisting of the methane and other reaction products in addition to the ethylene.

  9. Ethylene production associated with petal senescence in carnation flowers is induced irrespective of the gynoecium.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Kazuo; Niki, Tomoko

    2014-11-15

    To clarify whether climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of senescing petals are also induced in the absence of the gynoecium in cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Barbara) flowers, we compared ethylene production and expression of ethylene-biosynthesis genes in detached petals and in petals, which remained on flowers (attached petals). No significant difference in longevity was observed between the attached and detached petals when held in distilled water, and both showed the inward rolling typical of senescing flowers. Treatment with silver thiosulfate complex (STS), an ethylene inhibitor, similarly delayed senescence of attached and detached petals. Climacteric-like increases in ethylene production of petals and gynoecium started on the same day, with similar bursts in attached and detached petals. Transcript levels of DcACS1 and DcACO1 were very low at harvest and increased similarly during senescence in both petal groups. Removal of the gynoecium did not significantly delay wilting of attached petals. In flowers with the gynoecium removed, the petals produced most of the ethylene while production by the other floral organs was very low, suggesting that wound-induced ethylene is not the reason for the ineffectiveness of gynoecium-removal in inhibiting flower senescence. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis is induced in carnation petals irrespective of the gynoecium.

  10. Abundances of ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde in hot molecular cloud cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nummelin, A.; Dickens, J. E.; Bergman, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Irvine, W. M.; Ikeda, M.; Ohishi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We have searched for millimetre-wave line emission from ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) and its structural isomer acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in 11 molecular clouds using SEST. Ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde were detected through multiple lines in the hot cores NGC 6334F, G327.3-0.6, G31.41+0.31, and G34.3+0.2. Acetaldehyde was also detected towards G10.47+0.03, G322.2+0.6, and Orion 3'N, and one ethylene oxide line was tentatively detected in G10.47+0.03. Column densities and rotational excitation temperatures were derived using a procedure which fits the observed line intensifies by finding the minimum chi 2-value. The resulting rotational excitation temperatures of ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde are in the range 16-38 K, indicating that these species are excited in the outer, cooler parts of the hot cores or that the excitation is significantly subthermal. For an assumed source size of 20", the deduced column densities are (0.6-1)x10(14) cm-2 for ethylene oxide and (2-5)x10(14) cm-2 for acetaldehyde. The fractional abundances with respect to H2 are X[c-C2H4O]=(2-6)xl0(-10), and X[CH3CHO]=(0.8-3)x10(-9). The ratio X[CH3CHO]/X[c-C2H4O] varies between 2.6 (NGC 6334F) and 8.5 (G327.3-0.6). We also detected and analysed multiple transitions of CH3OH, CH3OCH3, C2H5OH, and HCOOH. The chemical, and possibly evolutionary, states of NGC 6334F, G327.3-0.6, G31.41+0.31, and G34.3+0.2 seem to be very similar.

  11. Abundances of ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde in hot molecular cloud cores.

    PubMed

    Nummelin, A; Dickens, J E; Bergman, P; Hjalmarson, A; Irvine, W M; Ikeda, M; Ohishi, M

    1998-09-01

    We have searched for millimetre-wave line emission from ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) and its structural isomer acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in 11 molecular clouds using SEST. Ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde were detected through multiple lines in the hot cores NGC 6334F, G327.3-0.6, G31.41+0.31, and G34.3+0.2. Acetaldehyde was also detected towards G10.47+0.03, G322.2+0.6, and Orion 3'N, and one ethylene oxide line was tentatively detected in G10.47+0.03. Column densities and rotational excitation temperatures were derived using a procedure which fits the observed line intensifies by finding the minimum chi 2-value. The resulting rotational excitation temperatures of ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde are in the range 16-38 K, indicating that these species are excited in the outer, cooler parts of the hot cores or that the excitation is significantly subthermal. For an assumed source size of 20", the deduced column densities are (0.6-1)x10(14) cm-2 for ethylene oxide and (2-5)x10(14) cm-2 for acetaldehyde. The fractional abundances with respect to H2 are X[c-C2H4O]=(2-6)xl0(-10), and X[CH3CHO]=(0.8-3)x10(-9). The ratio X[CH3CHO]/X[c-C2H4O] varies between 2.6 (NGC 6334F) and 8.5 (G327.3-0.6). We also detected and analysed multiple transitions of CH3OH, CH3OCH3, C2H5OH, and HCOOH. The chemical, and possibly evolutionary, states of NGC 6334F, G327.3-0.6, G31.41+0.31, and G34.3+0.2 seem to be very similar.

  12. Identification of ethylene oxide in herbs, spices and other dried vegetables imported into Italy.

    PubMed

    Bononi, Monica; Quaglia, Giancarlo; Tateo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse ethylene oxide (EO) in 63 samples of dried vegetable materials for food use derived from import commodities and subjected to quality control for three food-transformation industries. EO residues were quantified through the determination of ethylene chlorohydrin (ECH). About 29% of the samples analysed contained more than 0.3 mg kg(-1) of EO. Thus, this specific analytical control limited to 20% of import aromatic matters needs to be increased. This paper demonstrates the importance of this specific control considering the banned use of microbial decontamination EO treatment in the European Union.

  13. Effect of Lithium on Thigmomorphogenesis in Bryonia dioica Ethylene Production and Sensitivity 1

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Nicole; Desbiez, Marie-Odile; Hofinger, Michel; Gaspar, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Rubbing internodes of Bryonia dioica plants reduced their ethylene production but increased their capacity to convert 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene. These results were explained by the previously shown rubbing-induced decrease of indoleacetic acid, which controls the level of ACC synthase, and by the increase of membrane-associated peroxidases which would participate in the conversion of ACC-ethylene. Pretreatment of the plants with Li had no significant effect on control plants but counteracted the rubbing-induced decrease of ethylene production and diminished the capacity of the internodes to convert ACC to ethylene. Exogenously applied ethylene induced an increase of peroxidase activity similar to that caused by rubbing. Inasmuch as both effects were reduced by Li, it was concluded that Li inhibition of thigmomorphogenetic processes was essentially due to a Li inhibition of the effect of ethylene formed in response to mechanical stimuli. The decreased ethylene production and ACC conversion capacity in the presence of Li were explained by a cellular redistribution of peroxidases. PMID:16663035

  14. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Laticifer Latex Reveals New Insights into Ethylene Stimulation of Natural Rubber Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Wang, Limin; Meng, Xueru; Huang, Qixing; Jin, Xiang; Tong, Zheng

    2015-09-08

    Ethylene is a stimulant to increase natural rubber latex. After ethylene application, both fresh yield and dry matter of latex are substantially improved. Moreover, we found that ethylene improves the generation of small rubber particles. However, most genes involved in rubber biosynthesis are inhibited by exogenous ethylene. Therefore, we conducted a proteomics analysis of ethylene-stimulated rubber latex, and identified 287 abundant proteins as well as 143 ethylene responsive latex proteins (ERLPs) with mass spectrometry from the 2-DE and DIGE gels, respectively. In addition, more than 1,600 proteins, including 404 ERLPs, were identified by iTRAQ. Functional classification of ERLPs revealed that enzymes involved in post-translational modification, carbohydrate metabolism, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity were overrepresented. Some enzymes for rubber particle aggregation were inhibited to prolong latex flow, and thus finally improved latex production. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified 59 differential phosphoproteins; notably, specific isoforms of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein that were phosphorylated mainly at serine residues. This post-translational modification and isoform-specific phosphorylation might be important for ethylene-stimulated latex production. These results not only deepen our understanding of the rubber latex proteome but also provide new insights into the use of ethylene to stimulate rubber latex production.

  15. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Laticifer Latex Reveals New Insights into Ethylene Stimulation of Natural Rubber Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuchu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Wang, Limin; Meng, Xueru; Huang, Qixing; Jin, Xiang; Tong, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is a stimulant to increase natural rubber latex. After ethylene application, both fresh yield and dry matter of latex are substantially improved. Moreover, we found that ethylene improves the generation of small rubber particles. However, most genes involved in rubber biosynthesis are inhibited by exogenous ethylene. Therefore, we conducted a proteomics analysis of ethylene-stimulated rubber latex, and identified 287 abundant proteins as well as 143 ethylene responsive latex proteins (ERLPs) with mass spectrometry from the 2-DE and DIGE gels, respectively. In addition, more than 1,600 proteins, including 404 ERLPs, were identified by iTRAQ. Functional classification of ERLPs revealed that enzymes involved in post-translational modification, carbohydrate metabolism, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity were overrepresented. Some enzymes for rubber particle aggregation were inhibited to prolong latex flow, and thus finally improved latex production. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified 59 differential phosphoproteins; notably, specific isoforms of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein that were phosphorylated mainly at serine residues. This post-translational modification and isoform-specific phosphorylation might be important for ethylene-stimulated latex production. These results not only deepen our understanding of the rubber latex proteome but also provide new insights into the use of ethylene to stimulate rubber latex production. PMID:26348427

  16. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Laticifer Latex Reveals New Insights into Ethylene Stimulation of Natural Rubber Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Wang, Limin; Meng, Xueru; Huang, Qixing; Jin, Xiang; Tong, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is a stimulant to increase natural rubber latex. After ethylene application, both fresh yield and dry matter of latex are substantially improved. Moreover, we found that ethylene improves the generation of small rubber particles. However, most genes involved in rubber biosynthesis are inhibited by exogenous ethylene. Therefore, we conducted a proteomics analysis of ethylene-stimulated rubber latex, and identified 287 abundant proteins as well as 143 ethylene responsive latex proteins (ERLPs) with mass spectrometry from the 2-DE and DIGE gels, respectively. In addition, more than 1,600 proteins, including 404 ERLPs, were identified by iTRAQ. Functional classification of ERLPs revealed that enzymes involved in post-translational modification, carbohydrate metabolism, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity were overrepresented. Some enzymes for rubber particle aggregation were inhibited to prolong latex flow, and thus finally improved latex production. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified 59 differential phosphoproteins; notably, specific isoforms of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein that were phosphorylated mainly at serine residues. This post-translational modification and isoform-specific phosphorylation might be important for ethylene-stimulated latex production. These results not only deepen our understanding of the rubber latex proteome but also provide new insights into the use of ethylene to stimulate rubber latex production. PMID:26348427

  17. Recent progress in alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells are one of the most promising power sources for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a sustainable fuel and the key materials that constitute the fuel cell are relatively inexpensive. This review article summarizes and discusses the past investigations on the development of alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, including the physical and chemical processes through the fuel cell structure, the electrocatalytic oxidation and electrocatalysts of ethylene glycol, the singe-cell performance, and innovative system designs.

  18. In-depth survey report: control technology for ethylene oxide sterilization at Euclid General Hospital, Euclid, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, D.

    1985-06-01

    An indepth survey of control technology for ethylene oxide sterilization was conducted. Industrial hygiene sampling for ethylene-oxide was conducted. Engineering controls consisted of local exhaust ventilation above the sterilizers, at the drain, at the safety relief valve, and around the ethylene-oxide cylinders, general ventilation, and use of a pulse/purge phase at the end of the sterilization cycle. A three-component ethylene-oxide monitoring program was in place, consisting of continuous monitoring with an alarm system, environmental area monitoring performed by an outside contractor, and exposures were below 0.2 part per million. The OSHA time weighted average (TWA) standard for ethylene oxide is 1 ppm. Proper work practices for employees were outlined in a procedure and policy manual. The Central Services Director provided education and training on proper work practices and the hazards of ethylene-oxide exposure. The author concludes that the engineering controls at the facility successfully minimize employee exposure to ethylene oxide.

  19. Method to measure ethylene oxide/propylene oxide surfactants in resist developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Rodica; Oberlander, Joseph E.; Calindas, Maria Fides Y.; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Ranque, Pilarcita L.

    1998-06-01

    Controlling the exact level of surfactants in resist developers is critical. Surfactant concentrations can influence parameters such as photospeed, resolution, and linearity. Too much or too little surfactant can have a significant impact on the performance of the developer. In our laboratory an analytical procedure was developed to quantitate an Ethylene Oxide/Propylene Oxide (EO/PO) surfactant in an aqueous Tetra Alkyl Ammonium Hydroxide developer. The procedure takes advantage of the chemical property of the EO/PO surfactant to complex with aqueous cobalt thiocyanate solution to form a blue cobalt containing dye. The coupled dye is soluble in methylene chloride and visible at lambda 620 nm. The amount of dye formation is directly proportional to the amount of EO/PO surfactant present in the sample, over an established range. The analytical method provides precise and accurate quantitation of the EO/PO surfactant in the resist developers. It is relatively easy to perform and enables the user to qualify a resist developer with respect to its surfactant content. Also, the method developed is sufficiently general and can be applied to other types of nonionic surfactants presented in resist developers.

  20. In vivo dosimetry of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in the cynomolgus monkey.

    PubMed

    Couch, R; Ehrenberg, L; Magnusson, A L; Nilsson, R; de la Rosa, M E; Törnqvist, M

    1996-10-25

    In mammals, including the cynomolgus monkey, a striking difference between the potencies of ethylene oxide (EO)* and propylene oxide (PO) with respect to induction of certain clastogenic effects has previously been observed. In order to clarify to what extent such differences can be ascribed to a difference in detoxification rate, cynomolgus monkeys were administered an equimolar mixture of the two epoxides at two dose levels, and the blood doses were determined by measurement of the degree of alkylation of N-terminal valines in hemoglobin (Hb). For the highest exposure a saturation in the detoxification of PO was evident from a marked increase in adduct level. At the lower exposure, the dose in blood resulting from exposure to PO was about one fourth of that from EO. Although playing a great role, differences in detoxification rate, therefore, cannot fully account for the much lower clastogenic potency of PO, which has been found in earlier studies. Furthermore, the determination of doses in blood gives data on relationship between in vivo dose and exposure dose (accounting for detoxification), with relevance for risk estimation. PMID:8876676

  1. Ethylene Oxide in Blood of Ethylene-Exposed B6C3F1 Mice, Fischer 344 Rats, and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Filser, Johannes Georg; Erbach, Eva; Faller, Thomas; Kreuzer, Paul Erich; Li, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The gaseous olefin ethylene (ET) is metabolized in mammals to the carcinogenic epoxide ethylene oxide (EO). Although ET is the largest volume organic chemical worldwide, the EO burden in ET-exposed humans is still uncertain, and only limited data are available on the EO burden in ET-exposed rodents. Therefore, EO was quantified in blood of mice, rats, or 4 volunteers that were exposed once to constant atmospheric ET concentrations of between 1 and 10 000 ppm (rodents) or 5 and 50 ppm (humans). Both the compounds were determined by gas chromatography. At ET concentrations of between 1 and 10 000 ppm, areas under the concentration-time curves of EO in blood (µmol × h/l) ranged from 0.039 to 3.62 in mice and from 0.086 to 11.6 in rats. At ET concentrations ≤ 30 ppm, EO concentrations in blood were 8.7-fold higher in rats and 3.9-fold higher in mice than that in the volunteer with the highest EO burdens. Based on measured EO concentrations, levels of EO adducts to hemoglobin and lymphocyte DNA were calculated for diverse ET concentrations and compared with published adduct levels. For given ET exposure concentrations, there were good agreements between calculated and measured levels of adducts to hemoglobin in rats and humans and to DNA in rats and mice. Reported hemoglobin adduct levels in mice were higher than calculated ones. Furthermore, information is given on species-specific background adduct levels. In summary, the study provides most relevant data for an improved assessment of the human health risk from exposure to ET. PMID:24068676

  2. Calcium ion dependency of ethylene production in segments of primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Ca2+ on ethylene production in 2-cm long apical segments from primary roots of corn (Zea mays L., B73 x Missouri 17) seedlings. The seedlings were raised under different conditions of Ca2+ availability. Low-Ca and high-Ca seedlings were raised by soaking the grains and watering the seedlings with distilled water or 10 mM CaCl2, respectively. Segments from high-Ca roots produced more than twice as much ethylene as segments from low-Ca roots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA; 1 micromole) enhanced ethylene production in segments from both low-Ca and high-Ca roots but auxin-induced promotion of ethylene production was consistently higher in segments from high-Ca roots. Addition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to root segments from low-Ca seedlings doubled total ethylene production and the rate of production remained fairly constant during a 24 h period of monitoring. In segments from high-Ca seedlings ACC also increased total ethylene production but most of the ethylene was produced within the first 6 h. The data suggest that Ca2+ enhances the conversion of ACC to ethylene. The terminal 2 mm of the root tip were found to be especially important to ethylene biosynthesis by apical segments and, experiments using 45Ca2+ as tracer indicated that the apical 2 mm of the root is the region of strongest Ca2+ accumulation. Other cations such as Mn2+, Mg2+, and K+ could largely substitute for Ca2+. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to recent evidence for gravity-induced Ca2+ redistribution and its relationship to the establishment of asymmetric growth during gravitropic curvature.

  3. An Arabidopsis thaliana copper-sensitive mutant suggests a role of phytosulfokine in ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Kamiya, Takehiro; Yumoto, Hiroko; Sotta, Naoyuki; Katsushi, Yamaguchi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-07-01

    To increase our understanding of the adaptation for copper (Cu) deficiency, Arabidopsis mutants with apparent alterations under Cu deficiency were identified. In this report, a novel mutant, tpst-2, was found to be more sensitive than wild-type (Col-0) plants to Cu deficiency during root elongation. The positional cloning of tpst-2 revealed that this gene encodes a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST). Moreover, the ethylene production of tpst-2 mutant was higher than that of Col-0 under Cu deficiency, and adding the ethylene response inhibitor AgNO3 partially rescued defects in root elongation. Interestingly, peptide hormone phytosulfokine (PSK) treatment also repressed the ethylene production of tpst-2 mutant plants. Our results revealed that TPST suppressed ethylene production through the action of PSK. PMID:25908239

  4. An Arabidopsis thaliana copper-sensitive mutant suggests a role of phytosulfokine in ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Kamiya, Takehiro; Yumoto, Hiroko; Sotta, Naoyuki; Katsushi, Yamaguchi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-07-01

    To increase our understanding of the adaptation for copper (Cu) deficiency, Arabidopsis mutants with apparent alterations under Cu deficiency were identified. In this report, a novel mutant, tpst-2, was found to be more sensitive than wild-type (Col-0) plants to Cu deficiency during root elongation. The positional cloning of tpst-2 revealed that this gene encodes a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST). Moreover, the ethylene production of tpst-2 mutant was higher than that of Col-0 under Cu deficiency, and adding the ethylene response inhibitor AgNO3 partially rescued defects in root elongation. Interestingly, peptide hormone phytosulfokine (PSK) treatment also repressed the ethylene production of tpst-2 mutant plants. Our results revealed that TPST suppressed ethylene production through the action of PSK.

  5. An Arabidopsis thaliana copper-sensitive mutant suggests a role of phytosulfokine in ethylene production

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Kamiya, Takehiro; Yumoto, Hiroko; Sotta, Naoyuki; Katsushi, Yamaguchi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the adaptation for copper (Cu) deficiency, Arabidopsis mutants with apparent alterations under Cu deficiency were identified. In this report, a novel mutant, tpst-2, was found to be more sensitive than wild-type (Col-0) plants to Cu deficiency during root elongation. The positional cloning of tpst-2 revealed that this gene encodes a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST). Moreover, the ethylene production of tpst-2 mutant was higher than that of Col-0 under Cu deficiency, and adding the ethylene response inhibitor AgNO3 partially rescued defects in root elongation. Interestingly, peptide hormone phytosulfokine (PSK) treatment also repressed the ethylene production of tpst-2 mutant plants. Our results revealed that TPST suppressed ethylene production through the action of PSK. PMID:25908239

  6. Calculating excess risk with age-dependent adjustment factors and cumulative doses: ethylene oxide case study.

    PubMed

    Sielken, Robert L; Flores, Ciriaco Valdez

    2009-10-01

    U.S. EPA's Supplemental Guidance in 2005 documented their procedure for incorporating age-dependent adjustment factors (ADAFs) into lifetime excess risk calculations. EPA's first attempt to implement an ADAF when the dose-response model had a cumulative dose metric was for ethylene oxide and that attempt (US EPA, 2006) failed to successfully follow EPA's own guidelines. The failure suggested that the incorporation of ADAFs would increase the lifetime excess risk for ethylene oxide by approximately 66%. However, if the procedure in the guidelines were followed correctly, then the increase would have only been 0.008% or approximately 8,000 fold less. Because cumulative exposure is a common dose metric in dose-response models of epidemiological data, a correct implementation of the guidelines is of widespread importance.

  7. Dimensional stability of a polyvinylsiloxane impression material following ethylene oxide and steam autoclave sterilization.

    PubMed

    Holtan, J R; Olin, P S; Rudney, J D

    1991-04-01

    Polyvinlsiloxane impressions were made from a stainless steel master die machined to stimulate five full veneer crown preparations symmetrically placed in an arch form. Three groups of 10 impressions each were made. Treatment groups were sterilized using an ethylene oxide gas and a conventional steam autoclave. Casts were poured and intrapreparation, height, and diameter measurements were made using a stereomicroscope, a digital electronic caliper, and a 1-inch travel dial indicator. Analysis of dimensional changes for the two groups showed that casts made from impressions sterilized by ethylene oxide are acceptable for use in the construction of fixed or removable prostheses. Casts made from impressions sterilized in a steam autoclave can be used for the fabrication of diagnostic casts and some transitional prostheses, but not for routine construction of crowns or fixed partial dentures.

  8. Carbon isotope fractionation during permanganate oxidation of chlorinated ethylenes (cDCE, TCE, PCE).

    PubMed

    Poulson, Simon R; Naraoka, Hiroshi

    2002-08-01

    Permanganate oxidation of chlorinated ethylenes is an attractive technique to effect remediation of these important groundwater contaminants. Stable carbon isotope fractionation associated with permanganate oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cDCE) has been measured, to study the possibility of applying stable carbon isotope analysis as a technique to assess the efficacy of remediation implemented by permanganate oxidation. Average carbon isotope fractionation factors of alphaTCE = 0.9786, alphaPCE = 0.9830, and alphacDCE = 0.9789 were obtained, although the fractionation factor for PCE may be interpreted to change from a value of 0.9779-0.9871 during the course of the reaction. The fractionation factors for all three compounds are quite similar, in contrast to the variation of fractionation factors vs degree of chlorination observed for other degradative processes, such as microbial dechlorination. This may be due to a common rate-determining step for permanganate oxidation of all three compounds studied. The large fractionation factors and the relative lack of dependence of the fractionation factors upon other environmental factors (e.g. oxidation rate, presence of multiple contaminants, incomplete oxidation, presence of chloride in solution) indicate that monitoring delta13C values of chlorinated ethylenes during oxidation with permanganate may be a sensitive, and potentially quantitative, technique to investigate the extent of degradation.

  9. Regulation of Senescence in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus): Effect of Abscisic Acid and Carbon Dioxide on Ethylene Production.

    PubMed

    Mayak, S; Dilley, D R

    1976-11-01

    Abscisic acid hastened senescence of carnation flowers and this was preceded by stimulation of accelerated ethylene production. Carbon dioxide delayed the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production in flowers regardless of treatment with abscisic acid. Flowers exhibited a low and transient climacteric of ethylene production without wilting while in 4% carbon dioxide and underwent accelerated ethylene production culminating in wilting when removed from carbon dioxide. Hypobaric ventilation, which lowers ethylene to hyponormal levels within tissues, extended flower longevity and largely negated enhancement of senescence by abscisic acid. Supplementing hypobarically ventilated flowers with ethylene hastened senescence irrespective of abscisic acid treatment. Collectively, the data indicate that abscisic acid hastens senescence of carnations largely as a result of advancing the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production.

  10. Study of the desorption of ethylene oxide fixed on various materials during sterilization by a new procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacomme, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Lemoan, G.

    1977-01-01

    A continuous sterilization process using ethylene oxide was studied in comparison with a classical method in order to evaluate gas retention as a function of time and temperature on polyethylene, PVC, and rubber materials.

  11. Ethylene Glycol Assisted Synthesis of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Nanorods Using Improved Spray Pyrolysis Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanage, Devinda; Mudiyanselage Navaratne Bandara, Herath; Jayaweera, Viraj; Murakami, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide nanorod transparent thin films were fabricated with SnCl4·5H2O, NH4F, and ethylene glycol (EG) using an improved spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The fabricated nanorods showed a low resistance of 15.3 Ω/sq and a good transparency of 70.8%. The nanorods have a higher surface area than the conventionally used thin films.

  12. Polycation-sodium lauryl ether sulfate-type surfactant complexes: influence of ethylene oxide length.

    PubMed

    Vleugels, Leo F W; Pollet, Jennifer; Tuinier, Remco

    2015-05-21

    Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes (PESC) are a class of materials which form spontaneously by self-assembly driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. PESC containing sodium lauryl ether sulfates (SLES) have found wide application in hair care products like shampoo. Typically, SLES with only one or two ethylene oxide (EO) groups are used for this application. We have studied the influence of the size of the EO block (ranging from 0 to 30 EO groups) on complexation with two model polycations: linear polyDADMAC and branched PEI. PESC size and electrostatic properties were determined during stepwise titration of buffered polycation solutions. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of PESC was determined by surface tension measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy. For polyDADMAC, there is no influence of the size of the EO block on the complexation behavior; the stiff polycation governs the structure formation. For PEI, it was seen that the EO block size does affect the structure of the complexes. The CAC value of the investigated complexes turns out to be rather independent of the EO block size; however, the CMC/CAC ratio decreases with increasing size of the EO block. This latter observation explains why the Lochhead-Goddard effect is most effective for small EO blocks. PMID:25940957

  13. Biological monitoring to assess dermal exposure to ethylene oxide vapours during an incidental release.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, Peter J; van Puijvelde, Mathieu J P; Urbanus, Jan H

    2014-12-15

    During a short incident in an ethylene oxide (EO) producing plant, EO vapour was released under high pressure. Operators wore full respiratory protection during repairs to fix the leak. To check the adequacy of the applied personal protective equipment and to address concerns about potential dermal exposure and subsequent uptake of EO, biological monitoring was applied by determination of the haemoglobin adducts of EO in blood. Based on the results of the biomonitoring, a risk assessment of dermal exposure to EO vapour was made. Calculations to estimate dermal exposure, based on two recently published models and using the relevant physical-chemical properties of EO, indicate that the dermal contribution to total exposure is expected to be negligible under normal operating circumstances. However, the models indicate that under accidental circumstances of product spillage, when high air concentrations can build up quickly and where incident response is conducted under respiratory protection with independently supplied air, the systemic exposure resulting from dermal absorption may reach levels of concern. The model estimates were compared to the actual biomonitoring data in the operators involved in the accidental release of EO vapour. The results suggest that when incidental exposures to high EO vapour concentrations (several thousand ppm) occur during periods in excess of 20-30 min, additional risk management measures, such as wearing chemical impervious suits, should be considered to control dermal uptake of EO.

  14. Detection of interstellar ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O).

    PubMed

    Dickens, J E; Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Ikeda, M; Ishikawa, S; Nummelin, A; Hjalmarson, A

    1997-11-10

    We report the identification of 10 transitions that support the detection of the small cyclic molecule ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) in Sgr B2N. Although one of these transitions is severely blended, so that an accurate intensity and line width could not be determined, and two other lines are only marginally detected, we have done Gaussian fits to the remaining seven lines and have performed a rotation diagram analysis. Our results indicate a rotation temperature T(rot) = 18 K and a molecular column density N(c-C2H4O) = 3.3 x 10(14) cm-2, corresponding to a fractional abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of order 6 x 10(-11). This is a factor of more than 200 higher than the abundance for this molecule suggested by the "new standard" chemistry model of Lee, Bettens, & Herbst. This result suggests that grain chemistry might play an effective role in the production of c-C2H4O. No transitions of this molecule were detected in either Sgr B2M or Sgr B2NW.

  15. Nano-structured Platinum-based Catalysts for the Complete Oxidation of Ethylene Glycol and Glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falase, Akinbayowa

    Direct alcohol fuel cells are a viable alternative to the traditional hydrogen PEM fuel cell. Fuel versatility, integration with existing distribution networks, and increased safety when handling these fuels increases their appeal for portable power applications. In order to maximize their utility, the liquid fuel must be fully oxidized to CO2 so as to harvest the full amount of energy. Methanol and ethanol are widely researched as potential fuels to power these devices, but methanol is a toxic substance, and ethanol has a much lower energy density than other liquids such as gasoline or glucose. Oxidation of complex fuels is difficult to realize, due to difficulty in breaking carbon-carbon bonding and poisoning of the catalysts by oxidative byproducts. In order to achieve the highest efficiency, an anode needs to be engineered in such a way as to maximize activity while minimizing poisoning effects of reaction byproducts. We have engineered an anode that uses platinum-based catalysts that is capable of completely oxidizing ethylene glycol and glycerol in neutral and alkaline media with little evidence of CO poisoning. We have constructed a hybrid anode consisting of a nano-structured PtRu electrocatayst with an NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase for improved oxidation of complex molecules. A nano-structured PtRu catalyst was used to oxidize ethylene glycol and glycerol in neutral media. In situ infrared spectroscopy was used to verify complete oxidation via CO2 generation. There was no evidence of poisoning by CO species. A pH study was performed to determine the effect of pH on oxidative current. The peak currents did not trend at 60 mV/pH unit as would be expected from the Nernst equation, suggesting that adsorption of fuel to the surface of the electrode is not an electron-transfer step. We synthesized nano-structured PtRu, PtSn, and PtRuSn catalysts for oxidation of ethylene glycol and glycerol in alkaline media. The PtRu electrocatalyst the highest oxidative

  16. [Calculation of flammability limits of gas phases with ethylene oxide in sterilisers].

    PubMed

    Askar, Enis; Schröder, Volkmar; Acikalin, Aydan; Steinbach, Jörg

    2008-12-01

    A calculation method for flammability limits of gas phases with ethylene oxide in sterilisers was developed. Using the Software GasEq and the newly developed Makro "SterEx" for MS-Excel, flammability limits of mixtures with ethylene oxide, air and inert gases at temperatures between 20 degrees C and 100 degrees C and pressures between 0.4 bar and 1.0 bar can be calculated. This method can be used to easily determine safe operating conditions. The used semi-empirical model is based upon the assumption of constant flame temperature profiles at the flammability limits subject to the EO-concentration for different mixtures. To collect model parameters and to validate the model, several experiments with mixtures of ethylene oxide, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapour and air were carried out to determine flammability limits. To simulate the structural conditions of sterilisers, the experiments were conducted in accordance to DIN EN 1839-B in a closed autoclave with temperatures and pressures relevant for sterilisation processes. The calculation of flammability limits of process gas mixtures with "SterEx" provides good agreement with flammability limits that were determined in experiments. PMID:19037868

  17. Ethylene oxide control technology development for hospital sterilizers. Final report for March 1986-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Meiners, A.F.

    1988-05-01

    The report discusses the development of ethylene oxide (EO) control technology for hospital sterilizers. Hospitals sterilize heat-sensitive items in gas sterilizers that use a mixture of EO (12 wt %) and a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) (88 wt %). The active sterilizing agent is EO. The CFC is added as a flameproofing diluent. Two potential sterilizer emission-control systems were tested: catalytic oxidation and acid hydrolysis. In catalytic oxidation, relatively dilute mixtures of air and EO (12/88) are passed through a catalyst bed at 149-177 C. In acid hydrolysis, EO is hydrolyzed to ethylene glycol using H2SO4 (the CFC is unaffected). A full-scale system was tested under laboratory conditions, simulating a system that could be used for hospital sterilizers. The tests showed that the EO destruction efficiency was 99.9-99.999% of the EO reaching the device. However, 45-60% of the EO was absorbed by the ethylene glycol used in the closed-circuit liquid-ring vacuum pump. Each system has significant advantages and limitations.

  18. Nitric Oxide, Ethylene, and Auxin Cross Talk Mediates Greening and Plastid Development in Deetiolating Tomato Seedlings1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Nielda K.G.; Bianchetti, Ricardo E.; Oliveira, Paulo M.R.; Demarco, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The transition from etiolated to green seedlings involves the conversion of etioplasts into mature chloroplasts via a multifaceted, light-driven process comprising multiple, tightly coordinated signaling networks. Here, we demonstrate that light-induced greening and chloroplast differentiation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings are mediated by an intricate cross talk among phytochromes, nitric oxide (NO), ethylene, and auxins. Genetic and pharmacological evidence indicated that either endogenously produced or exogenously applied NO promotes seedling greening by repressing ethylene biosynthesis and inducing auxin accumulation in tomato cotyledons. Analysis performed in hormonal tomato mutants also demonstrated that NO production itself is negatively and positively regulated by ethylene and auxins, respectively. Representing a major biosynthetic source of NO in tomato cotyledons, nitrate reductase was shown to be under strict control of both phytochrome and hormonal signals. A close NO-phytochrome interaction was revealed by the almost complete recovery of the etiolated phenotype of red light-grown seedlings of the tomato phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant upon NO fumigation. In this mutant, NO supplementation induced cotyledon greening, chloroplast differentiation, and hormonal and gene expression alterations similar to those detected in light-exposed wild-type seedlings. NO negatively impacted the transcript accumulation of genes encoding phytochromes, photomorphogenesis-repressor factors, and plastid division proteins, revealing that this free radical can mimic transcriptional changes typically triggered by phytochrome-dependent light perception. Therefore, our data indicate that negative and positive regulatory feedback loops orchestrate ethylene-NO and auxin-NO interactions, respectively, during the conversion of colorless etiolated seedlings into green, photosynthetically competent young plants. PMID:26829981

  19. Iron oxide/cassava starch-supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts for in situ ethylene polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chancharoenrith, Sittikorn; Kamonsatikul, Choavarit; Namkajorn, Montree; Kiatisevi, Supavadee; Somsook, Ekasith

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as supporters for in situ polymerization to produce polymer nanocomposites with well-dispersed fillers in polymer matrix. Iron oxide could be sustained as colloidal solutions by cassava starch to produce a good dispersion of iron oxide in the matrix. New supports based on iron oxide/cassava starch or cassava starch for Ziegler-Natta catalysts were utilized as heterogeneous supporters for partially hydrolyzed triethylaluminum. Then, TiCl4 was immobilized on the supports as catalysts for polymerization of ethylene. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were obtained by the synthesized catalysts. A good dispersion of iron oxide/cassava starch particles was observed in the synthesized polymer matrix promoting to good mechanical properties of HDPE. PMID:25498641

  20. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1986-01-01

    A process for the production of economically significant amounts of ethyl and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene, from coal is disclosed wherein coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500.degree. C. to 1100.degree. C. at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  1. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the de novo production of ethylene glycol from glucose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Huang, Jinhai; Wu, Yao; Liu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Development of sustainable biological process for the production of bulk chemicals from renewable feedstock is an important goal of white biotechnology. Ethylene glycol (EG) is a large-volume commodity chemical with an annual production of over 20 million tons, and it is currently produced exclusively by petrochemical route. Herein, we report a novel biosynthetic route to produce EG from glucose by the extension of serine synthesis pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The EG synthesis is achieved by the reduction of glycoaldehyde derived from serine. The transformation of serine to glycoaldehyde is catalyzed either by the sequential enzymatic deamination and decarboxylation or by the enzymatic decarboxylation and oxidation. We screened the corresponding enzymes and optimized the production strain by combinatorial optimization and metabolic engineering. The best engineered C. glutamicum strain is able to accumulate 3.5 g/L of EG with the yield of 0.25 mol/mol glucose in batch cultivation. This study lays the basis for developing an efficient biological process for EG production.

  2. Monitoring human exposure to ethylene oxide by the determination of hemoglobin adducts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, P.B.; Bailey, E.; Gorf, S.M.; Toernqvist, M.O.; Osterman-Golkar, S.; Kautiainen, A.; Lewis-Enright, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Globin samples from ethylene oxide-exposed workers and non-exposed referrents were analyzed by two methods: (i) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of Nt-(2-hydroxyethyl)histidine as its methyl ester heptafluorobutyryl derivative, after hydrolysis of the protein and isolation of the alkylated amino acid by ion exchange chromatography. The internal standard, Nt-(2-hydroxy-d4-ethyl)histidine, was added to the protein before hydrolysis. (ii) Determination of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine after derivatization of the protein by a modified Edman procedure, extraction and g.c.-m.s. determination of alkylated N-terminal valine in the form of its pentafluorophenylthiohydantoin derivative. The internal standard used was in this case a globin with a known content of hydroxy-d4-ethylated amino acids. The two methods gave consistent results, especially at high levels of alkylated products. The average content of hydroxyethylhistidine was 0.6 nmol/g higher than the content of hydroxyethylvaline. Higher levels of background alkylation (of unknown origin) were recorded with the histidine method as compared with the valine method, suggesting that the latter assay should show greater sensitivity for low level ethylene oxide exposure monitoring.

  3. Mechanical Characterization of Hybrid Vesicles Based on Linear Poly(Dimethylsiloxane-b-Ethylene Oxide) and Poly(Butadiene-b-Ethylene Oxide) Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Gaspard, Jeffery; Casey, Liam M.; Rozin, Matt; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J.; Silas, James A.; Hahn, Mariah S.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide) (PDMS-PEO) and poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (PBd-PEO) are two block copolymers which separately form vesicles with disparate membrane permeabilities and fluidities. Thus, hybrid vesicles formed from both PDMS-PEO and PBd-PEO may ultimately allow for systematic, application-specific tuning of vesicle membrane fluidity and permeability. However, given the relatively low strength previously noted for comb-type PDMS-PEO vesicles, the mechanical robustness of the resulting hybrid vesicles must first be confirmed. Toward this end, we have characterized the mechanical behavior of vesicles formed from mixtures of linear PDMS-PEO and linear PBd-PEO using micropipette aspiration. Tension versus strain plots of pure PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles revealed a non-linear response in the high tension regime, in contrast to the approximately linear response of pure PBd33-PEO20 vesicles. Remarkably, the area expansion modulus, critical tension, and cohesive energy density of PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles were each significantly greater than for PBd33-PEO20 vesicles, although critical strain was not significantly different between these vesicle types. PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles generally displayed graded responses in between that of the pure component vesicles. Thus, the PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles retained or exceeded the strength and toughness characteristic of pure PBd-PEO vesicles, indicating that future assessment of the membrane permeability and fluidity of these hybrid vesicles may be warranted. PMID:26999148

  4. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1982-02-16

    A process is claimed for the production of substantial amounts of ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene from coal. Coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds, and preferably at a temperature of approximately 850/sup 0/C, and a partial pressure of 50 psig for a period of approximately 2 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  5. Overcoming substrate limitations for improved production of ethylene in E. coli

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lynch, Sean; Eckert, Carrie; Yu, Jianping; Gill, Ryan; Maness, Pin -Ching

    2016-01-04

    Ethylene is an important industrial compound for the production of a wide variety of plastics and chemicals. At present, ethylene production involves steam cracking of a fossil-based feedstock, representing the highest CO2-emitting process in the chemical industry. Biological ethylene production can be achieved via expression of a single protein, the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE), found in some bacteria and fungi; it has the potential to provide a sustainable alternative to steam cracking, provided that significant increases in productivity can be achieved. A key barrier is determining factors that influence the availability of substrates for the EFE reaction in potential microbial hosts.more » In the presence of O2, EFE catalyzes ethylene formation from the substrates α-ketoglutarate (AKG) and arginine. The concentrations of AKG, a key TCA cycle intermediate, and arginine are tightly controlled by an intricate regulatory system that coordinates carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Thus, reliably predicting which genetic changes will ultimately lead to increased AKG and arginine availability is challenging.« less

  6. Organic chemistry. A rhodium catalyst for single-step styrene production from benzene and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Benjamin A; Webster-Gardiner, Michael S; Cundari, Thomas R; Gunnoe, T Brent

    2015-04-24

    Rising global demand for fossil resources has prompted a renewed interest in catalyst technologies that increase the efficiency of conversion of hydrocarbons from petroleum and natural gas to higher-value materials. Styrene is currently produced from benzene and ethylene through the intermediacy of ethylbenzene, which must be dehydrogenated in a separate step. The direct oxidative conversion of benzene and ethylene to styrene could provide a more efficient route, but achieving high selectivity and yield for this reaction has been challenging. Here, we report that the Rh catalyst ((Fl)DAB)Rh(TFA)(η(2)-C2H4) [(Fl)DAB is N,N'-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA is trifluoroacetate] converts benzene, ethylene, and Cu(II) acetate to styrene, Cu(I) acetate, and acetic acid with 100% selectivity and yields ≥95%. Turnover numbers >800 have been demonstrated, with catalyst stability up to 96 hours.

  7. Organic chemistry. A rhodium catalyst for single-step styrene production from benzene and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Benjamin A; Webster-Gardiner, Michael S; Cundari, Thomas R; Gunnoe, T Brent

    2015-04-24

    Rising global demand for fossil resources has prompted a renewed interest in catalyst technologies that increase the efficiency of conversion of hydrocarbons from petroleum and natural gas to higher-value materials. Styrene is currently produced from benzene and ethylene through the intermediacy of ethylbenzene, which must be dehydrogenated in a separate step. The direct oxidative conversion of benzene and ethylene to styrene could provide a more efficient route, but achieving high selectivity and yield for this reaction has been challenging. Here, we report that the Rh catalyst ((Fl)DAB)Rh(TFA)(η(2)-C2H4) [(Fl)DAB is N,N'-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA is trifluoroacetate] converts benzene, ethylene, and Cu(II) acetate to styrene, Cu(I) acetate, and acetic acid with 100% selectivity and yields ≥95%. Turnover numbers >800 have been demonstrated, with catalyst stability up to 96 hours. PMID:25908817

  8. Pseudosolid nuclear magnetic resonance approach to poly(ethylene-oxide) chain dynamics in the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermo, Armel; Addad, Jean-Pierre Cohen; Bytchenkoff, Dimitri

    2000-09-01

    Residual spin-spin interactions of protons attached to highly entangled chains in molten polymers give rise to a time reversal effect detected from solidlike spin-echoes formed from the transverse magnetization. The quantitative analysis of such pseudosolid spin-echoes, observed on molten poly(ethylene-oxide), reveals that the transverse relaxation curve is the product of two contributions: MxR(t), mainly sensitive to the existence of a temporary network and ΦR(t) arising from fast anisotropic segmental motions which give rise to residual spin-spin interactions. It is shown that the analysis provides a suitable method for distinguishing the two components from each other. The molecular weight was varied over the range 12-450 K. The description of MxR(t) is based on the assumption that there exists two stochastically independent effects. In accordance with a previous study [J. P. Cohen Addad and A. Guillermo, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7131 (1999)], the first process is interpreted in terms of exponential relaxation modes resulting from the partition of one chain into Gaussian submolecules. In addition to the effect of long-range fluctuations on the magnetization, an orientational memory effect is introduced along the chain. The proposed relaxation function accounts for the very specific shapes of both the experimental curves and of the ln(MxR(t))/t plots; the minimum number of parameters required to describe such complex curves is 4. The analysis provides a coherent set of numerical values: the mean square spin-spin interaction and the correlation time τs, assigned to one submolecule are equal to 5×105(rad s-1)2 and 0.002 s, respectively. Proton relaxation rates of end submolecules (≈70 s-1) and of short free chains (12 K) in the melt (≈20 s-1) have about the same order of magnitude. 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Comparison of methanol and ethylene glycol oxidation by alloy and Core-Shell platinum based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, D.; Burstein, L.; Rosenberg, Yu.; Peled, E.

    2011-10-01

    Two Core-Shell, RuCore-PtShell and IrNiCore-PtRuShell, XC72-supported catalyst were synthesized in a two-step deposition process with NaBH4 as reducing agent. The structure and composition of the Core-Shell catalysts were determined by EDS, XPS and XRD. Electrochemical characterization was performed with the use of cyclic voltammetry. Methanol and ethylene glycol oxidation activities of the Core-Shell catalysts (in terms of surface and mass activities) were studied at 80 °C and compared to those of a commercial Pt-Ru alloy catalyst. The surface activity of the alloy based catalyst, in the case of methanol oxidation, was found to be superior as a result of optimized surface Pt:Ru composition. However, the mass activity of the PtRu/IrNi/XC72 was higher than that of the alloy based catalyst by ∼50%. Regarding ethylene glycol oxidation, while the surface activity of the alloy based catalyst was slightly higher than that of the Pt/Ru/XC72 catalyst, the latter showed ∼66% higher activities in terms of A g-1 of Pt. These results show the potential of Core-Shell catalysts for reducing the cost of catalysts for DMFC and DEGFC.

  10. [The effect of physiologically active compounds on the production of ethylene and the activity of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein in fruits].

    PubMed

    Bulantseva, E A; Protsenko, M A; Toropkina, A S; Korableva, N P

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of apple and banana fruits with 2-CEFA and ethacyde induced the production of ethylene and accelerated the ripening and accumulation of ACC in apple fruits. Inhibitors AOA, AVG, and CoCl2 acted at the different steps of ethylene biosynthesis, inhibited the physiological aging process and increased storage longevity. Treatment with astaxantine and BOA delayed the pick of ethylene production by fruits. The content of PGIP was correlated with intensity of ethylene production. The infection of fruits with phytopathogenic microorganisms lowered as the result of the inhibition of pathogen PG. The dynamics of PGIP activity in fruits suggests its important role in the processes of ripening.

  11. [The effect of physiologically active compounds on the production of ethylene and the activity of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein in fruits].

    PubMed

    Bulantseva, E A; Protsenko, M A; Toropkina, A S; Korableva, N P

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of apple and banana fruits with 2-CEFA and ethacyde induced the production of ethylene and accelerated the ripening and accumulation of ACC in apple fruits. Inhibitors AOA, AVG, and CoCl2 acted at the different steps of ethylene biosynthesis, inhibited the physiological aging process and increased storage longevity. Treatment with astaxantine and BOA delayed the pick of ethylene production by fruits. The content of PGIP was correlated with intensity of ethylene production. The infection of fruits with phytopathogenic microorganisms lowered as the result of the inhibition of pathogen PG. The dynamics of PGIP activity in fruits suggests its important role in the processes of ripening. PMID:22808745

  12. Poly(isophthalic acid)(ethylene oxide) as a Macromolecular Modulator for Metal-Organic Polyhedra.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Hao; Wang, Le; Trueblood, Jonathan V; Grassian, Vicki H; Cohen, Seth M

    2016-08-01

    A new strategy was developed by using a polymer ligand, poly(isophthalic acid)(ethylene oxide), to modulate the growth of metal-organic polyhedra (MOP) crystals. This macromolecular modulator can effectively control the crystal habit of several different Cu24L24 (L = isophthalic acid derivatives) MOPs. The polymer also directed the formation of MOP structures under reaction conditions that only produce metal-organic frameworks in the absence of modulator. Moreover, the polymer also enabled the deposition of MOP crystals on glass surfaces. This macromolecular modulator strategy provides an innovative approach to control the morphology and assembly of MOP particles. PMID:27400759

  13. Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies ofpoly(ethylene oxide) electrolytes containing fumed silicananoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Jiangbing; Kerr, John B.; Duan, Robert G.; Han, Yongbong

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, the rheology and crystallization of composite Poly(Ethylene Oxide) (PEO) electrolytes were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis, DSC and polarized light microscopy. The effects of fumed silica nanoparticles on the conductivities of the polymer electrolytes at temperatures above and below their melting point were measured and related to their rheology and crystallization behavior, respectively. The electrolyte/electrode interfacial properties and cycling performances of the composite polymer electrolytes in Li/Li cells are also discussed. The measured electrochemical properties were found to depend heavily on the operational environments and sample processing history.

  14. Viscosity of copper oxide nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol and water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Namburu, Praveen K.; Kulkarni, Devdatta P.; Das, Debendra K.; Misra, Debasmita

    2007-11-15

    Nanofluids are new kinds of fluids engineered by dispersing nanoparticles in base fluids. This paper presents an experimental investigation of rheological properties of copper oxide nanoparticles suspended in 60:40 (by weight) ethylene glycol and water mixture. Nanofluids of particle volume percentage ranging from 0% to 6.12% were tested. The experiments were carried over temperatures ranging from -35 C to 50 C to demonstrate their applicability in cold regions. For the particle volume concentrations tested, nanofluids exhibited Newtonian behavior. An experimental correlation was developed based on the data, which relates viscosity with particle volume percent and the nanofluid temperature. (author)

  15. Formation of Copper Catalysts for CO2 Reduction with High Ethylene/Methane Product Ratio Investigated with In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eilert, André; Roberts, F Sloan; Friebel, Daniel; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-04-21

    Nanostructured copper cathodes are among the most efficient and selective catalysts to date for making multicarbon products from the electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR). We report an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the formation of a copper nanocube CO2RR catalyst with high activity that highly favors ethylene over methane production. The results show that the precursor for the copper nanocube formation is copper(I)-oxide, not copper(I)-chloride as previously assumed. A second route to an electrochemically similar material via a copper(II)-carbonate/hydroxide is also reported. This study highlights the importance of using oxidized copper precursors for constructing selective CO2 reduction catalysts and shows the precursor oxidation state does not affect the electrocatalyst selectivity toward ethylene formation. PMID:27045045

  16. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-292-1811, Clark County Hospital, Jeffersonville, Indiana. [Ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Elliott, L.; Mortimer, V.

    1987-07-01

    A request was received from Clark County Hospital located in Jeffersonville, Indiana to evaluate possible employee exposures to hazardous substances while working in the central-supply (CS) area. Symptoms expressed by workers included headaches, dizziness, mucous membrane irritation, vomiting, diarrhea, nose bleeds, fatigue, nervous problems, and respiratory difficulties. Workers had reported smelling a sweet odor at times. Air sampling yielded time-weighted average personal-exposure concentrations of 0.23 to 0.56 parts per million (ppm) for ethylene oxide with short-term exposures of 77 ppm in the cart-storage area. The OSHA standard was 1 ppm, and the NIOSH recommended criterion was 0.1 ppm of ethylene oxide. Hydrochloric acid concentrations in area air samples were less than 1.0 ppm; for chlorine gas, less than 0.2 ppm; for carbon monoxide, less than 5.0 ppm; and up to 700 ppm for carbon dioxide. The lack of a dedicated ethylene oxide exhaust and the existence of an overloaded exhaust system were noted. The authors conclude that a health hazard to workers from exposure to ethylene oxide existed. They recommend specific measures to reduce exposures to ethylene oxide, including design and installation of a proper ventilation system.

  17. Thigmomorphogenesis: the relationship of mechanical perturbation to elicitor-like activity and ethylene production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    An extracellular solution obtained from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Resistant Cherokee Wax) stems induced phytoalexin-like substance and ethylene production in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Wayne] cotyledon bioassay. The elicitor-like activity for phytoalexin formation and ethylene production was increased by mechanical perturbation of bean stems. Moreover, the application of extracted or known elicitors to bean plants mimicked the effect of mechanical perturbation (i.e., inhibition of stem elongation and enhancement of radial growth). The effects of extract when applied exogenously, on elicitor-like activity in the bioassay as well as stem thickening were decreased by aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis. These results suggest that elicitor-like substances which are formed in response to mechanical perturbation contribute to the thigmomorphogenesis.

  18. Carbon emissions from U.S. ethylene production under climate change policies.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Matthias; Amato, Anthony D; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur

    2002-01-15

    This paper presents the results from a dynamic computer model of U.S. ethylene production, designed to explore implications of alternative climate change policies for the industry's energy use and carbon emissions profiles. The model applies to the aggregate ethylene industry but distinguishes its main cracker types, fuels used as feedstocks and for process energy, as well as the industry's capital vintage structure and vintage-specific efficiencies. Results indicate that policies which increase the cost of carbon of process energy-such as carbon taxes or carbon permit systems-are relatively blunt instruments for cutting carbon emissions from ethylene production. In contrast, policies directly affecting the relative efficiencies of new to old capital-such as R&D stimuli or accelerated depreciation schedules-may be more effective in leveraging the industry's potential for carbon emissions reductions.

  19. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Conclusions Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and

  20. Understanding Variability To Reduce the Energy and GHG Footprints of U.S. Ethylene Production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Graziano, Diane J; Riddle, Matthew; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-12-15

    Recent growth in U.S. ethylene production due to the shale gas boom is affecting the U.S. chemical industry's energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions footprints. To evaluate these effects, a systematic, first-principles model of the cradle-to-gate ethylene production system was developed and applied. The variances associated with estimating the energy consumption and GHG emission intensities of U.S. ethylene production, both from conventional natural gas and from shale gas, are explicitly analyzed. A sensitivity analysis illustrates that the large variances in energy intensity are due to process parameters (e.g., compressor efficiency), and that large variances in GHG emissions intensity are due to fugitive emissions from upstream natural gas production. On the basis of these results, the opportunities with the greatest leverage for reducing the energy and GHG footprints are presented. The model and analysis provide energy analysts and policy makers with a better understanding of the drivers of energy use and GHG emissions associated with U.S. ethylene production. They also constitute a rich data resource that can be used to evaluate options for managing the industry's footprints moving forward.

  1. A quantitative evaluation of ethylene production in the recombinant cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harboring the ethylene-forming enzyme by membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zavřel, Tomáš; Knoop, Henning; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R; Červený, Jan; Trtílek, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The prediction of the world's future energy consumption and global climate change makes it desirable to identify new technologies to replace or augment fossil fuels by environmentally sustainable alternatives. One appealing sustainable energy concept is harvesting solar energy via photosynthesis coupled to conversion of CO2 into chemical feedstock and fuel. In this work, the production of ethylene, the most widely used petrochemical produced exclusively from fossil fuels, in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is studied. A novel instrumentation setup for quantitative monitoring of ethylene production using a combination of flat-panel photobioreactor coupled to a membrane-inlet mass spectrometer is introduced. Carbon partitioning is estimated using a quantitative model of cyanobacterial metabolism. The results show that ethylene is produced under a wide range of light intensities with an optimum at modest irradiances. The results allow production conditions to be optimized in a highly controlled setup. PMID:26708481

  2. A quantitative evaluation of ethylene production in the recombinant cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harboring the ethylene-forming enzyme by membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zavřel, Tomáš; Knoop, Henning; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R; Červený, Jan; Trtílek, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The prediction of the world's future energy consumption and global climate change makes it desirable to identify new technologies to replace or augment fossil fuels by environmentally sustainable alternatives. One appealing sustainable energy concept is harvesting solar energy via photosynthesis coupled to conversion of CO2 into chemical feedstock and fuel. In this work, the production of ethylene, the most widely used petrochemical produced exclusively from fossil fuels, in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is studied. A novel instrumentation setup for quantitative monitoring of ethylene production using a combination of flat-panel photobioreactor coupled to a membrane-inlet mass spectrometer is introduced. Carbon partitioning is estimated using a quantitative model of cyanobacterial metabolism. The results show that ethylene is produced under a wide range of light intensities with an optimum at modest irradiances. The results allow production conditions to be optimized in a highly controlled setup.

  3. [Effect of metals, benzene, pesticides and ethylene oxide on the haematopoietic system].

    PubMed

    Pyszel, Angelika; Wróbel, Tomasz; Szuba, Andrzej; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    The hematopoietic system, due to intensive cells proliferation, is very sensitive to toxic substances. Many chemicals, including benzene, pesticides (dithiocarbamines), ethylene oxide and metals (mercury, cadmium, chrome, cobalt, lead, aluminum) exert their toxic effect on the hematopoietic system. Exposure to each of these substances may occur in the work place due to environmental pollution and in municipal or residential areas. Exposure to lead, aluminum, cadmium, and benzene results in the incidence of anemia. In addition, exposure to benzene and its metabolites leads to myelodysplastic syndromes, leukemia, lymphomas and bone marrow aplasia. Ethylene oxide induces neoplasm of the hematopoietic system and lymphomas, especially non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Arsenic compounds act like immunosuppressants. Mercury and chrome affect the immune system by immunosuppression and by evoking autoimmune reactions. Dithiocarbamates are suspected to induce leukemia. An analysis of the pathophysiology of individual substances reveal universal toxic mechanisms. In this paper, the authors discuss the pathomechanism of toxic effects of the aforesaid chemicals on the haematopoietic system and peripheral blood cells from the viewpoint of mutagenesis, apoptosis, myelotoxicity, anemia, immunomodulation, and individual sensitivity.

  4. Atomistic simulation of CO2 solubility in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2014-06-01

    We have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations coupled with thermodynamic integration to obtain the excess chemical potential and pressure-composition phase diagrams for CO2 in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers. Poly(ethylene oxide) dimethyl ether, CH3O(CH2CH2O)nCH3 (PEO for short) is a widely applied physical solvent that forms the major organic constituent of a class of novel nanoparticle-based absorbents. Good predictions were obtained for pressure-composition-density relations for CO2 + PEO oligomers (2 ≤ n ≤ 12), using the Potoff force field for PEO [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 044514 (2012)] together with the TraPPE model for CO2 [AIChE J. 47, 1676 (2001)]. Water effects on Henry's constant of CO2 in PEO have also been investigated. Addition of modest amounts of water in PEO produces a relatively small increase in Henry's constant. Dependence of the calculated Henry's constant on the weight percentage of water falls on a temperature-dependent master curve, irrespective of PEO chain length.

  5. Fumigation of jute bags with ethylene oxide and methyl bromide to eradicate potato ring rot bacteria.

    PubMed

    RICHARDSON, L T; MONRO, H A

    1962-09-01

    In a series of full-scale tests, the effectiveness of various fumigant treatments for the eradication of potato ring rot bacteria from bulk lots of contaminated jute bags was evaluated. Survival of these bacteria on infested sample fibers located at various positions within and around a tightly wired bale was determined quantitatively from the growth lag in a liquid medium as indicated by the rate of turbidity development.Ethylene oxide, though highly toxic to Corynebacterium sepedonicum in laboratory tests, failed to penetrate the jute sufficiently to be effective in the interior of a bale. Methyl bromide showed better penetration, but was not sufficiently toxic at practical dosage levels. A mixture of 5% ethylene oxide and 10% methyl bromide achieved complete eradication throughout a bale in an 18-hr exposure period. On the basis of these results, eradication of ring rot bacteria from contaminated jute bags by fumigation with a combination of these two gases would appear to be feasible under commercial conditions.

  6. Abscisic Acid Antagonizes Ethylene Production through the ABI4-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Yanwen; Li, Shenghui; Wang, Juan; Tang, Saijun; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) negatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To identify the factors involved, we conducted a screen for ABA-insensitive mutants with altered ethylene production in Arabidopsis. A dominant allele of ABI4, abi4-152, which produces a putative protein with a 16-amino-acid truncation at the C-terminus of ABI4, reduces ethylene production. By contrast, two recessive knockout alleles of ABI4, abi4-102 and abi4-103, result in increased ethylene evolution, indicating that ABI4 negatively regulates ethylene production. Further analyses showed that expression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4, ACS8, and ACO2 was significantly decreased in abi4-152 but increased in the knockout mutants, with partial dependence on ABA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR assays showed that ABI4 directly binds the promoters of these ethylene biosynthesis genes and that ABA enhances this interaction. A fusion protein containing the truncated ABI4-152 peptide accumulated to higher levels than its full-length counterpart in transgenic plants, suggesting that ABI4 is destabilized by its C terminus. Therefore, our results demonstrate that ABA negatively regulates ethylene production through ABI4-mediated transcriptional repression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

  7. Flash methanolysis of coal for the synthesis and production of ethylene, benzene and liquid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1981-12-01

    On rapidly reacting methane with coal at short residence times (< 10 sec) in an entrained tubular reactor at temperatures in the range of 825/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C and pressures of 50 to 100 psi, significant yields of ethylene, BTX, and light oils are formed. The yield of ethylene increases strongly with decreasing pressure. There appears to be no net consumption of methane. A preliminary economic analysis of a process for production of the above feedstocks from coal, recycling the methane and using the residual char as a boiler fuel indicates a very ample return on the investment.

  8. MPK3/MPK6 are involved in iron deficiency-induced ethylene production in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lingxiao; Li, Lin; Wang, Lu; Wang, Shoudong; Li, Sen; Du, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun; Shou, Huixia

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient that participates in various biological processes important for plant growth. Ethylene production induced by Fe deficiency plays important roles in plant tolerance to stress induced by Fe deficiency. However, the activation and regulatory mechanisms of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes in this response are not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that Fe deficiency increased the abundance of ACS2, ACS6, ACS7, and ACS11 transcripts in both leaves and roots as well as the abundance of ACS8 transcripts in leaves and ACS9 transcripts in roots. Furthermore, we investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 and 6 (MPK3/MPK6)-regulated ACS2/6 activation in Fe deficiency-induced ethylene production. Our results showed that MPK3/MPK6 transcript abundance and MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylation are elevated under conditions of Fe deficiency. Furthermore, mpk3 and mpk6 mutants show a lesser induction of ethylene production under Fe deficiency and a greater sensitivity to Fe deficiency. Finally, in mpk3, mpk6, and acs2 mutants under conditions of Fe deficiency, induction of transcript expression of the Fe-deficiency response genes FRO2, IRT1, and FIT is partially compromised. Taken together, our results suggest that the MPK3/MPK6 and ACS2 are part of the Fe starvation-induced ethylene production signaling pathway. PMID:26579185

  9. Microwave Enhanced Direct Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feedstock for Energy Efficient Production of Ethylene and Propylene.

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Fall, Morgana; Wagner, Eric; Bowlin, Ricardo

    2012-02-13

    This project demonstrated microwave cracking of ethane with good product conversion and ethylene selectivity, with a short residence time ({approx}0.001 sec). The laboratory scale equipment was designed and built, along with concept designs for larger scale implementation. The system was operated below atmospheric pressures, in the range of 15-55 torr, with argon as a carrier gas. The measured products included hydrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethylene. The results followed similar trends to those predicted by the modeling software SPYRO{reg_sign}, with the exception that the microwave appeared to produce slightly lower amounts of ethylene and methane, although enhanced analytical analysis should reduce the difference. Continued testing will be required to verify these results and quantify the energy consumption of microwave vs. conventional. The microwave cracking process is an attractive option due to the possibility of selectively heating the reaction volume rather than the reactor walls, which may allow novel reactor designs that result in more efficient production of ethylene. Supplemental studies are needed to continue the laboratory testing and refine processing parameters.

  10. Opposite extremes in ethylene/nitric oxide ratio induce cell death in suspension culture and root apices of tomato exposed to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Poór, P; Borbély, P; Kovács, Judit; Papp, Anita; Szepesi, Ágnes; Takács, Z; Tari, Irma

    2014-12-01

    The plant hormone ethylene or the gaseous signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO) may enhance salt stress tolerance by maintaining ion homeostasis, first of all K+/Na+ ratio of tissues. Ethylene and NO accumulation increased in the root apices and suspension culture cells of tomato at sublethal salt stress caused by 100 mM NaCl, however, the induction phase of programmed cell death (PCD) was different at lethal salt concentration. The production of ethylene by root apices and the accumulation of NO in the cells of suspension culture did not increase during the initiation of PCD after 250 mM NaCl treatment. Moreover, cells in suspension culture accumulated higher amount of reactive oxygen species which, along with NO deficiency contributed to cell death induction. The absence of ethylene in the apical root segments and the absence of NO accumulation in the cell suspension resulted in similar ion disequilibrium, namely K+/Na+ ratio of 1.41 ± 0.1 and 1.68 ± 0.3 in intact plant tissues and suspension culture cells, respectively that was not tolerated by tomato. PMID:25475982

  11. New Aptes Cross-linked Polymers from Poly(ethylene oxide)s and Cyanuric Chloride for Lithium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A new series of polymer electrolytes for use as membranes for lithium batteries are described. Electrolytes were made by polymerization between cyanuric chloride and diamino-terminated poly(ethylene oxide)s, followed by cross-linking via a sol-gel process. Thermal analysis and lithium conductivity of freestanding polymer films were studied. The effects of several variables on conductivity were investigated, such as length of backbone PEO chain, length of branching PEO chain, extent of branching, extent of cross-linking, salt content, and salt counterion. Polymer films with the highest percentage of PEO were found to be the most conductive, with a maximum lithium conductivity of 3.9 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at 25 C. Addition of plasticizer to the dry polymers increased conductivity by an order of magnitude.

  12. Reduction of PCR-amplifiable DNA by ethylene oxide treatment of forensic consumables.

    PubMed

    Neureuther, Katharina; Rohmann, Edyta; Hilken, Manuela; Sonntag, Marie-Luise; Herdt, Silke; Koennecke, Thomas; Jacobs, Roland; Adamski, Michalina; Reisbacher, Stefan; Alfs, Knut; Strain, Peter; Bastisch, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    A reliable method to provide molecular biology products free of contaminating DNA is of forensic interest. Ethylene oxide (EO) treatment has been demonstrated as an effective method in published studies. This study aimed to address some additional experiments that are closer to forensic practice. In the first part of this study, different consumables such as cotton swabs, latex gloves and micro test tubes were spiked with saliva, blood and skin cells to mimic a real-life contamination scenario. EO treatment was performed for a period of 3, 5, 7, and 10h, respectively. For comparison, gamma and electron beam treatment was applied. In the second part of this study, a cell culture line (K562) was used to apply defined cell counts on cotton swabs followed by EO treatment for 3 and 5h. After extraction of samples, the DNA content was quantified using a real-time PCR based system. STR analysis was performed using a latest generation STR kit to meet current sensitivity limits. A good correlation of real-time PCR results and STR results was observed. This work confirmed the findings of earlier studies showing that chemical EO treatment is much more successful in reducing the amount of PCR-amplifiable DNA than ionising radiation. Furthermore, the efficacy of EO treatment is affected by the nature of the samples. DNA in saliva was more susceptible to damage by EO gas than DNA in blood. Our results show, that accessibility of the sample to EO gas has a strong influence on the method's efficiency. While treatment of samples on cotton swabs packed into gas-permeable bags was very successful, samples inside a closed micro test tube were resistant to the same treatment conditions. Our work with defined K562 cell numbers and multi-copy quantitative PCR could show that a 5h EO treatment results in a 10(5) fold reduction of PCR-amplifiable DNA. Corresponding STR-PCR results also show only sporadic allele calls in the Mini-loci range, providing a reliable interpretation of forensic

  13. A study on optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolyte with different alkali metal iodides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, B. Narasimha; Suvarna, R. Padma

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared by adding poly (ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME), TiO2 (nano filler), different alkali metal iodide salts RI (R+=Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and I2 into Acetonitrile gelated with Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO). Optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolytes were studied by FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. FTIR spectrum reveals that the alkali metal cations were coordinated to ether oxygen of PEO. The optical absorption studies were made in the wavelength range 200-800 nm. It is observed that the optical absorption increases with increase in the radius of alkali metal cation. The optical band gap for allowed direct transitions was evaluated using Urbach-edges method. The optical properties such as optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The studied polymer materials are useful for solar cells, super capacitors, fuel cells, gas sensors etc.

  14. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSING AND OXIDE ETHYLENE STERILIZATION ON CORTICAL AND CANCELLOUS RAT BONE: A LIGHT AND ELECTRON SCANNING MICROSCOPY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; da Silva, Juliano Voltarelli F.; Frezarim Thomazini, José Armendir; Volpon, José Batista

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, under microscopic examination, the structural changes displayed by the trabecular and cortical bones after being processed chemically and sterilized by ethylene oxide. Methods: Samples of cancellous and cortical bones obtained from young female albinus rats (Wistar) were assigned to four groups according to the type of treatment: Group I- drying; Group II- drying and ethylene oxide sterilization; III- chemical treatment; IV- chemical treatment and ethylene oxide sterilization. Half of this material was analyzed under ordinary light microscope and the other half using scanning electron microscopy. Results: In all the samples, regardless the group, there was good preservation of the general morphology. For samples submitted to the chemical processing there was better preservation of the cellular content, whereas there was amalgamation of the fibres when ethylene oxide was used. Conclusion: Treatment with ethylene oxide caused amalgamation of the fibers, possibly because of heating and the chemical treatment contributed to a better cellular preservation of the osseous structure. PMID:26998450

  15. Electrical Properties of Poly(ethylene oxide)-based Ionomers as Single Ion Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Ralph H.; Dou, Shichen; Zhang, Shihai; Klein, Robert J.; Runt, James P.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2006-03-01

    Polyethers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) are of interest for development of advanced lithium batteries because Li^+ ions have facile transport in this media. We make ionomers based on PEO by reacting poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomers with the sodium salt of dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate. Since the sulfonate group is covalently bonded to the chain, it is essentially immobile and hence these materials are single-ion conductors. The charge spacing on the chain can be directly controlled by the molar mass of the PEG oligomers (we use M = 400, 600 and 900) used in the synthesis. Conductivity depends strongly on temperature, with nearly identical conductivities in all of our samples at the same T - Tg, suggesting that Li^+ ion transport is controlled by segmental motion of the PEO. Using the onset of electrode polarization (usually considered a nuisance in dielectric spectroscopy) we quantitatively estimate the free ion concentration and mobility, based on work of MacDonald (1952 & 1974) and Coelho (1983 & 1991). The temperature dependence of the free ion concentration is described by a simple pairing energy, which decreases in going from Li^+ to Na^+ to Cs^+, consistent with larger ions being less strongly bound to the sulfonate groups. The ion mobility shows a Vogel-Fulcher temperature dependence, as anticipated by the polymer's segmental motion controlling ion mobility.

  16. 78 FR 44117 - Notice of a Public Comment Period on the Draft IRIS Carcinogenicity Assessment for Ethylene Oxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... AGENCY Notice of a Public Comment Period on the Draft IRIS Carcinogenicity Assessment for Ethylene Oxide... announcing a 45-day public comment period on the draft IRIS assessment titled, ``Evaluation of the Inhalation... questions on the IRIS Web site and ends 45 days later. EPA anticipates posting the draft assessment...

  17. Mutagenic effect on L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells by growth in ethylene oxide-sterilized polycarbonate flasks.

    PubMed

    Krell, K; Jacobson, E D; Selby, K

    1979-05-01

    The mutation frequency of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells to resistance to 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine increased 6- to 14-fold after growth in ethylene oxide-sterilized polycarbonate culture flasks compared to growth in glass flasks. No comparable increase was observed when L5178Y cells were grown in identical polycarbonate culture flasks sterilized by autoclaving.

  18. CO2 permeation through poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide)-nanosilica membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovineh, Shirin Gh.; Asghari, Morteza; Khanbabaei, Ghader

    2014-11-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrids of poly(amide-6-b-ethylene oxide) (PEBA) and silica utilizing aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as precursor was prepared via sol-gel process and was compared with neat PEBA. The nanodispersed inorganic network produced in the organic matrix was structurally characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) that revealed the existence of different chemical groups corresponding to the silica precursors. The single gas permeability was carried out for neat PEBA and PEBA-nano silica (10 wt.% precursor) membranes. CO2 permeability for the neat polymer membrane was higher than the nano-composite membrane and increased with pressure. Adding 10 wt.% of nanosilica filler into the polymeric matrix caused CO2 permeability to decrease.

  19. Effect of molecular weight on ion diffusion and transference number in poly(ethylene oxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timachova, Ksenia; Balsara, Nitash

    2015-03-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are of great interest for their potential use in high specific energy, solid-state batteries, however, salt transport properties in polymer electrolytes have not been comprehensively addressed over a wide range of molecular weights. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) has been the most widely studied polymer electrolyte due to its high solvation of lithium salts and low glass transition temperature. This study presents measurements of the transport properties of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide (LiTFSI) in PEO at both the high concentration present in functional electrolytes and in the dilute limit for a large range of PEO molecular weights. Individual diffusion coefficients of the Li + and TFSI- ions were measured using pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and the cation transference number was calculated. The diffusion coefficients, transference number, and conductivity as a function of molecular weight and salt concentration provide a complete set of transport properties for PEO.

  20. Poly(ethylene oxide)/clay nanaocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejder-Korucu, Mehtap; Gürses, Ahmet; Karaca, Semra

    2016-08-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/clay nanocomposites were prepared by a solution intercalation method using chloroform as a solvent. The nanocomposites were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and also investigation of some mechanical properties of the composites. Formation of nanocomposite was confirmed by XRD analysis. The increasing tendency of exfoliation degree with an increase in clay content may be attributed to easier diffusion of PEO chains to interlayer regions. An increase in PEO crystallinity in case of nanocomposite, was confirmed by an increase in the heat of melting as indicated by DSC. Improvement in tensile properties in all respect was observed for nanocomposites with clay content.

  1. Industrial-hygiene characterization of ethylene oxide exposures of hospital and nursing-home workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ringenburg, V.L.; Elliott, L.J.; Morelli-Schroth, P.; Molina, D.

    1986-12-01

    Industrial-hygiene surveys were conducted at 12 hospitals and one nursing home to determine possible employee exposure to ethylene oxide (EtO). Different types of exposure situations existed at each of the facilities as a result of various engineering controls, administrative controls and work practices. Sampling indicated that the time-weighted averages (TWAs) of exposure over periods of 36 to 724 minutes ranged from below the limit of detection to 6.7 parts per million (ppm). Personal short-term exposure levels covering 2 to 30 minutes ranged from less than the limit of detection to 103.2ppm. Factors found to be responsible for these higher-than-permissible levels of EtO exposure included improper installation or lack of engineering controls (such as improper placement of the sterilizing operations), unbalanced ventilation systems, and lack of administrative controls resulting in inappropriate work practices.

  2. Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Polyimide-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanofoamed Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-He; Yu, Li; Zhao, Li-Hang; Tong, Wang-Shu; Huang, Hai-Tao; Ke, Shan-Ming; Chan, H. L. W.

    2012-08-01

    Polyimide nanofoamed films have been prepared by incorporating poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) into poly(amide acid) (PAA) precursors with subsequent imidization of PAA precursors at high temperature. The porous structure, thermal decomposition temperature, and dielectric property of nanofoamed films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and impedance spectroscopy. Nanopores with sizes around 40 nm to 200 nm were formed in nanofoamed films by pyrolysis of PEO during the imidization progress. The decomposition temperature of nanofoamed films decreased slightly with increasing volume fraction of nanopores and maintained the high decomposition temperature of 499.7 °C when the volume fraction of nanopores was 10.9 %. The dielectric constant of nanofoamed films decreased from 3.4 for pure PI to 2.4 at 103 Hz through the introduction of nanopores with volume fraction of 10.9 %.

  3. SHI induced modification in structural, optical, dielectric and thermal properties of poly ethylene oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Gnansagar B.; Bhavsar, Shilpa; Singh, N. L.; Singh, F.; Kulriya, P. K.

    2016-07-01

    Poly ethylene oxide (PEO) films were synthesized by solution cast method. These self-standing films were exposed with 60 MeV C+5 ion and 100 MeV Ni+7 ion at different fluences. SHI induced effect was investigated by employing various techniques. The crystalline size decreased upon irradiation as observed from XRD analysis. FTIR analysis reveals the decrement in the peak intensity upon irradiation. Tauc's method was used to determine the optical band gap (Eg), which shows decreasing trends with increase of fluence. The dielectric properties were investigated in the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 MHz for unirradiated and irradiated films. The dielectric constant remains same for the broad-spectrum of frequency and increases at lower frequency. The dielectric loss also moderately influence as a function of frequency due to irradiation. DSC analysis validated the results of XRD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that there is significant change in the surface morphology due to irradiation.

  4. Sampling/analytical method evaluation for ethylene oxide emission and control-unit efficiency determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Steger, J.; Gergen, W.; Margeson, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    Radian Corporation, assisting the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, performed a field evaluation of a method for sampling and analyzing ethylene oxide (EO) in the vent stream from a sterilization chamber and a dilute-acid scrubber. The utility of the sampling method for measuring the efficiency of the control unit was also evaluated. The evaluated sampling and analysis procedure used semi-continuous direct sampling with on-line gas chromatographic analysis. Laboratory studies of the sampling method previous to the field test showed that semi-continuous direct sampling was capable of measuring EO emissions to within 11% of the expected value with a between-trial precision of 5%.

  5. Antibacterial effects of electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibrous membranes loaded with chlorhexidine and silver.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiankang; Remmers, Stefan J A; Shao, Jinlong; Kolwijck, Eva; Walboomers, X Frank; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Yang, Fang

    2016-07-01

    To prevent percutaneous device associated infections (PDAIs), we prepared electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibrous membrane containing silver nanoparticles as an implantable delivery vehicle for the dual release of chlorhexidine and silver ions. We observed that the silver nanoparticles were distributed homogeneously throughout the fibers, and a fast release of chlorhexidine in 2days and a sustained release of silver ions for up to 28days. The antibacterial efficacy of the membranes against Staphylococcus aureus showed that the membranes exhibited an obvious inhibition zone upon loading with either chlorhexidine (20μg or more per membrane) or AgNO3 (1 and 5wt% to polymer). Furthermore, long-term antibacterial effect up to 4days was verified using membranes containing 5wt% AgNO3. The results suggest that the membranes have strong potential to act as an active antibacterial dressing for local delivery of antibacterial agents to prevent PDAIs. PMID:26970025

  6. Effects of Silica Nanostructures in Poly(ethylene oxide)-Based Composite Polymer Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Jagdeep; Anwar, Shahid; Si, Satyabrata

    2016-06-01

    The present work describes the synthesis of some poly(ethylene oxide)-based nanocomposite polymer electrolyte films using various silica nanostructures as the inorganic filler by simple solution mixing technique, in which the nature of the silica nanostructures play a vital role in modulating their electrochemical performances at room temperature. The silica nanostructures are prepared by ammonical hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate following the modified St6ber method. The resulting films are characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimeter to study their crystallinity. Room temperature AC impedance spectroscopy is utilized to determine the Li+ ion conductivity of the resulting films. The observed conductivity values of various NCPE films depend on the nature of silica filling as well as on their surface characteristics and also on the varying PEO-Li+ ratio, which is observed to be in the order of 10(-7)-10(-6) S cm(-1). PMID:27427686

  7. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on biological indicators used for ethylene oxide sterilization.

    PubMed Central

    Oxborrow, G S; Placencia, A M; Danielson, J W

    1983-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effects of temperature and moisture on the D-value of a common biological indicator. Relative humidity (RH) was varied between 10 and 70% in increments of 10%, and temperature was varied between 30 and 70 degrees C in increments of 10 degrees C. Temperature was found to have a pronounced effect on the D-value. At 60% RH, the D-value varied from 15.0 min at 30 degrees C to 1.1 min at 70 degrees C. When RH was plotted against the average D-value at the various temperatures, the temperature curves at or above 50 degrees C were more erratic and the RH had a significant effect. The study showed that temperature and RH must be controlled if biological indicators are to be properly calibrated for use in ethylene oxide sterilization. PMID:6402979

  8. The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1990-02-01

    The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Biological effect monitoring in industrial workers following incidental exposure to high concentrations of ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Tates, A D; Boogaard, P J; Darroudi, F; Natarajan, A T; Caubo, M E; van Sittert, N J

    1995-06-01

    Peripheral blood from four groups of seven workers from a chemical manufacturing plant in The Netherlands was analyzed for hemoglobin adducts in erythrocytes and for hprt mutants, micronuclei and SCEs in lymphocytes. Group I workers were incidentally exposed to acute high doses of ethylene oxide ranging from 52 to 785 mg/m3. Group II and III workers were chronically exposed to low doses of ethylene oxide for < 5 years or > 15 years respectively. Group IV workers served as unexposed controls and came from the Occupational Health Department. Hemoglobin adduct levels in group I workers were very high and ranged from 1461 to 19913 pmol HOEtVal/g Hb approximately 1 month after the accident. HOEtVal values for group II and III workers fluctuated between 0 and 190 pmol/g Hb corresponding with average EtO exposure levels in the range of < 0.01 and 0.06 mg/m3 EtO. The statistical analysis of the genetic data did not reveal any statistically significant differences between any combination of worker groups. The genetic tests for group I workers were performed on blood samples collected 89-180 days after the incidental exposure. The absence of enhanced frequencies of mutations, micronuclei and SCEs suggests that significant induction of hprt mutations in vivo did not occur and that persistent preclastogenic lesions were not present in significant amounts when the exposed lymphocytes were put in culture to visualize any induced cytogenetic damage. This finding implies that the incidental exposure to high concentrations of EtO did not cause any measurable permanent mutational/cytogenetic damage in exposed lymphocytes.

  10. Single-Layer Light-Emitting Diodes Using Organometal Halide Perovskite/Poly(ethylene oxide) Composite Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Li, Junqiang; Bade, Sri Ganesh R; Shan, Xin; Yu, Zhibin

    2015-09-16

    Organometal halide perovskite and poly(ethylene oxide) composite thin films are studied. Single-layer light-emitting diodes using the composite thin film sandwiched between indium tin oxide and indium-gallium eutectic alloy exhibit a low turn-on voltage and high brightness because of the ionic conductivity of the composite film and the formation of a p-i-n homojunction. PMID:26247326

  11. Solid state {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR structural investigation of a poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Badiger, M.V.; Graham, N.B.; Law, R.V.; Snape, C.E.

    1993-12-31

    A cross-linked poly (ethylene oxide)/polyurethane hydrogel cross-linked with 1,2,6 hexane-triol and designated PEG4050/1HT [measured M{sup n} of 4050 for poly (ethylene oxide) glycol (PEG) and a mole ratio of 1:1 for the PEG to the 1,2,6 hexane-triol] has been characterized by high resolution {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. {sup 1}H thermal (T{sub 1}) and rotating frame (T{sub 1{rho}}) and {sup 13}CT{sub 1} relaxation times were determined for the powdered dry and swollen hydrogel with the standard variants of the cross-polarization pulse sequence which was used in conjunction with magic-angle spinning (MAS). The rotating frame relaxation measurements confirmed that crystalline and amorphous regions were present in the dry hydrogel but showed unabiguously that the crystalline regions are confined to the poly (ethylene oxide) chains, Upon hydration, there is a decrease in the cross polarization efficiency from the enhanced mobility by the poly (ethylene oxide) chains are affected to a much greater extent that the urethane and hexane segments, the characteristic time constant, T{sub CH} increasing by more than order of magnitude compared to no more than a factor of two for the latter. Clearly, the hydration involves hydrogen bonding between the water and principally the oxygens in the poly (ethylene oxide) chains. The {sup 1}H MAS spectra of the dry and hydrated samples confirmed that considerable averaging of the dipolar interactions occurs on hydration to give a well-resolved spectrum.

  12. Removal of ethylene from air stream by adsorption and plasma-catalytic oxidation using silver-based bimetallic catalysts supported on zeolite.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Quang Hung; Lee, Sang Baek; Mok, Young Sun

    2015-03-21

    Dynamic adsorption of ethylene on 13X zeolite-supported Ag and Ag-M(x)O(y) (M: Co, Cu, Mn, and Fe), and plasma-catalytic oxidation of the adsorbed ethylene were investigated. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of Ag into zeolite afforded a marked enhancement in the adsorptivity for ethylene. The addition of transition metal oxides was found to have a positive influence on the ethylene adsorption, except Fe(x)O(y). The presence of the additional metal oxides, however, appeared to somewhat interrupt the diffusion of ozone into the zeolite micro-pores, leading to a decrease in the plasma-catalytic oxidation efficiency of the ethylene adsorbed there. Among the second additional metal oxides, Fe(x)O(y) was able to reduce the emission of ozone during the plasma-catalytic oxidation stage while keeping a high effectiveness for the oxidative removal of the adsorbed ethylene. The periodical treatment consisting of adsorption followed by plasma-catalytic oxidation may be a promising energy-efficient ethylene abatement method.

  13. Sucrose importation into laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis, in relation to ethylene stimulation of latex production

    PubMed Central

    Dusotoit-Coucaud, Anaïs; Brunel, Nicole; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Lacointe, André; Julien, Jean-Louis; Chrestin, Hervé; Sakr, Soulaïman

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The major economic product of Hevea brasiliensis is a rubber-containing cytoplasm (latex), which flows out of laticifers (latex cells) when the bark is tapped. The latex yield is stimulated by ethylene. Sucrose, the unique precursor of rubber synthesis, must cross the plasma membrane through specific sucrose transporters before being metabolized in the laticifers. The relative importance of sucrose transporters in determining latex yield is unknown. Here, the effects of ethylene (by application of Ethrel®) on sucrose transporter gene expression in the inner bark tissues and latex cells of H. brasiliensis are described. Methods Experiments, including cloning sucrose transporters, real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, were carried out on virgin (untapped) trees, treated or untreated with the latex yield stimulant Ethrel. Key Results Seven putative full-length cDNAs of sucrose transporters were cloned from a latex-specific cDNA library. These transporters belong to all SUT (sucrose transporter) groups and differ by their basal gene expression in latex and inner soft bark, with a predominance of HbSUT1A and HbSUT1B. Of these sucrose transporters, only HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A were distinctly increased by ethylene. Moreover, this increase was shown to be specific to laticifers and to ethylene application. Conclusion The data and all previous information on sucrose transport show that HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A are related to the increase in sucrose import into laticifers, required for the stimulation of latex yield by ethylene in virgin trees. PMID:19567416

  14. Interaction of Light and Ethylene on Stem Gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Marcia A.

    1996-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to evaluate light-regulated ethylene production during gravitropic bending in etiolated pea stems. Previous investigations indicated that ethylene production increases after gravistimulation and is associated with the later (counter-reactive) phase of bending. Additionally, changes in the counter-reaction and locus of curvature during gravitropism are greatly influenced by red light and ethylene production. Ethylene production may be regulated by the levels of available precursor (1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid, ACC) via its synthesis, conjugation to malonyl-ACC or glutamyl-ACC, or oxidation to ethylene. The regulation of ethylene production by quantifying ACC and conjugated ACC levels in gravistimulated pea stemswas examined. Also measured was the changes in protein and enzyme activity associated with gravitropic curvature by electrophoretic and spectrophotometric techniques. An image analysis system was used to visualize and quantify enzymatic activity and transcriptional products in gravistimulated and red-light treated etiolated pea stem tissues.

  15. Drying of films formed by ordered poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymer gels.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhiyong; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2005-03-01

    The drying of hydrogel films formed by poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) block copolymers (Pluronic P105 and Pluronic L64) is investigated at various air relative humidity (RH) conditions in the range 11-94%. These amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble to form a variety of ordered (lyotropic liquid crystalline) structures as the water content decreases. The amount of water lost increases linearly with the drying time initially (constant rate region, stage I). After this linear region, a falling rate is observed (stage II). The drying rate increases with decreasing RH, thus greatly shortening the drying time. A decrease of the initial film thickness or a decrease in the initial water content shortens the drying time; however, the drying mechanism remains the same. Analysis of the experimental data shows that the hydration level in the Pluronic hydrogel mainly determines the drying rate, rather than the type of ordered structure formed. Two distinct regions (liquid/gel and solid/crystalline) are observed in the drying isotherm for PEO-PPO block copolymers and homopolymer poly(ethylene glycol)s. A model for one-dimensional water diffusion is used to fit the experimental drying results at different RH, initial film thickness, and initial water content conditions. The model accounts for the shrinkage of the film during drying and for a water diffusion coefficient that is a function of the water concentration in the film. For the experimental conditions considered here, the Biot number (Bi) is less than unity and the drying is mainly limited by evaporation at the film surface. The diffusion model is used to obtain information for cases where Bi > 1.

  16. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations.

  17. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations. PMID:25985711

  18. Insertion Mechanism of a Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) Block Copolymer into a DPPC Monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Leiske, Danielle L.; Meckes, Brian; Miller, Chad E.; Wu, Cynthia; Walker, Travis W.; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Ketelson, Howard A.; Toney, Michael F.; Fuller, Gerald G.

    2012-02-06

    Interactions between amphiphilic block copolymers and lipids are of medical interest for applications such as drug delivery and the restoration of damaged cell membranes. A series of monodisperse poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) (EOBO) block copolymers were obtained with two ratios of hydrophilic/hydrophobic block lengths. We have explored the surface activity of EOBO at a clean interface and under 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) monolayers as a simple cell membrane model. At the same subphase concentration, EOBO achieved higher equilibrium surface pressures under DPPC compared to a bare interface, and the surface activity was improved with longer poly(butylene oxide) blocks. Further investigation of the DPPC/EOBO monolayers showed that combined films exhibited similar surface rheology compared to pure DPPC at the same surface pressures. DPPC/EOBO phase separation was observed in fluorescently doped monolayers, and within the liquid-expanded liquid-condensed coexistence region for DPPC, EOBO did not drastically alter the liquid-condensed domain shapes. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) quantitatively confirmed that the lattice spacings and tilt of DPPC in lipid-rich regions of the monolayer were nearly equivalent to those of a pure DPPC monolayer at the same surface pressures.

  19. Confinement effects on the crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Maiz, Jon; Martin, Jaime; Mijangos, Carmen

    2012-08-21

    In this work, we show the effects of nanoconfinement on the crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanotubes embedded in anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The morphological characteristics of the hollow 1D PEO nanostructures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallization of the PEO nanostructures and bulk was studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The crystallization of PEO nanotubes studied by DSC is strongly influenced by the confinement showing a strong reduction in the crystallization temperature of the polymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments confirmed the isothermal crystallization results obtained by DSC, and studies carried out at low temperatures showed the absence of crystallites oriented with the extended chains perpendicular to the pore wall within the PEO nanotubes, which has been shown to be the typical crystal orientation for one-dimensional polymer nanostructures. In contrast, only planes oriented 33, 45, and 90° with respect to the plane (120) are arranged parallel to the pore's main axis, indicating preferential crystal growth in the direction of the radial component. Calculations based on classical nucleation theory suggest that heterogeneous nucleation prevails in the bulk PEO whereas for the PEO nanotubes a surface nucleation mechanism is more consistent with the obtained results. PMID:22834683

  20. Confinement effects on the crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Maiz, Jon; Martin, Jaime; Mijangos, Carmen

    2012-08-21

    In this work, we show the effects of nanoconfinement on the crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanotubes embedded in anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The morphological characteristics of the hollow 1D PEO nanostructures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallization of the PEO nanostructures and bulk was studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The crystallization of PEO nanotubes studied by DSC is strongly influenced by the confinement showing a strong reduction in the crystallization temperature of the polymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments confirmed the isothermal crystallization results obtained by DSC, and studies carried out at low temperatures showed the absence of crystallites oriented with the extended chains perpendicular to the pore wall within the PEO nanotubes, which has been shown to be the typical crystal orientation for one-dimensional polymer nanostructures. In contrast, only planes oriented 33, 45, and 90° with respect to the plane (120) are arranged parallel to the pore's main axis, indicating preferential crystal growth in the direction of the radial component. Calculations based on classical nucleation theory suggest that heterogeneous nucleation prevails in the bulk PEO whereas for the PEO nanotubes a surface nucleation mechanism is more consistent with the obtained results.

  1. Poly(ethylene oxide) Crystal Orientation Changes in an Inverse Hexagonal Cylindrical Phase Morphology Constructed by a Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene Diblock Copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,P.; Zheng, J.; Leng, S.; Van Horn, R.; Jeong, K.; Thomas, E.; Hsiao, B.

    2006-01-01

    A poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) diblock copolymer with number-average molecular weights of 7.7k g/mol for the PS block and 21.4k g/mol for the PEO block was used to study the PEO crystal orientation changes at different crystallization temperatures (T{sub x}) via small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques. For this diblock copolymer, an inverse hexagonal cylinder (IHC) phase morphology was identified with PX cylinders hexagonally packed within the PEO matrix. In this IHC morphology, the PEO blocks were tethered on the convex interfaces of the PS domains, and the crystallization of PEO blocks was outside of the cylinders. The crystal orientation of the PEO blocks (the c-axis of the PEO crystals) after crystallization among the PS cylinders was, for the first time, found to change with respect to the long cylinder axis, a, depending solely on T{sub x}. At very low T{sub x}'s, when the samples were quenched into liquid nitrogen, the crystals possessed a random orientation. When -30 {sup o}C {<=} T{sub x} {<=} 5 {sup o}C, PEO crystals had an orientation with their c-axis parallel to a. Within the temperature region of 10 {sup o}C < T{sub x} {<=} 20 {sup o}C, the c-axis crystal orientation changed to be tilted with respect to a (the tilting angle was defined to be between the c-axis of the PEO crystals and a). This tilting angle increased with increasing T{sub x}. Finally, a major crystal orientation with the c-axes of PEO crystals perpendicular to a was observed with T{sub x} reached 30 {sup o}C. Furthermore, it was particularly interesting that the PEO crystals in the IHC phase were oriented in two dimensions when T{sub x} = 30 {sup o}C. Namely, the PEO crystal growth was specifically grown along the {l_brace}1010{r_brace} planes of the hexagonal PS cylinders. The crystallite sizes were estimated by the Scherrer equation. The PEO crystal sizes, at least along on dimension, were on the scale of the sizes limited by the distance between the

  2. Confined Cylinders Constructed by a Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene Diblock Copolymer and a Blend of Poly(ethylene Oxide)-b-Polystyrene and Polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,P.; Guo, Y.; Quirk, R.; Ruan, J.; Lotz, B.; Thomas, E.; Hsiao, B.; Avila-Orta, C.; Sics, I.; Cheng, S.

    2006-01-01

    A poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) diblock copolymer with a number average molecular weight of PEO blocks, M{sub N}{sup PEO}=8.8 kg/mol, and a number average molecular weight of PS blocks, M{sub N}{sup PS}=24.5 kg/mol, (volume fraction of the PEO blocks, f{sub PEO}, was 0.26) exhibited a hexagonal cylinder (HC) phase structure. Small angle X-ray scattering results showed that the PEO cylinder diameter was 13.3 nm, and the hexagonal lattice was a=25.1 nm. The cylinder diameter of this HC phase structure was virtually the same as that in the blend system constructed by a PEO-b-PS diblock copolymer (M{sub N}{sup PEO}=8.7 kg/mol and M{sub N}{sup PS}=9.2 kg/mol) and a PS homo-polymer (M{sub N}{sup PS}=4.6 kg/mol) in which the f{sub PEO} was 0.32. The cylinder diameter in this blend sample was 13.7 nm and the hexagonal lattice was a=23.1 nm. Comparing crystal orientation and crystallization behaviors of this PEO-b-PS copolymer with the blend, it was found that the crystal orientation change with respect to crystallization temperature was almost identical. This is attributed to the fact that in both cases the PEO block tethering densities and confinement sizes are very similar. This indicates that when the M{sub N}{sup PS} of PS homo-polymer is lower than the PS blocks, the PS homo-polymer is located inside of the PS matrix rather than at the interface between the PEO and PS in the HC phase structure. On the other hand, a substantial difference of crystallization behaviors was observed between these two samples. The PEO-b-PS copolymer exhibited much more retarded crystallization kinetics than that of the blend. Based on the small angle X-ray scattering results, it was found that in the blend sample, the HC phase structure was not as regularly ordered as that in the PEO-b-PS copolymer, and thus, the HC phase structure contained more defects in the blend. This led to a suggestion that the primary nucleation process in the confined crystallization is a defect

  3. Poly(ethylene oxide) Crystal Orientation Changes in an Inverse Hexagonal Cylindrical Phase Morphology Constructed by a Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-Polystyrene Diblock Copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,P.; Zheng, J.; Leng, S.; Van Horn, R.; Jeong, K.; Guo, Y.; Quirk, R.; Cheng, S.; Lotz, B.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    A poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) diblock copolymer with number-average molecular weights of 7.7k g/mol for the PS block and 21.4k g/mol for the PEO block was used to study the PEO crystal orientation changes at different crystallization temperatures (T{sub x}) via small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques. For this diblock copolymer, an inverse hexagonal cylinder (IHC) phase morphology was identified with PS cylinders hexagonally packed within the PEO matrix. In this IHC morphology, the PEO blocks were tethered on the convex interfaces of the PS domains, and the crystallization of PEO blocks was outside of the cylinders. The crystal orientation of the PEO blocks (the c-axis of the PEO crystals) after crystallization among the PS cylinders was, for the first time, found to change with respect to the long cylinder axis, {cflx a}, depending solely on T{sub x}. At very low T{sub x}'s, when the samples were quenched into liquid nitrogen, the crystals possessed a random orientation. When -30 C {<=}T{sub x} {<=} 5 C, PEO crystals had an orientation with their c-axis parallel to {cflx a}. Within the temperature region of 10 C {<=} T{sub x} {<=} 20 C, the c-axis crystal orientation changed to be tilted with respect to {cflx a} (the tilting angle was defined to be between the c-axis of the PEO crystals and {cflx a}). This tilting angle increased with increasing T{sub x}. Finally, a major crystal orientation with the c-axes of PEO crystals perpendicular to {cflx a} was observed when Tx reached 30 C. Furthermore, it was particularly interesting that the PEO crystals in the IHC phase were oriented in two dimensions when T{sub x} = 30 C. Namely, the PEO crystal growth was specifically grown along the {l_brace}100{r_brace} planes of the hexagonal PS cylinders. The crystallite sizes were estimated by the Scherrer equation. The PEO crystal sizes, at least along one dimension, were on the scale of the sizes limited by the distance between the neighboring

  4. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 83-166-1594, Witco Chemical Corporation, Perth Amboy, New Jersey. [Ethylene oxide, glycols, and adipic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, C.E.; Roseman, J.

    1985-05-01

    Area and personel air samples were analyzed for ethylene oxide, glycols, and adipic-acid at the Witco Chemical Corporation, Perth Amboy, New Jersey from November to December, 1983 and May, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the union to investigate possible health effects due to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), glycols, and ethylene oxide. The evaluation was assigned to the New Jersey State Department of Health. The authors conclude that health hazards due to ethylene oxide and airborne fatty acid exposures exist. Recommendations include improving ventilation and work practices and implementing an OSHA approved respirator program.

  5. Fabrication and Anti-Fouling Properties of Photochemically and Thermally Immobilized Poly(Ethylene Oxide) and Low Molecular Weight Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Ren, Jin; Hlaing, Aye; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were covalently immobilized on silicon wafers and gold films by way of the CH insertion reaction of perfluorophenyl azides (PFPAs) by either photolysis or thermolysis. The immobilization does not require chemical derivatization of PEO or PEG, and polymers of different molecular weights were successfully attached to the substrate to give uniform films. Microarrays were also generated by printing polymer solutions on PFPA-functionalized wafer or Au slides followed by light activation. For low molecular weight PEG, the immobilization was highly dependent on the quality of the film deposited on the substrate. While the spin-coated and printed PEG showed poor immobilization efficiency, thermal treatment of the PEG melt on PFPA-functionalized surfaces resulted in excellent film quality, giving, for example, a grafting density of 9.2 × 10−4/Å2 and an average distance between grafted chains of 33 Å for PEG 20,000. The anti-fouling property of the films was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). Low protein adsorption was observed on thermally-immobilized PEG whereas the photoimmobilized PEG showed increased protein adsorption. In addition, protein arrays were created using polystyrene (PS) and PEG based on the differential protein adsorption of the two polymers. PMID:21044787

  6. Doxorubicin-loaded micelles of reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers as efficient "active" chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Cambón, A; Rey-Rico, A; Mistry, D; Brea, J; Loza, M I; Attwood, D; Barbosa, S; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Taboada, P; Mosquera, V

    2013-03-10

    Five reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers, BOnEOmBOn, with BO ranging from 8 to 21 units and EO from 90 to 411 were synthesized and evaluated as efficient chemotherapeutic drug delivery nanocarriers and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump in a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line. The copolymers were obtained by reverse polymerization of poly(butylene oxide), which avoids transfer reaction and widening of the EO block distribution, commonly found in commercial poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamers). BOnEOmBOn copolymers formed spherical micelles of 10-40 nm diameter at lower concentrations (one order of magnitude) than those of equivalent poloxamers. The influence of copolymer block lengths and BO/EO ratios on the solubilization capacity and protective environment for doxorubicin (DOXO) was investigated. Micelles showed drug loading capacity ranging from ca. 0.04% to 1.5%, more than 150 times the aqueous solubility of DOXO, and protected the cargo from hydrolysis for more than a month due to their greater colloidal stability in solution. Drug release profiles at various pHs, and the cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the DOXO-loaded micelles were assessed in vitro. DOXO loaded in the polymeric micelles accumulated more slowly inside the cells than free DOXO due to its sustained release. All copolymers were found to be cytocompatible, with viability extents larger than 95%. In addition, the cytotoxicity of DOXO-loaded micelles was higher than that observed for free drug solutions in a MDR ovarian NCI-ADR-RES cell line which overexpressed P-gp. The inhibition of the P-gp efflux pump by some BOnEOmBOn copolymers, similar to that measured for the common P-gp inhibitor verapamil, favored the retention of DOXO inside the cell increasing its cytotoxic activity. Therefore, poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers offer interesting features as cell

  7. Expression of genes responsible for ethylene production and wilting are differently regulated in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals.

    PubMed

    Kosugi; Shibuya; Tsuruno; Iwazaki; Mochizuki; Yoshioka; Hashiba; Satoh

    2000-09-01

    Carnation petals exhibit autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting during senescence. The autocatalytic ethylene production is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes, whereas the wilting of petals is related to the expression of the cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. So far, it has been believed that the ethylene production and wilting are regulated in concert in senescing carnation petals, since the two events occurred closely in parallel with time. In the present study, we investigated the expression of these genes in petals of a transgenic carnation harboring a sense ACC oxidase transgene and in petals of carnation flowers treated with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS). In petals of the transgenic carnation flowers, treatment with exogenous ethylene caused accumulation of the transcript for CPase and in-rolling (wilting), whereas it caused no or little accumulation of the transcripts for ACC oxidase and ACC synthase and negligible ethylene production. In petals of the flowers treated with DPSS, the transcripts for ACC synthase and ACC oxidase were accumulated, but no significant change in the level of the transcript for CPase was observed. These results suggest that the expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase genes, which leads to ethylene production, is differentially regulated from the expression of CPase, which leads to wilting, in carnation petals.

  8. Ellipsometric characterization of ethylene oxide-butylene oxide diblock copolymer adsorption at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, B Rippner; Benjamins, J-W; Nylander, T; Arnebrant, T

    2005-05-24

    Ellipsometry was used to determine the adsorbed layer thickness (d) and the surface excess (adsorbed amount, Gamma) of a nonionic diblock copolymer, E(106)B(16), of poly(ethylene oxide) (E) and poly(butylene oxide) (B) at the air-water interface. The results were obtained (i) by the conventional ellipsometric evaluation procedure using the change of both ellipsometric angles Psi and Delta and (ii) by using the change of Delta only and assuming values of the layer thickness. It was demonstrated that the calculated surface excesses from the different methods were in close agreement, independent of the evaluation procedure, with a plateau adsorption of about 2.5 mg/m(2) (400 A(2)/molecule). Furthermore, the amount of E(106)B(16) adsorbed at the air-water interface was found to be almost identical to that adsorbed from aqueous solution onto a hydrophobic solid surface. In addition, the possibility to use combined measurements with H(2)O or D(2)O as substrates to calculate values of d and Gamma was investigated and discussed. We also briefly discuss within which limits the Gibbs equation can be used to determine the surface excess of polydisperse block copolymers. PMID:15896051

  9. Effects of microgravity and clinorotation on stress ethylene production in two starchless mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Hilaire, Emmanuel M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Brown, Christopher S.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Starch filled plastids termed amyloplasts, contained within columella cells of the root caps of higher plant roots, are believed to play a statolith-like role in the gravitropic response of roots. Plants having amyloplasts containing less starch exhibit a corresponding reduction in gravitropic response. We have observed enhanced ethylene production by sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.) seedlings grown in the altered gravity condition of a slow rotating clinostat, and have suggested that this is a stress response resulting from continuous gravistimulation rather than as a result of the simulation of a microgravity condition. If so, we expect that plants deficient in starch accumulation in amyloplasts may produce less stress ethylene when grown on a clinostat. Therefore, we have grown Arabidopsis thaliana in the small, closed environment of the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). In this preliminary report we compare stationary plants with clinorotated and those grown in microgravity aboard Discovery during the STS-63 flight in February 1995. In addition to wildtype, two mutants deficient in starch biosynthesis, mutants TC7 and TL25, which are, respectively, deficient in the activity of amyloplast phosphoglucomutase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, were grown for three days before being fixed within the FPA. Gas samples were aspirated from the growth chambers and carbon dioxide and ethylene concentations were measured using a gas chromatograph. The fixed tissue is currently undergoing further morphologic and microscopic characterization.

  10. Spikelet-specific variation in ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and signal transducers during grain filling of compact- and lax-panicle rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Sudhanshu; Panda, Binay B; Mohapatra, Trupti; Das, Kaushik; Shaw, Birendra P; Kariali, Ekamber; Mohapatra, Pravat K

    2015-05-01

    Grain yields in modern super rice cultivars do not always meet the expectations because many spikelets are located on secondary branches in closely packed homogeneous distribution in these plants, and they do not fill properly. The factors limiting grain filling of such spikelets, especially in the lower panicle branches, are elusive. Two long-duration rice cultivars differing in panicle density, Mahalaxmi (compact) and Upahar (lax), were cultivated in an open field plot. Grain filling, ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers in apical and basal spikelets of the panicle were compared during the early post-anthesis stage, which is the most critical period for grain development. In another experiment, a similar assessment was made for the medium-duration cultivars compact-panicle OR-1918 and lax-panicle Lalat. Grain weight of the apical spikelets was always higher than that of the basal spikelets. This gradient of grain weight was wide in the compact-panicle cultivars and narrow in the lax-panicle cultivars. Compared to apical spikelets, the basal spikelets produced more ethylene at anthesis and retained the capacity for post-anthesis expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers longer. High ethylene production enhanced the expression of the RSR1 gene, but reduced expression of the GBSS1 gene. Ethylene inhibited the partitioning of assimilates of developing grains resulting in low starch biosynthesis and high accumulation of soluble carbohydrates. It is concluded that an increase in grain/spikelet density in rice panicles reduces apical dominance to the detriment of grain filling by production of ethylene and/or enhanced perception of the ethylene signal. Ethylene could be a second messenger for apical dominance in grain filling. The manipulation of the ethylene signal would possibly improve rice grain yield.

  11. Sensory and metabolic profiles of "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown without synthetic agrochemicals: the role of ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fukuyo; Miyazawa, Toshio; Okazaki, Keiki; Tatsuki, Miho; Ito, Tsutae

    2015-01-01

    Flavors of "Fuji" apple cultivated with or without synthetic agrochemicals were compared using quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) and metabolite profiling for 3 seasons. Experimental plots included conventional crops (with agrochemicals) and organic crops (without agrochemicals) at our institute and organic and conventional farms. Additionally, mass market samples were analyzed. Organic apples were weak in sweetness and floral characteristics and had enhanced green and sour flavors. Most esters and sugars were present in lower concentrations in organic than in conventional apples. Close relation of principal component 1 of QDA and metabolite profiles, to ethylene production suggested that ethylene is considerably involved in flavor synthesis. Reduced ethylene associated with immaturity accounted for insufficient flavor synthesis and weak aroma and flavor attributes of organic apples. Furthermore, organic apples from the farm were more flavorsome than those from the institute in 2012, suggesting possible recovery of ethylene production after a long organic cultivation period.

  12. Elongational flow of solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) and sulfonated surfactants.

    PubMed

    Smitter, L M; Ruiz, J C; Torres, M E; Müller, A J; Sáez, A E

    2002-07-15

    In this work, the elongational flow behavior of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied in the presence of sulfonated surfactants. The technique of opposed-jets flow was used to generate an elongational flow field in which pressure drops were measured as a function of strain rates. The surfactants used were sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and an alpha-olefin sulfonate (AOS). Solutions of PEO and other flexible polymers exhibit extension thickening in opposed-jets flow due to the formation of transient networks of entangled molecules. This effect is present at concentrations below the static coil overlap concentration, due to the changes in molecular conformation induced by the flow. When SDBS or AOS are added to PEO solutions at low concentrations, the extension thickening weakens due to an increase in PEO intramolecular interactions that lead to coil contraction. This occurs until the surfactant concentration is close to the critical aggregation concentration reported in the literature. Further addition of surfactant induces the formation of intermolecular interactions as the PEO molecules are expanded by the electrostatic repulsion between attached micellar aggregates, with an associated strengthening of extension thickening. Intramolecular effects were not seen beyond a specific PEO concentration.

  13. Interfacial Effect on Confined Crystallization of Poly(ethylene oxide)/Silica Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yunlan; Zhao, Weiwei; Gao, Xia; Xu, Jianjun; Wang, Dujin

    The impact of nanoconfinement introduced by nanoparticles on polymer crystallization has attracted extensive attention because it plays the decisive role in the ultimate properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, interfacial and spatial confinement effects of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles on the crystallization behaviors of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/SiO2 composites were systematically investigated by changing the size and concentration of SiO2 in PEO matrix. The composites with high silica loadings exhibit two crystallization peaks of PEO as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The first peak at 7-43 °C is related to the bulk PEO, while the second peak at -20 to -30 °C is attributed to the restricted PEO segments. Three-layer (amorphous, interfacial and bulk) model is proposed to interpret the confined crystallization of PEO/SiO2 composites, which is supported by the results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and solid-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In amorphous layer, most PEO segments are directly adsorbed on SiO2 surface via hydrogen bonding. The interfacial PEO layer, which is nonuniform, is composed of crystallizable loops and tails extending from amorphous layer. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Contract 21274156.

  14. Characterization of DNA condensates induced by poly(ethylene oxide) and polylysine.

    PubMed Central

    Laemmli, U K

    1975-01-01

    High-molecular-weight DNA is known to collapse into very compact particles in a salt solution containing polymers like poly(ethylene oxide) [(EO)n] or polyacrylate. The biological relevance of this phenomenon is suggested by our recent finding that high concentrations of the highly acidic internal peptides found in the mature T4 bacteriophage head, as well as poly(glutamic acid) and poly(aspartic acid), can collapse DNA in a similar manner. The structure of DNAs collapsed by various methods has been studied with electron microscope. We find (EO)n collapses T4 or T7 bacteriophage DNA into compact particles only slightly larger than the size of the T4 and T7 head, respectively. In contrast, polylysine collapses DNA into different types of structures. Double-stranded DNA collapsed with (EO)n is cut by the single-strand specific Neurospora crassa endonuclease (EC 3.1.4.21) into small fragments. Extensive digestion only occurs above the critical concentration of polymer required for DNA collapse, demonstrating the (EO)n-collapsed DNA contains enzyme-vulnerable regions (probably at each fold), which are preferentially attacked. The size of the DNA fragments produced by limit-digestion with the nuclease ranges between 200 and 400 base pairs when DNA is collapsed by (EO)n. Only fragments of DNA which are larger than 600 base pairs are cut by the endonuclease in (EO)n-containing solution. Images PMID:1060108

  15. Structure and drug release in a crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Shekunov, Boris Y; Chattopadhyay, Pratibhash; Tong, Henry H Y; Chow, Albert H L; Grossmann, J Günter

    2007-05-01

    Hydrogels are a continuously expanding class of pharmaceutical polymers designed for sustained or controlled drug release. The structure and intermolecular interactions in such systems define their macroscopic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of swelling, drug impregnation, and drug release from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) gel crosslinked by urethane bonds. A combination of SAXS/WAXS/SANS techniques enabled us to determine the phase transition between lamellar and extended gel network, and to apply different descriptions of crystallinity, based on lamellar and crystal lattice structures. It is shown that even low (1-7% w/w) loading of model drugs acetaminophen and caffeine, produced significant disorder in the polymer matrix. This effect was particularly pronounced for acetaminophen due to its specific ability to form complexes with PEO. The drug-release profiles were analyzed using a general cubic equation, proposed for this work, which allowed us to determine the gel hydration velocity. The results indicate that the release profiles correlate inversely with the polymer crystallinity. PMID:17455363

  16. Comparison of liquid chemical sterilization with peracetic acid and ethylene oxide sterilization for long narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Alfa, M J; DeGagne, P; Olson, N; Hizon, R

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how well peracetic acid liquid chemical sterilization (LCPAS) killed test organisms in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.65% salt challenge (RPMI-S) compared with a 100% ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilizer and an ETO hydrochlorofluorocarbon (ETO-HCFC) sterilization method with long (125 cm), narrow (3-mm internal diameter) flexible lumens as the test carrier. The inoculated lumens were dried overnight before processing. The test organisms included Mycobacterium chelonei, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. For all 3 organisms tested, the LCPAS process resulted in a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial load compared with a 2.5 log10 to 6 log10 reduction for the 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilizers. Sterilization was achieved for 100%, 61%, and 67% of the lumen test carriers for the LCPAS, 100% ETO, and ETO-HCFC sterilizers, respectively. The data indicate that of the sterilization methods evaluated, LCPAS was the most effective for sterilizing narrow flexible lumens in the presence of residual inorganic and organic soil. This effectiveness was achieved through a combination of organism wash-off and peracetic acid sterilant killing of organisms. Salt was the major compounding factor for effective ETO gas sterilization, because carriers inoculated with organisms in 10% fetal bovine serum alone all were sterilized by both 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilization methods. Our data support the critical need to ensure adequate precleaning of narrow flexible lumen endoscopes before any sterilization method. PMID:9795674

  17. Field evaluation of direct-reading continuous ethylene oxide monitors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.A.; Carpenter, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center Central Processing Section (WHMC/SGLP) uses ethylene oxide (EtO) as a primary sterilizing agent. Because of their concern about the health effects of EtO, SGLP has searched for a continuous-monitoring EtO system. In their search, they found two units (AMSCO's Envirogard III and Baseline Industries, Inc.'s Model 5500 Gas Analyzer). The objective of this evaluation was to conduct a field study to compare the performances of the two direct-reading continuous EtO monitors against the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) acceptable charcoal-tube sampling method. In addition, the 3M EtO passive monitor sampling method was compared with the charcoal-tube method and direct-reading instrumental method as well. Neither the Baseline Industries, Inc. nor the AMSCO continuous monitors corresponded to OSHA acceptable charcoal tube method of air sampling. Both instruments reported EtO concentrations much higher than those detected by the charcoal tubes. There is no way of knowing which method, the direct-reading continuous monitor or the charcoal tube/passive monitor, is more correct. However, the OSHA standard for EtO is based on measuring EtO by the charcoal tube method.

  18. Lyotropic Phase Behavior of Polybutadiene-Poly(ethylene oxide) Diblock Copolymers in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Peter M.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2008-08-26

    The lyotropic phase behavior of three poly(1,2-butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers (PB-PEO) with different monomer volume fractions has been studied in two different ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMI][TFSI]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMI][PF{sub 6}]), across the complete concentration range. The ordered microstructures present in the solutions were characterized via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The phase diagrams for the PB-PEO/ionic liquid solutions include regions corresponding to the classical copolymer microstructures: body-centered-cubic lattices of spheres, hexagonally ordered cylinders, and lamellae. Additionally, the phase diagrams also include wide regions of coexisting microstructures and regions apparently corresponding to a disordered network microstructure. The phase behavior of the PB-PEO copolymers in both ionic liquids was comparable to their previously reported aqueous solution behavior. The temperature dependence of the phase diagrams was very modest, indicative of a highly segregated system. The level of solvent selectivity was also investigated via cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) on dilute solutions. On the basis of the morphology of the dilute solution copolymer aggregate structures in the ionic liquid solvents, and on the structural length scales of the concentrated solutions, it was concluded that for PB-PEO [BMI][PF{sub 6}] behaves as a more selective solvent than [EMI][TFSI].

  19. Solid dispersion of acetaminophen and poly(ethylene oxide) prepared by hot-melt mixing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Wang, Peng; Huang, Chien-Yueh; Ku, M Sherry; Liu, Huiju; Gogos, Costas

    2010-08-16

    In this study, a model drug, acetaminophen (APAP), was melt mixed with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) using a Brabender mixer. APAP was found to recrystallize upon cooling to room temperature for all the drug loadings investigated. Higher drug loading leads to faster recrystallization rate. However, the morphology of the recrystallized drug crystals is identical in samples with different drug loadings and does not change with the storage time. To adjust the drug's dissolution rate, nanoclay Cloisite 15A and 30B were added into the binary mixture. The presence of either of the nanoclay dramatically accelerates the drug's recrystallization rate and slows down the drug's releasing rate. The drop of the releasing rate is mainly due to the decrease of wettability, as supported by the contact angle data. Data analysis of the dissolution results suggests that the addition of nanoclays changes the drug's release mechanism from erosion dominant to diffusion dominant. This study suggests that nanoclays may be utilized to tailor the drug's releasing rate and to improve the dosage form's stability by dramatically shortening the lengthy recrystallization process. PMID:20435110

  20. Ethylene diamine-assisted synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles in high-boiling polyolys.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Darius; Zielasek, Volkmar; Dreher, Wolfgang; Bäumer, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    The decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate in high-boiling polyols such as diethylene glycole is an efficient way to produce water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) with small sizes. We present an extension of this method by introducing ethylene diamine (EDA) or diethylene triamine (DTA) as a structure-directing agent and adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizing agent. The synthesis was studied with respect to effects of the chain length of the polyol used as solvent, the chain length of the structure-directing agent, the presence of PVP, the heating rate, and the nature of the precursor. By varying these parameters, we were able to show, that probably an interplay of the structure-directing agent and the polyol plays an important role for the stabilization and growth of the different facets of the IONP crystal. The chain length of the polyol used as solvent alters the influence of EDA or DTA as stabilizer of {111} facets, leading to IONPs with spherical, tetrahedral, or nanoplate morphology and mean diameters ranging from 4 nm up to 25 nm. PVP in the reaction medium narrows down particle size and shape distributions and promotes the formation of very stable, water-based colloidal solutions. The saturation magnetization of the particles was determined by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and their ability to act as a T2-contrast agent was tested by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  1. Comparison of liquid chemical sterilization with peracetic acid and ethylene oxide sterilization for long narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Alfa, M J; DeGagne, P; Olson, N; Hizon, R

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how well peracetic acid liquid chemical sterilization (LCPAS) killed test organisms in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.65% salt challenge (RPMI-S) compared with a 100% ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilizer and an ETO hydrochlorofluorocarbon (ETO-HCFC) sterilization method with long (125 cm), narrow (3-mm internal diameter) flexible lumens as the test carrier. The inoculated lumens were dried overnight before processing. The test organisms included Mycobacterium chelonei, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. For all 3 organisms tested, the LCPAS process resulted in a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial load compared with a 2.5 log10 to 6 log10 reduction for the 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilizers. Sterilization was achieved for 100%, 61%, and 67% of the lumen test carriers for the LCPAS, 100% ETO, and ETO-HCFC sterilizers, respectively. The data indicate that of the sterilization methods evaluated, LCPAS was the most effective for sterilizing narrow flexible lumens in the presence of residual inorganic and organic soil. This effectiveness was achieved through a combination of organism wash-off and peracetic acid sterilant killing of organisms. Salt was the major compounding factor for effective ETO gas sterilization, because carriers inoculated with organisms in 10% fetal bovine serum alone all were sterilized by both 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilization methods. Our data support the critical need to ensure adequate precleaning of narrow flexible lumen endoscopes before any sterilization method.

  2. Simultaneous Surface Modification and Chemical Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Ethylene Diamine.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hui; Zhang, Yudong; Wang, Xiaodong; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-03-01

    We report a simple and facile method of reducing and modifying graphene oxide (GO) simultaneously using ethylene diamine (ED). The ED-modified and reduced GO (denoted as E-rGO) as well as the GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (denoted as H-rGO) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that as-prepared E-rGO exhibited good dispersibility in water and water-borne polyurethane (denoted as WPU) matrix and improve greatly the mechanical properties of WPU matrix. Moreover, E-rGO showed a high electric conductivity close to that of H-rGO after ultrasonic treatment for 12 h, which indicated that ED had the desired reducibility. The present approach could help to broaden the application field of graphene nanosheets and provide a new opportunity for developing high performance graphene/polymer-matrix composites. PMID:27455669

  3. Photopolymerization-induced crystallization and phase separation in poly(ethylene oxide)/triacrylate blends

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Soo Jeoung; Kyu, Thein

    2008-12-28

    The present article describes experimental and theoretical investigations of miscibility and crystallization behavior of blends of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and triacrylate monomer (TA) using differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. The PEO/TA blends manifested a single T{sub g} varying systematically with composition suggestive of a miscible character in their amorphous states. Moreover, there occurs melting point depression of PEO crystals with increasing TA. A phase diagram was subsequently established that exhibited a solid+liquid coexistence region bound by the liquidus and solidus lines, followed by an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) at a lower temperature. The emerging phase morphology was investigated to verify the coexistence regions. Upon photopolymerization in the isotropic melt above the melting point depression curve, both the UCST and the melting temperatures move upward and eventually surpass the reaction temperature, resulting in phase separation as well as crystallization of PEO driven by the changing supercooling, i.e., the thermodynamic driving force. Of particular interest is the interplay between photopolymerization-induced phase separation and crystallization, which eventually determines the final phase morphology of the PEO/TA blend such as crystalline lamellae, sheaf, or spherulites in isotropic liquid, phase separated domains, and viscous fingering liquids.

  4. Investigation of active substance release from poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Savaş, H; Güven, O

    2001-08-14

    The uptake and controlled release of model active substances from poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), hydrogels synthesized by irradiation were investigated. For the characterization of network structure of PEO hydrogels, swelling properties in water and the number average molecular weight between crosslinks were determined. Salicylic acid, phthalic acid and resorcinol were used as model substances for their controlled release from PEO hydrogels. The effects of dose rate, total dose and chemical structure of active substance on the uptake and release have been studied. The active substance uptake capacity of hydrogels was found to be lowest for phthalic acid and highest for resorcinol in the gel system obtained by irradiation both at low and high dose rates. The release was lowest both in rate and in total amounts in hydrogels containing phthalic acid, more in those with salicylic acid and highest in those with resorcinol. The physical and chemical factors affecting the release of model compounds such as the network structure of hydrogels and hydrogen bond formation between the adsorbent and PEO chains were discussed.

  5. Poly(ethylene oxide) Functionalized Graphene Nanoribbons with Excellent Solution Processability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yinjuan; Mai, Yiyong; Beser, Uliana; Teyssandier, Joan; Velpula, Gangamallaiah; van Gorp, Hans; Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Hansen, Michael Ryan; Rizzo, Daniele; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Guangyu; Wu, Dongqing; Zhang, Fan; Yan, Deyue; De Feyter, Steven; Müllen, Klaus; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-17

    Structurally well-defined graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have attracted great interest as next-generation semiconductor materials. The functionalization of GNRs with polymeric side chains, which can widely broaden GNR-related studies on physiochemical properties and potential applications, has remained unexplored. Here, we demonstrate the bottom-up solution synthesis of defect-free GNRs grafted with flexible poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains. The GNR backbones possess an armchair edge structure with a width of 1.0-1.7 nm and mean lengths of 15-60 nm, enabling near-infrared absorption and a low bandgap of 1.3 eV. Remarkably, the PEO grafting renders the GNRs superb dispersibility in common organic solvents, with a record concentration of ∼1 mg mL(-1) (for GNR backbone) that is much higher than that (<0.01 mg mL(-1)) of reported GNRs. Moreover, the PEO-functionalized GNRs can be readily dispersed in water, accompanying with supramolecular helical nanowire formation. Scanning probe microscopy reveals raft-like self-assembled monolayers of uniform GNRs on graphite substrates. Thin-film-based field-effect transistors (FETs) of the GNRs exhibit a high carrier mobility of ∼0.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), manifesting promising application of the polymer-functionalized GNRs in electronic devices. PMID:27463961

  6. Li ion conductors based on laponite/poly(ethylene oxide) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Reed, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    Synthesis and characterization of single ion conducting poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/Li-laponite nanocomposites are reported. The amount of PEO that can be intercalated into laponite, a synthetic hectorite with high surface area, ranges from about 0.7g/g Li-laponite when the polymer average molecular weight is 1,000 or above, to about 1 g/g for oligomers of average molecular weight 500. The interlayer spacing increases from about 10 {angstrom} in the dry clay to 20--24 {angstrom} in the nanocomposites, depending upon polymer molecular weight, and the average particle size increases proportionally, but is still in the sub-micron range. AC impedance measurements on the clear, slightly brittle, self-supporting films indicate that the nanocomposite conductivity is greatly enhanced over that of the dry clay. A maximum of about 10{sup {minus}6} S/cm at 80 C is obtained for materials containing a slight excess of polymer, and conductivities of nanocomposites containing PEO were generally higher than that of those containing oxymethylene linked polyethylene glycol (amorphous PEOs). Suggestions for further improving conductivity and mechanical properties of these novel materials are presented.

  7. The diffusion and conduction of lithium in poly(ethylene oxide)-based sulfonate ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFemina, Nikki H.; Chen, Quan; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy have been utilized to investigate lithium dynamics within poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based lithium sulfonate ionomers of varying ion content. The ion content is set by the fraction of sulfonated phthalates and the molecular weight of the PEO spacer, both of which can be varied independently. The molecular level dynamics of the ionomers are dominated by either Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann or Arrhenius behavior depending on ion content, spacer length, temperature, and degree of ionic aggregation. In these ionomers the main determinants of the self-diffusion of lithium and the observed conductivities are the ion content and ionic states of the lithium ion, which are profoundly affected by the interactions of the lithium ions with the ether oxygens of the polymer. Since many lithium ions move by segmental polymer motion in the ion pair state, their diffusion is significantly larger than that estimated from conductivity using the Nernst-Einstein equation.

  8. Swelling and polymer erosion for poly(ethylene oxide) tablets of different molecular weights polydispersities.

    PubMed

    Körner, Anna; Larsson, Anette; Andersson, Asa; Piculell, Lennart

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare the degree of swelling and the swelling kinetics of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hydrophilic matrix tablets without any additives for matrixes with different molecular weight polydispersities. A wide range of "mixed" polydisperse PEO tablets were obtained by mixing two PEO batches with average molecular weights of 10(5) and 2 x 10(6), respectively. These were compared with "single-batch" tablets with narrower mono-modal molecular weight distributions. A texture analyzer (TA) was used to determine, during the entire dissolution process, the thickness of the "gel" layer, the height of the dry tablet core and the total height of the tablet. The release of polymer from the tablet was also measured using a chromatographic method. Both the swelling histories and the polymer release rates varied strongly with molecular weight and agitation rate, whereas the rate of dissolution of the solid core varied much less with molecular weight. For single-batch and mixed tablets, tuned to give the same release rate, the swelling process was found to be very similar, regardless of the molecular polydispersity (between 1.2 and 8.8). These results support a previously proposed dissolution model with the key assumption of a constant critical viscosity, independent of time or polymer molecular weight, at the surface of the gel layer of a dissolving tablet. PMID:19718760

  9. Solid dispersion of acetaminophen and poly(ethylene oxide) prepared by hot-melt mixing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Wang, Peng; Huang, Chien-Yueh; Ku, M Sherry; Liu, Huiju; Gogos, Costas

    2010-08-16

    In this study, a model drug, acetaminophen (APAP), was melt mixed with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) using a Brabender mixer. APAP was found to recrystallize upon cooling to room temperature for all the drug loadings investigated. Higher drug loading leads to faster recrystallization rate. However, the morphology of the recrystallized drug crystals is identical in samples with different drug loadings and does not change with the storage time. To adjust the drug's dissolution rate, nanoclay Cloisite 15A and 30B were added into the binary mixture. The presence of either of the nanoclay dramatically accelerates the drug's recrystallization rate and slows down the drug's releasing rate. The drop of the releasing rate is mainly due to the decrease of wettability, as supported by the contact angle data. Data analysis of the dissolution results suggests that the addition of nanoclays changes the drug's release mechanism from erosion dominant to diffusion dominant. This study suggests that nanoclays may be utilized to tailor the drug's releasing rate and to improve the dosage form's stability by dramatically shortening the lengthy recrystallization process.

  10. Comparative sterilization effectiveness of plasma in O2-H2O2 mixtures and ethylene oxide treatment.

    PubMed

    Silva, J M F; Moreira, A J; Oliveira, D C; Bonato, C B; Mansano, R D; Pinto, T J A

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influence of variable parameters of plasma sterilization and compared its effectiveness with that of ethylene oxide using a reactive ion etching plasma reactor at 13.56 MHz. Gases tested were pure oxygen and oxygen-hydrogen peroxide mixtures in 190/10, 180/20, and 160/40 sccm ratios with constant gas flow at 200 sccm, pressure at 0.100 torr, radio-frequency power at 25 W, 50 W, 100 W, and 150 W, and temperature below 60 degrees C. Ethylene oxide sterilization was performed using 450 mg/L at 55 degrees C, 60% humidity, and -0.65 and 0.60 kgf/cm2 pressure. The biological indicator was Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372, with exposure times of 3 to 120 min. Observed D values were 215.91, 55.55, 9.19, and 2.98 min for pure oxygen plasma at 25 W, 50 W, 100 W, and 150 W, respectively. Oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma produced D values of 6.41 min (190/10), 6.47 min (180/20), and 4.02 min (160/40) at 100 W and 1.47 min (190/10), 3.11 min (180/20), and 1.94 min (160/40) at 150 W. Ethylene oxide processes resulted in a D value of 2.86 min. Scanning electron microscopy analyses showed damage to the spore cortex.

  11. Application of the aqueous two-phase systems of ethylene and propylene oxide copolymer-maltodextrin for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Bolognese, Belén; Nerli, Bibiana; Picó, Guillermo

    2005-01-25

    In this study, the effect of several factors that govern the partitioning behaviour of three model proteins, such as bovine serum albumin, lysozyme and trypsin was analysed in a two-phase system formed by maltodextrin and a copolymer of ethylene and propylene oxides. The protein partition coefficient (K(r)) showed to be very sensitive to temperature changes, protein molecular weight, pH medium and the lyotropic ion presence. The phase diagram obtained for these novel polymer-polymer two-phase systems shows two phases with high polymer concentrations. The maltodextrin is enriched in the bottom phase while the copolymer of ethylene and propylene oxides is found in the upper phase. Since this copolymer is thermoreactive, the upper phase can be removed and heated above the copolymer's cloud point resulting in the formation of a new two-phase system with a lower water phase, containing the target protein and an upper copolymer-rich phase. Our results show that systems formed by maltodextrin and a copolymer of ethylene and propylene oxides may be considered as an interesting alternative to be used in protein purification due to their low cost, and also because they offer a viable solution to problems of polymer removal and recycling.

  12. Comparative sterilization effectiveness of plasma in O2-H2O2 mixtures and ethylene oxide treatment.

    PubMed

    Silva, J M F; Moreira, A J; Oliveira, D C; Bonato, C B; Mansano, R D; Pinto, T J A

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influence of variable parameters of plasma sterilization and compared its effectiveness with that of ethylene oxide using a reactive ion etching plasma reactor at 13.56 MHz. Gases tested were pure oxygen and oxygen-hydrogen peroxide mixtures in 190/10, 180/20, and 160/40 sccm ratios with constant gas flow at 200 sccm, pressure at 0.100 torr, radio-frequency power at 25 W, 50 W, 100 W, and 150 W, and temperature below 60 degrees C. Ethylene oxide sterilization was performed using 450 mg/L at 55 degrees C, 60% humidity, and -0.65 and 0.60 kgf/cm2 pressure. The biological indicator was Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372, with exposure times of 3 to 120 min. Observed D values were 215.91, 55.55, 9.19, and 2.98 min for pure oxygen plasma at 25 W, 50 W, 100 W, and 150 W, respectively. Oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma produced D values of 6.41 min (190/10), 6.47 min (180/20), and 4.02 min (160/40) at 100 W and 1.47 min (190/10), 3.11 min (180/20), and 1.94 min (160/40) at 150 W. Ethylene oxide processes resulted in a D value of 2.86 min. Scanning electron microscopy analyses showed damage to the spore cortex. PMID:17722487

  13. Effect of repetitive ozone treatment on bean plants—stress ethylene production and leaf necrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Hans-Jürgen; Schicker, Sieglinde

    Bean plants were repetitively treated with varying ozone (O 3) concentrations and exposure times on successive days. Our studies clearly demonstrate that a series of successive short episodes of ozone exposure is more damaging to the plants than continuous exposure of the same O 3 concentration for the same total exposure time. In contrast to single ozone exposure experiments repetitive ozone treatment causes stress ethylene production and the beginning of leaf necrosis at the same time. The "no effect levels" estimated for O 3 with single exposure experiments can not be applied to repetitive ozone exposure episodes because the plants are more sensitive under these conditions.

  14. High-temperature catalytic oxidative conversion of propane to propylene and ethylene involving coupling of exothermic and endothermic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, V.R.; Rane, V.H.; Rajput, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Coupling of the exothermic catalytic oxidative conversion and endothermic thermal cracking (noncatalytic) reactions of propane to propylene and ethylene over the SrO/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SA5205 catalyst in the presence of steam and limited oxygen was investigated at different process conditions (temperature, 700--850 C; C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/O{sub 2} ratio in feed, 2.0--8.0; H{sub 2}O/C{sub 3}H{sub 8} ratio, 0.5--2.5; space velocity, 2,000--15,000 cm{sup 3}/g h). In the presence of steam and limited O{sub 2}, the endothermic thermal cracking and exothermic oxidative conversion reactions occur simultaneously and there is no coke formation on the catalyst. Because of the direct coupling of exothermic and endothermic reactions, this process occurs in a most energy efficient and safe manner. The propane conversion, selectivity for propylene, and net heat of reaction ({Delta}H{sub r}) in the process are strongly influenced by the temperature and concentration of O{sub 2} relative to the propane in the feed. The C{sub 3}H{sub 6}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} product ratio is also strongly influenced by the temperature, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/O{sub 2} feed ratio, and space velocity. The net heat of reaction can be controlled by manipulating the reaction temperature and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/O{sub 2} ratio in the feed; the process exothermicity is reduced drastically with increasing the temperature and/or C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/O{sub 2} feed ratio.

  15. Dimethyl Sulfide-Dimethyl Ether and Ethylene Oxide-Ethylene Sulfide Complexes Investigated by Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy and AB Initio Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Tatamitani, Yoshio; Mase, Takayuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2015-06-01

    The ground-state rotational spectra of the dimethyl sulfide-dimethyl ether (DMS-DME) and the ethylene oxide and ethylene sulfide (EO-ES) complexes were observed by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, and a-type and c-type transitions were assigned for the normal, 34S, and three 13C species of the DMS-DME and a-type and b-type rotational transitions for the normal, 34S, and two 13C species of the EO-ES. The observed transitions were analyzed by using an S-reduced asymmetric-top rotational Hamiltonian. The rotational parameters thus derived for the DMS-DME were found consistent with a structure of Cs symmetry with the DMS bound to the DME by two C-H(DMS)---O and one S---H-C(DME) hydrogen bonds. The barrier height V3 to internal rotation of the "free" methyl group in the DME was determined to be 915.4 (23) wn, which is smaller than that of the DME monomer, 951.72 (70) wn, and larger than that of the DME dimer, 785.4 (52) wn. For the EO-ES complex the observed data were interpreted in the terms of an antiparallel Cs geometry with the EO bound to the ES by two C-H(ES)---O and two S---H-C(EO) hydrogen bonds. We have applied a natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis to the DMS-DME and EO-ES to calculate the stabilization energy CT (= ΔEσσ*), which were closely correlated with the binding energy EB, as found for other related complexes. Y. Niide and M. Hayashi, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 220, 65-79 (2003). Y. Tatamitani, B. Liu, J. Shimada, T. Ogata, P. Ottaviani, A. Maris, W. Caminati, and J. L. Alonso, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2739-2743 (2002).

  16. Cationic surfactants/copoly(styrene oxide ethylene oxide) systems: A physico-chemical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, Pablo; Castro, Emilio; Barbosa, Silvia; Mosquera, Víctor

    2005-07-01

    The interactions between the diblock copolymer S 15E 63 and the surfactants dodecyltrimethylammonium (DoTAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammoniun (CTAB) bromides have been investigated by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. The surfactants with the same headgroup differentiate in their chain length. At 20 °C, the block copolymer is associated into micelles with a hydrodynamic radius of 11.3 nm, which is composed of a hydrophobic styrene oxide (S) core and a water-swollen oxypolyethylene (PEO) corona. The different copolymer/surfactant systems have been studied at a constant copolymer concentration of 2.5 g dm -3 and in a vast range of surfactant concentration, from 5.0 × 10 -6 up to 0.1 M. When DoTAB is added to the block copolymer solution, no important variations are observed in the apparent hydrodynamic radius up to a surfactant concentration of ˜10 -2 M, for which this magnitude starts decreasing abruptly as a consequence of disruption of the copolymer micelles due to surfactant binding. This phenomenon is also observed for CTAB but at much lower concentrations (˜10 -5 M). This decrease is associated to repulsive electrostatic interactions between surfactant headgroups in the micelle. Complete disruption of the mixed aggregates occurs neither for DoTAB nor CTAB in the measured concentration range. Transmission electron microscopy has confirmed this behaviour. Titration calorimetric data of micellised DoTAB present a plateau region indicating no interaction between the copolymer and the surfactant at low surfactant concentrations, followed by an exothermic decrease as a consequence of starting copolymer micelle disruption. For CTAB, an endothermic maximum points out the existence of interactions between copolymer micelles and this surfactant. This maximum is followed by a steep decrease which reflects the disruption of the mixed surfactant/copolymer micelles up to a very shallow exothermic minimum from

  17. Repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium of long-lasting flowers of the carnation 'White Candle': role of the gynoecium in carnation flower senescence.

    PubMed

    Nukui, Hideki; Kudo, Sakiko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2004-03-01

    Ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes was investigated in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars 'White Candle (WC)' and 'Light Pink Barbara (LPB)', with long and short vase-lives, respectively. Ethylene production from the gynoecium and petals of senescing 'WC' flowers was below the limit of detection, in agreement with the repressed ethylene production from the whole flowers. However, exogenous ethylene treatment caused the accumulation of transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 genes in both the gynoecium and petals, resulting in ethylene production from the flowers. Moreover, application of ABA or IAA, which are known to exhibit their action through the induction of ethylene synthesis in the gynoecium, to 'WC' flowers from their cut stem-end induced ethylene production and wilting in the flowers. These findings suggested that, in 'WC' flowers the mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis, i.e. the induction of expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis and the action of resulting enzymes, was not defective, but that its function was repressed during natural senescence. Transcripts of DC-ACO1, DC-ACS3, and DC-ACS1 were present in the gynoecium of senescing 'LPB' flowers. In the gynoecium of senescing 'WC' flowers, however, the DC-ACO1 transcript was present, but the DC-ACS1 transcript was absent and the DC-ACS3 transcript was detected only in a small amount; the latter two were associated with the low rate of ethylene production in the gynoecium of 'WC' flowers. These findings indicated that the repressed ethylene production in 'WC' flowers during natural senescence is caused by the repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium, giving further support for the role of the gynoecium in regulating petal senescence in carnation flowers.

  18. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    PubMed

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and in vivo evaluation of poly(ethylene oxide-co-glycidol)-platinate conjugate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Zhongyu; Chau, Ying

    2010-11-20

    Poly(ethylene oxide-co-glycidol) (poly(EO-co-Gly)), a member of polyether polyol (PEP), resembles polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the polymer backbone but distinguishes itself by having multiple pendent groups along the main chain. We showed that this new bioconjugation material is biocompatible by its lack of toxicity on fibroblast cell growth, inactivity in hemolysis, and the absence of side effects after injection in mice. The usefulness of poly(EO-co-Gly) as a polymeric drug carrier was demonstrated via the preparation and characterization of a new anticancer polymer-drug conjugate, poly(EO-co-Gly)-platinate. The drug loading was 9.1-12.6% (cisplatin/conjugate w/w), at least four times higher than a PEG conjugate of similar molecular weight. The aqueous solubility of cisplatin was increased by around 10 folds after conjugation. Platinum complexes were released from the conjugate in a sustained manner over 2 days. The release of active drugs was confirmed by the antitumor activity of poly(EO-co-Gly)-platinate in vitro against HONE-1 (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer), albeit at a potency lower than free cisplatin. Poly(EO-co-Gly)-platinate improved the therapeutic index of cisplatin in vivo. The conjugate had a similar antitumor activity as free cisplatin in nude mice bearing HONE-1 xenografts, and achieved 52% inhibition of tumor growth at the conclusion of the study. While free cisplatin injection caused a severe loss in body weight (>20%), poly(EO-co-Gly)-platinate resulted in mild side effects. These findings support that poly(EO-co-Gly) is a suitable drug carrier.

  20. Complement activation on poly(ethylene oxide)-like RFGD-deposited surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Szott, Luisa Mayorga; Stein, M. Jeanette; Ratner, Buddy D.; Horbett, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific protein adsorption, particularly fibrinogen (Fg), is thought to be an initiating step in the foreign body response (FBR) to biomaterials by promoting phagocyte attachment. In previous studies, we therefore prepared radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) polyethylene oxide (PEO)-like tetraglyme coatings (CH3O(CH2CH2O)4CH3) adsorbing less than 10 ng/cm2 Fg and showed that they had the expected low monocyte adhesion in vitro. However, when these were implanted in vivo, many adherent inflammatory cells and a fibrous capsule were found, suggesting the role of alternative proteins, such as activated complement proteins, in the FBR to these materials. We therefore investigated complement interactions with the tetraglyme surfaces. First, because of its well known role in complement C3 activation, we measured the hydroxyl group (-OH) content of tetraglyme, but found it to be very low. Second, we measured C3 adsorption to tetraglyme from plasma. Low amounts of C3 adsorbed on tetraglyme, though it displayed higher binding strength than the control surfaces. Finally, complement activation was determined by measuring C3a and SC5b-9 levels in serum after incubating with tetraglyme, as well as other surfaces that served as positive and negative controls, namely poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels, Silastic sheeting, and poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers with different end groups. Despite displaying low hydroxyl group concentration, relatively high C3a and SC5b-9 levels were found in serum exposed to tetraglyme, similar to the values due to our positive control, PVA. Our results support the conclusion that complement activation by tetraglyme is a possible mechanism involved in the FBR to these biomaterials. PMID:21105163

  1. Surface modification of gadolinium oxide thin films and nanoparticles using poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Guay-Bégin, Andrée-Anne; Chevallier, Pascale; Faucher, Luc; Turgeon, Stéphane; Fortin, Marc-André

    2012-01-10

    The performance of nanomaterials for biomedical applications is highly dependent on the nature and the quality of surface coatings. In particular, the development of functionalized nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the grafting of hydrophilic, nonimmunogenic, and biocompatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Attached at the surface of nanoparticles, this polymer enhances the steric repulsion and therefore the stability of the colloids. In this study, phosphate molecules were used as an alternative to silanes or carboxylic acids, to graft PEG at the surface of ultrasmall gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (US-Gd(2)O(3), 2-3 nm diameter). This emerging, high-sensitivity "positive" contrast agent is used for signal enhancement in T(1)-weighted molecular and cellular MRI. Comparative grafting assays were performed on Gd(2)O(3) thin films, which demonstrated the strong reaction of phosphate with Gd(2)O(3) compared to silane and carboxyl groups. Therefore, PEG-phosphate was preferentially used to coat US-Gd(2)O(3) nanoparticles. The grafting of this polymer on the particles was confirmed by XPS and FTIR. These analyses also demonstrated the strong attachment of PEG-phosphate at the surface of Gd(2)O(3), forming a protective layer on the nanoparticles. The stability in aqueous solution, the relaxometric properties, and the MRI signal of PEG-phosphate-covered Gd(2)O(3) particles were also better than those from non-PEGylated nanoparticles. As a result, reacting PEG-phosphate with Gd(2)O(3) particles is a promising, rapid, one-step procedure to PEGylate US-Gd(2)O(3) nanoparticles, an emerging "positive" contrast agent for preclinical molecular and cellular applications.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Polymersomes Composed of Poly(Butadiene-Ethylene Oxide); Healthy versus Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; de Kruijff, R M; Abou, D; Ramos, N; Mendes, E; Franken, L E; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G

    2016-02-01

    Vesicles composed of block copolymers (i.e., polymersomes) are one of the most versatile nano-carriers for medical purposes due to their tuneable physicochemical properties and the possibility to encapsulate simultaneously hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, allowing, for instance, the combination of therapy and imaging. In cancer treatment, these vesicles need to remain long enough in the blood stream to be sufficiently taken up by tumors. Here, we have investigated the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics of polymersomes, composed of poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) having dimensions around 80 nm. The polymersomes have been radiolabeled with ¹¹¹In via the so-called active loading method achieving a loading efficiency of 92.9 ± 0.9% with radionuclide retention in mouse serum of more than 95% at 24 h. The optimized ¹¹¹In containing polymersomes have been intravenously administered in healthy and tumor bearing mice for pharmacokinetic determination using microSPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). In healthy mice these polymersomes have been found to exhibit relatively long blood circulation (> 6 h), low liver uptake (6 ± 1.5%ID/g, 48 h p.i.) and elevated spleen uptake (188 ± 30%ID/g). The blood circulation in tumor bearing mice is dramatically reduced (< 1.5 h) most likely due to elevated splenic filtration, clearly indicating the importance of in vivo studies in diseased mice. Finally, the polymersomes have been injected subcutaneously in tumor bearing mice revealing retention of 77% in the mice, primarily accumulated at the site of injection, up to 48 hours after administration.

  3. Polymer chain organization in tensile-stretched poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Burba, Christopher M.; Woods, Lauren; Millar, Sarah Y.; Pallie, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Polymer chain orientation in tensile-stretched poly(ethylene oxide)-lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate polymer electrolytes are investigated with polarized infrared spectroscopy as a function of the degree of strain and salt composition (ether oxygen atom to lithium ion ratios of 20:1, 15:1, and 10:1). The 1359 and 1352 cm-1 bands are used to probe the crystalline PEO and P(EO)3LiCF3SO3 domains, respectively, allowing a direct comparison of chain orientation for the two phases. Two-dimensional correlation FT-IR spectroscopy indicates that the two crystalline domains align at the same rate as the polymer electrolytes are stretched. Quantitative measurements of polymer chain orientation obtained through dichroic infrared spectroscopy show that chain orientation predominantly occurs between strain values of 150% and 250%, regardless of salt composition investigated. There are few changes in chain orientation for either phase when the films are further elongated to a strain of 300%; however, the PEO domains are slightly more oriented at the high strain values. The spectroscopic data are consistent with stretching-induced melt-recrystallization of the unoriented crystalline domains in the solution-cast polymer films. Stretching the films pulls polymer chains from the crystalline domains, which subsequently recrystallize with the polymer helices parallel to the stretch direction. If lithium ion conduction in crystalline polymer electrolytes is viewed as consisting of two major components (facile intra-chain lithium ion conduction and slow helix-to-helix inter-grain hopping), then alignment of the polymer helices will affect the ion conduction pathways for these materials by reducing the number of inter-grain hops required to migrate through the polymer electrolyte. PMID:22184475

  4. Polymer chain organization in tensile-stretched poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Burba, Christopher M; Woods, Lauren; Millar, Sarah Y; Pallie, Jonathan

    2011-12-15

    Polymer chain orientation in tensile-stretched poly(ethylene oxide)-lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate polymer electrolytes are investigated with polarized infrared spectroscopy as a function of the degree of strain and salt composition (ether oxygen atom to lithium ion ratios of 20:1, 15:1, and 10:1). The 1359 and 1352 cm(-1) bands are used to probe the crystalline PEO and P(EO)(3)LiCF(3)SO(3) domains, respectively, allowing a direct comparison of chain orientation for the two phases. Two-dimensional correlation FT-IR spectroscopy indicates that the two crystalline domains align at the same rate as the polymer electrolytes are stretched. Quantitative measurements of polymer chain orientation obtained through dichroic infrared spectroscopy show that chain orientation predominantly occurs between strain values of 150% and 250%, regardless of salt composition investigated. There are few changes in chain orientation for either phase when the films are further elongated to a strain of 300%; however, the PEO domains are slightly more oriented at the high strain values. The spectroscopic data are consistent with stretching-induced melt-recrystallization of the unoriented crystalline domains in the solution-cast polymer films. Stretching the films pulls polymer chains from the crystalline domains, which subsequently recrystallize with the polymer helices parallel to the stretch direction. If lithium ion conduction in crystalline polymer electrolytes is viewed as consisting of two major components (facile intra-chain lithium ion conduction and slow helix-to-helix inter-grain hopping), then alignment of the polymer helices will affect the ion conduction pathways for these materials by reducing the number of inter-grain hops required to migrate through the polymer electrolyte.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigations into long range chain fluctuations in molten poly(ethylene-oxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen Addad, Jean-Pierre; Guillermo, Armel

    1999-10-01

    We studied by NMR the long range relaxation of poly-(ethylene oxide) chains, in the melt; the molecular weight was varied over the range 12-450 K. The transverse magnetic relaxation curves of protons attached to the polymer were thoroughly analyzed over the time interval 0-1 s and over the amplitude range 5×10-4 to 1. The analysis revealed three ensembles of protons clearly distinguished from one another from their different relaxation rates (≈7, 102, and 103 s-1, respectively), on the one hand, and from the differences brought about by forming so-called pseudosolid spin-echoes specific to entangled polymers, on the other hand. In this work, it is shown that the main part of the relaxation curve (relative amplitude ≈80%) can be interpreted in terms of exponential modes of isotropic chain relaxation, corresponding to the partition of one chain into Gaussian submolecules. The model provided relaxation functions in very good agreement with experimental curves: the best fits showed that the submolecule molecular weight (11 K) and its associated correlation time (1 ms) are independent of the chain molecular weight. Typical values of the terminal relaxation time, τR, of chain fluctuations were 0.002 and 0.17 s, for molecular weights equal to 55 and 450 K, respectively; correspondingly, the terminal reptation times, estimated from self-diffusion data reported in the literature, were 0.002 and 2 s, respectively. On increasing the molecular weight, the isotropic chain relaxation observed from NMR was found to occur within a time interval much shorter than viscoelastic relaxation times.

  6. Ethylene Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Plasma Sterilization: Precautionary Practices in U.S. Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Boiano, James M.; Steege, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate precautionary practices and extent of use of ethylene oxide (EtO) and hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP) sterilization systems, including use of single chamber EtO units. Design Modular, web-based survey. Participants Members of professional practice organizations who reported using EtO or HPGP in the past week to sterilize medical instruments and supplies. Participating organizations invited members via email which included a hyperlink to the survey. Methods Descriptive analyses were conducted including simple frequencies and prevalences. Results A total of 428 respondents completed the module on chemical sterilants. Because most respondents worked in hospitals (87%, n=373) analysis focused on these workers. Most used HPGP sterilizers (84%, n=373), 38% used EtO sterilizers, with 22% using both. Nearly all respondents using EtO operated single chamber units (94%, n=120); most of them reported that the units employed single use cartridges (83%, n=115). Examples of where engineering and administrative controls were lacking for EtO include: operational local exhaust ventilation (7%; n=114); continuous air monitoring (6%; n=113); safe handling training (6%; n=142); and standard operating procedures (4%; n=142). Examples of practices which may increase HPGP exposure risk included lack of standard operating procedures (9%; n=311) and safe handling training (8%; n=312). Conclusions Use of precautionary practices was good but not universal. EtO use appears to have diminished in favor of HPGP which affords higher throughput and minimal regulatory constraints. Separate EtO sterilization and aeration units were still being used nearly one year after U.S. EPA prohibited their use. PMID:26594097

  7. Structure of the polymer electrolyte poly(ethylene oxide)6:LiAsF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macglashan, Graham S.; Andreev, Yuri G.; Bruce, Peter G.

    1999-04-01

    Polymer electrolytes-salts (such as LiCF3SO3) dissolved in solid, high-molar-mass polymers (for example, poly(ethylene oxide), PEO),,-hold the key to the development of all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. They also represent an unusual class of coordination compounds in the solid state. Conductivities of up to 10-4Scm-1 may be obtained, but higher levels are needed for applications in batteries,,. To achieve such levels requires a better understanding of the conduction mechanism, and crucial to this is a knowledge of polymer-electrolyte structure. Crystalline forms of polymer electrolytes are obtained at only a few discrete compositions. The structures of 3:1 and 4:1 complexes (denoting the ratio of ether oxygens to cations) have been determined,,. But the 6:1 complex is of greater interest as the conductivity of polymer electrolytes increases significantly on raising the polymer content from 3:1 to 6:1 (refs 10, 11). Furthermore, many highly conducting polymer-electrolyte systems form crystalline 6:1 complexes whereas those with lower conductivities do not. Here we report the structure of the PEO:LiAsF6 complex with a 6:1 composition. Determination of the structure was carried out abinitio by employing a method for flexible molecular structures, involving full profile fitting to the X-ray powder diffraction data by simulated annealing. Whereas in the 3:1 complexes the polymer chains form helices, those in the 6:1 complex form double non-helical chains which interlock to form a cylinder. The lithium ions reside inside these cylinders and, in contrast to other complexes, are not coordinated by the anions.

  8. Group VII Ethylene Response Factors Coordinate Oxygen and Nitric Oxide Signal Transduction and Stress Responses in Plants.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Conde, Jorge Vicente; Berckhan, Sophie; Prasad, Geeta; Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    The group VII ethylene response factors (ERFVIIs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have emerged as important regulators of abiotic and biotic stress responses, in particular, low-oxygen stress. A defining feature of ERFVIIs is their conserved N-terminal domain, which renders them oxygen- and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent substrates of the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis. In the presence of these gases, ERFVIIs are destabilized, whereas an absence of either permits their accumulation; ERFVIIs therefore coordinate plant homeostatic responses to oxygen availability and control a wide range of NO-mediated processes. ERFVIIs have a variety of context-specific protein and gene interaction partners, and also modulate gibberellin and abscisic acid signaling to regulate diverse developmental processes and stress responses. This update discusses recent advances in our understanding of ERFVII regulation and function, highlighting their role as central regulators of gaseous signal transduction at the interface of ethylene, oxygen, and NO signaling.

  9. Oxidation-Responsive and "Clickable" Poly(ethylene glycol) via Copolymerization of 2-(Methylthio)ethyl Glycidyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Herzberger, Jana; Fischer, Karl; Leibig, Daniel; Bros, Matthias; Thiermann, Raphael; Frey, Holger

    2016-07-27

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used biocompatible polymer. We describe a novel epoxide monomer with methyl-thioether moiety, 2-(methylthio)ethyl glycidyl ether (MTEGE), which enables the synthesis of well-defined thioether-functional poly(ethylene glycol). Random and block mPEG-b-PMTEGE copolymers (Mw/Mn = 1.05-1.17) were obtained via anionic ring opening polymerization (AROP) with molecular weights ranging from 5 600 to 12 000 g·mol(-1). The statistical copolymerization of MTEGE with ethylene oxide results in a random microstructure (rEO = 0.92 ± 0.02 and rMTEG E = 1.06 ± 0.02), which was confirmed by in situ (1)H NMR kinetic studies. The random copolymers are thermoresponsive in aqueous solution, with a wide range of tunable transition temperatures of 88 to 28 °C. In contrast, mPEG-b-PMTEGE block copolymers formed well-defined micelles (Rh ≈ 9-15 nm) in water, studied by detailed light scattering (DLS and SLS). Intriguingly, the thioether moieties of MTEGE can be selectively oxidized into sulfoxide units, leading to full disassembly of the micelles, as confirmed by detection of pure unimers (DLS and SLS). Oxidation-responsive release of encapsulated Nile Red demonstrates the potential of these micelles as redox-responsive nanocarriers. MTT assays showed only minor effects of the thioethers and their oxidized derivatives on the cellular metabolism of WEHI-164 and HEK-293T cell lines (1-1000 μg·mL(-1)). Further, sulfonium PEG polyelectrolytes can be obtained via alkylation or alkoxylation of MTEGE, providing access to a large variety of functional groups at the charged sulfur atom. PMID:27375132

  10. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  11. Production of Ethane, Ethylene, and Acetylene from Halogenated Hydrocarbons by Methanogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Belay, Negash; Daniels, Lacy

    1987-01-01

    Several methanogenic bacteria were shown to produce ethane, ethylene, and acetylene when exposed to the halogenated hydrocarbons bromoethane, dibromo- or dichloroethane, and 1,2-dibromoethylene, respectively. They also produced ethylene when exposed to the coenzyme M analog and specific methanogenic inhibitor bromoethanesulfonic acid. The production of these gases from halogenated hydrocarbons has a variety of implications concerning microbial ecology, agriculture, and toxic waste treatment. All halogenated aliphatic compounds tested were inhibitory to methanogens. Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, Methanococcus deltae, and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ΔH and Marburg were completely inhibited by 7 μM 1,2-dibromoethane and, to various degrees, by 51 to 1,084 μM 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. In general, the brominated compounds were more inhibitory. The two Methanococcus species were fully inhibited by 1 μM bromoethanesulfonic acid, whereas both Methanobacterium strains were only partly inhibited by 2,124 μM. Coenzyme M protected cells from bromoethanesulfonic acid but not from any of the other inhibitors. PMID:16347389

  12. Hydrogen production through aqueous-phase reforming of ethylene glycol in a washcoated microchannel.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, M Fernanda Neira; Ordomsky, Vitaly; Paunovic, Violeta; van der Schaaf, John; Schouten, Jaap C; Nijhuis, T Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of biocarbohydrates is conducted in a catalytically stable washcoated microreactor where multiphase hydrogen removal enhances hydrogen efficiency. Single microchannel experiments are conducted following a simplified model based on the microreactor concept. A coating method to deposit a Pt-based catalyst on the microchannel walls is selected and optimized. APR reactivity tests are performed by using ethylene glycol as the model compound. Optimum results are achieved with a static washcoating technique; a highly uniform and well adhered 5 μm layer is deposited on the walls of a 320 μm internal diameter (ID) microchannel in one single step. During APR of ethylene glycol, the catalyst layer exhibits high stability over 10 days after limited initial deactivation. The microchannel presents higher conversion and selectivity to hydrogen than a fixed-bed reactor. The benefits of using a microreactor for APR can be further enhanced by utilizing increased Pt loadings, higher reaction temperatures, and larger carbohydrates (e.g., glucose). The use of microtechnology for aqueous-phase reforming will allow for a great reduction in the reformer size, thus rendering it promising for distributed hydrogen production. PMID:23592593

  13. [Nitric oxide production in plants].

    PubMed

    Małolepsza, Urszula

    2007-01-01

    There are still many controversial observations and opinions on the cellular/subcellular localization and sources of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis in plant cells. NO can be produced in plants by non-enzymatic and enzymatic systems depending on plant species, organ or tissue as well as on physiological state of the plant and changing environmental conditions. The best documented reactions in plant that contribute to NO production are NO production from nitrite as a substrate by cytosolic (cNR) and membrane bound (PM-NR) nitrate reductases (NR), and NO production by several arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase-like activities (NOS). The latest papers indicate that mitochondria are an important source of arginine- and nitrite-dependent NO production in plants. There are other potential enzymatic sources of NO in plants including xanthine oxidoreductase, peroxidase, cytochrome P450. PMID:18399354

  14. A comparison of two methods for selecting vibrational configuration interaction spaces on a heptatomic system: ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Bégué, Didier; Gohaud, Neil; Pouchan, Claude; Cassam-Chenaï, Patrick; Liévin, Jacques

    2007-10-28

    Two recently developed methods for solving the molecular vibrational Schrodinger equation, namely, the parallel vibrational multiple window configuration interaction and the vibrational mean field configuration interaction, are presented and compared on the same potential energy surface of ethylene oxide, c-C(2)H(4)O. It is demonstrated on this heptatomic system with strong resonances that both approaches converge towards the same fundamental frequencies. This confirms their ability to tackle the vibrational problem of large molecules for which full configuration interaction calculations are not tractable. PMID:17979327

  15. Working conditions and health effects of ethylene oxide exposure at hospital sterilization sites.

    PubMed

    Sobaszek, A; Hache, J C; Frimat, P; Akakpo, V; Victoire, G; Furon, D

    1999-06-01

    Ethylene oxide (EtO) is a powerful disinfectant and sterilant for heat-sensitive surgical items and instruments. Its use in hospitals constitutes an important source of occupational exposure that is sometimes underestimated, such as in cases of EtO device malfunction when the safety rules of procedure are not strictly followed or when individual or collective protective equipment is lacking. We carried out a descriptive study of the health care workers who were assigned to EtO sterilization units of the Lille University Hospital Centre in Lille, France (n = 16). Before the modification of the sterilization units in the development of a single, central sterilization site, we studied the workplaces, occupational conditions, and work procedures of the health care workers exposed to EtO. The aim was to assess the risk of EtO overexposure of the workers in order to improve workers' health and security in the future sterilization center. The study was based on a physical examination, a questionnaire covering each subject's personal and occupational history, and a complete ocular examination. For occupational conditions, the studies of each workplace were also performed by the occupational physician. Area and personal breathing air samplings were performed at each exposure site. Fourteen of the 16 operators had posterior and anterior subcapsular lens opacities, three of which seemed to be directly and primarily related to occupational exposure; the other ten seemed to be rather common and compatible with age. High levels of EtO exposure were reported in the oldest site (90 parts per million [ppm] during the changing of the gas bottle), where exposure often exceeded French threshold limits (permissible exposure limit: 1 ppm 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) in air; short-term excursion limit: 5 ppm 15-minute TWA in air), or the current US recommended and legal exposure limits for EtO advocated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American

  16. Dose-rate effects of ethylene oxide exposure on developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Weller, E; Long, N; Smith, A; Williams, P; Ravi, S; Gill, J; Henessey, R; Skornik, W; Brain, J; Kimmel, C; Kimmel, G; Holmes, L; Ryan, L

    1999-08-01

    In risk assessment, evaluating a health effect at a duration of exposure that is untested involves assuming that equivalent multiples of concentration (C) and duration (T) of exposure have the same effect. The limitations of this approach (attributed to F. Haber, Zur Geschichte des Gaskrieges [On the history of gas warfare], in Funf Vortrage aus den Jahren 1920-1923 [Five lectures from the years 1920-1923], 1924, Springer, Berlin, pp. 76-92), have been noted in several studies. The study presented in this paper was designed to specifically look at dose-rate (C x T) effects, and it forms an ideal case study to implement statistical models and to examine the statistical issues in risk assessment. Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice were exposed, on gestational day 7, to ethylene oxide (EtO) via inhalation for 1.5, 3, or 6 h at exposures that result in C x T multiples of 2100 or 2700 ppm-h. EtO was selected because of its short half-life, documented developmental toxicity, and relevance to exposures that occur in occupational settings. Concurrent experiments were run with animals exposed to air for similar periods. Statistical analysis using models developed to assess dose-rate effects revealed significant effects with respect to fetal death and resorptions, malformations, crown-to-rump length, and fetal weight. Animals exposed to short, high exposures of EtO on day 7 of gestation were found to have more adverse effects than animals exposed to the same C x T multiple but at longer, lower exposures. The implication for risk assessment is that applying Haber's Law could potentially lead to an underestimation of risk at a shorter duration of exposure and an overestimation of risk at a longer duration of exposure. Further research, toxicological and statistical, are required to understand the mechanism of the dose-rate effects, and how to incorporate the mechanistic information into the risk assessment decision process. PMID:10478863

  17. Kinetics of Ethylene and Ethylene Oxide in Subcellular Fractions of Lungs and Livers of Male B6C3F1 Mice and Male Fischer 344 Rats and of Human Livers

    PubMed Central

    Csanády, György András; Kessler, Winfried; Klein, Dominik; Pankratz, Helmut; Pütz, Christian; Richter, Nadine; Filser, Johannes Georg

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is metabolized in mammals to the carcinogenic ethylene oxide (EO). Although both gases are of high industrial relevance, only limited data exist on the toxicokinetics of ET in mice and of EO in humans. Metabolism of ET is related to cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenase (CYP) and of EO to epoxide hydrolase (EH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Kinetics of ET metabolism to EO and of elimination of EO were investigated in headspace vessels containing incubations of subcellular fractions of mouse, rat, or human liver or of mouse or rat lung. CYP-associated metabolism of ET and GST-related metabolism of EO were found in microsomes and cytosol, respectively, of each species. EH-related metabolism of EO was not detectable in hepatic microsomes of rats and mice but obeyed saturation kinetics in hepatic microsomes of humans. In ET-exposed liver microsomes, metabolism of ET to EO followed Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics. Mean values of Vmax [nmol/(min·mg protein)] and of the apparent Michaelis constant (Km [mmol/l ET in microsomal suspension]) were 0.567 and 0.0093 (mouse), 0.401 and 0.031 (rat), and 0.219 and 0.013 (human). In lung microsomes, Vmax values were 0.073 (mouse) and 0.055 (rat). During ET exposure, the rate of EO production decreased rapidly. By modeling a suicide inhibition mechanism, rate constants for CYP-mediated catalysis and CYP inactivation were estimated. In liver cytosol, mean GST activities to EO expressed as Vmax/Km [μl/(min·mg protein)] were 27.90 (mouse), 5.30 (rat), and 1.14 (human). The parameters are most relevant for reducing uncertainties in the risk assessment of ET and EO. PMID:21785163

  18. Engineering a novel biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli for production of renewable ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Brian; Zhang, Haoran; De Mey, Marjan; Lim, Chin Giaw; Li, Zheng-Jun; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important commodity chemical with broad industrial applications. It is presently produced from petroleum or natural gas feedstocks in processes requiring consumption of significant quantities of non-renewable resources. Here, we report a novel pathway for biosynthesis of EG from the renewable sugar glucose in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Serine-to-EG conversion was first achieved through a pathway comprising serine decarboxylase, ethanolamine oxidase, and glycolaldehyde reductase. Serine provision in E. coli was then enhanced by overexpression of the serine-biosynthesis pathway. The integration of these two parts into the complete EG-biosynthesis pathway in E. coli allowed for production of 4.1 g/L EG at a cumulative yield of 0.14 g-EG/g-glucose, establishing a foundation for a promising biotechnology.

  19. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1984-02-15

    The subject invention comprises the steps of first reacting particulate coal with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C and at a partial pressure of methane of less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. More preferably, the method of the subject invention is carried out at a temperature of approximately 850/sup 0/C to 1000/sup 0/C and a pressure of 50 psig for a period of approximately 1.5 seconds. Surprisingly, it has been found that in the practice of the subject invention not only are commercially significant quantities of ethylene produced, namely yields in excess of 10% (percent carbon converted to product), along with economically significant quantities of-benzene and light oils, namely toluene and xylene, but also that there is little, if any, net consumption of methane in the reaction and possibly even a small net production. Since it is apparent that the carbonaceous solids or char remaining after the reaction is carried out may be burned to provide the necessary energy to carry out the process of the subject invention, it is apparent that the subject invention advantageously provides a method for the conversion of coal to economically significant quantities of ethylene, benzene and light oils while requiring only coal and, possibly, small amounts of make-up methane. Other objects and advantages of the subject invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from a consideration of the attached drawings, the detailed description of the invention, and the experimental examples set forth below.

  20. Molecular and physiological evidence suggests the existence of a system II-like pathway of ethylene production in non-climacteric Citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ehud; Lagunes, Paulino Martinez; Riov, Joseph; Weiss, David; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E

    2004-06-01

    Mature citrus fruits, which are classified as non-climacteric, evolve very low amounts of ethylene during ripening but respond to exogenous ethylene by ripening-related pigment changes and accelerated respiration. In the present study we show that young citrus fruitlets attached to the tree produce high levels of ethylene, which decrease dramatically towards maturation. Upon harvest, fruitlets exhibited a climacteric-like rise in ethylene production, preceded by induction of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase 1 (CsACS1), ACC oxidase 1 (CsACO1) and the ethylene receptor CsERS1. This induction was advanced and augmented by exogenous ethylene or propylene, indicating an autocatalytic system II-like ethylene biosynthesis. In mature, detached fruit, very low rates of ethylene production were associated with constitutive expression of the ACC synthase 2 (CsACS2) and ethylene receptor CsETR1 genes (system I). CsACS1 gene expression was undetectable at this stage, even following ethylene or propylene treatment, and CsERS1 gene expression remained constant, indicating that no autocatalytic response had occurred. The transition from system II-like behavior of young fruitlets to system I behavior appears to be under developmental control. PMID:15014996

  1. Molecular and physiological evidence suggests the existence of a system II-like pathway of ethylene production in non-climacteric Citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ehud; Lagunes, Paulino Martinez; Riov, Joseph; Weiss, David; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E

    2004-06-01

    Mature citrus fruits, which are classified as non-climacteric, evolve very low amounts of ethylene during ripening but respond to exogenous ethylene by ripening-related pigment changes and accelerated respiration. In the present study we show that young citrus fruitlets attached to the tree produce high levels of ethylene, which decrease dramatically towards maturation. Upon harvest, fruitlets exhibited a climacteric-like rise in ethylene production, preceded by induction of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase 1 (CsACS1), ACC oxidase 1 (CsACO1) and the ethylene receptor CsERS1. This induction was advanced and augmented by exogenous ethylene or propylene, indicating an autocatalytic system II-like ethylene biosynthesis. In mature, detached fruit, very low rates of ethylene production were associated with constitutive expression of the ACC synthase 2 (CsACS2) and ethylene receptor CsETR1 genes (system I). CsACS1 gene expression was undetectable at this stage, even following ethylene or propylene treatment, and CsERS1 gene expression remained constant, indicating that no autocatalytic response had occurred. The transition from system II-like behavior of young fruitlets to system I behavior appears to be under developmental control.

  2. Damage of office supply, personal use items, and over-the-counter medical devices after sterilization by ethylene oxide gas, electron beam, and gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Anne D; Merritt, Katharine; Hitchins, Victoria M

    2004-01-01

    After letters containing Bacillus anthracis spores entered the U.S. mail in 2001, a problem emerged regarding how to decontaminate the letters, packages, and personal items in offices that received these letters. The effects of three sterilization methods (i.e. ethylene oxide gas [EO], electron beam [e-beam] radiation, and gamma radiation) were evaluated for a variety of office supply and equipment, personal use items, and over-the-counter medical devices. No single sterilization method was suitable for all items that could be mailed or found in an office. Damage or discoloration was evident for some items by each sterilization method. There were changes in the color of certain items, such as some of the packaging material, some pacifiers, some of the fabrics, and the nylon stockings after e-beam and gamma radiation. Both e-beam and gamma radiation damaged all film samples. Following EO sterilization and normal aeration, there were a number of samples with high (above 250 microg/g) levels of EO and samples with detectable ethylene chlorohydrin levels. The data would suggest that certain items exposed to EO sterilization must be further aerated prior to use, or discarded. Generic descriptions of products (such as plastics) or grouping of items (such as condoms) were not sufficient to predict what is safe in terms of EO residual levels remaining on an item. Successful decontamination of a wide variety of items will require careful selection of different sterilization methods. PMID:15635999

  3. Preparation and solution behavior of a thermoresponsive diblock copolymer of poly(ethyl glycidyl ether) and poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Ogura, Michihiro; Tokuda, Hiroyuki; Imabayashi, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2007-08-28

    A thermoresponsive diblock copolymer, poly(ethyl glycidyl ether)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEGE-b-PEO), is synthesized by successive anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethyl glycidyl ether and ethylene oxide using 2-phenoxyethanol as a starting material, and its solution behavior is elucidated in water. In a dilute 1 wt % solution, the temperature-dependent alteration in the polymer hydrodynamic radius (RH) is measured in the temperature range between 5 and 45 degrees C by pulse-gradient spin-echo NMR and dynamic light scattering. The RH value increased with temperature in two steps, where the first step at 15 degrees C corresponds to the core-shell micelle formation and the second step at 40 degrees C corresponds to the aggregation of the core-shell micelles. The formation of the core-shell micelles is supported by the solubilization of a dye (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) in the hydrophobic core, which is recognized for a copolymer solution in the temperature range between 20 and 40 degrees C. In this temperature range, the core-shell micelles and the unimers coexist and the fraction of the former gradually increases with increasing temperature, suggesting equilibrium between the micelles and the unimers. In the concentrated regime (40 wt % solution), the solution forms a gel and the small-angle X-ray scattering measurements reveal the successive formation of hexagonal and lamellar liquid crystal phases with increasing temperature.

  4. Modeling and experimental investigation of rheological properties of injectable poly(lactide ethylene oxide fumarate)/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Sarvestani, Alireza S; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2006-05-01

    Injectable multiphasic polymer/ceramic composites are attractive as bioresorbable scaffolds for bone regeneration because they can be cross-linked in situ and are osteoconductive. The injectability of the composite depends on the nanoparticle content and the energetic interactions at the polymer/particle interface. The objective of this research was to determine experimentally the rheological properties of the PLEOF/apatite composite as an injectable biomaterial and to compare the viscoelastic response with the predictions of a linear elastic dumbbell model. A degradable in situ cross-linkable terpolymer based on low molecular weight poly(L-lactide) and poly(ethylene oxide) linked by unsaturated fumarate groups is synthesized. The poly(L-lactide-co-ethylene oxide-co-fumarate) (PLEOF) terpolymer interacts with the surface of the apatite nanoparticles by polar interactions and hydrogen bonding. A kinetic model is developed that takes into account the adsorption/desorption of polymer chains to/from the nanoparticle surface. Rheological properties of the aqueous dispersion of PLEOF terpolymer reinforced with nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) particles are investigated using mechanical rheometry. To this end, we performed a series of rheological experiments on un-cross-linked PLEOF reinforced with different volume fractions of HA nanoparticles. The results demonstrate that the observed nonlinear viscoelasticity at higher shear rates is controlled by the energetic interactions between the polymer chains and dispersed particle aggregates and by the rate of the adsorption/desorption of the chains to/from the surface of the nanoparticles. PMID:16677041

  5. A study of ferrocene diffusion dynamics in network poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolyte by solid-state voltammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, M.; Longmire, M.L.; Murray, R.W. )

    1990-03-22

    The diffusion rates of five ferrocene derivatives dissolved in an amorphous, cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer electrolyte are measured by an electrochemical technique which detects the rate of their transport to an oxidizing microdisk electrode. The diffusion coefficients in dilute ferrocene/polymer solutions at 65{degree}C vary from 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} depending on the size of the ferrocene derivative. The diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing ferrocene concentration, increasing LiClO{sub 4} electrolyte concentration, and decreasing temperature; values approaching 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} are encountered at room temperature.

  6. Micelles of a diblock copolymer of styrene and ethylene oxide in mixtures of 2,6-lutidine and water.

    PubMed

    Tuzar, Z; Kadlec, P; Stepánek, P; Kríz, J; Nallet, F; Noirez, L

    2008-12-16

    We studied the micelle formation of a diblock copolymer of styrene and ethylene oxide in mixtures of 2,6-dimethylpyridine (2,6-lutidine) and water. Micelles are formed in a broad solvent composition range with a volume fraction of water ranging from 0.05 to 0.85, where neither polystyrene nor polyethylene oxide homopolymers are soluble. The diffusion behavior of pure solvent mixtures and in solutions of copolymer micelles is reported. In LTD/water mixtures, two diffusive processes corresponding to self-difusion and two modes belonging to mutual diffusion and diffusion of solvent clusters have been found. In copolymer solutions, the mode of copolymer micelle diffusion replaces the mode of solvent cluster diffusion. Quasielastic light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, and pulsed-field gradient NMR have been employed in our study.

  7. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees. PMID:26807935

  8. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees.

  9. Synergistic enhancement of ethylene production and germination with kinetin and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid in lettuce seeds exposed to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Huang, X L

    1988-08-01

    Relief of salt (0.1 molar NaCl) stress on germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv Mesa 659) seeds occurred with applications of 0.05 millimolar kinetin (KIN) and 1 to 10 millimolar 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Treatment with KIN enhanced the pregermination ethylene production under saline condition. A synergistic or an additive enhancement of pregermination ethylene production and germination occurred under saline condition in the presence of KIN and a saturating dose (10 millimolar) of ACC. No KIN-ACC synergism was noted in ethylene production or germination under nonsaline condition. Addition of 1 millimolar aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) inhibited the KIN-enhanced pregermination ethylene production (85 to 89%) and germination (58%) under saline condition but not the synergistic effect of KIN + ACC on ethylene production. Under nonsaline condition, AVG had no effect on germination even though ethylene production was strongly inhibited. Alleviation of salt stress by KIN was inhibited in a competitive manner by 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD) (0.02-0.2 milliliter per liter), and the addition of ACC and/or ethylene reduced this inhibition. An increase in the pregermination ethylene production and germination occurred also by cotylenin E (CN) under saline condition. However, neither AVG (1 millimolar) nor NBD (0.02 to 0.2 milliliter per liter) prevented the relief of salt stress by CN. Thus, KIN may alleviate salt stress on germination by promoting both ACC production and its conversion to ethylene. Rapid utilization of ACC may be the basis for the synergistic or the additive effect of KIN plus ACC. The need for ethylene production and action for the relief of salt stress is circumvented by a treatment with CN.

  10. The production of carbon nanofibers and thin films on palladium catalysts from ethylene oxygen mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Jonathan; Doorn, Stephen; Atwater, Mark; Leseman, Zayd; Luhrs, Claudia C; Diez, Yolanda F; Diaz, Angel M

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of carbonaceous materials deposited in fuel rich ethylene-oxygen mixtures on three types of palladium: foil, sputtered film, and nanopowder, are reported. It was found that the form of palladium has a dramatic influence on the morphology of the deposited carbon. In particular, on sputtered film and powder, tight 'weaves' of sub-micron filaments formed quickly. In contrast, on foils under identical conditions, the dominant morphology is carbon thin films with basal planes oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Temperature, gas flow rate, reactant flow ratio (C2H4:02), and residence time (position) were found to influence both growth rate and type for all three forms of Pd. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, temperature-programmed oxidation, and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the crystallinity of the as-deposited carbon, and it was determined that transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were the most reliable methods for determining crystallinity. The dependence of growth on reactor position, and the fact that no growth was observed in the absence of oxygen support the postulate that the carbon deposition proceeds by combustion generated radical species.

  11. Oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol with human alcohol dehydrogenases and the inhibition by ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Shih, Hsuan-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chou; Li, Yeung-Pin; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2011-05-30

    Human alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) include multiple isozymes with broad substrate specificity and ethnic distinct allozymes. ADH catalyzes the rate-limiting step in metabolism of various primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols. The oxidation of common toxic alcohols, that is, methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol by the human ADHs remains poorly understood. Kinetic studies were performed in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, at pH 7.5 and 25°C, containing 0.5 mM NAD(+) and varied concentrations of substrate. K(M) values for ethanol with recombinant human class I ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1B3, ADH1C1, and ADH1C2, and class II ADH2 and class IV ADH4 were determined to be in the range of 0.12-57 mM, for methanol to be 2.0-3500 mM, for ethylene glycol to be 4.3-2600mM, and for isopropanol to be 0.73-3400 mM. ADH1B3 appeared to be inactive toward ethylene glycol, and ADH2 and ADH4, inactive with methanol. The variations for V(max) for the toxic alcohols were much less than that of the K(M) across the ADH family. 4-Methylpyrazole (4MP) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to ethanol for ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1C1 and ADH1C2, and a noncompetitive inhibitor for ADH1B3, ADH2 and ADH4, with the slope inhibition constants (K(is)) for the whole family being 0.062-960 μM and the intercept inhibition constants (K(ii)), 33-3000 μM. Computer simulation studies using inhibition equations in the presence of alternate substrate ethanol and of dead-end inhibitor 4MP with the determined corresponding kinetic parameters for ADH family, indicate that the oxidation of the toxic alcohols up to 50mM are largely inhibited by 20 mM ethanol or by 50 μM 4MP with some exceptions. The above findings provide an enzymological basis for clinical treatment of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning by 4MP or ethanol with pharmacogenetic perspectives.

  12. Ethylene Glycol Metabolism by Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol. PMID:23023748

  13. Ethylene glycol metabolism by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin; Hauer, Bernhard

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol.

  14. Chain dynamics of ethylene oxide oligomer melts. An ultrasonic spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Wald, Elke; Kaatze, Udo

    2014-11-20

    Between 0.2 and 2000 MHz, the ultrasonic attenuation spectra of oligomer melts have been measured at 25 °C. The oligomers comprise ethylene glycols with eight different mean degrees [Formula: see text]of polymerization (1 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ 13.2), a poly(propylene glycol) ([Formula: see text] = 16.9) and three poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ethers (3 ≤ [Formula: see text] ≤ 10.3). The complexity of the ultrasonic spectra increases with [Formula: see text]. The spectra have been analyzed assuming up to four discrete relaxation terms. The relaxation times of these terms are assigned to the first odd modes in the oligomer conformational dynamics and are discussed in the light of the Rouse spring-and-dashpot and the Tobolsky torsional oscillator models of chain variations. The relaxation amplitudes indicate that not only the shear viscosity but also the volume viscosity is involved in ultrasonic relaxation processes. Comparison of relaxation times and shear viscosities for the ethylene glycols with the corresponding data for dimethyl ethers and also n-alkanes reveals significant effects of association. PMID:25365633

  15. Spontaneous formation of gold nanoparticles in poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) solutions: solvent quality and polymer structure effects.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Toshio; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2005-08-16

    We report here on the effects that the solution properties of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers have on the reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) hydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) and the size of gold nanoparticles produced. The amphiphilic block copolymer solution properties were modulated by varying the temperature and solvent quality (water, formamide, and their mixtures). We identified two main factors, (i) block copolymer conformation or structure (e.g., loops vs entanglements, nonassociated polymers vs micelles) and (ii) interactions between AuCl4- ions and block copolymers (attractive ion-dipole interactions vs repulsive interactions due to hydrophobicity), to be important for controlling the competition between the reactivities of AuCl4- reduction in the bulk solution to form gold seeds and on the surface of gold seeds (particles) and the particle size determination. The particle size increase observed with increased temperature in aqueous solutions is attributed to enhanced hydrophobicity of the block copolymer, which favors AuCl4- reduction on the surface of seeds. The lower reactivity and higher particle sizes observed in formamide solutions are attributed to the shielding of ion-dipole interaction between AuCl4- ions and block copolymers by formamide, which overcomes the beneficial effects of formamide on the block copolymer conformation (lower micelle concentration).

  16. Lenghty reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) polymeric micelles and gels for sustained release of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar B; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Cambón, Adriana; Mistry, Dharmista; Llovo, José; Attwood, David; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the potential application of polymeric micelles and gels of four different reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) copolymers (BOnEOmBOn, where n denotes the respective block lengths), specifically BO8EO90BO8, BO14EO378BO14, BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21, as effective drug transport nanocarriers. In particular, we tested the use of this kind of polymeric nanostructures as reservoirs for the sustained delivery of the antifungals griseofulvin and fluconazole for oral and topical administration. Polymeric micelles and gels formed by these copolymers were shown to solubilize important amounts of these two drugs and to have a good stability in physiologically relevant conditions for oral or topical administration. These polymeric micellar nanocarriers were able to release drugs in a sustained manner, being the release rate slower as the copolymer chain hydrophobicity increased. Different sustained drug release profiles were observed depending on the medium conditions. Gel nanocarriers were shown to display longer sustained release rates than micellar formulations, with the existence of a pulsatile-like release mode under certain solution conditions as a result of their inner network structure. Certain bioadhesive properties were observed for the polymeric physical gels, being moderately tuned by the length and hydrophobicity of the polymeric chains. Furthermore, polymeric gels and micelles showed activity against the yeast Candida albicans and the mould demartophytes (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis) and, thus, may be useful for the treatment of different cutaneous fungal infections.

  17. Complex self-assembly of reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) triblock copolymers with long hydrophobic and extremely lengthy hydrophilic blocks.

    PubMed

    Cambón, Adriana; Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar; Juárez, Josué; Villar-Álvarez, Eva; Pardo, Alberto; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo; Mosquera, Víctor

    2014-05-15

    Amphiphilic block copolymers have emerged during last years as a fascinating substrate material to develop micellar nanocontainers able to solubilize, protect, transport, and release under external or internal stimuli different classes of cargos to diseased cells or tissues. However, this class of materials can also induce biologically relevant actions, which complement the therapeutic activity of their cargo molecules through their mutual interactions with biologically relevant entities (cellular membranes, proteins, organelles...); these interactions at the same time, are regulated by the nature, conformation, and state of the copolymeric chains. For these reasons, in this paper we investigated the self-assembly process and physico-chemcial properties of two reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers, BO14EO378BO14 and BO21EO385BO21, which have been recently found to be very useful as drug delivery nanovehicles and biological response modifiers under certain conditions (A. Cambón et al. Int. J. Pharm. 2013, 445, 47-57) in order to obtain a clear picture of the solution behavior of this class or block copolymers and to understand their biological activity. These block copolymers are characterized by possessing long BO blocks and extremely lengthy central EO ones, which provide them with a rich rheological behavior characterized by the formation of flowerlike micelles with sizes ranging from 20 to 40 nm in aqueous solution and the presence of intermicellar bridging even at low copolymers concentrations as denoted by atomic force microscopy. Bridging is also clearly observed by analyzing the rheological response of these block copolymers both storage and loss moduli upon changes on time, temperature, and or concentration. Strikingly, the relatively wide Poisson distribution of the polymeric chains make the present copolymers behave rather distinctly to conventional associative thickeners. The observed rich

  18. Lenghty reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) polymeric micelles and gels for sustained release of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar B; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Cambón, Adriana; Mistry, Dharmista; Llovo, José; Attwood, David; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the potential application of polymeric micelles and gels of four different reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) copolymers (BOnEOmBOn, where n denotes the respective block lengths), specifically BO8EO90BO8, BO14EO378BO14, BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21, as effective drug transport nanocarriers. In particular, we tested the use of this kind of polymeric nanostructures as reservoirs for the sustained delivery of the antifungals griseofulvin and fluconazole for oral and topical administration. Polymeric micelles and gels formed by these copolymers were shown to solubilize important amounts of these two drugs and to have a good stability in physiologically relevant conditions for oral or topical administration. These polymeric micellar nanocarriers were able to release drugs in a sustained manner, being the release rate slower as the copolymer chain hydrophobicity increased. Different sustained drug release profiles were observed depending on the medium conditions. Gel nanocarriers were shown to display longer sustained release rates than micellar formulations, with the existence of a pulsatile-like release mode under certain solution conditions as a result of their inner network structure. Certain bioadhesive properties were observed for the polymeric physical gels, being moderately tuned by the length and hydrophobicity of the polymeric chains. Furthermore, polymeric gels and micelles showed activity against the yeast Candida albicans and the mould demartophytes (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis) and, thus, may be useful for the treatment of different cutaneous fungal infections. PMID:27289012

  19. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark.

    PubMed

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per; Pedersen, Marie; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Segerbäck, Dan; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2011-11-21

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0.20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together, these results indicate a similar life span of fetal and maternal erythrocytes. The results showed that the in vivo dose in fetal and maternal blood is about the same and that the placenta gives negligible protection of the fetus to exposure from the investigated compounds. A trend of higher levels of the measured adducts in cord blood with gestational age was observed, which may reflect the gestational age-related change of the cord blood Hb composition toward a higher content of adult Hb. The results suggest that the Hb adduct levels measured in cord blood reflect the exposure to the fetus during the third trimester. The evaluation of the new analytical method showed that it is suitable for monitoring of background exposures of the investigated electrophilic compounds in large

  20. Proton conducting behavior of a novel polymeric gel membrane based on poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted-poly(methacrylate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jinli; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    A novel proton conducting polymeric gel membrane that consists of poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted-poly(methacrylate) (PEO-PMA) with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDE) as a plasticizer doped with aqueous phosphoric acid (H 3PO 4) has been prepared and its physicochemical properties were studied in detail. The ionic conductivity was dependent much on the concentration of H 3PO 4, the immersion time, and content of the plasticizer. This type of proton conducting polymeric gels shares not only good mechanical properties but also thermal stability. Maximum conductivities up to 2.6×10 -2 S cm -1 at room temperature (25 °C) and 2.8×10 -2 S cm -1 at 70 °C were obtained for the composition of the polymer matrix to the plasticizer as 35/65 (in mass) after the H 3PO 4 doping from the aqueous solution with 2.93 mol l -1. FT-IR spectra showed that these high proton conductivities are attributed to the presence of excesses free H 3PO 4 in the polymeric gel in addition to the hydrogen-bonded H 3PO 4 to the polymer matrix.

  1. Tuning thin-film electrolyte for lithium battery by grafting cyclic carbonate and combed poly(ethylene oxide) on polysiloxane.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Lin, Yue; Yao, Hehua; Yuan, Changfu; Liu, Jin

    2014-07-01

    A tunable polysiloxane thin-film electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries was developed. The polysiloxane was synthesized by hydrosilylation of polymethylhydrosiloxane with cyclic [(allyloxy)methyl]ethylene ester carbonic acid and vinyl tris(2-methoxyethoxy)silane. (1) H NMR spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography demonstrated that the bifunctional groups of the cyclic propylene carbonate (PC) and combed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were well grafted on the polysiloxane. At PC/PEO=6:4, the polysiloxane-based electrolyte had an ionic conductivity of 1.55 × 10(-4) and 1.50 × 10(-3)  S cm(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. The LiFePO4 /Li batteries fabricated with the thin-film electrolyte presented excellent cycling performance in the temperature range from 25 to 100 °C with an initial discharge capacity at a rate of 1 C of 88.2 and 140 mA h g(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively.

  2. Highly oxidized graphene oxide and methods for production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James M.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.

    2016-08-30

    A highly oxidized form of graphene oxide and methods for production thereof are described in various embodiments of the present disclosure. In general, the methods include mixing a graphite source with a solution containing at least one oxidant and at least one protecting agent and then oxidizing the graphite source with the at least one oxidant in the presence of the at least one protecting agent to form the graphene oxide. Graphene oxide synthesized by the presently described methods is of a high structural quality that is more oxidized and maintains a higher proportion of aromatic rings and aromatic domains than does graphene oxide prepared in the absence of at least one protecting agent. Methods for reduction of graphene oxide into chemically converted graphene are also disclosed herein. The chemically converted graphene of the present disclosure is significantly more electrically conductive than is chemically converted graphene prepared from other sources of graphene oxide.

  3. Nitrous Oxide Production by Bacterioneuston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M.; Baggs, E. M.; Witte, U.; Maxwell, S.; Iain, S.

    2008-12-01

    Covering 70% of the Earth, the interface between the ocean and atmosphere, the sea surface microlayer, plays a key role in controlling the exchange of natural and anthropogenic materials. Knowledge of the specific role of the sea surface microlayer and its bacterial population, the bacterioneuston is currently limited. Denitrification is an important route of nitrogen loss from the marine environment. It is also both a sink and source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Here we investigated the role of denitrifying organisms in the sea-surface microlayer and their potential to lower net emissions of N2O by reducing to N2. Bacterioneuston was sampled from two sites in the Ythan Estuary and in Moray Firth at Cromarty during phytoplankton blooms in Autumn 2007 and Spring 2008 and obtained enrichment cultures from these. Incubation experiments were carried out over a 72 hour period, testing bacterioneuston cultures for N2O production using gas chromatography and nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations. All of the enrichment cultures analysed produced significant quantities of N2O. Results of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium analysis were mixed. Some cultures showed a decrease in nitrate concentration possibly due to nitrate reduction by the bacterioneuston. However, an increase in the nitrate concentration measured with other cultures indicates that N2O production could be due to other nitrogen cycle processes other than denitrification, most likely ammonia oxidation. The results indicate that further research is necessary to establish which nitrogen cycle processes are being carried out the bacterioneuston cultures. Keywords: Denitrification; Bacterioneuston; Sea surface microlayer; Gas Chromatography (GC); Nitrous oxide

  4. Miscibility of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene oxide) solvent polymer blends and nanofibers made by solution blow spinning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The miscibility of blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied in polymer solutions by dilute solution viscometry and in solution blow spun nanofibers by microscopy (SEM, TEM) and by thermal and spectral analysis. Three blends of PLA and PEO were solution blended in...

  5. Density-functional investigation of the geometric and electronic structure of ethylene oxide adsorbed on Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Qing-Fang; Yang, Cui-Hong; Wei, Yue-Ling; Zhu, Xing-Feng; Rao, Wei-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The geometric and electronic structures of the ethylene oxide (EO) molecule adsorbed on Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface were investigated by using the density-functional theory calculations. All possible adsorbed structures were considered and it was found that only four adsorption structures are stable. The calculations of the formation energy revealed the most stable conformation and demonstrated that the nature of Si-O bond significantly affects the stability of adsorption systems. The analysis of corresponding electronic structures showed that two adsorbed structures are still semiconductor compounds but the other two are not. In particular, the EO after adsorbing was found to be connected via a ring-opening reaction where the molecule forms a five-membered ring together with the surface of dimer silicon atoms, and the produced five-membered ring is almost perpendicular to the silicon surface.

  6. [Mutagenic activity of organic esters are likely to form from bromo-2 ethanol generated during fumigation using ethylene oxide].

    PubMed

    Min, S; Chaigneau, M; Callais, F; Festy, B

    1989-01-01

    The mutagenic potencies of 13 bromoethyl esters of natural organic acids, have been studied, by Ames's test (strains TA 98 and TA 100, with and without system of metabolisation, S9 mix). None of the 8 bromoethyl esters of linoleic, oleic, palmitic, stearic, lauric, myristic, cinnamic and fumaric acids is genotoxic. On the other hand the 5 others derived from gallic, oxalic, tartric acids (strain TA 100 with and without S9 mix), malic and citric acids (strain TA 100 with S9 mix) are mutagenic, the ester of gallic acid giving still a doubtful mutagenic response; their mutagenic potencies are 2 to 3 times smaller than that of bromo-2 ethanol. This observation, complemently with the mutagenicity of some organic esters of the chloro-2 ethanol, proves the potential danger of ethylene oxide used for the fumigation of foods or vegetables and medicinal plants containing much chloride and/or bromide.

  7. Structural Evolution of Low-Molecular-Weight Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene Diblock Copolymer Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    The structural evolution of low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) diblock copolymer thin film with various initial film thicknesses on silicon substrate under thermal annealing was investigated by atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, and contact angle measurement. At film thickness below half of the interlamellar spacing of the diblock copolymer (6.2 nm), the entire silicon is covered by a polymer brush with PEO blocks anchored on the Si substrate due to the substrate-induced effect. When the film is thicker than 6.2 nm, a dense polymer brush which is equal to half of an interlamellar layer was formed on the silicon, while the excess material dewet this layer to form droplets. The droplet surface was rich with PS block and the PEO block crystallized inside the bigger droplet to form spherulite. PMID:24302862

  8. Polysaccharide–Poly(ethylene glycol) Star Copolymer as a Scaffold for the Production of Bioactive Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Nori; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    The production of polysaccharide-derivatized surfaces, polymers, and biomaterials has been shown to be a useful strategy for mediating the biological properties of materials, owing to the importance of polysaccharides for the sequestration and protection of bioactive proteins in vivo. We have therefore sought to combine the benefits of polysaccharide derivatization of polymers with unique opportunities to use these polymers for the production of bioactive, noncovalently assembled hydrogels. Accordingly, we report the synthesis of a heparin-modified poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) star copolymer that can be used in the assembly of bioactive hydrogel networks via multiple strategies and that is also competent for the delivery of bioactive growth factors. A heparin-decorated polymer, synthesized by the reaction of thiol end-terminated four-arm star PEG (Mn = 10 000) with maleimide functionalized low molecular weight heparin (LMWH, Mr = 3000), has been characterized via 1H NMR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography; results indicate attachment of the LMWH with at least 73% efficiency. Both covalently and noncovalently assembled hydrogels can be produced from the PEG–LMWH conjugate. Viscoelastic noncovalently assembled hydrogels have been formed on the basis of the interaction of the PEG–LMWH with a PEG polymer bearing multiple heparin-binding peptide motifs. The binding and release of therapeutically important proteins from the assembled hydrogels have also been demonstrated via immunochemical assays, which demonstrate the slow release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a function of matrix erosion. The combination of these results suggests the opportunities for producing polymer–polysaccharide conjugates that can assemble into novel hydrogel networks on the basis of peptide–saccharide interactions and for employing these materials in delivery applications. PMID:16004429

  9. Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(glutamic acid) coated maghemite nanoparticles: in vitro characterization and in vivo behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufner, L.; Cartier, R.; Wüstneck, R.; Fichtner, I.; Pietschmann, S.; Bruhn, H.; Schütt, D.; Thünemann, A. F.; Pison, U.

    2007-03-01

    Positively charged superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles of maghemite were prepared in aqueous solution and subsequently stabilized with poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(glutamic acid) (PEO-PGA) at a hydrodynamic diameter of 60 nm. Depending on the amount of PEO-PGA used, this is accompanied by a switching of their zeta potentials from positive to negative charge (-33 mV). As a prerequisite for in vivo testing, the PEO-PGA coated maghemite nanoparticles were evaluated to be colloidally stable in water and in physiological salt solution for longer than six months as well in various buffer systems under physiological pH and salt conditions (AFM, dynamic light scattering). We excluded toxic effects of the PEO-PGA coated maghemite nanoparticles. We demonstrated by in vivo MR-imaging and 111In measurements a biodistribution of the nanoparticles into the liver comparable to carboxydextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Resovist®) as a reference nanoscaled MRI contrast medium. This was enforced by a detailed visualization of our nanoparticles by electron microscopy of liver tissue sections. Furthermore, our results indicate that 15% of the injected PEO-PGA coated maghemite nanoparticles circulate in the blood compartment for at least 60 min after i.v. application.

  10. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  11. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  12. Thrombogenic properties of untreated and poly(ethylene oxide)-modified polymeric matrices useful for preparing intraarterial ion-selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Espadas-Torre, C; Meyerhoff, M E

    1995-09-15

    In vitro platelet adhesion studies are used to compare the thrombogenic properties of various polymer matrices useful for preparing implantable ion-selective membrane electrodes. Conventional plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) and alternate polyurethane materials (Tecoflex, Pellethane) doped with proton- (tridodecylamine) and potassium-selective (valinomycin) ionophores are shown to be potentially thrombogenic. Incorporation of high molecular weight block copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (e.g., Pluronic F108 and Tetronic 1508) within ion-selective membranes reduces platelet adhesion. A more marked decrease in platelet adhesion is, however, observed when the Tecoflex-based membranes are coated with a thin photo-cross-linked layer of poly(ethylene oxide). Such surface-modified membranes are shown to retain potentiometric ion response properties (i.e., selectivity, response times, response slopes, etc.) essentially equivalent to untreated membranes. PMID:8686883

  13. Nucleoporin 75 is involved in the ethylene-mediated production of phytoalexin for the resistance of Nicotiana benthamiana to Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Mina; Shibata, Yusuke; Ojika, Makoto; Tamura, Kentaro; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Mori, Hitoshi; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Takemoto, Daigo

    2014-12-01

    Mature Nicotiana benthamiana shows stable resistance to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Induction of phytoalexin (capsidiol) production is essential for the resistance, which is upregulated via a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (NbMEK2-WIPK/SIPK) followed by ethylene signaling. In this study, NbNup75 (encodes a nuclear pore protein Nucleoporin75) was identified as an essential gene for resistance of N. benthamiana to P. infestans. In NbNup75-silenced plants, initial events of elicitor-induced responses such as phosphorylation of MAPK and expression of defense-related genes were not affected, whereas induction of later defense responses such as capsidiol production and cell death induction was suppressed or delayed. Ethylene production induced by either INF1 or NbMEK2 was reduced in NbNup75-silenced plants, whereas the expression of NbEAS (a gene for capsidiol biosynthesis) induced by ethylene was not affected, indicating that Nup75 is required for the induction of ethylene production but not for ethylene signaling. Given that nuclear accumulation of polyA RNA was increased in NbNup75-silenced plants, efficient export of mRNA from nuclei via nuclear pores would be important for the timely upregulation of defense responses. Collectively, Nup75 is involved in the induction of a later stage of defense responses, including the ethylene-mediated production of phytoalexin for the resistance of N. benthamiana to P. infestans.

  14. The production of stress ethylene relative to the concentration of heavy metals and other elements in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Kauppi, M.; Kauppi, A.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine fluctuations in the production of ethylene by the lichen, Hypogymnia physodes, indicative of environmental stress caused by air pollutants. In addition, the authors investigated the accumulation capacity of H. physodes, transplanted in the vicinity of two streets having slow traffic and a highway in the city of Oulu, N. Finland, for a short period (45 d). The amounts of stress ethylene produced by the transplanted lichens was compared with the amounts of airborne elements accumulated in the thallus. H. physodes manifested a high accumulation capacity for Fe and Mg in thalli exposed in either one or both streets with slow traffic in Oulu in comparison with thalli left on the control site in the forest outside of the city. Two of the observed elements, Zn and Fe, exhibited a significant positive correlation with the ethylene concentration detected concomitant in thalli retrieved from one or both streets with slow traffic were higher than the concentrations in thalli transplanted in a highway with 25,240 cars/d after 45 d of exposure. The data thus suggest that the streets with slow traffic and fewer cars are more polluted than the highway.

  15. UV-vis spectroscopy of iodine adsorbed on alkali-metal-modified zeolite catalysts for addition of carbon dioxide to ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Doskocil, E.J.; Bordawekar, S.V.; Kaye, B.G.; Davis, R.J.

    1999-07-29

    The basicity of alkali-metal-exchange (Na, K, Cs) zeolites X and Y was probed by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of adsorbed iodine. The observed blue shift in the visible absorption spectrum of adsorbed iodine, compared to gaseous iodine, correlated well with the negative charge on the framework oxygen atoms calculated from the Sanderson electronegativity equalization principle. The blue shifts associated with iodine adsorbed on classical catalytic supports like silica, alumina, and magnesia suggest that the iodine adsorption technique for probing basicity is applicable to a wide variety of solids. Iodine was also adsorbed on X and Y zeolites containing occluded cesium oxide formed by decomposition of impregnated cesium acetate. However, the iodine appeared to irreversibly react on these strongly basic samples, possibly forming an adsorbed triiodide ions. As a complement to the adsorption studies, the activity of alkali-metal-containing zeolites for the base-catalyzed formation of ethylene carbonate from ethylene oxide and carbon dioxide was investigated. Among the ion-exchanged zeolites, the cesium form of zeolite X exhibited the highest activity for ethylene carbonate formation. The catalytic activity of a zeolite containing occluded cesium was even higher than that of a cesium-exchanged zeolite. The presence of water adsorbed in zeolite pores promoted the rate of ethylene carbonate formation for both cesium-exchanged and cesium-impregnated zeolite X.

  16. Production-scale Direct Oxide Reduction demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Humiston, T.J.; Santi, D.J.; Long, J.L.; Thomas, R.L.; Delaney, I.C.

    1989-01-23

    A detailed, statistically valid, examination of the direct oxide reduction parameters affecting process yield and purity was planned and executed. Guidelines for attaining yields approaching 100% are presented. Feed oxide, percent excess calcium, and stirrer design affected yield and product purity. Experiments were performed in production-scale equipment utilizing 800 grams of plutonium dioxide per charge. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. One-step sonochemical synthesis of a graphene oxide-manganese oxide nanocomposite for catalytic glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Park, Gle; Bartolome, Leian; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Do Hyun; Park, Tae Jung

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of a graphene oxide (GO)-manganese oxide nanocomposite (GO-Mn(3)O(4)) was conducted without further modification of GO or employing secondary materials. With the GO nanoplate as a support, potassium permanganate oxidizes the carbon atoms in the GO support and gets reduced to Mn(3)O(4). An intensive ultrasound method could reduce the number of reaction steps and temperature, enhance the reaction rate and furthermore achieve a Mn(3)O(4) phase. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coverage and crystallinity of Mn(3)O(4) were controlled by changing the ratio of permanganate to GO dispersion. The synthesized nanocomposite was used as a catalyst for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) depolymerization into its monomer, bis(2-hydroxylethyl) terephthalate (BHET). The highest monomer yield of 96.4% was obtained with the nanocomposite containing the lowest amount of Mn(3)O(4), while PET glycolysis with the Mn(3)O(4) without GO yielded 82.7% BHET.

  18. One-step sonochemical synthesis of a graphene oxide-manganese oxide nanocomposite for catalytic glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Park, Gle; Bartolome, Leian; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Do Hyun; Park, Tae Jung

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of a graphene oxide (GO)-manganese oxide nanocomposite (GO-Mn(3)O(4)) was conducted without further modification of GO or employing secondary materials. With the GO nanoplate as a support, potassium permanganate oxidizes the carbon atoms in the GO support and gets reduced to Mn(3)O(4). An intensive ultrasound method could reduce the number of reaction steps and temperature, enhance the reaction rate and furthermore achieve a Mn(3)O(4) phase. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coverage and crystallinity of Mn(3)O(4) were controlled by changing the ratio of permanganate to GO dispersion. The synthesized nanocomposite was used as a catalyst for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) depolymerization into its monomer, bis(2-hydroxylethyl) terephthalate (BHET). The highest monomer yield of 96.4% was obtained with the nanocomposite containing the lowest amount of Mn(3)O(4), while PET glycolysis with the Mn(3)O(4) without GO yielded 82.7% BHET. PMID:22592889

  19. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery application

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhadini, Arcana, I Made

    2015-09-30

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO{sub 4} membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10{sup −4} S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO{sub 4} membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  20. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 84-198-1560, Division of Public Health Laboratories, State of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio. [Ethylene oxide and organic-solvent vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, V.; Burroughs, G.E.

    1985-02-01

    Breathing-zone and environmental samples were analyzed for ethylene oxide and organic-solvent vapors at the Public Health Laboratory, State of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio, on March 26 and 27, 1984. The evaluation was requested because of employee complaints of mucous membrane and skin irritation while they poured gonorrhea culture media into petri dishes that had been sterilized with ethylene oxide. The authors conclude that the environmental cause of the health problems cannot be determined due to the lack of symptoms on the days of the survey. Without taking measurements on the exact day when conspicuous symptoms occur, it is difficult to determine the source of the problem. General recommendations include checking the general air circulation in the media laboratory and encouraging employees to wear gloves that protect hands and wrists while pouring culture media.

  1. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO4 for lithium ion battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhadini, Arcana, I. Made

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO4 membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10-4 S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO4 membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  2. ACR process for ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.L.; Kamm, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the advanced cracking reactor process, which is ready for a logical commercial application, offers total liquids feedstock flexibility from light naphthenes through vacuum gas oils in the same production unit. Several processes are presently being developed which are aimed at maintaining olefin selectivity when cracking the heaviest feeds. Addresses the problems posed by such heavy feedstocks. The following trends favor the ACR process in the 1980s: natural gas price decontrol; limited natural gas reserves; few new domestic LPG-based ethylene plants will be built; an economic recovery will create the need for more ethylene capacity; modest increases in ''real'' crude oil prices; plentiful supplies of vacuum gas oil at prices making it an attractive ethylene feedstock; and increasing supplies of light naphtha at prices making it an attractive ethylene feedstock as well. Predicts that these factors will swing the preferred feedstocks for ethylene manufacture back to crude oil distillates before the end of the decade. Argues that in this environment, the ACR process can deliver the lowest cost ethylene in the industry. ACR has full-range feedstock flexibility, high selectivity to ethylene, and less sensitivity to feedstock costs and co-product credits.

  3. Effect of Low Temperature Ethylene Oxide and Electron Beam Sterilization on the In Vitro and In Vivo Function of Reconstituted Extracellular Matrix-Derived Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Perrone, Gabriel S.; Fleming, Braden C.; Sieker, Jakob T.; Kramer, Joshua; Hawes, Michael L.; Murray, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstituted extracellular matrix (ECM) -derived scaffolds are commonly utilized in preclinical tissue engineering studies as delivery vehicles for cells and growth factors. Translation into clinical use requires identifying a sterilization method that effectively removes bacteria but doesn’t harm scaffold function. To determine effectiveness of sterilization and impact on ECM scaffold integrity and function low temperature ethylene oxide and 15kGy electron beam irradiation techniques were evaluated. Scaffold sterility was assessed in accordance to United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 71. Scaffold matrix degradation was determined in vitro using enzymatic resistance tests and gel electrophoresis. Scaffold mechanics including elastic modulus, yield stress and collapse modulus were tested. Lastly, 14 Yorkshire pigs underwent ACL transection and bio-enhanced ACL repair using sterilized scaffolds. Histologic response of ligament, synovium and lymph nodes was compared at 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Ethylene oxide as well as electron beam irradiation yielded sterile scaffolds. Scaffold resistance to enzymatic digestion and protein integrity slightly decreased after electron beam irradiation while ethylene oxide altered scaffold matrix. Scaffold elastic modulus and yield stress were increased after electron beam treatment, while collapse modulus was increased after ethylene oxide treatment. No significant changes in ACL dimensions, in vivo scaffold resorption rate, or histologic response of synovium, ligament and lymph nodes with either terminal sterilization technique were detectable. In conclusion, this study identifies two methods to terminally sterilize an ECM scaffold. In vitro scaffold properties were slightly changed without significantly influencing the biologic responses of the surrounding tissues in vivo. This is a critical step toward translating new tissue engineering strategies to clinical trials. PMID:26088294

  4. CO2-free power generation on an iron group nanoalloy catalyst via selective oxidation of ethylene glycol to oxalic acid in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Ooi, Mei Lee; Kitano, Sho; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Kato, Kenichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamauchi, Miho

    2014-07-08

    An Fe group ternary nanoalloy (NA) catalyst enabled selective electrocatalysis towards CO2-free power generation from highly deliverable ethylene glycol (EG). A solid-solution-type FeCoNi NA catalyst supported on carbon was prepared by a two-step reduction method. High-resolution electron microscopy techniques identified atomic-level mixing of constituent elements in the nanoalloy. We examined the distribution of oxidised species, including CO2, produced on the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst in the EG electrooxidation under alkaline conditions. The FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst exhibited the highest selectivities toward the formation of C2 products and to oxalic acid, i.e., 99 and 60%, respectively, at 0.4 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), without CO2 generation. We successfully generated power by a direct EG alkaline fuel cell employing the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst and a solid-oxide electrolyte with oxygen reduction ability, i.e., a completely precious-metal-free system.

  5. Enhanced Catalytic Activities of NiPt Truncated Octahedral Nanoparticles toward Ethylene Glycol Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tianyu; Liu, Jialong; Wang, Shouguo; Wang, Chao; Sun, Young; Gu, Lin; Wang, Rongming

    2016-05-01

    The high cost and poor durability of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) are great limits for the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) from being scaled-up for commercial applications. Pt-based bimetallic NPs together with a uniform distribution can effectively reduce the usage of expensive Pt while increasing poison resistance of intermediates. In this work, a simple one-pot method was used to successfully synthesize ultrafine (about 7.5 nm) uniform NiPt truncated octahedral nanoparticles (TONPs) in dimethylformamid (DMF) without any seeds or templates. The as-prepared NiPt TONPs with Pt-rich surfaces exhibit greatly improved catalytic activities together with good tolerance and better stability for ethylene glycol oxidation reaction (EGOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in comparison with NiPt NPs and commercial Pt/C catalysts in alkaline electrolyte. For example, the value of mass and specific activities for EGOR are 23.2 and 17.6 times higher comparing with those of commercial Pt/C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the dramatic enhancement is mainly attributed to Pt-rich surface, larger specific surface area, together with coupling between Ni and Pt atoms. This developed method provides a promising pathway for simple preparation of highly efficient electrocatalysts for PEMFCs in the near future. PMID:27093304

  6. Coat Protein-Dependent Behavior of Poly(ethylene glycol) Tails in Iron Oxide Core Virus-like Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Malyutin, Andrey G; Cheng, Hu; Sanchez-Felix, Olivia R; Carlson, Kenneth; Stein, Barry D; Konarev, Petr V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Dragnea, Bogdan; Bronstein, Lyudmila M

    2015-06-10

    Here we explore the formation of virus-like nanoparticles (VNPs) utilizing 22-24 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) as cores and proteins derived from viral capsids of brome mosaic virus (BMV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) as shells. To accomplish that, hydrophobic FeO/Fe3O4 NPs prepared by thermal decomposition of iron oleate were coated with poly(maleic acid-alt-octadecene) modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tails of different lengths and grafting densities. MRI studies show high r2/r1 relaxivity ratios of these NPs that are practically independent of the polymer coating type. The versatility and flexibility of the viral capsid protein are on display as they readily form shells that exceed their native size. The location of the long PEG tails upon shell formation was investigated by electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. PEG tails were located differently in the BMV and HBV VNPs, with the BMV VNPs preferentially entrapping the tails in the interior and the HBV VNPs allowing the tails to extend through the capsid, which highlights the differences between intersubunit interactions in these two icosahedral viruses. The robustness of the assembly reaction and the protruding PEG tails, potentially useful in modulating the immune response, make the systems introduced here a promising platform for biomedical applications. PMID:25989427

  7. Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate) block copolymers for calcium phosphate mineralization and biofilm inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mai, Tobias; Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bleek, Katrin; Boye, Susanne; Yuan, Jiayin; Völkel, Antje; Gräwert, Marlies; Cheaib, Zeinab; Eick, Sigrun; Günter, Christina; Lederer, Albena; Lussi, Adrian; Taubert, Andreas

    2014-11-10

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) has long been used as an additive in toothpaste, partly because it reduces biofilm formation on teeth. It does not, however, reduce the formation of dental calculus or support the remineralization of dental enamel or dentine. The present article describes the synthesis of new block copolymers on the basis of PEO and poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate) blocks using atom transfer radical polymerization. The polymers have very large molecular weights (over 10(6) g/mol) and are highly water-soluble. They delay the precipitation of calcium phosphate from aqueous solution but, upon precipitation, lead to relatively monodisperse hydroxyapatite (HAP) spheres. Moreover, the polymers inhibit the bacterial colonization of human enamel by Streptococcus gordonii, a pioneer bacterium in oral biofilm formation, in vitro. The formation of well-defined HAP spheres suggests that a polymer-induced liquid precursor phase could be involved in the precipitation process. Moreover, the inhibition of bacterial adhesion suggests that the polymers could be utilized in caries prevention.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2012-01-06

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies for motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.

  9. A bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) silane immobilized on metallic oxide-based nanoparticles for conjugation with cell targeting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Nathan J.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Zhang, Miqin

    2004-06-16

    A trifluoroethylester-terminal poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane was synthesized and self-assembled on iron oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticle system thus prepared has the flexibility to conjugate with cell targeting agents having either carboxylic and amine terminal groups for a number of biomedical applications, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and controlled drug delivery. The trifluoroethylester silane was synthesized by modifying a PEG diacid to form the corresponding bistrifluoroethylester (TFEE), followed by a reaction with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS). The APS coupled with PEG chains confers the stability of PEG self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and increases the PEG packing density on nanoparticles by establishing hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl and amine groups present within the monolayer structure. The success of the synthesis of the PEG TEFE silane was confirmed with 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The conjugating flexibility of the PEG TEFE was demonstrated with folic acid having carboxylic acid groups and amine terminal groups respectively and confirmed by FTIR. TEM analysis showed the dispersion of nanoparticles before and after they were coated with PEG and folic acid.

  10. Polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer: the effect of polystyrene and spreading concentration at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Glagola, Cameron P; Miceli, Lia M; Milchak, Marissa A; Halle, Emily H; Logan, Jennifer L

    2012-03-20

    Polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) is an amphiphilic diblock copolymer that undergoes microphase separation when spread at the air/water interface, forming nanosized domains. In this study, we investigate the impact of PS by examining a series of PS-PEO samples containing constant PEO (~17,000 g·mol(-1)) and variable PS (from 3600 to 200,000 g·mol(-1)) through isothermal characterization and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The polymers separated into two categories: predominantly hydrophobic and predominantly hydrophilic with a weight percent of PEO of ~20% providing the boundary between the two. AFM results indicated that predominantly hydrophilic PS-PEO forms dots while more hydrophobic samples yield a mixture of dots and spaghetti with continent-like structures appearing at ~7% PEO or less. These structures reflect a blend of polymer spreading, entanglement, and vitrification as the solvent evaporates. Changing the spreading concentration provides insight into this process with higher concentrations representing earlier kinetic stages and lower concentrations demonstrating later ones. Comparison of isothermal results and AFM analysis shows how polymer behavior at the air/water interface correlates with the observed nanostructures. Understanding the impact of polymer composition and spreading concentration is significant in leading to greater control over the nanostructures obtained through PS-PEO self-assembly and their eventual application as polymer templates.

  11. Elaborating the phase behaviour of ethylene oxide oligomers and analogues in 2H, 3H-perfluoropentane.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter C; Côte, Marie; Rogueda, Philippe G A

    2008-10-01

    Pressure metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are seen as an attractive option for the delivery of active molecules to the bloodstream via the lungs. Formulation issues are important as it is necessary to disperse the active substance into a volatile propellant. The phase behaviour of a range of common formulation agents - excipients - in 2H, 3H-perfluoropentane is reported here, focussing on the effects of simple elaboration of a central ethylene-oxide (EO) moiety. The base series of hydroxyl terminated EO fragments exhibited lower consolute solution temperature (LCST) behaviour that was strongly molecular weight-dependent. Substitution of methyl groups in place of the hydroxyl groups at the terminus of the EO fragment had a pronounced effect on the solubility of the oligomeric or polymeric material, the material becoming fully miscible with the HPFP. Substitution of methyl groups along the backbone of the hydroxyl terminated EO greatly enhanced the solubility of the materials, but the exhibited phase behaviour was still that of LCST. Longer alkyl groups at the terminus of the EO were found to promote the solubility compared to the hydroxyl terminated material, but to a relatively smaller degree compared with the methyl group. It is hoped that these simple "design rules" should facilitate the development of designer excipients tailored for a particular application. PMID:18601989

  12. Structure and dynamics of water near the interface with oligo(ethylene oxide) self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed E.; Grest, Gary S.; Stevens, Mark J.

    2007-03-01

    Oligo(ethylene oxide) self-assembled monolayers (OEO SAM's) deposited on Au are the prototypical materials used to study protein resistance. Recently, protein resistance has been shown to vary as a function of surface coverage and to be maximal at about two-thirds coverage, not complete coverage. We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the nature of the interface between water and the OEO SAM for a range of SAM coverages. As SAM coverage decreases, the amount of water within the OEO monolayer increases monotonically; however, the penetration depth of the water shows a maximum near the experimentally-found maximal coverage. As the water content increases, the SAM-water mixture becomes harder to distinguish from bulk water. Since the oxygen atoms of OEO are hydrogen bond acceptors, a hydrogen bond network forms within the SAM-water mixture. The water molecules diffuse freely within the monolayer and exchange with the bulk water. Because the monolayer becomes increasingly like bulk water as the coverage decreases, proteins stay in their bulk soluble conformation and do not adsorb. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Interaction of poly(ethylene oxide) with the sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle interface studied with nitroxide spin probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.S.; Kevan, L. )

    1994-08-04

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) line widths of 5-, 7-, 12-, and 16-doxylstearic acid (x-DSA) and tempo nitroxides versus the concentration of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles show different trends. The ESR line widths of 5-, 7-, and 16-DSA increase with increasing concentration of PEO, which is interpreted as due to increasing viscosity in the environment of the nitroxide spin probe. The tempo and 12-DSA line widths were independent of the concentration of PEO. The line width showed the highest value for 5-DSA and the lowest value of tempo. The line width of x-DSA decreases from 5-DSA to a minimum value for 12-DSA and then increases somewhat for 16-DSA. This is interpreted as bending of the alkyl chain to provide different locations for the nitroxide moiety relative to the micelle interface. The relative distances of the nitroxide moiety of [chi]-DSA from deuterated water at the SDS micelle interface was measured by deuterium electron spin echo modulation. The distances increased from 5-DSA to 12-DSA and then decreased for 16-DSA. The interpretation of the DSR line width trend is supported by the deuterium modulation depth trend. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Hyperbranched poly(glycidol)/poly(ethylene oxide) crosslinked hydrogel for tissue engineering scaffold using e-beams.

    PubMed

    Haryanto; Singh, Deepti; Huh, Pil Ho; Kim, Seong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    A microporous hydrogel scaffold was developed from hyperbranched poly(glycidol) (HPG) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) using electron beam (e-beam) induced cross-linking for tissue engineering applications. In this study, HPG was synthesized from glycidol using trimethylol propane as a core initiator and cross-linked hydrogels were made using 0, 10, 20, and 30% HPG with respect to PEO. The effects of %-HPG on the swelling ratio, cross-linking density, mechanical properties, morphology, degradation, and cytotoxicity of the hydrogel scaffolds were then investigated. Increasing the HPG content increased the pore size of the hydrogel scaffold, as well as the porosity, elongation at break, degree of degradation and swelling ratio. In contrast, the presence of HPG decreased the cross-linking density of the hydrogel. There was no significant difference in compressive modulus and tensile strength of all compositions. The pore size of hydrogel scaffolds could be easily tailored by controlling the content of HPG in the polymer blend. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity demonstrated that HPG/PEO hydrogel scaffold has potential for use as a matrix for cellular attachment and proliferation. These results indicate that cross-linked HPG/PEO hydrogel can function as a potential material for tissue engineering scaffolds. Moreover, a facile method to prepare hydrogel microporous scaffolds for tissue engineering by e-beam irradiation was developed.

  15. Phase Behavior and Ionic Conductivity of Concentrated Solutions of Polystyrene-Poly(ethylene oxide) Diblock Copolymers in an Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Peter M.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2010-03-16

    Concentrated solutions of poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock copolymers were prepared using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMI][TFSI] as the solvent. The self-assembled microstructures adopted by the copolymer solutions have been characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering. Lyotropic mesophase transitions were observed, with a progression from hexagonally packed cylinders of PEO, to lamellae, to hexagonally packed cylinders of PS upon increasing [EMI][TFSI] content. The change in lamellar domain spacing with ionic liquid concentration was found to be comparable to that reported for other block copolymers in strongly selective solvents. The ionic conductivity of the concentrated PS-PEO/[EMI][TFSI] solutions was measured via impedance spectroscopy, and ranged from 1 x 10{sup -7} to 1 x 10{sup -3} S/cm at temperatures from 25-100 C. Additionally, the ionic conductivity of the solutions was found to increase with both ionic liquid concentration and molecular weight of the PEO blocks. The ionic conductivity of PEO homopolymer/[EMI][TFSI] solutions was also measured in order to compare the conductivity of the PS-PEO solutions to the expected limit for a lamellar sample with randomly oriented microstructure grains.

  16. Phase Transfer of Polystyrene- b-poly(ethylene oxide) Polymersomes from a Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid to Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Soonyong; Lodge, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    The phase transfer of molecules and supramolecular assemblies from one phase to the other in a biphasic system is desirable for various applications such as catalysis, separation, and delivery. Herein, we describe the phase transfer of polystyrene- b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) polymersomes from a hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][TFSI]), into water. The phase transfer behavior of PS-PEO polymersomes was studied systematically by varying the molecular weight of PS and the PEO volume fraction of the PS-PEO. We demonstrate a general boundary for the phase transfer in terms of a reduced tethering density for PEO, which is independent of the molecular weight of the hydrophobic PS. The tethering density can be increased by increasing the block length of PEO and the size of the polymersomes, and the increased tethering density induces the phase transfer. This phase transfer were also analyzed thermodynamically with the free energy difference of the polymersomes in [EMIM][TFSI] and water. Higher grafting density can reduce the interfacial tension between PS and water, and leads the polymersomes to transfer from [EMIM][TFSI] to water at room temperature.

  17. Enhancement of stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of poly(ethylene oxide) using phenoxy-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bing-Xing; Shi, Jia-Hua; Pramoda, K. P.; Goh, Suat Hong

    2007-03-01

    Phenoxy (poly(hydroxyether of bisphenol-A), also known as poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin)) was grafted onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by a reactive blending process. Reactions between terminal glycidyl groups of phenoxy and carboxylic acid groups of acidified MWNTs resulted in the grafting of phenoxy chains onto MWNTs. The mechanical properties of composites of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and phenoxy-grafted MWNTs were studied. The miscibility between PEO and phenoxy enabled the good dispersion of nanotubes in the PEO matrix as evidenced by polarized optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The spherulite size of PEO progressively decreased with increasing amount of phenoxy-grafted MWNTs added. At an optimal MWNT content of 1.5 wt%, the addition of phenoxy-grafted MWNTs led to increases of storage modulus, Young's modulus, yield stress, tensile strength, ultimate strain, and toughness of PEO by 113, 228, 166, 442, 1240, and 4080%, respectively. Such simultaneous increases in stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of a polymer by an additive are rather uncommon.

  18. Poly(ethylene oxide)-Assisted Macromolecular Self-Assembly of Lignin in ABS Matrix for Sustainable Composite Applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Akato, Kokouvi M.; Tran, Chau D.; Chen, Jihua; Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-11-05

    Here we report the compatibilization of biomass-derived lignin polymer in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic matrix without loss of mechanical properties via poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-mediated macromolecular self-assembly. ABS was blended with lignin in different concentrations, and blends with 10 wt % PEO (relative to lignin) were prepared. The relative tensile strength improved slightly at low lignin content but diminished rapidly as the lignin content was increased. However, the inclusion of PEO as an interfacial adhesion promoter helped avoid deleterious effects. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that PEO plasticized the hard phase and thus lowered the activation energy (Ea) for its relaxationmore » but caused stiffening of the soft phase and increased its Ea. Microscopy revealed that incorporating lignin in ABS led to the statistical dispersion of discrete lignin domains (300–1000 nm) which, after PEO addition, were reduced to smaller interconnected particles (200–500 nm). The lignin-extended partially renewable ABS resins showed shear-thinning behavior and reduced viscosity compared to neat ABS. The preferred lignin-loaded compositions reinforced with 20 vol % chopped carbon fibers exhibited mechanical performances (77–80 MPa) equivalent to those of reinforced ABS materials reportedly used in 3D printing applications. In conclusion, this approach could lower the cost of ABS while reducing its carbon footprint.« less

  19. Poly(ethylene oxide)-Assisted Macromolecular Self-Assembly of Lignin in ABS Matrix for Sustainable Composite Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akato, Kokouvi M.; Tran, Chau D.; Chen, Jihua; Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-11-05

    Here we report the compatibilization of biomass-derived lignin polymer in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic matrix without loss of mechanical properties via poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-mediated macromolecular self-assembly. ABS was blended with lignin in different concentrations, and blends with 10 wt % PEO (relative to lignin) were prepared. The relative tensile strength improved slightly at low lignin content but diminished rapidly as the lignin content was increased. However, the inclusion of PEO as an interfacial adhesion promoter helped avoid deleterious effects. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that PEO plasticized the hard phase and thus lowered the activation energy (Ea) for its relaxation but caused stiffening of the soft phase and increased its Ea. Microscopy revealed that incorporating lignin in ABS led to the statistical dispersion of discrete lignin domains (300–1000 nm) which, after PEO addition, were reduced to smaller interconnected particles (200–500 nm). The lignin-extended partially renewable ABS resins showed shear-thinning behavior and reduced viscosity compared to neat ABS. The preferred lignin-loaded compositions reinforced with 20 vol % chopped carbon fibers exhibited mechanical performances (77–80 MPa) equivalent to those of reinforced ABS materials reportedly used in 3D printing applications. In conclusion, this approach could lower the cost of ABS while reducing its carbon footprint.

  20. Lyotropic Phase Behavior of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(butadiene) Diblock Copolymers: Evolution of the Random Network Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Sumeet; Dyrdahl, Mitchell H.E.; Gong, Xiaobo; Scriven, L.E.; Bates, Frank S.

    2008-10-24

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butadiene) (PEO-PB) diblock copolymers mixed with water was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. Two sets of diblocks were synthesized by adding different lengths of PEO to hydroxy terminated PB with degrees of polymerization N{sub PB} = 46 and 170. Two-component mixtures were investigated as a function of block composition and copolymer molecular weight, between 1 and 100 wt % polymer content. Melt phase behavior is consistent with established theory and known experimental behavior for diblock copolymers. Various lyotropic liquid crystalline structures, notably lamellae (L), hexagonally packed cylinders (H), and spheres (S) arranged on cubic (body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic) lattices, were documented as a function of water content. At the higher molecular weights (N{sub PB} = 170), a random network phase (N) was identified over a sizable portion of the phase portrait, located between hexagonally ordered cylinders and ordered lamellae. This new structure, along with branching of cylindrical micelles in the dilute limit, bear a striking similarity to experimentally observed and theoretically predicted phase behavior in certain ternary water/oil/surfactant systems. These findings demonstrate that block copolymer surfactants are characterized by at least four structural building blocks -- spheres, cylinders, bilayers, and branched cylinders -- above a threshold molecular weight.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2012-01-06

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies formore » motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.« less

  2. SPECT/CT Imaging of Pluronic Nanocarriers with Varying Poly(ethylene oxide) Block Length and Aggregation State.

    PubMed

    Arranja, Alexandra; Ivashchenko, Oleksandra; Denkova, Antonia G; Morawska, Karolina; van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter; Waton, Gilles; Beekman, Freek J; Schosseler, François; Mendes, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Optimal biodistribution and prolonged circulation of nanocarriers improve diagnostic and therapeutic effects of enhanced permeability and retention-based nanomedicines. Despite extensive use of Pluronics in polymer-based pharmaceuticals, the influence of different poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block length and aggregation state on the biodistribution of the carriers is rather unexplored. In this work, we studied these effects by evaluating the biodistribution of Pluronic unimers and cross-linked micelles with different PEO block size. In vivo biodistribution of (111)In-radiolabeled Pluronic nanocarriers was investigated in healthy mice using single photon emission computed tomography. All carriers show fast uptake in the organs from the reticuloendothelial system followed by a steady elimination through the hepatobiliary tract and renal filtration. The PEO block length affects the initial renal clearance of the compounds and the overall liver uptake. The aggregation state influences the long-term accumulation of the nanocarriers in the liver. We showed that the circulation time and elimination pathways can be tuned by varying the physicochemical properties of Pluronic copolymers. Our results can be beneficial for the design of future Pluronic-based nanomedicines. PMID:26883169

  3. Polymer-Ion Interaction Weakens the Strain-Rate Dependence of Extension-Induced Crystallization for Poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingting; Tian, Nan; Ali, Sarmad; Wang, Zhen; Chang, Jiarui; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin

    2016-03-01

    The crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-sodium iodine (NaI) composites is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), extensional rheology, and in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with the aim of demonstrating versatile roles played by polymer-ion interactions. In the isothermal quiescent crystallization process, a decrease in the crystal growth rate is observed for PEO-NaI and is attributed to slow chain movement caused by the coordination between cations and polymer. In situ SAXS on extensional flow-induced crystallization (FIC) exhibits enhanced kinetics and orientation for both PEO and PEO-NaI with increasing strain rate. However, an overall weaker strain-rate dependence of FIC is observed for PEO-NaI, which can be interpreted as a synergistic consequence of promoted nucleation under flow and impeded crystal growth by polymer-ion interaction. A possible microscopic mechanism is proposed to account for the experimental observation based on the formation of transient cross-linking points in PEO-NaI and their influence on the entanglement network of polymer under various flow fields. The disclosed strain-rate dependence and various ion effects on the behavior of PEO-salt composites contribute to a comprehensive understanding of polymer-ion solid polyelectrolytes. PMID:26822166

  4. Preparation and interfacial properties of a novel biodegradable polymer surfactant: poly(ethylene oxide monooleate-block-DL-lactide).

    PubMed

    Nishino, Satoru; Kitamura, Yoshiro; Kishida, Akio; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we report a novel synthesis of poly(ethylene oxide monooleate-block-DL-lactide) (MOPEO-PLA) in the presence of stannous 2-ethylhexanoate catalyst. By utilizing the surfactant property and the reactive double bond of the amphiphilic MOPEO-PLA, various characteristics of PLA microspheres, such as surface and internal structure, surface morphology, release property, and so on, may potentially be controlled. MOPEO-PLA was found to be hydrophobic enough to prevent loss by dissolution into aqueous solution, which is often a problem for MOPEO. Furthermore, the interfacial tension measurements of a MOPEO-PLA/toluene/water system revealed that MOPEO-PLA had a good surface activity almost equal to that of MOPEO. The MOPEO-PLA/PLA blend films were prepared by solvent casting on a water layer. Contact-angle measurements of MOPEO-PLA/PLA blend films confirmed that the hydrophilic PEO segments were selectivity accumulated at the oil/water interface. Moreover, the surface free energy on the 'water side' of the MOPEO-PLA/PLA blend films was increased because of the increase in polar components as a result of the ether bonds of the PEO segments. Schematic illustration of the adsorption property of a) MOPEO-PLA with a high-molecular-weight PLA segment and b) MOPEO-PLA with a low-molecular-weight PLA segment at an ethyl acetate/water interface. PMID:16245272

  5. Fabrication, characterization, and evaluation in drug release properties of magnetoactive poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(L-lactide) electrospun membranes.

    PubMed

    Savva, Ioanna; Odysseos, Andreani D; Evaggelou, Loucas; Marinica, Oana; Vasile, Eugeniu; Vekas, Ladislau; Sarigiannis, Yiannis; Krasia-Christoforou, Theodora

    2013-12-01

    The fabrication of electrospun magnetoactive fibrous nanocomposite membranes based on the water-soluble and biocompatible poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), the biocompatible and biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and preformed oleic acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles (OA.Fe3O4) is reported. Visualization of the membranes by electron microscopy techniques reveals the presence of continuous fibers of approximately 2 μm in diameter, with the magnetic nanoparticles being evenly distributed within the fibers, retaining at the same time their nanosized diameters (≈ 5 nm). Thermal gravimetric analysis measurements suggest that the magnetic nanoparticles embedded within the polymer fibers affect favorably the thermal stability of the membranes. Moreover, assessment of their magnetic characteristics by vibrating sample magnetometry discloses tunable superparamagnetic behavior at ambient temperature. For the first time, the biocompatibility and biodegradability of PEO/PLLA and the tunable magnetic activity of the OA.Fe3O4 are combined in the same drug delivery system, with N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (acetaminophen) as a proof-of-concept pharmaceutical. Furthermore, their heating ability under alternating current (AC) magnetic field conditions is evaluated using frequency of 110 kHz and corresponding magnetic field strength of 25 mT (19.9 kA/m). Consequently, these magnetoactive fibrous nanocomposites exhibit promising characteristics for future exploitation in magnetothermally triggered drug delivery.

  6. Adsorption energies of poly(ethylene oxide)-based surfactants and nanoparticles on an air-water surface.

    PubMed

    Zell, Zachary A; Isa, Lucio; Ilg, Patrick; Leal, L Gary; Squires, Todd M

    2014-01-14

    The self-assembly of polymer-based surfactants and nanoparticles on fluid-fluid interfaces is central to many applications, including dispersion stabilization, creation of novel 2D materials, and surface patterning. Very often these processes involve compressing interfacial monolayers of particles or polymers to obtain a desired material microstructure. At high surface pressures, however, even highly interfacially active objects can desorb from the interface. Methods of directly measuring the energy which keeps the polymer or particles bound to the interface (adsorption/desorption energies) are therefore of high interest for these processes. Moreover, though a geometric description linking adsorption energy and wetting properties through the definition of a contact angle can be established for rigid nano- or microparticles, such a description breaks down for deformable or aggregating objects. Here, we demonstrate a technique to quantify desorption energies directly, by comparing surface pressure-density compression measurements using a Wilhelmy plate and a custom-microfabricated deflection tensiometer. We focus on poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymers and nanoparticles. For PEO-based homo- and copolymers, the adsorption energy of PEO chains scales linearly with molecular weight and can be tuned by changing the subphase composition. Moreover, the desorption surface pressure of PEO-stabilized nanoparticles corresponds to the saturation surface pressure for spontaneously adsorbed monolayers, yielding trapping energies of ∼10(3) k(B)T. PMID:24328531

  7. Binding of ethylene oxide in spermiogenic germ cell stages of the mouse after low-level inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.; Owens, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Mice received inhalation exposures of /sup 3/H-labeled ethylene oxide (EtO) gas at levels from 0.65 to 3.2 parts per million-hours (ppm-hr), which are below the exposure limits currently allowed for humans. Subsequently, spermatozoa were recovered from the reproductive tracts of the animals over a two-week period and assayed for the amount of bound EtO. A strong increase in the level of EtO binding occurred in late spermatid stages; these stages are also genetically sensitive to the action of EtO. Alkylation of the DNA within the sperm accounted for a very small fraction of the total sperm head alkylation, averaging about 20 DNA alkylations per sperm per ppm-hr of exposure over the two-week period. However, alkylation of protamine, a protein unique to sperm cells, was found to be correlated with total sperm head alkylation and accounted for nearly all of the EtO binding. Protamine alkylation appears to be a significant cause of EtO-induced genetic damage in spermiogenic cells of the mammal.

  8. Enhanced Efficiency of Nanocrystalline Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Benzotriazole Doped Poly (ethylene oxide) Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, S.; Maruthamuthu, P.; Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin

    2010-10-01

    An organic nitrogenous compound benzotriazole was employed as a plasticizer in nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells (nDSSC) incorporating a polymer electrolyte based on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO). Detailed studies have been made on the structural and electrical characterization of the polymer electrolyte using X-ray diffraction (XRD), impedance spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Due to the coordinating and plasticizing effects of benzotriazole, enhanced ionic conductivity and reduced crystallinity of PEO polymer electrolyte accompanied by a better penetration of the same into the dye coated nanocrystalline TiO2 in order to enhance its efficiency were achieved. Based on the new polymer electrolyte, a nanocrystalline DSSC with a fillfactor of 0.53, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 695 mV, short-circuit current (Jsc) of 6.3 mAcm-2 and sun light to electricity conversion efficiency of 4.6% were obtained under AM 1.5 irradiation at 50 mWcm-2.

  9. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted on plasma-activated poly(ethylene oxide): thermal response and interaction with proteins.

    PubMed

    Heinz, P; Brétagnol, F; Mannelli, I; Sirghi, L; Valsesia, A; Ceccone, G; Gilliland, D; Landfester, K; Rauscher, H; Rossi, F

    2008-06-17

    Thermoresponsive polymer layers offer the possibility of preparing smart surfaces with properties that are switchable through a phase transition, usually close to the lower critical solution temperature of the polymer. In particular, poly( N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) has gained a great deal of attention because it has such a phase transition in a physiologically interesting temperature range. We have prepared ultrathin thermoresponsive coatings by grafting pNIPAM on a plasma-CVD-deposited, poly(ethylene oxide)-like polymer substrate that was activated in an Ar plasma discharge to initiate the grafting. The presence and integrity of pNIPAM was verified by XPS and ToF-SIMS, and a dramatic change in the wettability during the phase transition was identified by temperature-dependent contact angle measurements. The transition from the hydrated to the collapsed conformation was analyzed by temperature-dependent QCM measurements and by AFM. An unusual, reversible behavior of the viscoelastic properties was seen directly at the phase transition from the swollen to the collapsed state. The phase transition leads to a switching from protein repulsion to a state that allows the adsorption of proteins. PMID:18484752

  10. Increased bioavailability of primaquine using poly(ethylene oxide) matrix extended-release tablets administered to beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bertol, C D; Oliveira, P R; Kuminek, G; Rauber, G S; Stulzer, H K; Silva, M A S

    2011-01-01

    Primaquine (PQ) is used for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria and can cause serious side effects in some individuals. The development of an extended-release dosage with poly(ethylene oxide) as a hydrophilic polymer has been investigated to improve drug efficacy and tolerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo a new extended-release formulation of PQ (60 mg). The formulation was administered to beagle dogs and plasma PQ concentrations were compared to a conventional immediate-release formulation of PQ (60 mg). The evaluation was carried out using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method using solid-phase extraction. Total PQ exposure in beagle dogs was 2.2 times higher (area under curve of 12 193 versus 5678 ng h/ml) and the elimination half-life of PQ was a 19-fold greater (12.95 hours versus 0.68 hours) with the extended-release tablets compared with the immediate-release tablets. These findings suggest that the extended-release formulation of PQ merits further evaluation for the treatment of P. vivax malaria and/or chemoprophylaxis. PMID:22185941

  11. Surfactant-assisted intercalation of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) into vanadyl phosphate di-hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Joao Paulo L.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: CuK{sub {alpha}} X-ray diffraction patterns of the VOPO{sub 4}/PEO (A) e VOPO{sub 4}/CTA (B) and VOPO{sub 4}/CTA/PEO (C). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VOPO{sub 4}/PEO has been synthesized by using CTAB, thereby improving PEO intercalation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The d-spacing increase from 1.30 nm (VOPO{sub 4}/PEO) to 2.94 nm (VOPO{sub 4}/CTA/PEO). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This strategy was viable for intercalation of PEO with high molecular weight. -- Abstract: A high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide)/layered vanadyl phosphate di-hydrate intercalation compound was synthesized via the surfactant-assisted approach. Results confirmed that surfactant molecules were replaced with the polymer, while the lamellar structure of the matrix was retained, and that the material presents high specific surface area. In addition, intercalation produced a more thermally stable polymer as evidenced by thermal analysis.

  12. A study of sister chromatid exchange and somatic cell mutation in hospital workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Tomkins, D J; Haines, T; Lawrence, M; Rosa, N

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the risks of exposure to ethylene oxide (EO) at current permissible levels and at past higher levels, an inception cohort of sterilizer operators and supervisors from the Central Processing Department (CPD), respiratory therapists, and engineers exposed to EO were identified at the McMaster University Medical Centre. A comparison group from Nutrition Services (NUTR) were matched with the CPD workers on the basis of sex, age, and smoking habit. The present report is based on genetic test results for the 94 CPD and matched NUTR workers only. Statistical analysis based on the mean SCE frequency in the top 5, top 10, and all cells (50 cells scored per individual) and high frequency cells (HFC) based on the 95th percentile for nonsmoking control subjects showed a direct association with current smoking but not with EO exposure. Similarly, statistical analysis of the somatic cell mutation (SCMT) variant frequencies did not demonstrate an association with EO exposure, nor with smoking. Regression analysis indicated that sex was the only other covariate that significantly affected SCE. Age was weakly associated with SCMT. A statistically significant interaction between occupational exposure and smoking habits was observed only for the mean SCE frequency of the top 5 and top 10 cells when the 11 current CPD/NUTR pairs were not included. Thus, this interaction should be interpreted with caution. PMID:8143611

  13. Identification of products from canthaxanthin oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mordi, Raphael C; Walton, John C

    2016-04-15

    Canthaxanthin is a carotenoid that lacks pro-vitamin A activity but is known to have antioxidant activity. The products of its oxidation in oxygen were found to be mainly substituted apo-carotenals and apo-carotenones. The product profile resembles that obtained in the oxidation of β-carotene, except that with canthaxanthin these products are the 4-oxo-β-apo-carotenals and 4-oxo-β-apo-carotenones. Epoxides and diepoxides were clearly identified from β-carotene oxidation but in contrast, with canthaxanthin, apart from 5,6-epoxy-canthaxanthin, which was detected at the early stage of oxidation and minor quantities of 5,6-epoxy-β-ionone and 5,6-epoxy-4-oxo-β-apo-11-carotenal, no other epoxides were detected. The identities of these products lead us to suggest that the mechanism of canthaxanthin oxidation bears significant similarity to that of β-carotene.

  14. The use of poly(ethylene oxide) for the efficient stabilization of entrapped alpha-chymotrypsin in silicone elastomers: a chemometric study.

    PubMed

    Ragheb, Amro M; Hileman, Oliver E; Brook, Michael

    2005-12-01

    The enzyme alpha-chymotrypsin, a model for catalytic proteins, was entrapped in different silicone elastomers that were formed via the condensation-cure room temperature vulcanization (CC-RTV) of silanol terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) with tetraethyl orthosilicate as a crosslinker, in the presence of different poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers that were functionalized with triethoxysilyl groups. The effects of various chemical factors on both the activity and entrapping efficiency of proteins (leaching) were studied using a 2-level fractional factorial design--a chemometrics approach. The factors studied include the concentration and chain length of poly(ethylene oxide), enzyme content, and crosslinker (TEOS) concentration. The study indicated that poly(ethylene oxide) can stabilize the entrapped alpha-chymotrypsin in silicone rubber: the specific activity can be maximized by incorporating a relatively high content of short chain, functional PEO. Increased enzyme concentration was found to adversely affect the specific activity. The effect of TEOS was found to be insignificant when PEO was present in the elastomer, however, it does affect the activity positively in the case of simple elastomers. PMID:15992922

  15. Complex Formation Between Lysozyme and Stabilized Micelles with a Mixed Poly(ethylene oxide)/Poly(acrylic acid) Shell.

    PubMed

    Karayianni, Maria; Gancheva, Valeria; Pispas, Stergios; Petrov, Petar

    2016-03-10

    The electrostatic complexation between lysozyme and stabilized polymeric micelles (SPMs) with a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or a mixed poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(acrylic acid) (PEO/PAA) shell (SPMs with a mixed shell, SPMMS) and a temperature-responsive poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) core was investigated by means of dynamic, static, and electrophoretic light scattering. The SPMs and different types of SPMMS used resulted from the self-assembly of PAA-PPO-PAA triblock copolymer chains, or PAA-PPO-PAA and PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer chain mixtures (with varying chain lengths and molar ratios) in aqueous solutions at pH 10 and the subsequent cross-linking of their PPO cores via loading and photo-cross-linking of pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PETA). The solution behavior, structure and properties of the formed complexes at pH 7 and 0.01 M ionic strength, were studied as a function of the protein concentration in the solution (the concentration of the stabilized micelles was kept constant) or equivalently the ratio of the two components. The complexation process and properties of the complexes proved to be dependent on the protein concentration, while of particular interest was the effect of the structure of the shell of the SPMs on the stability/solubility of the complexes. Finally, the fluorescence and mid infrared spectroscopic investigation of the structure of the complexed protein showed that, although a small stretching of the protein molecules occurred in some cases, no protein denaturation takes place upon complexation. PMID:26881445

  16. Degradation of ethylene glycol using Fenton's reagent and UV.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, B D; Adams, V D; Middlebrooks, E J

    2001-10-01

    Oxidation of ethylene glycol in aqueous solutions was found to occur with the addition of Fenton's reagent with further conversion observed upon UV irradiation. The pH range studied was 2.5-9.0 with initial H2O2 concentrations ranging from 100 to 1000 mg/l. Application of this method to airport storm-water could potentially result in reduction of chemical oxygen demand by conversion of ethylene glycol to oxalic and formic acids. Although the amount of H2O2 added follows the amount of ethylene glycol degraded, smaller H2O2 doses were associated with increases in the ratio of ethylene glycol removed per unit H2O2 added indicating the potential of pulsed doses or constant H2O2 feed systems. Ethylene glycol removal was enhanced by exposure to UV light after treatment with Fenton's reagent, with rates dependent on initial H2O2 concentration. In addition to ethylene glycol, the principle products of this reaction, oxalic and formic acids, have been shown to be mineralized in other HO generating systems presenting the potential for ethylene glycol mineralization in this system with increased HO* production.

  17. Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Natalie Marinho; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Ferreira, Fernanda Silva; Labre, Tatiana da Silva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.

  18. Lycopene oxidation product enhances gap junctional communication.

    PubMed

    Aust, O; Ale-Agha, N; Zhang, L; Wollersen, H; Sies, H; Stahl, W

    2003-10-01

    Carotenoids as well as their metabolites and oxidation products stimulate gap junctional communication (GJC) between cells, which is thought to be one of the protective mechanisms related to cancer-preventive activities of these compounds. Increased intake of lycopene by consumption of tomatoes or tomato products has been epidemiologically associated with a diminished risk of prostate cancer. Here, we report a stimulatory effect of a lycopene oxidation product on GJC in rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells. The active compound was obtained by complete in vitro oxidation of lycopene with hydrogen peroxide/osmium tetroxide. For structural analysis high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, ultraviolet/visible-, and infrared spectrophotometry were applied. The biologically active oxidation product was identified as 2,7,11-trimethyl-tetradecahexaene-1,14-dial. The present data indicate a potential role of lycopene degradation products in cell signaling enhancing cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions. PMID:12909274

  19. An auxin-responsive 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase is responsible for differential ethylene production in gravistimulated Antirrhinum majus L. flower stems.

    PubMed

    Woltering, Ernst J; Balk, Peter A; Nijenhuis-Devries, Mariska A; Faivre, Marilyne; Ruys, Gerda; Somhorst, Dianne; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Friedman, Haya

    2005-01-01

    The regulation of gravistimulation-induced ethylene production and its role in gravitropic bending was studied in Antirrhinum majus L. cut flower stems. Gravistimulation increased ethylene production in both lower and upper halves of the stems with much higher levels observed in the lower half. Expression patterns of three different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) genes, an ACC oxidase (ACO) and an ethylene receptor (ETR/ERS homolog) gene were studied in the bending zone of gravistimulated stems and in excised stem sections following treatment with different chemicals. One of the ACS genes (Am-ACS3) was abundantly expressed in the bending zone cortex at the lower side of the stems within 2 h of gravistimulation. Am-ACS3 was not expressed in vertical stems or in other parts of (gravistimulated) stems, leaves or flowers. Am-ACS3 was strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) but not responsive to ethylene. The Am-ACS3 expression pattern strongly suggests that Am-ACS3 is responsible for the observed differential ethylene production in gravistimulated stems; its responsiveness to IAA suggests that Am-ACS3 expression reflects changes in auxin signalling. Am-ACS1 also showed increased expression in gravistimulated and IAA-treated stems although to a much lesser extent than Am-ACS3. In contrast to Am-ACS3, Am-ACS1 was also expressed in non-bending regions of vertical and gravistimulated stems and in leaves, and Am-ACS1 expression was not confined to the lower side cortex but evenly distributed over the diameter of the stem. Am-ACO and Am-ETR/ERS expression was increased in both the lower and upper halves of gravistimulated stems. Expression of both Am-ACO and Am-ETR/ERS was responsive to ethylene, suggesting regulation by IAA-dependent differential ethylene production. Am-ACO expression and in vivo ACO activity, in addition, were induced by IAA, independent of the IAA-induced ethylene. IAA-induced growth of vertical stem sections and bending of

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of poly (ethylene oxide) hydration and conformation in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Udaya; Dormidontova, Elena

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO) is one of the most actively used polymers, especially in biomedical applications due to its high hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and potency to inhibit protein adsorption. PEO solubility and conformation in water depends on its capability to form hydrogen bonds. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations we investigated the details of water packing around PEO chain and characterized the type and lifetime of hydrogen bonds in aqueous and mixed solvent solutions. The observed polymer chain conformation varies from an extended coil in pure water to collapsed globule in hexane and a helical-like conformation in pure isobutyric acid or isobutyric acid -water mixture in agreement with experimental observations. We'll discuss the implications of protic solvent arrangement and stability of hydrogen bonds on PEO chain conformation and mobility. This research is supported by NSF (DMR-1410928).

  1. The Optical Properties of Poly (vinyl Chloride)/poly (ethylene Oxide) Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, G. M.; El-Wahab, S. M. Abd; El-Athem, A. Abd

    2013-03-01

    The miscibility and optical properties of polyvinylchloride (PVC) blends with different concentration of polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been studied. FTIR spectroscopy studies show the presence of interactions between blend constituents. The optical properties in the UV-visible regions are investigated at room temperature. From absorption spectra in UV-visible regions, the dependence of the absorption coefficient on the photon energy suggests the presence of both direct and indirect allowed transitions in k-space. The values of the optical band gap (Eopt) for both transitions have been obtained. The width of the tail of localized states in the band gap (Eu) was evaluated using the Urbach-edges. Both the parameters (Eopt) and (Eu) vary with different PEO content.

  2. [Changes in respiratory rate, ethylene production rate and quality of postharvest Chinese bayberry fruits with different maturities].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wang-Shu; Zheng, Jin-Tu; Wang, Guo-Yun; He, Gui-E; Sun, Chong-De; Xu, Wen-Ping; Yang, Shao-Lan; Cai, Chong; Li, Xian; Chen, Kun-Song

    2005-08-01

    Harvested fruits of three Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc.) varieties, i.e. "Biqi", "Dongkui" and "Zaodamei" which were divided into three maturities (designated as "Immature", "Mature" and "Ripe") according to fruit colour, were investigated for the changes in climacteric pattern and quality at 20 degrees C. Respiration rate and ethylene production rate were underwent 3 h during 48 h storage. Our result showed that both Immature and Mature fruits underwent rises in respiration and ethylene production rate of a climacteric rise, but no such peak was observed in Ripe fruit (Fig.1 and 2). Total soluble solids (TSS) contents increased with maturity and decreased over the 48 h at 20 degrees C (Fig.3); titratable acidity (TA) decreased with the maturity and throughout 48 h storage period (Fig.4). In "Biqi" Chinese bayberry fruit, PAL activities increased in Immature and Mature fruit, but, it decreased in Ripe fruit during the storage period; the change in Cy-3-Glu with fruit ripening was consistent with PAL activities (Table 1); there was significant positive correlation between CIRG (Color Index for Red Grape) values and Cy-3-Glu content (r=0.96**). This study provides important information on the postharvest behaviour of Chinese bayberry fruit, and our result shows that it is climacteric fruit. PMID:16121014

  3. A Data Base of Nutrient Use, Water Use, CO2 Exchange, and Ethylene Production by Soybeans in a Controlled Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.; Sharifi, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    A data set is given describing daily nutrient and water uptake, carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, ethylene production, and carbon and nutrient partitioning from a 20 sq m stand of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. McCall] for use in bioregenerative life support systems. Stand CO2 exchange rates were determined from nocturnal increases in CO2 (respiration) and morning drawdowns (net photosynthesis) to a set point of 1000 micromol/ mol each day (i.e., a closed system approach). Atmospheric samples were analyzed throughout growth for ethylene using gas chromatography with photoionization detection (GC/PH)). Water use was monitored by condensate production from the humidity control system, as well as water uptake from the nutrient solution reservoirs each day. Nutrient uptake data were determined from daily additions of stock solution and acid to maintain an EC of 0.12 S/m and pH of 5.8. Dry mass yields of seeds, pods (without seeds), leaves, stems, and roots are provided, as well as elemental and proximate nutritional compositions of the tissues. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar documenting set point adjustments and the occasional equipment or sensor failure.

  4. Reversible subacute ethylene glycol monomethyl ether toxicity associated with microfilm production: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.

    1984-01-01

    The first reported case of a possible toxic effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) exposure in the microfilm manufacturing industry is described. Reversible subjective central nervous system complaints and asymptomatic hematopoietic effects occurred following inhalation and skin exposure to EGME. Hematopoietic changes occurred at airborne levels which have been associated with reproductive and teratogenic effects in other studies. This finding leads to a recommendation for further research to determine whether or not hematopoietic medical surveillance can provide an indication of not only EGME hematopoietic effects but also an indication of sufficient EGME exposure to affect human reproduction and fetal development.

  5. Satellite observations of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, W.; Payne, V.; Kulawik, S. S.; Bowman, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) is a trace gas commonly associated with boreal fire plumes and the petrochemical industry. It has a short lifetime (~1-2 days) in the troposphere due to its reaction with OH. Chemical destruction of ethylene in the atmosphere leads to the production of ozone precursors such as carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde. The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer aboard the Aura satellite that measures thermal infrared radiances with high spectral resolution. Trace gas products retrieved routinely from TES spectra include O3, CO, H2O, HDO, CH4, NH3, HCOOH, CH3OH, with OCS and PAN to be included in the next data release. The TES spectra also includes a wealth of untapped information about other trace gasses including ethylene. Ethylene was first observed in TES spectra by Alvarado et al. (2011), though it has yet to be developed into an operational product. Our study focuses on the detection and initial quantitative estimates of ethylene in TES special observations taken in support of the 2008 ARCTAS mission. Initial observations of HCN in the spectra may provide a way to distinguish between fire plume and petrochemical derived ethylene. Results indicate a correlation between ethylene and CO in fresh fire plumes but not in older plumes, consistent with the gas's short lifetime. The approach adopted here to detect ethylene in the TES 2008 ARCTAS special observations can easily be expanded to larger datasets, including those from other thermal infrared sounders as well as to other trace gases.

  6. Oxide production program monthly report - December 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Evelyn A.; Whitworth, Julia; Lloyd, Jane Alexandria; Hampton, David Earl; Benavidez, Amelia A.

    2015-01-15

    A summary of the major activities, accomplishments, milestones, financial summary, project performance and issues facing the ARIES Oxide Production Program for the month of December 2014 is presented in this Executive Summary.

  7. Super Soft All-Ethylene Oxide Polymer Electrolyte for Safe All-Solid Lithium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Porcarelli, Luca; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Bella, Federico; Nair, Jijeesh Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that by regulating the mobility of classic −EO− based backbones, an innovative polymer electrolyte system can be architectured. This polymer electrolyte allows the construction of all solid lithium-based polymer cells having outstanding cycling behaviour in terms of rate capability and stability over a wide range of operating temperatures. Polymer electrolytes are obtained by UV-induced (co)polymerization, which promotes an effective interlinking between the polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains plasticized by tetraglyme at various lithium salt concentrations. The polymer networks exhibit sterling mechanical robustness, high flexibility, homogeneous and highly amorphous characteristics. Ambient temperature ionic conductivity values exceeding 0.1 mS cm−1 are obtained, along with a wide electrochemical stability window (>5 V vs. Li/Li+), excellent lithium ion transference number (>0.6) as well as interfacial stability. Moreover, the efficacious resistance to lithium dendrite nucleation and growth postulates the implementation of these polymer electrolytes in next generation of all-solid Li-metal batteries working at ambient conditions. PMID:26791572

  8. Titanate nanotubes for reinforcement of a poly(ethylene oxide)/chitosan polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, R.; Bavykin, D. V.; Zekonyte, J.; Walsh, F. C.; Wood, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Soft polyethylene oxide (PEO)/chitosan mixtures, reinforced with hard titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) by co-precipitation from aqueous solution, have been used to produce compact coatings by the ‘drop-cast’ method, using water soluble PEO polymer and stable, aqueous colloidal solutions of TiNTs. The effects of the nanotube concentration and their length on the hardness and modulus of the prepared composite have been studied using nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. The uniformity of TiNT dispersion within the polymer matrix has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A remarkable increase in hardness and reduced Young’s modulus of the composites, compared to pure polymer blends, has been observed at a TiNT concentration of 25 wt %. The short (up to 30 min) ultrasound treatment of aqueous solutions containing polymers and a colloidal TiNT mixture prior to drop casting has resulted in some improvements in both hardness and reduced Young’s modulus of dry composite films, probably due to a better dispersion of ceramic nanotubes within the matrix. However, further (more than 1 h) treatment of the mixture with ultrasound resulted in a deterioration of the mechanical properties of the composite accompanied by a shortening of the nanotubes, as observed by the TEM.

  9. Titanate nanotubes for reinforcement of a poly(ethylene oxide)/chitosan polymer matrix.

    PubMed

    Porras, R; Bavykin, D V; Zekonyte, J; Walsh, F C; Wood, R J

    2016-05-13

    Soft polyethylene oxide (PEO)/chitosan mixtures, reinforced with hard titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) by co-precipitation from aqueous solution, have been used to produce compact coatings by the 'drop-cast' method, using water soluble PEO polymer and stable, aqueous colloidal solutions of TiNTs. The effects of the nanotube concentration and their length on the hardness and modulus of the prepared composite have been studied using nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. The uniformity of TiNT dispersion within the polymer matrix has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A remarkable increase in hardness and reduced Young's modulus of the composites, compared to pure polymer blends, has been observed at a TiNT concentration of 25 wt %. The short (up to 30 min) ultrasound treatment of aqueous solutions containing polymers and a colloidal TiNT mixture prior to drop casting has resulted in some improvements in both hardness and reduced Young's modulus of dry composite films, probably due to a better dispersion of ceramic nanotubes within the matrix. However, further (more than 1 h) treatment of the mixture with ultrasound resulted in a deterioration of the mechanical properties of the composite accompanied by a shortening of the nanotubes, as observed by the TEM. PMID:27039947

  10. Super Soft All-Ethylene Oxide Polymer Electrolyte for Safe All-Solid Lithium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Bella, Federico; Nair, Jijeesh Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that by regulating the mobility of classic -EO- based backbones, an innovative polymer electrolyte system can be architectured. This polymer electrolyte allows the construction of all solid lithium-based polymer cells having outstanding cycling behaviour in terms of rate capability and stability over a wide range of operating temperatures. Polymer electrolytes are obtained by UV-induced (co)polymerization, which promotes an effective interlinking between the polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains plasticized by tetraglyme at various lithium salt concentrations. The polymer networks exhibit sterling mechanical robustness, high flexibility, homogeneous and highly amorphous characteristics. Ambient temperature ionic conductivity values exceeding 0.1 mS cm-1 are obtained, along with a wide electrochemical stability window (>5 V vs. Li/Li+), excellent lithium ion transference number (>0.6) as well as interfacial stability. Moreover, the efficacious resistance to lithium dendrite nucleation and growth postulates the implementation of these polymer electrolytes in next generation of all-solid Li-metal batteries working at ambient conditions.

  11. Effect of microgravity on stress ethylene and carbon dioxide production in sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Odom, William R.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The study of higher plant growth and development in the microgravity (micro-g) environment continues to be a challenge. This is in part a result of the available flight qualified hardware with restrictive closed gas environments. This point is underscored by considering that gas exchange of seedlings grown in microgravity may be further limited owing to a thicker layer of water wicked onto the roots and to the absence of convective mixing. We hypothesized that seedlings grown under such conditions will experience greater hypoxia in microgravity than at Earth gravity, and thus produce greater stress ethylene. We compared flight and ground samples of sweet clover seedlings grown in the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) during STS-57 and found them to contain extremely high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and stress ethylene. There were time dependent increases for both gases, and seedling growth was greatly inhibited. We repeated these experiments aboard STS-60 using modified chambers which increased, by fifty fold, the air available to the developing seedlings. Sweet clover seed germination and subsequent seedling growth to eight days within the FPA modified with a gas permeable membrane is not compromised by the microgravity environment.

  12. Chemistry in Acetone Complexes of Metal Dications: A Remarkable Ethylene Production Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jianhua; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Jian-Ge; Hagelberg, Frank; Park, Sung S.; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2007-05-16

    Electrospray ionization can generate microsolvated multiply charged metal ions for various metals and ligands, allowing exploration of chemistry within such clusters. The finite size of these systems permits comparing experimental results with accurate calculations, creating a natural laboratory to research ion solvation. Mass spectrometry has provided much insight into the stability and dissociation of ligated metal cations. While solvated singly charged ions tend to shrink by ligand evaporation, solvated polycations below a certain size exhibit charge reduction and/or ligand fragmentation due to organometallic reactions. Here we investigate the acetone complexes of typical divalent metals (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Cu), comparing the results of collision-induced dissociation with the predictions from density functional theory. As for other solvated dications, dissociation channels involving proton or electron transfer compete with ligand loss and become dominant for smaller complexes. The heterolytic C-C bond cleavage is common, as one would expect from previous work on DMSO and acetonitrile complexes. Of primary interest is the highly unintuitive neutral ethylene loss, found for all metals studied except Cu and particularly intense for Ca, Mn, and Fe. We focus on understanding that process in the context of competing dissociation channels, as a function of metal identity and number of ligands. According to first-principles modeling, ethylene elimination proceeds along a complex path involving a rearrangement of two acetone ligands and multiple transition states.

  13. Chemistry in acetone complexes of metal dications: a remarkable ethylene production pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhua; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Jian-Ge; Hagelberg, Frank; Park, Sung Soo; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A

    2007-06-01

    Electrospray ionization can generate microsolvated multiply charged metal ions for various metals and ligands, allowing exploration of chemistry within such clusters. The finite size of these systems permits comparing experimental results with accurate calculations, creating a natural laboratory to research ion solvation. Mass spectrometry has provided much insight into the stability and dissociation of ligated metal cations. While solvated singly charged ions tend to shrink by ligand evaporation, solvated polycations below a certain size exhibit charge reduction and/or ligand fragmentation due to organometallic reactions. Here we investigate the acetone complexes of representative divalent metals (Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu), comparing the results of collision-induced dissociation with the predictions of density functional theory. As for other solvated dications, channels involving proton or electron transfer compete with ligand loss and become dominant for smaller complexes. The heterolytic C-C bond cleavage is common, like in DMSO and acetonitrile complexes. Of primary interest is the unanticipated neutral ethylene loss, found for all metals studied except Cu and particularly intense for Ca and Mn. We focus on understanding that process in the context of competing dissociation pathways, as a function of metal identity and number of ligands. According to first-principles modeling, ethylene elimination proceeds along a complex path involving two intermediates. These results suggest that chemistry in microsolvated multiply charged ions may still hold major surprises. PMID:17503788

  14. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2012-04-01

    Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specific flavour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances) are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly difficult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates flavour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health. PMID:22493153

  15. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2012-04-01

    Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specific flavour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances) are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly difficult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates flavour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health.

  16. Nitric oxide mediates strigolactone signaling in auxin and ethylene-sensitive lateral root formation in sunflower seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Niharika; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) play significant role in shaping root architecture whereby auxin-SL crosstalk has been observed in SL-mediated responses of primary root elongation, lateral root formation and adventitious root (AR) initiation. Whereas GR24 (a synthetic strigolactone) inhibits LR and AR formation, the effect of SL biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone) is just the opposite (root proliferation). Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) leads to LR proliferation but completely inhibits AR development. The diffusive distribution of PIN1 in the provascular cells in the differentiating zone of the roots in response to GR24, fluridone or NPA treatments further indicates the involvement of localized auxin accumulation in LR development responses. Inhibition of LR formation by GR24 treatment coincides with inhibition of ACC synthase activity. Profuse LR development by fluridone and NPA treatments correlates with enhanced [Ca2+]cyt in the apical region and differentiating zones of LR, indicating a critical role of [Ca2+] in LR development in response to the coordinated action of auxins, ethylene and SLs. Significant enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) activity (enzyme responsible for SL biosynthesis) in tissue homogenates in presence of cPTIO (NO scavenger) indicates the role of endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCD activity. Differences in the spatial distribution of NO in the primary and lateral roots further highlight the involvement of NO in SL-modulated root morphogenesis in sunflower seedlings. Present work provides new report on the negative modulation of SL biosynthesis through modulation of CCD activity by endogenous nitric oxide during SL-modulated LR development. PMID:26076049

  17. Crystalline structure of the poly(ethylene oxide)--p-nitrophenol complex; 2: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Damman, P.; Point, J.J. . Service de Chimie-Physique et Thermodynamique)

    1994-07-04

    The authors have previously reported the existence of a crystalline compound made of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and p-nitrophenol (pnp). From x-ray fiber patterns on stretched and spherulitic samples of this complex, a triclinic unit cell (a = 1.172 nm, b = 0.555 nm, c = 1.557 nm, [alpha] = 90.7[degree], [beta] = 87.1[degree], and [gamma] = 104.0[degree]) was deduced; the unit cell contains 6 PEO monomeric units and 4 pnp molecules, in agreement with the stoichiometry deduced from the phase diagram. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the conformation of the PEO chains and the mutual arrangement of the PEO and pnp molecules in the unit cell. To carry out this, the authors studied the dichroism of the IR bands of pnp in two differently oriented samples, namely, in stretched samples and in spherulites. The benzene rings are found to be perpendicular to the c crystallographic parameter (chain axis), and the 1--4 axis of pnp is found to be parallel to the a* reciprocal parameter. These observations completely determine the orientation of the pnp molecules in the unit cell. The conformation of the polymeric chains in the complex is not helical as in pure PEO. From the C[sub 2h] factor group of the PEO molecules, deduced from the FTIR observations, and the normal mode analysis of hydrogenated and deuterated PEO, they propose the (t[sub 2]gt[sub 2]gt[sub 3]t[sub 2]g[prime]t[sub 2]g[prime]t[sub 3]) glide type conformation. In conclusion, it appears that in the PEO--pnp complex a stack of pnp molecules stabilizes the surrounding PEO molecules in this new conformation.

  18. Crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) with acetaminophen--a study on solubility, spherulitic growth, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Gogos, Costas

    2013-11-01

    A simple, sensitive, efficient, and novel method analyzing the number of spherulitic nuclei was proposed to estimate the solubility of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). At high crystallization temperature (323 K), 10% APAP-PEO had the same low number of spherulitic nuclei as pure PEO, indicating that APAP and PEO were fully miscible. At low crystallization temperature (303 K), the number of nuclei for 10% APAP-PEO was significantly higher, suggesting that APAP was oversaturated and therefore recrystallized and acted as a nucleating agent. Based on the results obtained, the solubility of APAP in PEO is possibly between the concentration of 0.1% and 1% at 303 K. The spherulitic growth rate G of PEO was found to decrease with increasing APAP concentration, suggesting that APAP is most likely functioning as a chemical defect and is either rejected from or included in the PEO crystals during chain folding. APAP could possibly locate in the inter-spherulitic, inter-fibrillar, inter-lamellar, or intra-lamellar regions of PEO. At 323 K, the morphology of 10% APAP-PEO is more dendritic than spherulitic with large unfilled space in between dendrites and spherulites, which is a sign of one or the combination of the four modes of segregation. An extensive spherulitic nucleation and growth kinetics study using the classical theoretical relationships, for example, the Hoffman-Lauritzen (HL) and Avrami theories, was conducted. Both microscopic and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis yielded similar values for the nucleation constant Kg as well as the fold surface free energy σe and work of chain folding q. The values of σe and q increased with APAP concentration, indicating that the chain folding of PEO was hindered by APAP.

  19. A scanning electron microscopic study of in vitro toxicity of ethylene-oxide-sterilized bone repair materials.

    PubMed

    Zislis, T; Martin, S A; Cerbas, E; Heath, J R; Mansfield, J L; Hollinger, J O

    1989-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) have been under investigation for use in the management of hard- and soft-tissue wounds. Current research has included the incorporation of osteo-inductive substances into a PLA-PGA copolymer alloplastic implant material for enhancement of the healing of osseous defects. Conventional methods of sterilization--such as dry heat, steam heat, or 60Co--tend either to destroy or attenuate osteo-inductive activity and alter polymer biodegradation. Ethylene oxide (EO) gas sterilization is currently being tested as an alternate method. This study examined the relationship of EO-induced cytotoxicity to the length of time of polymer aeration following EO sterilization. Three groups of copolymer implant discs were studied: (1) 50:50 PLA-PGA copolymer, (2) PLA-PGA polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA), and (3) PLA-PGA with autolyzed, antigen-extracted (AA) bone particles. Polymer discs, as well as particulate HA and AA bone controls, were sterilized with EO for 12 hours. Following periods of two weeks, one week, one day, or no subsequent vacuum aeration, samples were placed into 24-well culture plates. A suspension of human fibroblasts was added to each well. Cell growth and attachment were permitted for 24 hours. Medium was then removed, and solutions for cell fixation, buffer washing, and dehydration were added to each well. SEM examination revealed changes in cell growth with increasing periods of aeration suggestive of increasing cell vitality. Cells growing on discs having no aeration were small, round, and lobulated, whereas those of seven to 14 days' aeration were more numerous, and flattened with many microvilli, pseudopodia, and dendritic processes, features consistent with normal cell morphology. These results suggest that EO-sterilized polymer implants should be aerated for least seven to 14 days prior to surgical use. PMID:2561372

  20. Performance of polymer electrolyte based on chitosan blended with poly(ethylene oxide) for plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buraidah, M. H.; Teo, L. P.; Au Yong, C. M.; Shah, Shahan; Arof, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Chitosan and poly(ethylene oxide) powders have been mixed in different weight ratios. To each mixture, a fixed amount of ammonium iodide has been added. All mixtures have been dissolved in 1% acetic acid solution to form polymer blend electrolyte films by the solution cast technique. X-ray diffraction indicates that the polymer blend electrolytes are amorphous. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows shifting of the amine, carboxamide and Csbnd Osbnd C bands to lower wavenumbers indicating the occurrence of complexation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the electrical properties of the samples. The ionic conductivity for 55 wt.% chitosan-45 wt.% NH4I electrolyte system is 3.73 × 10-7 S cm-1 at room temperature and is increased to 3.66 × 10-6 S cm-1 for the blended film (16.5 wt.% chitosan-38.5 wt.% PEO)-45 wt.% NH4I film. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been fabricated by sandwiching the polymer electrolyte between the TiO2/dye photoelectrode and Pt counter electrode. DSSCs fabricated exhibits short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.71 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.58 V and efficiency of 0.78% with configuration ITO/TiO2/N3 dye/(16.5 wt.% chitosan-38.5 wt.% PEO)-45 wt.% NH4I(+I2)/Pt/ITO and Jsc of 2.84 mA cm-2, Voc of 0.58 V and efficiency of 1.13% with configuration ITO/TiO2 + Ag nanoparticles/N3 dye/(16.5 wt.% chitosan-38.5 wt.% PEO)-45 wt.% NH4I(+I2)/Pt/ITO.

  1. Colloidal crystals of core-shell type spheres with poly(styrene) core and poly(ethylene oxide) shell.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Junichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tsuchida, Akira; Okubo, Tsuneo; Ito, Koichi

    2007-04-15

    Elastic modulus and crystal growth kinetics have been studied for colloidal crystals of core-shell type colloidal spheres (diameter=160-200 nm) in aqueous suspension. Crystallization properties of three kinds of spheres, which have poly(styrene) core and poly(ethylene oxide) shell with different oxyethylene chain length (n=50, 80 and 150), were examined by reflection spectroscopy. The suspensions were deionized exhaustively for more than 1 year using mixed bed of ion-exchange resins. The rigidities of the crystals range from 0.11 to 120 Pa and from 0.56 to 76 Pa for the spheres of n=50 and 80, respectively, and increase sharply as the sphere volume fraction increase. The g factor, parameter for crystal stability, range from 0.029 to 0.13 and from 0.040 to 0.11 for the spheres of n=50 and 80, respectively. These g values indicate the formation of stable crystals, and the values were decreased as the sphere volume fraction increased. Two components of crystal growth rate coefficients, fast and slow, were observed in the order from 10(-3) to 10(1)s(-1). This is due to the secondary process in the colloidal crystallization mechanism, corresponding to reorientation from metastable crystals formed in the primary process and/or Ostwald-ripening process. There are no distinct differences in the structural, kinetic and elastic properties among the colloidal crystals of the different core-shell size spheres, nor difference between those of core-shell spheres and silica or poly(styrene) spheres. The results are very reasonably interpreted by the fact that colloidal crystals are formed in a closed container owing to long-range repulsive forces and the Brownian movement of colloidal spheres surrounded by extended electrical double layers, and their formation is not influenced by the rigidity and internal structure of the spheres.

  2. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40°C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat. PMID:24022274

  3. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40 °C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat.

  4. Production of oceanic nitrous oxide by ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löscher, C. R.; Kock, A.; Könneke, M.; LaRoche, J.; Bange, H. W.; Schmitz, R. A.

    2012-07-01

    The recent finding that microbial ammonia oxidation in the ocean is performed by archaea to a greater extent than by bacteria has drastically changed the view on oceanic nitrification. The numerical dominance of archaeal ammonia-oxidizers (AOA) over their bacterial counterparts (AOB) in large parts of the ocean leads to the hypothesis that AOA rather than AOB could be the key organisms for the oceanic production of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) that occurs as a by-product of nitrification. Very recently, enrichment cultures of marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been reported to produce N2O. Here, we demonstrate that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA) were detectable throughout the water column of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) and eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) Oceans. Particularly in the ETNA, comparable patterns of abundance and expression of archaeal amoA genes and N2O co-occurred in the oxygen minimum, whereas the abundances of bacterial amoA genes were negligible. Moreover, selective inhibition of archaea in seawater incubations from the ETNA decreased the N2O production significantly. In studies with the only cultivated marine archaeal ammonia-oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, we provide the first direct evidence for N2O production in a pure culture of AOA, excluding the involvement of other microorganisms as possibly present in enrichments. N. maritimus showed high N2O production rates under low oxygen concentrations comparable to concentrations existing in the oxycline of the ETNA, whereas the N2O production from two AOB cultures was comparably low under similar conditions. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the production of N2O in tropical ocean areas results mainly from archaeal nitrification and will be affected by the predicted decrease in dissolved oxygen in the ocean.

  5. Production of oceanic nitrous oxide by ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loescher, C. R.; Kock, A.; Koenneke, M.; Laroche, J.; Bange, H. W.; Schmitz, R. A.

    2012-02-01

    The recent finding that microbial ammonia oxidation in the ocean is performed by archaea to a greater extent than by bacteria has drastically changed the view on oceanic nitrification. The numerical dominance of archaeal ammonia-oxidizers (AOA) over their bacterial counterparts (AOB) in large parts of the ocean leads to the hypothesis that AOA rather than AOB could be the key organisms for the oceanic production of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) which occurs as a by-product of nitrification. Very recently, enrichment cultures of marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been described to produce N2O. Here, we demonstrate that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA) were detectable throughout the water column of the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) and Eastern Tropical South Pacific Oceans (ETSP). Particularly in the ETNA, maxima in abundance and expression of archaeal amoA genes correlated with the N2O maximum and the oxygen minimum, whereas the abundances of bacterial amoA genes were negligible. Moreover, selective inhibition of archaea in seawater incubations from the ETNA decreased the N2O production significantly. In studies with the only cultivated marine archaeal ammonia-oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, we provide the first direct evidence for N2O production in a pure culture of AOA, excluding the involvement of other microorganisms as possibly present in enrichments. N. maritimus showed high N2O production rates under low oxygen concentrations comparable to concentrations existing in the oxycline of the ETNA, whereas the N2O production from two AOB cultures was comparably low under similar conditions. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the production of N2O in tropical ocean areas results mainly from archaeal nitrification and will be affected by the predicted decrease in dissolved oxygen in the ocean.

  6. Influence of poly(ethylene oxide)-based copolymer on protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion on stainless steel: modulation by surface hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Rouxhet, Paul G; Chudziak, Dorota; Telegdi, Judit; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the adhesion of Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021, a typical aerobic marine microorganism, on stainless steel (SS) substrate. More particularly, the potential effect on adhesion of adsorbed poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer is investigated. Bacterial attachment experiments were carried out using a modified parallel plate flow chamber, allowing different surface treatments to be compared in a single experiment. The amount of adhering bacteria was determined via DAPI staining and fluorescence microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the surface chemical composition of SS and hydrophobized SS before and after PEO-PPO-PEO adsorption. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model protein, was investigated to test the resistance of PEO-PPO-PEO layers to protein adsorption. The results show that BSA adsorption and Pseudomonas 2021 adhesion are significantly reduced on hydrophobized SS conditioned with PEO-PPO-PEO. Although PEO-PPO-PEO is also found to adsorb on SS, it does not prevent BSA adsorption nor bacterial adhesion, which is attributed to different PEO-PPO-PEO adlayer structures on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The obtained results open the way to a new strategy to reduce biofouling on metal oxide surfaces using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer.

  7. The electrochemical promotion of ethylene oxidation at a Pt/YSZ catalyst.

    PubMed

    Toghan, Arafat; Rösken, Liz M; Imbihl, Ronald

    2010-05-17

    The electrochemical promotion of the C(2)H(4)+O(2) reaction to form CO(2) and H(2)O is studied in the 10(-5) and 10(-4) mbar range with a Pt catalyst interfaced as working electrode to yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) was used as spatially resolving method. Under open-circuit conditions, that is, without an external voltage applied, the CO(2) production exhibits a pronounced hysteresis upon cyclic variation of p(C(2)H(4)). The hysteresis is attributed to the build-up of a carbonaceous CH(x) layer inhibiting O(2) adsorption and hence poisoning the reaction. It is shown that the application of a positive potential of 1 V triggers a transition from the unreactive branch of the reaction to an active branch. The large non-Faradayicity reported in the literature for this reaction system is explained as an ignition effect caused by the partial removal of the inhibiting carbonaceaous layer.

  8. Filler effect of ionic liquid attached titanium oxide on conducting property of poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) composite electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lyungyu; Kim, Ick-Jun; Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Seok

    2014-10-01

    Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) were prepared by containing blend of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a host polymer, propylene carbonate as a plasticizer, and LiClO4 as a salt. By an addition of a various content of ionic liquid attached TiO2 (IL-TiO2) to above electrolytes, the effects were studied. As a result, by increasing the IL-TiO2 content, the crystallinity of PEO was decreased and the ionic conductivity was increased. The ionic conductivity of CPEs was dependent on the content of IL-TiO2 and showed the highest value of 1.05 x 10(-4) S/cm at 9 wt.%. However, when IL-TiO2 content exceeds 9 wt.%, the ionic conductivity was decreased due to the slow ionic transport due to immiscibility or aggregation of the IL-TiO2 filler within the polymer film matrix. PMID:25942912

  9. The role of gravity in apical dominance: effects of clinostating on shoot inversion-induced ethylene production, shoot elongation and lateral bud growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1987-01-01

    Shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is inhibited by rotating the plant at 0.42 revolutions per minute in a vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of a horizontal clinostat. Clinostating prevented lateral bud outgrowth, apparently by negating the restriction of the shoot elongation via reduction of ethylene production in the inverted shoot. Radial stem expansion was also decreased. Data from experiments with intact tissue and isolated segments indicated that shoot-inversion stimulates ethylene production by increasing the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. The results support the hypothesis that shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is due to gravity stress and is mediated by ethylene-induced retardation of the elongation of the inverted shoot.

  10. Portable Apparatus for Electrochemical Sensing of Ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoukian, Mourad; Tempelman, Linda A.; Forchione, John; Krebs, W. Michael; Schmitt, Edwin W.

    2007-01-01

    A small, lightweight, portable apparatus based on an electrochemical sensing principle has been developed for monitoring low concentrations of ethylene in air. Ethylene has long been known to be produced by plants and to stimulate the growth and other aspects of the development of plants (including, notably, ripening of fruits and vegetables), even at concentrations as low as tens of parts per billion (ppb). The effects are magnified in plant-growth and -storage chambers wherein ethylene can accumulate. There is increasing recognition in agriculture and related industries that it is desirable to monitor and control ethylene concentrations in order to optimize the growth, storage, and ripening of plant products. Hence, there are numerous potential uses for the present apparatus in conjunction with equipment for controlling ethylene concentrations. The ethylene sensor is of a thick-film type with a design optimized for a low detection limit. The sensor includes a noble metal sensing electrode on a chip and a hydrated solid-electrolyte membrane that is held in contact with the chip. Also located on the sensor chip are a counter electrode and a reference electrode. The sensing electrode is held at a fixed potential versus the reference electrode. Detection takes place at active-triple-point areas where the sensing electrode, electrolyte, and sample gas meet. These areas are formed by cutting openings in the electrolyte membrane. The electrode current generated from electrochemical oxidation of ethylene at the active triple points is proportional to the concentration of ethylene. An additional film of the solid-electrolyte membrane material is deposited on the sensing electrode to increase the effective triple-point areas and thereby enhance the detection signal. The sensor chip is placed in a holder that is part of a polycarbonate housing. When fully assembled, the housing holds the solid-electrolyte membrane in contact with the chip (see figure). The housing includes

  11. Differential responses of certain lichen species to sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions as expressed by the production of stress-ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Kauppi, M.; Kauppi, A.

    1995-05-01

    To determine whether fluctuations in the concentration of ethylene produced by lichens exposed to sulfur-containing solutions at a low pH correlate with the tolerance/sensitivity of these lichens to air pollution, we measured the amount of ethylene produced by thalli soaked in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaHSO{sub 3}. The exposure of Hypogymnia physodes, Cladina stellaris, and Bryoria fuscescens to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at a pH ranging between 4.0 and 2.0 did not produce changes in the concentration of ethylene in comparison with samples wetted with H{sub 2}O at pH 6.8. The exposure of two pendulous lichens, Usnea hirta and Alectoria sarmentosa, to 1.0 and 5.0 mM H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at pH 2.7 and 2.0, respectively, stimulated only a slight increase of ethylene production, whereas another pendulous lichen, Bryoria fremontii, exposed to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at pH 4.0-2.0 decreased its production of ethylene. The soaking of H. physodes, U. hirta, C. stellaris, and A. sarmentosa thalli in NaHSO{sub 3} at pH 4.0 gradually increased the production of ethylene. The exposure of B. fremontii and B. fuscescens to low NaHSO{sub 3} concentrations depressed the production of ethylene in these lichens. The indifference of H. physodes to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under strong acidic conditions correlated with its resistance to SO{sub 21} in the air. In accordance with a model by D.M. Reid (In {open_quotes}Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Forests, Wetlands and Agricultural Ecosystems. NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 1987) referring to higher plants, it is suggested that sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions increase the solubility of particles containing heavy metals entrapped among the mycobiont hyphae in lichens. This may lead to an increase of the production of endogenous ethylene in lichens as they are exposed to sulfur-containing chemicals, to acidic rain, or to heavy metal-polluted air. 65 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. Differential responses of certain lichen species to sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions as expressed by the production of stress-ethylene.

    PubMed

    Garty, J; Kauppi, M; Kauppi, A

    1995-05-01

    To determine whether fluctuations in the concentration of ethylene produced by lichens exposed to sulfur-containing solutions at a low pH correlate with the tolerance/sensitivity of these lichens to air pollution, we measured the amount of ethylene produced by thalli soaked in H2SO4 and NaHSO3. The exposure of Hypogymnia physodes, Cladina stellaris, and Bryoria fuscescens to H2SO4 at a pH ranging between 4.0 and 2.0 did not produce changes in the concentration of ethylene in comparison with samples wetted with H2O at pH 6.8. The exposure of two pendulous lichens, Usnea hirta and Alectoria sarmentosa, to 1.0 and 5.0 mM H2SO4 at pH 2.7 and 2.0, respectively, stimulated only a slight increase of ethylene production, whereas another pendulous lichen, Bryoria fremontii, exposed to H2SO4 at pH 4.0-2.0 decreased its production of ethylene. The soaking of H. physodes, U. hirta, C. stellaris, and A. sarmentosa thalli in NaHSO3 at pH 4.0 gradually increased the production of ethylene. The exposure of B. fremontii and B. fuscescens to low NaHSO3 concentrations depressed the production of ethylene in these lichens. The indifference of H. physodes to H2SO4 under strong acidic conditions correlated with its resistance to SO2 in the air. In accordance with a model by D.M. Reid (In "Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Forests, Wetlands and Agricultural Ecosystems" (T.C. Hutchinson and K.M. Meema, Eds.), Vol G 16, pp. 241-245. NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg, 1987) referring to higher plants, it is suggested that sulfur-containing solutions under acidic conditions increase the solubility of particles containing heavy metals entrapped among the mycobiont hyphae in lichens. This may lead to an increase of the production of endogenous ethylene in lichens as they are exposed to sulfur-containing chemicals, to acidic rain, or to heavy metal-polluted air.

  13. Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the US Gulf

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Middleton, Richard S.; Levine, Jonathan S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2015-04-27

    CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology has yet to be widely deployed at a commercial scale despite multiple high-profile demonstration projects. We suggest that developing a large-scale, visible, and financially viable CCUS network could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart commercial-scale CCUS. To date, substantial effort has focused on technology development to reduce the costs of CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Here, we propose that near-term investment could focus on implementing CO2 capture on facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products. These facilities can absorb the expected impact of the marginal increase in the cost of production onmore » the price of their product, due to the addition of CO2 capture, more than coal-fired power plants. A financially viable demonstration of a large-scale CCUS network requires offsetting the costs of CO2 capture by using the CO2 as an input to the production of market-viable products. As a result, we demonstrate this alternative development path with the example of an integrated CCUS system where CO2 is captured from ethylene producers and used for enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.« less

  14. Custom-made morphologies of ZnO nanostructured films templated by a poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer obtained by a sol-gel technique.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kuhu; Rawolle, Monika; Herzig, Eva M; Wang, Weijia; Buffet, Adeline; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured films are synthesized on silicon substrates to form different morphologies that consist of foamlike structures, wormlike aggregates, circular vesicles, and spherical granules. The synthesis involves a sol-gel mechanism coupled with an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide), P(S-b-EO), which acts as a structure-directing template. The ZnO precursor zinc acetate dihydrate (ZAD) is incorporated into the poly(ethylene oxide) block. Different morphologies are obtained by adjusting the weight fractions of the solvents and ZAD. The sizes of the structure in solution for different sol-gels are probed by means of dynamic light scattering. Thin-film samples with ZnO nanostructures are prepared by spin coating and solution casting followed by a calcination step. On the basis of various selected combinations of weight fractions of the ingredients used, a ternary phase diagram is constructed to show the compositional boundaries of the investigated morphologies. The evolution and formation mechanisms of the morphologies are addressed in brief. The surface morphologies of the ZnO nanostructures are studied with SEM. The inner structures of the samples are probed by means of grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering to complement the SEM investigations. XRD measurements confirm the crystallization of the ZnO in the wurtzite phase upon calcination of the nanocomposite film in air. The optical properties of ZnO are analyzed by FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. PMID:23881752

  15. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes. PMID:7161848

  16. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes.

  17. Poly(ethylene glycol) and hydroxy functionalized alkane phosphate mixed self-assembled monolayers to control nonspecific adsorption of proteins on titanium oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Sabrina; Petrini, Paola; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Zürcher, Stefan; Tosatti, Samuele

    2010-05-01

    The spontaneous formation of alkane phosphate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on titanium oxide was chosen as a tool to tailor the surface physicochemical properties in terms of nonspecific adsorption of proteins. For this aim, poly(ethylene glycol)-modified (PEG) alkane phosphate was codeposited with OH-terminated alkane phosphates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry of the resulting mixed SAMs indicate that the PEG density can be controlled by varying the mole fraction of PEG-terminated phosphates in the solutions used during the deposition process, leading to surfaces with different degrees of protein resistance.

  18. Release of Bacteriocins from Nanofibers Prepared with Combinations of Poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and Poly(Ethylene Oxide) (PEO)

    PubMed Central

    Heunis, Tiaan; Bshena, Osama; Klumperman, Bert; Dicks, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Plantaricin 423, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, and bacteriocin ST4SA produced by Enterococcus mundtii, were electrospun into nanofibers prepared from different combinations of poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Both peptides were released from the nanofibers with a high initial burst and retained 88% of their original antimicrobial activity at 37 °C. Nanofibers have the potential to serve as carrier matrix for bacteriocins and open a new field in developing controlled antimicrobial delivery systems for various applications. PMID:21731433

  19. Monitoring solute interactions with poly(ethylene oxide)-modified colloidal silica nanoparticles via fluorescence anisotropy decay.

    PubMed

    Tleugabulova, Dina; Duft, Andy M; Brook, Michael A; Brennan, John D

    2004-01-01

    The fluorescence-based nanosize metrology approach, proposed recently by Geddes and Birch (Geddes, C. D.; Birch, D. J. S. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2000, 270, 191), was used to characterize the extent of binding of a fluorescent cationic solute, rhodamine 6G (R6G), to the surface of silica particles after modification of the surface with the hydrophilic polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) of various molecular weights. The measurement of the rotational dynamics of R6G in PEO solutions showed the absence of strong interactions between R6G and PEO chains in water and the ability of the dye to sense the presence of polymer clusters in 30 wt % solutions. Time-resolved anisotropy decays of polymer-modified Ludox provided direct evidence for distribution of the dye between bound and free states, with the bound dye showing two decay components: a nanosecond decay component that is consistent with local motions of bound probes and a residual anisotropy component due to slow rotation of large silica particles. The data showed that the dye was strongly adsorbed to unmodified silica nanoparticles, to the extent that less than 1% of the dye was present in the surrounding aqueous solution. Addition of PEO blocked the adsorption of the dye to a significant degree, with up to 50% of the probe being present in the aqueous solution for Ludox samples containing 30 wt % of low molecular weight PEO. The addition of such agents also decreased the value and increased the fractional contribution of the nanosecond rotational correlation time, suggesting that polymer adsorption altered the degree of local motion of the bound probe. Atomic force microscopy imaging studies provided no evidence for a change in the particle size upon surface modification but did suggest interparticle aggregation after polymer adsorption. Thus, this redistribution of the probe is interpreted as being due to coverage of particles with the polymer, resulting in lower adsorption of R6G to the silica. The data clearly

  20. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide) based polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, David J.

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies for motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though lithium hopping is about ten times slower than the segmental motion. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments. Polymer backbone dynamics of single ion conducting poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based ionomer samples with low glass transition temperatures (T g) have been investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Experiments detecting 13C with 1H decoupling under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions identified the different components and relative mobilities of the polymer backbone of a suite of. lithium- and sodium-containing ionomer samples with varying cation contents. Variable temperature (203-373 K) 1H-13C cross-polarization MAS (CP-MAS) experiments also provided qualitative assessment of the differences in the motions of the polymer backbone components as a function of

  2. Ethylene production by ODHE in catalytically modified Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Lobera, M Pilar; Escolástico, Sonia; Garcia-Fayos, Julio; Serra, José M

    2012-08-01

    Process intensification by the integration of membranes and high-temperature reactors offers several advantages with regard to conventional process schemes, that is, energy saving, safe operation, reduced plant/unit size, and higher process performance, for example, higher productivity, catalytic activity, selectivity, or stability. We present the study of oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 °C on a catalytic membrane reactor based on a mixed ionic-electronic conducting membrane. The surface of the membrane made of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) has been activated by using different porous catalytic layers based on perovskites. The layer was deposited by screen printing, and the porosity and thickness was studied for the catalyst composition. The different catalyst formulations are based on partial substitution of A- and B-site atoms of doped strontium ferrite/cobaltites (A(0.6)Sr(0.4)Co(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(3-δ) and Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)BO(3-δ)) and were synthesized by an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-citrate complexation route. The use of a disk-shaped membrane in the reactor enabled the direct contact of gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbons to be avoided, and thus, the ethylene content increased. High ethylene yields (up to ≈81 %) were obtained by using a catalytic coating based on Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ), which included macropores produced by the addition of graphite platelets into the screen-printing ink. The promising catalytic results obtained with this catalytically modified membrane reactor are attributed to the combination of 1) the high activity, as a result of the high temperature and oxygen species diffusing through the membrane; 2) the control of oxygen dosing and the low concentration of molecules in the gas phase; and 3) suitable fluid dynamics, which enables appropriate feed contact with the membrane and the rapid removal of products.

  3. Ethylene production by ODHE in catalytically modified Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Lobera, M Pilar; Escolástico, Sonia; Garcia-Fayos, Julio; Serra, José M

    2012-08-01

    Process intensification by the integration of membranes and high-temperature reactors offers several advantages with regard to conventional process schemes, that is, energy saving, safe operation, reduced plant/unit size, and higher process performance, for example, higher productivity, catalytic activity, selectivity, or stability. We present the study of oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 °C on a catalytic membrane reactor based on a mixed ionic-electronic conducting membrane. The surface of the membrane made of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) has been activated by using different porous catalytic layers based on perovskites. The layer was deposited by screen printing, and the porosity and thickness was studied for the catalyst composition. The different catalyst formulations are based on partial substitution of A- and B-site atoms of doped strontium ferrite/cobaltites (A(0.6)Sr(0.4)Co(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(3-δ) and Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)BO(3-δ)) and were synthesized by an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-citrate complexation route. The use of a disk-shaped membrane in the reactor enabled the direct contact of gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbons to be avoided, and thus, the ethylene content increased. High ethylene yields (up to ≈81 %) were obtained by using a catalytic coating based on Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ), which included macropores produced by the addition of graphite platelets into the screen-printing ink. The promising catalytic results obtained with this catalytically modified membrane reactor are attributed to the combination of 1) the high activity, as a result of the high temperature and oxygen species diffusing through the membrane; 2) the control of oxygen dosing and the low concentration of molecules in the gas phase; and 3) suitable fluid dynamics, which enables appropriate feed contact with the membrane and the rapid removal of products. PMID:22791570

  4. Ethylene effects in pea stem tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, D.A.; Chadwick, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The marked effects of ethylene on pea stem growth have been investigated. Low temperatures and colchicine, both known microtubule depolymerization agents, reverse the effects of ethylene in straight growth tests. Low temperature (6 C) also profoundly reduces the effects of gas in terms of swelling, hook curvature, and horizontal mutation. Deuterium oxide, an agent capable of rigidifying microtubular structure, mimics the effects of ethylene. Electron microscopy shows that microtubule orientation is strikingly altered by ethylene. These findings indicate that some of the ethylene responses may be due to a stabilizing effect on microtubules in plant cells.

  5. Expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes in rose floral tissues during ethylene-enhanced flower opening

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Tan, Hui; Yang, Feng; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene production, as well as the expression of ethylene biosynthetic (Rh-ACS1–4 and Rh-ACO1) and receptor (Rh-ETR1–5) genes, was determined in five different floral tissues (sepals, petals, stamens, gynoecia, and receptacles) of cut rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Samantha upon treatment with ethylene or the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Ethylene-enhanced ethylene production occurred only in gynoecia, petals, and receptacles, with gynoecia showing the greatest enhancement in the early stage of ethylene treatment. However, 1-MCP did not suppress ethylene production in these three tissues. In sepals, ethylene production was highly decreased by ethylene treatment, and increased dramatically by 1-MCP. Ethylene production in stamens remained unchanged after ethylene or 1-MCP treatment. Induction of certain ethylene biosynthetic genes by ethylene in different floral tissues was positively correlated with the ethylene production, and this induction was also not suppressed by 1-MCP. The expression of Rh-ACS2 and Rh-ACS3 was quickly induced by ethylene in gynoecia, but neither Rh-ACS1 nor Rh-ACS4 was induced by ethylene in any of the five tissues. In addition, Rh-ACO1 was induced by ethylene in all floral tissues except sepals. The induced expression of ethylene receptor genes by ethylene was much faster in gynoecia than in petals, and the expression of Rh-ETR3 was strongly suppressed by 1-MCP in all floral tissues. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in gynoecia is regulated developmentally, rather than autocatalytically. The response of rose flowers to ethylene occurs initially in gynoecia, and ethylene may regulate flower opening mainly through the Rh-ETR3 gene in gynoecia. PMID:18535299

  6. Expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes in rose floral tissues during ethylene-enhanced flower opening.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingqi; Li, Yunhui; Tan, Hui; Yang, Feng; Ma, Nan; Gao, Junping

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene production, as well as the expression of ethylene biosynthetic (Rh-ACS1-4 and Rh-ACO1) and receptor (Rh-ETR1-5) genes, was determined in five different floral tissues (sepals, petals, stamens, gynoecia, and receptacles) of cut rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Samantha upon treatment with ethylene or the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Ethylene-enhanced ethylene production occurred only in gynoecia, petals, and receptacles, with gynoecia showing the greatest enhancement in the early stage of ethylene treatment. However, 1-MCP did not suppress ethylene production in these three tissues. In sepals, ethylene production was highly decreased by ethylene treatment, and increased dramatically by 1-MCP. Ethylene production in stamens remained unchanged after ethylene or 1-MCP treatment. Induction of certain ethylene biosynthetic genes by ethylene in different floral tissues was positively correlated with the ethylene production, and this induction was also not suppressed by 1-MCP. The expression of Rh-ACS2 and Rh-ACS3 was quickly induced by ethylene in gynoecia, but neither Rh-ACS1 nor Rh-ACS4 was induced by ethylene in any of the five tissues. In addition, Rh-ACO1 was induced by ethylene in all floral tissues except sepals. The induced expression of ethylene receptor genes by ethylene was much faster in gynoecia than in petals, and the expression of Rh-ETR3 was strongly suppressed by 1-MCP in all floral tissues. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in gynoecia is regulated developmentally, rather than autocatalytically. The response of rose flowers to ethylene occurs initially in gynoecia, and ethylene may regulate flower opening mainly through the Rh-ETR3 gene in gynoecia.

  7. Poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(propylene oxide)-based gel electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and mechanical integrity for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hong; Hou, Sheng-Shu; Kuo, Ping-Lin; Teng, Hsisheng

    2013-09-11

    Using gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) for lithium-ion batteries usually encounters the drawback of poor mechanical integrity of the GPEs. This study demonstrates the outstanding performance of a GPE consisting of a commercial membrane (Celgard) incorporated with a poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(propylene oxide) copolymer (P(EO-co-PO)) swelled by a liquid electrolyte (LE) of 1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvents. The proposed GPE stably holds LE with an amount that is three times that of the Celgard-P(EO-co-PO) composite. This GPE has a higher ionic conductivity (2.8×10(-3) and 5.1×10(-4) S cm(-1) at 30 and -20 °C, respectively) and a wider electrochemical voltage range (5.1 V) than the LE-swelled Celgard because of the strong ion-solvation power of P(EO-co-PO). The active ion-solvation role of P(EO-co-PO) also suppresses the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase layer. When assembling the GPE in a Li/LiFePO4 battery, the P(EO-co-PO) network hinders anionic transport, producing a high Li+ transference number of 0.5 and decreased the polarization overpotential. The Li/GPE/LiFePO4 battery delivers a discharge capacity of 156-135 mAh g(-1) between 0.1 and 1 C-rates, which is approximately 5% higher than that of the Li/LE/LiFePO4 battery. The IR drop of the Li/GPE/LiFePO4 battery was 44% smaller than that of the Li/LE/LiFePO4. The Li/GPE/LiFePO4 battery is more stable, with only a 1.2% capacity decay for 150 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The advantages of the proposed GPE are its high stability, conductivity, Li+ transference number, and mechanical integrity, which allow for the assembly of GPE-based batteries readily scalable to industrial levels.

  8. Detection of viable fungal spores contaminant on documents and rapid control of the effectiveness of an ethylene oxide disinfection using ATP assay.

    PubMed

    Rakotonirainy, Malalanirina S; Héraud, Cécile; Lavédrine, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are able to damage and even destroy archival and library materials. Nowadays the conventional method for detecting such micro-organisms is to put them in cultures but such methods are laborious and time-consuming. ATP methodology has been widely applied in other domains and its success on bacteria and yeast has been demonstrated. Several commercial reagent kits are available but they did not give satisfactory results on spores mould. We have elaborated new extraction strategies specific to fungi. A comparison of 42 extraction protocols of ATP from fungal spores was carried out. Extraction at 100 degrees C with DMSO 90% in a Tris-acetate-EDTA buffer proved to be the best method. The viability of cells is estimated by the determination of adenylate energy charge (EC). We applied our method successfully on well-known species such as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, Neosartorya fischeri, Eurotium chevalieri, Penicillium chrysogenum, Chaetomium globosum and Ulocladium spp. The results suggest that the ATP bioluminescence assay provides a sensitive and time-saving method for detecting viable fungal spores. The validity of the procedure was also tested on spores killed by steam and on spores treated with ethylene oxide. We showed that EC determination could be used for a rapid control of the effectiveness of a disinfection process performed with ethylene oxide.

  9. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440...

  10. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440...

  11. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440...

  12. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440...

  13. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440...

  14. Ethylene glycol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene glycol ; CASRN 107 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  15. Ethylene diamine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene diamine ; CASRN 107 - 15 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Ethylene Response Factor TERF1, Regulated by ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-like Factors, Functions in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Scavenging in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Ang; Zhang, Zhijin; Huang, Zejun; Lu, Pingli; Zhang, Dingyu; Liu, Xinmin; Zhang, Zhong-Feng; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene plays a crucial role in the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants under stress conditions. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are important ethylene-signaling regulators functioning in plant defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the roles of ERFs during plant adapting to ROS stress have not yet been well documented. Our studies previously reported that a tomato ERF transcription factor TERF1 functions in the regulation of plant ethylene responses and stress tolerance. Here, we report our findings regarding the roles of TERF1 in ROS scavenging. In this study, we revealed that the transcription of TERF1 is regulated by upstream EIN3-like (EIN3, ethylene-insensitive 3) regulators LeEIL3 and LeEIL4 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and is also inducible by exogenous applied ROS-generating reagents. Ectopic expression of TERF1 in tobacco promoted the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses, including carbonic anhydrase functioning in hypersensitive defense, catalase and glutathione peroxidase catalyzing oxidative reactions, and GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase functioning in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, reduced the ROS content induced by ethylene treatment, and enhanced stress tolerance of tobacco seedlings to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cumulatively, these findings suggest that TERF1 is an ethylene inducible factor regulating ROS scavenging during stress responses. PMID:27435661

  17. Ethylene Response Factor TERF1, Regulated by ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-like Factors, Functions in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Scavenging in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Ang; Zhang, Zhijin; Huang, Zejun; Lu, Pingli; Zhang, Dingyu; Liu, Xinmin; Zhang, Zhong-Feng; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene plays a crucial role in the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants under stress conditions. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are important ethylene-signaling regulators functioning in plant defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the roles of ERFs during plant adapting to ROS stress have not yet been well documented. Our studies previously reported that a tomato ERF transcription factor TERF1 functions in the regulation of plant ethylene responses and stress tolerance. Here, we report our findings regarding the roles of TERF1 in ROS scavenging. In this study, we revealed that the transcription of TERF1 is regulated by upstream EIN3-like (EIN3, ethylene-insensitive 3) regulators LeEIL3 and LeEIL4 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and is also inducible by exogenous applied ROS-generating reagents. Ectopic expression of TERF1 in tobacco promoted the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses, including carbonic anhydrase functioning in hypersensitive defense, catalase and glutathione peroxidase catalyzing oxidative reactions, and GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase functioning in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, reduced the ROS content induced by ethylene treatment, and enhanced stress tolerance of tobacco seedlings to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cumulatively, these findings suggest that TERF1 is an ethylene inducible factor regulating ROS scavenging during stress responses. PMID:27435661

  18. Graphene oxide and H2 production from bioelectrochemical graphite oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lu; Zeng, Cuiping; Wang, Luda; Yin, Xiaobo; Jin, Song; Lu, Anhuai; Jason Ren, Zhiyong

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for energy and environmental applications, but it has been primarily produced using chemical processes involving high energy consumption and hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported a new bioelectrochemical method to produce GO from graphite under ambient conditions without chemical amendments, value-added organic compounds and high rate H2 were also produced. Compared with abiotic electrochemical electrolysis control, the microbial assisted graphite oxidation produced high rate of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (BEGO) sheets, CO2, and current at lower applied voltage. The resultant electrons are transferred to a biocathode, where H2 and organic compounds are produced by microbial reduction of protons and CO2, respectively, a process known as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). Pseudomonas is the dominant population on the anode, while abundant anaerobic solvent-producing bacteria Clostridium carboxidivorans is likely responsible for electrosynthesis on the cathode. Oxygen production through water electrolysis was not detected on the anode due to the presence of facultative and aerobic bacteria as O2 sinkers. This new method provides a sustainable route for producing graphene materials and renewable H2 at low cost, and it may stimulate a new area of research in MES.

  19. Graphene oxide and H2 production from bioelectrochemical graphite oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Zeng, Cuiping; Wang, Luda; Yin, Xiaobo; Jin, Song; Lu, Anhuai; Jason Ren, Zhiyong

    2015-11-17

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for energy and environmental applications, but it has been primarily produced using chemical processes involving high energy consumption and hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported a new bioelectrochemical method to produce GO from graphite under ambient conditions without chemical amendments, value-added organic compounds and high rate H2 were also produced. Compared with abiotic electrochemical electrolysis control, the microbial assisted graphite oxidation produced high rate of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (BEGO) sheets, CO2, and current at lower applied voltage. The resultant electrons are transferred to a biocathode, where H2 and organic compounds are produced by microbial reduction of protons and CO2, respectively, a process known as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). Pseudomonas is the dominant population on the anode, while abundant anaerobic solvent-producing bacteria Clostridium carboxidivorans is likely responsible for electrosynthesis on the cathode. Oxygen production through water electrolysis was not detected on the anode due to the presence of facultative and aerobic bacteria as O2 sinkers. This new method provides a sustainable route for producing graphene materials and renewable H2 at low cost, and it may stimulate a new area of research in MES.

  20. Graphene oxide and H2 production from bioelectrochemical graphite oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Zeng, Cuiping; Wang, Luda; Yin, Xiaobo; Jin, Song; Lu, Anhuai; Jason Ren, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for energy and environmental applications, but it has been primarily produced using chemical processes involving high energy consumption and hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported a new bioelectrochemical method to produce GO from graphite under ambient conditions without chemical amendments, value-added organic compounds and high rate H2 were also produced. Compared with abiotic electrochemical electrolysis control, the microbial assisted graphite oxidation produced high rate of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (BEGO) sheets, CO2, and current at lower applied voltage. The resultant electrons are transferred to a biocathode, where H2 and organic compounds are produced by microbial reduction of protons and CO2, respectively, a process known as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). Pseudomonas is the dominant population on the anode, while abundant anaerobic solvent-producing bacteria Clostridium carboxidivorans is likely responsible for electrosynthesis on the cathode. Oxygen production through water electrolysis was not detected on the anode due to the presence of facultative and aerobic bacteria as O2 sinkers. This new method provides a sustainable route for producing graphene materials and renewable H2 at low cost, and it may stimulate a new area of research in MES. PMID:26573014

  1. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    PubMed

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:26998941

  2. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    PubMed

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants.

  3. A process concept for the production of benzene-ethylene-SNG from coal using flash hydropyrolysis technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, M. I.; Ladelfa, C. J.; Bivacca, S. J.

    1980-05-01

    Flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) of coal is an emerging technology for the direct production of methane, ethane and BTX in a single-stage, high throughput reactor. The FHP technique involves the short residence time (1-2 seconds), rapid heatup of coal in a dilute-phase, transport reactor. When integrated into an overall, grass-roots conversion complex, the FHP technique can be utilized to generate a product consisting of SNG, ethylene/propylene, benzene and Fischer-Tropsch-based alcohols. This paper summarizes the process engineering and economics of conceptualized facility based on an FHP reactor operation with a lignitic coal. The plant is hypothetically sited near the extensive lignite fields located in the Texas region of the United States. Utilizing utility-financing methods for the costing of SNG, and selling the chemicals cogenerated at petrochemical market prices, the 20-year average SNG cost has been computed to vary between $3-4/MM Btu, depending upon the coal costs, interest rates, debt/equity ratio, coproduct chemicals prices, etc.

  4. The Mechanism of Ethylene Signaling Induced by Endophytic Fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 Mediating Sesquiterpenoids Biosynthesis in Atractylodes lancea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Sun, Kai; Deng-Wang, Meng-Yao; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene, the first known gaseous phytohormone, is involved in plant growth, development as well as responses to environmental signals. However, limited information is available on the role of ethylene in endophytic fungi induced secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Atractylodes lancea is a traditional Chinese herb, and its quality depends on the main active compounds sesquiterpenoids. This work showed that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 induced ethylene production in Atractylodes lancea. Pre-treatment of plantlets with ethylene inhibiter aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) suppressed endophytic fungi induced accumulation of ethylene and sesquiterpenoids. Plantlets were further treated with AOA, salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC), jasmonic acid inhibitor ibuprofen (IBU), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger catalase (CAT), nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO). With endophytic fungi inoculation, IBU or PAC did not inhibit ethylene production, and JA and SA generation were suppressed by AOA, showing that ethylene may act as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. With endophytic fungi inoculation, CAT or cPTIO suppressed ethylene production, and H2O2 or NO generation was not affected by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), showing that ethylene may act as a downstream signal of H2O2 and NO pathway. Then, plantlets were treated with ethylene donor ACC, JA, SA, H2O2, NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Exogenous ACC could trigger JA and SA generation, whereas exogenous JA or SA did not affect ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids accumulation triggered by ACC was partly suppressed by IBU and PAC, showing that ethylene acted as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. Exogenous ACC did not affect H2O2 or NO generation, whereas exogenous H2O2 and SNP induced ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids accumulation

  5. The Mechanism of Ethylene Signaling Induced by Endophytic Fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 Mediating Sesquiterpenoids Biosynthesis in Atractylodes lancea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Sun, Kai; Deng-Wang, Meng-Yao; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene, the first known gaseous phytohormone, is involved in plant growth, development as well as responses to environmental signals. However, limited information is available on the role of ethylene in endophytic fungi induced secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Atractylodes lancea is a traditional Chinese herb, and its quality depends on the main active compounds sesquiterpenoids. This work showed that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 induced ethylene production in Atractylodes lancea. Pre-treatment of plantlets with ethylene inhibiter aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) suppressed endophytic fungi induced accumulation of ethylene and sesquiterpenoids. Plantlets were further treated with AOA, salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC), jasmonic acid inhibitor ibuprofen (IBU), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger catalase (CAT), nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO). With endophytic fungi inoculation, IBU or PAC did not inhibit ethylene production, and JA and SA generation were suppressed by AOA, showing that ethylene may act as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. With endophytic fungi inoculation, CAT or cPTIO suppressed ethylene production, and H2O2 or NO generation was not affected by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), showing that ethylene may act as a downstream signal of H2O2 and NO pathway. Then, plantlets were treated with ethylene donor ACC, JA, SA, H2O2, NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Exogenous ACC could trigger JA and SA generation, whereas exogenous JA or SA did not affect ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids accumulation triggered by ACC was partly suppressed by IBU and PAC, showing that ethylene acted as an upstream signal of JA and SA pathway. Exogenous ACC did not affect H2O2 or NO generation, whereas exogenous H2O2 and SNP induced ethylene production, and the induced sesquiterpenoids accumulation

  6. Nitrous oxide production by estuarine epiphyton

    SciTech Connect

    Law, C.S.; Rees, A.P.; Owens, N.J.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Nitrous oxide was produced by denitrifying bacteria in epiphytic communities on the surface of the macroalgae Enteromorpha sp. and Fucus sp. during spring-summer in the Tamar estuary, SW England. Denitrification and N[sub 2]O production exhibited diel variability, in response to photosynthetic oxygen production. Temporal variability in the rate of N[sub 2]O production was observed in Enteromorpha incubations; the variability reflected the heterogeneity of the epiphytic microbial population density. N[sub 2]O production by epiphyton associated with Enteromorpha would enhance the sediment N[sub 2]O flux by 150-500% at maximal algal densities and so increase estuarine N[sub 2]O flux to the atmosphere. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  7. A novel reductive graphene oxide-based magnetic molecularly imprinted poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) polymers for the enrichment and determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish samples.

    PubMed

    Lin, Saichai; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Jiabin; Chen, Xidong; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua

    2015-06-01

    The novel reductive graphene oxide-based magnetic molecularly imprinted poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) polymers (rGO@m-MIPs) were successfully synthesized as adsorbents for six kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish samples. rGO@m-MIPs was prepared by surface molecular imprinting technique. Besides, Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were employed as magnetic supporters, and rGO@Fe3 O4 was in situ synthesis. Different from functional monomer and cross-linker in traditional molecularly imprinted polymer, here, 3,4-dichlorobenzidine was employed as dummy molecular and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) was adopted as the imprinted polymers. After morphology and inner structure of the magnetic adsorbent were characterized, the adsorbent was employed for disperse solid phase extraction toward PCBs and exhibited great selectivity and high adsorption efficiency. This material was verified by determination of PCBs in fish samples combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. According to the detection, the low detection limits (LODs) of PCBs were 0.0035-0.0070 µg l(-1) and spiked recoveries ranged between 79.90 and 94.23%. The prepared adsorbent can be renewable for at least 16 times and expected to be a new material for the enrichment and determination of PCBs from contaminated fish samples. PMID:25736423

  8. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  9. Multiphase Processing of Isoprene Oxidation Products - Kinetic and Product Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Schoene, L.; Schindelka, J.; Herrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Isoprene represents a significant fraction of NMHC in the troposphere with recently estimated emission rates of 500-750 TgC yr-1 (1). Due to its enormous source strength, the fate of isoprene and its degradation products is important in atmospheric processes. Possible ascendancies of such oxidation processes are the regional ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Some aspects of SOA formation from isoprene and its degradation products have already been studied by chamber studies (2,3). Aqueous phase oxidation processes which may occur after phase transfer of ‘early’ oxidation products are often neglected. But these processes provide a potentially important source for organic particle mass constituents such as carboxylic acids. The majority of existing aqueous phase modelling studies focus only on ‘later’ products such as methylglyoxal and oxalic acid. Yet, a recent field study reports much higher aqueous phase concentrations of some ‘earlier’ isoprene oxidation products including methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) than expected (4). This indicates a possibly underestimated importance of multiphase chemical processes in the course of the isoprene oxidation as a source for the production of organic particle mass together with known ‘heterogeneous processes’ such as the direct condensation of low-volatility products from gas phase processes onto existing particle surfaces. In order to implement the isoprene multiphase chemistry in atmospheric models detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies are needed. Hence, the temperature dependence of MACR, MVK, methacrylic acid and acrylic acid exposed to NO3, SO4- and OH radicals in the aqueous phase was investigated. The measurements were performed using a laser-photolysis laser long path absorption technique. The analysis confirmed in all cases the much higher reactivity of the OH radical in comparison to SO4- and NO3 radicals. The temperature dependence is most distinct for NO3

  10. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    PubMed

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  11. Stability of Water/Poly(ethylene oxide)43-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)14/Cyclohexanone Emulsions Involves Water Exchange between the Core and the Bulk.

    PubMed

    Flores, Mario E; Martínez, Francisco; Olea, Andrés F; Shibue, Toshimichi; Sugimura, Natsuhiko; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio

    2015-12-31

    The formation of emulsions upon reverse self-association of the monodisperse amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)43-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)14 in cyclohexanone is reported. Such emulsions are not formed in toluene, chloroform, or dichloromethane. We demonstrate by magnetic resonance spectroscopy the active role of the solvent on the stabilization of the emulsions. Cyclohexanone shows high affinity for both blocks, as predicted by the Hansen solubility parameters, so that the copolymer chains are fully dissolved as monomeric chains. In addition, the solvent is able to produce hydrogen bonding with water molecules. Water undergoes molecular exchange between water molecules associated with the polymer and water molecules associated with the solvent, dynamics of major importance for the stabilization of the emulsions. Association of polymeric chains forming reverse aggregates is induced by water over a concentration threshold of 5 wt %. Reverse copolymer aggregates show submicron average hydrodynamic diameters, as seen by dynamic light scattering, depending on the polymer and water concentration.

  12. Nanoparticles produced by ring-opening metathesis polymerization using norbornenyl-poly(ethylene oxide) as a ligand-free generic platform for highly selective in vivo tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Fabien; Denis, Iza; Pouliquen, Daniel; Collette, Floraine; Delatouche, Régis; Héroguez, Valérie; Grégoire, Marc; Bertrand, Philippe; Blanquart, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    We described a norbornenyl-poly(ethylene oxide) nanoparticles ligand-free generic platform, made fluorescent with straightforward preparation by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Our method allowed to easily obtain a drug delivery system (DDS) with facilitated functionalization by means of azide-alkyne click chemistry and with a high selectivity for the tumor in vivo, while cellular internalization is obtained without cell targeting strategy. We demonstrated that our nanoparticles are internalized by endocytosis and colocalized with acidic intracellular compartments in two models of aggressive tumoral cell lines with low prognostic and limited therapeutic treatments. Our nanoparticles could be of real interest to limit the toxicity and to increase the clinical benefit of drugs suffering rapid clearance and side effects and an alternative for cancers with poorly efficient therapeutic solutions by associating the drug delivery in the tumor tissue with an acid-sensitive release system.

  13. Water distributions in polystyrene-block-poly[styrene-g-poly(ethylene oxide)] block grafted copolymer system in aqueous solutions revealed by contrast variation small angle neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Hong, Kunlun; Liu, Yun; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Liu, Emily; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Smith, Gregory S.; Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Guangzhao; Pispas, Stergios; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2010-10-01

    We develop an experimental approach to analyze the water distribution around a core-shell micelle formed by polystyrene-block-poly[styrene-g-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO)] block copolymers in aqueous media at a fixed polymeric concentration of 10 mg/ml through contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study. Through varying the D2O/H2O ratio, the scattering contributions from the water molecules and the micellar constituent components can be determined. Based on the commonly used core-shell model, a theoretical coherent scattering cross section incorporating the effect of water penetration is developed and used to analyze the SANS I(Q ). We have successfully quantified the intramicellar water distribution and found that the overall micellar hydration level increases with the increase in the molecular weight of hydrophilic PEO side chains. Our work presents a practical experimental means for evaluating the intramacromolecular solvent distributions of general soft matter systems.

  14. Grafting of poly(ethylene oxide) to the surface of polyaniline films through a chlorosulfonation method and the biocompatibility of the modified films.

    PubMed

    Li, Z F; Ruckenstein, E

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) could be grafted on the surface of polyaniline (PANI) films by chlorosulfonating the films with chlorosulfonic acid followed by reacting the modified films with PEO in a pyridine solution. The modified PANI films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water droplet contact angles. The surface of the PEO grafted to hydrophobic PANI films became hydrophilic and the amounts of bovine serum albumin and human blood plasma platelet adsorbed onto it were decreased by more than 80%. For comparison purposes, and because the water wetting angle can be used as a measure of biocompatibility, wetting angle experiments have been also carried out for Pluronic triblock copolymer grafted to PANI and PEO or Pluronic molecules entrapped on the surfaces of PANI films. PANI was selected as substrate because one can easily change its surface properties by PEO grafting and because being conductive can be used as a sensor.

  15. Highly mobile segments in crystalline poly(ethylene oxide)8:NaPF6 electrolytes studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Huan; Liang, Xinmiao; Wang, Liying; Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Chaoyang; Feng, Jiwen

    2014-02-01

    Two types of high-crystallinity poly(ethylene oxide)/NaPF6 electrolytes with ethylene oxide (EO)/Na molar ratios of 8:1 and 6:1, termed as PEO8:NaPF6 and PEO6:NaPF6 with Mw = 6000 g mol-1 were prepared, and their ionic conductivity, structure, and segmental motions were investigated and compared. PEO8:NaPF6 polymer electrolyte exhibits the room-temperature ionic conductivity 7.7 × 10-7 S cm-1 which is about five times higher than the PEO6:NaPF6. By variable-temperature measurements of static powder spectra and 1H spin-lattice relaxation time in rotation frame (1H T1ρ), we demonstrate that crystalline segments are more highly mobile in the crystalline PEO8:NaPF6 with higher ionic conductivity than in the PEO6:NaPF6 with lower ionic conductivity. The large-angle reorientation motion of polymer segments in the PEO8:NaPF6 onsets at lower temperature (˜233 K) with a low activation energy 0.31 eV that is comparable with that of the pure PEO crystal. Whereas, the large-angle reorientation motion of polymer segments in the PEO6:NaPF6 starts around 313 K with a high activation energy of 0.91 eV. As a result of the temperature-enhanced large-angle reorientations, the 13C static powder lineshape changes markedly from a low-temperature wide pattern with apparent principal values of chemical shift δ33 < δ22 < δ11 to a high-temperature narrow pattern of uniaxial chemical shift anisotropy δ33 > δ22 (δ11). It is suggested that the segmental motion in crystalline PEO-salt complex promotes ionic conductivity.

  16. Microphase separated structures in the solid and molten states of double-crystal graft copolymers of polyethylene and poly(ethylene oxide)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, P.R.; Murthy, N.S.; Weigand, S.; Breitenkamp, K.; Kade, M.; Emrick, T.

    2008-08-26

    Transitions from one microphase separated structure in the solid state to a different one in the molten state in polyethylene-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers, PE-g-PEO, were investigated by variable temperature X-ray scattering measurements and thermal analyses. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns from polymers with PEO grafts with 25, 50 and 100 ethylene oxide (EO) units show that the polymer passes through three distinct structures at {approx}10 nm length scales with increase in temperature (T): lamellar structures of PE and PEO at T < T{sub m}{sup PEO}, PE lamellae surrounded by molten PEO at T{sub m}{sup PEO} < T < T{sub m}{sup PE}, and microphase separated structures at T > T{sub m}{sup PE} when both PE and PEO are molten (T{sub m} refers to the melting temperature). These phase transformations also occur during cooling but with hysteresis. Crystalline phases of PEO side chains and PE main chains could be identified in the wide-angle X-ray diffraction profiles indicating that the PE backbone and PEO grafts crystallize into separate domains, especially with longer grafted chains (50 and 100 units). At EO segment lengths >50, PEO shows the expected increase in melting and crystallization temperatures with the increase in the grafted chain length. PE does not affect T{sub m}{sup PEO} but does decrease the onset of crystallization upon cooling. PEO grafts result in fractionation of PE, decrease the melting point of PE and increase the undercooling for the onset of crystallization of PE.

  17. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide

    PubMed Central

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Bange, Hermann W.

    2012-01-01

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N2O and N2O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N2O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N2O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N2O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N2O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N2O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr−1. This is in agreement with estimates of the global N2O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N2O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N2O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed. PMID:22451110

  18. Participation of ethylene in gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M.; Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    In shoots of many plants, of which tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is an example, ethylene production is substantially increased during gravitropism. As a first step toward elucidating the role of ethylene in gravitropism, detailed time courses of ethylene production in isolated hypocotyl segments and whole plants were measured for gravistimulated and upright tomato seedlings. In the first experiment, seedlings were set upright or laid horizontal and then, at 15 min intervals, sets of hypocotyls were excised and sealed into gas tight vials. A steady long term rise in ethylene production begins after 15 min gravistimulation. It is possible that this increase is a consequence of the accumulation of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in the lower tissue of the hypocotyle. In a second kind of experiment, whole seedlings were enclosed in sealed chambers and air samples were withdrawn at 5 min intervals. Stimulated seedlings produced more ethylene than controls during the first 5 min interval, but not appreciably more during the second. This suggests the possibility that the ethylene production induced during the first 5 min occurs immediately rather than after a lag, and thus much too soon to be controlled by redistribution of IAA.

  19. A spectroscopic study of ethylene destruction and by-product generation using a three-stage atmospheric packed-bed plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, M.; Roepcke, J.; Guaitella, O.; Rousseau, A.

    2013-07-21

    Using a three-stage dielectric packed-bed plasma reactor at atmospheric pressure, the destruction of ethylene, a typical volatile organic compound, and the generation of major by-products have been studied by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. A test gas mixture air at a gas flow of 1 slm containing 0.12% humidity with 0.1% ethylene has been used. In addition to the fragmentation of the precursor gas, the evolution of the concentration of ten stable reaction products, CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, HCN, H{sub 2}O, HNO{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been monitored. The concentrations of the by-products range between 5 ppm, in the case of NO{sub 2}, and 1200 ppm, for H{sub 2}O. By the application of three sequentially working discharge cells at a frequency of f = 4 kHz and voltage values between 9 and 12 kV, a nearly complete decomposition of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} could be achieved. Furthermore, the influence of the specific energy deposition (SED) on the destruction process has been studied and the maximum value of SED was about 900 J l{sup -1}. The value of the characteristic energy {beta}, characterizing the energy efficiency of the ethylene destruction in the reactor, was found to be 330 J l{sup -1}. It was proven that the application of three reactor stages suppresses essentially the production of harmful by-products as formaldehyde, formic acid, and NO{sub 2} compared to the use of only one or two stages. Based on the multi-component detection, the carbon balance of the plasma chemical conversion of ethylene has been analyzed. The dependence of the fragmentation efficiencies of ethylene (R{sub F}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) = 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} molecules J{sup -1}) and conversion efficiencies to the produced molecular species (R{sub C} = (0.1-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} molecules J{sup -1}) on the discharge conditions could be estimated in the multistage plasma reactor.

  20. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.