Science.gov

Sample records for etiologic viral strains

  1. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2009-06-30

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  2. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Panama: Fatal Endemic Disease and Genetic Diversity of Etiologic Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961–2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America. PMID:19564908

  3. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-31

    OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS Annual Progress Report by Neil R. Blacklov, M.D. 31 July, 1984 (For the Period 1983 - 1984) Supported By U.S. ARMY MEDICAL...TITLE (and Subtltle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PRIOD COVERED ANNUAl, THE ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF VIRAL ug.,1983-July 31, 1984 GASTROENTERITIS S...KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side It necesary and Identify by block number) Viral gastroenteritis Diarrhea Epidenic gastroenteritis 20. ABSTRACT

  4. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-31

    Norwalk-like virus group and to recognize these viruses in nature. In addition, studies are underway to try to culti- vate Norwalk virus , using methods...viral diarrhea, the Norwalk-like viruses (2). The prototype Norwalk virus , which is still currently noncytopathic in vitro and not disease producing...such as Hawaii and Ditchling viruses , have been uncovered by similar techniques; these two agents appear to form (with Nor- walk virus ) three

  5. Viral etiology in infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Azkur, Dilek; Özaydın, Eda; Dibek-Mısırlıoğlu, Emine; Vezir, Emine; Tombuloğlu, Duygu; Köse, Gülşen; Kocabaş, Can N

    2014-01-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is predominantly a viral disease. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common agent, but other newly identified viruses have also been considered as causes. The aim of the present study is to determine the respiratory viruses causing acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants. Infants younger than 2 years of age who were hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis in a children's hospital between November 2011 and May 2012 were evaluated for the presence of viruses as etiologic agents using a realtime polymerase chain reaction method.A total of 55 infants were included in this study. The mean age of the children was 6.98±5.53 months, and 63.6% were male. In the 55 children, 63 viruses were detected. A single viral pathogen was detected in 47 (85.5%) patients, and two viruses were co-detected in 8 (14.6%) patients. Respiratory syncytial virus was the most common virus identified, accounting for 25 (45.5%) cases, followed by rhinovirus (n=9, 16.4%), and human metapneumovirus (n = 8, 14.5%).Although respiratory syncytial virus remains the major viral pathogen in infants hospitalized for acute broncholitis, more than half of bronchiolitis cases are associated with other respiratory viruses.

  6. Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P.; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; DeCaprio, James A.; Cusick, Michael E.; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E.; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

  7. Zika Fetal Neuropathogenesis: Etiology of a Viral Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Klase, Zachary A.; Khakhina, Svetlana; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus epidemic in the Americas and the observed association with both fetal abnormalities (primary microcephaly) and adult autoimmune pathology (Guillain–Barré syndrome) has brought attention to this neglected pathogen. While initial case studies generated significant interest in the Zika virus outbreak, larger prospective epidemiology and basic virology studies examining the mechanisms of Zika viral infection and associated pathophysiology are only now starting to be published. In this review, we analyze Zika fetal neuropathogenesis from a comparative pathology perspective, using the historic metaphor of “TORCH” viral pathogenesis to provide context. By drawing parallels to other viral infections of the fetus, we identify common themes and mechanisms that may illuminate the observed pathology. The existing data on the susceptibility of various cells to both Zika and other flavivirus infections are summarized. Finally, we highlight relevant aspects of the known molecular mechanisms of flavivirus replication. PMID:27560129

  8. Comparison of the Etiology of Viral Respiratory Illnesses in Inner-City and Suburban Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gern, James E.; Pappas, Tressa; Visness, Cynthia M.; Jaffee, Katy F.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Togias, Alkis; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Cruikshank, William W.; Lamm, Carin; Tuzova, Marina; Wood, Robert A.; Lee, Wai Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background. The risk of developing childhood asthma has been linked to the severity and etiology of viral respiratory illnesses in early childhood. Since inner-city infants have unique environmental exposures, we hypothesized that patterns of respiratory viral infections would also be distinct. Methods. We compared the viral etiology of respiratory illnesses in 2 groups: a cohort of 515 infants from 4 inner-city areas and a cohort of 285 infants from mainly suburban Madison, Wisconsin. Nasal secretions were sampled during periods of respiratory illness and at 1 year of age and were analyzed for viral pathogens by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Results. Overall, inner-city infants had lower rates of viral detection. Considering specific viruses, sick urban infants had lower rates of detectable rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus infection and higher rates of adenovirus infection. Every urban site had a higher proportion of adenovirus-positive samples associated with illnesses (10%–21%), compared with Madison (6%). Conclusions. These findings provide evidence that inner-city babies have different patterns of viral respiratory illnesses than babies who grow up in a more suburban location. These findings raise important questions about the etiology of virus-negative illnesses in urban infants and the possibility of long-term consequences of early life infections with adenovirus in this population. PMID:23014674

  9. Viral carcinogenesis: revelation of molecular mechanisms and etiology of human disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    The RNA and DNA tumor viruses have made fundamental contributions to two major areas of cancer research. Viruses were vital, first, to the discovery and analysis of cellular growth control pathways and the synthesis of current concepts of cancer biology and, second, to the recognition of the etiology of some human cancers. Transforming retroviruses carry oncogenes derived from cellular genes that are involved in mitogenic signalling and growth control. DNA tumor viruses encode oncogenes of viral origin that are essential for viral replication and cell transformation; viral oncoproteins complex with cellular proteins to stimulate cell cycle progression and led to the discovery of tumor suppressors. Viral systems support the concept that cancer development occurs by the accumulation of multiple cooperating events. Viruses are now accepted as bona fide etiologic factors of human cancer; these include hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, human T-cell leukemia virus type I and hepatitis C virus, plus several candidate human cancer viruses. It is estimated that 15% of all human tumors worldwide are caused by viruses. The infectious nature of viruses distinguishes them from all other cancer-causing factors; tumor viruses establish long-term persistent infections in humans, with cancer an accidental side effect of viral replication strategies. Viruses are usually not complete carcinogens, and the known human cancer viruses display different roles in transformation. Many years may pass between initial infection and tumor appearance and most infected individuals do not develop cancer, although immunocompromised individuals are at elevated risk of viral-associated cancers. Variable factors that influence viral carcinogenesis are reviewed, including possible synergy between viruses and environmental cofactors. The difficulties in establishing an etiologic role for a virus in human cancer are discussed, as well as the different approaches that proved

  10. Viral carcinogenesis: revelation of molecular mechanisms and etiology of human disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    The RNA and DNA tumor viruses have made fundamental contributions to two major areas of cancer research. Viruses were vital, first, to the discovery and analysis of cellular growth control pathways and the synthesis of current concepts of cancer biology and, second, to the recognition of the etiology of some human cancers. Transforming retroviruses carry oncogenes derived from cellular genes that are involved in mitogenic signalling and growth control. DNA tumor viruses encode oncogenes of viral origin that are essential for viral replication and cell transformation; viral oncoproteins complex with cellular proteins to stimulate cell cycle progression and led to the discovery of tumor suppressors. Viral systems support the concept that cancer development occurs by the accumulation of multiple cooperating events. Viruses are now accepted as bona fide etiologic factors of human cancer; these include hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, human T-cell leukemia virus type I and hepatitis C virus, plus several candidate human cancer viruses. It is estimated that 15% of all human tumors worldwide are caused by viruses. The infectious nature of viruses distinguishes them from all other cancer-causing factors; tumor viruses establish long-term persistent infections in humans, with cancer an accidental side effect of viral replication strategies. Viruses are usually not complete carcinogens, and the known human cancer viruses display different roles in transformation. Many years may pass between initial infection and tumor appearance and most infected individuals do not develop cancer, although immunocompromised individuals are at elevated risk of viral-associated cancers. Variable factors that influence viral carcinogenesis are reviewed, including possible synergy between viruses and environmental cofactors. The difficulties in establishing an etiologic role for a virus in human cancer are discussed, as well as the different approaches that proved

  11. Viral Pathogen Detection by Metagenomics and Pan-Viral Group Polymerase Chain Reaction in Children With Pneumonia Lacking Identifiable Etiology.

    PubMed

    Schlaberg, Robert; Queen, Krista; Simmon, Keith; Tardif, Keith; Stockmann, Chris; Flygare, Steven; Kennedy, Brett; Voelkerding, Karl; Bramley, Anna; Zhang, Jing; Eilbeck, Karen; Yandell, Mark; Jain, Seema; Pavia, Andrew T; Tong, Suxiang; Ampofo, Krow

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of pediatric hospitalization. Pathogen identification fails in approximately 20% of children but is critical for optimal treatment and prevention of hospital-acquired infections. We used two broad-spectrum detection strategies to identify pathogens in test-negative children with CAP and asymptomatic controls. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from 70 children <5 years with CAP of unknown etiology and 90 asymptomatic controls were tested by next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) and pan viral group (PVG) PCR for 19 viral families. Association of viruses with CAP was assessed by adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals controlling for season and age group. RNA-seq/PVG PCR detected previously missed, putative pathogens in 34% of patients. Putative viral pathogens included human parainfluenza virus 4 (aOR 9.3, P = .12), human bocavirus (aOR 9.1, P < .01), Coxsackieviruses (aOR 5.1, P = .09), rhinovirus A (aOR 3.5, P = .34), and rhinovirus C (aOR 2.9, P = .57). RNA-seq was more sensitive for RNA viruses whereas PVG PCR detected more DNA viruses. RNA-seq and PVG PCR identified additional viruses, some known to be pathogenic, in NP/OP specimens from one-third of children hospitalized with CAP without a previously identified etiology. Both broad-range methods could be useful tools in future epidemiologic and diagnostic studies.

  12. Etiology of Appendicitis in Children: The Role of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Richardsen, I; Schöb, D S; Ulmer, T F; Steinau, G; Neumann, U P; Klink, C D; Lambertz, A

    2016-01-01

    Although acute appendicitis is the most common cause for abdominal surgery in children, its etiology is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of bacterial and viral pathogens for the etiology of appendicitis in children. Between 2000 and 2010, 277 children underwent appendectomy in our institution. On this collective, a retrospective study was performed on to identify the presence of bacterial or viral pathogens. Intraoperatively, 39% of cases showed acute, 9% of cases chronic, and 41% of cases ulcerous inflammation. Bowel perforation was found in 7% of cases and four percent of the children had no inflammation of the appendix at all. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacterium with an incidence of 27.4%, followed by streptococci (9.8%). Concerning viral pathogens, adenovirus was the most common with an incidence of 5.4% followed by rotavirus (4.7%). Significant correlations between histopathological findings and present pathogens were found: in cases of bowel perforation there were significantly more infections with E. coli bacteria (32.2%, p < .001), streptococci (12.2%, p < 0.001), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.7%, p < .001) whereas chronic inflammations were accompanied with a significantly elevated rate of yersinia infections (2.5%, p = .016). Acute inflammations were significantly more often associated with campylobacter (1.7%, p = .011) and oxyures infections (6.1%, p < .001). In relation to the patients' age, a significant accumulation of different pathogens was observed. CRP- and leukocyte counts showed differences between viral and bacterial inflammations. Our data indicates that appendicitis in children might be triggered by bacterial and viral pathogens and that the type of pathogen directly correlates with patient age, type of inflammation, and level of inflammation values. To confirm and further evaluate these findings, additional studies need to be conducted.

  13. Etiology, seasonality, and clinical characterization of viral respiratory infections among hospitalized children in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Finianos, Mayda; Issa, Randi; Curran, Martin D; Afif, Claude; Rajab, Maryam; Irani, Jihad; Hakimeh, Noha; Naous, Amal; Hajj, Marie-Joelle; Hajj, Pierre; El Jisr, Tamima; El Chaar, Mira

    2016-11-01

    Acute respiratory tract viral infections occur worldwide and are one of the major global burdens of diseases in children. The aim of this study was to determine the viral etiology of respiratory infections in hospitalized children, to understand the viral seasonality in a major Lebanese hospital, and to correlate disease severity and the presence of virus. Over a 1-year period, nasal and throat swabs were collected from 236 pediatric patients, aged 16-year old or less and hospitalized for acute respiratory illness. Samples collected were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses using multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Pathogens were identified in 165 children (70%) and were frequently observed during fall and winter seasons. Co-infection was found in 37% of positive samples. The most frequently detected pathogens were human Rhinovirus (hRV, 23%), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, 19%), human Bocavirus (hBov, 15%), human Metapneumovirus (hMPV, 10%), and human Adenovirus (hAdV, 10%). A total of 48% of children were diagnosed with bronchiolitis and 25% with pneumonia. While bronchiolitis was often caused by RSV single virus infection and hAdV/hBoV coinfection, pneumonia was significantly associated with hBoV and HP1V1 infections. No significant correlation was observed between a single viral etiology infection and a specific clinical symptom. This study provides relevant facts on the circulatory pattern of respiratory viruses in Lebanon and the importance of using PCR as a useful tool for virus detection. Early diagnosis at the initial time of hospitalization may reduce the spread of the viruses in pediatric units. J. Med. Virol. 88:1874-1881, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Viral etiology of bronchiolitis among pediatric inpatients in northern Taiwan with emphasis on newly identified respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Ho, Tai-Hua; Huang, Chung-Guei; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2014-04-01

    Viral etiology of bronchiolitis in children in Taiwan has been fragmentary. We conducted a prospective study to figure out the viral epidemiology of bronchiolitis in Taiwan. From January 2009 to March 2011, a total of 113 children with bronchiolitis, aged <2 years, hospitalized in Chang Gung Children's Hospital were randomly selected for viral etiology investigation. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from each case and sent for viral detection by tissue culture, antigen test, and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 120 viruses were detected from 113 children. Positive viral etiology was identified in 86 (76%) children. Mixed viral pathogens were found in 28 cases (25%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common pathogen and was identified in 43.4% of the cases. Human bocavirus (hBoV) was the second most common identified virus (in 19.5%), followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinovirus, influenza viruses, and coronavirus OC43. In terms of clinical characteristics, no significant difference was found among the children with bronchiolitis either caused by different single or mixed viral infection. RSV was the most common etiologic agent for children with bronchiolitis in Taiwan. Newly identified viruses, including hMPV and hBoV, were also among the common causative agents. Clinical characteristics were not significantly different among the children with bronchiolitis caused by different viruses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Sports related hamstring strains--two cases with different etiologies and injury sites.

    PubMed

    Askling, C; Tengvar, M; Saartok, T; Thorstensson, A

    2000-10-01

    Hamstring strains are common injuries in sports. Knowledge about their etiology and localization is, however, limited. The two cases described here both had acute hamstring strains, but the etiologies were entirely different. The sprinter was injured when running at maximal speed, whereas the hamstring strain in the dancer occurred during slow stretching. Also the anatomical localizations of the injuries clearly differed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pathological changes in the distal semitendinosus muscle in the sprinter and the proximal tendon of the semimembranosus muscle in the dancer. Subjectively, both athletes severely underestimated the recovery time. These case observations suggest a possible link between etiology and localization of hamstring strains.

  16. Etiology and Viral Genotype in Patients with End-Stage Liver Diseases admitted to a Hepatology Unit in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Loureiro, Carmen Luisa; Hoyos, Sergio; Restrepo, Juan-Carlos; Correa, Gonzalo; Jaramillo, Sergio; Norder, Helene; Pujol, Flor Helene; Navas, Maria-Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the principal risk factor associated to end-stage liver diseases in the world. A study was carried out on end-stage liver disease cases admitted to an important hepatology unit in Medellin, the second largest city in Colombia. From 131 patients recruited in this prospective study, 71% of cases were diagnosed as cirrhosis, 12.2% as HCC, and 16.8% as cirrhosis and HCC. Regarding the risk factors of these patients, alcohol consumption was the most frequent (37.4%), followed by viral etiology (17.6%). Blood and/or hepatic tissue samples from patients with serological markers for HCV or HBV infection were characterized; on the basis of the phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5′ UTR and HBV S gene, isolates belonged to HCV/1 and HBV/F3, respectively. These results confirm the presence of strains associated with poor clinical outcome, in patients with liver disease in Colombia; additionally, HBV basal core promoter double mutant was identified in HCC cases. Here we show the first study of cirrhosis and/or HCC in Colombian and HBV and HCV molecular characterization of these patients. Viral aetiology was not the main risk factor in this cohort but alcohol consumption. PMID:21941645

  17. Viral Etiologies of Infant Bronchiolitis, Croup, and Upper Respiratory Illness during Four Consecutive Years

    PubMed Central

    Miller, E. Kathryn; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Carroll, Kecia N.; Dupont, William D.; Mohamed, Yassir A.; Morin, Laura-Lee; Heil, Luke; Minton, Patricia A.; Woodward, Kimberly; Liu, Zhouwen; Hartert, Tina V.; Williams, John V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective data on viral etiology and clinical characteristics of bronchiolitis and upper respiratory illness in infants is limited. Methods This prospective cohort enrolled previously healthy term infants during inpatient or outpatient visits for acute upper respiratory illness (URI) or bronchiolitis during September - May 2004–2008. Illness severity was determined using an ordinal bronchiolitis severity score. Common respiratory viruses were identified by real-time RT-PCR. Results Of 648 infants, 67% were enrolled during inpatient visits and 33% during outpatient visits. Seventy percent had bronchiolitis, 3% croup, and 27% URI. Among infants with bronchiolitis, 76% had RSV, 18% HRV, 10% influenza, 2% coronavirus, 3% HMPV, and 1% PIV. Among infants with croup, 39% had HRV, 28% PIV, 28% RSV, 11% influenza, 6% coronavirus, and none HMPV. Among infants with URI, 46% had HRV, 14% RSV, 12% influenza, 7% coronavirus, 6% PIV, and 4% HMPV. Individual viruses exhibited distinct seasonal, demographic, and clinical expression. Conclusions The most common infections among infants seeking care in unscheduled medical visits for URI or bronchiolitis were RSV and HRV. Demographic differences were observed between patients with different viruses, suggesting that host and viral factors play a role in phenotypic expression of viral illness. PMID:23694832

  18. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for cancer: stress or viral etiology?

    PubMed

    Cebioglu, Melanie; Schild, Hans H; Golubnitschaja, Olga

    2008-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder. Currently over 230 million patients demonstrate already an epidemic scale of the disease. It is a lifelong progressive disease with a high mortality worldwide: every 10 seconds one patient dies on DM-related consequences. Whereas cardio-vascular complications are well-known for DM, it is relatively new consideration that diabetic patients are highly predisposed to cancer. Particularities of molecular pathomechanisms of cancer in diabetes are currently largely unclear. Disturbed glucose/insulin homeostasis is DM-specific stress factor resulting in increased production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and oxidative damage to chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA frequently observed in diabetic patients. Long-term accumulation of DNA mutations is well-acknowledged as triggering cancer. DNA-repair is highly energy consuming process which provokes increased mitochondrial activity. Particularly dangerous is a provoked activity of damaged mitochondria which leads to the "vicious circle" lowing energy supply and potentiating ROS production. Mitochondrial dysfunction is the well-acknowledged risk factor for neuro/degenerative diseases--one of possible pathomechanisms for various complications developed secondary to diabetes. At the same time, mitochondrial dysfunction might be implicated in pathomechanisms of diabetes-provoked cancer. There is a growing body of evidence that DM predisposes to almost all cancer types with some particular preferences. Frequently suffering from compromised immune response, diabetic patients is high-risk group for infectious disorders including viral infections. In its turn, viral infections are known to be implicated in cancer pathology. This review considers both stress and viral infections as possible etiology of cancer in diabetes.

  19. Viral etiology of acute respiratory infections among Iranian Hajj pilgrims, 2006.

    PubMed

    Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Aelami, Mohammad Hasan; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Moeini, Mahsa; Pourabbas, Bahman; Abbasian, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Every year more than 2 million pilgrims from different countries in the world including Iran participate in the annual Hajj in Saudi Arabia. Respiratory diseases have been the most common cause of illnesses among Iranian pilgrims. Direct fluorescent staining and viral culture were performed on nasal wash specimens of Iranian Hajj pilgrims with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections at Shiraz (a city in southern Iran) airport on return from the Hajj during December 2006 to January 2007. They were screened for influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1 to 3, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by viral culture and immunofluorecent staining. Rhinovirus and enterovirus were diagnosed based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction methods. The patients aged between 19 and 82 years (mean: 52.4 years) consisting of 135 females and 120 males. Cough in 213(83.5%) and sore throat in 209 (82%) were the most common symptoms. Eighty-three patients (32.5%) had viral pathogens: influenza in 25 (9.8%), parainfluenza in 19 (7.4%), rhinovirus in 15 (5.9%), adenovirus in14 (5.4%), enterovirus in 5 (2%), and RSV in 4 (1.6%) and coinfection with two viruses in 1 patient (0.4%). Influenza virus was identified more in unvaccinated than in vaccinated pilgrims (16.5% vs. 9.2%) but statistically insignificant (p= 0.19). According to the results, each of the above-mentioned viruses played a role in the development of respiratory diseases among Iranian pilgrims, with influenza virus as the commonest one. Because influenza vaccine could not prevent respiratory infections in Hajj pilgrims statistically, the possibility of the appearance of new drift variants not included in vaccine and also inappropriate vaccine handling and storage might be considered. So it is also advisable to check if the circulating influenza strains were different from the vaccine strains.

  20. Etiology and Seasonality of Viral Respiratory Infections in Rural Honduran Children

    PubMed Central

    Schlaudecker, Elizabeth P.; Heck, Joan P.; MacIntyre, Elizabeth T.; Martinez, Ruben; Dodd, Caitlin N.; McNeal, Monica M.; Staat, Mary A.; Heck, Jeffery E.; Steinhoff, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data are available in Honduras describing the etiology and seasonality of respiratory infections, especially in rural outpatient settings. Better data may lead to improved therapeutic and preventative strategies. The goal of our study was to determine the viral etiology and seasonality of acute respiratory infections in a rural Honduran population of children. Methods Prospective clinic surveillance was conducted to identify children <5 years of age presenting with respiratory symptoms <5 days duration. We obtained data on age, sex, medical history, breastfeeding history, symptoms, risk factors, house hold setting, temperature, respiratory rate, and chest exam findings. To assess the association between specific viruses and weather, regional meteorological data were collected. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for 16 respiratory viruses using a multiplex PCR panel. Results From February 2010 through June 2011, 345 children <5 years of age were enrolled; 17%, 23%, 30%, and 31% were <6, 6–11, 12–23, and 24–60 months old, respectively. Including all clinics in the region, 44.5% of patients <5 years of age with documented respiratory diagnoses were enrolled. At least one virus was identified in 75.4% children, of which 7.5% were co-infections; 13.3% were positive for parainfluenza, 11.9% for influenza, 8.1% for human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and 7.5% for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Rainfall correlated with parainfluenza (p≤0.0001), influenza (p≤0.0001), hMPV (p= 0.0182), and RSV (p≤0.0001). Conclusions These results suggest that the spectrum of viruses in ill rural Honduran children is similar to that in North and Central America, though the seasonality is typical of some tropical regions. PMID:22653487

  1. Viral Etiology Relationship between Human Papillomavirus and Human Breast Cancer and Target of Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chen; Teng, Zhi Ping; Chen, Yun Xin; Shen, Dan Hua; Li, Jin Tao; Zeng, Yi

    2016-05-01

    To explore the viral etiology of human breast cancer to determine whether there are novel molecular targets for gene therapy of breast cancer and provide evidence for the research of gene therapy and vaccine development for breast cancer. PCR was used to screen HPV16 and HPV18 oncogenes E6 and E7 in the SKBR3 cell line and in 76 paraffin embedded breast cancer tissue samples. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of HPV18 E6 and E7 in SKBR3 cells, then the changes in the expression of cell-cycle related proteins, cell viability, colony formation, metastasis, and cell cycle progression were determined. HPV18 oncogenes E6 and E7 were amplified and sequenced from the SKBR3 cells. Of the patient samples, 6.58% and 23.68% were tested to be positive for HPV18 E6 and HPV18 E7. In the cell culture models, the knockdown of HPV18 E6 and E7 inhibited the proliferation, metastasis, and cell cycle progression of SKBR3 cell. The knockdown also clearly affected the expression levels of cell cycle related proteins. HPV was a contributor to virus caused human breast cancer, suggesting that the oncogenes in HPV were potential targets for gene therapy of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral Etiology of Influenza-Like Illnesses in Antananarivo, Madagascar, July 2008 to June 2009

    PubMed Central

    Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Richard, Vincent; Hoffmann, Jonathan; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Razafitrimo, Girard Marcellin; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background In Madagascar, despite an influenza surveillance established since 1978, little is known about the etiology and prevalence of viruses other than influenza causing influenza-like illnesses (ILIs). Methodology/Principal Findings From July 2008 to June 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from patients who presented ILIs symptoms in public and private clinics in Antananarivo (the capital city of Madagascar). ILIs were defined as body temperature ≥38°C and cough and at least two of the following symptoms: sore throat, rhinorrhea, headache and muscular pain, for a maximum duration of 3 days. We screened these specimens using five multiplex real time Reverse Transcription and/or Polymerase Chain Reaction assays for detection of 14 respiratory viruses. We detected respiratory viruses in 235/313 (75.1%) samples. Overall influenza virus A (27.3%) was the most common virus followed by rhinovirus (24.8%), RSV (21.2%), adenovirus (6.1%), coronavirus OC43 (6.1%), influenza virus B (3.9%), parainfluenza virus-3 (2.9%), and parainfluenza virus-1 (2.3%). Co-infections occurred in 29.4% (69/235) of infected patients and rhinovirus was the most detected virus (27.5%). Children under 5 years were more likely to have one or more detectable virus associated with their ILI. In this age group, compared to those ≥5 years, the risk of detecting more than one virus was higher (OR = 1.9), as was the risk of detecting of RSV (OR = 10.1) and adenovirus (OR = 4.7). While rhinovirus and adenovirus infections occurred year round, RSV, influenza virus A and coronavirus OC43 had defined period of circulation. Conclusions In our study, we found that respiratory viruses play an important role in ILIs in the Malagasy community, particularly in children under 5 years old. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of outpatients with ILI and describe for the first time importance of these viruses in different age group and their period of circulation

  3. Viral etiology of influenza-like illnesses in Antananarivo, Madagascar, July 2008 to June 2009.

    PubMed

    Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Richard, Vincent; Hoffmann, Jonathan; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Razafitrimo, Girard Marcellin; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-03

    In Madagascar, despite an influenza surveillance established since 1978, little is known about the etiology and prevalence of viruses other than influenza causing influenza-like illnesses (ILIs). From July 2008 to June 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from patients who presented ILIs symptoms in public and private clinics in Antananarivo (the capital city of Madagascar). ILIs were defined as body temperature ≥38°C and cough and at least two of the following symptoms: sore throat, rhinorrhea, headache and muscular pain, for a maximum duration of 3 days. We screened these specimens using five multiplex real time Reverse Transcription and/or Polymerase Chain Reaction assays for detection of 14 respiratory viruses. We detected respiratory viruses in 235/313 (75.1%) samples. Overall influenza virus A (27.3%) was the most common virus followed by rhinovirus (24.8%), RSV (21.2%), adenovirus (6.1%), coronavirus OC43 (6.1%), influenza virus B (3.9%), parainfluenza virus-3 (2.9%), and parainfluenza virus-1 (2.3%). Co-infections occurred in 29.4% (69/235) of infected patients and rhinovirus was the most detected virus (27.5%). Children under 5 years were more likely to have one or more detectable virus associated with their ILI. In this age group, compared to those ≥5 years, the risk of detecting more than one virus was higher (OR = 1.9), as was the risk of detecting of RSV (OR = 10.1) and adenovirus (OR = 4.7). While rhinovirus and adenovirus infections occurred year round, RSV, influenza virus A and coronavirus OC43 had defined period of circulation. In our study, we found that respiratory viruses play an important role in ILIs in the Malagasy community, particularly in children under 5 years old. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of outpatients with ILI and describe for the first time importance of these viruses in different age group and their period of circulation.

  4. [Repetitive strain injury (RSI): occurrence, etiology, therapy and prevention].

    PubMed

    Bongers, P M; de Vet, H C W; Blatter, B M

    2002-10-19

    In the Netherlands, work related upper-limb disorders are called Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI). RSI is not a diagnosis but a catch-all term for symptoms and signs located in the neck, upper back, shoulder, arm, elbow, hand, wrist and fingers. These symptoms may include pain, stiffness, tingling, clumsiness, loss of co-ordination, loss of strength, skin discoloration and temperature differences. Each year, 8% of working Dutch citizens take time off work due to RSI symptoms. Although the number of people claiming disability benefit due to RSI is limited, this figure has risen consecutively over the last three years. There is consensus that repetitive work at a high frequency and possibly accompanied by exertion of force is accompanied by RSI symptoms. There are indications of a relation between visual display unit use and these symptoms. However, these relations have not been established in a longitudinal study of adequate quality. High perceived job stress and a high workload are thought to be related to RSI, and women report more symptoms than men. There is insufficient information available on the role of different coping styles, perfectionism and dealing with symptoms. There is little information on the underlying mechanisms in the development of RSI, the diagnostics, therapy and prevention. In view of the lack of clear diagnostic criteria, suggestions have been made for a standardised description of the symptoms involved in the syndrome. A multidisciplinary treatment is likely to have the most effect. In terms of prevention, an integrated approach aimed at improving the working posture, reduction of static load and job stress and at individual factors is assumed to be the most effective.

  5. Viral etiology and seasonality of influenza-like illness in Gabon, March 2010 to June 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Central Africa began only recently, and few data are therefore available on the circulation of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses. In Gabon, a Central African country, we established a surveillance network in four major towns in order to analyze cases of ILI among patients who visited health centers between March 2010 and June 2011, and to determine the viral etiology. Methods Nasal swabs were sent for analysis to the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville, where they were screened for 17 respiratory viruses in a multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for all pathogens according the following pairs: adenovirus/parainfluenza virus 4, respiratory syncytial virus/human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus 1/parainfluenza virus 2, pandemic influenza virus A/seasonal influenza virus A (H1N1, H3N2)/seasonal influenza virus B, human coronaviruses 229E/OC43, human coronaviruses NL63/HKU1, rhinovirus/human parechovirus, and enterovirus/parainfluenza virus 3. Results We analyzed a total of 1041 specimens, of which 639 (61%) were positive for at least one virus. Three-quarters of the patients were children under five years old. We therefore focused on this age group, in which 68.1% of patients were positive for at least one virus. The most common viruses were adenoviruses (17.5%), followed by parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) 1–4 (16.8%), enteroviruses (EV) (14.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (13.5%), and influenza virus (11.9%). The prevalence of some viruses was subject to geographic and seasonal variations. One-third of positive samples contained more than one virus. Conclusions Like most studies in the world, the virus PIVs, EV, RSV, Influenza virus, HRV were predominant among children under five years old in Gabon. An exception is made for adenoviruses which have a high prevalence in our study. However adenoviruses can be detected in asymptomatic

  6. Viral etiology of acute respiratory diseases in Rio de Janeiro: first two years of a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Sutmoller, F.; Nascimento, J. P.; Chaves, J. R. S.; Ferreira, V.; Pereira, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    A two-year study was undertaken to establish the incidence and possible viral etiology of acute respiratory diseases among the child population of a shanty town in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results demonstrated that nearly half of all the illnesses seen were respiratory infections, 10% of them affecting the lower respiratory tract. Viruses were isolated from 20% of the throat swabs collected. Of the viruses identified, 47% were adenoviruses, 25% were enteroviruses, 9% were influenza A, 8% herpes simplex, 7% parainfluenza, 3% respiratory syncytial and 1% influenza B viruses. PMID:6606500

  7. Viral diversity of Junín virus field strains.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Sandra E; Stephan, Betina I; Iserte, Javier A; Contigiani, Marta S; Lozano, Mario E; Tenorio, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    The Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever, an endemic disease present in a much of Argentina, is caused by the Junín virus (JUNV). Currently, there are sequences available from several strains of this virus, like those belonging to the vaccine lineage (XJ13, XJ#44 and Candid#1), as well as MC2 (rodent isolate) and IV4454 (human isolate). In this article, we report sequence information on two fragments of genomic segment S of viral isolates from the endemic area. A Nested-RT-PCR was used to amplify discrete genomic regions of 13 isolates of rodent and human origin. The bioinformatics studies revealed a great homogeneity of sequences among the JUNV isolates. The phylogenetic classification showed greater evolutionary distance between the old world arenaviruses (Lassa and LCM virus) than between the new world arenaviruses (JUNV and Machupo virus).

  8. Prophages in enterococcal isolates from renal transplant recipients: renal failure etiologies promote selection of strains.

    PubMed

    Daca, Agnieszka; Jarzembowski, Tomasz; Witkowski, Jacek M; Bryl, Ewa; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by commensal bacteria may be fatal for the patients under immunosuppressive therapy. This results also from difficulty in identification of high risk strains. Enterococcal infections are increasingly frequent but despite many studies on virulence traits, the difference between commensal and pathogenic strains remains unclear. Prophages are newly described as important elements in competition between strains during colonization, as well as pathogenicity of the strains. Here we evaluate a difference in presence of pp4, pp1, and pp7 prophages and ASA (aggregation substance) gene expression in enterococcal isolates from renal transplant recipients (RTx) with different etiology of the end-stage renal failure. Prophages sequence was screened by PCR in strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from urine and feces of 19 RTx hospitalized at Medical University of Gdansk and 18 healthy volunteers. FLOW-FISH method with use of linear locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe was used to assess the ASA gene expression. Additionally, ability of biofilm formation was screened by crystal violet staining method. Presence of prophages was more frequent in fecal isolates from immunocompromised patients than in isolates from healthy volunteers. Additionally, both composition of prophages and ASA gene expression were related to the etiology of renal disease.

  9. Prophages in Enterococcal Isolates from Renal Transplant Recipients: Renal Failure Etiologies Promote Selection of Strains

    PubMed Central

    Daca, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Jacek M.; Bryl, Ewa; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by commensal bacteria may be fatal for the patients under immunosuppressive therapy. This results also from difficulty in identification of high risk strains. Enterococcal infections are increasingly frequent but despite many studies on virulence traits, the difference between commensal and pathogenic strains remains unclear. Prophages are newly described as important elements in competition between strains during colonization, as well as pathogenicity of the strains. Here we evaluate a difference in presence of pp4, pp1, and pp7 prophages and ASA (aggregation substance) gene expression in enterococcal isolates from renal transplant recipients (RTx) with different etiology of the end-stage renal failure. Prophages sequence was screened by PCR in strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from urine and feces of 19 RTx hospitalized at Medical University of Gdansk and 18 healthy volunteers. FLOW-FISH method with use of linear locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe was used to assess the ASA gene expression. Additionally, ability of biofilm formation was screened by crystal violet staining method. Presence of prophages was more frequent in fecal isolates from immunocompromised patients than in isolates from healthy volunteers. Additionally, both composition of prophages and ASA gene expression were related to the etiology of renal disease. PMID:25105126

  10. Comparison of characteristics and transarterial chemoembolization outcomes in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma and different viral etiologies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bang-Bin; Shih, I-Lun; Wu, Chih-Horng; Hsu, Chiun; Chen, Chien-Hung; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Liu, Kao-Lang; Liang, Po-Chin

    2014-03-01

    To determine any differences in patient characteristics and outcomes after transarterial chemoembolization between different viral etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This retrospective study consisted of 201 patients undergoing first-time transarterial chemoembolization for unresectable HCC from January to December 2009. The patients were divided into four groups: hepatitis B virus (HBV) only (n = 104), hepatitis C virus (HCV) only (n = 63), HBV and HCV (n = 10), and no viral hepatitis (n = 24). The clinical and laboratory data were obtained from electronic medical records, and imaging findings obtained before transarterial chemoembolization were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to assess the impact of HBV or HCV status, clinical characteristics, and imaging results on overall survival. After a median follow-up of 28.3 months ± 16.2, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 74.1%, 59.7%, and 53.2%. Patients with HBV had a significant association with younger age (P = .001), higher male-to-female ratio (P = .003), lower alanine aminotransferase levels (P = .018), higher albumin levels (P = .009), and multifocal tumors at diagnosis (P = .04) compared with patients with HCV. Patients with both HBV and HCV had significantly higher serum bilirubin levels compared with the other groups (P = .002). No significant difference was found in overall survival among the different hepatitis groups (P = .943). Multivariate analysis showed that statistically significant determinants for overall survival were Child-Pugh class (P = .002), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage (P < .001), tumor size (P < .001), and distribution (P < .001). Viral etiology has no correlation with the outcome of patients with HCC undergoing transarterial chemoembolization. © 2014 SIR Published by SIR All rights reserved.

  11. Does the prostate retain an endogenous antiviral defense system suggesting a past viral etiology for cancer?

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Marvin; Hollowell, Courtney M P; Guinan, Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Evidence of viral infection of the prostate is presented, and consists of viral isolation as well as antigen and genomic detection of integrated or episomal forms. Prior infection from "ancient" exogenous retroviruses is suggested by residual endogenous forms. The presence of an antiviral defense system based upon interferon induction has been suggested for the testes. I suggest that a similar system is also present in the prostate. Prostate cell lines (or tissue) can be tested directly for expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ). However, enhanced expression should be induced by IFN inducers such as bispecific oligonucleotides having double stranded regions or poly I:C. RNA can be extracted and RT-PCR performed using commercially available primers for gamma interferon. Evidence for the presence of an interferon based anti-viral system would be indicated not only by interferon expression, but also its enhanced expression following exposure to the inducers. Gamma interferon is primarily associated with lymphocytic expression and immune regulation. Demonstration of its controlled expression in non-immune cells would support the hypotheses suggested here.

  12. Multicenter Study of Viral Etiology and Relapse in Hospitalized Children with Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Teach, Stephen J.; Fisher, Erin S.; Hershey, Daniel; Koh, Joyce Y.; Clark, Sunday; Piedra, Pedro A.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the infectious etiology of severe bronchiolitis affects short-term outcomes, such as post-hospitalization relapse. We tested the hypothesis that children hospitalized with rhinovirus (RV) bronchiolitis, either as a sole pathogen or in combination with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), are at increased risk of relapse. Methods We performed a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children age <2 years with bronchiolitis. During the winters of 2007 to 2010, researchers collected clinical data and nasopharyngeal aspirates from study participants; the aspirates were tested using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was bronchiolitis relapse (urgent bronchiolitis visit or scheduled visit at which additions to the bronchiolitis medications were made) during the 2 weeks after hospital discharge. Results Among 1836 enrolled children with 2-week follow-up data, the median age was 4 months and 60% were male. Overall, 48% had sole RSV infection, 8% had sole RV infection, and 13% had RSV/RV co-infection. Compared with children with sole RSV infection, and adjusting for 10 demographic and clinical characteristics and clustering of patients within hospitals, children with sole RV infection did not differ in their likelihood of relapse (OR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.52–1.90; P=0.98), whereas those with RSV/RV co-infection were more likely to have relapse (OR, 1.54; 95%CI, 1.03–2.30; P=0.03). Conclusions In this prospective, multicenter, multiyear study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we found that RSV/RV co-infection was independently associated with a higher likelihood of bronchiolitis relapse. Present data support the concept that the infectious etiology of severe bronchiolitis affects short-term outcomes. PMID:24577039

  13. Multicenter study of viral etiology and relapse in hospitalized children with bronchiolitis.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Teach, Stephen J; Fisher, Erin S; Hershey, Daniel; Koh, Joyce Y; Clark, Sunday; Piedra, Pedro A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    It is unclear whether the infectious etiology of severe bronchiolitis affects short-term outcomes, such as posthospitalization relapse. We tested the hypothesis that children hospitalized with rhinovirus (RV) bronchiolitis, either as a sole pathogen or in combination with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), are at increased risk of relapse. We performed a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children age <2 years with bronchiolitis. During the winters of 2007-2010, researchers collected clinical data and nasopharyngeal aspirates from study participants; the aspirates were tested using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The primary outcome was bronchiolitis relapse (urgent bronchiolitis visit or scheduled visit at which additions to the bronchiolitis medications were made) during the 2 weeks after hospital discharge. Among 1836 enrolled children with 2-week, follow-up data, the median age was 4 months and 60% were male. Overall, 48% had sole RSV infection, 8% had sole RV infection, and 13% had RSV/RV coinfection. Compared with children with sole RSV infection, and adjusting for 10 demographic and clinical characteristics and clustering of patients within hospitals, children with sole RV infection did not differ in their likelihood of relapse (odds ratio: 0.99; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.90; P = 0.98), whereas those with RSV/RV coinfection were more likely to have relapse (odds ratio: 1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.30; P = 0.03). In this prospective, multicenter, multiyear study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we found that RSV/RV coinfection was independently associated with a higher likelihood of bronchiolitis relapse. Present data support the concept that the infectious etiology of severe bronchiolitis affects short-term outcomes.

  14. [Differential diagnosis of the viral etiology of suspected mumps in a population with high vaccine coverage].

    PubMed

    Limberková, R; Havlíčková, M; Smíšková, D; Labská, K; Herrmannová, K; Procházková, J; Jiřincová, H; Marešová, V

    In this study, buccal swabs from patients with the clinical picture of parotitis epidemica in whom mumps virus (MV) infection was not confirmed by direct detection or serologically were tested. The aim was to detect by molecular methods nucleic acids (NAs) of other respiratory viruses possibly involved in salivary gland swelling. At the same time, paired sera, if available, were tested. The study group consisted of 72 buccal swabs from patients of the Clinic of infectious, tropical, and parasitic diseases, Na Bulovce Hospital. Paired sera were available from ten patients. Samples were collected in 2013 to 2015. Buccal swabs were tested by PCR for the presence of NAs of adenoviruses (AdV), bocaviruses (hBoV), parainfluenza viruses of types 1-4 (HPIV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), coronaviruses (HCoV: NL63, OC43, HKU1, and 229E), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Paired sera were screened by the complement fixation test (AdV and influenza A and B viruses), hemagglutination inhibition test (HPIV types 2 and 3), ELISA (AdV, EBV), and immunofluorescence (EBV). NAs from viruses other than the mumps virus were detected in 27 of 72 patients with clinical symptoms of parotitis epidemica, and serological tests revealed etiological links with parainfluenza viruses in three more cases. Overall, 30 (41.7%) of 72 patients with suspected mumps tested positive for one or more viruses from the study panel. The most commonly detected viruses were AdV 11/72 (15.3%), EBV 9/72 (12.5%), and HPIV 3/72 (4.2%), but influenza A virus (H3N2) 1/72 (1.4%) was also found. Some patients tested positive for more than one virus: 2/72 (3%) for AdV plus hBoV and 1/72 (1.4%) for HPIV plus HCoV. In addition, examination of paired sera revealed HPIV positivity in three more patients. PCR and serology detected etiological link with HPIV in six (8.3%) of 72 patients tested. In our study group, nearly 42% of patients with the clinical

  15. Speculations on the viral etiology of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Conant, M A

    1984-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) appeared in the United States in late 1978 and has spread at an epidemic rate through the four major coastal cities of this country. The disease appears to show the same epidemiologic distribution as hepatitis B virus infection, and for this reason, most investigators feel that this new disease is caused by a blood-borne sexually transmitted virus. A number of viral agents have been suggested as the cause of AIDS, but to date, no virus has been consistently isolated. The most likely candidate is a retrovirus that has recently been introduced into the human population and has found its way into two extremely high-risk groups, namely, promiscuous male homosexuals and intravenous drug abusers. The relationship between Kaposi's sarcoma and cytomegalovirus is still unclear, but evidence is mounting that cytomegalovirus may be the agent that initiates this multifocal malignancy. Multiple factors must be involved in this process. It is known that some immunosuppressed individuals develop Kaposi's sarcoma, which completely resolves when the immunosuppression is reversed; however, in individuals with classical Kaposi's sarcoma, the profound degree of helper T-cell depression that characterizes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome is not seen.

  16. Viral etiology of mumps-like illnesses in suspected mumps cases reported in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Barrabeig, Irene; Costa, Josep; Rovira, Ariadna; Marcos, M Angeles; Isanta, Ricard; López-Adalid, Rubén; Cervilla, Ana; Torner, Nuria; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the etiology of reported sporadic suspected mumps cases with a negative RT-PCR result for the mumps virus in the Barcelona-South region in 2007–2011. Samples from mumps virus-negative patients presenting unilateral or bilateral parotitis or other salivary gland swelling were tested for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by real-time PCR and for respiratory viruses by two multiplex-PCR-based assays to detect parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1–4, influenza virus (InV) A, B and C, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), enterovirus, coronavirus 229E, coronavirus OC43, and rhinovirus. 101 samples were analyzed in persons aged 8 months to 50 years. Oral samples were collected on the first day of glandular swelling in 53 patients (52.5%), and on the first two days in 74 patients (73.3%). Viruses were detected in 52 (51.5%) of samples: one virus (25 EBV, 8 PIV3, 4 adenovirus, 4 PIV2, 1 PIV1, 1 InVA, and 1 enterovirus) was detected in 44 patients (84.6%), two viruses in 7 patients, and three viruses in one patient. In 58 patients (57.5%) whose sample was collected in the first 2 days after onset of parotitis and had received two doses of MMR vaccine and in 15 patients (14.8%) whose sample was collected on the first day, it is very likely that the cause was not the mumps virus. This would mean that 72.3% (73/101) of the reported sporadic suspected mumps cases were not mumps cases. The timing of oral-sample collection is crucial to correctly interpret the negative results for mumps virus RNA, especially when suspected cases occur in vaccinated persons. PMID:25483547

  17. Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Acute Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years of Age in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xu-Hui; Tian, Lei; Cheng, Zhong-Ju; Liu, Wei-Yong; Li, Song; Yu, Wei-Ting; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Xiang, Xu; Sun, Zi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute diarrhea remains the serious problem in developing countries, especially among children under 5 years of age. Currently, only two or three common diarrhea pathogens were screened at most hospitals in China. The aim of this study was to provide a wide variety of diarrhea pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in children under 5 years of age. Methods: Totally 381 stool samples collected from Tongji Hospital between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 were tested by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction for eight kinds of bacteria and five kinds of viruses. An antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Viral infections were mainly identified in infants (0–11 months), whereas bacterial infections were more prevalent in the age of 24–59 months. About 69.8% of samples were positive for at least one pathogen, 51.7% of samples were virus positive, followed by bacteria positive cases (19.4%), and 12.6% of cases displayed co-infections with two viruses or a virus and a bacterium. Rotavirus was the most prevalent pathogen, followed closely by norovirus, while Salmonella was the most commonly isolated bacteria, followed by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and Campylobacter. More than 40% of Salmonella spp. and DEC isolates were resistant to first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline). Around 10% of Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin simultaneously. Campylobacter spp. displayed high resistance to ciprofloxacin but kept low resistance to azithromycin and doxycycline. Conclusions: The etiology of acute diarrhea varies in children of different age groups. The high frequency of infection with viruses suggests the urgent demand for new viral vaccine development. Proper use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea is crucial due to the high level of antibiotic

  18. [Etiology and epidemiology of 547 episodes of acute viral hepatitis diagnosed in adults in a general hospital (1983-1994)].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Martinez, A; Sala, P; Pérez, R; Linares, A; Sánchez-Lombraña, J L; Rodrigo, L

    1996-01-01

    The etiology and epidemiology of 547 consecutive episodes of acute viral hepatitis in adults and diagnosed in a general hospital over 12 years (1983-1994) were prospectively analyzed as were the changes observed during the two halves of the study period. Of the 547 episodes, 25.4% were of type A, 41.1% type B, 21.9% type C, 6.6% non A, non B, non C, 2.4% type D, 1.1% by cytomegalovirus and 1.4% by the Epstein-Barr virus. The proportion of hepatitis A increased from 21.5% from 1983-1988 to 34.1% from 1989-1994 (p = 0.002), while hepatitis C decreased from 24.9% to 15.3% (p = 0.01) during the same periods. The proportion of hepatitis B observed in intravenous drug addicts fell from 56.1% in the first period to 39.3% in the second period (p = 0.03), while sexually transmitted hepatitis B rose from 7.3% to 22.9% (p = 0.002). A decrease was observed in the cases of hepatitis C in both periods in the intravenous drug addict cases (60.6% vs. 34.6%; p = 0.03) with an increase being observed in the C virus transmitted by unapparent mechanisms (2.1% vs. 23.1%; p = 0.001). These results suggest that modifications may currently be observed in the epidemiology of the viral hepatitis in Spain and that these trends should be taken into account when planning preventive strategies.

  19. Population-based Incidence and Etiology of Community-acquired Neonatal Viral Infections in Bangladesh: A Community-based and Hospital-based Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Azadeh; Saha, Samir K; Baqui, Abdullah H; Choi, Yoonjoung; Ahmed, Nawshad Uddin; Simoes, Eric A F; El Arifeen, Shams; Al-Emran, Hassan M; Bari, Sanwarul; Rahman, Syed M; Mannan, Ishtiaq; Crook, Derrick; Seraji, Habibur Rahman; Begum, Nazma; Black, Robert E; Santosham, Mathuram; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-07-01

    The etiology of >90% of cases of suspected neonatal infection remains unknown. We conducted community-based surveillance in conjunction with hospital-based surveillance in a rural region in Bangladesh from June 2006 to September 2007 to assess the incidence and etiology of community-acquired viral infections among neonates. Community health workers (CHWs) assessed neonates at home on days 0, 2, 5 and 8 after birth and referred cases of suspected illness to the hospital (CHW surveillance). Among neonates with clinically suspected upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), pneumonia, sepsis and/or meningitis, virus identification studies were conducted on nasal wash, cerebrospinal fluid and/or blood specimens. In the hospital-based surveillance, similar screening was conducted among all neonates (referred by CHWs and self-referred) who were admitted to the hospital. CHW surveillance found an incidence rate of 15.6 neonatal viral infections per 1000 live births with 30% of infections identified on the day of birth. Among neonates with suspected sepsis, a viral etiology was identified in 36% of cases, with enterovirus accounting for two-thirds of those infections. Respiratory syncytial virus was the most common etiologic agent among those with viral pneumonia (91%) and URTI (68%). There was a low incidence (1.2%) of influenza in this rural population. Viral infections are commonly associated with acute newborn illness, even in the early neonatal period. The estimated incidence was 5-fold greater than reported previously for bacterial infections. Low-cost preventive measures for neonatal viral infections are urgently needed.

  20. The Frequency of Autoimmune N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Surpasses That of Individual Viral Etiologies in Young Individuals Enrolled in the California Encephalitis Project

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Heather; Dalmau, Josep; Tilley, Drake H.; Glaser, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. In 2007, the California Encephalitis Project (CEP), which was established to study the epidemiology of encephalitis, began identifying cases of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. Increasing numbers of anti-NMDAR encephalitis cases have been identified at the CEP, and this form rivals commonly known viral etiologies as a causal agent. We report here the relative frequency and differences among encephalitides caused by anti-NMDAR and viral etiologies within the CEP experience. Methods. Demographic, frequency, and clinical data from patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis are compared with those with viral encephalitic agents: enterovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and West Nile virus (WNV). All examined cases presented to the CEP between September 2007 and February 2011 and are limited to individuals aged ≤30 years because of the predominance of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in this group. The diagnostic costs incurred in a single case are also included. Results. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis was identified >4 times as frequently as HSV-1, WNV, or VZV and was the leading entity identified in our cohort. We found that 65% of anti-NMDAR encephalitis occurred in patients aged ≤18 years. This disorder demonstrated a predilection, which was not observed with viral etiologies, for females (P < .01). Seizures, language dysfunction, psychosis, and electroencephalographic abnormalities were significantly more frequent in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis (P < .05), and autonomic instability occurred exclusively in this group. Discussion. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis rivals viral etiologies as a cause of encephalitis within the CEP cohort. This entity deserves a prominent place on the encephalitic differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary diagnostic and treatment costs, and to permit a more timely treatment. PMID:22281844

  1. Mate-Pair Sequencing as a Powerful Clinical Tool for the Characterization of Cancers with a DNA Viral Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ge; Smith, David I.

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses are known to be associated with a variety of different cancers. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a family of viruses and several of its sub-types are classified as high-risk HPVs as they are found to be associated with the development of a number of different cancers. Almost all cervical cancers appear to be driven by HPV infection and HPV is also found in most cancers of the anus and at least half the cancers of the vulva, penis and vagina, and increasingly found in one sub-type of head and neck cancers namely oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Our understanding of HPVs role in cancer development comes from extensive studies done on cervical cancer and it has just been assumed that HPV plays an identical role in the development of all other cancers arising in the presence of HPV sequences, although this has not been proven. Most invasive cervical cancers have the HPV genome integrated into one or more sites within the human genome. One powerful tool to examine all the sites of HPV integration in a cancer but that also provides a comprehensive view of genomic alterations in that cancer is the use of next generation sequencing of mate-pair libraries produced from the DNA isolated. We will describe how this powerful technology can provide important information about the genomic organization within an individual cancer genome, and how this has demonstrated that HPVs role in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is distinct from that in cervical cancer. We will also describe why the sequencing of mate-pair libraries could be a powerful clinical tool for the management of patients with a DNA viral etiology and how this could quickly transform the care of these patients. PMID:26262638

  2. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Gedi A.; Ahmed, Jamal A.; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010–2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5–14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15–24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  3. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp.

  4. Strain Variation and Disease Severity in Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: In Search of a Viral Marker.

    PubMed

    Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2015-09-01

    The wide spectrum of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and known differences in the biology and in vitro growth of CMV strains continue to drive studies in search for specific viral genetic determinants that may predict severity of congenital CMV disease. Several CMV genes have been studied in detail in congenitally infected children, but the complexity of the viral genome and differences in the definition of symptomatic disease versus asymptomatic CMV infection continue to raise questions related to what constitutes a pathogenic CMV strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1e Strain Isolated in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Hanspeter; Bachofen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain Carlito. It belongs to the subgenotype 1e that is described in Europe only and represents the second most prevalent subgenotype in Switzerland. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1e. PMID:26067971

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1h Strain Isolated in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bazzucchi, Moira; Bertolotti, Luigi; Giammarioli, Monica; Casciari, Cristina; Rossi, Elisabetta; Rosati, Sergio; De Mia, Gian Mario

    2017-02-23

    We sequenced the complete genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain UM/126/07. It belongs to subgenotype 1h. The complete genome is composed of 12,196 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1h.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1h Strain Isolated in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bazzucchi, Moira; Bertolotti, Luigi; Casciari, Cristina; Rossi, Elisabetta; Rosati, Sergio; De Mia, Gian Mario

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sequenced the complete genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain UM/126/07. It belongs to subgenotype 1h. The complete genome is composed of 12,196 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1h. PMID:28232427

  8. Genotypic characteristics of bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 strains isolated in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, M; Harasawa, R; Zecconi, A; Luzzago, C

    2001-09-01

    Two strains of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) were isolated from calves in northern Italy. Variations in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the genome were studied by primary structure alignment and neighbor-joining method based phylogenetic tree analyses and by palindromic nucleotide substitutions at the three variable loci in the 5'-UTR. Genetic analysis indicated their appurtenance to genovar BVDV-2a. Nucleotide sequence at the 5'-UTR of strain BS-95-II, one of the Italian isolates from healthy calves, showed 98% homology to that of the Japanese isolate OY89, a cytopathic strain derived from cattle with mucosal disease.

  9. Clinical correlations of human cytomegalovirus strains and viral load in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eliana; Ozaki, Kikumi Suzete; Tomiyama, Helena; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Granato, Celso Francisco Hernandes

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about clinical differences associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection by distinct strains in renal transplant patients. Different clinical pictures may be associated with specific viral genotypes, viral load, as well as host factors. The objective of this study was to identify CMV strains to determine viral load (antigenemia), and their correlation with clinical data in renal transplant recipients. Seventy-one patients were enrolled, comprising 91 samples. After selection, polymorphonuclear cells were used to amplify and sequence the gB region of CMV DNA. The sequences were analyzed to ascertain the frequency of different genotypes. Additionally, the results of this study showed that the gB coding gene presents a great variability, revealing a variety of patterns: classical gB1 (1.4%), gB1V (46.4%), classical gB2 (35.2%), gB2V (2.8%), gB3 (1.4%), classical gB4 (4.9%) and gB4V (4.9%). The mean viral load in kidney transplant patient was 75.1 positive cells (1-1000). A higher viral load was observed in patients with genotype 4 infection. Statistically significant differences were detected between gB1 and gB4 (p=0.010), and between gB2 and gB4 (p=0.021). The average numbers of positive cells in relation to clinical presentation were: 34.5 in asymptomatic, 49.5 in CMV associated syndrome and 120.7 in patients with invasive disease (p=0.048). As a group, gB1 was the most frequent strain and revealed a potential risk for developing invasive disease. Viral load also seemed to be important as a marker associated with clinical presentation of the disease.

  10. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus strains in intensive cattle herds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Luzzago, C; Bandi, C; Bronzo, V; Ruffo, G; Zecconi, A

    2001-11-26

    The genetic variation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was studied by comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of 26 Italian field strains collected during the period 1995-2000 in 18 cattle herds. A fragment within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) was sequenced directly from gel-purified products obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. BVDV-1b (n=14), -1c (n=1), -1d (n=1) and BVDV-2 (n=2) strains have been isolated. Most herds were infected by BVDV-1b. Pairwise similarity and cluster analysis of the remaining BVDV-1 isolates (n=8) did not provide a clear-cut assignation to defined BVDV-1 groups. This is the first time that a BVDV-2 isolation was reported in Italy. Among BVDV-2 reference strains, Italian BVDV-2 isolates showed the highest sequence similarity with the CD87 strain. Both BVDV-2 strains were isolated in two healthy animals from different herds. The 5'-UTR sequence of one of the two BVDV-2 strains was identical to a German BVDV field strain. Complete nucleotide homology was found only among BVDV strains isolated from the same herd, showing a herd-specific clustering. Moreover, 99.6% homology was observed between strains from herds linked by livestock trade. Despite the small number of BVDV isolates analysed, it revealed a high level of genetic diversity among Italian field BVDV strains.

  11. Timing of the emergence of new successful viral strains in seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Omori, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Akira

    2013-07-21

    High evolvability of influenza virus and the complex nature of its antagonistic interaction with the host immune system make it difficult to predict which strain of virus will become epidemic next and when it will emerge. To investigate the most likely time at which a new successful strain emerges every year in seasonal influenza, we use an individual-based model that takes into account the seasonality in transmission rate and host cross-immunity against a current viral strain due to previous infections with other strains. Our model deals with antigenic evolution of influenza virus that originated by point mutations at amino acid sites that constitute epitope and is driven by host immune response. Under the range of parameters by which influenza virus shows a "trunk" shape in its phylogenetic tree, as is typical in influenza A virus evolution, we find that most successful mutant strains emerge in an early part of the epidemic season, and that the time when the number of infected hosts reaches a maximum tends to be more than one season after viral emergence. This carryover of the epidemic peak timing implies that we can predict the strain that will become dominant in the epidemic in the following year.

  12. Passive immunization against highly pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) strain H7N3 with antiserum generated from viral polypeptides protect poultry birds from lethal viral infection.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Mirza Imran; Naeem, Khalid; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Khanum, Azra

    2008-11-28

    Our studies were aimed at developing a vaccination strategy that could provide protection against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N3 or its variants outbreaks. A purified viral stock of highly pathogenic H7N3 isolate was lysed to isolate viral proteins by electrophresing on 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), followed by their elution from gel through trituration in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Overall, five isolated viral polypeptides/proteins upon characterization were used to prepare hyperimmune monovalent serum against respective polypeptides independently and a mixture of all five in poultry birds, and specificity confirmation of each antiserum through dot blot and Western blotting. Antiserum generated from various group birds was pooled and evaluated in 2-week old broiler chicken, for its protection against viral challenge. To evaluate in-vivo protection of each antiserum against viral challenges, six groups of 2-week old broiler chicken were injected with antiserum and a seventh control group received normal saline. Each group was exposed to purified highly pathogenic AIV H7N3 strain at a dose 10(5) embryo lethal dose (ELD(50)). We observed that nucleoprotein (NP) antiserum significantly protected birds from viral infection induced morbidity, mortality and lowered viral shedding compared with antiserum from individual viral proteins or mixed polypeptides/proteins inclusive of NP component. The capability of individual viral polypeptide specific antisera to protect against viral challenges in decreasing order was nucleoprotein (NP) > hemagglutinin (HA) > neuraminidase (NA) > viral proteins mix > viral polymerase (PM) > non-structural proteins (NS). Our data provide proof of concept for potential utilization of passive immunization in protecting poultry industry during infection outbreaks. Furthermore conserved nature of avian NP makes it an ideal candidate to produce antiserum protective against viral

  13. The peritoneal macrophage inflammatory profile in cirrhosis depends on the alcoholic or hepatitis C viral etiology and is related to ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of ascites in cirrhotic patients generally heralds a deterioration in their clinical status. A differential gene expression profile between alcohol- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis has been described from liver biopsies, especially those associated with innate immune responses. The aim of this work was to identify functional differences in the inflammatory profile of monocyte-derived macrophages from ascites in cirrhotic patients of different etiologies in an attempt to extrapolate studies from liver biopsies to immune cells in ascites. To this end 45 patients with cirrhosis and non-infected ascites, distributed according to disease etiology, HCV (n = 15) or alcohol (n = 30) were studied. Cytokines and the cell content in ascites were assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytokines and ERK phosphorylation in peritoneal monocyte-derived macrophages isolated and stimulated in vitro were also determined. Results A different pattern of leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity and differences in the primed status of macrophages in cirrhosis were observed depending on the viral or alcoholic etiology. Whereas no differences in peripheral blood cell subpopulations could be observed, T lymphocyte, monocyte and polymorphonuclear cell populations in ascites were more abundant in the HCV than the alcohol etiology. HCV-related cirrhosis etiology was associated with a decreased inflammatory profile in ascites compared with the alcoholic etiology. Higher levels of IL-10 and lower levels of IL-6 and IL-12 were observed in ascitic fluid from the HCV group. Isolated peritoneal monocyte-derived macrophages maintained their primed status in vitro throughout the 24 h culture period. The level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was higher in ALC peritoneal macrophages at baseline than in HCV patients, although the addition of LPS induced a greater increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HCV than in ALC patients. Conclusions The

  14. Etiological epidemiology of viral diarrhea on the basis of sentinel surveillance in children younger than 5 years in Gansu, northwest China, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoning; Meng, Lei; Li, Juansheng; Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Yana; Yu, Deshan; Ren, Xiaowei; Liu, Haixia; Shen, Xiping; Wang, Peng; Hu, Xiaobin; Wei, Kongfu; Pei, Hongbo; Kang, Qian

    2015-12-01

    To explore the etiological spectrum of diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics in diarrhea symptoms surveillance cases younger than 5 years from 2009 to 2013 in Gansu province, northwest China. Systematic diarrhea symptoms surveillance were conducted in 27 sentinel sites in Gansu province and outpatients with three or more loose, watery, or sticky pus stools per day were defined as surveillance cases. All stool specimens were tested for Rotavirus, Human calicivirus, Adenovirus, and Astrovirus. Totally, 1,119 cases (51.54%) were identified as any enteric virus. The average isolation rate of Rotavirus was 51.13%, Astrovirus was 10.84%, Adenovirus was 6.94%, and Human calicivirus was 6.60% (P < 0.01). Rotavirus was identified with the highest frequency among these enteric pathogens except in 2011, with a notable downward trend over time (P < 0.01). Rotavirus A was the most proportion in rotavirus, G3P[8] and G9P[8] were the most common combination. Rotavirus mixed Human calicivirus infections was the most common mixed infected patterns. Viral-positive rate was higher among children aged group of 0-12 and 13-24 months (P < 0.01, respectively). The isolation rates of four enteric viral pathogens showed a similar distinct seasonal variation with a higher rate in spring, autumn, and winter months. Rotavirus was the major epidemiological viral pathogen in diarrhea symptom surveillance cases in Gansu province, northwest China, during period 2009-2013. Seasonal and age-related variations were observed in enteric viral pathogen isolation rate. The comprehensive and continuous surveillance is needed to identify the prevalence of different enteric viral pathogens. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Virulent Strain AUSTRAL-005 of Piscirickettsia salmonis, the Etiological Agent of Piscirickettsiosis

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Cristian; Haro, Ronie E.; Sanchez, Patricio; Isla, Adolfo; Mendoza, Julio; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Trombert, Annette; Silva, Andrea X.; Cárcamo, Juan G.; Figueroa, Jaime; Polanco, Victor; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius

    2014-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a lethal pathogen of farmed salmonids, Piscirickettsia salmonis strain AUSTRAL-005. This virulent strain was isolated in 2008 from Oncorhynchus mykiss farms, and multiple genes involved in pathogenicity, environmental adaptation, and metabolic pathways were identified. PMID:25323708

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Virulent Strain AUSTRAL-005 of Piscirickettsia salmonis, the Etiological Agent of Piscirickettsiosis.

    PubMed

    Yañez, Alejandro J; Molina, Cristian; Haro, Ronie E; Sanchez, Patricio; Isla, Adolfo; Mendoza, Julio; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Trombert, Annette; Silva, Andrea X; Cárcamo, Juan G; Figueroa, Jaime; Polanco, Victor; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2014-10-16

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a lethal pathogen of farmed salmonids, Piscirickettsia salmonis strain AUSTRAL-005. This virulent strain was isolated in 2008 from Oncorhynchus mykiss farms, and multiple genes involved in pathogenicity, environmental adaptation, and metabolic pathways were identified.

  17. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    PubMed Central

    Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Sergeev, Alexander A.; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  18. Genetic variety of bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 strains isolated from sheep.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Harasawa, Ryô

    2004-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains, isolated from sheep showing clinical symptoms of border disease, have been evaluated by the palindromic nucleotide substitution (PNS) method at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of genomic RNA. The characteristic two base-pairings common to the BVDV-2 species, a C-G pairing which was common to the V1 locus, and a G*U pairing common to the V2 locus, were observed in all tested strains. Strains BD-78 and C413 were identified by a unique C-G pairing at position 4 from the bottom of the V2 stem region, which is characteristic to BVDV-2b. BVDV-2d characteristic U-A pairing at position 18 of the V1 stem region was observed in five strains, Lees, 167 237, 168 149, 173 157 and 175 375. No strains have been assigned to the genotypes BVDV-2a or BVDV-2c. Furthermore, the investigation at the level of the 5'-UTR excluded the application in sheep of the proposed BVDV-2 genetic virulence markers described in cattle. The two specific positions of uracil and cytosine nucleotides related to low or high virulence where indifferently present in the ovine BVDV-2 strains responsible of border disease.

  19. [Persistent human papillomavirus infection in the etiology of cervical carcinoma: the role of immunological, genetic, viral and cellular factors].

    PubMed

    Zivadinović, Radomir; Petrić, Aleksandra; Lilić, Goran; Lilić, Vekoslav; Djordjević, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis from several aspects. By explaining the HPV virus lifecycle and structure, its effect on cervical cell cycle and subversion of immune response can be better understood. Early E region of the viral genome encodes proteins that are directly involved in carcinogenesis. The E6 protein binds to p53 protein (product of tumor-suppressor gene) blocking and degrading it, which in turn prevents cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. E6 is also capable of telomerase activation, which leads to cell immortalization; it also reacts with host proto-oncogene c-jun, responsible for transcription, shortens G1 phase and speeds up the transition from G1 to S phase of the cells infected by HPV. E7 forms bonds with retinoblastoma protein (product of tumor-suppressor gene) and inactivates it. It can inactivate cyclin inhibitors p21, p27, and abrogate the mitotic spindle checkpoint with the loss of protective effect of pRB and p53. The immune system cannot initiate early immunological reaction since the virus is non-lytic, while the concentration of viral proteins--antigens is low and has a basal intracellular position. Presentation through Langerhans cells (LC) is weak, because the number of these cells is low due to the effect of HPV. E7 HPV reduces the expression of E-cadherin, which is responsible for LC adhesion to HPV-transformed keratinocytes. Based on these considerations, it may be concluded that the process of cervical carcinogenesis includes viral, genetic, cellular, molecular-biological, endocrine, exocrine and immunological factors.

  20. Accurate reconstruction of viral quasispecies spectra through improved estimation of strain richness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Estimating the number of different species (richness) in a mixed microbial population has been a main focus in metagenomic research. Existing methods of species richness estimation ride on the assumption that the reads in each assembled contig correspond to only one of the microbial genomes in the population. This assumption and the underlying probabilistic formulations of existing methods are not useful for quasispecies populations where the strains are highly genetically related. The lack of knowledge on the number of different strains in a quasispecies population is observed to hinder the precision of existing Viral Quasispecies Spectrum Reconstruction (QSR) methods due to the uncontrolled reconstruction of a large number of in silico false positives. In this work, we formulated a novel probabilistic method for strain richness estimation specifically targeting viral quasispecies. By using this approach we improved our recently proposed spectrum reconstruction pipeline ViQuaS to achieve higher levels of precision in reconstructed quasispecies spectra without compromising the recall rates. We also discuss how one other existing popular QSR method named ShoRAH can be improved using this new approach. Results On benchmark data sets, our estimation method provided accurate richness estimates (< 0.2 median estimation error) and improved the precision of ViQuaS by 2%-13% and F-score by 1%-9% without compromising the recall rates. We also demonstrate that our estimation method can be used to improve the precision and F-score of ShoRAH by 0%-7% and 0%-5% respectively. Conclusions The proposed probabilistic estimation method can be used to estimate the richness of viral populations with a quasispecies behavior and to improve the accuracy of the quasispecies spectra reconstructed by the existing methods ViQuaS and ShoRAH in the presence of a moderate level of technical sequencing errors. Availability http://sourceforge.net/projects/viquas/ PMID:26678073

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1e Strain, SLO/2407/2006, Isolated in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Kuhar, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Papić, Bojan; Koren, Simon; Toplak, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subgenotype 1e was isolated for the first time in Slovenia in 2006. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of BVDV-1e, strain SLO/2407/2006. The published genome will increase our understanding of the molecular characteristics of the BVDV-1e strains circulating in Europe. PMID:27856597

  2. Did medieval trade activity and a viral etiology control the spatial extent and seasonal distribution of Black Death mortality?

    PubMed

    Bossak, Brian H; Welford, Mark R

    2009-06-01

    Recent research into the world's greatest recorded epidemic, the Medieval Black Death (MBD), has cast doubt on Bubonic Plague as the etiologic agent. Prior research has recently culminated in outstanding advances in our understanding of the spatio-temporal pattern of MBD mortality, and a characterization of the incubation, latent, infectious, and symptomatic periods of the MBD. However, until now, several mysteries remained unexplained, including perhaps the biggest quandary of all: why did the MBD exhibit inverse seasonal peaks in mortality from diseases recorded in modern times, such as seasonal Influenza or the Indian Plague Epidemics of the early 1900 s? Although some have argued that climate changes likely explain the observed differences between modern clinical Bubonic Plague seasonality and MBD mortality accounts, we believe that another factor explains these dissimilarities. Here, we provide a synthetic hypothesis which builds upon previous theories developed in the last ten years or so. Our all-encompassing theory explains the causation, dissemination, and lethality of the MBD. We theorize that the MBD was a human-to-human transmitted virus, originating in East-Central Asia and not Africa (as some recent work has proposed), and that its areal extent during the first great epidemic wave of 1347-1350 was controlled hierarchically by proximity to trade routes. We also propose that the seasonality of medieval trade controlled the warm-weather mortality peaks witnessed during 1347-1350; during the time of greatest market activity, traders, fairgoers, and religious pilgrims served as unintentional vectors of a lethal virus with an incubation period of approximately 32 days, including a largely asymptomatic yet infectious period of roughly three weeks. We include a description of the rigorous research agenda that we have proposed in order to subject our theory to scientific scrutiny and a description of our plans to generate the first publicly available

  3. Viral and Atypical Bacterial Etiology of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children under 5 Years Old Living in a Rural Tropical Area of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Jonathan; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Randriamarotia, Martin; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Najjar, Josette; Vernet, Guy; Contamin, Bénédicte; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia

    2012-01-01

    Background In Madagascar, very little is known about the etiology and prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a rural tropical area. Recent data are needed to determine the viral and atypical bacterial etiologies in children with defined clinical manifestations of ARIs. Methods During one year, we conducted a prospective study on ARIs in children between 2 to 59 months in the community hospital of Ampasimanjeva, located in the south-east of Madagascar. Respiratory samples were analyzed by multiplex real-time RT-PCR, including 18 viruses and 2 atypical bacteria. The various episodes of ARI were grouped into four clinical manifestations with well-documented diagnosis: “Community Acquired Pneumonia”(CAP, group I), “Other acute lower respiratory infections (Other ALRIs, group II)”, “Upper respiratory tract infections with cough (URTIs with cough, group III)”and “Upper respiratory tract infections without cough (URTIs without cough, group IV)”. Results 295 children were included in the study between February 2010 and February 2011. Viruses and/or atypical bacteria respiratory pathogens were detected in 74.6% of samples, the rate of co-infection was 27.3%. Human rhinovirus (HRV; 20.5%), metapneumovirus (HMPV A/B, 13.8%), coronaviruses (HCoV, 12.5%), parainfluenza virus (HPIV, 11.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus A and B (RSV A/B, 11.8%) were the most detected. HRV was predominantly single detected (23.8%) in all the clinical groups while HMPV A/B (23.9%) was mainly related to CAP (group I), HPIV (17.3%) to the “Other ALRIs” (group II), RSV A/B (19.5%) predominated in the group “URTIs with cough” (group III) and Adenovirus (HAdV, 17.8%) was mainly detected in the “without cough” (group IV). Interpretation This study describes for the first time the etiology of respiratory infections in febrile children under 5 years in a malaria rural area of Madagascar and highlights the role of respiratory viruses in a well clinically defined

  4. Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbit: purification and characterization of a strain isolated in France.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Morisse, J P

    1992-01-01

    The causative agent of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) was purified by CsCl density gradient centrifugation from liver homogenates of rabbits infected with a strain of VHD virus isolated in France. Electron microscopy observations revealed that the virions were icosahedral with a diameter of 33-35 nm, and with an average buoyant density of 1.33. Structural proteins were investigated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. The results indicated the presence of a major structural protein of 64 kDa and other minor proteins of molecular weight of 43, 36 and 32 kDa, the last presumably resulting from the proteolytic degradation of VP 64. These results correspond with the description made by the different authors who identify the VHD virus as a member of the Caliciviridae family.

  5. Immune factors and viral interactions in brain cancer etiology and outcomes, The 2016 Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Lau, Ching C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Woehrer, Adelheid; Wiemels, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an international consortium that aims to advance development of multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations that focus on research related to the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. The 17th annual BTEC meeting was held in Barcelona, Spain on June 21 – 23, 2016. The meeting focused on immune and viral factors that influence brain tumor development. Fundamentals of innate and adaptive immunity were reviewed, the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in primary and secondary brain tumors was addressed, vaccination strategies for glioma treatment were presented, and the potential contribution of immune dysfunction and viruses tropic for glial cells in gliomagenesis was discussed. Further contributions addressed the risk of non-ionizing radiation, molecular and birth characteristics on brain tumor induction/outcomes, and patterns of care and effects of different treatments on brain tumor survival in the real world setting. The next BTEC meeting will be held in June 2017 in Banff, Canada, and will focus on brain tumor epidemiology in the era of precision medicine. PMID:27546018

  6. The effectiveness of convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory infections of viral etiology: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mair-Jenkins, John; Saavedra-Campos, Maria; Baillie, J Kenneth; Cleary, Paul; Khaw, Fu-Meng; Lim, Wei Shen; Makki, Sophia; Rooney, Kevin D; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Beck, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Administration of convalescent plasma, serum, or hyperimmune immunoglobulin may be of clinical benefit for treatment of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) of viral etiology. We conducted a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis to assess the overall evidence. Healthcare databases and sources of grey literature were searched in July 2013. All records were screened against the protocol eligibility criteria, using a 3-stage process. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were undertaken. We identified 32 studies of SARS coronavirus infection and severe influenza. Narrative analyses revealed consistent evidence for a reduction in mortality, especially when convalescent plasma is administered early after symptom onset. Exploratory post hoc meta-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in the pooled odds of mortality following treatment, compared with placebo or no therapy (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, .14-.45; I(2) = 0%). Studies were commonly of low or very low quality, lacked control groups, and at moderate or high risk of bias. Sources of clinical and methodological heterogeneity were identified. Convalescent plasma may reduce mortality and appears safe. This therapy should be studied within the context of a well-designed clinical trial or other formal evaluation, including for treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus CoV infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Novel Trichoderma polysporum Strain for the Biocontrol of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungal Etiologic Agent of Bat White Nose Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of hibernating bats, has rapidly spread across eastern North America killing millions of bats. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the sole etiologic agent of WNS, is widespread and persistent in bat hibernacula. Control of Pd in the affected sites is urgently needed to break the transmission cycle while minimizing any adverse impact on the native organisms. We isolated a novel strain of Trichoderma polysporum (Tp) from one of the caves at the epicenter of WNS zoonotic. Detailed experimental studies revealed: (1) Tp WPM 39143 was highly adapted to grow at temperatures simulating the cave environment (6°C-15°C), (2) Tp WPM 39143 restricted Pd colony growth in dual culture challenges, (3) Tp WPM 39143 caused four logs reduction of Pd colony forming units and genome copies in autoclaved soil samples from one of the WNS affected caves, (4) Tp WPM 39143 extract showed specific fungicidal activity against Pd in disk diffusion assay, but not against closely related fungus P. pannorum (Pp), (5) Tp WPM 39143 extract retained inhibitory activity after exposure to high temperatures, light and proteinase K, and (6) Inhibitory metabolites in Tp WPM 39143 extract comprised of water-soluble, high polarity compounds. These results suggest that Tp WPM 39143 is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a biocontrol agent of Pd in WNS affected sites.

  8. Novel Trichoderma polysporum Strain for the Biocontrol of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungal Etiologic Agent of Bat White Nose Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of hibernating bats, has rapidly spread across eastern North America killing millions of bats. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the sole etiologic agent of WNS, is widespread and persistent in bat hibernacula. Control of Pd in the affected sites is urgently needed to break the transmission cycle while minimizing any adverse impact on the native organisms. We isolated a novel strain of Trichoderma polysporum (Tp) from one of the caves at the epicenter of WNS zoonotic. Detailed experimental studies revealed: (1) Tp WPM 39143 was highly adapted to grow at temperatures simulating the cave environment (6°C-15°C), (2) Tp WPM 39143 restricted Pd colony growth in dual culture challenges, (3) Tp WPM 39143 caused four logs reduction of Pd colony forming units and genome copies in autoclaved soil samples from one of the WNS affected caves, (4) Tp WPM 39143 extract showed specific fungicidal activity against Pd in disk diffusion assay, but not against closely related fungus P. pannorum (Pp), (5) Tp WPM 39143 extract retained inhibitory activity after exposure to high temperatures, light and proteinase K, and (6) Inhibitory metabolites in Tp WPM 39143 extract comprised of water-soluble, high polarity compounds. These results suggest that Tp WPM 39143 is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a biocontrol agent of Pd in WNS affected sites. PMID:26509269

  9. Strain impact on equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) abortion models: viral loads in fetal and placental tissues and foals.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, David W; Lunn, David P; Goehring, Lutz S; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Cook, Corey; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; McCue, Patrick; Del Piero, Fabio; Hussey, Stephen B; Hussey, Gisela Soboll

    2012-10-12

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) continues to cause both sporadic and epidemic abortions despite extensive vaccination. Lack of progress in the development of protective vaccines may be hindered by the lack of equine abortion models that employ contemporary EHV-1 strains. The objective of our experiments was to compare a contemporary EHV-1 strain with a previously described challenge strain, and to quantify EHV-1 loads in various maternal and fetal tissues. Infection experiments were performed in two groups of 7 pregnant pony mares at 270-290 days of gestation with a contemporary EHV-1 strain (University of Findlay 2003 isolate - OH03) or an EHV-1 strain isolated over 30 years ago, and previously described in abortion models (Ab4). All mares in both groups exhibited nasal viral shedding and viremia. Infection with OH03 resulted in 1/7 abortion and infection with Ab4 resulted in 5/7 abortions. In the OH03 challenge, placentas of foals delivered at term showed little detectable virus, while the aborted fetus expressed high levels of virus infection in the spleen and liver, lower levels in the lung and thymus, and lowest levels in the chorioallantois. After Ab4 challenge, high viral loads were detected in fetal and placental tissues in abortions. In the two normal deliveries, the chorioallantois contained virus levels comparable with the chorioallantois of aborted foals and both foals shed EHV-1 starting on day 4 of life, but were clinically healthy. Our results demonstrate the continued importance of strain selection for abortion models, and this study is the first report of viral load quantification using contemporary methods. Extremely high EHV-1 loads in decidua from abortions illustrate the infection risk posed to other horses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain 10JJ-SKR, Belonging to Genotype 1d.

    PubMed

    Joo, Soo-Kyung; Lim, Seong-In; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Song, Jae-Young; Oem, Jae-Ku; Mun, Seong-Hwan; An, Dong-Jun

    2013-08-08

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belonging to genotype 1d, strain 10JJ-SKR, which was isolated from cattle. The complete genome is 12,267 nucleotides (nt) in length, with a single large open reading frame. This is the first report of a BVDV belonging to genotype 1d and will enable further study of the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of this virus.

  11. Identification of immune and viral correlates of norovirus protective immunity through comparative study of intra-cluster norovirus strains.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu; Regev, Doron; Watanabe, Makiko; Hickman, Danielle; Moussatche, Nissin; Jesus, Desyree Murta; Kahan, Shannon M; Napthine, Sawsan; Brierley, Ian; Hunter, Robert N; Devabhaktuni, Divya; Jones, Melissa K; Karst, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not primary norovirus infections induce protective immunity has become a controversial issue, potentially confounded by the comparison of data from genetically distinct norovirus strains. Early human volunteer studies performed with a norovirus-positive inoculum initially led to the conclusion that primary infection does not generate long-term, protective immunity. More recently though, the epidemiological pattern of norovirus pandemics has led to the extrapolation that primary norovirus infection induces herd immunity. While these are seemingly discordant observations, they may in fact reflect virus strain-, cluster-, or genogroup-specific differences in protective immunity induction. Here, we report that highly genetically related intra-cluster murine norovirus strains differ dramatically in their ability to induce a protective immune response: Primary MNV-3 infection induced robust and cross-reactive protection, whereas primary MNV-1 infection induced modest homotypic and no heterotypic protection. In addition to this fundamental observation that intra-cluster norovirus strains display remarkable differences in protective immunity induction, we report three additional important observations relevant to norovirus:host interactions. First, antibody and CD4⁺ T cells are essential to controlling secondary norovirus infections. Second, the viral minor structural protein VP2 regulates the maturation of antigen presenting cells and protective immunity induction in a virus strain-specific manner, pointing to a mechanism by which MNV-1 may prevent the stimulation of memory immune responses. Third, VF1-mediated regulation of cytokine induction also correlates with protective immunity induction. Thus, two highly genetically-related norovirus strains displayed striking differences in induction of protective immune responses, strongly suggesting that the interpretation of norovirus immunity and vaccine studies must consider potential virus strain

  12. Evaluation of a fully human monoclonal antibody against multiple influenza A viral strains in mice and a pandemic H1N1 strain in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Song, Aihua; Myojo, Kensuke; Laudenslager, John; Harada, Daisuke; Miura, Toru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kuni-Kamochi, Reiko; Soloff, Rachel; Ohgami, Kinya; Kanda, Yutaka

    2014-11-01

    Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. Frequent mutations of surface molecules, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), contribute to low efficacy of the annual flu vaccine and therapeutic resistance to standard antiviral agents. The populations at high risk of influenza virus infection, such as the elderly and infants, generally mount low immune responses to vaccines, and develop severe disease after infection. Novel therapeutics with high effectiveness and mutation resistance are needed. Previously, we described the generation of a fully human influenza virus matrix protein 2 (M2) specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), Z3G1, which recognized the majority of M2 variants from natural viral isolates, including highly pathogenic avian strains. Passive immunotherapy with Z3G1 significantly protected mice from the infection when administered either prophylactically or 1-2days post infection. In the present study, we showed that Z3G1 significantly protected mice from lethal infection when treatment was initiated 3days post infection. In addition, therapeutic administration of Z3G1 reduced lung viral titers in mice infected with different viral strains, including amantadine and oseltamivir-resistant strains. Furthermore, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Z3G1 sustained O2 saturation and reduced lung pathology in monkeys infected with a pandemic H1N1 strain. Finally, de-fucosylated Z3G1 with an IgG1/IgG3 chimeric Fc region was generated (AccretaMab® Z3G1), and showed increased ADCC and CDC in vitro. Our data suggest that the anti-M2 mAb Z3G1 has great potential as a novel anti-flu therapeutic agent.

  13. Complete genome analysis of velogenic Newcastle disease virus reference strain "Chimalhuacan": evolution of viral lineages in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Absalón, Angel E; Mariano-Matías, Andrea; García, Laura J; Morales-Garzón, Andrés; Toscano-Contreras, Arnulfo; Lucio-Decanini, Eduardo; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2014-10-01

    Newcastle disease virus with velogenic characteristics circulates in the poultry industry in Mexico and various other American countries. In Mexico, vaccine efficacy testing to obtain commercial registration is reliant on a challenge with a velogenic strain known colloquially as Chimalhuacan due to the site where it was isolated. In this paper, we performed a full genome sequencing of the Chimalhuacan strain. The strain belongs to Class II of APMV, particularly genotype V. The viral RNA genome is 15,192 nt in size and contains six genes: 3' NP-P-M-F-HN-L 5'. The 3' leader sequence is 55 nt in size and the 5' trailer sequence 113 nt. The deduced amino acid sequence confirms a velogenic genotype with four basic amino acids at the cleavage site: (112)RRQKR(↓)F(117). In addition, evolutionary relatedness based on the gene sequence of the fusion protein indicates that this strain is the ancestor of the strains currently circulating in Mexico.

  14. Viral Strain Dependent Differences in Experimental Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (Junin Virus) Infection of Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    fiebre hemorragica Argentina. 13 Centers for Disease Control: Classification of Medicina, Buenos Aires 39:441 446 (1979). etiological agents on the...casos de fiebre hemorra- Atlanta 1976). gica Argentina. Pensa med. Argentina 56.605 614 14 The Subcommittee on Arbovirus Laborator (1969). Safety of...tardias de la fiebre hemorragica Ar- Biol. Med. 142: 526 531 (1973). gentina. Medicina. Buenos Aires 41:137 145 (1981). 16 Jahrling. P.B.: Smith, S

  15. Lipid composition of viral envelope of three strains of influenza virus – not all viruses are created equal

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Myers, David S.; Milne, Stephen B.; McClaren, Jennifer L.; Thomas, Paul G.; Brown, H. Alex

    2015-01-01

    While differences in the rate of virus fusion and budding from the host cell membrane have been correlated with pathogenicity, no systematic study of the contribution of differences in viral envelope composition has previously been attempted. Using rigorous virus purification, marked differences between virions and host were observed. Over 125 phospholipid species have been quantitated for three strains of influenza (HKx31- H3N2, PR8- H1N1, and VN1203- H5N1) grown in eggs. The glycerophospholipid composition of purified virions differs from that of the host or that of typical mammalian cells. Phosphatidylcholine is the major component in most mammalian cell membranes, while in purified virions phosphatidylethanolamine dominates. Due to its effects on membrane curvature, it is likely that the variations in its content are important to viral processing during infection. This integrated method of virion isolation with systematic analysis of glycerophospholipids provides a tool for the assessment of species specific biomarkers of viral pathogenicity. PMID:26448476

  16. Monoclonal antibodies against Aleutian disease virus distinguish virus strains and differentiate sites of virus replication from sites of viral antigen sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Race, R E; Chesebro, B; Bloom, M E; Aasted, B; Wolfinbarger, J

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used to study antigenic differences among strains of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) and to characterize viral proteins in vitro and in vivo. A number of ADV field strains could be discriminated, and highly virulent Utah I ADV was clearly delineated from the tissue culture-adapted avirulent ADV-G strain. This specificity could be demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence against infected cultures of Crandell feline kidney cells or against tissues of Utah I ADV-infected mink. Viral antigens were demonstrated in both the nuclei and the cytoplasm of infected tissue culture cells. However, in mink mesenteric lymph node, spleen, and liver, viral antigen was observed only in the cytoplasm. Absence of nuclear fluorescence suggested that the detected antigen represented phagocytized viral antigens rather than replicating virus. This conclusion was supported by the finding that mAbs reactive only against low-molecular-weight polypeptides derived from intact viral proteins gave the same pattern of in vivo fluorescence as mAbs with broad reactivity for large or small (or both) viral polypeptides. The distribution of infected cells was the same as that described for macrophages in these tissues and suggested that cells of the reticuloendothelial system had sequestered viral antigens. Images PMID:3001352

  17. Replication and persistence of different strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus in an in vitro embryo production system.

    PubMed

    Givens, M D; Galik, P K; Riddell, K P; Brock, K V; Stringfellow, D A

    2000-10-15

    Recent studies have shown that exposed, in vitro-derived embryos remain contaminated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) after washing. However, introduction of a Genotype II versus Genotype I strain of BVDV into an IVF system was reported to provide greater potential for transmission of disease. The primary objective of this study was to compare the potentials for different strains of noncytopathic BVDV to replicate in an IVF system, associate with IVF embryos and infect co-cultured cells via association with washed embryos. The secondary objective was to compare the effect of different strains of BVDV on embryonic development. Two Genotype I (SD-1 and NY-1) and 2 Genotype II (CD-87 and PA-131) strains of BVDV were evaluated. After IVM and IVF of oocytes, presumptive zygotes were washed and transferred into in vitro cultures containing uterine tubal cells (UTC) and medium that was free of BVDV-neutralizing activity. Immediately before addition of zygotes, the cultures were inoculated with 10(5) cell culture infective doses (50%, CCID50) of a strain of BVDV or maintained as a negative control. Cultures of zygotes were then incubated for 7 d. Embryonic development was observed on Days 3 and 7, and attempts were made to isolate BVDV from UTC and medium on Day 7. Also on Day 7, groups of intact, washed blastocysts were either transferred into virus-free secondary cultures containing UTC or sonicated with sonicate fluid assayed by both virus isolation and single-closed-tube reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR). After 3 d in secondary culture, hatched embryos were enumerated, and medium from the cultures, washed UTC and embryos were tested for BVDV by virus isolation. In addition, washed UTC and embryos were tested for BVDV using RT-nPCR. All strains of BVDV persisted and replicated in the embryo culture environment, but cleavage beyond the 4-cell stage, blastocyst development and hatching varied among cultures contaminated with different

  18. International trades, local spread and viral evolution: the case of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains heterogeneity in Italy.

    PubMed

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia M; Dotto, Giorgia; Gigli, Alessandra; Ceglie, Letizia; Drigo, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 is one of the most widespread and economically relevant infections of swine. Four genotypes have been recognized, but currently, only three (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) are effectively circulating. The widespread livestock trade and rapid viral evolution have contributed to determining the high heterogeneity of PCV2 and the dispersal of potentially more virulent strains. Italian swine farming and the related processing industry are relevant in the national economy. Despite the noteworthy losses associated with direct and control measure costs, no data are currently available on the molecular epidemiology of PCV2 in Italy. Our study, which was intended to fill this gap, considered 75 completed genome PCV2 sequences, which were obtained from samples collected from the highly densely populated area of Northern Italy between 2007 and 2014. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison with reference sequences demonstrated the co-circulation, with different prevalences, of PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d within the national borders, with PCV2b being the most prevalent. Recombination between different genotypes was also proven to be frequent. Phylogeographic analysis demonstrated that the marked variability of Italian PCV2 strains can be attributable to multiple introduction events. The comparison of the phylogenetic analysis results, the location of different haplotypes and the international commercial routs of live pigs allow the speculation of several links as well as the role of Italy as both an importer and exporter of PCV2 haplotypes, mainly from and to European and Asian countries. A similarly intricate contact network was demonstrated within national borders, with different haplotypes being detected in the same province and different provinces harbouring the same haplotype. Overall, this paper represents the first description of PCV2 in Italy and demonstrates that the high variability of circulating Italian strains is due to multiple introduction events, wide

  19. Etiology, Seasonality, and Clinical Features of Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Children Hospitalized With Acute Bronchiolitis: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Gökçe, Şule; Kurugöl, Zafer; Koturoğlu, Güldane; Çiçek, Candan; Aslan, Aslı

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viral frequency, seasonality, and clinical and demographic features of patients hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in 316 infants younger than 2 years of age who were hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis. Respiratory tract infection agents were investigated with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 316 infants were included in this study. Of the 316 infants, at least one respiratory tract pathogen was detected in 75% (237/316). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common virus identified in 127 infants (40.1%) followed by rhinovirus (n = 78, 24.6%). In this study, where viral agents were determined via PCR in patients who were followed-up due to the diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis, RSV was detected as the most common agent, as in other studies. In almost half of the RSV-positive patients, RSV was accompanied by a second or third agent. PMID:28680946

  20. Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in tropical rural areas of Senegal: The EVIRA project.

    PubMed

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Diop, Ousmane M; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Goudiaby, Deborah; Malou-Sompy, Hubert; Ndiaye, Kader; Vabret, Astrid; Baril, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    Acute respiratory infection is one of the leading causes of child morbidity, especially in developing countries. Viruses are recognized as the predominant causative agents of acute respiratory infections. In Senegal, few data concerning the causes of respiratory infections are available, and those known relate mainly to classical influenza infections. Clinical and virological surveillance of acute respiratory infections was carried out in a rural community in children less than 5 years old. A standardized questionnaire was used and a nasopharyngeal swab sample was collected from each patient. These samples were tested for the detection of 20 respiratory viruses by multiplex RT-PCR or by viral culture. A total of 82 acute respiratory episodes were included, and 48 (58.5%) were found to be positive, with a total of 55 viral detections; several samples were positive for two (n = 5) or 3 (n = 1) viruses. Ten different viruses were identified: influenza viruses A, B, and C (n = 25), human respiratory syncytial virus type A (n = 13), rhinoviruses (n = 8), human coronaviruses type 229E and NL63 (n = 6), parainfluenza viruses 3 and 4 (n = 2), and bocavirus (n = 1). These results provide evidence on the importance and the diversity of viruses as causative agents of acute respiratory infections in children living in a rural community in Senegal. The establishment of sentinel surveillance sites could help estimate the burden of acute respiratory infection in the pediatric population and should help prepare the health care systems to identify and respond to new viral respiratory emergencies.

  1. A multi-strain Synbiotic may reduce viral respiratory infections in asthmatic children: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ahanchian, Hamid; Jafari, Seyed Ali; Ansari, Elham; Ganji, Toktam; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Khalesi, Maryam; Momen, Tooba; Kianifar, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    prednisolone use, outpatient visits, or hospital admissions. Conclusion This new synbiotic (a mixture of seven probiotic strains plus fructooligosacharide may reduce episodes of viral infection in asthmatic children. Trial registration This study is registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with registration number of IRCT201509234976N3. Funding This research was supported financially by the Research Council of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Grant Number: 911048). PMID:27790333

  2. High definition viral vaccine strain identity and stability testing using full-genome population data--The next generation of vaccine quality control.

    PubMed

    Höper, Dirk; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Hanke, Dennis; von Messling, Veronika; Duchow, Karin; Beer, Martin; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2015-10-26

    Vaccines are the most effective prophylactic public health tools. With the help of vaccines, prevention of infectious disease spread and, in concert with other measures, even eradication has become possible. Until now, licensing and quality control require the determination of consensus genome sequences of replication competent infectious agents contained in vaccines. Recent improvements in sequencing technologies now enable the sequencing of complete genomes and the genetic analysis of populations with high reliability and resolution. The latter is particularly important for RNA viruses, which consist of fluctuating heterogeneous populations rather than genetically stable entities. This information now has to be integrated into the existing regulatory framework, challenging both licensing authorities and vaccine producers to develop new quality control criteria. Commercially available modified-live oral rabies vaccines and their precursor strains were deep-sequenced to assess strain identity and relations between strains based on population diversity. Strain relations were inferred based on the Manhattan distances calculated between the compositions of the viral populations of the strains. We provide a novel approach to assess viral strain relations with high resolution and reliability by deep sequencing with subsequent analysis of the overall genetic diversity within the viral populations. A comparison of our novel approach of inferring strain relations based on population data with consensus sequence analysis clearly shows that consensus sequence analysis of diverse viral populations can be misleading. Therefore, for quality control of viral vaccines deep sequencing analysis is to be preferred over consensus sequence analysis. The presented methodology allows for routine integration of deep sequencing data in vaccine quality control and licensing for highly reliable assessment of strain identity and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Study of the correlation between the plasma viral load and protective immunity induced by the equine infectious anemia attenuated vaccine and its parental virulent strain].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xue-Zhi; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Li, Li; Jiang, Cheng-Gang; Zhao, Li-Ping; Lv, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2010-03-01

    The threshold hypothesis of attenuated lentiviral vaccine considers that the type of host response to infections of lentiviruses depends on the viral load. To evaluate the correlation between viral loads of the attenuated vaccine strain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and their effects to induce protective immunity, longitudinal plasma viral loads in groups of horses inoculated with either an attenuated EIAV vaccine strain (EIAV(DLV125)) or sub-lethal dose of an EIAV virulent strain (EIAV(LN40)) were compared. Similar levels of plasma viral loads ranging from 10(3)-10(5) copies/mL were detected from samples of these two groups of animals (P > 0.05) during 23 weeks post the inoculation. However, different responses to the challenge performed thereafter with lethal dose of the EIAV virulent strain were observed from the groups of horses inoculated with either EIAV(DLV125) or sub-lethal dose of EIAV(LN40). The protective efficiency was 67% (3 of 4 cases) and 0 (none of 2 cases), respectively. Our results implicate that the viral load of EIAV attenuated vaccine is not the primary factor, or at least not the solo primary factor, to determine the establishment of immune protection.

  4. Host and geographic range extensions of the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, R.P.; Batts, W.N.; Yun, S.; Traxler, G.S.; Kaufman, J.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from populations of Pacific sardine Sardinops sagaxfrom the coastal waters of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and central and southern California, USA. The virus was also isolated from Pacific mackerel Scomber japonicus in southern California, from eulachon or smeltThaleichthys pacificus, and surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus pretiosus from Oregon, USA. Mortality and skin lesions typical of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in other marine fish species were observed among sardine in Canada and in a few surf smelt from Oregon, but the remaining isolates of VHSV were obtained from healthy appearing fish. The prevalence of VHSV among groups of apparently healthy sardine, mackerel and smelt ranged from 4 to 8% in California and Oregon. A greater prevalence of infection (58%) occurred in groups of sardine sampled in Canada that sustained a naturally occurring epidemic during 1998-99. A captive group of surf smelt in Oregon exhibited an 81% prevalence of infection with clinical signs in only a few fish. The new isolates were confirmed as North American VHSV and were closely related based on comparisons of the partial nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene. The VHSV isolates from sardine in Canada and California were the most closely related, differing from isolates obtained from other marine fish species and salmonids in British Columbia, Canada, Alaska and Washington, USA. These new virus isolations extend both the known hosts (sardine, mackerel and 2 species of smelt) and geographic range (Oregon and California, USA) of VHSV.

  5. Diversity of mammary tumor viral genes within the genus Mus, the species Mus musculus, and the strain C3H.

    PubMed

    Drohan, W; Schlom, J

    1979-07-01

    Proviral sequences complementary to the C3H mouse mammary tumor virus RNA genome are present in the DNA of early occurring mammary tumors of C3H/HeN mice and are absent from apparently normal C3H/HeN tissues; these sequences are non-germ line transmitted in C3H/HeN mice and have been termed tumor-associated sequences; (W. Drohan et al., J. Virol. 21:986-995, 1977). We report here that tumor-associated sequences are present in the DNA of spontaneous mammary tumors that occur early in the life of several inbred, high-tumor-incidence mouse strains but are absent in mammary tumors that occur later in life in low- and moderate-tumor-incidence strains. These sequences are also absent in apparently normal organs tested from numerous laboratory mouse strains, feral mice, Mus musculus subspecies, and other Mus species. Sequences represented in tumor-associated sequence RNA, however, are present as endogenous provirus in GR mice (at approximately four copies per haploid genome) and in two of five substrains of C3H mice tested (at approximately one copy per haploid genome). The two substrains of C3H mice positive for endogenous tumor-associated sequence provirus were recently (circa 1930) separated from the negative substrains of C3H mice. The results may be explained by the unlikely chance segregation of proviral sequences or by the recent integration of viral genes (within the last few decades). Whereas radioactively labeled mouse mammary tumor virus 60-70S RNA or complementary DNA detected mouse mammary tumor virus-related proviral information in all laboratory mouse strains, feral mice, subspecies of M. musculus, and other species of Mus, the use of tumor-associated sequence RNA clearly revealed the genetic diversity that may exist between different colonies or substrains of "inbred" laboratory mice commonly used in cancer research.

  6. Genetics of susceptibility for radiation-induced leukemia. Mapping of genes involved to chromosomes 1, 2, and 4, and implications for a viral etiology in the disease. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Meruelo, D.; Offer, M.; Flieger, N.

    1981-01-01

    Susceptibility to radiation-induced leukemia in (A/J x B10)F2 mice is encoded for by genes in chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. The loci involved in chromosomes 1 and 4 are close to or similar to xenotropic virus inducibility locus on chromosome 1 and a locus-affecting expression of xenotropic MuLV envelope-related cell surface antigens. Radiation-induced leukemia-1 (Ril-1) on chromosome 2 plays an overriding influence in susceptibility to the disease. This locus might encode ecotropic viral-associated genetic information or might contain cellular sequences with oncogenic potential. These findings are of interest in view of the importance of recombinant viruses to leukemogenesis. Furthermore, it is intriguing that Ril-1 is located in a chromosomal site rich in thymus differentiation-specific loci. An explanation for tissue-specific activation of endogenous viruses is that activation of the virus in question is dependent on differentiation-specific steps.

  7. Interchange of L polymerase protein between two strains of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IV alters temperature sensitivities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Yusuff, Shamila; Vakharia, Vikram N; Evensen, Øystein

    2015-01-02

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) has four genotypes (I-IV) and sub-lineages within genotype I and IV. Using a reverse genetics approach, we explored the importance of the L gene for growth characteristics at different temperatures following interchange of the L gene within genotype IV (IVa and IVb) strains. VHSV strains harboring heterologous L gene were recovered and we show that the L gene determines growth characteristics at different temperatures in permissive cell lines.

  8. Chest neoplasms with infectious etiologies.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Carlos S; Chen, Melissa M; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Carrillo, Jorge; Restrepo, Catalina

    2011-12-28

    A wide spectrum of thoracic tumors have known or suspected viral etiologies. Oncogenic viruses can be classified by the type of genomic material they contain. Neoplastic conditions found to have viral etiologies include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoid granulomatosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, Castleman's disease, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, leukemia and lymphomas. Viruses involved in these conditions include Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus 8, human papillomavirus, Simian virus 40, human immunodeficiency virus, and Human T-lymphotropic virus. Imaging findings, epidemiology and mechanism of transmission for these diseases are reviewed in detail to gain a more thorough appreciation of disease pathophysiology for the chest radiologist.

  9. Spread of the Emerging Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Strain, Genotype IVb, in Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Mohamed; Shavalier, Megan; Kim, Robert K.; Millard, Elena V.; Gunn, Michelle R.; Winters, Andrew D.; Schulz, Carolyn A.; Eissa, Alaa; Thomas, Michael V.; Wolgamood, Martha; Whelan, Gary E.; Winton, James

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) emerged in the Laurentian Great Lakes causing serious losses in a number of ecologically and recreationally important fish species. Within six years, despite concerted managerial preventive measures, the virus spread into the five Great Lakes and to a number of inland waterbodies. In response to this emerging threat, cooperative efforts between the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MI DNR), the Michigan State University Aquatic Animal Health Laboratory (MSU-AAHL), and the United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (USDA-APHIS) were focused on performing a series of general and VHSV-targeted surveillances to determine the extent of virus trafficking in the State of Michigan. Herein we describe six years (2005–2010) of testing, covering hundreds of sites throughout Michigan’s Upper and Lower Peninsulas. A total of 96,228 fish representing 73 species were checked for lesions suggestive of VHSV and their internal organs tested for the presence of VHSV using susceptible cell lines. Of the 1,823 cases tested, 30 cases from 19 fish species tested positive for VHSV by tissue culture and were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gene sequence analyses of all VHSV isolates retrieved in Michigan demonstrated that they belong to the emerging sublineage “b” of the North American VHSV genotype IV. These findings underscore the complexity of VHSV ecology in the Great Lakes basin and the critical need for rigorous legislation and regulatory guidelines in order to reduce the virus spread within and outside of the Laurentian Great Lakes watershed. PMID:22754647

  10. Significant differences in cell-cell fusion and viral entry between strains revealed by scanning mutagenesis of the C-heptad repeat of HIV gp41.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Aguilar, Barbara; Dewispelaere, Karen; Yi, Hyun Ah; Jacobs, Amy

    2013-05-21

    The transmembrane subunit, gp41, of the HIV envelope mediates the viral fusion step of entry into the host cell. The protein consists of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. The extracellular domain contains a fusion peptide, an N-terminal heptad repeat, a loop region, a C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR), and a membrane-proximal external region. For this study, we examined each amino acid in the CHR (residues 623-659) by alanine scanning mutagenesis in two HIV strains: one CCR5-utilizing strain (JRFL) and one CXCR4-utilizing strain (HXB2). We studied the functional importance of each amino acid residue by measuring mutational effects in both cell-cell fusion and viral entry and assessing envelope expression and gp120-gp41 proteolytic processing. The transmembrane subunit of the HIV envelope, gp41, is very sensitive to subtle changes, like alanine substitution, which severely affect envelope function at multiple sites. Two important general findings are apparent when the entire data set from this study is taken into account. (1) Strain HXB2 is much more stable to mutagenesis than strain JRFL, and (2) viral entry is much more stable to mutagenesis than cell-cell fusion. These findings strengthen our notion that gp41 is a vulnerable target for therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Further structural studies aimed at gaining a full understanding of the intermediate states that drive HIV membrane fusion are imperative.

  11. Vaccination with a modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1a vaccine completely protected calves against challenge with BVDV type 1b strains.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Umbaugh, Jerry; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-12-10

    Vaccination plays a significant role in the control of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection and spread. Recent studies revealed that type 1b is the predominant BVDV type 1 subgenotype, representing more than 75% of field isolates of BVDV-1. However, nearly all current, commercially available BVDV type 1 vaccines contain BVDV-1a strains. Previous studies have indicated that anti-BVDV sera, induced by BVDV-1a viruses, show less neutralization activity to BVDV-1b isolates than type 1a. Therefore, it is critically important to evaluate BVDV-1a vaccines in their ability to prevent BVDV-1b infection in calves. In current studies, calves were vaccinated subcutaneously, intradermally or intranasally with a single dose of a multivalent, modified-live viral vaccine containing a BVDV-1a strain, and were challenged with differing BVDV-1b strains to determine the efficacy and duration of immunity of the vaccine against these heterologous virus strains. Vaccinated calves, in all administration routes, were protected from respiratory disease caused by the BVDV-1b viruses, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding and greater white blood cell counts than non-vaccinated control animals. The BVDV-1a vaccine elicited efficacious protection in calves against each BVDV-1b challenge strain, with a duration of immunity of at least 6 months.

  12. Etiology and Incidence of Viral and Bacterial Acute Respiratory Illness among Older Children and Adults in Rural Western Kenya, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Bigogo, Godfrey; Aura, Barrack; Aol, George; Audi, Allan; Jagero, Geoffrey; Muluare, Peter Ochieng; Gikunju, Stella; Nderitu, Leonard; Balish, Amanda; Winchell, Jonas; Schneider, Eileen; Erdman, Dean; Oberste, M. Steven; Katz, Mark A.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Few comprehensive data exist on disease incidence for specific etiologies of acute respiratory illness (ARI) in older children and adults in Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings From March 1, 2007, to February 28, 2010, among a surveillance population of 21,420 persons >5 years old in rural western Kenya, we collected blood for culture and malaria smears, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for quantitative real-time PCR for ten viruses and three atypical bacteria, and urine for pneumococcal antigen testing on outpatients and inpatients meeting a ARI case definition (cough or difficulty breathing or chest pain and temperature >38.0°C or oxygen saturation <90% or hospitalization). We also collected swabs from asymptomatic controls, from which we calculated pathogen-attributable fractions, adjusting for age, season, and HIV-status, in logistic regression. We calculated incidence by pathogen, adjusting for health-seeking for ARI and pathogen-attributable fractions. Among 3,406 ARI patients >5 years old (adjusted annual incidence 12.0 per 100 person-years), influenza A virus was the most common virus (22% overall; 11% inpatients, 27% outpatients) and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacteria (16% overall; 23% inpatients, 14% outpatients), yielding annual incidences of 2.6 and 1.7 episodes per 100 person-years, respectively. Influenza A virus, influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus were more prevalent in swabs among cases (22%, 6%, 8% and 5%, respectively) than controls. Adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parechovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were not more prevalent among cases than controls. Pneumococcus and non-typhi Salmonella were more prevalent among HIV-infected adults, but prevalence of viruses was similar among HIV-infected and HIV-negative individuals. ARI incidence was highest during peak malaria season. Conclusions/Signficance Vaccination against influenza and

  13. Pattern of disease after murine hepatitis virus strain 3 infection correlates with macrophage activation and not viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, M; Rotstein, O; Cole, E; Sinclair, S; Parr, R; Cruz, B; Fingerote, R; Chung, S; Gorczynski, R; Fung, L

    1995-01-01

    Murine hepatitis virus strain (MHV-3) produces a strain-dependent pattern of disease which has been used as a model for fulminant viral hepatitis. This study was undertaken to examine whether there was a correlation between macrophage activation and susceptibility or resistance to MHV-3 infection. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from resistant A/J and susceptible BALB/cJ mice and, following stimulation with MHV-3 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), analyzed for transcription of mRNA and production of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), mouse fibrinogen-like protein (musfiblp), tissue factor (TF), leukotriene B4, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Macrophages from BALB/cJ mice produced greater amounts of IL-1, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, leukotriene B4, and musfiblp following MHV-3 infection than macrophages from resistant A/J mice, whereas in response to LPS, equivalent amounts of IL-1, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and TF were produced by macrophages from both strains of mice. Levels of mRNA of IL-1, TNF-alpha, and musfiblp were greater and more persistent in BALB/cJ than in A/J macrophages, whereas the levels and kinetics of IL-1, TNF-alpha, and TF mRNA following LPS stimulation were identical in macrophages from both strains of mice. Levels of production of PGE2 by MHV-3-stimulated macrophages from resistant and susceptible mice were equivalent; however, the time course for induction of PGE2, differed, but the total quantity of PGE2 produced was insufficient to inhibit induction of musfiblp, a procoagulant known to correlate with development of fulminant hepatic necrosis in susceptible mice. These results demonstrate marked differences in production of inflammatory mediators to MHV-3 infection in macrophages from resistant A/J and susceptible BALB/cJ mice, which may explain the marked hepatic necrosis and fibrin deposition and account for the lethality of MHV-3 in susceptible mice. PMID:7636967

  14. Proteomic analyses of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 derivatives reveal highly conserved patterns of viral and cellular proteins in infected fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Reyda, Sabine; Büscher, Nicole; Tenzer, Stefan; Plachter, Bodo

    2014-01-07

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) particle morphogenesis in infected cells is an orchestrated process that eventually results in the release of enveloped virions. Proteomic analysis has been employed to reveal the complexity in the protein composition of these extracellular particles. Only limited information is however available regarding the proteome of infected cells preceding the release of HCMV virions. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to address the pattern of viral and cellular proteins in cells, infected with derivatives of the AD169 laboratory strain. Our analyses revealed a remarkable conservation in the patterns of viral and of abundant cellular proteins in cells, infected for 2 hours, 2 days, or 4 days. Most viral proteins increased in abundance as the infection progressed over time. Of the proteins that were reliably detectable by mass spectrometry, only IE1 (pUL123), pTRS1, and pIRS1 were downregulated at 4 days after infection. In addition, little variation of viral proteins in the virions of the different viruses was detectable, independent of the expression of the major tegument protein pp65. Taken together these data suggest that there is little variation in the expression program of viral and cellular proteins in cells infected with related HCMVs, resulting in a conserved pattern of viral proteins ultimately associated with extracellular virions.

  15. Enhancing epidemiological analysis of intercontinental dispersion of H5N1 viral strains by migratory waterfowl using phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intercontinental migratory waterfowl are the primary vectors for dispersion of H5N1 viruses and have been implicated in several zoonotic epidemics and pandemics. Recent investigations have established that with a single mutation, the virus gains the ability to transmit between humans. Consequently, there is a heightened urgency to identify innovative approaches to proactively mitigate emergent epidemics. Accordingly, a novel methodology combining temporo-geospatial epidemiology and phylogeographic analysis of viral strains is proposed to identify critical epicenters and epidemic pathways along with high risk candidate regions for increased surveillance. Results Epidemiological analysis was used to identify 91,245 candidate global infection transmission pathways between 22 high risk waterfowl species. Dominant infection pathways (25,625 and 54,500 in summering and wintering zones) were identified through annotation using phylogeographical data computed from the phylogram of 2417 H5N1 HA isolates (from GISAID EpiFlu database). Annotation of infection pathways in turn delineated 23 influential clades out of 130 clades in the phylogram. Conclusions The phylogeographic analyses provides strong cross-validation of epidemic pathways and identifies the dominant pathways for use in other epidemiological and prophylactic studies. The temporo-geospatial characteristics of infection transmission provides corroborating, but novel evidence for rapid genesis of H5N1 lineages in S.E. Asia. The proposed method pinpoints several regions, particularly in the southern hemisphere, as candidates for increased surveillance. PMID:25374610

  16. Epidemiology and viral etiology of the influenza-like illness in corsica during the 2012-2013 Winter: an analysis of several sentinel surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Minodier, Laëtitia; Arena, Christophe; Heuze, Guillaume; Ruello, Marc; Amoros, Jean Pierre; Souty, Cécile; Varesi, Laurent; Falchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is important to identify circulating and emerging/reemerging strains and unusual epidemiological trends. The present study aimed to give an accurate picture of the 2012-2013 ILI outbreak in Corsica by combining data from several surveillance systems: general practice, emergency general practice, hospital emergency units, intensive care units, and nursing homes. Twenty-eight respiratory viruses were retrospectively investigated from patients in general practice with ILI. Sequence analysis of the genetic changes in the hemagglutinin gene of influenza viruses (A(H1N1)pdm2009, A(H3N2) and B) was performed. The trends in ILI/influenza consultation rates and the relative illness ratios (RIRs) of having an ILI consultation were estimated by age group for the different surveillance systems analyzed. Of the 182 ILI patients enrolled by general practitioners, 57.7% tested positive for influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested a genetic drift for influenza B and A(H3N2) viruses. The ILI/influenza surveillance systems showed similar trends and were well correlated. In accordance with virological data, the RIRs of having an ILI consultation were highest among the young (<15 years old) and decreased with age. No clusters of acute respiratory illness were declared by the sentinel nursing homes. This study is noteworthy in that it is the first extensive description of the 2012-2013 ILI outbreak in Corsica as monitored through several surveillance systems. To improve ILI surveillance in Corsica, a consortium that links together the complementary regional surveillance ILI systems described here is being implemented.

  17. The Modes of Evolutionary Emergence of Primal and Late Pandemic Influenza Virus Strains from Viral Reservoir in Animals: An Interdisciplinary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, Dany

    2011-01-01

    Based on a wealth of recent findings, in conjunction with earliest chronologies pertaining to evolutionary emergences of ancestral RNA viruses, ducks, Influenzavirus A (assumingly within ducks), and hominids, as well as to the initial domestication of mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and wild horse (Equus ferus), presumed genesis modes of primordial pandemic influenza strains have multidisciplinarily been configured. The virological fundamentality of domestication and farming of those various avian and mammalian species has thereby been demonstrated and broadly elucidated, within distinctive coevolutionary paradigms. The mentioned viral genesis modes were then analyzed, compatibly with common denominators and flexibility that mark the geographic profile of the last 18 pandemic strains, which reputedly emerged since 1510, the antigenic profile of the last 10 pandemic strains since 1847, and the genomic profile of the last 5 pandemic strains since 1918, until present. Related ecophylogenetic and biogeographic aspects have been enlightened, alongside with the crucial role of spatial virus gene dissemination by avian hosts. A fairly coherent picture of primary and late evolutionary and genomic courses of pandemic strains has thus been attained, tentatively. Specific patterns underlying complexes prone to generate past and future pandemic strains from viral reservoir in animals are consequentially derived. PMID:23074663

  18. Comparison of temporal transcriptomic profiles from immature lungs of two rat strains reveals a viral response signature associated with chronic lung dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hines, Elizabeth A; Szakaly, Renee J; Leng, Ning; Webster, Anais T; Verheyden, Jamie M; Lashua, Amber J; Kendziorski, Christina; Rosenthal, Louis A; Gern, James E; Sorkness, Ronald L; Sun, Xin; Lemanske, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Early life respiratory viral infections and atopic characteristics are significant risk factors for the development of childhood asthma. It is hypothesized that repeated respiratory viral infections might induce structural remodeling by interfering with the normal process of lung maturation; however, the specific molecular processes that underlie these pathological changes are not understood. To investigate the molecular basis for these changes, we used an established Sendai virus infection model in weanling rats to compare the post-infection transcriptomes of an atopic asthma susceptible strain, Brown Norway, and a non-atopic asthma resistant strain, Fischer 344. Specific to this weanling infection model and not described in adult infection models, Sendai virus in the susceptible, but not the resistant strain, results in morphological abnormalities in distal airways that persist into adulthood. Gene expression data from infected and control lungs across five time points indicated that specific features of the immune response following viral infection were heightened and prolonged in lungs from Brown Norway rats compared with Fischer 344 rats. These features included an increase in macrophage cell number and related gene expression, which then transitioned to an increase in mast cell number and related gene expression. In contrast, infected Fischer F344 lungs exhibited more efficient restoration of the airway epithelial morphology, with transient appearance of basal cell pods near distal airways. Together, these findings indicate that the pronounced macrophage and mast cell responses and abnormal re-epithelialization precede the structural defects that developed and persisted in Brown Norway, but not Fischer 344 lungs.

  19. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-31

    linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) techniques (28-30). Laboratory techniques now permit in vitro study of the biologic properties of rotavirus. We have...known to be positive for rotavirus by a commercial ELISA test (Rotazyme), and 95 are negative.With but one exception, all Rotazyme positive stools are...port visit in May of 1982. Studies for bacterial (in- cluding toxigenic E. Coli and Campylobacter ) and parasitic pathogens performed by NAMRU3 were

  20. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    understanding of this disease. Initially, he transmitted enteritis to healthy adult volunteers by the oral administration of bacteria-free, toxin...serotypes of adenoviruses which are readily propagated in standard tissue cultures and are not commonly associated with gastroenteritis. The "enteric...TA. We at so found 9 ~7 . 7o.7o 7 I. that defined human sera possessing Norwalk antibody failed to react by immuno- fluorescence with feline

  1. Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases 2016 Research Update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Viral infections of the avian gastrointestinal tract negatively impact poultry production; however, determining the complex etiologies of the viral enteric diseases in poultry has been difficult. Project scientists are continuing to investigate the species specificity, molecular phylogenetics, and p...

  2. Strain-dependent viral dynamics and virus-cell interactions in a novel in vitro system supporting the life cycle of blood-borne hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hussein Hassan; Qi, Yue; Atsuzawa, Kimie; Usuda, Nobuteru; Takada, Yasutsugu; Mizokami, Masashi; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    We developed an in vitro system that can be used for the study of the life cycle of a wide variety of blood-borne hepatitis C viruses (HCV) from various patients using a three-dimensional hollow fiber culture system and an immortalized primary human hepatocyte (HuS-E/2) cell line. Unlike the conventional two-dimensional culture, this system not only enhanced the infectivity of blood-borne HCV but also supported its long-term proliferation and the production of infectious virus particles. Both sucrose gradient fractionation and electron microscopy examination showed that the produced virus-like particles are within a similar fraction and size range to those previously reported. Infection with different HCV strains showed strain-dependent different patterns of HCV proliferation and particle production. Fluctuation of virus proliferation and particle production was found during prolonged culture and was found to be associated with change in the major replicating virus strain. Induction of cellular apoptosis was only found when strains of HCV-2a genotype were used for infection. Interferon-alpha stimulation also varied among different strains of HCV-1b genotypes tested in this study. These results suggest that this in vitro infection system can reproduce strain-dependent events reflecting viral dynamics and virus-cell interactions at the early phase of blood-borne HCV infection, and that this system can allow the development of new anti-HCV strategies specific to various HCV strains.

  3. Viral Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, A J; Smith, L A

    2016-01-01

    Cancer has been recognized for thousands of years. Egyptians believed that cancer occurred at the will of the gods. Hippocrates believed human disease resulted from an imbalance of the four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile with cancer being caused by excess black bile. The lymph theory of cancer replaced the humoral theory and the blastema theory replaced the lymph theory. Rudolph Virchow was the first to recognize that cancer cells like all cells came from other cells and believed chronic irritation caused cancer. At the same time there was a belief that trauma caused cancer, though it never evolved after many experiments inducing trauma. The birth of virology occurred in 1892 when Dimitri Ivanofsky demonstrated that diseased tobacco plants remained infective after filtering their sap through a filter that trapped bacteria. Martinus Beijerinck would call the tiny infective agent a virus and both Dimitri Ivanofsky and Marinus Beijerinck would become the fathers of virology. Not to long thereafter, Payton Rous founded the field of tumor virology in 1911 with his discovery of a transmittable sarcoma of chickens by what would come to be called Rous sarcoma virus or RSV for short. The first identified human tumor virus was the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), named after Tony Epstein and Yvonne Barr who visualized the virus particles in Burkitt's lymphoma cells by electron microscopy in 1965. Since that time, many viruses have been associated with carcinogenesis including the most studied, human papilloma virus associated with cervical carcinoma, many other anogenital carcinomas, and oropharyngeal carcinoma. The World Health Organization currently estimates that approximately 22% of worldwide cancers are attributable to infectious etiologies, of which viral etiologies is estimated at 15-20%. The field of tumor virology/viral carcinogenesis has not only identified viruses as etiologic agents of human cancers, but has also given molecular insights to all human

  4. Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA): Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Barbara P; de Los Rios Oakes, Isabel; van Hoek, Vladimir; Bockstal, Viki; Kamphuis, Tobias; Uil, Taco G; Song, Yutong; Cooper, Gillian; Crawt, Laura E; Martín, Javier; Zahn, Roland; Lewis, John; Wimmer, Eckard; Custers, Jerome H H V; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2016-03-01

    The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV) is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA) poliovirus strains by serial passage at low temperature and subsequent genetic engineering, which contain the capsid sequences of cIPV strains combined with a set of mutations identified during cold-adaptation. These viruses displayed a highly temperature sensitive phenotype with no signs of productive infection at 37°C as visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, decreases in infectious titers, viral RNA, and protein levels were measured during infection at 37°C, suggesting a block in the viral replication cycle at RNA replication, protein translation, or earlier. However, at 30°C, they could be propagated to high titers (9.4-9.9 Log10TCID50/ml) on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. We identified 14 mutations in the IRES and non-structural regions, which in combination induced the temperature sensitive phenotype, also when transferred to the genomes of other wild-type and attenuated polioviruses. The temperature sensitivity translated to complete absence of neurovirulence in CD155 transgenic mice. Attenuation was also confirmed after extended in vitro passage at small scale using conditions (MOI, cell density, temperature) anticipated for vaccine production. The inability of CAVA strains to replicate at 37°C makes reversion to a neurovirulent phenotype in vivo highly unlikely, therefore, these strains can be considered safe for the manufacture of IPV. The CAVA strains were immunogenic in the Wistar rat potency model for cIPV, inducing high neutralizing antibody titers in a dose-dependent manner in response to D-antigen doses used for cIPV. In combination with the highly productive

  5. Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA): Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Barbara P.; de los Rios Oakes, Isabel; van Hoek, Vladimir; Bockstal, Viki; Kamphuis, Tobias; Uil, Taco G.; Song, Yutong; Cooper, Gillian; Crawt, Laura E.; Martín, Javier; Zahn, Roland; Lewis, John; Wimmer, Eckard; Custers, Jerome H. H. V.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV) is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA) poliovirus strains by serial passage at low temperature and subsequent genetic engineering, which contain the capsid sequences of cIPV strains combined with a set of mutations identified during cold-adaptation. These viruses displayed a highly temperature sensitive phenotype with no signs of productive infection at 37°C as visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, decreases in infectious titers, viral RNA, and protein levels were measured during infection at 37°C, suggesting a block in the viral replication cycle at RNA replication, protein translation, or earlier. However, at 30°C, they could be propagated to high titers (9.4–9.9 Log10TCID50/ml) on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. We identified 14 mutations in the IRES and non-structural regions, which in combination induced the temperature sensitive phenotype, also when transferred to the genomes of other wild-type and attenuated polioviruses. The temperature sensitivity translated to complete absence of neurovirulence in CD155 transgenic mice. Attenuation was also confirmed after extended in vitro passage at small scale using conditions (MOI, cell density, temperature) anticipated for vaccine production. The inability of CAVA strains to replicate at 37°C makes reversion to a neurovirulent phenotype in vivo highly unlikely, therefore, these strains can be considered safe for the manufacture of IPV. The CAVA strains were immunogenic in the Wistar rat potency model for cIPV, inducing high neutralizing antibody titers in a dose-dependent manner in response to D-antigen doses used for cIPV. In combination with the highly productive

  6. Viral forensic genomics reveals the relatedness of classic herpes simplex virus strains KOS, KOS63, and KOS79.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Christopher D; Renner, Daniel W; Shreve, Jacob T; Tafuri, Yolanda; Payne, Kimberly M; Dix, Richard D; Kinchington, Paul R; Gatherer, Derek; Szpara, Moriah L

    2016-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread global pathogen, of which the strain KOS is one of the most extensively studied. Previous sequence studies revealed that KOS does not cluster with other strains of North American geographic origin, but instead clustered with Asian strains. We sequenced a historical isolate of the original KOS strain, called KOS63, along with a separately isolated strain attributed to the same source individual, termed KOS79. Genomic analyses revealed that KOS63 closely resembled other recently sequenced isolates of KOS and was of Asian origin, but that KOS79 was a genetically unrelated strain that clustered in genetic distance analyses with HSV-1 strains of North American/European origin. These data suggest that the human source of KOS63 and KOS79 could have been infected with two genetically unrelated strains of disparate geographic origins. A PCR RFLP test was developed for rapid identification of these strains.

  7. Viral forensic genomics reveals the relatedness of classic herpes simplex virus strains KOS, KOS63, and KOS79

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Christopher D.; Renner, Daniel W.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Tafuri, Yolanda; Payne, Kimberly M.; Dix, Richard D.; Kinchington, Paul R.; Gatherer, Derek; Szpara, Moriah L.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread global pathogen, of which the strain KOS is one of the most extensively studied. Previous sequence studies revealed that KOS does not cluster with other strains of North American geographic origin, but instead clustered with Asian strains. We sequenced a historical isolate of the original KOS strain, called KOS63, along with a separately isolated strain attributed to the same source individual, termed KOS79. Genomic analyses revealed that KOS63 closely resembled other recently sequenced isolates of KOS and was of Asian origin, but that KOS79 was a genetically unrelated strain that clustered in genetic distance analyses with HSV-1 strains of North American/European origin. These data suggest that the human source of KOS63 and KOS79 could have been infected with two genetically unrelated strains of disparate geographic origins. A PCR RFLP test was developed for rapid identification of these strains. PMID:26950505

  8. Chest neoplasms with infectious etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Carlos S; Chen, Melissa M; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Carrillo, Jorge; Restrepo, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of thoracic tumors have known or suspected viral etiologies. Oncogenic viruses can be classified by the type of genomic material they contain. Neoplastic conditions found to have viral etiologies include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoid granulomatosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, Castleman’s disease, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, leukemia and lymphomas. Viruses involved in these conditions include Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus 8, human papillomavirus, Simian virus 40, human immunodeficiency virus, and Human T-lymphotropic virus. Imaging findings, epidemiology and mechanism of transmission for these diseases are reviewed in detail to gain a more thorough appreciation of disease pathophysiology for the chest radiologist. PMID:22224176

  9. Using a viral vector to reveal the role of microRNA159 in disease symptom induction by a severe strain of Cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiyou; Chen, Aizhong; Chen, Wenhu; Westwood, Jack H; Baulcombe, David C; Carr, John P

    2014-03-01

    In transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), expression of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b silencing suppressor protein from the severe subgroup IA strain Fny disrupted microRNA (miRNA)-regulated development but orthologs from mild subgroup II strains (Q and LS) did not, explaining strain-specific differences in symptom severity. However, it is unknown which miRNAs affected by Fny2b critically affect viral symptoms. Observations that Fny2b-transgenic plants phenocopy microRNA159ab (mir159ab) mutant plants and that Fny2b altered miR159ab-regulated transcript levels suggested a role for miR159ab in elicitation of severe symptoms by Fny-CMV. Using restoration of the normal phenotype in transgenic plants expressing an artificial miRNA as a proof of concept, we developed a LS-CMV-based vector to express sequences mimicking miRNA targets. Expressing a miR159 target mimic sequence using LS-CMV depleted miR159 and induced symptoms resembling those of Fny-CMV. Suppression of Fny-CMV-induced symptoms in plants harboring mutant alleles for the miR159ab targets MYB domain protein33 (MYB33) and MYB65 confirmed the importance of this miRNA in pathogenesis. This study demonstrates the utility of a viral vector to express miRNA target mimics to facilitate functional studies of miRNAs in plants.

  10. A reverse genetics system for the Great Lakes strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus: the NV gene is required for pathogenicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ammayappan, Arun; Kurath, Gael; Thompson, Tarin M.; Vakharia, Vikram N.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus in the family of Rhabdoviridae, causes a highly contagious disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. Recently, a novel genotype of VHSV, designated IVb, has invaded the Great Lakes in North America, causing large-scale epidemics in wild fish. An efficient reverse genetics system was developed to generate a recombinant VHSV of genotype IVb from cloned cDNA. The recombinant VHSV (rVHSV) was comparable to the parental wild-type strain both in vitro and in vivo, causing high mortality in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). A modified recombinant VHSV was generated in which the NV gene was substituted with an enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP), and another recombinant was made by inserting the EGFP gene into the full-length viral clone between the P and M genes (rVHSV-EGFP). The in vitro replication kinetics of rVHSV-EGFP was similar to rVHSV; however, the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP grew 2 logs lower. In yellow perch challenges, wtVHSV and rVHSV induced 82-100% cumulative per cent mortality (CPM), respectively, whereas rVHSV-EGFP produced 62% CPM and rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP caused only 15% CPM. No reversion of mutation was detected in the recovered viruses and the recombinant viruses stably maintained the foreign gene after several passages. These results indicate that the NV gene of VHSV is not essential for viral replication in vitro and in vivo, but it plays an important role in viral replication efficiency and pathogenicity. This system will facilitate studies of VHSV replication, virulence, and production of viral vectored vaccines.

  11. Maintenance of picobirnavirus (PBV) infection in an adult orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and genetic diversity of excreted viral strains during a three-year period.

    PubMed

    Masachessi, Gisela; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Martinez, Laura C; Giordano, Miguel O; Barril, Patricia A; Isa, Maria B; Paván, Giorgio V; Mateos, Carlos A; Nates, Silvia V

    2015-01-01

    The present work provide data about the maintenance of picobirnavirus (PBV) infection during adulthood in a mammalian host. For this purpose PBV infection was studied in an adult orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) by PAGE/SS, RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. PBV infection in the animal was asymptomatic and was characterized by interspaced silent and high/ low active viral excretion periods. The PBV strains excreted by the studied individual were identified as genogroup I and revealed a nucleotide identity among them of 64-81%. The results obtained allowed to arrive to a deeper understanding of the natural history of PBV infection, which seems to be characterized by new-born, juvenile and adult asymptomatic hosts which persistently excrete closely related strains in their feces. Consequently, picobirnaviruses could be considered frequent inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, leaving the question open about the molecular mechanisms governing persistent and asymptomatic coexistence within the host and the potential host suitability to maintain this relationship.

  12. Influence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus O/CHN/Mya98/33-P Strain Leader Protein on Viral Replication and Host Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaodong; Bai, Xingwen; Li, Pinghua; Zhang, Meng; Bao, Huifang; Sun, Pu; Lu, Zengjun; Cao, Yimei; Chen, Yingli; Li, Dong; Fu, Yuanfang; Liu, Zaixin

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/CHN/Mya98/33-P strain was isolated from the esophageal-pharyngeal fluid sample of cattle, and was shown to cause persistent infection. Its leader protein contains 200 amino acids with one amino acid deletion, which is upstream and next to the second initiation codon compared with the majority of FMDV Mya98 strains. The FMDV genome includes two initiation codons that can produce two different leader proteins, Lab (from the first AUG) and Lb (from the second AUG). For convenience, the inter-AUG region was named as La. Previously, it was found that a recombinant virus with Lab of FMDV O/CHN/Mya98/33-P strain had higher proliferation efficiency, and better ability to inhibit the host innate immune response. Three full-length infectious cDNA clones-rHN33-Lb, rHN33-La, and rHNGSLX-Lb-containing the FMDV O/CHN/Mya98/33-P strain leader proteins Lb, La, or the FMDV O/GSLX/2010 strain leader protein Lb, respectively, were constructed based on an established infectious clone r-HN rescued from FMDV O/HN/CHN/93 strain. After infecting pig kidney primary cells, rHN33-La showed higher replication efficiency than r-HN, and rHN33-Lb displayed better ability to resist host innate immunity than rHNGSLX-Lb. These results demonstrated that the inter-AUG region of FMDV strain O/CHN/Mya98/33-P leader protein must be involved in increasing viral replication efficiency. Additionally, the Lb of FMDV O/CHN/Mya98/33-P must be involve in increasing its ability to inhibit host innate immune response, and the distinctive amino acids G56 and/or R118 of FMDV leader protein may play essential roles in it.

  13. Construction of a subgenomic CV-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of CV-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype CV-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full CV-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP CV-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the CV-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP CV-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate CV-B3 replication activities in human target cell models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type-1 strain Ab4 reveals intact interferon-α induction and induces suppression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 responses in comparison to other viral strains.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bettina; Wimer, Christine; Freer, Heather; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Erb, Hollis N

    2011-09-15

    The recent increase in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of neurological disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has suggested a change of virulence of the virus. The exact mechanisms by which EHV-1 induces neurologic disease are not known. Environmental, viral, and host risk factors might contribute to neurological manifestation. Here, we investigated innate interferon-α (IFN-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-4 responses after infection of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with EHV-1 using an available cytokine multiplex assay. Three viral strains representing an older isolate (RacL11), a recent abortigenic (NY03) and a neuropathogenic isolate (Ab4) were compared to identify differences in cytokine induction that might explain the increased pathogenicity of Ab4. Cytokine concentrations were also compared between foals, mares after birth, pregnant and non-pregnant mares to investigate whether immune responses to EHV-1 infection are influenced by age or pregnancy status. PBMC from all groups secreted high concentrations of anti-viral IFN-α in response to EHV-1. A reduced response was observed in foals compared to non-pregnant mares. EHV-1 infection induced moderate IL-10 and overall low IL-4 secretion. Ab4 infection resulted in a significant reduction of IL-10 responses in adult horses. IL-10 and IL-4 responses were lower in foals than in most mare groups. These data suggested that EHV-1 induces robust IFN-α secretion without major differences between viral strains. However, anti-inflammatory IL-10 production was significantly reduced after infection with neuropathogenic Ab4. The ability of this EHV-1 isolate to down-regulate IL-10 production might contribute to increased local inflammation and a higher risk for neurological manifestation of the disease after infection with Ab4. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutralization of Diverse Human Cytomegalovirus Strains Conferred by Antibodies Targeting Viral gH/gL/pUL128-131 Pentameric Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sha; Li, Fengsheng; Troutman, Matthew C.; Freed, Daniel C.; Tang, Aimin; Loughney, John W.; Wang, I-Ming; Vlasak, Josef; Nickle, David C.; Rustandi, Richard R.; Hamm, Melissa; DePhillips, Pete A.; Zhang, Ningyan; McLellan, Jason S.; Zhu, Hua; Adler, Stuart P.; McVoy, Michael A.; An, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection, and developing a prophylactic vaccine is of high priority to public health. We recently reported a replication-defective human cytomegalovirus with restored pentameric complex glycoprotein H (gH)/gL/pUL128-131 for prevention of congenital HCMV infection. While the quantity of vaccine-induced antibody responses can be measured in a viral neutralization assay, assessing the quality of such responses, including the ability of vaccine-induced antibodies to cross-neutralize the field strains of HCMV, remains a challenge. In this study, with a panel of neutralizing antibodies from three healthy human donors with natural HCMV infection or a vaccinated animal, we mapped eight sites on the dominant virus-neutralizing antigen—the pentameric complex of glycoprotein H (gH), gL, and pUL128, pUL130, and pUL131. By evaluating the site-specific antibodies in vaccine immune sera, we demonstrated that vaccination elicited functional antiviral antibodies to multiple neutralizing sites in rhesus macaques, with quality attributes comparable to those of CMV hyperimmune globulin. Furthermore, these immune sera showed antiviral activities against a panel of genetically distinct HCMV clinical isolates. These results highlighted the importance of understanding the quality of vaccine-induced antibody responses, which includes not only the neutralizing potency in key cell types but also the ability to protect against the genetically diverse field strains. IMPORTANCE HCMV is the leading cause of congenital viral infection, and development of a preventive vaccine is a high public health priority. To understand the strain coverage of vaccine-induced immune responses in comparison with natural immunity, we used a panel of broadly neutralizing antibodies to identify the immunogenic sites of a dominant viral antigen—the pentameric complex. We further demonstrated that following vaccination of a replication

  16. Live attenuated measles and mumps viral strain-containing vaccines and hearing loss: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), United States, 1990--2003.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Armenak; Pool, Vitali; Chen, Robert T; Kohl, Katrin S; Davis, Robert L; Iskander, John K

    2008-02-26

    Hearing loss (HL) is a known complication of wild measles and mumps viral infections. As vaccines against measles and mumps contain live attenuated viral strains, it is biologically plausible that in some individuals HL could develop as a complication of vaccination against measles and/or mumps. Our objectives for this study were: to find and describe all cases of HL reported in the scientific literature and to the US Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) for the period 1990--2003; and to determine reporting rate of HL after live attenuated measles and/or mumps viral strain-containing vaccines (MMCV) administration. We searched published reports for cases of HL identified after vaccination with MMCV. We also searched for reports of HL after MMCV administration submitted to VAERS from 1990 through 2003 and determined the dose-adjusted reporting rate of HL. Our main outcome measure was reported cases of HL after immunization with MMCV which were classified as idiopathic. We found 11 published case reports of HL following MMCV. The review of the VAERS reports identified 44 cases of likely idiopathic sensorineural HL after MMCV administration. The onset of HL in the majority of VAERS and published cases was consistent with the incubation periods of wild measles and mumps viruses. Based on the annual usage of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, we estimated the reporting rate of HL to be 1 case per 6-8 million doses. Thus, HL following MMCV has been reported in the literature and to the VAERS. Further studies are needed to better understand if there is a causal relationship between MMCV and HL.

  17. Viral isolation and systemic immune responses after intracameral inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in Igh-1-disparate congenic murine strains.

    PubMed

    Hemady, R; Tauber, J; Ihley, T M; Opremcak, E M; Foster, C S

    1990-11-01

    Igh-1-disparate congenic murine strains differ in their susceptibility to develop contralateral chorioretinitis after intracameral (AC) inoculation with Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1): 75% of BALB/cByJ (Igh-1a) and 5% of C.B-17 (Igh-1b) develop necrotizing chorioretinitis. To determine the mechanism of influence of host genetics on development of contralateral chorioretinitis, the authors did viral isolation studies in contralateral eyes, determined in vivo and in vitro T-cell responses, and HSV-antibody levels at various times after AC inoculation of BALB/cByJ and C.B-17 mice with HSV-1. Viral isolation was similar in both mouse strains (P less than 0.2). Similarities in systemic immune responses included suppressed delayed-type hypersensitivity responses 5 days, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and lymphocyte proliferation responses 8 days, and viral neutralizing antibody titers 5 days postinoculation (PI). Differences in systemic immune responses included: (1) delayed-type hypersensitivity responses were not suppressed in C.B-17 mice (P greater than 0.1) and were hyperactive in BALB/cByJ mice (P less than 0.025) 10 days PI and (2) HSV-neutralizing antibody production was higher in C.B-17 mice 10 days PI. These data suggest that the mere presence of HSV-1 in the uninoculated eye is insufficient for the development of chorioretinitis. Virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions might be involved in the pathogenesis of retinitis in BALB/cByJ mice; and virus-neutralizing antibodies and suppressed HSV-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions might be instrumental in the protection enjoyed by C.B-17 mice.

  18. Infection with equine infectious anemia virus vaccine strain EIAVDLV121 causes no visible histopathological lesions in target organs in association with restricted viral replication and unique cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xue-Feng; Xiao, Fei; Li, Li-Jia; Zhang, Jiao-Er; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Du, Cheng; He, Xi-Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-02-01

    The live equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) vaccine strain EIAVDLV121 was developed by in vitro attenuation of a virulent strain, EIAVLN40, in the 1970s, and it has been demonstrated to induce protective immunity under laboratory and natural EIAV infection conditions. The detailed biological features of this attenuated virus remain to be further investigated. Experimental inoculation with EIAVDLV121 did not result in clinical symptoms even with immunosuppressive treatment in our previous studies. Here, we further investigated whether the replication of the vaccine strain EIAVDLV121 in experimentally infected horses causes histopathological lesions to develop in the targeted organs. Both the lungs and the spleen have been demonstrated to support EIAV replication. By evaluating the gross macroscopic and histological changes, we found that EIAVDLV121 did not cause detectable histopathological lesions and that it replicated several hundred times more slowly than its parental virulent strain, EIAVLN40, in tissues. Immunochemical assays of these tissues indicated that the primary target cells of EIAVDLV121 were monocytes/macrophages, but that EIAVLN40 also infected alveolar epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. In addition, both of these viral strains promoted the up- and down-regulation of the expression of various cytokines and chemokines, implicating the potential involvement of these cellular factors in the pathological outcomes of EIAV infection and host immune responses. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the EIAV vaccine strain does not cause obvious histopathological lesions or clinical symptoms and that it induces a unique cytokine response profile. These features are considered essential for EIAVDLV121 to function as an effective live vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient-to-Patient Transmission of Hepatitis C at Iranian Thalassemia Centers Shown by Genetic Characterization of Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Samimi-Rad, Katayoun; Asgari, Freshteh; Nasiritoosi, Mohsen; Esteghamati, Abdoulreza; Azarkeyvan, Azar; Eslami, Seyedeh Masoomeh; Zamani, Farhad; Magnius, Lars; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Norder, Heléne

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C is prevalent among thalassemia patients in Iran. It is mainly transfusion mediated, in particular among patients treated before 1996 when blood screening was introduced. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate why patients still seroconvert to anti-HCV in Iranian thalassemia centers. Patients and Methods During 2006-2007 sera were sampled from 217 anti-HCV positive thalassemia patients at nine thalassemia centers in Tehran and Amol city, where 34 (16%) patients had been infected after 1996. The HCV subtype could be determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial NS5B and/or 5׳NCR-core region in 130 strains. Results 1a (53%) was predominant followed by 3a (30%), 1b (15%), and one strain each of 2k, 3k and 4a. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 19 clades with up to five strains diverging with less than six nucleotides from each other within subtypes 1a and 3a. Strains in seven clades were from nine patients infected between 1999 and 2005 and similar to strains from eight patients infected before 1996, indicating ongoing transmission at the centers. Further epidemiological investigation revealed that 28 patients infected with strains within the same clade had frequently been transfused at the same shift sitting on the same bed. An additional eight patients with related strains had frequently been transfused simultaneously in the same room. Conclusions The results suggest nosocomial transmission at these thalassemia centers both before and after the introduction of blood screening. Further training of staff and strict adherence to preventive measures are thus essential to reduce the incidence of new HCV infections. PMID:23585766

  20. Unraveling the etiology of North American grapevine yellows (NAGY): multilocus genotyping and structural analysis of secY proteins distinguish NAGYIII phytoplasma strains from strains causing X-disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North American grapevine yellows (NAGY) disease has sometimes been ascribed to infection of Vitis vinifera L. by X-disease phytoplasma, but the accuracy of this attribution has remained open to question. In the present study of NAGY etiology, the disease was discovered in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Oh...

  1. Characterisation of genotypes among bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 strains according to palindromic nucleotide substitutions in the 5 untranslated genomic region.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, M; Harasawa, R

    2004-01-01

    Pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains from 61 isolates from cattle and sheep, and from some adventitious contaminants of biologicals, have been assessed using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) method at three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) located delin the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of genomic RNA. This genotyping procedure is new, simple and practical. Two characteristics of the base pairings common to BVDV-2 species, a C-G or U-A pairing at the V1 locus, and a G*U pairing at the V2 locus, were observed in isolates tested. The PNS method showed six genotypes: BVDV-2a, BVDV-2b, BVDV-2c, BVDV- 2d, BVDV-2e and BVDV-2f. Twenty-five strains showed the BVDV-2a genotype specific combination of three base pairings (A-U in position 1 and C-G or U*G in position 18 in V1 and U-A or U*G in position 4 in V2). Ten strains were identified by a single C-G pairing in position 4 from the bottom of the V2 stem region, characteristic to genotype BVDV-2b. Three strains were assigned to genotype BVDV-2c, due to their recognition by a G*U pairing at the bottom of the V1 stem region. A U-A pairing, characteristic of the BVDV-2d genotype when found in position 18 of the V1 stem region, was observed in fourteen strains. Genotype BVDV- 2e, present in only six South American cattle isolates, was characterized by G-C pairing in position 12, by U-A pairing in position 16 and G_G or G-_A bulges in position 18 in the V1 region. One strain from Argentina was classified as genotype BVDV-2f, showing: A-U pairing in position 9 and 12, U-A in position 16 and G_A bulge in position 18 in V1 region. Two strains were not characterized due to incomplete sequence of V1 locus.

  2. Cooperation between Strain-Specific and Broadly Neutralizing Responses Limited Viral Escape and Prolonged the Exposure of the Broadly Neutralizing Epitope.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Colin; York, Talita; Bekker, Valerie; Matten, David; Selhorst, Philippe; Ferreria, Roux-Cil; Garrett, Nigel J; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Morris, Lynn; Wood, Natasha T; Moore, Penny L; Williamson, Carolyn

    2017-09-15

    V3-glycan-targeting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are a focus of HIV-1 vaccine development. Understanding the viral dynamics that stimulate the development of these antibodies can provide insights for immunogen design. We used a deep-sequencing approach, together with neutralization phenotyping, to investigate the rate and complexity of escape from V3-glycan-directed bNAbs compared to overlapping early strain-specific neutralizing antibody (ssNAb) responses to the V3/C3 region in donor CAP177. Escape from the ssNAb response occurred rapidly via an N334-to-N332 glycan switch, which took just 7.5 weeks to reach >50% frequency. In contrast, escape from the bNAbs was mediated via multiple pathways and took longer, with escape first occurring through an increase in V1 loop length, which took 46 weeks to reach 50% frequency, followed by an N332-to-N334 reversion, which took 66 weeks. Importantly, bNAb escape was incomplete, with contemporaneous neutralization observed up to 3 years postinfection. Both the ssNAb response and the bNAb response were modulated by the presence/absence of the N332 glycan, indicating an overlap between the two epitopes. Thus, selective pressure by ssNAbs to maintain the N332 glycan may have constrained the bNAb escape pathway. This slower and incomplete viral escape resulted in prolonged exposure of the bNAb epitope, which may in turn have aided the maturation of the bNAb lineage.IMPORTANCE The development of an HIV-1 vaccine is of paramount importance, and broadly neutralizing antibodies are likely to be a key component of a protective vaccine. The V3-glycan-targeting bNAb responses are among the most promising vaccine targets, as they are commonly elicited during infection. Understanding the interplay between viral evolution and the development of these antibodies provides insights that may guide immunogen design. Our work contrasted the dynamics of the early strain-specific antibodies and the later broadly neutralizing responses to

  3. Viral Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to fight it off. For most viral infections, treatments can only help with symptoms while you wait ... for viral infections. There are antiviral medicines to treat some viral infections. Vaccines can help prevent you ...

  4. One time intranasal vaccination with a modified vaccinia Tiantan strain MVTT(ZCI) protects animals against pathogenic viral challenge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenbo; Fang, Qing; Zhu, Weijun; Wang, Haibo; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2010-02-25

    To combat variola virus in bioterrorist attacks, it is desirable to develop a noninvasive vaccine. Based on the vaccinia Tiantan (VTT) strain, which was historically used to eradicate the smallpox in China, we generated a modified VTT (MVTT(ZCI)) by removing the hemagglutinin gene and an 11,944bp genomic region from HindIII fragment C2L to F3L. MVTT(ZCI) was characterized for its host cell range in vitro and preclinical safety and efficacy profiles in mice. Despite replication-competency in some cell lines, unlike VTT, MVTT(ZCI) did not cause death after intracranial injection or body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. MVTT(ZCI) did not replicate in mouse brain and was safe in immunodeficient mice. MVTT(ZCI) induced neutralizing antibodies via the intranasal route of immunization. One time intranasal immunization protected animals from the challenge of the pathogenic vaccinia WR strain. This study established proof-of-concept that the attenuated replicating MVTT(ZCI) may serve as a safe noninvasive smallpox vaccine candidate.

  5. Viral Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Haeman; Boltz, David A.; Webster, Robert G.; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized that affects 1-2% of the adult population over 55 years of age. For the vast majority of cases, the etiology of this disorder is unknown, although it is generally accepted that there is a genetic susceptibility to any number of environmental agents. One such agent may be viruses. It has been shown that numerous viruses can enter the nervous system, i.e. they are neurotropic, and induce a number of encephalopathies. One of the secondary consequences of these encephalopathies can be parkinsonism, that is both transient as well as permanent. One of the most highlighted and controversial cases of viral parkinsonism is that which followed the 1918 influenza outbreak and the subsequent induction of von Economo's encephalopathy. In this review, we discuss the neurological sequelae of infection by influenza virus as well as that of other viruses known to induce parkinsonism including Coxsackie, Japanese encephalitis B, St. Louis, West Nile and HIV viruses. PMID:18760350

  6. PhyloFlu, a DNA Microarray for Determining the Phylogenetic Origin of Influenza A Virus Gene Segments and the Genomic Fingerprint of Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Luis F.; Soto-Del Río, María de los D.; Sánchez, Iván; Hernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa M.; López-Martínez, Irma; Wong-Chew, Rosa M.; Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Isa, P.; López, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that most influenza A virus gene segments can contribute to the pathogenicity of the virus. In this regard, the hemagglutinin (HA) subtype of the circulating strains has been closely surveyed, but the reassortment of internal gene segments is usually not monitored as a potential source of an increased pathogenicity. In this work, an oligonucleotide DNA microarray (PhyloFlu) designed to determine the phylogenetic origins of the eight segments of the influenza virus genome was constructed and validated. Clades were defined for each segment and also for the 16 HA and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. Viral genetic material was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with primers specific to the conserved 5′ and 3′ ends of the influenza A virus genes, followed by PCR amplification with random primers and Cy3 labeling. The microarray unambiguously determined the clades for all eight influenza virus genes in 74% (28/38) of the samples. The microarray was validated with reference strains from different animal origins, as well as from human, swine, and avian viruses from field or clinical samples. In most cases, the phylogenetic clade of each segment defined its animal host of origin. The genomic fingerprint deduced by the combined information of the individual clades allowed for the determination of the time and place that strains with the same genomic pattern were previously reported. PhyloFlu is useful for characterizing and surveying the genetic diversity and variation of animal viruses circulating in different environmental niches and for obtaining a more detailed surveillance and follow up of reassortant events that can potentially modify virus pathogenicity. PMID:24353006

  7. PhyloFlu, a DNA microarray for determining the phylogenetic origin of influenza A virus gene segments and the genomic fingerprint of viral strains.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Luis F; de los D Soto-Del Río, María; Sánchez, Iván; Hernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa M; López-Martínez, Irma; Wong-Chew, Rosa M; Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Isa, P; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2014-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that most influenza A virus gene segments can contribute to the pathogenicity of the virus. In this regard, the hemagglutinin (HA) subtype of the circulating strains has been closely surveyed, but the reassortment of internal gene segments is usually not monitored as a potential source of an increased pathogenicity. In this work, an oligonucleotide DNA microarray (PhyloFlu) designed to determine the phylogenetic origins of the eight segments of the influenza virus genome was constructed and validated. Clades were defined for each segment and also for the 16 HA and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. Viral genetic material was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with primers specific to the conserved 5' and 3' ends of the influenza A virus genes, followed by PCR amplification with random primers and Cy3 labeling. The microarray unambiguously determined the clades for all eight influenza virus genes in 74% (28/38) of the samples. The microarray was validated with reference strains from different animal origins, as well as from human, swine, and avian viruses from field or clinical samples. In most cases, the phylogenetic clade of each segment defined its animal host of origin. The genomic fingerprint deduced by the combined information of the individual clades allowed for the determination of the time and place that strains with the same genomic pattern were previously reported. PhyloFlu is useful for characterizing and surveying the genetic diversity and variation of animal viruses circulating in different environmental niches and for obtaining a more detailed surveillance and follow up of reassortant events that can potentially modify virus pathogenicity.

  8. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus is highly pathogenic for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Bradley, M.; Elder, N.; Meyers, T.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    1997-01-01

    Specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasi were reared in the laboratory from eggs and then challenged at 5, 9, and 13 months of age by waterborne exposure to low (101.5–2.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per milliliter), medium (103.5–4.5 PFU/mL), or high (105.5–6.5 PFU/mL) levels of a North American isolate of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The fish were extremely susceptible to the virus, showing clinical disease, mortality approaching 100%, and only a limited increase in resistance with age. Mortality began 4–6 d after exposure and peaked at approximately day 7 in fish exposed to high levels of virus. Whereas the mean time to death showed a significant dose response (P < 0.001), the percent mortality and virus titers in dead fish were generally high in all groups regardless of initial challenge dose. External signs of disease were usually limited to 1–2-mm hemorrhagic areas on the lower jaw and isthmus and around the eye, but 2 of 130 infected fish exhibited extensive cutaneous hemorrhaging. Histopathologic examination of tissues from moribund fish sampled at 2–8 d after exposure revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes, diffuse necrosis of interstitial hematopoietic tissues in the kidney, diffuse necrosis of the spleen, epidermis, and subcutis, and occasional necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells. Virus titers in tissues of experimentally infected herring were first detected 48 h after exposure and peaked 6-8 d after exposure at 107.7 PFU/g. Fish began shedding virus at 48 h after exposure with titers in the flow-through aquaria reaching 102.5 PFU/mL at 4–5 d after exposure, just before peak mortality. When the water flow was turned off for 3 h, titers in the water rose to 103.5 PFU/mL, and the amount of virus shed by infected fish (on average, greater than 106.5 PFU/h per fish) appeared sufficient to sustain a natural epizootic among schooling herring. Taken together, these data suggest that VHSV could be a

  9. Survival of the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in filtered seawater and seawater containing ovarian fluid, crude oil and serum-enriched culture medium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.

    2001-01-01

     The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (NA-VHSV) could be recovered for up to 40 h in natural filtered seawater (27 ppt) with a 50% loss of infectivity after approximately 10 h at 15°C. Addition of 10 ppb North Slope crude oil to the seawater had no effect on virus survival. However, when various concentrations of teleost ovarian fluid were added to seawater, virus could be recovered after 72 h at 0.01% ovarian fluid and after 96 h at 1.0%. When cell culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum was added to the seawater, 100% of the virus could be recovered for the first 15 d and 60% of the virus remained after 36 d. These findings quantify NA-VHSV infectivity in natural seawater and demonstrate that ovarian fluid, which occurs naturally during spawning events, significantly prolongs the survival and infectivity of the virus. The extended stabilization of virus in culture medium supplemented with serum allows for low titer field samples to be collected and transported in an unfrozen state without significant loss of virus titer.

  10. Comparative susceptibility among three stocks of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus strain IVb from the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Olson, W; Emmenegger, E; Glenn, J; Winton, J; Goetz, F

    2013-08-01

    The Great Lakes strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) is capable of infecting a wide number of naive species and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. The yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), a freshwater species commonly found throughout inland waters of the United States and prized for its high value in sport and commercial fisheries, is a species documented in several fish kills affiliated with VHS. In the present study, differences in survival after infection with VHSV IVb were observed among juvenile fish from three yellow perch broodstocks that were originally derived from distinct wild populations, suggesting innate differences in susceptibility due to genetic variance. While all three stocks were susceptible upon waterborne exposure to VHS virus infection, fish derived from the Midwest (Lake Winnebago, WI) showed significantly lower cumulative % survival compared with two perch stocks derived from the East Coast (Perquimans River, NC and Choptank River, MD) of the United States. However, despite differences in apparent susceptibility, clinical signs did not vary between stocks and included moderate-to-severe haemorrhages at the pelvic and pectoral fin bases and exophthalmia. After the 28-day challenge was complete, VHS virus was analysed in subsets of whole fish that had either survived or succumbed to the infection using both plaque assay and quantitative PCR methodologies. A direct correlation was identified between the two methods, suggesting the potential for both methods to be used to detect virus in a research setting.

  11. Paraconsistents artificial neural networks applied to the study of mutational patterns of the F subtype of the viral strains of HIV-1 to antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Paulo C C; Lopes, Helder F S; Alcalde, Rosana; Gonsalez, Cláudio R; Abe, Jair M; Lopez, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    The high variability of HIV-1 as well as the lack of efficient repair mechanisms during the stages of viral replication, contribute to the rapid emergence of HIV-1 strains resistant to antiretroviral drugs. The selective pressure exerted by the drug leads to fixation of mutations capable of imparting varying degrees of resistance. The presence of these mutations is one of the most important factors in the failure of therapeutic response to medications. Thus, it is of critical to understand the resistance patterns and mechanisms associated with them, allowing the choice of an appropriate therapeutic scheme, which considers the frequency, and other characteristics of mutations. Utilizing Paraconsistents Artificial Neural Networks, seated in Paraconsistent Annotated Logic Et which has the capability of measuring uncertainties and inconsistencies, we have achieved levels of agreement above 90% when compared to the methodology proposed with the current methodology used to classify HIV-1 subtypes. The results demonstrate that Paraconsistents Artificial Neural Networks can serve as a promising tool of analysis.

  12. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling; Wang, Jiu Feng

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV.

  13. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV. PMID:26119170

  14. [Study on the epidemiology and etiologic agent of Dengue fever outbreaks in Fuzhou in 2004].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan-sheng; Hong, Ront-tao; Shen, Xiao-na; Weng, Yu-wei; Cai, Shao-jian; Xu, Bao-hai; Li, Shi-qing; He, Jia-xin; Xu, Long-shan; Lin, Yun-qing; Zheng, Neng-xiong; Lin, Mao; Lin, Shu-hua

    2006-05-01

    To study the epidemiology and etiologic characteristics of a Dengue fever outbreak in Fuzhou from the beginning of September to the end of October in 2004 in order to understand the source of infection. Data on descriptive epidemiology was collected to study the characteristics and related factors to the epidemic. Dengue virus was isolated through the use of C6/36 cell line while viral serotypes were identified by indirect immunofluorecent assay with type-specific monoclonal antibody. The sources of infection were traced by nucleotide sequencing. During the epidemic, 93 cases occured consistently with the region entomoplily growth and decay. The viruses of 6 strains isolated from 10 patients' blood specimens were identified as dengue virus type 1. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that the viral isolate had high genetic relation with the isolates from Kampuchea (DENV-1/KHM/2001; GenBank Accession No. L0904278). The epidemic was caused by introduction of patients migrating into Fuzhou.

  15. Viral pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Pneumonia - viral; Walking pneumonia - viral Images Lungs Respiratory system References Lee FE, Treanor JJ. Viral infections. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  16. Comparative susceptibility among three stocks of yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus strain IVb from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, W.; Emmenegger, E.; Glenn, J.; Winton, J.; Goetz, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes strain of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb (VHSV-IVb) is capable of infecting a wide number of naive species and has been associated with large fish kills in the Midwestern United States since its discovery in 2005. The yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill), a freshwater species commonly found throughout inland waters of the United States and prized for its high value in sport and commercial fisheries, is a species documented in several fish kills affiliated with VHS. In the present study, differences in survival after infection with VHSV IVb were observed among juvenile fish from three yellow perch broodstocks that were originally derived from distinct wild populations, suggesting innate differences in susceptibility due to genetic variance. While all three stocks were susceptible upon waterborne exposure to VHS virus infection, fish derived from the Midwest (Lake Winnebago, WI) showed significantly lower cumulative % survival compared with two perch stocks derived from the East Coast (Perquimans River, NC and Choptank River, MD) of the United States. However, despite differences in apparent susceptibility, clinical signs did not vary between stocks and included moderate-to-severe haemorrhages at the pelvic and pectoral fin bases and exophthalmia. After the 28-day challenge was complete, VHS virus was analysed in subsets of whole fish that had either survived or succumbed to the infection using both plaque assay and quantitative PCR methodologies. A direct correlation was identified between the two methods, suggesting the potential for both methods to be used to detect virus in a research setting.

  17. Characteristics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viral Strains Circulating at the Wildlife/livestock Interface of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Jori, F; Caron, A; Thompson, P N; Dwarka, R; Foggin, C; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Hofmeyr, M; Van Heerden, J; Heath, L

    2016-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) inflicts severe economic losses within infected countries and is arguably the most important trade-restricting livestock disease in the world. In southern Africa, infected African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the major reservoir of the South African Territories (SAT) types of the virus. With the progressive expansion of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), the risk of FMD outbreaks is expected to increase due to a higher probability of buffalo/livestock contacts. To investigate the dynamics of FMD within and around the Great Limpopo TFCA (GLTFCA), 5 herds of buffaloes were sampled in June 2010 to characterize circulating viruses in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Three SAT-2 and three SAT-3 viral strains were isolated in both countries, including one that was genetically linked with a recent SAT-2 outbreak in Mozambique in 2011. In addition, two groups of unvaccinated cattle (n = 192) were serologically monitored for 1 year at the wildlife/livestock interface of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP) in Zimbabwe between April 2009 and January 2010, using the liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) and a test for antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP). Neither clinical signs nor vaccination of cattle were reported during the study, yet a high proportion of the monitored cattle showed antibody responses against SAT-3 and SAT-1. Antibodies against NSP were also detected in 10% of the monitored cattle. The results of this study suggest that cattle grazing in areas adjacent to the GLTFCA can be infected by buffalo or other infected livestock and that cattle trade movements can act as efficient disseminators of FMD viruses to areas several hundred kilometres from the virus source. Current methods of surveillance of FMD at the GLTFCA interface seem insufficient to control for FMD emergence and dissemination and require urgent reassessment and regional coordination.

  18. Quantification and determination of spread mechanisms of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in blood and tissues from colostrum-deprived calves during an experimental acute infection induced by a non-cytopathic genotype 1 strain.

    PubMed

    Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Molina, V; Risalde, M A; Rodríguez-Sánchez, B; Sánchez-Cordón, P J

    2012-10-01

    To detect and monitor the sequential changes in virus levels, a reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using a TaqMan probe was carried out on frozen blood and tissues samples collected from calves experimentally infected with a non-cytopathic Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 strain. Blood samples were collected among days 1-14 post-inoculation (p.i). On day 3 p.i, viral RNA was detected in blood samples from six of the eight inoculated animals. Viral RNA was detected in all remaining inoculated animals between 5 and 12 days p.i. The levels of viral RNA increased along the experiment, with a maximal peak between 6 and 9 days p.i. Analysis of virus load in tissues collected from calves euthanized on days 3, 6, 9 and 14 p.i displayed that BVDV was detected on day 3 p.i, being especially abundant in tonsils and ileocaecal valve, highlighting the role of tonsils as the main earliest viral replication sites as well as the principal source for virus spread to other lymphoid tissues and visceral organs. Coinciding with the highest viraemia levels, the highest viral loads were recorded at 9 days p.i. in tonsils, ileal lymph nodes, distal ileum and spleen, showing the main role of these secondary lymphoid organs in the pathogenic mechanisms of BVDV. However, virus levels in the liver and lung increased only towards the end of the infection. This fact could influence in the appearance of bovine respiratory diseases because of the capacity of BVDV for enhancing susceptibility to secondary infections.

  19. Viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Puigdomènech, Isabel; de Armas-Rillo, Laura; Machado, José-David

    2011-01-01

    Viruses have developed different survival strategies in host cells by crossing cell-membrane compartments, during different steps of their viral life cycle. In fact, the non-regenerative viral membrane of enveloped viruses needs to encounter the dynamic cell-host membrane, during early steps of the infection process, in which both membranes fuse, either at cell-surface or in an endocytic compartment, to promote viral entry and infection. Once inside the cell, many viruses accomplish their replication process through exploiting or modulating membrane traffic, and generating specialized compartments to assure viral replication, viral budding and spreading, which also serve to evade the immune responses against the pathogen. In this review, we have attempted to present some data that highlight the importance of membrane dynamics during viral entry and replicative processes, in order to understand how viruses use and move through different complex and dynamic cell-membrane structures and how they use them to persist. PMID:21966556

  20. Immunogenetics of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Martin, Maureen P; Carrington, Mary

    2005-10-01

    The HLA class I and II genes encode molecules that lie at the heart of the acquired immune response against infectious diseases. Associations between these polymorphic loci and genetically complex infectious diseases have been historically elusive, in contrast to the more obvious HLA associations with autoimmune diseases. High resolution molecular typing of large, clinically well-defined cohorts has begun to uncover evidence for the influence of HLA diversity on diseases of viral etiology, such as those caused by HIV-1, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human papilloma virus. Combinations of HLA and KIR also appear to affect outcome to viral infection, supporting a role for HLA class I diversity in the innate immune response in addition to the acquired immune response.

  1. Viral arthritides.

    PubMed

    Outhred, Alexander C; Kok, Jen; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2011-05-01

    Viral infections may manifest as acute or chronic arthritis. Joint involvement arises from either direct infection of the joint, through an immunological response directed towards the virus or autoimmunity. Epidemiological clues to the diagnosis include geographic location and exposure to vector-borne, blood-borne or sexually transmitted viruses. Although not always possible, it is important to diagnose the pathogenic virus, usually by serology, nucleic acid tests or rarely, viral culture. In general, viral arthritides are self-limiting and treatment is targeted at symptomatic relief. This article focuses on the causes, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of viral arthritides.

  2. VPDB: Viral Protein Structural Database

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Jadhav, Ankush; Hussain, Afzal; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Viral Protein Database is an interactive database for three dimensional viral proteins. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive resource to the community of structural virology, with an emphasis on the description of derived data from structural biology. Currently, VPDB includes ˜1,670 viral protein structures from >277 viruses with more than 465 virus strains. The whole database can be easily accessed through the user convenience text search. Interactivity has been enhanced by using Jmol, WebMol and Strap to visualize the viral protein molecular structure. Availability The database is available for free at http://www.vpdb.bicpu.edu.in PMID:21769196

  3. Etiology of leukaemias

    PubMed Central

    Law, L. W.

    1962-01-01

    A critical review is made of the present knowledge of the etiology of neoplasms of the haematopoietic system in experimental animals and man. Genetic factors play a dominant role in the origin of leukaemias in mice. A Mendelian interpretation of the data is excluded and several genes appear to be involved in susceptibility. The data available on leukaemias in man are equivocal so far as the role of genetic factors is involved. The author discusses the value of family and twin studies—which suggest the operation of rare, highly penetrant, recessive genes—and of cytogenetic studies in contributing to a fuller understanding of the nature and etiology of leukaemia. PMID:14462960

  4. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kneeland, Rachel E.; Fatemi, S. Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bacterial infection or injected with a synthetic viral mimic (PolyI:C) also demonstrating brain structural and behavioral abnormalities. Moreover, human serologic data has been indispensible in supporting the viral theory of schizophrenia. Individuals born seropositive for bacterial and viral agents are at a significantly elevated risk of developing schizophrenia. While the specific mechanisms of prenatal viral/bacterial infections and brain disorder are unclear, recent findings suggest that the maternal inflammatory response may be associated with fetal brain injury. Preventive and therapeutic treatment options are also proposed. This review presents data related to epidemiology, human serology, and experimental animal models which support the viral model of schizophrenia. PMID:22349576

  5. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kneeland, Rachel E; Fatemi, S Hossein

    2013-04-05

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bacterial infection or injected with a synthetic viral mimic (PolyI:C) also demonstrating brain structural and behavioral abnormalities. Moreover, human serologic data has been indispensible in supporting the viral theory of schizophrenia. Individuals born seropositive for bacterial and viral agents are at a significantly elevated risk of developing schizophrenia. While the specific mechanisms of prenatal viral/bacterial infections and brain disorder are unclear, recent findings suggest that the maternal inflammatory response may be associated with fetal brain injury. Preventive and therapeutic treatment options are also proposed. This review presents data related to epidemiology, human serology, and experimental animal models which support the viral model of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  7. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Panduro, Arturo; Escobedo Meléndez, Griselda; Fierro, Nora A; Ruiz Madrigal, Bertha; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Román, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    The main etiology of liver disease in Mexico is alcohol and viral hepatitis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the current epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Mexico. From 2000 to 2007 the Ministry of Health reported 192 588 cases of hepatitis, 79% HAV, 3.3% HBV, 6% HCV, and 12% without a specific etiologic factor. Due to high endemic areas for HBV infection in native Mexican population, limitations in the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the serological immunoassays used to date and presence of occult hepatitis B in the country, the real prevalence of HBV infection could be even higher than HCV in Mexico. Hepatitis E virus in cirrhotic patients and in porcine farms could at least partially explain the cases of hepatitis that are diagnosed without a specific etiologic agent. Specific strategies to establish control regulations against viral hepatitis infections in Mexico are proposed.

  8. The Etiology of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lee Anne; Oehlert, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Many theories of giftedness either explicitly or implicitly acknowledge the role of genetic influences; yet, empirical work has not been able to establish the impact that genes have specifically on gifted behavior. In contrast, a great deal of research has been targeted at understanding the etiology of individual differences in general and…

  9. Etiology of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Meberg, Alf; Broch, Harald

    2004-01-01

    To register the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) and determine etiological factors for the condition. Population based study with registration of CP-cases in children born during the 30-year period 1970-99. Cases with postneonatal etiology were excluded. 166 CP-cases were registered among 70 824 children, a prevalence of 2.3 per 1000 live born infants. The prevalence did not change significantly during the period. 66 (40%) were low birthweight infants (LBWIs; <2500 g), and 100 (60%) normal birthweight infants (NBWIs; > or = 2500 g). The origin was classified as prenatal in 37 (22%), perinatal/neonatal in 78 (47%) and unclassifiable in 51 (31 %). In LBWIs 39/66 (59%) had a perinatal/neonatal etiology, most frequently intra- or periventricular hemorrhages (IVH/PVH) and/or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or cerebral infarctions (CI) (17; 44%). In NBWIs 39/100 (39%) had a perinatal etiology, most frequently hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (31; 79%). In a substantial percentage of CP-cases perinatal/neonatal brain injury was classified as the cause. Among these IVH/PVH/PVL/CI dominated in LBWIs, while HIE dominated in NBWIs. Our data may point to preventability of a larger part of CP than earlier suggested.

  10. The Etiology of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lee Anne; Oehlert, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Many theories of giftedness either explicitly or implicitly acknowledge the role of genetic influences; yet, empirical work has not been able to establish the impact that genes have specifically on gifted behavior. In contrast, a great deal of research has been targeted at understanding the etiology of individual differences in general and…

  11. Viral arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.

  12. Viral Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Viral Meningitis Language: ... Arboviruses Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen ... Disease Sepsis Language: English Spanish ...

  13. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  14. Porcine deltacoronavirus infection: Etiology, cell culture for virus isolation and propagation, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Hu, Hui; Saif, Linda J

    2016-12-02

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) (family Coronaviridae, genus Deltacoronavirus) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes acute diarrhea/vomiting, dehydration and mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. PDCoV diarrhea was first reported in the US in early 2014, concurrently with co-circulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) (family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus). The origin of PDCoV in pigs and also its sudden emergence or route of introduction into the US still remains unclear. In the US, since 2013-2014, the newly emerged PDCoV and PEDV have spread nationwide, causing a high number of pig deaths and significant economic impacts. The current US PDCoV strains are enteropathogenic and infect villous epithelial cells of the entire small and large intestines although the jejunum and ileum are the primary sites of infection. Similar to PEDV infections, PDCoV infections also cause acute, severe atrophic enteritis accompanied by transient viremia (viral RNA) that leads to severe diarrhea and/or vomiting, followed by dehydration as the potential cause of death in nursing piglets. At present, differential diagnosis of PDCoV, PEDV, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is essential to control viral diarrheas in US swine. Cell culture-adapted US PDCoV (TC-PDCoV) strains have been isolated and propagated by us and in several other laboratories. TC-PDCoV strains will be useful to develop serologic assays and to evaluate if serial cell-culture passage attenuates TC-PDCoV as a potential vaccine candidate strain. A comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of epidemic PDCoV strains is currently needed to prevent and control the disease in affected regions and to develop an effective vaccine. This review focuses on the etiology, cell culture isolation and propagation, molecular epidemiology, disease mechanisms and pathogenesis of PDCoV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The attenuation of vaccinia Tian Tan strain by the removal of the viral M1L-K2L genes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weijun; Fang, Qing; Zhuang, Ke; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Wenbo; Zhou, Jingying; Liu, Li; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2007-09-01

    To generate a safe vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT)-based vaccine vector, it is necessary to develop a method to attenuate the virus. A modified VTT (MVTT(2-GFP)) was constructed by replacing the viral M1L-K2L genes with a GFP gene. In comparison to the parental VTT, MVTT(2-GFP) lost its replication capacity in rabbit RK13 and human HeLa cell lines. The life cycle of viral replication was blocked at different stages in these two cell lines as determined by electron microscope examination. MVTT(2-GFP) was less virulent than VTT for 100-fold by measuring mouse body weight loss after intranasal viral inoculation and for 340-fold by determining the intracranial LD(50) value in mice. The foreign GFP gene was stable genetically after 10 rounds of passage in Vero cells. Importantly, MVTT(2-GFP) elicited both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the GFP gene in mice. With two intramuscular inoculations of 10(5)PFU virus, the anti-GFP antibody reciprocal endpoint titer reached over 700 as determined by an ELISA. The number of IFN-gamma secreting T cells reached over 350SFU per million splenocytes against a CD8+ T cell-specific epitope of GFP. Collectively, the removal of the M1L-K2L genes is a useful method to generate an attenuated vaccinia Tian Tan vaccine vector.

  16. Etiology and Rapid Diagnosis of Human Viral Gastroenteritis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-24

    virus , has been shown to be responsible for about 40 percent of these disease outbreaks in the United States. Other Norwalk-like viruses have also been...immunoassay techniques to recognize these viruses in stool samples and to measure antibodies to them in infected individuals. For Norwalk virus , these...major obstacle in evaluating the relative importance of the non-rotavirus and non- Norwalk virus enteric viruses as causative agents of gastroenteri

  17. Etiology and Rapid Diagnosis of Human Viral Gastroenteritis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Background Information section) between Norwalk virus and human caliciviruses ( HCV ), we have sought evidence for immunological relatedness among these...seroconversions in 45 of 47 HCV UK cases. These results may reflect different reactivities of various immunologic tests for the identification of...diarrheal disease. In addition, we are studying the immunological relationships of various gastroenteritis viruses to aid in classification and

  18. Etiology and Rapid Diagnosis of Human Viral Gastroenteritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    methods for calicivirus such as we previoubly developed for Norwalk virus. Astroviruses, like caliciviruses , are small (27-35nm in diameter) and have...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Adenovirus Type 40, Astrovirus, Biotechnology, Calicivirus , 06 03 Enterics, Hawaii...small gastroenteritis viruses, namely Nor- walk virus and calicivirus , in an attempt to cultivate them in cell cultures with the aid ofintestinal

  19. Etiology and Rapid Diagnosis of Human Viral Gastroenteritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    antigen specific detection methods for calicivirus such as we previously developed for Norwalk virus. Astroviruses, like caliciviruses , are small (2 7- 3...identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Adenovirus Type 40, Astrovirus, Biotechnology, Calicivirus , 06 03 Enterics, Hawaii Virus, Hybridomas...and calicivirus ). This EIA test to detect astroviruses in stool specimens will now permit us for the first time to assess the role of these viruses in

  20. Disease etiology and diagnosis by TCR repertoire analysis goes viral.

    PubMed

    Attaf, Meriem; Sewell, Andrew K

    2016-11-01

    The importance of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity is highlighted in murine models of immunodeficiency and in many human pathologies. However, the true extent of TCR diversity and how this diversity varies in health and disease is poorly understood. In a previous issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Lossius et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2014. 44: 3439-3452] dissected the composition of the TCR repertoire in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) using high-throughput sequencing of TCR-β chains in cerebrospinal fluid samples and blood. The authors demonstrated that the TCR repertoire of the CSF was largely distinct from the blood and enriched in EBV-reactive CD8(+) T cells in MS patients. Studies of this kind have long been hindered by technical limitations and remain scarce in the literature. However, TCR sequencing methodologies are progressing apace and will undoubtedly shed light on the genetic basis of T-cell responses and the ontogeny of T-cell-mediated diseases, such as MS.

  1. Viral Myocarditis and Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Etiology and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huber, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium which often follows microbial infections and is a significant cause of sudden unexpected death in the young (<40 years of age) and an underlying cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Although histologically, the disease is usually associated with infiltration of the myocardium with either eosinophils or leukocytes, use of immunosuppression is controversial outside of giant cell myocarditis and has been found to be of limited value in lymphocytic myocarditis. The relatively limited response might reflect the need for host immunity to control persistent virus infection in the heart which may be the predominant cause of the chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Treating the persistent virus infection with interferon-beta improved cardiac function in a clinical trial. However, classic immunosuppressive drugs, such as cyclosporine A and cyclophosphamide, are not effective against all types of immunity and experimental myocarditis models have shown that certain immunopathogenic forms of the disease are resistant to these immunosuppressive agents. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this disease and the various infectious agents which can cause it will be essential for developing effective therapeutic agents.

  2. Viral arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Marks, Jonathan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute-onset arthritis is a common clinical problem facing both the general clinician and the rheumatologist. A viral aetiology is though to be responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of acute arthritis with a wide range of causal agents recognised. The epidemiology of acute viral arthritis continues to evolve, with some aetiologies, such as rubella, becoming less common due to vaccination, while some vector-borne viruses have become more widespread. A travel history therefore forms an important part of the assessment of patients presenting with an acute arthritis. Worldwide, parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and the alphaviruses are among the most important causes of virally mediated arthritis. Targeted serological testing may be of value in establishing a diagnosis, and clinicians must also be aware that low-titre autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, can occur in the context of acute viral arthritis. A careful consideration of epidemiological, clinical and serological features is therefore required to guide clinicians in making diagnostic and treatment decisions. While most virally mediated arthritides are self-limiting some warrant the initiation of specific antiviral therapy. PMID:27037381

  3. Viral quasispecies.

    PubMed

    Andino, Raul; Domingo, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    New generation sequencing is greatly expanding the capacity to examine the composition of mutant spectra of viral quasispecies in infected cells and host organisms. Here we review recent progress in the understanding of quasispecies dynamics, notably the occurrence of intra-mutant spectrum interactions, and implications of fitness landscapes for virus adaptation and de-adaptation. Complementation or interference can be established among components of the same mutant spectrum, dependent on the mutational status of the ensemble. Replicative fitness relates to an optimal mutant spectrum that provides the molecular basis for phenotypic flexibility, with implications for antiviral therapy. The biological impact of viral fitness renders particularly relevant the capacity of new generation sequencing to establish viral fitness landscapes. Progress with experimental model systems is becoming an important asset to understand virus behavior in the more complex environments faced during natural infections.

  4. Viral quasispecies

    PubMed Central

    Andino, Raul; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    New generation sequencing is greatly expanding the capacity to examine the composition of mutant spectra of viral quasispecies in infected cells and host organisms. Here we review recent progress in the understanding of quasispecies dynamics, notably the occurrence of intra-mutant spectrum interactions, and implications of fitness landscapes for virus adaptation and de-adaptation. Complementation or interference can be established among components of the same mutant spectrum, dependent on the mutational status of the ensemble. Replicative fitness relates to an optimal mutant spectrum that provides the molecular basis for phenotypic flexibility, with implications for antiviral therapy. The biological impact of viral fitness renders particularly relevant the capacity of new generation sequencing to establish viral fitness landscapes. Progress with experimental model systems is becoming an important asset to understand virus behavior in the more complex environments faced during natural infections. PMID:25824477

  5. Non-viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Blonski, Wojciech; Kotlyar, David S; Forde, Kimberly A

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and represents an international public health concern as one of the most deadly cancers worldwide. The main etiology of HCC is chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. However, there are other important factors that contribute to the international burden of HCC. Among these are obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and dietary exposures. Emerging evidence suggests that the etiology of many cases of HCC is in fact multifactorial, encompassing infectious etiologies, comorbid conditions and environmental exposures. Clarification of relevant non-viral causes of HCC will aid in preventative efforts to curb the rising incidence of this disease. PMID:20677332

  6. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-specific goose TLR21 initiates an anti-viral immune response against NGVEV but not AIV strain H9N2 infection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yulin; Yan, Bing; Chen, Shun; Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Sun, Kunfeng; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Jing, Bo; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize components of pathogens and mediate the host innate immune response. TLR21 is a TLR that specifically recognizes exogenous double-stranded DNA and rapidly signals to downstream innate immune factors. This study reports the cDNA of goose TLR21 and identifies its immune characteristics. The goose TLR21 is 3161 base pairs and encodes a 975 amino acid protein. As predicted, the goose transmembrane protein TLR21 has a signal peptide, leucine-rich repeat regions, a transmembrane domain, and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses showed that goose TLR21 has homology to chicken TLR21. The tissue distribution of TLR21 suggested that it has high transcript levels in immune-associated tissues, especially in the bursa of Fabricius, the Hadrian gland, and the thymus. After challenge with agonist ODN2006 and new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV), significant induction of TLR21 production, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and interferons were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both synthetic DNA (ODN2006) and viral DNA (NGVEV) can be recognized by goose TLR21, which leads to a rapid up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-viral molecules. In vivo, avian influenza A virus H9N2 and NGVEV were used to infect goslings, which was followed by a significant up-regulation of TLR21 mRNA transcripts in multiple tissues of NGVEV-infected geese. In general, goose TLR21 plays an important role in binding invading pathogenic DNA viruses, which subsequently triggers an innate immune response; furthermore, it acts as a functional homologue of mammalian TLR9, as TLR21 recognizes a mammalian TLR9 agonist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  8. Etiology of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Koh, H K; Sinks, T H; Geller, A C; Miller, D R; Lew, R A

    1993-01-01

    Although the precise etiology of melanoma remains unknown, much data link sunlight to melanoma. The imperfect evidence associating sun exposure (particularly UVB radiation) with melanoma emerges from human data, obviating problems inherent in extrapolation from animal and other models. However, the mechanism by which sunlight might possibly initiate or promote melanoma remains obscure. Some clarification should emerge from the potential isolation of genes that carry susceptibility to melanoma in families prone to the disease; such work could serve as a basis to distinguish genetic and environmental influences in melanoma [167]. Continued studies of faulty DNA repair in XP patients may elucidate the steps in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Future case-control studies must address the limits on the accuracy of recall and the limits on statistical methods to separate the cluster of phenotypic risk needed in determining biologically effective dose. Animal and in vitro studies must contribute more insight. Further research in the South American opossum models appears promising [72]. Although ozone depletion has been documented, there has been little definitive evidence of subsequent increase of UVB at the Earth's surface. Nevertheless, the threat posed by ozone depletion deserves continued environmental action and public education. The role of precursor lesions, particularly dysplastic nevi/atypical moles, must be clarified with future research. The distribution of melanoma among various work forces suggests that occupational risk factors may play an important role in the etiology of this disease [168-170]. The consistent reports of excess melanoma among accountants, clerical workers, professional workers, and teachers deserve further study. Furthermore, evidence of excesses in printing and press, petrochemical, and the telecommunications industries require follow-up. Carefully planned studies that account for nonoccupational risk factors are recommended. Research over

  9. An etiologic classification of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gabis, Lidia V; Pomeroy, John

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a common phenotype related to multiple etiologies, such as genetic, brain injury (e.g., prematurity), environmental (e.g., viral, toxic), multiple or unknown causes. To devise a clinical classification of children diagnosed with ASD according to etiologic workup. Children diagnosed with ASD (n = 436) from two databases were divided into groups of symptomatic cryptogenic or idiopathic, and variables within each database and diagnostic category were compared. By analyzing the two separate databases, 5.4% of the children were classified as symptomatic, 27% as cryptogenic and 67.75% as idiopathic. Among other findings, the entire symptomatic group demonstrated language delays, but almost none showed evidence for regression. Our results indicate similarities between the idiopathic and cryptogenic subgroups in most of the examined variables, and mutual differences from the symptomatic subgroup. The similarities between the first two subgroups support prior evidence that most perinatal factors and minor physical anomalies do not contribute to the development of core symptoms of autism. Differences in gender and clinical and diagnostic features were found when etiology was used to create subtypes of ASD. This classification could have heuristic importance in the search for an autism gene(s).

  10. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1919-01-01

    By the inoculation of guinea pigs intraperitoneally with the emulsions of kidneys from wild rats and mice captured in Guayaquil, it was found that 67 per cent of the wild rats tested harbored in their kidneys a leptospira which produced in guinea pigs symptoms and lesions identical with those produced by Leptospira icterohamorrhagia derived either from patients suffering from infectious jaundice in Japan or Europe, or from wild rats caught in New York. Immune sera were prepared in rabbits by injecting different strains of the Guayaquil leptospira. These sera had a marked agglutinating and disintegrating influence upon the homologous strains, and also, but often to a less pronounced degree, upon the strains of Leptospira icterohœmorrhagiœ from other sources. Pfeiffer's phenomenon was also found to be positive, and protection was demonstrated against infection with virulent cultures of strains of Leptospira icterohœmorrhagiœ. The same sera had no effect, or at most a very slight one, upon Leptospira icteroides. Guinea pigs inoculated with icteroides strains were not noticeably protected by the use of the immune sera prepared with the Guayaquil rat strains. Guinea pigs inoculated with killed cultures of the Guayaquil strains of leptospira proved to be resistant to a subsequent infection with heterologous as well as homologous strains of Leptospira icterohœmorrhagiœ. It is concluded, therefore, that the leptospira isolated from the kidneys of wild rats and mice in Guayaquil belongs to the group of Leptospira icterohœmorrhagiœ, and differs from Leptospira icteroides in its immunity reactions. No positive transmission was obtained with kidney material from bats and an opossum. PMID:19868353

  11. Extraoral etiology of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Tomás Carmona, I; Limeres Posse, J; Diz Dios, P; Fernández Feijoo, J; Vázquez García, E

    2001-01-01

    Halitosis is a frequent complaint which is estimated to be found in around 50 to 60% of the general population and that carries serious personal and social repercussions. Although the majority of cases are due to oral problems, it is considered that 10-13% of halitosis cases are of extraoral etiology. In these cases the responsibility of the general dental practitioner, who is frequently the first person to examine and treat these patients, is to refer the patient for evaluation to an otorhinolaryngologist in order to rule out the presence of chronic tonsillitis or chronic sinusitis. If the otorhinolaryngologist does not detect alterations concerning his specialty, the digestive system should be explored in order to detect gastric pathology, obstructions or inflammatory gastrointestinal processes, the liver to rule out hepatic insufficiency or cirrhosis, the endocrine system to exclude diagnoses of diabetes or trimethylaminuria, the airways to rule out bronchiectasis or pulmonary abscesses, and the kidney to eliminate possible renal insufficiency. Finally, in the absence of any systemic organic pathology, the possibility of halitosis of psychiatric etiology, which requires the patient's psychological profile to be checked by the corresponding specialist, should be considered.

  12. Attenuation of Vaccinia Tian Tan Strain by Removal of Viral TC7L-TK2L and TA35R Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Shifu; Wang, Yuhang; Sun, Lili; Jia, Peng; Qi, Yanxin; Su, Jiaqiang; Liu, Lei; Yang, Guohua; Liu, Liming; Wang, Zhuoyue; Wang, Jinhui; Liu, Guangchen; Jin, Ningyi; Li, Xiao; Ding, Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was attenuated by deletion of the TC7L-TK2L and TA35R genes to generate MVTT3. The mutant was generated by replacing the open reading frames by a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) flanked by loxP sites. Viruses expressing EGFP were then screened for and purified by serial plaque formation. In a second step the marker EGFP gene was removed by transfecting cells with a plasmid encoding cre recombinase and selecting for viruses that had lost the EGFP phenotype. The MVTT3 mutant was shown to be avirulent and immunogenic. These results support the conclusion that TC7L-TK2L and TA35R deletion mutants can be used as safe viral vectors or as platform for vaccines. PMID:22363781

  13. Attenuation of vaccinia Tian Tan strain by removal of viral TC7L-TK2L and TA35R genes.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shifu; Wang, Yuhang; Sun, Lili; Jia, Peng; Qi, Yanxin; Su, Jiaqiang; Liu, Lei; Yang, Guohua; Liu, Liming; Wang, Zhuoyue; Wang, Jinhui; Liu, Guangchen; Jin, Ningyi; Li, Xiao; Ding, Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was attenuated by deletion of the TC7L-TK2L and TA35R genes to generate MVTT3. The mutant was generated by replacing the open reading frames by a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) flanked by loxP sites. Viruses expressing EGFP were then screened for and purified by serial plaque formation. In a second step the marker EGFP gene was removed by transfecting cells with a plasmid encoding cre recombinase and selecting for viruses that had lost the EGFP phenotype. The MVTT3 mutant was shown to be avirulent and immunogenic. These results support the conclusion that TC7L-TK2L and TA35R deletion mutants can be used as safe viral vectors or as platform for vaccines.

  14. Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis of Near Full-Length HIV-1 Subtypes A, B, G and Unique Recombinant AC and AD Viral Strains Identified in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Holzmayer, Vera; Jacobs, Graeme B.; de Oliveira, Tulio; Brennan, Catherine A.; Hackett, John; van Rensburg, Estrelita Janse

    2015-01-01

    Abstract By the end of 2012, more than 6.1 million people were infected with HIV-1 in South Africa. Subtype C was responsible for the majority of these infections and more than 300 near full-length genomes (NFLGs) have been published. Currently very few non-subtype C isolates have been identified and characterized within the country, particularly full genome non-C isolates. Seven patients from the Tygerberg Virology (TV) cohort were previously identified as possible non-C subtypes and were selected for further analyses. RNA was isolated from five individuals (TV047, TV096, TV101, TV218, and TV546) and DNA from TV016 and TV1057. The NFLGs of these samples were amplified in overlapping fragments and sequenced. Online subtyping tools REGA version 3 and jpHMM were used to screen for subtypes and recombinants. Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis (phyML) was used to infer subtypes and SimPlot was used to confirm possible intersubtype recombinants. We identified three subtype B (TV016, TV047, and TV1057) isolates, one subtype A1 (TV096), one subtype G (TV546), one unique AD (TV101), and one unique AC (TV218) recombinant form. This is the first NFLG of subtype G that has been described in South Africa. The subtype B sequences described also increased the NFLG subtype B sequences in Africa from three to six. There is a need for more NFLG sequences, as partial HIV-1 sequences may underrepresent viral recombinant forms. It is also necessary to continue monitoring the evolution and spread of HIV-1 in South Africa, because understanding viral diversity may play an important role in HIV-1 prevention strategies. PMID:25492033

  15. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of near full-length HIV-1 subtypes A, B, G and unique recombinant AC and AD viral strains identified in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Holzmayer, Vera; Jacobs, Graeme B; de Oliveira, Tulio; Brennan, Catherine A; Hackett, John; van Rensburg, Estrelita Janse; Engelbrecht, Susan

    2015-04-01

    By the end of 2012, more than 6.1 million people were infected with HIV-1 in South Africa. Subtype C was responsible for the majority of these infections and more than 300 near full-length genomes (NFLGs) have been published. Currently very few non-subtype C isolates have been identified and characterized within the country, particularly full genome non-C isolates. Seven patients from the Tygerberg Virology (TV) cohort were previously identified as possible non-C subtypes and were selected for further analyses. RNA was isolated from five individuals (TV047, TV096, TV101, TV218, and TV546) and DNA from TV016 and TV1057. The NFLGs of these samples were amplified in overlapping fragments and sequenced. Online subtyping tools REGA version 3 and jpHMM were used to screen for subtypes and recombinants. Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis (phyML) was used to infer subtypes and SimPlot was used to confirm possible intersubtype recombinants. We identified three subtype B (TV016, TV047, and TV1057) isolates, one subtype A1 (TV096), one subtype G (TV546), one unique AD (TV101), and one unique AC (TV218) recombinant form. This is the first NFLG of subtype G that has been described in South Africa. The subtype B sequences described also increased the NFLG subtype B sequences in Africa from three to six. There is a need for more NFLG sequences, as partial HIV-1 sequences may underrepresent viral recombinant forms. It is also necessary to continue monitoring the evolution and spread of HIV-1 in South Africa, because understanding viral diversity may play an important role in HIV-1 prevention strategies.

  16. [Viral serology in ear diseases of presumably neuritic origin].

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Gaudin, O; Martin, H; Prades, J M; Vidalain, E

    1986-01-01

    A viral etiology is often advanced to explain the origin of Bell's palsy, sudden deafness and certain vertigos. Virology findings were compared in 72 patients with either chicken pox, herpes, zona or other "viral" infections, where the viral origin was not absolutely clear, and a population of healthy volunteers. Results confirmed the indefinite viral nature of these affections. However, recent studies have shown that definite viral disorders are not always associated with an increase in antibody levels, and the intervention of a virus should not be totally discounted in some of these affections, especially as several particularly demonstrative cases have provided confirmation of a virus origin, particularly the Epstein-Barr virus.

  17. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation.

  18. [Hepatoblastoma, Etiology, Case Reports].

    PubMed

    Puchmajerová, A; Křepelová, A; Indráková, J; Sítková, R; Balaščak, I; Kruseová, J; Švojgr, K; Kodet, R; Kynčl, M; Vícha, A; Macek, M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is an uncommon malignant neoplasm in general, yet, it is the most common liver malignancy in children with the incidence about one per milion children. This type of liver tumor usually occurs before the age of three years. The etiology of hepatoblastoma remains unknown. However, there are some genetic conditions known to be associated with an increased risk of developing hepatoblastoma such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, hemihypertrophy, APC-associated polyposis, α-1-antitrypsin defficiency and some metabolic disorders including tyrosinemia, galactosemia and glycogen storage disease type 1. There is a higher risk of hepatoblastoma in children with very low birthweight, children who acquire hepatitis B at an early age and children with congenital biliary atresia.

  19. BamI, KpnI, and SalI restriction enzyme maps of the DNAs of herpes simplex virus strains Justin and F: occurrence of heterogeneities in defined regions of the viral DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Locker, H; Frenkel, N

    1979-01-01

    We present the locations of the cleavage sites for the BamI, KpnI, and SalI restriction endonucleases within the DNA molecules of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains Justin and F. These restriction enzymes cleave the HSV-1 DNA at many sites, producing relatively small fragments which should prove useful in future studies of HSV-1 gene structure and function. The mapping data revealed the occurrence of heterogeneity within three regions of the viral genome including (i) the region spanning map coordinates 0.74--0.76, (ii) the ends of the large (L) DNA component, and (iii) the junction between the large (L) and the small (S) components. The heterogeneity in the ends of L and the S-L junctions of HSV-1 (Justin) and HSV-1 (F) DNAs was grossly similar to that previously reported to occur in the ends of L and the S-L junctions of the HSV-1 (KOS) DNA (M. J. Wagner and W. C. Summers, J. Virol. 27:374--387, 1978). Thus, cleavage of these regions with restriction endonucleases yielded sets of minor fragments differing in size by constant increments. However, the various strains of HSV-1 differed with respect to the numbers, size increments, and relative molarities of the various minor fragments, suggesting that the parameters of the heterogeneity are inherited in the structural makeup of the HSV-1 genome. The strain dependence of the pattern of heterogeneity can be most easily explained in terms of variable sizes of the terminally reiterated a sequence, contained in the DNA molecules of these three strains of HSV-1. Images PMID:228068

  20. Molecular Characterization of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus Strain DF-2 and Studies of the Role of ORF3abc in Viral Cell Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Farsang, Attila; Zádori, Zoltán; Hornyák, Ákos; Dencső, László; Almazán, Fernando; Enjuanes, Luis; Belák, Sándor

    2012-01-01

    The full-length genome of the highly lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strain DF-2 was sequenced and cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to study the role of ORF3abc in the FIPV-feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) transition. The reverse genetic system allowed the replacement of the truncated ORF3abc of the original FIPV DF-2 genome with the intact ORF3abc of the canine coronavirus (CCoV) reference strain Elmo/02. The in vitro replication kinetics of these two viruses was studied in CrFK and FCWF-4 cell lines, as well as in feline peripheral blood monocytes. Both viruses showed similar replication kinetics in established cell lines. However, the strain with a full-length ORF3 showed markedly lower replication of more than 2 log10 titers in feline peripheral blood monocytes. Our results suggest that the truncated ORF3abc plays an important role in the efficient macrophage/monocyte tropism of type II FIPV. PMID:22438554

  1. Molecular characterization of feline infectious peritonitis virus strain DF-2 and studies of the role of ORF3abc in viral cell tropism.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Ádám; Farsang, Attila; Zádori, Zoltán; Hornyák, Ákos; Dencso, László; Almazán, Fernando; Enjuanes, Luis; Belák, Sándor

    2012-06-01

    The full-length genome of the highly lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strain DF-2 was sequenced and cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to study the role of ORF3abc in the FIPV-feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) transition. The reverse genetic system allowed the replacement of the truncated ORF3abc of the original FIPV DF-2 genome with the intact ORF3abc of the canine coronavirus (CCoV) reference strain Elmo/02. The in vitro replication kinetics of these two viruses was studied in CrFK and FCWF-4 cell lines, as well as in feline peripheral blood monocytes. Both viruses showed similar replication kinetics in established cell lines. However, the strain with a full-length ORF3 showed markedly lower replication of more than 2 log(10) titers in feline peripheral blood monocytes. Our results suggest that the truncated ORF3abc plays an important role in the efficient macrophage/monocyte tropism of type II FIPV.

  2. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  3. Influence of mutations in hepatitis B virus surface protein on viral antigenicity and phenotype in occult HBV strains from blood donors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Hao; Yuan, Quan; Chen, Pei-Jer; Zhang, Ya-Li; Chen, Chang-Rong; Zheng, Qing-Bing; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei; Yu, Hai; Xue, Yu; Chen, Yi-Xin; Liu, Ping-Guo; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating mutations in the hepatitis B surface protein (HBsAg) in occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and their influence on viral antigenicity and phenotype. The characteristics of 61 carriers with OBI (OBI group), 153 HBsAg(+) carriers with serum HBsAg ≤ 100 IU/ml (HBsAg-L group) and 54 carriers with serum HBsAg >100 IU/ml (HBsAg-H group) from 38,499 blood donors were investigated. Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the viral sequences were determined. Thirteen representative MHR mutations observed in OBI sequences were antigenically characterized with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and commercial HBsAg immunoassays and functionally characterized in HuH7 cells and hydrodynamically injected mice. Of 61 OBI sequences, 34 (55.7%) harbored MHR mutations, which was significantly higher than the frequency in either the HBsAg-L (34.0%, p=0.003) or the HBsAg-H group (17.1%, p<0.001). Alterations in antigenicity induced by the 13 representative MHR mutations identified in the OBI group were assessed by reacting recombinant HBV mutants with 30 different MAbs targeting various epitopes. Four out of the 13 mutations (C124R, C124Y, K141E, and D144A) strongly decreased the analytical sensitivity of seven commercial HBsAg immunoassays, and 10 (G119R, C124Y, I126S, Q129R, S136P, C139R, T140I, K141E, D144A, and G145R) significantly impaired virion and/or S protein secretion in both HuH7 cells and mice. MHR mutations alter antigenicity and impair virion secretion, both of which may contribute to HBsAg detection failure in individuals with OBI. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Etiological diagnosis of villous atrophy].

    PubMed

    Patey-Mariaud De Serre, N; Verkarre, V; Cellier, C; Cerf-Bensussan, N; Schmitz, J; Brousse, N

    2001-08-01

    Villous atrophy may have various etiologies. The diagnosis of villous atrophy relies on an intestinal biopsy which necessitates a perfect histological technique to assert the villous atrophy and its degree. The most frequent etiology is coeliac disease. Villous atrophy regresses with gluten free diet. The failure of a strict gluten free diet implies to exclude a refractory sprue thought to be the earliest form of enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma. The other etiologies of villous atrophy are unusual and could be observed in alpha chain disease, inflammatory and infectious diseases, immune disorders, and primitive ileal villous atrophy. Other etiologies characterize villous atrophy in children as cow milk allergy and epithelial abnormalities.

  5. Viral epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Milavetz, Barry I; Balakrishnan, Lata

    2015-01-01

    DNA tumor viruses including members of the polyomavirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus, and herpes virus families are presently the subject of intense interest with respect to the role that epigenetics plays in control of the virus life cycle and the transformation of a normal cell to a cancer cell. To date, these studies have primarily focused on the role of histone modification, nucleosome location, and DNA methylation in regulating the biological consequences of infection. Using a wide variety of strategies and techniques ranging from simple ChIP to ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq to identify histone modifications, nuclease digestion to genome wide next generation sequencing to identify nucleosome location, and bisulfite treatment to MeDIP to identify DNA methylation sites, the epigenetic regulation of these viruses is slowly becoming better understood. While the viruses may differ in significant ways from each other and cellular chromatin, the role of epigenetics appears to be relatively similar. Within the viral genome nucleosomes are organized for the expression of appropriate genes with relevant histone modifications particularly histone acetylation. DNA methylation occurs as part of the typical gene silencing during latent infection by herpesviruses. In the simple tumor viruses like the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and papillomaviruses, transformation of the cell occurs via integration of the virus genome such that the virus's normal regulation is disrupted. This results in the unregulated expression of critical viral genes capable of redirecting cellular gene expression. The redirected cellular expression is a consequence of either indirect epigenetic regulation where cellular signaling or transcriptional dysregulation occurs or direct epigenetic regulation where epigenetic cofactors such as histone deacetylases are targeted. In the more complex herpersviruses transformation is a consequence of the expression of the viral latency proteins and RNAs which again can

  6. Etiologic heterogeneity in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1987-01-01

    Etiologic heterogeneity in alcohol abuse was evaluated in 195 extended pedigrees, comprising 288 nuclear families of 140 male and 55 female Caucasian American hospitalized alcoholics. Previous adoption studies in Sweden demonstrated differential heritability of two patterns of alcohol abuse in men: type-2 alcoholism exhibited early onset of abuse associated with criminal behavior, while type-1 abuse began at a later age, uncomplicated by antisocial traits. Alcohol abuse in female Swedish adoptees was relatively homogeneous and similar to the late-onset, type-1 abuse. The notion of etiologic heterogeneity, as suggested by the Stockholm Adoption Studies, was examined in the American pedigrees by contrasting the models of familial transmission of susceptibility to alcoholism obtained via segregation analyses of families of male versus female probands. Families of male probands demonstrated significant familial resemblance, accounted for by a multifactorial-polygenic background in addition to a major (gene) effect. In contrast, familial resemblance in the pedigrees of female probands was attributed solely to a multifactorial-polygenic effect. We considered whether some families of male alcoholics were similar to families of female probands, who expressed type-1 abuse predominantly. Pedigrees of male probands were separated in two groups: (1) "female-like" families had a better likelihood for the model obtained for families of female probands than the one for families of all male probands, (2) "male-like" families had a better likelihood for the model of familial transmission describing families of all male probands. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of familial transmission was observed between the "male-like" and "female-like" groups. Discriminant function analysis of alcohol-related symptoms showed that the familial subtypes differed in clinical features as well. Alcohol abuse by male relatives in "male-like" families was characterized by the

  7. Chronic meningitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: An unusual etiology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anu; Jogi, Vishal; Goyal, Manoj Kumar; Modi, Manish; Khurana, Dheeraj

    2014-10-01

    Chronic aseptic meningitis is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Apart from immunological causes and drugs, the aseptic meningitis group can include some unidentified viral infections that cannot be detected by routine microbiological testing. It is imperative to do complete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) workup before implicating the symptoms to disease activity or drugs, as untreated infections cause significant mortality in SLE. We present a case of young female with SLE who presented with chronic meningitis of an uncommon etiology.

  8. Chronic meningitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: An unusual etiology

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anu; Jogi, Vishal; Goyal, Manoj Kumar; Modi, Manish; Khurana, Dheeraj

    2014-01-01

    Chronic aseptic meningitis is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Apart from immunological causes and drugs, the aseptic meningitis group can include some unidentified viral infections that cannot be detected by routine microbiological testing. It is imperative to do complete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) workup before implicating the symptoms to disease activity or drugs, as untreated infections cause significant mortality in SLE. We present a case of young female with SLE who presented with chronic meningitis of an uncommon etiology. PMID:25506165

  9. Etiologies of bilateral pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Puchalski, Jonathan T.; Argento, A. Christine; Murphy, Terrence E.; Araujo, Katy L.B.; Oliva, Isabel B.; Rubinowitz, Ami N.; Pisani, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate the safety, etiology and outcomes of patients undergoing bilateral thoracentesis. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 100 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral thoracenteses in an academic medical center from July 2009 through November 2010. Pleural fluid characteristics and etiologies of the effusions were assessed. Mean differences in levels of fluid characteristics between right and left lungs were tested. Associations between fluid characteristics and occurrence of bilateral malignant effusions were evaluated. The rate of pneumothorax and other complications subsequent to bilateral thoracentesis was determined. Results Exudates were more common than transudates, and most effusions had multiple etiologies, with 83% having two or more etiologies. Bilateral malignant effusions occurred in 19 patients, were the most common single etiology of exudative effusions, and were associated with higher levels of protein and LDH in the pleural fluid. Among 200 thoracenteses performed with a bilateral procedure, seven resulted in pneumothoraces, three of which required chest tube drainage and four were ex vacuo. Conclusions More often than not, there are multiple etiologies that contribute to pleural fluid formation, and of the combinations of etiologies observed congestive heart failure was the most frequent contributor. Exudative effusions are more common than transudates when bilateral effusions are present. Malignancy is a common etiology of exudative effusions. This study suggests that the overall complication rate following bilateral thoracentesis is low and the rate of pneumothorax subsequent to bilateral thoracentesis is comparable to unilateral thoracentesis. PMID:23219348

  10. Reduced maximal inhibition in phenotypic susceptibility assays indicates that viral strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc utilize inhibitor-bound receptor for entry.

    PubMed

    Westby, Mike; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Mori, Julie; Lewis, Marilyn; Mosley, Michael; Stockdale, Mark; Dorr, Patrick; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Perros, Manos

    2007-03-01

    Maraviroc is a CCR5 antagonist in clinical development as one of a new class of antiretrovirals targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor binding. We investigated the mechanism of HIV resistance to maraviroc by using in vitro sequential passage and site-directed mutagenesis. Serial passage through increasing maraviroc concentrations failed to select maraviroc-resistant variants from some laboratory-adapted and clinical isolates of HIV-1. However, high-level resistance to maraviroc was selected from three of six primary isolates passaged in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The SF162 strain acquired resistance to maraviroc in both treated and control cultures; all resistant variants were able to use CXCR4 as a coreceptor. In contrast, maraviroc-resistant virus derived from isolates CC1/85 and RU570 remained CCR5 tropic, as evidenced by susceptibility to the CCR5 antagonist SCH-C, resistance to the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, and an inability to replicate in CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 PBL. Strain-specific mutations were identified in the V3 loop of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 and RU570. The envelope-encoding region of maraviroc-resistant CC1/85 was inserted into an NL4-3 background. This recombinant virus was completely resistant to maraviroc but retained susceptibility to aplaviroc. Reverse mutation of gp120 residues 316 and 323 in the V3 loop (numbering from HXB2) to their original sequence restored wild-type susceptibility to maraviroc, while reversion of either mutation resulted in a partially sensitive virus with reduced maximal inhibition (plateau). The plateaus are consistent with the virus having acquired the ability to utilize maraviroc-bound receptor for entry. This hypothesis was further corroborated by the observation that a high concentration of maraviroc blocks the activity of aplaviroc against maraviroc-resistant virus.

  11. Viral Miniproteins

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many viruses encode short transmembrane proteins that play vital roles in virus replication or virulence. Because these proteins are often less than 50 amino acids long and not homologous to cellular proteins, their open reading frames were often overlooked during the initial annotation of viral genomes. Some of these proteins oligomerize in membranes and form ion channels. Other miniproteins bind to cellular transmembrane proteins and modulate their activity, whereas still others have an unknown mechanism of action. Based on the underlying principles of transmembrane miniprotein structure, it is possible to build artificial small transmembrane proteins that modulate a variety of biological processes. These findings suggest that short transmembrane proteins provide a versatile mechanism to regulate a wide range of cellular activities, and we speculate that cells also express many similar proteins that have not yet been discovered. PMID:24742054

  12. Issues and updates in emerging neurologic viral infections.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael R; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2011-07-01

    This review discusses the recent advances in the identification of viral pathogens and other etiologies responsible for cases of suspected viral encephalitis. The authors describe new molecular diagnostic strategies for identifying novel causes of viral encephalitis, including MassTag PCR, DNA microarrays, and high-throughput DNA pyrosequencing. They also highlight the increasing recognition of immune-mediated causes of encephalitis among those cases previously thought to be viral encephalitis of unknown etiology. Lastly, they review some of the most recent updates in the field of emerging neurologic viral infections impacting the United States, including the neurologic complications of H1N1 virus and the reemergence of dengue virus in the Florida Keys.

  13. Epilepsy in the tropics: Emerging etiologies.

    PubMed

    Carrizosa Moog, Jaime; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Tan, Chong Tin

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is considered by the World Health Organization a public health priority with more than 50 million human beings affected by the disease. More than 80% of persons with epilepsy live in low and middle income countries and most of them in tropical areas. Several emerging, re-emerging and neglected diseases are symptomatic etiologies that jointly contribute to the enormous global burden of epilepsy. Besides the clinical strengths to reduce diagnostic and treatment gaps, other strategies in social, economic, cultural, educational and health policies are needed to prevent and treat appropriately vulnerable and affected persons with epilepsy. From the public health point of view, several of those strategies could be more effective in reducing the incidence and burden of the disease than the clinical approach of diagnosis and treatment. Special attention has to be given to stigma reduction and promotion of human rights. Several aspects mentioned in this abstract slip away the scope of the article, but it is a remainder to approach epilepsy in an inter- and transdisciplinary manner, an integral and pertinent approach needed and requested in tropical counties. The article focuses only on emergent and re-emergent etiologies of epilepsy in the tropics like malaria, HIV, neurocysticercosis, viral encephalitis and traumatic brain injury.

  14. The infectious etiology of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sochocka, Marta; Zwolińska, Katarzyna; Leszek, Jerzy

    2017-03-13

    Inflammation is a part of the first line of defense of the body against invasive pathogens, and plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration and repair. A proper inflammatory response ensures the suitable resolution of inflammation and elimination of harmful stimuli, but when the inflammatory reactions are inappropriate it can lead to damage of the surrounding normal cells. The relationship between infections and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) etiology, especially late-onset AD (LOAD) has been continuously debated over the past three decades. It is suggested that chronic viral, bacterial and fungal infections might be causative factors for the inflammatory pathway for AD. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis of the role of neurotropic viruses from the Herpesviridae family, especially Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2), in AD neuropathology. Recent investigations also indicate the association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and dementia. Among bacteria special attention is focused on spirochetes family and on periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola that could cause chronic periodontitis and possibly contribute to the clinical onset of AD. This review discusses whether infections could be a causative factor that promotes the progression of AD and summarizes recent investigations associating infectious agents and chronic inflammation with AD. Preventive and therapeutic approaches to AD in the context of an infectious etiology of the disease are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. [The etiologic diversity of vaginitis].

    PubMed

    Bohbot, J-M; Sednaoui, P; Verriere, F; Achhammer, I

    2012-10-01

    To establish the different etiologies of vaginitis and, especially, assess the distribution of responsible pathogens through a prospective study. One hundred and sixty-nine women aged between 18 and 65 years (average age: 33.7 years old), consulting a physician for symptoms of vaginitis, were examined in 21 centers of gynaecology or infectious diseases. The clinical evaluation was completed by bacteriological sample that was tested for infections (including sexually transmitted infections (STIs)). One hundred and eighteen patients (69.8%) had one or several infectious etiologies distributed as follows: 79 (46.7%) candidiasis (3 of which were caused by non albicans Candida), 37 (21.9%) bacterial vaginitis and 16 (9.5%) bacterial vaginosis. To be noticed that there were 38 cases of mixed etiologies out of the 118 infectious etiologies (32.2%), 3 of them were STIs. Although candidiasis was the most common etiology in this study, it only represented less than 1 out of every two patients. Among the infectious etiologies, 1 out of 3 women presented a bacterial or mixed vaginitis. The etiological diversity of vaginitis leads to consider broad-spectrum treatment as first-line therapy and to prescribe a microbiological analysis in case of failure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Organ-Specific Attenuation of Murine Hepatitis Virus Strain A59 by Replacement of Catalytic Residues in the Putative Viral Cyclic Phosphodiesterase ns2▿

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Cross, Jessica K.; Stokes, Helen; Chang, Guohui; Chua, Ming Ming; Thiel, Volker; Weiss, Susan R.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Siddell, Stuart G.

    2009-01-01

    The Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59 ns2 protein is a 30-kDa nonstructural protein that is expressed from a subgenomic mRNA in the cytoplasm of virus-infected cells. Its homologs are also encoded in other closely related group 2a coronaviruses and more distantly related toroviruses. Together, these proteins comprise a subset of a large superfamily of 2H phosphoesterase proteins that are distinguished by a pair of conserved His-x-Thr/Ser motifs encompassing catalytically important residues. We have used a vaccinia virus-based reverse genetic system to produce recombinant viruses encoding ns2 proteins with single-amino-acid substitutions in, or adjacent to, these conserved motifs, namely, inf-ns2 H46A, inf-ns2 S48A, inf-ns2-S120A, and inf-ns2-H126R. All of the mutant viruses replicate in mouse 17 clone 1 fibroblast cells and mouse embryonic cells to the same extent as the parental wild-type recombinant virus, inf-MHV-A59. However, compared to inf-MHV-A59, the inf-ns2 H46A and inf-ns2-H126R mutants are highly attenuated for replication in mouse liver following intrahepatic inoculation. Interestingly, none of the mutant viruses were attenuated for replication in mouse brain following intracranial inoculation. These results show that the ns2 protein of MHV-A59 has an important role in virus pathogenicity and that a substitution of the histidine residues of the MHV-A59 ns2 His-x-Thr/Ser motifs is critical for virus virulence in the liver but not in the brain. This novel phenotype suggests a strategy to investigate the function of the MHV-A59 ns2 protein involving the search for organ-specific proteins or RNAs that react differentially to wild-type and mutant ns2 proteins. PMID:19176619

  17. [Etiology of adult insomnia].

    PubMed

    Dollander, M

    2002-01-01

    In the article, the author develops an analysis of external and intrapsychic factors related to adults' insomnia. First she undertakes a literature review to describe semiological, evolutive and etiological levels of insomnia. From a semiological point of view, it is usual to differenciate initial insomnia (associated to the first phase of sleeping), intermittent insomnia (related to frequent awakenings) and final insomnia (related to early morning awakenings). From an evolutive point of view, we can identify transitory insomnia (characterized by frequent awakenings) and chronic insomnia. On the other hand, we are allowed to distinguish organic insomnia (disorder where an organic cerebral injury is demonstrated or suspected) from insomnias related to psychiatric or somatic disease or idiopathic one. Then, the author makes a literary review to identify various insomnia causes and points out. Social factors: insomnia rates are higher by divorced, separated or widowed people. Percentages are higher when scholastic level is weak, domestic income is less then 915 O a month, or by unemployed people. Besides, sleep quality is deteriorated by ageing. Sleeping and waking rhythm is able to loose its synchronization. Complaints about insomnia occur far frequently from women than men. Environmental factors: working constraints increase sleep disorders. It is possible to make the same conclusion when we have to face overcharge of external events, deep intrapsychic conflicts (related to grief, unemployment, damage or hospitalization) or interpersonal conflicts' situations where we are confronted to stress related to socio-affective environment, lack of social support or conjugal difficulties. Medical and physiologic causes: legs impatience syndrome, recurrent limbs shakings syndrome, breathe stop during sleep, narcolepsy, excessive medicine or hypnotic drugs use, some central nervous system injuries, every nocturnal awakening (related to aches.), surgical operation

  18. The PSAP motif within the ORF3 protein of an avian strain of the hepatitis E virus is not critical for viral infectivity in vivo but plays a role in virus release.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Scott P; Pudupakam, R S; Huang, Yao-Wei; Pierson, F William; LeRoith, Tanya; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2012-05-01

    The ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a multifunctional protein important for virus replication. The ORF3 proteins from human, swine, and avian strains of HEV contain a conserved PXXP amino acid motif, resembling either Src homology 3 (SH3) cell signaling interaction motifs or "late domains" involved in host cell interactions aiding in particle release. Using an avian strain of HEV, we determined the roles of the conserved prolines within the PREPSAPP motif in HEV replication and infectivity in Leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken liver cells and in chickens. Each proline was changed to alanine to produce 8 avian HEV mutants containing single mutations (P64, P67, P70, and P71 to A), double mutations (P64/67A, P64/70A, and P67/70A), and triple mutations (P64/67/70A). The results showed that avian HEV mutants are replication competent in vitro, and none of the prolines in the PXXPXXPP motif are essential for infectivity in vivo; however, the second and third prolines appear to aid in fecal virus shedding, suggesting that the PSAP motif, but not the PREP motif, is involved in virus release. We also showed that the PSAP motif interacts with the host protein tumor suppressor gene 101 (TSG101) and that altering any proline within the PSAP motif disrupts this interaction. However, we showed that the ORF2 protein expressed in LMH cells is efficiently released from the cells in the absence of ORF3 and that coexpression of ORF2 and ORF3 did not act synergistically in this release, suggesting that another factor(s) such as ORF1 or viral genomic RNA may be necessary for proper particle release.

  19. High-Pressure Inactivation of Rotaviruses: Role of Treatment Temperature and Strain Diversity in Virus Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Araud, Elbashir; DiCaprio, Erin; Yang, Zhihong; Li, Xinhui; Lou, Fangfei; Hughes, John H.; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in infants worldwide. Although high-pressure processing (HPP) is a popular method to inactivate enteric pathogens in food, the sensitivity of different virus strains within same species and serotype to HPP is variable. This study aimed to compare the barosensitivities of seven RV strains derived from four serotypes (serotype G1, strains Wa, Ku, and K8; serotype G2, strain S2; serotype G3, strains SA-11 and YO; and serotype G4, strain ST3) following high-pressure treatment. RV strains showed various responses to HPP based on the initial temperature and had different inactivation profiles. Ku, K8, S2, SA-11, YO, and ST3 showed enhanced inactivation at 4°C compared to 20°C. In contrast, strain Wa was not significantly impacted by the initial treatment temperature. Within serotype G1, strain Wa was significantly (P < 0.05) more resistant to HPP than strains Ku and K8. Overall, the resistance of the human RV strains to HPP at 4°C can be ranked as Wa > Ku = K8 > S2 > YO > ST3, and in terms of serotype the ranking is G1 > G2 > G3 > G4. In addition, pressure treatment of 400 MPa for 2 min was sufficient to eliminate the Wa strain, the most pressure-resistant RV, from oyster tissues. HPP disrupted virion structure but did not degrade viral protein or RNA, providing insight into the mechanism of viral inactivation by HPP. In conclusion, HPP is capable of inactivating RV at commercially acceptable pressures, and the efficacy of inactivation is strain dependent. PMID:26187961

  20. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1922-01-01

    Analysis of the records of instances in which non-immune persons contracted yellow fever notwithstanding vaccination shows that the onset of disease occurs soon after vaccination, the longest period being 13 days. Since the average incubation period in yellow fever is 6 days, it seems that infection must have taken place in some instances during the period while protection was developing. These instances led to a study of the possibility of immediate protection by means of the anti-icteroides serum. It had already been shown that the immune serum protects at once against experimental Leptospira icteroides infection, but it remained to determine how long the protection would last. Guinea pigs were given different quantities of the immune serum and subsequently injected, at various intervals, with a virulent strain of Leptospira icteroides. Complete protection enduring 5 days was obtained with as minute a quantity of serum as 0.002 cc. per 1,000 gm. of body weight. After 5 days, however, the immune substance rapidly diminished, and to keep the animal protected for as long as 10 days it was necessary to give 100 times as much, or 0.2 cc. For a man weighing 80 kilos, 0.16 cc. (0.002 x 80) would theoretically be sufficient to protect for at least 5 days, 1.6 cc. for 7 days, and 16 cc. for 10 days. This temporary protection may be a valuable antecedent to that furnished by vaccination, since the final effect of the latter cannot be expected until at least 9 to 10 days have passed. PMID:19868677

  1. Acute Viral Hepatitis in Pediatric Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Kc, Sudhamshu; Sharma, Dilip; Poudyal, Nandu; Basnet, Bhupendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Our clinical experience showed that there has been no decrease in pediatric cases of acute viral hepatitis in Kathmandu. The objective of the study was to analyze the etiology, clinical features, laboratory parameters, sonological findings and other to determine the probable prognostic factors of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Consecutive patients of suspected Acute Viral Hepatitis, below the age of 15 years, attending the liver clinic between January 2006 and December 2010 were studied. After clinical examination they were subjected to blood tests and ultrasound examination of abdomen. The patients were divided in 3 age groups; 0-5, 5-10 and 5-15 years. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, ultrasound findings were compared in three age groups. Etiology of Acute Viral Hepatitis was Hepatitis A virus 266 (85%), Hepatitis E virus in 24 (8%), Hepatitis B virus in 15 (5%). In 7(2%) patients etiology was unknown. Three patients went to acute liver failure but improved with conservative treatment. There was no statistical difference in most of the parameters studied in different age groups. Ascites was more common in 5-10 years age group. Patients with secondary bacterial infection, ultrasound evidence of prominent biliary tree and ascites were associated with increased duration of illness. Patients with history of herbal medications had prolonged cholestasis. Hepatitis A is most common cause of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Improper use of herbal medications, secondary bacterial infection and faulty dietary intake was associated with prolonged illness. Patients with prominent biliary radicals should be treated with antibiotics even with normal blood counts for earlier recovery.

  2. Etiologic diagnosis of jaw osteonecrosis, other than bisphosphonate and radiotherapy related osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Magremanne, M; Picheca, S; Reychler, H

    2014-02-01

    Our purpose was to highlight the various etiologies of maxillo-mandibular osteonecrosis, other than radiotherapy and biphosphonate related osteitis that have been abundantly reported. We performed a PubMed search from August 1, 1972 to August 1, 2012 using the following MeSH terms: "osteonecrosis", "bone", "necrosis", "jaw", "maxilla", "mandible", "palate", "oral", "avascular necrosis", NOT "bisphosphonate" NOT "osteoradionecrosis". Most cases of osteonecrosis were iatrogenic. Viral, mycotic, or bacterial infections were less frequent causes. Cocaine abuse, Wegener's granulomatosis, and N/K lymphoma were other etiologies. It is important to identify the various etiologies rapidly to manage this sometimes very mutilating condition adequately.

  3. [Etiologic diagnosis of jaw osteonecrosis, other than bisphosphonate and radiotherapy related osteitis].

    PubMed

    Magremanne, M; Picheca, S; Reychler, H

    2014-02-01

    Our purpose was to highlight the various etiologies of maxillo-mandibular osteonecrosis, other than radiotherapy and biphosphonate related osteitis that have been abundantly reported. We performed a PubMed search from August 1, 1972 to August 1, 2012 using the following MeSH terms: "osteonecrosis", "bone", "necrosis", "jaw", "maxilla", "mandible", "palate", "oral", "avascular necrosis", NOT "bisphosphonate" NOT "osteoradionecrosis". Most cases of osteonecrosis were iatrogenic. Viral, mycotic, or bacterial infections were less frequent causes. Cocaine abuse, Wegener's granulomatosis, and N/K lymphoma were other etiologies. It is important to identify the various etiologies rapidly to manage this sometimes very mutilating condition adequately.

  4. Human viral cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Maisch, Bernhard; Ristic, Arsen D; Portig, Irene; Pankuweit, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    Viral infection of the heart is relatively common, usually asymptomatic and has a spontaneous and complete resolution. It can, however, in rare cases, lead to substantial cardiac damage, development of viral cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Viral cardiomyopathy is defined as viral persistence in a dilated heart. It may be accompanied by myocardial inflammation and then termed inflammatory viral cardiomyopathy (or viral myocarditis with cardiomegaly). If no inflammation is observed in the biopsy of a dilated heart (<14 lymphocytes and macrophages/mm ) the term viral cardiomyopathy or viral persistence in dilated cardiomyopathy should be applied. The diagnosis of myocarditis and viral cardiomyopathy can be made only by endomyocardial biopsy, implementing the WHO/WHF criteria, and PCR techniques for identification of viral genome. The most frequent cardiotropic viruses detected by endomyocardial biopsy are Parvo B19, enteroviruses, adenoviruses, cytomegalovirus, and less frequently Epstein-Barr virus, and influenza virus.

  5. Etiology of severe pneumonia in Ecuadorian children

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Sivani; Rodríguez, Oswaldo; Estrella, Bertha; Sabin, Lora L.; Sempértegui, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. Methods This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2–59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors for specific respiratory pathogens were also evaluated. Results Among 406 children tested, 159 (39.2%) had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 71 (17.5%) had human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and 62 (15.3%) had adenovirus. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 37 (9.2%) samples and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in three (0.74%) samples. The yearly circulation pattern of RSV (P = 0.0003) overlapped with S. pneumoniae, (P = 0.03) with most cases occurring in the rainy season. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for RSV included younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, P = 0.01) and being underweight (aOR = 1.8, P = 0.04). Maternal education (aOR = 0.82, P = 0.003), pulse oximetry (aOR = 0.93, P = 0.005), and rales (aOR = 0.25, P = 0.007) were associated with influenza A. Younger age (aOR = 3.5, P = 0.007) and elevated baseline respiratory rate were associated with HPIV-3 infection (aOR = 0.94, P = 0.03). Conclusion These results indicate the importance of RSV and influenza, and potentially modifiable risk factors including undernutrition and future use of a RSV vaccine, when an effective vaccine becomes available. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00513929 PMID:28182741

  6. Etiology of severe pneumonia in Ecuadorian children.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Sivani; Rodríguez, Oswaldo; Estrella, Bertha; Sabin, Lora L; Sempértegui, Fernando; Hamer, Davidson H

    2017-01-01

    In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors for specific respiratory pathogens were also evaluated. Among 406 children tested, 159 (39.2%) had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 71 (17.5%) had human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and 62 (15.3%) had adenovirus. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 37 (9.2%) samples and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in three (0.74%) samples. The yearly circulation pattern of RSV (P = 0.0003) overlapped with S. pneumoniae, (P = 0.03) with most cases occurring in the rainy season. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for RSV included younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, P = 0.01) and being underweight (aOR = 1.8, P = 0.04). Maternal education (aOR = 0.82, P = 0.003), pulse oximetry (aOR = 0.93, P = 0.005), and rales (aOR = 0.25, P = 0.007) were associated with influenza A. Younger age (aOR = 3.5, P = 0.007) and elevated baseline respiratory rate were associated with HPIV-3 infection (aOR = 0.94, P = 0.03). These results indicate the importance of RSV and influenza, and potentially modifiable risk factors including undernutrition and future use of a RSV vaccine, when an effective vaccine becomes available. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00513929.

  7. Viral encephalitis: current treatments and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Renan Barros

    2012-12-01

    Several viruses may cause central nervous system infections that lead to a broad range of clinical manifestations. The course of the viral encephalitis can be acute, sub acute, or chronic. Some viruses have the ability to enter into the brain and cause direct injury, while others activate inflammatory cells that attack the central nervous system (CNS) secondarily. Some types of viral encephalitis occur in previously healthy individuals, while others affect immunocompromised patients. The epidemiology of viral encephalitis has undergone changes in recent years. Factors such as evolving lifestyles and ecological changes have had a considerable impact on the epidemiology of some types of viral encephalitis. The result is a change in the etiology spectrum of viral encephalitis, with new types of encephalitis arising or returning from time to time. Many scientific achievements in neuroimaging, molecular diagnosis, antiviral therapy, immunomodulatory treatments, and neurointensive care have allowed more precise and earlier diagnoses and more efficient treatments, resulting in improved outcomes. Despite these advances, there is still considerable morbidity and mortality related to these disorders. This aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of the current drugs used in the management of the most important viral encephalitis, focusing on the mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects of the drugs. In addition, future perspectives in this area will be addressed. Despite the technological advances, much effort has yet to be undertaken to reduce the impact of these potentially devastating diseases.

  8. [Role of poliomyelitis viruses in the etiology of serous meningitis in Odessa 1979-1983].

    PubMed

    Zevakov, V F; Semak, S Ia; Titarenko, V I; Andreĭchenko, N V; Gedzul, O V

    1987-01-01

    The etiology of aseptic meningitides has been studied in the patients hospitalized in the Odessa city clinical hospital in 1979-1983. Altogether 268 strains of enteroviruses have been isolated, among them 105 poliomyelitis viruses (38.8%); 26 poliomyelitis virus strains have been isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. Most frequently, type I poliovirus has been isolated. Poliovirus strains isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid had the genetic markers of virulent strains. The authors believe that isolation of poliomyelitis virus from the cerebrospinal fluid in aseptic meningitis proves its etiological role in the disease.

  9. ViralZone: a knowledge resource to understand virus diversity.

    PubMed

    Hulo, Chantal; de Castro, Edouard; Masson, Patrick; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis; Le Mercier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The molecular diversity of viruses complicates the interpretation of viral genomic and proteomic data. To make sense of viral gene functions, investigators must be familiar with the virus host range, replication cycle and virion structure. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive resource bridging together textbook knowledge with genomic and proteomic sequences. ViralZone web resource (www.expasy.org/viralzone/) provides fact sheets on all known virus families/genera with easy access to sequence data. A selection of reference strains (RefStrain) provides annotated standards to circumvent the exponential increase of virus sequences. Moreover ViralZone offers a complete set of detailed and accurate virion pictures.

  10. ViralZone: a knowledge resource to understand virus diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hulo, Chantal; de Castro, Edouard; Masson, Patrick; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis; Le Mercier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The molecular diversity of viruses complicates the interpretation of viral genomic and proteomic data. To make sense of viral gene functions, investigators must be familiar with the virus host range, replication cycle and virion structure. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive resource bridging together textbook knowledge with genomic and proteomic sequences. ViralZone web resource (www.expasy.org/viralzone/) provides fact sheets on all known virus families/genera with easy access to sequence data. A selection of reference strains (RefStrain) provides annotated standards to circumvent the exponential increase of virus sequences. Moreover ViralZone offers a complete set of detailed and accurate virion pictures. PMID:20947564

  11. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  12. [Psoas abscess. Etiology and treatment].

    PubMed

    Tonus, C; Kasparek, S; Nier, H

    2002-10-01

    Psoas abscess is in general a syndrome with low incidence. In the following, two cases are presented which describe the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of primary and secondary retroperitoneal manifestations. The article mainly focuses on the different respective surgical procedures. Because of its rareness, an overview of further cases discussed in the literature is provided.

  13. Etiology of Depression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Shirley J.; Markham, Ramona A.

    2005-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is experienced by a significant proportion of youth today, occurring at an earlier age than found in previous generations. Major Depressive Disorder can produce long-lasting detrimental effects on a child's life, which raises the question of etiology. Three areas were examined for evidence identifying specific…

  14. Ictal kissing: occurrence and etiology.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Fletman, Elizabeth W

    2017-02-01

    Ictal kissing is a rare semiological manifestation in patients with epilepsy. We tried to estimate its occurrence and characterize the underlying etiology. We retrospectively reviewed all video-EEG reports from Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center over a 12-year period (2004-2015) for the occurrence of the term "kiss". We then searched the electronic database PubMed on September 21, 2016 using the following search terms in the English language: "ictal" OR "seizure" OR "epilepsy" AND "kiss" OR "kissing". Relevant original studies were included. During the study period, 5133 patients were investigated in our epilepsy monitoring unit. One patient (0.02%) had one episode of documented ictal kissing. He had drug-resistant right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In total, five studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. These studies described nine patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy and ictal kissing behavior. Six out of ten patients with ictal kissing had hippocampal sclerosis. We add to the literature on ictal kissing by providing additional information on its frequency and etiology. The most common underlying etiology for ictal kissing is hippocampal sclerosis. However, this semiological ictal phenomenon is not pathognomonic for any etiology or localization.

  15. [Nontraumatic spinal cord injury: etiology, demography and clinics].

    PubMed

    Quintana-Gonzales, Asencio; Sotomayor-Espichan, Rosa; Martínez-Romero, María; Kuroki-García, César

    2011-12-01

    We performed a retrospective and descriptive cross-sectional; study in 210 hospitalized patients with spinal cord injury at the National Institute of Rehabilitation (INR), Callao, Peru from 2000-2006. The goal was to describe etiology, and clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of non traumatic spinal cord injuries (LMNT). We found a prevalence of 27 % for LMNT, average age at onset of 32.0 years, male gender 50.5 %, and secondary education completed in 41.9 %, poverty 90.5 %. The infectious etiology (viral and bacterial) was predominant in 37.6 %, with 11.9 infected with HTLVI. Although the INR is a reference center, the findings can't be generalized because it isn't a representative sample of the Peruvian population, further studies are necessary to propose strategies for prevention and control, considering the high cost of integral rehabilitation treatment in these patients.

  16. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Cloning and Functional Characterization of Gastric Cancer-Derived Epstein-Barr Virus Strains.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Teru; Furuse, Yuki; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2016-05-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically linked to approximately 10% of gastric cancers, in which viral genomes are maintained as multicopy episomes. EBV-positive gastric cancer cells are incompetent for progeny virus production, making viral DNA cloning extremely difficult. Here we describe a highly efficient strategy for obtaining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of EBV episomes by utilizing a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated strand break of the viral genome and subsequent homology-directed repair. EBV strains maintained in two gastric cancer cell lines (SNU719 and YCCEL1) were cloned, and their complete viral genome sequences were determined. Infectious viruses of gastric cancer cell-derived EBVs were reconstituted, and the viruses established stable latent infections in immortalized keratinocytes. While Ras oncoprotein overexpression caused massive vacuolar degeneration and cell death in control keratinocytes, EBV-infected keratinocytes survived in the presence of Ras expression. These results implicate EBV infection in predisposing epithelial cells to malignant transformation by inducing resistance to oncogene-induced cell death. Recent progress in DNA-sequencing technology has accelerated EBV whole-genome sequencing, and the repertoire of sequenced EBV genomes is increasing progressively. Accordingly, the presence of EBV variant strains that may be relevant to EBV-associated diseases has begun to attract interest. Clearly, the determination of additional disease-associated viral genome sequences will facilitate the identification of any disease-specific EBV variants. We found that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cleavage of EBV episomal DNA enabled the cloning of disease-associated viral strains with unprecedented efficiency. As a proof of concept, two gastric cancer cell-derived EBV strains were cloned, and the infection of epithelial cells with reconstituted viruses provided important clues about the mechanism of EBV-mediated epithelial carcinogenesis. This

  18. Clinical presentation, etiology, and survival in adult acute encephalitis syndrome in rural Central India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajnish; Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar; Joshi, Deepti; Santhosh, SR; Parida, M.M.; Desikan, Prabha; Gangane, Nitin; Kalantri, S.P.; Reingold, Arthur; Colford, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a constellation of symptoms that includes fever and altered mental status. Most cases are attributed to viral encephalitis (VE), occurring either in outbreaks or sporadically. We conducted hospital-based surveillance for sporadic adult-AES in rural Central India in order to describe its incidence, spatial and temporal distribution, clinical profile, etiology and predictors of mortality. Methods All consecutive hospital admissions during the study period were screened to identify adult-AES cases and were followed until 30-days of hospitalization. We estimated incidence by administrative sub-division of residence and described the temporal distribution of cases. We performed viral diagnostic studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to determine the etiology of AES. The diagnostic tests included RT-PCR (for enteroviruses, HSV 1 and 2), conventional PCR (for flaviviruses), CSF IgM capture ELISA (for Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue, West Nile virus, Varicella zoster virus, measles, and mumps). We compared demographic and clinical variables across etiologic subtypes and estimated predictors of 30-day mortality. Results A total of 183 AES cases were identified between January and October 2007, representing 2.38% of all admissions. The incidence of adult AES in the administrative subdivisions closest to the hospital was 16 per 100,000. Of the 183 cases, a non-viral etiology was confirmed in 31 (16.9%) and the remaining 152 were considered as VE suspects. Of the VE suspects, we could confirm a viral etiology in 31 cases: 17 (11.2%) enterovirus; 8 (5.2%) flavivirus; 3 (1.9%) Varicella zoster; 1 (0.6%) herpesvirus; and 2 (1.3%) mixed etiology); the etiology remained unknown in remaining 121 (79.6%) cases. 53 (36%) of the AES patients died; the case fatality proportion was similar in patients with a confirmed and unknown viral etiology (45.1 and 33.6% respectively). A requirement for assisted ventilation significantly

  19. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Virus Families Arenaviruses Old World/New World ...

  20. THE ETIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among women of childbearing age. This condition is notorious for causing severe complications related to the reproductive health of women. Five decades of intense research established many risk factors for acquisition of BV, however due to the complexity of BV and due to lack of a reliable animal model for this condition, its exact etiology remains elusive. In this manuscript we use a historical perspective to critically review the development of major theories on the etiology of BV, ultimately implicating BV-related pathogens, healthy vaginal microbiota, bacteriophages and the immune response of the host. None of these theories on their own can reliably explain the epidemiological data. Instead, BV is caused by a complex interaction of multiple factors, which include the numerous components of the vaginal microbial ecosystem and their human host. Many of these factors are yet to be characterized because a clear understanding of their relative contribution to the etiology of BV is pivotal to formulation of an effective treatment for and prophylaxis of this condition. PMID:21332897

  1. Epidemiology and etiology of meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Margaret; Claus, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Although most meningiomas are encapsulated and benign tumors with limited numbers of genetic aberrations, their intracranial location often leads to serious and potentially lethal consequences. They are the most frequently diagnosed primary brain tumor accounting for 33.8% of all primary brain and central nervous system tumors reported in the United States between 2002 and 2006. Inherited susceptibility to meningioma is suggested both by family history and candidate gene studies in DNA repair genes. People with certain mutations in the neurofibromatosis gene (NF2) have a very substantial increased risk for meningioma. High dose ionizing radiation exposure is an established risk factor for meningioma, and lower doses may also increase risk, but which types and doses are controversial or understudied. Because women are twice as likely as men to develop meningiomas and these tumors harbor hormone receptors, an etiologic role for hormones (both endogenous and exogenous) has been hypothesized. The extent to which immunologic factors influence meningioma etiology has been largely unexplored. Growing emphasis on brain tumor research coupled with the advent of new genetic and molecular epidemiologic tools in genetic and molecular epidemiology promise hope for advancing knowledge about the causes of intra-cranial meningioma. In this review, we highlight current knowledge about meningioma epidemiology and etiology and suggest future research directions. PMID:20821343

  2. Viral-associated glomerulopathies in children

    PubMed Central

    Wenderfer, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections associate temporally with the onset of many glomerular diseases, particularly in children. In other cases of glomerulonephritis, when infection is clinically silent, viral syndromes can still be implicated as a trigger. However, strong evidence for viral causality in most glomerular disease is still lacking. While numerous case reports in children document the occurrence of specific forms of glomerular disease after seroconversion to a wide range of viruses, relatively few reports provide pathologic evidence of viral infection associated with glomerular lesions on kidney biopsy. Strong associations between hepatitis viruses and glomerular injury have been acknowledged in adults, but hepatitis C virus appears not to be an etiology in children. In the context of treating glomerular diseases, when diagnosed, the treatment of hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus in children with membranoproliferative, membranous and collapsing glomerulopathy plays an important role. Otherwise, there is no evidence suggesting that the identification of a viral infection in a child with glomerulopathy should change the management of the infection or the glomerulonephritis. Therefore, additional research into this topic is very much needed. PMID:25752759

  3. Mapping Enterovirus A71 Antigenic Determinants from Viral Evolution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Tai, Ching-Hui; Fonville, Judith M; Lin, Chin-Hui; Wang, Shih-Min; Liu, Ching-Chung; Su, Ih-Jen; Smith, Derek J; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2015-11-01

    Human enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) belongs to the Enterovirus A species in the Picornaviridae family. Several vaccines against EV-A71, a disease causing severe neurological complications or even death, are currently under development and being tested in clinical trials, and preventative vaccination programs are expected to start soon. To characterize the potential for antigenic change of EV-A71, we compared the sequences of two antigenically diverse genotype B4 and B5 strains of EV-A71 and identified substitutions at residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein as antigenic determinants. To examine the effects of these three substitutions on antigenicity, we constructed a series of recombinant viruses containing different mutation combinations at these three residues with a reverse genetics system and then investigated the molecular basis of antigenic changes with antigenic cartography. We found that a novel EV-A71 mutant, containing lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid at the respective residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein, exhibited neutralization reduction against patients' antisera and substantially increased virus binding ability to human cells. These observations indicated that this low-neutralization-reactive EV-A71 VP1-98K/145Q/164E mutant potentially increases viral binding ability and that surveillance studies should look out for these mutants, which could compromise vaccine efficacy. Emerging and reemerging EV-A71 viruses can cause severe neurological etiology, primarily affecting children, especially around Asia-Pacific countries. We identified a set of mutations in EV-A71 that both reduced neutralization activity against humoral immunity in antisera of patients and healthy adults and greatly increased the viral binding ability to cells. These findings provide important insights for EV-A71 antigenic determinants and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance, especially after EV-A71 vaccination programs begin. Copyright

  4. Mapping Enterovirus A71 Antigenic Determinants from Viral Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Tai, Ching-Hui; Fonville, Judith M.; Lin, Chin-Hui; Wang, Shih-Min; Liu, Ching-Chung; Su, Ih-Jen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) belongs to the Enterovirus A species in the Picornaviridae family. Several vaccines against EV-A71, a disease causing severe neurological complications or even death, are currently under development and being tested in clinical trials, and preventative vaccination programs are expected to start soon. To characterize the potential for antigenic change of EV-A71, we compared the sequences of two antigenically diverse genotype B4 and B5 strains of EV-A71 and identified substitutions at residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein as antigenic determinants. To examine the effects of these three substitutions on antigenicity, we constructed a series of recombinant viruses containing different mutation combinations at these three residues with a reverse genetics system and then investigated the molecular basis of antigenic changes with antigenic cartography. We found that a novel EV-A71 mutant, containing lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid at the respective residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein, exhibited neutralization reduction against patients' antisera and substantially increased virus binding ability to human cells. These observations indicated that this low-neutralization-reactive EV-A71 VP1-98K/145Q/164E mutant potentially increases viral binding ability and that surveillance studies should look out for these mutants, which could compromise vaccine efficacy. IMPORTANCE Emerging and reemerging EV-A71 viruses can cause severe neurological etiology, primarily affecting children, especially around Asia-Pacific countries. We identified a set of mutations in EV-A71 that both reduced neutralization activity against humoral immunity in antisera of patients and healthy adults and greatly increased the viral binding ability to cells. These findings provide important insights for EV-A71 antigenic determinants and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance, especially after EV-A71 vaccination programs

  5. [Etiological and molecular characteristics of diarrhea caused Proteus mirabilis].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaolu; Hu, Qinghua; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the etiological characteristics, virulence genes and plasmids that carrying diarrhea-causing Proteus mirabilis and to assess their relationship with drug resistance and pathogenicity. Proteus mirabilis coming from six different sources (food poisoning, external environment and healthy people) were analyzed biochemically, on related susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Virulence genes were detected by PCR. Plasmids were extracted and sequenced after gel electrophoresis purification. The biochemical characteristics of Proteus mirabilis from different sources seemed basically the same, and each of them showed having common virulence genes, as ureC, rsmA, hpmA and zapA. However, the PFGE patterns and susceptibility of these strains were different, so as the plasmids that they carried. Plasmid that presented in the sequenced strain showed that the 2 683 bp length plasmid encodes qnrD gene was associated with the quinolone resistance. Etiological characteristics and molecular characteristics of Proteus mirabilis gathered from different sources, were analyzed. Results indicated that traditional biochemical analysis and common virulence gene identification might be able to distinguish the strains with different sources. However, PFGE and plasmids analysis could distinguish the sources of strains and to identify those plasmids that commonly carried by the drug-resistant strains. These findings also provided theoretical basis for further study on the nature of resistance and pathogenicity in Proteus mirabilis.

  6. Viruses and bacteria in the etiology of the common cold.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, M J; Puhakka, T; Ruuskanen, O; Leinonen, M; Saikku, P; Kimpimäki, M; Blomqvist, S; Hyypiä, T; Arstila, P

    1998-02-01

    Two hundred young adults with common colds were studied during a 10-month period. Virus culture, antigen detection, PCR, and serology with paired samples were used to identify the infection. Viral etiology was established for 138 of the 200 patients (69%). Rhinoviruses were detected in 105 patients, coronavirus OC43 or 229E infection was detected in 17, influenza A or B virus was detected in 12, and single infections with parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and enterovirus were found in 14 patients. Evidence for bacterial infection was found in seven patients. Four patients had a rise in antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, one had a rise in antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae, one had a rise in antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and one had immunoglobulin M antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The results show that although approximately 50% of episodes of the common cold were caused by rhinoviruses, the etiology can vary depending on the epidemiological situation with regard to circulating viruses. Bacterial infections were rare, supporting the concept that the common cold is almost exclusively a viral disease.

  7. Etiology of myasthenia gravis: innate immunity signature in pathological thymus.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Paola; Cufi, Perrine; Mantegazza, Renato; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Bernasconi, Pia; Le Panse, Rozen

    2013-07-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), whose clinical hallmark is muscle weakness and early fatigability. The main target of autoimmunity in MG is the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) located in the NMJ. It is now widely accepted that the thymus is probably the prime site of autoimmunity development and maintenance in AChR-positive MG patients; however, the exact mechanisms triggering and perpetuating the intra-thymic autoimmune response to AChR are still unknown. As with many autoimmune diseases, MG has a multifactorial etiology, resulting from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors, as fully described in this review. Among environmental factors, viral infections could play a central role in autoimmunity, mainly through the induction of dysregulated Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immune responses, which can lead to inflammation and adaptive autoimmune response. Growing evidence of chronic inflammation, TLR activation, and persistent viral infections in the thymus of MG patients, strongly supports the hypothesis that, in the context of a genetic susceptible background, the intrathymic innate immune responses to pathogen infections might contribute to MG etiology.

  8. Viruses and Bacteria in the Etiology of the Common Cold

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, Mika J.; Puhakka, Tuomo; Ruuskanen, Olli; Leinonen, Maija; Saikku, Pekka; Kimpimäki, Marko; Blomqvist, Soile; Hyypiä, Timo; Arstila, Pertti

    1998-01-01

    Two hundred young adults with common colds were studied during a 10-month period. Virus culture, antigen detection, PCR, and serology with paired samples were used to identify the infection. Viral etiology was established for 138 of the 200 patients (69%). Rhinoviruses were detected in 105 patients, coronavirus OC43 or 229E infection was detected in 17, influenza A or B virus was detected in 12, and single infections with parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and enterovirus were found in 14 patients. Evidence for bacterial infection was found in seven patients. Four patients had a rise in antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, one had a rise in antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae, one had a rise in antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and one had immunoglobulin M antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The results show that although approximately 50% of episodes of the common cold were caused by rhinoviruses, the etiology can vary depending on the epidemiological situation with regard to circulating viruses. Bacterial infections were rare, supporting the concept that the common cold is almost exclusively a viral disease. PMID:9466772

  9. Infectious etiologies of acute febrile illness among patients seeking health care in south-central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Matthew R; Blair, Patrick J; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L; Burgess, Timothy H; Wierzba, Thomas F; Putnam, Shannon D

    2012-02-01

    The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.

  10. Sundown syndrome: etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Burney-Puckett, M

    1996-05-01

    1. Although no clear definition of "sundowning" or "sundown syndrome" exists in the literature, most health care professionals affix either of these terms to the behavior observed in patients with dementia associated with increased agitation and confusion that occurs in the late afternoon. 2. Specific etiologic hypotheses that relate to sundowning behavior include disturbance in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep, episodes of sleep apnea, and a deterioration of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. 3. Management of sundowning behavior includes the identification and treatment of any physiologic factors, low doses of specific neuroleptics, and nonpharmacological interventions such as restriction of daytime sleep, exposure to bright lights during the day, and mild activity schedules.

  11. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  12. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  13. [Pedophilia: etiology, diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Fromberger, P; Jordan, K; Müller, J L

    2013-09-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most destructive events for healthy child development. Following psychiatric classification systems, pedophilia must be distinguished from child sexual abuse. Approximately only one half of all child abusers fulfill the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia which is defined as a persistent or dominating sexual preference for prepubescent children characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal or behavior. This article describes the diagnostic criteria and potential differential diagnoses as well as epidemiological and etiological findings. From an etiological point of view multifactorial mechanisms are currently considered to be responsible especially genetic factors, learning theoretical and neurobiological factors. Psychotherapeutic and pharmaceutical treatment options will be discussed. According to the current state of knowledge cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is the method of choice in the treatment of pedophilia and has demonstrated positive treatment effects in meta-analyses regarding relapse prevention. Medicinal treatment of pedophilia is only indicated for severe forms of pedophilia. Important aspects of risk management in the treatment of pedophilia and aspects which must be considered in the forensic psychiatric assessment are presented.

  14. Translational Control in Cancer Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Ruggero, Davide

    2013-01-01

    The link between perturbations in translational control and cancer etiology is becoming a primary focus in cancer research. It has now been established that genetic alterations in several components of the translational apparatus underlie spontaneous cancers as well as an entire class of inherited syndromes known as “ribosomopathies” associated with increased cancer susceptibility. These discoveries have illuminated the importance of deregulations in translational control to very specific cellular processes that contribute to cancer etiology. In addition, a growing body of evidence supports the view that deregulation of translational control is a common mechanism by which diverse oncogenic pathways promote cellular transformation and tumor development. Indeed, activation of these key oncogenic pathways induces rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming both by increasing overall protein synthesis and by modulating specific mRNA networks. These translational changes promote cellular transformation, impacting almost every phase of tumor development. This paradigm represents a new frontier in the multihit model of cancer formation and offers significant promise for innovative cancer therapies. Current research, in conjunction with cutting edge technologies, will further enable us to explore novel mechanisms of translational control, functionally identify translationally controlled mRNA groups, and unravel their impact on cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. PMID:22767671

  15. Translational control in cancer etiology.

    PubMed

    Ruggero, Davide

    2013-02-01

    The link between perturbations in translational control and cancer etiology is becoming a primary focus in cancer research. It has now been established that genetic alterations in several components of the translational apparatus underlie spontaneous cancers as well as an entire class of inherited syndromes known as "ribosomopathies" associated with increased cancer susceptibility. These discoveries have illuminated the importance of deregulations in translational control to very specific cellular processes that contribute to cancer etiology. In addition, a growing body of evidence supports the view that deregulation of translational control is a common mechanism by which diverse oncogenic pathways promote cellular transformation and tumor development. Indeed, activation of these key oncogenic pathways induces rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming both by increasing overall protein synthesis and by modulating specific mRNA networks. These translational changes promote cellular transformation, impacting almost every phase of tumor development. This paradigm represents a new frontier in the multihit model of cancer formation and offers significant promise for innovative cancer therapies. Current research, in conjunction with cutting edge technologies, will further enable us to explore novel mechanisms of translational control, functionally identify translationally controlled mRNA groups, and unravel their impact on cellular transformation and tumorigenesis.

  16. Congenital scoliosis: etiology and associations.

    PubMed

    Hensinger, Robert N

    2009-08-01

    Literature review. To provide a current overview of congenital scoliosis and associated conditions. The etiology of congenital scoliosis is unknown. A variety of factors have been implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. These factors provide clues to the origin of congenital scoliosis. A search of PubMed, using the keywords congenital scoliosis, etiology, and genetics was performed. Environmental factors, genetics, vitamin deficiency, chemicals, and drugs, singly or in combination, have all been implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. Whatever the cause, the physiologic injury occurs early in the embryologic period, well before the development of cartilage and bone. The resulting defects can lead to full or partial fusion or lack of development of the vertebrae, which, in turn, can cause a curvature that, may be progressive during the growth of the child. The origin of congenital scoliosis may be environmental, genetic, or a combination of factors. Research on these various factors continues. Early identification and management of concomitant defects can improve the patient's quality of life.

  17. Sensitive Detection of Viral Transcripts in Human Tumor Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Schelhorn, Sven-Eric; Fischer, Matthias; Tolosi, Laura; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Pfister, Herbert; Lengauer, Thomas; Berthold, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In excess of % of human cancer incidents have a viral cofactor. Epidemiological studies of idiopathic human cancers indicate that additional tumor viruses remain to be discovered. Recent advances in sequencing technology have enabled systematic screenings of human tumor transcriptomes for viral transcripts. However, technical problems such as low abundances of viral transcripts in large volumes of sequencing data, viral sequence divergence, and homology between viral and human factors significantly confound identification of tumor viruses. We have developed a novel computational approach for detecting viral transcripts in human cancers that takes the aforementioned confounding factors into account and is applicable to a wide variety of viruses and tumors. We apply the approach to conducting the first systematic search for viruses in neuroblastoma, the most common cancer in infancy. The diverse clinical progression of this disease as well as related epidemiological and virological findings are highly suggestive of a pathogenic cofactor. However, a viral etiology of neuroblastoma is currently contested. We mapped transcriptomes of neuroblastoma as well as positive and negative controls to the human and all known viral genomes in order to detect both known and unknown viruses. Analysis of controls, comparisons with related methods, and statistical estimates demonstrate the high sensitivity of our approach. Detailed investigation of putative viral transcripts within neuroblastoma samples did not provide evidence for the existence of any known human viruses. Likewise, de-novo assembly and analysis of chimeric transcripts did not result in expression signatures associated with novel human pathogens. While confounding factors such as sample dilution or viral clearance in progressed tumors may mask viral cofactors in the data, in principle, this is rendered less likely by the high sensitivity of our approach and the number of biological replicates analyzed. Therefore, our

  18. The role of respiratory viruses in the etiology of bacterial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Han; Gordon, Aubree; Foxman, Betsy

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children less than 5 years old worldwide. A wide range of viral, bacterial and fungal agents can cause pneumonia: although viruses are the most common etiologic agent, the severity of clinical symptoms associated with bacterial pneumonia and increasing antibiotic resistance makes bacterial pneumonia a major public health concern. Bacterial pneumonia can follow upper respiratory viral infection and complicate lower respiratory viral infection. Secondary bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of influenza-related deaths. In this review, we evaluate the following hypotheses: (i) respiratory viruses influence the etiology of pneumonia by altering bacterial community structure in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and (ii) respiratory viruses promote or inhibit colonization of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) by certain bacterial species residing in the URT. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine temporal associations between respiratory viruses and bacteria and a targeted review to identify potential mechanisms of interactions. We conclude that viruses both alter the bacterial community in the URT and promote bacterial colonization of the LRT. However, it is uncertain whether changes in the URT bacterial community play a substantial role in pneumonia etiology. The exception is Streptococcus pneumoniae where a strong link between viral co-infection, increased carriage and pneumococcal pneumonia has been established. PMID:26884414

  19. Fulminant viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Saumya; Chowdhury, Raiyan; Ye, Carrie; Karvellas, Constantine J

    2013-07-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a condition wherein the previously healthy liver rapidly deteriorates, resulting in jaundice, encephalopathy, and coagulopathy. There are approximately 2000 cases per year of ALF in the United States. Viral causes (fulminant viral hepatitis [FVH]) are the predominant cause of ALF in developing countries. Given the ease of spread of viral hepatitis and the high morbidity and mortality associated with ALF, a systematic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of FVH is required. In this review, the authors describe the viral causes of ALF and review the intensive care unit management of patients with FVH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacterial and viral infections associated with influenza.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Carol; Togawa, Yu; Shindo, Nahoko

    2013-09-01

    Influenza-associated bacterial and viral infections are responsible for high levels of morbidity and death during pandemic and seasonal influenza episodes. A review was undertaken to assess and evaluate the incidence, epidemiology, aetiology, clinical importance and impact of bacterial and viral co-infection and secondary infection associated with influenza. A review was carried out of published articles covering bacterial and viral infections associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza between 1918 and 2009 (and published through December 2011) to include both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections. While pneumococcal infection remains the predominant cause of bacterial pneumonia, the review highlights the importance of other co- and secondary bacterial and viral infections associated with influenza, and the emergence of newly identified dual infections associated with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain. Severe influenza-associated pneumonia is often bacterial and will necessitate antibiotic treatment. In addition to the well-known bacterial causes, less common bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila may also be associated with influenza when new influenza strains emerge. This review should provide clinicians with an overview of the range of bacterial and viral co- or secondary infections that could present with influenza illness.

  1. Voice Disorders: Etiology and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; do Amaral, Henrique Abrantes; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Maira Garcia; Gonçalves, Tatiana Maria; Dias, Norimar Hernandes

    2016-11-01

    Voice disorders affect adults and children and have different causes in different age groups. The aim of the study is to present the etiology and diagnosis dysphonia in a large population of patients with this voice disorder.for dysphonia of a large population of dysphonic patients. We evaluated 2019 patients with dysphonia who attended the Voice Disease ambulatories of a university hospital. Parameters assessed were age, gender, profession, associated symptoms, smoking, and videolaryngoscopy diagnoses. Of the 2019 patients with dysphonia who were included in this study, 786 were male (38.93%) and 1233 were female (61.07). The age groups were as follows: 1-6 years (n = 100); 7-12 years (n = 187); 13-18 years (n = 92); 19-39 years (n = 494); 41-60 years (n = 811); and >60 years (n = 335). Symptoms associated with dysphonia were vocal overuse (n = 677), gastroesophageal symptoms (n = 535), and nasosinusal symptoms (n = 497). The predominant professions of the patients were domestic workers, students, and teachers. Smoking was reported by 13.6% patients. With regard to the etiology of dysphonia, in children (1-18 years old), nodules (n = 225; 59.3%), cysts (n = 39; 10.3%), and acute laryngitis (n = 26; 6.8%) prevailed. In adults (19-60 years old), functional dysphonia (n = 268; 20.5%), acid laryngitis (n = 164; 12.5%), and vocal polyps (n = 156; 12%) predominated. In patients older than 60 years, presbyphonia (n = 89; 26.5%), functional dysphonia (n = 59; 17.6%), and Reinke's edema (n = 48; 14%) predominated. In this population of 2019 patients with dysphonia, adults and women were predominant. Dysphonia had different etiologies in the age groups studied. Nodules and cysts were predominant in children, functional dysphonia and reflux in adults, and presbyphonia and Reinke's edema in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Etiological factors in Burkitt's disease].

    PubMed

    Capdevielle, P; Darie, H; Barabé, P

    1983-01-01

    Different aetiological factors of Burkitt's disease, or Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) are considered in an analytical, then synthetical point of view, according to present admitted facts. Epidemiologic data are recalled in order to assign a place to the disease. Relations with Epstein-Barr virus (E.B.V.) are well-known by comparative pathology (connections between animal tumors and herpetic virus), virologic and serologic studies; the role of E.B.V. is based on the presence of viral genomas and nuclear antigens in tumoral cells of B.L.; there are B.L. without E.B.V., but constantly improved study of anti-E.B.V. antibodies, and viral markers, will may be decrease their number. Connections with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are recognized. Discovery of chromosomal aberrations is a new important stage. At the present time, it is generally guessed that: a) the initiation of malignant process might be induced by E.B.V. b) an external agent might cause the promotion of cellular division. c) chromosomal abnormality might be responsible for the malignant transformation.

  3. Noise Injury: Etiology and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to noise might be responsible for a wide and varied spectrum of physical and mental morbidity, although many of the claims of cause and effect relationship are controversial and unproven. The etiological relationship between noise and high frequency hearing loss is, however, well documented. While noise-induced hearing loss is considered to be primarily an occupational problem, current leisure time activities have created the potential for it to become more common in the community at large. Once developed, this hearing loss is permanent and cannot be influenced by therapy. Noise-induced hearing loss is almost completely preventable and the family physician has an important responsibility for primary and secondary prevention, whether the noise source is in the workplace or in some other location. PMID:21286519

  4. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction related to viral infections.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, R; Ricciardiello, L; Naponelli, V; Selgrad, M; Piazzi, G; Felicani, C; Serra, M; Fronzoni, L; Antonucci, A; Cogliandro, R F; Barbara, G; Corinaldesi, R; Tonini, M; Knowles, C H; Stanghellini, V

    2010-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO), one of the most severe gastrointestinal motility disorders, is a condition characterized by a clinical picture mimicking small bowel occlusion with related symptoms and signs in the absence of demonstrable mechanical obstruction. Analysis of full-thickness biopsy samples may unravel structural changes of the neuromuscular layer involving the whole gut, although the midgut is usually worst affected. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction can occur in association with systemic neurological, endocrine, and connective tissue diseases or malignancy but, when no recognizable etiology is found, CIPO is referred to as idiopathic (CIIPO). The latter form can be diagnosed early in life due to a genetic etiology or in adulthood when a viral origin may be considered. This review addresses the hypothesis that some systemic neurotrophic viral infections can affect the enteric nervous system thereby altering normal peristaltic activity. Available data are reviewed, focusing specifically on herpesviruses or polyomaviruses (JC virus). These suggest that in comparison to a proportion of CIIPO patients, healthy controls rarely harbor viral DNA in the myenteric plexus, leaving open the possibility that a viral infection might have an etiologic role in the development of CIIPO. The review thus provides some new perspectives in the pathophysiology and perhaps targeted treatment of CIIPO.

  5. Bats as Viral Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Hayman, David T S

    2016-09-29

    Bats are hosts of a range of viruses, including ebolaviruses, and many important human viral infections, such as measles and mumps, may have their ancestry traced back to bats. Here, I review viruses of all viral families detected in global bat populations. The viral diversity in bats is substantial, and viruses with all known types of genomic structures and replication strategies have been discovered in bats. However, the discovery of viruses is not geographically even, with some apparently undersampled regions, such as South America. Furthermore, some bat families, including those with global or wide distributions such as Emballonuridae and Miniopteridae, are underrepresented on viral databases. Future studies, including those that address these sampling gaps along with those that develop our understanding of viral-host relationships, are highlighted.

  6. Viral Disease Networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  7. [Viral hepatitis during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Gutkowski, Krzysztof; Gutkowska, Dorota; Lepiech, Jacek

    2006-10-01

    Viral hepatitis is one of the most common liver diseases appearing during pregnancy. Prevention against hepatotropic viruses is restricted due to lack of vaccines being effective in induction of efficient immunization in the majority of these microorganisms. In general, there is no possibility of active immunization against hepatotropic viruses except type A and B viral hepatitis. An issue of viral hepatitis in pregnancy as an aspect of potential risk factor connected with infection of pregnant women and a fetus has been described in this paper. Furthermore, the most important topics in the field of the epidemiology, prophylaxis and possible treatment options of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G have been discussed. The newest reports of pregnant women lamivudine therapy as a preventive treatment against vertical transmission during delivery have been reviewed. Rarly diagnosed viral hepatitis caused by herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and adenoviruses have been characterized as well.

  8. Application of high-throughput sequencing to whole rabies viral genome characterisation and its use for phylogenetic re-evaluation of a raccoon strain incursion into the province of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A.; Colville, Adam; Trewby, Hannah; Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Raccoon rabies remains a serious public health problem throughout much of the eastern seaboard of North America due to the urban nature of the reservoir host and the many challenges inherent in multi-jurisdictional efforts to administer co-ordinated and comprehensive wildlife rabies control programmes. Better understanding of the mechanisms of spread of rabies virus can play a significant role in guiding such control efforts. To facilitate a detailed molecular epidemiological study of raccoon rabies virus movements across eastern North America, we developed a methodology to efficiently determine whole genome sequences of hundreds of viral samples. The workflow combines the generation of a limited number of overlapping amplicons covering the complete viral genome and use of high throughput sequencing technology. The value of this approach is demonstrated through a retrospective phylogenetic analysis of an outbreak of raccoon rabies which occurred in the province of Ontario between 1999 and 2005. As demonstrated by the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms detected, whole genome sequence data were far more effective than single gene sequences in discriminating between samples and this facilitated the generation of more robust and informative phylogenies that yielded insights into the spatio-temporal pattern of viral spread. With minor modification this approach could be applied to other rabies virus variants thereby facilitating greatly improved phylogenetic inference and thus better understanding of the spread of this serious zoonotic disease. Such information will inform the most appropriate strategies for rabies control in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:28219746

  9. ViralORFeome: an integrated database to generate a versatile collection of viral ORFs

    PubMed Central

    Pellet, J.; Tafforeau, L.; Lucas-Hourani, M.; Navratil, V.; Meyniel, L.; Achaz, G.; Guironnet-Paquet, A.; Aublin-Gex, A.; Caignard, G.; Cassonnet, P.; Chaboud, A.; Chantier, T.; Deloire, A.; Demeret, C.; Le Breton, M.; Neveu, G.; Jacotot, L.; Vaglio, P.; Delmotte, S.; Gautier, C.; Combet, C.; Deleage, G.; Favre, M.; Tangy, F.; Jacob, Y.; Andre, P.; Lotteau, V.; Rabourdin-Combe, C.; Vidalain, P. O.

    2010-01-01

    Large collections of protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) established in a versatile recombination-based cloning system have been instrumental to study protein functions in high-throughput assays. Such ‘ORFeome’ resources have been developed for several organisms but in virology, plasmid collections covering a significant fraction of the virosphere are still needed. In this perspective, we present ViralORFeome 1.0 (http://www.viralorfeome.com), an open-access database and management system that provides an integrated set of bioinformatic tools to clone viral ORFs in the Gateway® system. ViralORFeome provides a convenient interface to navigate through virus genome sequences, to design ORF-specific cloning primers, to validate the sequence of generated constructs and to browse established collections of virus ORFs. Most importantly, ViralORFeome has been designed to manage all possible variants or mutants of a given ORF so that the cloning procedure can be applied to any emerging virus strain. A subset of plasmid constructs generated with ViralORFeome platform has been tested with success for heterologous protein expression in different expression systems at proteome scale. ViralORFeome should provide our community with a framework to establish a large collection of virus ORF clones, an instrumental resource to determine functions, activities and binding partners of viral proteins. PMID:20007148

  10. ViralORFeome: an integrated database to generate a versatile collection of viral ORFs.

    PubMed

    Pellet, J; Tafforeau, L; Lucas-Hourani, M; Navratil, V; Meyniel, L; Achaz, G; Guironnet-Paquet, A; Aublin-Gex, A; Caignard, G; Cassonnet, P; Chaboud, A; Chantier, T; Deloire, A; Demeret, C; Le Breton, M; Neveu, G; Jacotot, L; Vaglio, P; Delmotte, S; Gautier, C; Combet, C; Deleage, G; Favre, M; Tangy, F; Jacob, Y; Andre, P; Lotteau, V; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Vidalain, P O

    2010-01-01

    Large collections of protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) established in a versatile recombination-based cloning system have been instrumental to study protein functions in high-throughput assays. Such 'ORFeome' resources have been developed for several organisms but in virology, plasmid collections covering a significant fraction of the virosphere are still needed. In this perspective, we present ViralORFeome 1.0 (http://www.viralorfeome.com), an open-access database and management system that provides an integrated set of bioinformatic tools to clone viral ORFs in the Gateway(R) system. ViralORFeome provides a convenient interface to navigate through virus genome sequences, to design ORF-specific cloning primers, to validate the sequence of generated constructs and to browse established collections of virus ORFs. Most importantly, ViralORFeome has been designed to manage all possible variants or mutants of a given ORF so that the cloning procedure can be applied to any emerging virus strain. A subset of plasmid constructs generated with ViralORFeome platform has been tested with success for heterologous protein expression in different expression systems at proteome scale. ViralORFeome should provide our community with a framework to establish a large collection of virus ORF clones, an instrumental resource to determine functions, activities and binding partners of viral proteins.

  11. Clinical and experimental aspects of viral myocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, K; Blay, R; Haisch, C; Lodge, A; Weller, A; Huber, S

    1989-01-01

    Picornaviruses are frequently implicated as the etiological agents of acute myocarditis. This association is based historically on serological evidence of rising antibody titers to specific pathogens and more recently on identification of viral genomic material in endocardial biopsy specimens through in situ hybridization. Only rarely is infectious virus isolated from either the patient or the heart during periods of maximum myocardial inflammation and injury. Thus, despite a probable viral etiology, much interest centers on the role of the immune system in cardiac damage and the likelihood that the infection triggers an autoimmune response to heart-specific antigens. Heart-reactive antibodies and T cells are found in most myocarditis patients, and immunosuppressive therapy has proven beneficial in many, though not all, cases. Furthermore, murine models of coxsackievirus group B type 3-induced myocarditis also demonstrate that virus infection initiates autoimmunity and that these autoimmune effectors are predominately responsible for tissue injury. How virus-host interactions overcome presumed self-tolerance to heart antigens is discussed, and evidence supporting various theories of virus-initiated autoimmunity and disease pathogenesis are delineated. PMID:2650861

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus: From the Detection of Sequence Polymorphisms to the Recognition of Viral Types.

    PubMed

    Feederle, Regina; Klinke, Olaf; Kutikhin, Anton; Poirey, Remy; Tsai, Ming-Han; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus is etiologically linked with the development of benign and malignant diseases, characterized by their diversity and a heterogeneous geographic distribution across the world. The virus possesses a 170-kb-large genome that encodes for multiple proteins and non-coding RNAs. Early on there have been numerous attempts to link particular diseases with particular EBV strains, or at least with viral genetic polymorphisms. This has given rise to a wealth of information whose value has been difficult to evaluate for at least four reasons. First, most studies have looked only at one particular gene and missed the global picture. Second, they usually have not studied sufficient numbers of diseased and control cases to reach robust statistical significance. Third, the functional significance of most polymorphisms has remained unclear, although there are exceptions such as the 30-bp deletion in LMP1. Fourth, different biological properties of the virus do not necessarily equate with a different pathogenicity. This was best illustrated by the type 1 and type 2 viruses that markedly differ in terms of their transformation abilities, yet do not seem to cause different diseases. Reciprocally, environmental and genetic factors in the host are likely to influence the outcome of infections with the same virus type. However, with recent developments in recombinant virus technology and in the availability of high throughput sequencing, the tide is now turning. The availability of 23 complete or nearly complete genomes has led to the recognition of viral subtypes, some of which possess nearly identical genotypes. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that some genetic polymorphisms among EBV strains markedly influence the biological and clinical behavior of the virus. Some virus strains are endowed with biological properties that explain crucial clinical features of patients with EBV-associated diseases. Although we now have a better overview of the genetic

  13. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  14. [CHRONIC DIARRHEA OF INFECTIOUS ETIOLOGY

    PubMed

    Farfán F G, Gustavo

    1997-01-01

    Chronic Diarrhea syndrome is due to several causes. In LatinAmericen countries, infectious and parasitic etiology is frequent. Withinthese infections, the following has been determined: parasitic and enterobacterial agents, overpopulation of bacteria syndrome in the upper small bowel (SOBIA, abbreviation for Síndrome de Sobrepoblación Bacteriana del Intestino Delgado Alto), intestinal TBC, and AIDS. In these processes, the precipitating factor may be unique or multifactor; or there could also exist a tendency towards pathologies for these infections. There has been evidence of SOBIA cases without associated factor in Latin American countries. A study made in Peru shows SOBIA cases in 30 percent of chronic diarrhea.In chronic diarrhea cases, and even more, in those diarrheas of infectiousetiology, a complete study should be made, considering the several factorsthat generate diarrhea in a same one case, such as the mechanisms ofimmunodeficiency, neurological, endocrinemetabolic, and others associated with intestinal infections. This approach will be helpful to make a complete diagnosis and apply timely treatment.

  15. Syncope: epidemiology, etiology, and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rose M. F. L.

    2014-01-01

    Syncope is a common medical problem, with a frequency between 15% and 39%. In the general population, the annual number episodes are 18.1–39.7 per 1000 patients, with similar incidence between genders. The first report of the incidence of syncope is 6.2 per 1000 person-years. However, there is a significant increase in the incidence of syncope after 70 years of age with rate annual 19.5 per thousand individuals after 80 years. It presents a recurrence rate of 35% and 29% of physical injury. Among the causes of syncope, the mediated neural reflex, known as neurocardiogenic or vasovagal syncope, is the most frequent. The others are of cardiac origin, orthostatic hypotension, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, neurological and endocrinological causes and psychiatric disorders. The diagnosis of syncope can be made by clinical method associated with the electrocardiogram in up 50% of patients. Its prognosis is determined by the underlying etiology specifically the presence and severity of cardiac disease. The annual mortality can reach between 18 and 33% if cardiac cause, and between 0 and 12% if the non-cardiac cause. Thus, it is imperative to identify its cause and risk stratification for positive impact in reducing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25538626

  16. Viruses and viral proteins.

    PubMed

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R N

    2014-11-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes.

  17. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  18. [Neuropediatrics: epidemiological features and etiologies at the Dakar neurology service].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Sene-Diouf, F; Diop, A G; Ndao, A K; Ndiaye, M M; Ndiaye, I P

    1999-01-01

    Child neurology is a relatively young speciality of neurosciences which is at the frontier of Neurology and Paediatrics. Its development has been impulsed by the diagnosis techniques such as Neurobiology, Genetics, Neuroimaging and pedo-psychology. We conducted a retrospective survey among the in-patients from January 1980 to December 1997 in the service of Neurology of the University Hospital. Have been included children ranged from 0 to 15 years old without any racial, sexual or origin distinctive. In Neurology Department, children of 0 to 15 years old represent 10.06% of the in-patients received from 1980 to 1997. The mortality rate was 9.23%. The diseases are dominated by epilepsy and infantile encephalopathies with 31.02%, infectious diseases with 19.36% represented by tuberculosis, other bacterial, viral and parasitical etiologies, tumors with 10.36%, vascular pathology and degenerative disorders.

  19. Perspectives on retroviruses and the etiologic agent of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, G. D.

    1987-01-01

    In 1911, the first retrovirus was described: the Rous sarcoma virus, an avian retrovirus. Forty years later the murine leukemic virus, a mouse retrovirus, was reported. Although many other retroviruses from non-primate species were identified during the 1960s, the first primate retrovirus was not recognized until it was isolated from a monkey tumor in 1970. The search for human retroviruses in human leukemic cells remained unsuccessful at that time. Facilitated by the discovery of T-cell growth factor, a substance used for the propagation of human leukocytes in cultures, the first human retrovirus was discovered in 1980. Soon thereafter, in 1983, another human retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was reported and implicated as the etiologic agent of AIDS. The isolation and identification of HIV has stimulated much interest in the study of human retroviruses and the control of this new viral disease. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:2829449

  20. Multicenter Evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray Gastrointestinal Panel for Etiologic Diagnosis of Infectious Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Leber, Amy; Chapin, Kimberle; Fey, Paul D.; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Jones, Matthew K.; Rogatcheva, Margarita; Kanack, Kristen J.; Bourzac, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate treatment and control of infectious gastroenteritis depend on the ability to rapidly detect the wide range of etiologic agents associated with the disease. Clinical laboratories currently utilize an array of different methodologies to test for bacterial, parasitic, and viral causes of gastroenteritis, a strategy that suffers from poor sensitivity, potentially long turnaround times, and complicated ordering practices and workflows. Additionally, there are limited or no testing methods routinely available for most diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains, astroviruses, and sapoviruses. This study assessed the performance of the FilmArray Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel for the simultaneous detection of 22 different enteric pathogens directly from stool specimens: Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile (toxin A/B), Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteroaggregative E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, adenovirus F 40/41, astrovirus, norovirus GI/GII, rotavirus A, and sapovirus. Prospectively collected stool specimens (n = 1,556) were evaluated using the BioFire FilmArray GI Panel and tested with conventional stool culture and molecular methods for comparison. The FilmArray GI Panel sensitivity was 100% for 12/22 targets and ≥94.5% for an additional 7/22 targets. For the remaining three targets, sensitivity could not be calculated due to the low prevalences in this study. The FilmArray GI Panel specificity was ≥97.1% for all panel targets. The FilmArray GI Panel provides a comprehensive, rapid, and streamlined alternative to conventional methods for the etiologic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis in the laboratory setting. The potential

  1. Multicenter evaluation of the BioFire FilmArray gastrointestinal panel for etiologic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Buss, Sarah N; Leber, Amy; Chapin, Kimberle; Fey, Paul D; Bankowski, Matthew J; Jones, Matthew K; Rogatcheva, Margarita; Kanack, Kristen J; Bourzac, Kevin M

    2015-03-01

    The appropriate treatment and control of infectious gastroenteritis depend on the ability to rapidly detect the wide range of etiologic agents associated with the disease. Clinical laboratories currently utilize an array of different methodologies to test for bacterial, parasitic, and viral causes of gastroenteritis, a strategy that suffers from poor sensitivity, potentially long turnaround times, and complicated ordering practices and workflows. Additionally, there are limited or no testing methods routinely available for most diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains, astroviruses, and sapoviruses. This study assessed the performance of the FilmArray Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel for the simultaneous detection of 22 different enteric pathogens directly from stool specimens: Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile (toxin A/B), Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteroaggregative E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, adenovirus F 40/41, astrovirus, norovirus GI/GII, rotavirus A, and sapovirus. Prospectively collected stool specimens (n = 1,556) were evaluated using the BioFire FilmArray GI Panel and tested with conventional stool culture and molecular methods for comparison. The FilmArray GI Panel sensitivity was 100% for 12/22 targets and ≥94.5% for an additional 7/22 targets. For the remaining three targets, sensitivity could not be calculated due to the low prevalences in this study. The FilmArray GI Panel specificity was ≥97.1% for all panel targets. The FilmArray GI Panel provides a comprehensive, rapid, and streamlined alternative to conventional methods for the etiologic diagnosis of infectious gastroenteritis in the laboratory setting. The potential

  2. [Classification and etiology of hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Łacka, Katarzyna; Fraczek, Magdalena Maria

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in women is between 0.5-2% and it is 10 times less common in men. The most common causes are Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma. Rare causes of hyperthyroidisms are as follow: pituitary adenoma, autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashitoxicosis), levothyroxine overdose, inadequate iodine supplementation (including amiodaron induced hyperthyroidism, iodine-based contrast media), hCG excess (pregnancy, gestational trophoblastic disease, germ-cell tumors), drug induced hyperthyroidism, differentiated thyroid carcinomas and/or their metastases, struma ovarii, and familial nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism. This article focuses on the current data of etiopathogenesis of hyperthyroidisms. Genetic factors (like HLA-DR3,CD40, CTLA-4, PTPN22, FOXP3 CD25) and thyroid specific genes (thyroglobulin, TSHR, G(s)alpha) and environmental and endogenous factors (such as age, iodine, selenium, emotional stress, smoking, gender, pregnancy, sex hormones, fetal microchimerism, fetal growth, bacterial infections, viral infections, allergies, drugs (alemtuzumab, interferon alpha, iplimumab/tremelimumab, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, denileukindiftitox, thalidomide/lenalidomide, exposition to fallout and radiotherapy) have been described.

  3. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  4. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed.

  5. Mechanisms of viral mutation.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Domingo-Calap, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    The remarkable capacity of some viruses to adapt to new hosts and environments is highly dependent on their ability to generate de novo diversity in a short period of time. Rates of spontaneous mutation vary amply among viruses. RNA viruses mutate faster than DNA viruses, single-stranded viruses mutate faster than double-strand virus, and genome size appears to correlate negatively with mutation rate. Viral mutation rates are modulated at different levels, including polymerase fidelity, sequence context, template secondary structure, cellular microenvironment, replication mechanisms, proofreading, and access to post-replicative repair. Additionally, massive numbers of mutations can be introduced by some virus-encoded diversity-generating elements, as well as by host-encoded cytidine/adenine deaminases. Our current knowledge of viral mutation rates indicates that viral genetic diversity is determined by multiple virus- and host-dependent processes, and that viral mutation rates can evolve in response to specific selective pressures.

  6. Modeling Viral Spread

    PubMed Central

    Graw, Frederik; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    The way in which a viral infection spreads within a host is a complex process that is not well understood. Different viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus, have evolved different strategies, including direct cell-to-cell transmission and cell-free transmission, to spread within a host. To what extent these two modes of transmission are exploited in vivo is still unknown. Mathematical modeling has been an essential tool to get a better systematic and quantitative understanding of viral processes that are difficult to discern through strictly experimental approaches. In this review, we discuss recent attempts that combine experimental data and mathematical modeling in order to determine and quantify viral transmission modes. We also discuss the current challenges for a systems-level understanding of viral spread, and we highlight the promises and challenges that novel experimental techniques and data will bring to the field. PMID:27618637

  7. Ball Python Nidovirus: a Candidate Etiologic Agent for Severe Respiratory Disease in Python regius

    PubMed Central

    Stenglein, Mark D.; Jacobson, Elliott R.; Wozniak, Edward J.; Wellehan, James F. X.; Kincaid, Anne; Gordon, Marcus; Porter, Brian F.; Baumgartner, Wes; Stahl, Scott; Kelley, Karen; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A severe, sometimes fatal respiratory disease has been observed in captive ball pythons (Python regius) since the late 1990s. In order to better understand this disease and its etiology, we collected case and control samples and performed pathological and diagnostic analyses. Electron micrographs revealed filamentous virus-like particles in lung epithelial cells of sick animals. Diagnostic testing for known pathogens did not identify an etiologic agent, so unbiased metagenomic sequencing was performed. Abundant nidovirus-like sequences were identified in cases and were used to assemble the genome of a previously unknown virus in the order Nidovirales. The nidoviruses, which were not previously known to infect nonavian reptiles, are a diverse order that includes important human and veterinary pathogens. The presence of the viral RNA was confirmed in all diseased animals (n = 8) but was not detected in healthy pythons or other snakes (n = 57). Viral RNA levels were generally highest in the lung and other respiratory tract tissues. The 33.5-kb viral genome is the largest RNA genome yet described and shares canonical characteristics with other nidovirus genomes, although several features distinguish this from related viruses. This virus, which we named ball python nidovirus (BPNV), will likely establish a new genus in Torovirinae subfamily. The identification of a novel nidovirus in reptiles contributes to our understanding of the biology and evolution of related viruses, and its association with lung disease in pythons is a promising step toward elucidating an etiology for this long-standing veterinary disease. PMID:25205093

  8. Viral coinfection in childhood respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Roig, A; Salvadó, M; Caballero-Rabasco, M A; Sánchez-Buenavida, A; López-Segura, N; Bonet-Alcaina, M

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of molecular techniques has enabled better understanding of the etiology of respiratory tract infections in children. The objective of the study was to analyze viral coinfection and its relationship to clinical severity. Hospitalized pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory infection were studied during the period between 2009-2010. Clinical and epidemiological data, duration of hospitalization, need for oxygen therapy, bacterial coinfection and need for mechanical ventilation were collected. Etiology was studied by multiplex PCR and low-density microarrays for 19 viruses. A total of 385 patients were positive, 44.94% under 12 months. The most frequently detected viruses were RSV-B: 139, rhinovirus: 114, RSV-A: 111, influenza A H1N1-2009: 93 and bocavirus: 77. Coinfection was detected in 61.81%, 36.36% with 2 viruses, 16.10% and 9.35% with 3 to 4 or more. Coinfection was higher in 2009 with 69.79 vs. 53.88% in 2010. Rhinovirus/RSV-B on 10 times and RSV-A/RSV-B on 5 times were the most detected coinfections. Hospitalization decreased with greater number of viruses (P<0,001). Oxygen therapy was required by 26.75% (one virus was detected in 55.34% of cases). A larger number of viruses resulted in less need for oxygen (P<0,001). Ten cases required mechanical ventilation, 4 patients with bacterial coinfection and 5 with viral coinfection (P=0,69). An inverse relationship was found between the number of viruses detected in nasopharyngeal aspirate, the need for oxygen therapy and hospitalization days. More epidemiological studies and improved quantitative detection techniques are needed to define the role of viral coinfections in respiratory disease and its correlation with the clinical severity. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Microvesicles and viral infection.

    PubMed

    Meckes, David G; Raab-Traub, Nancy

    2011-12-01

    Cells secrete various membrane-enclosed microvesicles from their cell surface (shedding microvesicles) and from internal, endosome-derived membranes (exosomes). Intriguingly, these vesicles have many characteristics in common with enveloped viruses, including biophysical properties, biogenesis, and uptake by cells. Recent discoveries describing the microvesicle-mediated intercellular transfer of functional cellular proteins, RNAs, and mRNAs have revealed additional similarities between viruses and cellular microvesicles. Apparent differences include the complexity of viral entry, temporally regulated viral expression, and self-replication proceeding to infection of new cells. Interestingly, many virally infected cells secrete microvesicles that differ in content from their virion counterparts but may contain various viral proteins and RNAs. For the most part, these particles have not been analyzed for their content or functions during viral infection. However, early studies of microvesicles (L-particles) secreted from herpes simplex virus-infected cells provided the first evidence of microvesicle-mediated intercellular communication. In the case of Epstein-Barr virus, recent evidence suggests that this tumorigenic herpesvirus also utilizes exosomes as a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication through the transfer of signaling competent proteins and functional microRNAs to uninfected cells. This review focuses on aspects of the biology of microvesicles with an emphasis on their potential contributions to viral infection and pathogenesis.

  10. Microvesicles and Viral Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Meckes, David G.; Raab-Traub, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Cells secrete various membrane-enclosed microvesicles from their cell surface (shedding microvesicles) and from internal, endosome-derived membranes (exosomes). Intriguingly, these vesicles have many characteristics in common with enveloped viruses, including biophysical properties, biogenesis, and uptake by cells. Recent discoveries describing the microvesicle-mediated intercellular transfer of functional cellular proteins, RNAs, and mRNAs have revealed additional similarities between viruses and cellular microvesicles. Apparent differences include the complexity of viral entry, temporally regulated viral expression, and self-replication proceeding to infection of new cells. Interestingly, many virally infected cells secrete microvesicles that differ in content from their virion counterparts but may contain various viral proteins and RNAs. For the most part, these particles have not been analyzed for their content or functions during viral infection. However, early studies of microvesicles (L-particles) secreted from herpes simplex virus-infected cells provided the first evidence of microvesicle-mediated intercellular communication. In the case of Epstein-Barr virus, recent evidence suggests that this tumorigenic herpesvirus also utilizes exosomes as a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication through the transfer of signaling competent proteins and functional microRNAs to uninfected cells. This review focuses on aspects of the biology of microvesicles with an emphasis on their potential contributions to viral infection and pathogenesis. PMID:21976651

  11. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  12. NCBI viral genomes resource.

    PubMed

    Brister, J Rodney; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have ignited an explosion in virus genome sequencing that promises to fundamentally alter our understanding of viral biology and profoundly impact public health policy. Yet, any potential benefits from the billowing cloud of next generation sequence data hinge upon well implemented reference resources that facilitate the identification of sequences, aid in the assembly of sequence reads and provide reference annotation sources. The NCBI Viral Genomes Resource is a reference resource designed to bring order to this sequence shockwave and improve usability of viral sequence data. The resource can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/ and catalogs all publicly available virus genome sequences and curates reference genome sequences. As the number of genome sequences has grown, so too have the difficulties in annotating and maintaining reference sequences. The rapid expansion of the viral sequence universe has forced a recalibration of the data model to better provide extant sequence representation and enhanced reference sequence products to serve the needs of the various viral communities. This, in turn, has placed increased emphasis on leveraging the knowledge of individual scientific communities to identify important viral sequences and develop well annotated reference virus genome sets. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. NCBI Viral Genomes Resource

    PubMed Central

    Brister, J. Rodney; Ako-adjei, Danso; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have ignited an explosion in virus genome sequencing that promises to fundamentally alter our understanding of viral biology and profoundly impact public health policy. Yet, any potential benefits from the billowing cloud of next generation sequence data hinge upon well implemented reference resources that facilitate the identification of sequences, aid in the assembly of sequence reads and provide reference annotation sources. The NCBI Viral Genomes Resource is a reference resource designed to bring order to this sequence shockwave and improve usability of viral sequence data. The resource can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/ and catalogs all publicly available virus genome sequences and curates reference genome sequences. As the number of genome sequences has grown, so too have the difficulties in annotating and maintaining reference sequences. The rapid expansion of the viral sequence universe has forced a recalibration of the data model to better provide extant sequence representation and enhanced reference sequence products to serve the needs of the various viral communities. This, in turn, has placed increased emphasis on leveraging the knowledge of individual scientific communities to identify important viral sequences and develop well annotated reference virus genome sets. PMID:25428358

  14. Parkinson's disease: a test of the multifactorial etiologic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Semchuk, K M; Love, E J; Lee, R G

    1993-06-01

    We studied the relative etiologic importance upon the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) of occupational exposure to herbicides and other compounds, ionizing radiation exposure, family history of PD and essential tremor, smoking, and history of various viral and other medical conditions. We identified patients (n = 130) with neurologist-confirmed idiopathic PD through contacts with Calgary general hospitals, long-term care facilities, neurologists, the Movement Disorder Clinic, and the Parkinson's Society of Southern Alberta, and selected two matched (by sex and age +/- 2.5 years) community controls for each case by random digit dialing. We obtained lifetime work, chemical, radiation, medical, and smoking exposure histories and family histories of PD and essential tremor by personal interviews, and analyzed the data using conditional logistic regression for matched sets. After controlling for potential confounding and interaction between the exposure variables, using multivariate statistical methods, having a family history of PD was the strongest predictor of PD risk, followed by head trauma and then occupational herbicide use. Cases and controls did not differ in their previous exposures to smoking or ionizing radiation; family history of essential tremor; work-related contact with aluminum, carbon monoxide, cyanide, manganese, mercury, or mineral oils; or history of arteriosclerosis, chicken pox, encephalitis, hypertension, hypotension, measles, mumps, rubella, or Spanish flu. These results support the hypothesis of a multifactorial etiology for PD, probably involving genetic, environmental, trauma, and possibly other factors.

  15. Viral vectors for therapy of neurologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Sourav R; Hudry, Eloise; Maguire, Casey A; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Breakefield, Xandra O; Grandi, Paola

    2017-07-01

    Neurological disorders - disorders of the brain, spine and associated nerves - are a leading contributor to global disease burden with a shockingly large associated economic cost. Various treatment approaches - pharmaceutical medication, device-based therapy, physiotherapy, surgical intervention, among others - have been explored to alleviate the resulting extent of human suffering. In recent years, gene therapy using viral vectors - encoding a therapeutic gene or inhibitory RNA into a "gutted" viral capsid and supplying it to the nervous system - has emerged as a clinically viable option for therapy of brain disorders. In this Review, we provide an overview of the current state and advances in the field of viral vector-mediated gene therapy for neurological disorders. Vector tools and delivery methods have evolved considerably over recent years, with the goal of providing greater and safer genetic access to the central nervous system. Better etiological understanding of brain disorders has concurrently led to identification of improved therapeutic targets. We focus on the vector technology, as well as preclinical and clinical progress made thus far for brain cancer and various neurodegenerative and neurometabolic disorders, and point out the challenges and limitations that accompany this new medical modality. Finally, we explore the directions that neurological gene therapy is likely to evolve towards in the future. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled "Beyond small molecules for neurological disorders". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Etiology of the 1965 epidemic of febrile illness in Nagpur City, Maharashtra State, India

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, F. M.; Patankar, M. R.; Banerjee, K.; Bhatt, P. N.; Goverdhan, M. K.; Pavri, K. M.; Vittal, M.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of an extensive outbreak of febrile illness during the months of April, May, and June 1965, in the city of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, showed that the main etiological agent was chikungunya virus. Dengue type 4 and Chandipura viruses were also active during this period. In all, 26 strains of virus were isolated from 60 acute phase human sera, and of these strains, 23 were identified as chikungunya virus, 2 as Chandipura, and 1 as dengue type 4. Five strains of chikungunya virus and 9 strains of dengue type 4 virus were isolated from 34 pools of Aedes aegypti collected from the affected areas. Results of complement fixation tests with acute—convalescent paired serum samples and single convalescent sera confirmed that chikungunya virus was the main etiological agent. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:4537481

  17. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review.

    PubMed

    Goens, S Denise

    2002-12-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms are now being reevaluated because of these "new" virus strains. This shift in virulence has confounded both nomenclature and the significance of current bovine viral diarrhea virus categorization. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of bovine viral diarrhea virus with a chronological review of prevailing scientific tenets and practices as described in clinical and scientific North American veterinary journals and textbooks. The first part of this review describes how we have arrived at our current understanding of the viruses, the diseases, and their nomenclature. The second part of the review deals with current concepts in virology and how these concepts may both explain and predict bovine viral diarrhea virus pathogenesis. By reviewing how knowledge of bovine viral diarrhea has evolved and the theories of how the virus itself is able to evolve, the interpretation of diagnostic tests are more effectively utilized in the control and treatment of bovine viral diarrhea virus associated disease.

  18. Multiple tendon ruptures of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Axibal, Derek P; Anderson, John G

    2013-10-01

    Tendon ruptures are common findings in foot and ankle practice. The etiology of tendon ruptures tends to be multifactorial-usually due to a combination of trauma, effects of systemic diseases, adverse effects of medications, and obesity. We present an unusual case of right Achilles tendinitis, left Achilles tendon rupture, bilateral peroneus longus tendon rupture, and left peroneus brevis tendon rupture of unknown etiology. This case report highlights the need for research for other possible, lesser known etiologies of tendon pathology. Therapeutic, Level IV, Case Study.

  19. Concepts in viral pathogenesis II

    SciTech Connect

    Notkins, A.L.; Oldstone, M.B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains papers divided among 10 sections. The section titles are: Viral Structure and Function; Viral Constructs; Oncogenes, Transfection, and Differentiation; Viral Tropism and Entry into Cells; Immune Recognition of Viruses; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Plant and Animal Models; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Diseases in Humans; New Trends in Diagnosis and Epidemiology; and Vaccines and Antiviral Therapy.

  20. [Viral drug resistance].

    PubMed

    Dudman, Susanne Gjeruldsen; Stene-Johansen, Kathrine; Vik, Inger Sofie Samdal

    2008-11-20

    More and more viral infections are treated with antiviral drugs, and resistance against these drugs is steadily increasing. Our aim is to give a general understanding of viral resistance and its clinical significance. This article is based on review of published literature on the subject, international recommendations and our own experience as a national reference laboratory for hepatitis viruses. Development of viral resistance is an increasing problem with long-term treatment of both latent and chronic viral infections and may be one of the reasons for clinical treatment failure. Susceptibility testing is therefore an important diagnostic tool in cases of suspected failure during antiviral treatment, and is also necessary for customising of treatment to each individual patient. In Norway, susceptibility testing is offered for HIV, HBV, CMV and influenza, whereas systematic surveillance for the time being is only performed on HIV and influenza resistance. Surveillance on viral resistance is necessary in order to choose the adequate empirical therapy and to monitor the spread of resistant virus in the population. Prevalence of resistance can be limited with infection control measures and appropriate antiviral treatment, especially used in combinations of effective drugs directed at different enzymes and proteins within the virus.

  1. Genome Sequence of a Subgenotype 1a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Luo, Jianxun; Liu, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), GS5, of the BVDV-1a subgenotype was isolated from dairy cattle in Gansu Province, northwest China. Its near-full-length genome was determined to be closely related to an early Belgian BVDV-1a strain, WAX-N, but the relatedness to domestic strains is relatively low, indicating that different genetic evolution occurred between the viral strains in cattle in China. PMID:27834720

  2. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  3. Acute viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Dennert, Robert; Crijns, Harry J.; Heymans, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    Acute myocarditis is one of the most challenging diagnosis in cardiology. At present, no diagnostic gold standard is generally accepted, due to the insensitivity of traditional diagnostic tests. This leads to the need for new diagnostic approaches, which resulted in the emergence of new molecular tests and a more detailed immunohistochemical analysis of endomyocardial biopsies. Recent findings using these new diagnostic tests resulted in increased interest in inflammatory cardiomyopathies and a better understanding of its pathophysiology, the recognition in overlap of virus-mediated damage, inflammation, and autoimmune dysregulation. Novel results also pointed towards a broader spectrum of viral genomes responsible for acute myocarditis, indicating a shift of enterovirus and adenovirus to parvovirus B19 and human herpes virus 6. The present review proposes a general diagnostic approach, focuses on the viral aetiology and associated autoimmune processes, and reviews treatment options for patients with acute viral myocarditis. PMID:18617482

  4. [Vasculitis and viral infection].

    PubMed

    Martínez Aguilar, N E; Guido Bayardo, R; Vargas Camaño, M E; Compañ González, D; Miranda Feria, A J

    1997-01-01

    Viruses have been implicated in vasculitis. To determine activity of viral infection associated with vasculitis. 17 patients with vasculitis had been in immunological and antiviral antibodies evaluation. Twenty five healthy controls sex and age matched with hematic biometry (BH) and AA. All subjects were negative to HIV and HBV. Viral activity was demonstrated in eight patients; vascular purpura (5), Takayasu disease (1), polyarteritis nodosa (1), erythema nodosum (1). None subject of control group had IgM activity. Antibodies response of IgG in patients were of lesser intensity than in control group. 14 abnormalities in BH were found in patients and 4 in control group. Immune response in patients, measured by lymphocyte subpopulations and circulating immune complexes was abnormal. In conclusion 47% showed viral activity, but the dominant feature was abnormal immune response in 82%.

  5. Viral infections and allergies.

    PubMed

    Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections have been implicated in the origin of, protection from and exacerbation of allergy-related symptoms in a variety of ways. Viral infections are closely linked to infantile wheezing. Severe bronchiolitis in early infancy may predispose to chronic childhood asthma as well as allergic sensitization; alternatively it could represent a marker of susceptible individuals. In contrast, repeated mild infections in early life may have a protective role in the development of asthma or atopy by driving the immune system towards Th1 responses. However, evidence on this hypothesis is not consistent as far as respiratory viruses are concerned. Several factors, including the presence of an atopic environment, timing of exposure and severity of the infection, interactively contribute to the allergy-infection relationship. In the present report, recent data on the role of viral infections in the development and progression of allergy and asthma are reviewed.

  6. Less Common Etiologies of Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Bleck, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Status epilepticus is treated as a neurologic emergency and only later are the potential etiologies assessed. While sometimes the cause for status epilepticus is apparent (e.g., antiepileptic drug withdrawal), all too often it is not identified, even after extensive diagnostic testing has been performed. With emphasis on the less-common etiologies, this review will cover various probable and known causes of status epilepticus among adults, children, and those patients with refractory epilepsy. PMID:20231917

  7. Advances in viral oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.

    1987-01-01

    Volume 6 of Advances in Viral Oncology presents experimental approaches to multifactorial interactions in tumor development. Included are in-depth analyses of malignant phenotypes by oncogene complementation, as well as studies of complementary interactions among DNA viral oncogenes; multiple cell-derived sequences in single retroviral genomes; and sequences that influence the transforming activity and expression of the mos oncogene. The genetic regulation of tumorigenic expression in somatic cell hybrids, the inhibition of oncogenes by cellular genes, and the interaction of genes that favor and genes that suppress tumorigenesis are examined in detail. The book concludes with a study of the relationship of oncogenes to the evolution of the metastatic phenotype.

  8. Viral apoptotic mimicry.

    PubMed

    Amara, Ali; Mercer, Jason

    2015-08-01

    As opportunistic pathogens, viruses have evolved many elegant strategies to manipulate host cells for infectious entry and replication. Viral apoptotic mimicry, defined by the exposure of phosphatidylserine - a marker for apoptosis - on the pathogen surface, is emerging as a common theme used by enveloped viruses to promote infection. Focusing on the four best described examples (vaccinia virus, dengue virus, Ebola virus and pseudotyped lentivirus), we summarize our current understanding of apoptotic mimicry as a mechanism for virus entry, binding and immune evasion. We also describe recent examples of non-enveloped viruses that use this mimicry strategy, and discuss future directions and how viral apoptotic mimicry could be targeted therapeutically.

  9. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  10. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  11. Assessing viral taxonomic composition in benthic marine ecosystems: reliability and efficiency of different bioinformatic tools for viral metagenomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Tangherlini, M; Dell'Anno, A; Zeigler Allen, L; Riccioni, G; Corinaldesi, C

    2016-06-22

    In benthic deep-sea ecosystems, which represent the largest biome on Earth, viruses have a recognised key ecological role, but their diversity is still largely unknown. Identifying the taxonomic composition of viruses is crucial for understanding virus-host interactions, their role in food web functioning and evolutionary processes. Here, we compared the performance of various bioinformatic tools (BLAST, MG-RAST, NBC, VMGAP, MetaVir, VIROME) for analysing the viral taxonomic composition in simulated viromes and viral metagenomes from different benthic deep-sea ecosystems. The analyses of simulated viromes indicate that all the BLAST tools, followed by MetaVir and VMGAP, are more reliable in the affiliation of viral sequences and strains. When analysing the environmental viromes, tBLASTx, MetaVir, VMGAP and VIROME showed a similar efficiency of sequence annotation; however, MetaVir and tBLASTx identified a higher number of viral strains. These latter tools also identified a wider range of viral families than the others, providing a wider view of viral taxonomic diversity in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Our findings highlight strengths and weaknesses of available bioinformatic tools for investigating the taxonomic diversity of viruses in benthic ecosystems in order to improve our comprehension of viral diversity in the oceans and its relationships with host diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  12. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature.

  13. The biological properties of different Epstein-Barr virus strains explain their association with various types of cancers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Han; Lin, Xiaochen; Shumilov, Anatoliy; Bernhardt, Katharina; Feederle, Regina; Poirey, Remy; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Pereira, Bruno; Almeida, Raquel; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2017-02-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically associated with the development of multiple types of tumors, but it is unclear whether this diversity is due to infection with different EBV strains. We report a comparative characterization of SNU719, GP202, and YCCEL1, three EBV strains that were isolated from gastric carcinomas, M81, a virus isolated in a nasopharyngeal carcinoma and several well-characterized laboratory type A strains. We found that B95-8, Akata and GP202 induced cell growth more efficiently than YCCEL1, SNU719 and M81 and this correlated positively with the expression levels of the viral BHRF1 miRNAs. In infected B cells, all strains except Akata and B95-8 induced lytic replication, a risk factor for carcinoma development, although less efficiently than M81. The panel of viruses induced tumors in immunocompromised mice with variable speed and efficacy that did not strictly mirror their in vitro characteristics, suggesting that additional parameters play an important role. We found that YCCEL1 and M81 infected primary epithelial cells, gastric carcinoma cells and gastric spheroids more efficiently than Akata or B95-8. Reciprocally, Akata and B95-8 had a stronger tropism for B cells than YCCEL1 or M81. These data suggest that different EBV strains will induce the development of lymphoid tumors with variable efficacy in immunocompromised patients and that there is a parallel between the cell tropism of the viral strains and the lineage of the tumors they induce. Thus, EBV strains can be endowed with properties that will influence their transforming abilities and the type of tumor they induce.

  14. Diagnostic Strategy Used To Establish Etiologies of Encephalitis in a Prospective Cohort of Patients in England▿

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, H. E.; Granerod, J.; Clewley, J. P.; Davies, N. W. S.; Keir, G.; Cunningham, R.; Zuckerman, M.; Mutton, K. J.; Ward, K. N.; Ijaz, S.; Crowcroft, N. S.; Brown, D. W. G.

    2011-01-01

    The laboratory diagnostic strategy used to determine the etiology of encephalitis in 203 patients is reported. An etiological diagnosis was made by first-line laboratory testing for 111 (55%) patients. Subsequent testing, based on individual case reviews, resulted in 17 (8%) further diagnoses, of which 12 (71%) were immune-mediated and 5 (29%) were due to infection. Seventy-five cases were of unknown etiology. Sixteen (8%) of 203 samples were found to be associated with either N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor or voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies. The most common viral causes identified were herpes simplex virus (HSV) (19%) and varicella-zoster virus (5%), while the most important bacterial cause was Mycobacterium tuberculosis (5%). The diagnostic value of testing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for antibody was assessed using 139 samples from 99 patients, and antibody was detected in 46 samples from 37 patients. Samples collected at 14 to 28 days were more likely to be positive than samples taken 0 to 6 days postadmission. Three PCR-negative HSV cases were diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific antibody in the central nervous system (CNS). It was not possible to make an etiological diagnosis for one-third of the cases; these were therefore considered to be due to unknown causes. Delayed sampling did not contribute to these cases. Twenty percent of the patients with infections with an unknown etiology showed evidence of localized immune activation within the CNS, but no novel viral DNA or RNA sequences were found. We conclude that a good standard of clinical investigation and thorough first-line laboratory testing allows the diagnosis of most cases of infectious encephalitis; testing for CSF antibodies allows further cases to be diagnosed. It is important that testing for immune-mediated causes also be included in a diagnostic algorithm. PMID:21865429

  15. Marine Viral Pathogens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    toxin producing microalgae (Raphidophyceae). Although we have not definitively shown that the pathogen is viral, it has many characteristics that...Society America, Miami, FL, June 1994. 40.Hennes, K.P. and C.A. Suttle. 1994. The use of cyanine dyes for quantifying free viruses in natural water

  16. Leafhopper viral pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four newly discovered viral pathogens in leafhopper vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes, have been shown to replicate in sharpshooter leafhoppers; the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, and Oncometopia nigricans (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The viruses were classified as memb...

  17. BIOMARKERS OF VIRAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viral and protozoan pathogens associated with raw sludge can cause encephalitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and a number of other diseases. Raw sludge that has been treated to reduce these pathogens can be used for land application according to the regulations spec...

  18. BIOMARKERS OF VIRAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viral and protozoan pathogens associated with raw sludge can cause encephalitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and a number of other diseases. Raw sludge that has been treated to reduce these pathogens can be used for land application according to the regulations spec...

  19. Is Higher Viral Load in the Upper Respiratory Tract Associated With Severe Pneumonia? Findings From the PERCH Study.

    PubMed

    Feikin, Daniel R; Fu, Wei; Park, Daniel E; Shi, Qiyuan; Higdon, Melissa M; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Deloria Knoll, Maria; Hammitt, Laura L; Howie, Stephen R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; Madhi, Shabir A; Scott, J Anthony G; Thea, Donald M; Adrian, Peter V; Antonio, Martin; Awori, Juliet O; Baillie, Vicky L; DeLuca, Andrea N; Driscoll, Amanda J; Ebruke, Bernard E; Goswami, Doli; Karron, Ruth A; Li, Mengying; Morpeth, Susan C; Mwaba, John; Mwansa, James; Prosperi, Christine; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Sow, Samba O; Tapia, Milagritos D; Whistler, Toni; Zaman, Khalequ; Zeger, Scott L; O' Brien, Katherine L; Murdoch, David R

    2017-06-15

    The etiologic inference of identifying a pathogen in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of children with pneumonia is unclear. To determine if viral load could provide evidence of causality of pneumonia, we compared viral load in the URT of children with World Health Organization-defined severe and very severe pneumonia and age-matched community controls. In the 9 developing country sites, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs from children with and without pneumonia were tested using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for 17 viruses. The association of viral load with case status was evaluated using logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine optimal discriminatory viral load cutoffs. Viral load density distributions were plotted. The mean viral load was higher in cases than controls for 7 viruses. However, there was substantial overlap in viral load distribution of cases and controls for all viruses. ROC curves to determine the optimal viral load cutoff produced an area under the curve of <0.80 for all viruses, suggesting poor to fair discrimination between cases and controls. Fatal and very severe pneumonia cases did not have higher viral load than less severe cases for most viruses. Although we found higher viral loads among pneumonia cases than controls for some viruses, the utility in using viral load of URT specimens to define viral pneumonia was equivocal. Our analysis was limited by lack of a gold standard for viral pneumonia.

  20. Herpes viral culture of lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus; Herpes simplex virus culture Images Viral lesion culture References Costello M, Sabatini LM, Yungbluth M. Viral infections. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  1. Left Atrial Function Is Impaired in Some Patients With Stroke of Undetermined Etiology: Potential Implications for Evaluation and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Laura; Montserrat, Silvia; Obach, Víctor; Cervera, Álvaro; Chamorro, Ángel; Vidal, Bàrbara; Mas-Stachurska, Aleksandra; Bijnens, Bart; Sitges, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Stroke etiology remains undetermined in up to 30% of cases. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is found in 20% to 28% of patients with stroke initially classified as being of undetermined etiology. The aim of our study was to analyze left atrial function in ischemic stroke patients to identify patterns associated with cardioembolic etiology and to determine whether the patterns identified can be found in individuals initially classified as having a stroke of undetermined etiology. We studied a cohort of in-hospital ischemic stroke patients referred for transthoracic echocardiography. Treating neurologists determined stroke etiology based on the TOAST classification. Left atrial contractile function was assessed using 2-dimensional echocardiography to determine their ejection fraction and speckle tracking to measure left atrial strain rate: a-wave. Left atrial function was compared between stroke etiology subgroups and healthy controls. Ninety-seven patients (aged 67±15 years) with ischemic stroke (16.5% large-artery atherosclerosis, 15.5% small-vessel occlusion, 11.3% cardioembolic, 5.1% other determined etiology, 51.1% undetermined etiology) and 10 healthy volunteers (aged 63±7 years) were included. Left atrial ejection fraction was significantly decreased only in patients with stroke of cardioembolic and undetermined etiology compared with the control group (31.5±17.2%, 40.2±17.1%, and 59.1±8.4%, respectively; P=.004). The left atrial strain rate was significantly lower in patients with stroke caused by cardioembolic or undetermined etiology, or large-artery atherosclerosis compared with controls (-0.86±0.49, -1.31±0.56, -1.5±0.47, -2.37±1.18, respectively; P<.001). Patients with stroke of undetermined etiology with left atrial function (ejection fraction and strain) similar to that of cardioembolic stroke patients may be misclassified and could potentially benefit from prolonged electrocardiography monitoring. Left atrial function analysis (ejection

  2. Geographic dynamics of viral encephalitis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Timothy J; Hutchaleelaha, Sombat; Jiwariyavej, Vitaya; Barbazan, Philippe; Nitatpattana, Narong; Yoksan, Sutee; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2003-06-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) continues to be a major disease in Asia, causing serious illness which may result in death or have neurological sequelae. This study involves an ecological analysis of the climatic, geographic and seasonal patterns of clinically reported VE in Thailand from 1993 to 1998 to investigate regional and seasonal differences in disease incidence. Three thousand eight hundred and twenty nine cases of VE were clinically diagnosed nationwide during the study period by the Thai Ministry of Public Health. Spearman rank correlations of temporal, spatial and geographic variables with disease incidence were performed. The monthly incidence of VE correlated significantly with seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and rainfall in the north-northeast region of Thailand (P < 0.001), whereas incidence in the south-central region correlated only with relative humidity (P = 0.003). Spatial analysis revealed a positive correlation of disease with elevation (P < 0.001), and negative correlations with rice-field cover (P < 0.001), agricultural land-use (P < 0.001) and temperature (P = 0.004) in the north-northeast region. No significant spatial correlation was identified in the south-central region. The spatial distribution of VE suggests that etiologic variations may be responsible, in part, for the geographic patterns of disease. Active etiologic surveillance is necessary in a variety of geographic settings in order to provide physicians with information necessary for disease prevention and clinical management.

  3. HEV, TTV and GBV-C/HGV markers in patients with acute viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Lyra, A C; Pinho, J R R; Silva, L K; Sousa, L; Saraceni, C P; Braga, E L; Pereira, J E; Zarife, M A S; Reis, M G; Lyra, L G C; Silva, L C da; Carrilho, F J

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HEV, TTV and GBV-C/GBV-C/HGV in patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. We evaluated sera of 94 patients from a sentinel program who had acute hepatitis A (N = 40), B (N = 42) and non-A-C (N = 12); 71 blood donors served as controls. IgM and anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassay using commercial kits. TTV and GBV-C/HGV were detected by nested PCR; genotyping was done by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Anti-HEV IgG was present in 38, 10 and 17% of patients with hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. Four patients with hepatitis A and 1 with non-A-C hepatitis also had anti-HEV IgM detected in serum. TTV was detected in 21% of patients with acute hepatitis and in 31% of donors. GBV-C/HGV was detected in 9% of patients with hepatitis, and in 10% of donors. We found TTV isolates of genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and GBV-C/HGV isolates of genotypes 1 and 2. Mean aminotransferase levels were lower in patients who were TTV or GBV-C/HGV positive. In conclusion, the detection of anti-HEV IgM in some acute hepatitis A cases suggests co-infection with HEV and hepatitis E could be the etiology of a few cases of sporadic non-A-C hepatitis in Salvador, Brazil. TTV genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 isolates and GBV-C/HGV genotype 1 and 2 strains are frequent in the studied population. TTV and GBV-C/HGV infection does not appear to have a role in the etiology of acute hepatitis.

  4. Inflammatory response in mixed viral-bacterial community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bello, Salvador; Mincholé, Elisa; Fandos, Sergio; Lasierra, Ana B; Ruiz, María A; Simon, Ana L; Panadero, Carolina; Lapresta, Carlos; Menendez, Rosario; Torres, Antoni

    2014-07-29

    The role of mixed pneumonia (virus+bacteria) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been described in recent years. However, it is not known whether the systemic inflammatory profile is different compared to monomicrobial CAP. We wanted to investigate this profile of mixed viral-bacterial infection and to compare it to monomicrobial bacterial or viral CAP. We measured baseline serum procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) count in 171 patients with CAP with definite etiology admitted to a tertiary hospital: 59 (34.5%) bacterial, 66 (39.%) viral and 46 (27%) mixed (viral-bacterial). Serum PCT levels were higher in mixed and bacterial CAP compared to viral CAP. CRP levels were higher in mixed CAP compared to the other groups. CRP was independently associated with mixed CAP. CRP levels below 26 mg/dL were indicative of an etiology other than mixed in 83% of cases, but the positive predictive value was 45%. PCT levels over 2.10 ng/mL had a positive predictive value for bacterial-involved CAP versus viral CAP of 78%, but the negative predictive value was 48%. Mixed CAP has a different inflammatory pattern compared to bacterial or viral CAP. High CRP levels may be useful for clinicians to suspect mixed CAP.

  5. Inflammatory response in mixed viral-bacterial community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of mixed pneumonia (virus + bacteria) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been described in recent years. However, it is not known whether the systemic inflammatory profile is different compared to monomicrobial CAP. We wanted to investigate this profile of mixed viral-bacterial infection and to compare it to monomicrobial bacterial or viral CAP. Methods We measured baseline serum procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) count in 171 patients with CAP with definite etiology admitted to a tertiary hospital: 59 (34.5%) bacterial, 66 (39.%) viral and 46 (27%) mixed (viral-bacterial). Results Serum PCT levels were higher in mixed and bacterial CAP compared to viral CAP. CRP levels were higher in mixed CAP compared to the other groups. CRP was independently associated with mixed CAP. CRP levels below 26 mg/dL were indicative of an etiology other than mixed in 83% of cases, but the positive predictive value was 45%. PCT levels over 2.10 ng/mL had a positive predictive value for bacterial-involved CAP versus viral CAP of 78%, but the negative predictive value was 48%. Conclusions Mixed CAP has a different inflammatory pattern compared to bacterial or viral CAP. High CRP levels may be useful for clinicians to suspect mixed CAP. PMID:25073709

  6. Strokes in Thai children : etiology and outcome.

    PubMed

    Visudhiphan, P; Chiemchanya, S; Wattanasirichaigoon, D

    1996-12-01

    In Asian countries, specific etiology and outcome of stroke in children are rarely reported. During January 1979 to December 1997, 68 children with stroke, admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok were reviewed for etiology and outcome; 38 patients (22 males) had ischemic stroke and 30 (20 males) had hemorrhagic stroke. Severe headache, vomiting, disturbance of consciousness and papilledema were prominent presentations of hemorrhagic stroke. Bleeding from vascular anomalies of the brain (AVM) was the most common etiology of hemorrhagic stroke while septic and non-septic emboli from congenital and acquired heart diseases were the most common cause of ischemic stroke. The mortality rate was 7% and 9% in hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, respectively. Complete recovery was observed in 52% of cases of hemorrhagic stroke but in only 26% of ischemic stroke. Hemiparesis was the most common residual neurological deficit with higher occurrence in ischemic stroke.

  7. [Xerostomia: clinic, etiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Guobis, Zygimantas; Baseviciene, Nomeda; Paipaliene, Pajauta; Sabalys, Gintautas; Kubilius, Ricardas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the problem of xerostomia considering its clinical, etiological, diagnostic and treatment features, basing on the today's tutorials and scientific articles found in databases on the Internet. Recent epidemiologic data on the prevalence of xerostomia in different countries are introduced. There are analyzed the main aspects of clinical manifestations of xerostomia, according to the different etiology analyzed. The most common etiological factors causing xerostomia, especially the main three of them: radiation therapy, Sjögren's syndrome, and drugs, are pointed out. The most popular and accepted clinical and laboratory assays for measuring and evaluating the function of salivary glands are represented. Attention is paid to xerostomia as substantiation of the separate diagnosis and its role in diagnosing other diseases. The concept of possible treatment modalities and prognosis are discussed. The main and most common problems concerning xerostomia are revealed.

  8. [Etiology, clinical presentation and outcome of severe viral acute childhood encephalitis (ECOVE study)].

    PubMed

    Flores-Gonzalez, José C; Jordan-Garcia, Iolanda; Turon-Vinas, Eulàlia; Montero-Valladares, Cristina; Tellez-Gonzalez, Cinta; Fernandez-Carrion, Francisco; Garcia-Iniguez, Juan P; Onate-Vergara, Eider; Rodriguez-Nunez, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Introduccion. Las encefalitis viricas son procesos raros y potencialmente graves, con etiologia diversa y no siempre identificable. El objetivo es describir las caracteristicas etiologicas, la presentacion clinica y la evolucion neurologica de las encefalitis viricas que ingresaron en las unidades de cuidados intensivos pediatricos (UCIP) en España. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio prospectivo multicentrico observacional. Se incluyeron los niños ingresados en 14 UCIP con diagnostico de encefalitis virica durante un periodo de tres años (2010-2013). Para el diagnostico etiologico se utilizo reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa y serologia a virus neurotropos en la sangre y el liquido cefalorraquideo. Se registraron los antecedentes personales, la presentacion clinica, la evolucion y la situacion neurologica en el momento del alta. Resultados. Se incluyeron 80 pacientes con edad media de 5 años; el 70%, varones. Los sintomas clinicos mas relevantes fueron disminucion de conciencia (86%), fiebre (82,4%), convulsiones (67%), vomitos (42%), cefalea (27%), agitacion (25%) y desorientacion (23%). Se llego al diagnostico etiologico en un 35%, y los mas frecuentes fueron virus herpes simple y enterovirus. La evolucion fue curacion sin secuelas en 55 pacientes (69%, sobre todo enterovirus, rotavirus y virus respiratorios), secuelas leves-moderadas en 19 (23,5%) y graves en seis (7,5%). Dos pacientes fallecieron. Conclusiones. En las UCIP españolas solo se realizo el diagnostico etiologico en un tercio de los niños con sospecha de encefalitis virica grave. A pesar de la gravedad clinica, hemos observado una tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad baja. La amplia mayoria son dados de alta de la UCIP con ninguna o escasa secuela neurologica.

  9. Viral Etiologies of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Among Egyptian Children under Five Years of Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-13

    pathogens as Chlamydia and Mycoplasma spp. causing LRTIs in children was studied in Egypt [12]. HAdV was also detected using serological methods in 30% of...Abdelhalim M: Acute lower respiratory tract infection due to Chlamydia and Mycoplasma spp. in Egyptian children under 5 years of age. J Trop Pediatr

  10. Possible Incidence of Arbor Virus in the Etiology of Viral Affections in Mediterranean France

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A study is being carried out in France regarding the virus types transmitted by arthropods. A brief review is given of arbor virus -caused diseases...present in the Mediterranean area and which should therefore be sought in the Mediterranean part of France. The study is limited to those arbor viruses

  11. Environmental factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Akerblom, Hans K; Vaarala, Outi; Hyöty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael

    2002-05-30

    Type 1 diabetes is considered to be an autoimmune disease in which T lymphocytes infiltrate the islets of pancreas and destroy the insulin producing beta cell population. Besides antigen specificity, the quality of immune reactivity against islet cell antigen(s) is an important determinant of the beta cell destruction. Much evidence indicates that the function of the gut immune system is central in the pathogenesis, as the regulation of the gut immune system may be aberrant in type 1 diabetes. The role of virus infections in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes has been supported by substantial new evidence suggesting that one virus group, enteroviruses, may trigger the beta-cell damaging process in a considerable proportion of patients. The latest evidence comes from studies indicating the presence of viral genome in diabetic patients and from prospective studies confirming epidemiological risk effect. If this association holds still true in ongoing large-scale studies, intervention trials should be considered to confirm causality. Of the dietary putative etiological factors, cow's milk proteins have received the main attention. Many studies indicate an association between early exposure to dietary cow's milk proteins and an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. The question will be answered by a large scale, prospective, randomized, international intervention trial. Another dietary factor in need of more studies is the deficiency of vitamin D. Among toxins, N-nitroso compounds are the main candidates. An interaction of genetic and environmental factors is important in evaluating the possible role of a certain environmental factor in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in children: Etiology, management, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Pitaro, Jacob; Bechor-Fellner, Avital; Gavriel, Haim; Marom, Tal; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is uncommon, and the current guidelines for its management refer to adults. Our objective was to review cases of SSNHL in children and examine their etiologies, management, and outcome. We performed a retrospective chart review of all children under the age of 18 years treated for SSNHL between January 2003 and September 2014. Data recorded included age, gender, symptoms, onset of hearing loss, audiometric results, diagnostic studies, treatment, and outcome. Nineteen children were included. Mean age was 14 years (range 7-18 years). Male: female ratio was 9:10. Degree of hearing loss varied from mild to profound across the tested frequencies. Most common accompanying symptom was tinnitus. Serologic tests demonstrated recent Epstein-Barr virus infection in one patient and previous cytomegalovirus infection in six patients. Imaging studies included computed tomography scan (n=3) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (n=12). All imaging studies did not demonstrate any pathology. Treatment included systemic steroids in 19 (100%) children and intratympanic steroids in eight (42%). Hearing completely improved in three (16%) children, partially improved in nine (47%), and there was no improvement in six (32%). One child was lost to follow-up. Viral infection was a common finding in children with SSNHL and no pathological changes were demonstrated on imaging studies. In most patients (63%), hearing improvement was observed. Intratympanic steroid injection can benefit these children. Further studies are required to investigate the etiologies and establish guidelines for the management of SSNHL in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Project: A 21st Century Childhood Pneumonia Etiology Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Katherine L.; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Murdoch, David R.; Feikin, Daniel R.; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Driscoll, Amanda J.; Baggett, Henry C.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Howie, Stephen R. C.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Maloney, Susan A.; Sow, Samba; Thea, Donald M.; Scott, J. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project is a 7-country, standardized, comprehensive evaluation of the etiologic agents causing severe pneumonia in children from developing countries. During previous etiology studies, between one-quarter and one-third of patients failed to yield an obvious etiology; PERCH will employ and evaluate previously unavailable innovative, more sensitive diagnostic techniques. Innovative and rigorous epidemiologic and analytic methods will be used to establish the causal association between presence of potential pathogens and pneumonia. By strategic selection of study sites that are broadly representative of regions with the greatest burden of childhood pneumonia, PERCH aims to provide data that reflect the epidemiologic situation in developing countries in 2015, using pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. PERCH will also address differences in host, environmental, and/or geographic factors that might determine pneumonia etiology and, by preserving specimens, will generate a resource for future research and pathogen discovery. PMID:22403238

  14. Viral Vector Production: Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julius W; Morshed, Ramin A; Kane, J Robert; Auffinger, Brenda; Qiao, Jian; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have proven to be valuable resources in the development of novel therapies aimed at targeting pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease and neoplastic brain lesions. Not only can some genetically engineered adenoviral vectors achieve remarkably efficient and specific gene delivery to target cells, but they also may act as anticancer agents by selectively replicating within cancer cells.Due to the great interest in using adenoviral vectors for various purposes, the need for a comprehensive protocol for viral vector production is especially apparent. Here, we describe the process of generating an adenoviral vector in its entirety, including the more complex process of adenoviral fiber modification to restrict viral tropism in order to achieve more efficient and specific gene delivery.

  15. Viral Membrane Scission

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Virus budding is a complex, multistep process in which viral proteins make specific alterations in membrane curvature. Many different viral proteins can deform the membrane and form a budding virion, but very few can mediate membrane scission to complete the budding process. As a result, enveloped viruses have developed numerous ways of facilitating membrane scission, including hijacking host cellular scission machinery and expressing their own scission proteins. These proteins mediate scission in very different ways, though the biophysical mechanics underlying their actions may be similar. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of membrane scission and the ways in which enveloped viruses use these systems to mediate the release of budding virions. PMID:24099087

  16. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2008-01-01

    Infection by viruses having lipid-bilayer envelopes proceeds through fusion of the viral membrane with a membrane of the target cell. Viral ‘fusion proteins’ facilitate this process. They vary greatly in structure, but all seem to have a common mechanism of action, in which a ligand-triggered, large-scale conformational change in the fusion protein is coupled to apposition and merger of the two bilayers. We describe three examples—the influenza virus hemagglutinin, the flavivirus E protein and the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein—in some detail, to illustrate the ways in which different structures have evolved to implement this common mechanism. Fusion inhibitors can be effective antiviral agents. PMID:18596815

  17. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  18. Systemic and Odontogenic Etiologies in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Edward C; Suh, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-01

    Systemic and odontogenic etiologies of chronic rhinosinusitis, although rare, are an integral consideration in the comprehensive management of patients with sinonasal disease. Proper knowledge and timely recognition of each disease process, with referrals to appropriate consultants, will facilitate treatment, because many of these conditions require both local and systemic therapy. In some instances, medical therapy plays a pivotal role, with surgery being a supplemental treatment technique. We review the most commonly encountered systemic etiologies of chronic rhinosinusitis and odontogenic sinusitis, including clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and treatment outcomes.

  19. [Tendinitis in athletes: etiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Gremion, G; Zufferey, P

    2015-03-11

    Tendinopathy is one of the most common diagnosis in sports. Knowledges about their etiology, the repair process to their diagnosis and their treatment have improved thanks to the development of imaging, especially ultra- sound. The disorder whose etiology could be mechanical or degenerative can cause long- term disability and sometimes the end of the sport carreer. The risk of reccurence is com- mon; this may lead to tendon rupture whose functional effects can be significative. The management should be early: it must respect the deadlines for tendon healing and pro- pose a gradual recovery efforts after elimina tion of the contributing factors involved.

  20. Etiology of hypertension in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sanjad, Sami A

    2010-01-01

    While most hypertension in children has been previously considered secondary to renal, cardiovascular or endocrine etiology, a substantial number of children aged 6 to 20 years are now diagnosed with primary or essential hypertension. Hypertension in children and adolescents seems to be increasing over the past two decades. This is attributed at least in part to an increased prevalence of overweight in this population. Essential hypertension in childhood is a diagnosis arrived at by excluding the known causes of secondary hypertension. This paper will discuss the etiology of hypertension in children and adolescents.

  1. Etiology, diagnosis and management of chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Manes, R Peter; Batra, Pete S

    2013-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common health care problem, yet many aspects of this diagnosis remain poorly understood. Its etiology is often debated and remains a significant area of research. The diagnosis of CRS is based on subjective symptoms, duration of symptoms and objective evidence of inflammation. Each of these criteria must be met to make a diagnosis of CRS. Management of CRS often involves a combination of systemic and topical therapies with surgery reserved for patients who fail medical therapy. This review provides a comprehensive view of the etiology, diagnosis and management of CRS.

  2. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Saif, Linda J

    2015-05-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genera Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea/vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. For the last three decades, PEDV infection has resulted in significant economic losses in the European and Asian pig industries, but in 2013-2014 the disease was also reported in the US, Canada and Mexico. The PED epidemic in the US, from April 2013 to the present, has led to the loss of more than 10% of the US pig population. The disappearance and re-emergence of epidemic PED indicates that the virus is able to escape from current vaccination protocols, biosecurity and control systems. Endemic PED is a significant problem, which is exacerbated by the emergence (or potential importation) of multiple PEDV variants. Epidemic PEDV strains spread rapidly and cause a high number of pig deaths. These strains are highly enteropathogenic and acutely infect villous epithelial cells of the entire small and large intestines although the jejunum and ileum are the primary sites. PEDV infections cause acute, severe atrophic enteritis accompanied by viremia that leads to profound diarrhea and vomiting, followed by extensive dehydration, which is the major cause of death in nursing piglets. A comprehensive understanding of the pathogenic characteristics of epidemic or endemic PEDV strains is needed to prevent and control the disease in affected regions and to develop an effective vaccine. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, disease mechanisms and pathogenesis as well as immunoprophylaxis against PEDV infection.

  3. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  4. Beyond Viral Neutralization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; Evans, David; Ferrari, Guido; Bournazos, Stylianos; Parsons, Matthew S; Bernard, Nicole F; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-13

    It has been known for more than 30 years that Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection drives a very potent B cell response resulting in the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies targeting several viral proteins, particularly its envelope glycoproteins (Env). Env epitopes are exposed on the surfaces of viral particles and infected cells where they are targets of potentially protective antibodies. These antibodies can interdict infection by neutralization and there is strong evidence suggesting that Fc-mediated effector function can also contribute to protection. Current evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector function plays a role in protection against infection by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and it might be important for protection by non-neutralizing antibodies. Fc-mediated effector function includes diverse mechanisms that include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-mediated complement activation (ADC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), antibody-mediated trancytosis inhibition, and antibody-mediated virus opsonization. All these functions could be beneficial in fighting viral infections including HIV-1. In this perspective, we discuss the latest developments for ADCC responses discussed at the HIVR4P satellite session on non-neutralizing antibodies, with emphasis on the mechanisms of ADCC resistance employed by HIV-1, the structural basis of epitopes recognized by antibodies that mediate ADCC, NK-cell education and ADCC, and murine models to study ADCC against HIV-1.

  5. Outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, C W; Osterholm, M T

    1993-01-01

    Norwalk virus infection is the epidemiologic prototype for outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne gastroenteritis. Around the world, Norwalk virus and Norwalk-like viruses appear to be major causes of food-borne and waterborne illness. Assessment of the overall significance of viral agents to the epidemiology of food-borne and waterborne illness is hampered by the lack of surveillance throughout much of the world. In areas where food-borne and waterborne illness surveillance is conducted, outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis are underreported because of the lack of availability of routine laboratory services to confirm the viral etiology. Routine use of epidemiologic criteria as an alternative to laboratory confirmation will allow better assessments of the importance of viral gastroenteritis until effective laboratory methods can be widely implemented. Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis have been propagated by contamination of water supplies, raw foods, and ill food handlers. Controlling an outbreak depends on identifying and removing the source of contamination. The demonstrated occurrence of person-to-person transmission and the likely occurrence of transmission of Norwalk-like viruses by aerosol make it necessary to evaluate the potential for transmission by food handlers and servers in every outbreak, regardless of primary source. PMID:8395330

  6. Non-viral factors contributing to hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Manal A; Ali, Sanaa A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for over half a million deaths per year. The geographic pattern of HCC incidence is parallel to exposure to viral etiologic factors. Its incidence is increasing, ranging between 3% and 9% annually depending on the geographical location, and variability in the incidence rates correspond closely to the prevalence and pattern of the primary etiologic factors. Chronic infections with hepatitis B viruses or hepatitis C viruses have both been recognized as human liver carcinogens with a combined attributable fraction of at least 75% of all HCC cases. Multiple non-viral factors have been implicated in the development of HCC. Increased body mass index and diabetes with subsequent development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis represent significant risk factors for HCC. Other non-viral causes of HCC include iron overload syndromes, alcohol use, tobacco, oral contraceptive, aflatoxin, pesticides exposure and betel quid chewing, a prevalent habit in the developing world. Wilson disease, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Porphyrias, autoimmune hepatitis, Schistosoma japonicum associated with positive hepatitis B surface antigen, and thorotrast-ray are also contributing hepatocellualar carcinoma. In addition, primary biliary cirrhosis, congestive liver disease and family history of liver cancer increase the risk of HCC incident. In conclusion, clarification of relevant non-viral causes of HCC will help to focus clinicians on those risk factors that are modifiable. The multilevel preventative approach will hopefully lead to a reduction in incidence of non-viral HCC, and a decrease in the patient morbidity and mortality as well as the societal economic burden associated with HCC. PMID:23805355

  7. Differential Host Response, Rather Than Early Viral Replication Efficiency, Correlates with Pathogenicity Caused by Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Askovich, Peter S.; Sanders, Catherine J.; Rosenberger, Carrie M.; Diercks, Alan H.; Dash, Pradyot; Navarro, Garnet; Vogel, Peter; Doherty, Peter C.; Thomas, Paul G.; Aderem, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses exhibit large, strain-dependent differences in pathogenicity in mammalian hosts. Although the characteristics of severe disease, including uncontrolled viral replication, infection of the lower airway, and highly inflammatory cytokine responses have been extensively documented, the specific virulence mechanisms that distinguish highly pathogenic strains remain elusive. In this study, we focused on the early events in influenza infection, measuring the growth rate of three strains of varying pathogenicity in the mouse airway epithelium and simultaneously examining the global host transcriptional response over the first 24 hours. Although all strains replicated equally rapidly over the first viral life-cycle, their growth rates in both lung and tracheal tissue strongly diverged at later times, resulting in nearly 10-fold differences in viral load by 24 hours following infection. We identified separate networks of genes in both the lung and tracheal tissues whose rapid up-regulation at early time points by specific strains correlated with a reduced viral replication rate of those strains. The set of early-induced genes in the lung that led to viral growth restriction is enriched for both NF-κB binding site motifs and members of the TREM1 and IL-17 signaling pathways, suggesting that rapid, NF-κB –mediated activation of these pathways may contribute to control of viral replication. Because influenza infection extending into the lung generally results in severe disease, early activation of these pathways may be one factor distinguishing high- and low-pathogenicity strains. PMID:24073225

  8. Differential host response, rather than early viral replication efficiency, correlates with pathogenicity caused by influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Askovich, Peter S; Sanders, Catherine J; Rosenberger, Carrie M; Diercks, Alan H; Dash, Pradyot; Navarro, Garnet; Vogel, Peter; Doherty, Peter C; Thomas, Paul G; Aderem, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses exhibit large, strain-dependent differences in pathogenicity in mammalian hosts. Although the characteristics of severe disease, including uncontrolled viral replication, infection of the lower airway, and highly inflammatory cytokine responses have been extensively documented, the specific virulence mechanisms that distinguish highly pathogenic strains remain elusive. In this study, we focused on the early events in influenza infection, measuring the growth rate of three strains of varying pathogenicity in the mouse airway epithelium and simultaneously examining the global host transcriptional response over the first 24 hours. Although all strains replicated equally rapidly over the first viral life-cycle, their growth rates in both lung and tracheal tissue strongly diverged at later times, resulting in nearly 10-fold differences in viral load by 24 hours following infection. We identified separate networks of genes in both the lung and tracheal tissues whose rapid up-regulation at early time points by specific strains correlated with a reduced viral replication rate of those strains. The set of early-induced genes in the lung that led to viral growth restriction is enriched for both NF-κB binding site motifs and members of the TREM1 and IL-17 signaling pathways, suggesting that rapid, NF-κB -mediated activation of these pathways may contribute to control of viral replication. Because influenza infection extending into the lung generally results in severe disease, early activation of these pathways may be one factor distinguishing high- and low-pathogenicity strains.

  9. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Young, Cristin C. W.; Olival, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007–2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  10. Viral Communities Associated with Human Pericardial Fluids in Idiopathic Pericarditis

    PubMed Central

    Fancello, Laura; Monteil, Sonia; Popgeorgiev, Nikolay; Rivet, Romain; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    Pericarditis is a common human disease defined by inflammation of the pericardium. Currently, 40% to 85% of pericarditis cases have no identified etiology. Most of these cases are thought to be caused by an infection of undetected, unsuspected or unknown viruses. In this work, we used a culture- and sequence-independent approach to investigate the viral DNA communities present in human pericardial fluids. Seven viral metagenomes were generated from the pericardial fluid of patients affected by pericarditis of unknown etiology and one metagenome was generated from the pericardial fluid of a sudden infant death case. As a positive control we generated one metagenome from the pericardial fluid of a patient affected by pericarditis caused by herpesvirus type 3. Furthermore, we used as negative controls a total of 6 pericardial fluids from 6 different individuals affected by pericarditis of non-infectious origin: 5 of them were sequenced as a unique pool and the remaining one was sequenced separately. The results showed a significant presence of torque teno viruses especially in one patient, while herpesviruses and papillomaviruses were present in the positive control. Co-infections by different genotypes of the same viral type (torque teno viruses) or different viruses (herpesviruses and papillomaviruses) were observed. Sequences related to bacteriophages infecting Staphylococcus, Enterobacteria, Streptococcus, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas were also detected in three patients. This study detected torque teno viruses and papillomaviruses, for the first time, in human pericardial fluids. PMID:24690743

  11. The etiologies of non-CF bronchiectasis in childhood: a systematic review of 989 subjects.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kelly S; Del Vecchio, Michael T; Aronoff, Stephen C

    2014-12-10

    While cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common cause of bronchiectasis in childhood, non-CF bronchiectasis is associated with a wide variety of disorders. The objective of this study was to determine the relative prevalence and specific etiologies on non-CF bronchiectasis in childhood. EMBASE, Medline, OVID Cochrane Reviews, Directory of Open Access Journals, Open Science Directory, EPSCO information services, and OAlster were searched electronically and the bibliographies of selected studies were searched manually. The search was conducted independently by 2 authors. (1) any clinical trial, observational study or cross-sectional case series of 10 or more patients with a description of the conditions associated with bronchiectasis; (2) subjects aged 21 years or younger; (3) cystic fibrosis was excluded and; (4) the diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography of the chest. Patient number, age range, inclusion criteria, diagnostic criteria, patient source, and categorical and specific etiology. From 491 studies identified, 12 studies encompassing 989 children with non-CF bronchiectasis were selected. Sixty-three percent of the subjects had an underlying disorder. Infectious (17%), primary immunodeficiency (16%), aspiration (10%), ciliary dyskinesia (9%), congenital malformation (3%), and secondary immunodeficiency (3%) were the most common disease categories; 999 etiologies were identified. Severe pneumonia of bacterial or viral etiology and B cell defects were the most common disorders identified. The majority of children with non-CF bronchiectasis have an underlying disorder. A focused history and laboratory investigated is recommended.

  12. The Frequency of Complications and the Etiology of Disease in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis in Erzurum

    PubMed Central

    Topdagi, Omer; Okcu, Nihat; Bilen, Nurhan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study included 100 patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis who presented at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Gastroenterology clinic and polyclinic. Materials and Methods: The etiology of liver cirrhosis and the incidence of its complications have been investigated. Results: The etiological classification of liver cirrhosis in our patients was as follows: 47 hepatitis B virus hepatitis, 11 hepatitis C virus hepatitis, 5 HBV+HDV hepatitis, 4 Budd Chiari syndrome, 2 chronic alcohol abuse, 2 ischemic heart disease, 1 autoimmune hepatitis, 1 sclerosing cholangitis, 1 hydatid cyst. In 26 patients we could not find any etiological condition. These patients were called cryptogenic cirrhosis patients.When we examined the complications of liver cirrhosis, it appeared that there were ascites in 83 patient. In 56 patients, esophageal variceal bleeding occurred. There was spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in 42 patients. Hepatorenal syndrome occurred in 26 patients. Finally, in 3 patients we detected hepatorenal syndrome. Conclusion: The most common causes in the etiology of liver cirrhosis are viral, especially HBV. Many of the patients were in decompensated phase when diagnosed. We found that there was a close relation between the frequency of complications and mortality in liver cirrhosis. PMID:25610308

  13. The frequency of complications and the etiology of disease in patients with liver cirrhosis in erzurum.

    PubMed

    Topdagi, Omer; Okcu, Nihat; Bilen, Nurhan

    2014-06-01

    This study included 100 patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis who presented at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Gastroenterology clinic and polyclinic. The etiology of liver cirrhosis and the incidence of its complications have been investigated. The etiological classification of liver cirrhosis in our patients was as follows: 47 hepatitis B virus hepatitis, 11 hepatitis C virus hepatitis, 5 HBV+HDV hepatitis, 4 Budd Chiari syndrome, 2 chronic alcohol abuse, 2 ischemic heart disease, 1 autoimmune hepatitis, 1 sclerosing cholangitis, 1 hydatid cyst. In 26 patients we could not find any etiological condition. These patients were called cryptogenic cirrhosis patients.When we examined the complications of liver cirrhosis, it appeared that there were ascites in 83 patient. In 56 patients, esophageal variceal bleeding occurred. There was spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in 42 patients. Hepatorenal syndrome occurred in 26 patients. Finally, in 3 patients we detected hepatorenal syndrome. The most common causes in the etiology of liver cirrhosis are viral, especially HBV. Many of the patients were in decompensated phase when diagnosed. We found that there was a close relation between the frequency of complications and mortality in liver cirrhosis.

  14. Mapping Viral Functional Domains for Genetic Diversity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) comprises numerous isolates with various levels of in-host diversity. Subgroup-distinctive features of the Fny and LS strains provided us with a platform to genetically map the viral control elements for genetic variation in planta. We found that both RNAs 1 and 2 controlled levels of genetic diversity, and further fine mapping revealed that the control elements of mutation frequency reside within the first 596 amino acids (aa) of RNA 1. The 2a/2b overlapping region of the 2a protein also contributed to control of viral genetic variation. Furthermore, the 3′ nontranslated region (NTR) of RNA 3 constituted a hot spot of polymorphism, where the majority of fixed mutations found in the population were clustered. The 2b gene of CMV, a viral suppressor of gene silencing, controls the abundance of the fixed mutants in the viral population via a host-dependent mechanism. PMID:23115283

  15. Digoxin Suppresses HIV-1 Replication by Altering Viral RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raymond W.; Balachandran, Ahalya; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Cochrane, Alan

    2013-01-01

    To develop new approaches to control HIV-1 replication, we examined the capacity of recently described small molecular modulators of RNA splicing for their effects on viral RNA metabolism. Of the drugs tested, digoxin was found to induce a dramatic inhibition of HIV-1 structural protein synthesis, a response due, in part, to reduced accumulation of the corresponding viral mRNAs. In addition, digoxin altered viral RNA splice site use, resulting in loss of the essential viral factor Rev. Digoxin induced changes in activity of the CLK family of SR protein kinases and modification of several SR proteins, including SRp20 and Tra2β, which could account for the effects observed. Consistent with this hypothesis, overexpression of SRp20 elicited changes in HIV-1 RNA processing similar to those observed with digoxin. Importantly, digoxin was also highly active against clinical strains of HIV-1 in vitro, validating this novel approach to treatment of this infection. PMID:23555254

  16. Rapid multiplex PCR assay to identify respiratory viral pathogens: moving forward diagnosing the common cold.

    PubMed

    Layman, Clifton P; Gordon, Sarah M; Elegino-Steffens, Diane U; Agee, Willie; Barnhill, Jason; Hsue, Gunther

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) can be a serious burden to the healthcare system. The majority of URIs are viral in etiology, but definitive diagnosis can prove difficult due to frequently overlapping clinical presentations of viral and bacterial infections, and the variable sensitivity, and lengthy turn-around time of viral culture. We tested new automated nested multiplex PCR technology, the FilmArray(®) system, in the TAMC department of clinical investigations, to determine the feasibility of replacing the standard viral culture with a rapid turn-around system. We conducted a feasibility study using a single-blinded comparison study, comparing PCR results with archived viral culture results from a convenience sample of cryopreserved archived nasopharyngeal swabs from acutely ill ED patients who presented with complaints of URI symptoms. A total of 61 archived samples were processed. Viral culture had previously identified 31 positive specimens from these samples. The automated nested multiplex PCR detected 38 positive samples. In total, PCR was 94.5% concordant with the previously positive viral culture results. However, PCR was only 63.4% concordant with the negative viral culture results, owing to PCR detection of 11 additional viral pathogens not recovered on viral culture. The average time to process a sample was 75 minutes. We determined that an automated nested multiplex PCR is a feasible alternative to viral culture in an acute clinical setting. We were able to detect at least 94.5% as many viral pathogens as viral culture is able to identify, with a faster turn-around time.

  17. Etiology of bronze leaf disease of Populus

    Treesearch

    Jason A. Smith; R. A. Blanchette; M. E. Ostry; N. A. Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Bronze leaf disease is a potentially destructive disorder of the Populus section of the genus Populus. The causal agent has been reported to be Apioplagiostoma populi (anarnorph: Discula sp.). Based on etiological and symptomological studies, field observations of symptom development suggest that the pathogen...

  18. Towards a Balanced Account of Autism Etiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Genae A.

    2004-01-01

    Drash and Tudor describe six sets of reinforcement contingencies which may be present in the environments of some children eventually diagnosed with autism and suggest that these contingencies account for the etiology of "autistic" behaviors. Nevertheless, merely observing such contingencies in the environments of these children is insufficient to…

  19. The Etiology of Conflict in Multicultural Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    This paper focuses on the common sources of etiologies of conflict in multicultural contexts. Multicultural communication is the creation and sharing of meaning among citizens of the same geopolitical system who belong to divergent tributary cultures. The sources of conflict in multicultural relations can be grouped into five broad categories.…

  20. Recent Research on the Etiologies of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Eileen; Van Dyke, Don C.; Sears, Lonnie; Matzen, Jane; Lin-Dyken, Deborah; McBrien, Dianne M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews recent research on the etiologies of autism, including genetic research, anatomic and neuroimaging studies, topics in neurophysiology research (including serotonin, dopamine, and opiods), immunologic research, studies of autism phenotype, and electroencephalographic studies. It concludes that, as of yet, research has found no clear…

  1. On the Etiology of Sexual Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfelbaum, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    Lack of consideration of the sexually functional population has led to misconceptions about causes of sexual dysfunction functioning. Automatic functioning can mask effects of pathogenic influences on sexuality, making these effects appear random, confounding etiological issues and creating the belief that causes of sexual dysfunction and disorder…

  2. On the Etiology of Sexual Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfelbaum, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    Lack of consideration of the sexually functional population has led to misconceptions about causes of sexual dysfunction functioning. Automatic functioning can mask effects of pathogenic influences on sexuality, making these effects appear random, confounding etiological issues and creating the belief that causes of sexual dysfunction and disorder…

  3. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

  4. CKD of Uncertain Etiology: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lunyera, Joseph; Mohottige, Dinushika; Von Isenburg, Megan; Jeuland, Marc; Patel, Uptal D; Stanifer, John W

    2016-03-07

    Epidemics of CKD of uncertain etiology (CKDu) are emerging around the world. Highlighting common risk factors for CKD of uncertain etiology across various regions and populations may be important for health policy and public health responses. We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify published studies on CKDu. The search was generated in January of 2015; no language or date limits were used. We used a vote-counting method to evaluate exposures across all studies. We identified 1607 articles, of which 26 met inclusion criteria. Eighteen (69%) were conducted in known CKDu-endemic countries: Sri Lanka (38%), Nicaragua (19%), and El Salvador (12%). The other studies were from India, Japan, Australia, Mexico, Sweden, Tunisia, Tanzania, and the United States. Heavy metals, heat stress, and dietary exposures were reported across all geographic regions. In south Asia, family history, agrochemical use, and heavy metal exposures were reported most frequently, whereas altitude and temperature were reported only in studies from Central America. Across all regions, CKDu was most frequently associated with a family history of CKDu, agricultural occupation, men, middle age, snake bite, and heavy metal exposure. Studies examining etiologies of CKDu have reported many exposures that are heterogeneous and vary by region. To identify etiologies of CKDu, designing consistent and comparative multisite studies across high-risk populations may help elucidate the importance of region-specific versus global risk factors. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. CKD of Uncertain Etiology: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohottige, Dinushika; Isenburg, Megan Von; Jeuland, Marc; Patel, Uptal D.; Stanifer, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Epidemics of CKD of uncertain etiology (CKDu) are emerging around the world. Highlighting common risk factors for CKD of uncertain etiology across various regions and populations may be important for health policy and public health responses. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify published studies on CKDu. The search was generated in January of 2015; no language or date limits were used. We used a vote-counting method to evaluate exposures across all studies. Results We identified 1607 articles, of which 26 met inclusion criteria. Eighteen (69%) were conducted in known CKDu–endemic countries: Sri Lanka (38%), Nicaragua (19%), and El Salvador (12%). The other studies were from India, Japan, Australia, Mexico, Sweden, Tunisia, Tanzania, and the United States. Heavy metals, heat stress, and dietary exposures were reported across all geographic regions. In south Asia, family history, agrochemical use, and heavy metal exposures were reported most frequently, whereas altitude and temperature were reported only in studies from Central America. Across all regions, CKDu was most frequently associated with a family history of CKDu, agricultural occupation, men, middle age, snake bite, and heavy metal exposure. Conclusions Studies examining etiologies of CKDu have reported many exposures that are heterogeneous and vary by region. To identify etiologies of CKDu, designing consistent and comparative multisite studies across high-risk populations may help elucidate the importance of region–specific versus global risk factors. PMID:26712810

  6. [Hyperemesis gravidarum--etiology and treatment].

    PubMed

    Imperato, F; Canova, I; Basili, R; Iuele, T; Mossa, B

    2003-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a common pathology encountered by the obstetrician in 0.1-2% of all pregnancies. The purpose of our review, along with other literature, is to report general outline of the syndrome, with etiology, complications and some guidelines about conventional and newer therapy.

  7. Lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis. Etiologic and pathologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Quiles, M; Marchisello, P J; Tsairis, P

    1978-03-01

    The etiologic factors and pathologic findings in 38 patients with lumbar arachnoiditis are presented. Lumbar spine surgery and the injection of contrast materials prior to the diagnosis of this condition are considered the most important factors in its genesis. In this series, there was microscopic evidence of arachnoiditis ossificans in 3 patients and arachnoiditis calcificans in 1 patient.

  8. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

  9. Attention Deficit Disorder: Diagnosis, Etiology and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed

    1996-01-01

    Provides most recent information on attention deficit disorder including: (1) diagnostic considerations according to the latest behavioral criteria and breakthroughs using neurometric EEG assessment; (2) prevalence; (3) etiologies; (4) neurological basis; and (5) treatments. Evaluates alternatives to medication, behavior modification, cognitive…

  10. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: neurogenic etiology and manifestation.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Swapna; Nair, Prem G; Thomas, Philip; Tyagi, Amit Kumar

    2015-03-01

    To determine the type, severity and manifestation of dysphagia in patients with neurogenic etiology. Clinical documentation was done on the different etiologies, its manifestation, assessment findings and management strategies taken for patients with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia who were referred for assessment and management of dysphagia over a period of three months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Flexible endoscopic examination was done in all the patients. The severity of dysphagia in these patients were graded based on Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS). A total of 53 patients with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia were evaluated by an otolaryngologist and a speech language pathologist over a period of three months. The grading of severity based on GUSS for these patients were done. There were 30 patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury due to various etiologies, one patient with Neurofibroma-vestibular schwanoma who underwent surgical excision, 16 patients with stroke, two patients with traumatic brain injury, two patients with Parkinsonism and two patients with myasthenia gravis. The manifestation of dysphagia was mainly in the form of prolonged masticatory time, oral transit time, and increased number of swallows required for each bolus, cricopharyngeal spasms and aspiration. Among the dysphagia patients with neurogenic etiology, dysphagia is manifested with a gradual onset and is found to have a progressive course in degenerative disorders. Morbidity and mortality may be reduced with early identification and management of neurogenic dysphagia.

  11. Recent Research on the Etiologies of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Eileen; Van Dyke, Don C.; Sears, Lonnie; Matzen, Jane; Lin-Dyken, Deborah; McBrien, Dianne M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews recent research on the etiologies of autism, including genetic research, anatomic and neuroimaging studies, topics in neurophysiology research (including serotonin, dopamine, and opiods), immunologic research, studies of autism phenotype, and electroencephalographic studies. It concludes that, as of yet, research has found no clear…

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: global status.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2010-03-01

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections remain a source of economic loss for producers. The wide variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype, biotype, virulence, and types of infections. BVDV infect a range of domestic and wild ruminants. Clinical presentation varies depending on strain of virus, species of host, immune status of host, reproductive status of host, age of host, and concurrent infections. Recent advances in BVDV research and diagnostics have led to the development of regional eradication/control programs, the most efficacious of which focus on biosecurity, surveillance, and control.

  13. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for the study of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

    PubMed

    Novoa, Beatriz; Romero, Alejandro; Mulero, Victoriano; Rodríguez, Iván; Fernández, Ignacio; Figueras, Antonio

    2006-07-26

    The rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the etiological agent of one of the most important salmonid viral diseases. In the present work, the ability of VHSV to infect and replicate in zebrafish at low temperature (15 degrees C) was demonstrated. Zebrafish was also used to determine the effectiveness of the recombinant virus rIHNV-Gvhsv GFP as a live attenuated vaccine against the virulent VHSV strain. Fish intraperitoneally injected with 3 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(5)TCID50/ml of the wild type VHSV showed a 100% of cumulative mortality, meanwhile only 57% of mortality was obtained in bath infections. Infected fish showed external clinical signs and histological observations revealed the appearance of small haemorrhages in the muscle, kidney, liver and dermis. Neither mortalities nor clinical signs were recorded in fish infected with a live attenuated recombinant virus. By RT-PCR technique, VHSV was detected in all the organs as early as 24h, but the recombinant virus was not detected in all the sampled days. VHSV was able to replicate "in vitro" in head kidney cells but the replication capacity of the attenuated viral strain was limited. The recombinant virus rIHNV-Gvhsv GFP was able to protect against VHSV with a survival rate ranging from 20% to 60% depending of the vaccine dose. The increase of TLR3, IFNalphabeta, Mx, IFNgamma and TNFalpha expression at 72h post-infection in the kidney of VHSV-infected fish contrasted with the results obtained with the avirulent virus, which did not induce an increment of this expression in infected fish. Zebrafish is a suitable animal model to study VHSV infection and immune (innate and adaptive) responses and, more importantly, we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of the zebrafish as a vaccination model to viral diseases. In addition, the high protection obtained with the live attenuated virus demonstrates that the zebrafish is able to mount an efficient antiviral immune response at 15 degrees C.

  14. A Preliminary Study of Pneumonia Etiology Among Hospitalized Children in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kazungu, Sidi; Morpeth, Susan C.; Gibson, Dustin G.; Mvera, Benedict; Brent, Andrew J.; Mwarumba, Salim; Onyango, Clayton O.; Bett, Anne; Akech, Donald O.; Murdoch, David R.; Nokes, D. James; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in the developing world. Higher-quality etiological data are required to reduce this mortality burden. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of pneumonia etiology among children aged 1–59 months in rural Kenya. Case patients were hospitalized with World Health Organization–defined severe pneumonia (SP) or very severe pneumonia (VSP); controls were outpatient children without pneumonia. We collected blood for culture, induced sputum for culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained oropharyngeal swab specimens for multiplex PCR from case patients, and serum for serology and nasopharyngeal swab specimens for multiplex PCR from case patients and controls. Results. Of 984 eligible case patients, 810 (84%) were enrolled in the study; 232 (29%) had VSP. Blood cultures were positive in 52 of 749 case patients (7%). A predominant potential pathogen was identified in sputum culture in 70 of 417 case patients (17%). A respiratory virus was detected by PCR from nasopharyngeal swab specimens in 486 of 805 case patients (60%) and 172 of 369 controls (47%). Only respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) showed a statistically significant association between virus detection in the nasopharynx and pneumonia hospitalization (odds ratio, 12.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.1–51.5). Among 257 case patients in whom all specimens (excluding serum specimens) were collected, bacteria were identified in 24 (9%), viruses in 137 (53%), mixed viral and bacterial infection in 39 (15%), and no pathogen in 57 (22%); bacterial causes outnumbered viral causes when the results of the case-control analysis were considered. Conclusions. A potential etiology was detected in >75% of children admitted with SP or VSP. Except for RSV, the case-control analysis did not detect an association between viral detection in the nasopharynx and hospitalization for pneumonia. PMID:22403235

  15. Infectious pulmonary nodules in immunocompromised patients: usefulness of computed tomography in predicting their etiology.

    PubMed

    Franquet, Tomás; Müller, Nestor L; Giménez, Ana; Martínez, Santiago; Madrid, Marta; Domingo, Pere

    2003-01-01

    To review the high-resolution computed tomography (CT) findings in immunocompromised patients who had nodular opacities and a proven diagnosis to determine whether the various infectious pulmonary nodules have distinguishing features on CT. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 78 immunocompromised patients with solitary or multiple nodular opacities of proven infectious etiology were reviewed retrospectively by 2 independent thoracic radiologists. Patients whose predominant abnormality consisted of branching linear or nodular opacities (tree-in-bud pattern) characteristic of infectious bronchiolitis and endobronchial spread of tuberculosis were excluded. The CT scans were assessed for the presence, appearance, size, and distribution of parenchymal nodules. Relations between findings at CT and the different infectious etiologies of nodules were assessed with regression analysis. Agreement between the 2 observers was assessed using the kappa statistic. The infectious causes included mycobacteria (n = 24), fungi (n = 22), bacteria (n = 20), and viruses (n = 12). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a diameter <10 mm was the only independent predictor of etiology (P < 0.0001) and that patients whose nodules all measured less than 10 mm in diameter were most likely to have a viral infection. Nodules limited in size to less than 10 mm in diameter were seen in 83% of viral infections compared with 5% of bacterial infections (odds ratio [OR] = 95.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.08-4,321.5, P < 0.0001), 0% of mycobacterial infections (OR = 91.7; 95% CI: 7.21-4,090.22, P < 0.0001), and 14% of fungal infections (OR = 31.67; 95% CI: 3.56-375.09, P = 0.0003). Although some overlap exists, nodule size is helpful in the differential diagnosis of infectious causes of nodules in immunocompromised patients. Patients whose nodules are all less than 10 mm in diameter are most likely to have a viral infection.

  16. Psychotherapy and the etiology of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Guze, S B

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares two broad views of psychotherapy, the etiological and the rehabilitative. The etiological view is based on the premise that the psychotherapeutic process provides a basis for laying bare the causal link between 'deeply repressed' unconscious forces and the patient's current condition. Spence's critique of this position is based on drawing a distinction between narrative truth and historical truth, pointing out the persuasive or rhetorical power of a coherent synthesis of the material presented by the patient, regardless of its historical veracity. Michels also draws attention to this difficulty by pointing to Freud's discovery that reports from childhood were based not on fact, but on fantasies which re-emerge in the transference relationship. The proposal that the therapist provides a context more conducive to the resolution of childhood trauma implies that the trauma was fact and not fantasy. Frank has drawn the parallel between confession in a cueless vacuum with brainwashing techniques which result in the confession of non-events. Besides these difficulties, the etiological approach cannot establish the direction of supposed causality linking childhood events, repressed psychological forces and the patient's condition. The apparently consistent pattern of expectations, perceptions, behavior and 'defenses' may themselves be the effects rather than the causes of the patient's condition. The psychotherapeutic process is intrinsically incapable of deciding objectively between these possibilities. Grunbaum has emphasized this epistemological weakness in the etiological position. The author therefore proposes a more pragmatic, rehabilitative, view of the psychotherapeutic process. Psychotherapy that deals with the personal and social life of the patient may help to alter the circumstances that contribute to discomfort, or change behavior that leads to dissatisfaction, without any commitment to unproven etiological theories. In this sense

  17. Etiology and Prevention of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung S.; Chen, Xiaoxin; Tu, Shuiping

    2016-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer (EC) occurs commonly, especially in Asia, and is the sixth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Recently, great progress has been made in research on the etiology and prevention of EC. Summary The major risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, which act synergistically. Dietary parameters, including dietary carcinogens and insufficiency of micronutrients, could also be important risk factors in certain areas. A common etiological factor for both EC and some other cancers are low levels of intake of fruits and vegetables. With improvements in diet and drinking water in developing countries, the incidence of ESCC decreased. However, in economically well-developed countries, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has markedly increased in the past 40 years. The major etiological factor for EAC is gastroesophageal reflux, which is also an etiological factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA). In certain areas of China, the occurrence of GCA is closely related to ESCC. Susceptibility genes for EC are starting to be discovered, and this may help to identify high-risk groups that have more need for preventive measures. Mitigation of the risk factors, early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions are effective approaches for prevention. Smoking cessation, avoidance of excessive alcohol, meat and caloric consumption, increasing physical activity and frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits are prudent lifestyle modifications for the prevention of EC as well as other diseases. Key Message The etiology of EC includes tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low levels of intake of fruits and vegetables as well as gastroesophageal reflux and susceptibility genes. Practical Implications A healthy lifestyle including smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, consumption of vegetables as well as reduction of alcohol intake and caloric consumption are major

  18. The etiology of otosclerosis: a combination of genes and environment.

    PubMed

    Schrauwen, Isabelle; Van Camp, Guy

    2010-06-01

    Otosclerosis is a common form of hearing loss characterized by abnormal bone remodeling in the otic capsule. It is a complex genetic disease, caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. During the past decade, several attempts have been made to identify factors for otosclerosis. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the etiology of otosclerosis and describes the genetic and environmental factors that have been implicated in the disease. Environmental factors include fluoride and viral factors, particularly measles. Genetic association studies for otosclerosis have reported several associations of genetic variants that influence the risk of disease, mainly involving bone remodeling pathways, although their individual risk contributions are small. Rare monogenic forms of otosclerosis also exist, which are caused by a mutation in a single gene leading to a clear familial segregation of the disease. Linkage analysis of large otosclerosis families has led to the identification of seven loci, and recently evidence was found that T cell receptor beta is a gene responsible for familial otosclerosis, suggesting an underlying immunological pathway. However, this might also represent an autoimmune process, a hypothesis that is supported by other data as well. In conclusion, a variety of pathways have been identified to be involved in the development of otosclerosis, showing that distinct mechanisms involving both genetic and environmental risk factors can influence and contribute to a similar disease outcome.

  19. Viral surveillance and discovery.

    PubMed

    Lipkin, Walter Ian; Firth, Cadhla

    2013-04-01

    The field of virus discovery has burgeoned with the advent of high throughput sequencing platforms and bioinformatics programs that enable rapid identification and molecular characterization of known and novel agents, investments in global microbial surveillance that include wildlife and domestic animals as well as humans, and recognition that viruses may be implicated in chronic as well as acute diseases. Here we review methods for viral surveillance and discovery, strategies and pitfalls in linking discoveries to disease, and identify opportunities for improvements in sequencing instrumentation and analysis, the use of social media and medical informatics that will further advance clinical medicine and public health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Philippa J; Roberts, Teri; Sands, Anita; Peeling, Rosanna

    2017-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for virological markers (nucleic acid testing and HCV

  1. Understanding Image Virality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-08

    of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...from what we might expect at a first glance. An analogous scenario researched in NLP is understanding the semantics of “That’s what she said!” jokes...and will require NLP and Computer Vision for understanding. 4.1. Intrinsic context We first examine whether humans and machines can pre- dict just by

  2. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Philippa J.; Roberts, Teri; Sands, Anita; Peeling, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV–HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016–2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. Recent findings Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. Summary Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for

  3. Human viral gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, M L

    1989-01-01

    During the last 15 years, several different groups of fastidious viruses that are responsible for a large proportion of acute viral gastroenteritis cases have been discovered by the electron microscopic examination of stool specimens. This disease is one of the most prevalent and serious clinical syndromes seen around the world, especially in children. Rotaviruses, in the family Reoviridae, and fastidious fecal adenoviruses account for much of the viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children, whereas the small caliciviruses and unclassified astroviruses, and possibly enteric coronaviruses, are responsible for significantly fewer cases overall. In addition to electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassays and other rapid antigen detection systems have been developed to detect rotaviruses and fastidious fecal adenoviruses in the stool specimens of both nonhospitalized patients and those hospitalized for dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Experimental rotavirus vaccines have also been developed, due to the prevalence and seriousness of rotavirus infection. The small, unclassified Norwalk virus and morphologically similar viruses are responsible for large and small outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in older children, adolescents, and adults. Hospitalization of older patients infected with these viruses is usually not required, and their laboratory diagnoses have been limited primarily to research laboratories. Images PMID:2644024

  4. Viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a "fusion loop" or "fusion peptide") engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Viral infections of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Viral safety of biologicals].

    PubMed

    Barin, F

    2008-06-01

    The viral safety of biologicals, either human blood derivatives or animal products or recombinant proteins issued from biotechnology, relies on the quality of the starting material, the manufacturing process and, if necessary, the control of the final product. The quality of the starting material is highly guaranteed for blood derivatives due to the individual screening for specific markers (antigens, genome, antibodies) for major blood borne viruses such as hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It can be reinforced by the detection through amplification procedures (polymerase chain reaction) in the plasma pool of genomes from viruses that have been implicated in contaminations of blood derivatives in the past (parvovirus B19, hepatitis A virus). The association in the manufacturing process of different steps dedicated to purification of plasma proteins (partitioning), virus inactivation (solvent/detergent treatment, heat inactivation) or specific procedures allowing virus removal (nanofiltration) allows to reduce the viral risk very efficiently. The validation studies using scaled down systems and model viruses allow to evaluate the virus safety of any product quantitatively. The aim of these procedures is to guarantee the lack of infectivity due to any virus, either known or unknown.

  7. Saliva and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 10 years there have been only a handful of publications dealing with the oral virome, which is in contrast to the oral microbiome, an area that has seen considerable interest. Here, we survey viral infections in general and then focus on those viruses that are found in and/or are transmitted via the oral cavity; norovirus, rabies, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Increasingly, viral infections have been diagnosed using an oral sample (e.g. saliva mucosal transudate or an oral swab) instead of blood or urine. The results of two studies using a rapid and semi-quantitative lateral flow assay format demonstrating the correlation of HIV anti-IgG/sIgA detection with saliva and serum samples are presented. When immediate detection of infection is important, point-of-care devices that obtain a non-invasive sample from the oral cavity can be used to provide a first line diagnosis to assist in determining appropriate counselling and therapeutic path for an increasing number of diseases.

  8. [Prevention of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2006-12-01

    Prevention of viral hepatitis infection involves health measures designed to avert transmission of viral agents and promote the use of gammaglobulin and vaccines. The availability of safe drinking water and improvements in quality of life result in better individual hygiene; these factors have had the greatest impact on hepatitis A prevention. Serum gammaglobulin administration has been replaced by vaccinations for pre-exposure, and to a great extent for post-exposure prophylaxis because of the progressively lower anti-HAV content of gammaglobulin and the short duration of the protective effect. Universal vaccination in childhood is the recommended measure for controlling hepatitis A. Adults belonging to high-risk groups should also undergo vaccination. The incidence of hepatitis B has decreased worldwide because of universal vaccination programs, initiated in preadolescence and childhood. Prevention of hepatitis C requires control of situations in which there is a likelihood of parenteral infection with the virus. Post-transfusion hepatitis has been virtually eradicated, but considerable effort is still needed to prevent nosocomial hepatitis.

  9. UV-Associated Mutations Underlie the Etiology of MCV-Negative Merkel Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen Q; Waldeck, Kelly; Vergara, Ismael A; Schröder, Jan; Madore, Jason; Wilmott, James S; Colebatch, Andrew J; De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Li, Jason; Lupat, Richard; Semple, Timothy; Arnau, Gisela Mir; Fellowes, Andrew; Leonard, J Helen; Hruby, George; Mann, Graham J; Thompson, John F; Cullinane, Carleen; Johnston, Meredith; Shackleton, Mark; Sandhu, Shahneen; Bowtell, David D L; Johnstone, Ricky W; Fox, Stephen B; McArthur, Grant A; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Scolyer, Richard A; Gill, Anthony J; Hicks, Rodney J; Tothill, Richard W

    2015-12-15

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon, but highly malignant, cutaneous tumor. Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV) has been implicated in a majority of MCC tumors; however, viral-negative tumors have been reported to be more prevalent in some geographic regions subject to high sun exposure. While the impact of MCV and viral T-antigens on MCC development has been extensively investigated, little is known about the etiology of viral-negative tumors. We performed targeted capture and massively parallel DNA sequencing of 619 cancer genes to compare the gene mutations and copy number alterations in MCV-positive (n = 13) and -negative (n = 21) MCC tumors and cell lines. We found that MCV-positive tumors displayed very low mutation rates, but MCV-negative tumors exhibited a high mutation burden associated with a UV-induced DNA damage signature. All viral-negative tumors harbored mutations in RB1, TP53, and a high frequency of mutations in NOTCH1 and FAT1. Additional mutated or amplified cancer genes of potential clinical importance included PI3K (PIK3CA, AKT1, PIK3CG) and MAPK (HRAS, NF1) pathway members and the receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR2. Furthermore, looking ahead to potential therapeutic strategies encompassing immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD-L1, we also assessed the status of T-cell-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and PD-L1 in MCC tumors. A subset of viral-negative tumors exhibited high TILs and PD-L1 expression, corresponding with the higher mutation load within these cancers. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the underlying biology of viral-negative MCC and paves the road for further investigation into new treatment opportunities. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Characteristics, Treatments, and Outcomes of Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients Stratified by Etiologies of Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Shore, Supriya; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V; Bhatt, Deepak L; Heidenreich, Paul A; Eapen, Zubin J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Yancy, Clyde W; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2015-11-01

    The authors sought to describe characteristics, treatments, and in-hospital outcomes of hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients stratified by etiology. Whether characteristics and outcomes of HF patients differ by cardiomyopathy etiology is unknown. The authors analyzed data on 156,013 hospitalized HF patients from 319 U.S. hospitals participating in Get With The Guidelines-HF between 2005 and 2013. Characteristics, treatments, and in-hospital outcomes were assessed by HF etiology. Standard regression techniques adjusted for site and patient-level characteristics were used to examine association between HF etiology and in-hospital outcomes. Median age was 75 years, 69.2% were white, and 49.5% were women. Overall, 92,361 patients (59.2%) had ischemic cardiomyopathy and 63,652 patients (40.8%) had nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM). Hypertensive (n = 28,141; 48.5%) and idiopathic (n = 17,808; 30.7%) cardiomyopathies accounted for the vast majority of NICM patients. Post-partum (n = 209; 0.4%), viral (n = 447; 0.8%), chemotherapy (n = 721; 1.2%), substance abuse (n = 2,653; 4.6%), familial (n = 556; 1.0%), and other (n = 7,523; 13.0%) etiologies were far less frequent. There were significant differences in baseline characteristics between those with ischemic cardiomyopathy compared with NICM with respect to age (76 years vs. 72 years), sex (44.4% vs. 56.9% women), and ejection fraction (38% vs. 45%). Risk-adjusted quality of care provided to eligible patients varied minimally by etiology. Similarly, in-hospital mortality did not differ among ischemic compared with NICM patients. However, among NICM patients, only hypertensive cardiomyopathy had a lower mortality rate compared with idiopathic NICM (adjusted odds ratio: 0.83; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 0.97). Characteristics of hospitalized HF patients vary by etiology. Both risk-adjusted quality of care and in-hospital outcomes did not differ by etiology. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology

  11. Immune Responses to Circulating and Vaccine Viral Strains in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Children and Youth Who Received the 2013/2014 Quadrivalent Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Adriana; Curtis, Donna; Ning, Mariangeli Freitas; Claypool, David Jeremy; Jalbert, Emilie; Patterson, Julie; Frank, Daniel N.; Ir, Diana; Armon, Carl

    2016-01-01

    to LAIV4. In conclusion, HIV-infected and uninfected children and youth had comparable responses to LAIV4. H1N1-09 immune responses were lower than BY and higher than H1N1-14, suggesting that both antigenic mismatches between circulating and vaccine H1N1 and lower immunogenicity of the H1N1 vaccine strain may have contributed to the decreased H1N1 effectiveness of 2013–2014 LAIV4. PMID:27148262

  12. Metformin and the incidence of viral associated cancers in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Blánaid M; Yin, Hui; Sinyavskaya, Liliya; Suissa, Samy; Azoulay, Laurent; Brassard, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Limited studies have associated metformin with a reduced risk of viral associated cancers, however these had a number of methodological shortcomings. This study investigated whether the use of metformin is associated with a reduced risk of viral associated cancers in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cohort of 137,754 patients newly-prescribed non-insulin antidiabetic drugs between January 1, 1988 and March 31, 2016 was identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and followed until a first-ever diagnosis of a viral associated cancer, death from any cause, end of registration with the practice, or March 31, 2016. Time-varying use of metformin was compared with use of other antidiabetic drugs, with exposures lagged by one year for latency purposes. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident viral associated cancer with use of metformin overall, by cumulative duration of use and viral etiology. Overall, there were 424 viral associated cancers during 759,810 person-years of follow-up (crude rate of 5.6 per 10,000 person-years). Metformin was not associated with a decreased rate of viral associated cancer (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.65-1.32). There was no evidence of a duration-response relationship in terms of cumulative duration of use (p trend = 0.69), including with use of metformin for more than 10 years (HR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.52-1.99), or by viral etiology. In this large population-based cohort study, the use of metformin was not associated with a reduced risk of viral associated cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  13. Epidemiology and Etiology of Young Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Dayna; Sturm, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Stroke in people under 45 years of age is less frequent than in older populations but has a major impact on the individual and society. In this article we provide an overview of the epidemiology and etiology of young stroke. Methods. This paper is based on a review of population-based studies on stroke incidence that have included subgroup analyses for patients under 45 years of age, as well as smaller community-based studies and case-series specifically examining the incidence of stroke in the young. Trends are discussed along with the relative frequencies of various etiologies. Discussion. Stroke in the young requires a different approach to investigation and management than stroke in the elderly given differences in the relative frequencies of possible underlying causes. It remains the case, however, that atherosclerosis contributes to a large proportion of stroke in young patients, thus, conventional risk factors must be targeted aggressively. PMID:21789269

  14. Etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Anthony H V

    2009-08-01

    The etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) is multifactorial and is likely to involve different causes in different patients. Several different genes have been identified as causes of familial PD, including alpha-synuclein gene mutations and multiplications, and mutations of parkin, PINK1, DJ1, and LRRK2. The biochemical consequences of these mutations have served to reinforce the relevance of the pathways to pathogenesis previously characterized, for example, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and protein misfolding and aggregation. The recognition that glucocerebrosidase mutations represent a significant risk factor for PD has focused attention on lysosomal function and autophagy as relevant to PD. Several environmental factors have also been shown to influence the risk for PD, although odds ratios remain relatively modest. Specific toxins can cause dopaminergic cell death in man and animals, but they probably have limited relevance to the etiology of PD.

  15. Pruritic dermatoses: overview of etiology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Ernest N; Beltrani, Vincent S

    2002-12-16

    This review begins with a brief survey of the neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of pruritus, and goes on to describe the etiology of the major allergic and nonallergic pruritic disorders. The etiology of pruritus often suggests the appropriate treatment. For example, urticaria, which is primarily mediated by histamine, is amenable to treatment with H1 antihistamines. Second-generation, nonsedating antihistamines appear to be more effective than sedating antihistamines, perhaps because of better compliance. Other systemic pharmacologic options may be useful in nonhistamine-mediated disorders, for example, immunomodulators for inflammation-induced pruritus or opiate antagonists for atopic dermatitis. Nonpharmacologic measures, such as proper skin care, and physical modalities, such as phototherapy or acupuncture, may also be helpful.

  16. Facial Dysostoses: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Paul A.; Andrews, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in-utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

  17. Recovering full-length viral genomes from metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Saskia L.; Bodewes, Rogier; Ruiz-González, Aritz; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Koopmans, Marion P.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Schürch, Anita C.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease metagenomics is driven by the question: “what is causing the disease?” in contrast to classical metagenome studies which are guided by “what is out there?” In case of a novel virus, a first step to eventually establishing etiology can be to recover a full-length viral genome from a metagenomic sample. However, retrieval of a full-length genome of a divergent virus is technically challenging and can be time-consuming and costly. Here we discuss different assembly and fragment linkage strategies such as iterative assembly, motif searches, k-mer frequency profiling, coverage profile binning, and other strategies used to recover genomes of potential viral pathogens in a timely and cost-effective manner. PMID:26483782

  18. Molecular detection of gastrointestinal viral infections in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Francesca; Campanini, Giulia; Piralla, Antonio; Adzasehoun, Kodjo Messan Guy; Sarasini, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto

    2013-11-01

    Gastrointestinal viral syndromes are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Etiological agents include a large number of viruses encompassing several orders, families, and genera. During the period April 2011 to April 2012, 689 stool samples from as many patients hospitalized at the Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo of Pavia exhibiting gastrointestinal syndromes were examined for the presence of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus, parechovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus, sapovirus, cosavirus, and aichi virus using polymerase chain reaction assays. Gastrointestinal viral agents were detected in 246 (36%) patients of the 689 analyzed. Adenovirus and norovirus were the most common viruses in this cohort, while aichi virus was the only gastrointestinal agent not detected. Surprisingly, rhinovirus was one of the most frequently detected viruses. However, a potential association with gastroenteritis remains to be confirmed.

  19. Viral noncoding RNAs: more surprises

    PubMed Central

    Tycowski, Kazimierz T.; Guo, Yang Eric; Lee, Nara; Moss, Walter N.; Vallery, Tenaya K.; Xie, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells produce several classes of long and small noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Many DNA and RNA viruses synthesize their own ncRNAs. Like their host counterparts, viral ncRNAs associate with proteins that are essential for their stability, function, or both. Diverse biological roles—including the regulation of viral replication, viral persistence, host immune evasion, and cellular transformation—have been ascribed to viral ncRNAs. In this review, we focus on the multitude of functions played by ncRNAs produced by animal viruses. We also discuss their biogenesis and mechanisms of action. PMID:25792595

  20. Angular cheilitis, part 1: local etiologies.

    PubMed

    Park, Kelly K; Brodell, Robert T; Helms, Stephen E

    2011-06-01

    Angular cheilitis (AC) is a common condition characterized by erythema, moist maceration, ulceration, and crusting at the corners of the mouth. This article focuses on the common local factors that act alone and in combination to produce AC. These factors are categorized as irritant, allergic, and infectious causes. Identifying the underlying etiology of AC is a critical step in developing an effective treatment plan for this condition.

  1. Cellulitis: definition, etiology, and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Craig G

    2011-12-01

    Cellulitis is a common condition seen by physicians. Over the past decade, skin and soft tissue infections from community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common. In this article, the definition, etiology, and clinical features of cellulitis are reviewed, and the importance of differentiating cellulitis from necrotizing soft tissue infections is emphasized. Empiric antimicrobial recommendations are suggested, including the most recent recommendations from the Infectious Disease Society of America.

  2. Presentation of Hypoparathyroidism: Etiologies and Clinical Features.

    PubMed

    Shoback, Dolores M; Bilezikian, John P; Costa, Aline G; Dempster, David; Dralle, Henning; Khan, Aliya A; Peacock, Munro; Raffaelli, Marco; Silva, Barbara C; Thakker, Rajesh V; Vokes, Tamara; Bouillon, Roger

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the etiology, diagnosis, and symptoms of hypoparathyroidism may help to improve quality of life and long-term disease outcomes. This paper summarizes the results of the findings and recommendations of the Working Group on Presentation of Hypoparathyroidism. Experts convened in Florence, Italy, in May 2015 and evaluated the literature and recent data on the presentation and long-term outcomes of patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent etiology is surgical removal or loss of viability of parathyroid glands. Despite precautions and expertise, about 20-30% of patients develop transient and 1-7% develop permanent postsurgical hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy. Autoimmune destruction is the main reason for nonsurgical hypoparathyroidism. Severe magnesium deficiency is an uncommon but correctable cause of hypoparathyroidism. Several genetic etiologies can result in the loss of parathyroid function or action causing isolated hypoparathyroidism or a complex syndrome with other symptoms apart from those of hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism. Neuromuscular signs or symptoms due to hypocalcemia are the main characteristics of the disease. Hyperphosphatemia can contribute to major long-term complications such as ectopic calcifications in the kidney, brain, eye, or vasculature. Bone turnover is decreased, and bone mass is increased. Reduced quality of life and higher risk of renal stones, renal calcifications, and renal failure are seen. The risk of seizures and silent or symptomatic calcifications of basal ganglia is also increased. Increased awareness of the etiology and presentation of the disease and new research efforts addressing specific questions formulated during the meeting should improve the diagnosis, care, and long-term outcome for patients.

  3. Childhood cancer: etiologic clues from epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Safyer, A W; Miller, R W

    1977-03-01

    Epidemiologic reseach has revealed a wide spectrum of etiologic information concerning childhood cancer. Often, important clues have come from observations made by alert practitioners. The school health professional can help further progress in cancer research by observing peculiarities of environmental exposures as well as the family's medical history when cancer affects a child. Any unusual findings should be referred to an appropriate research center for evaluation.

  4. [Denture stomatitis - definition, etiology, classification and treatment].

    PubMed

    Cubera, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Denture stomatitis pertains to a number of pathological symptoms in the oral cavity caused by wearing acrylic dentures. Etiological factors include: mucosal trauma, fungal infection and accumulation of denture plaque. All of these factors appear to increase the ability of Candida albicans to colonize both the denture and oral mucosal surfaces. Antifungal treatment can eradicate C. albicans contamination and relieve stomatitis symptoms. Early diagnosis of the lesion is essential to assure rational therapy.

  5. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James; Kurath, Gael; Batts, William

    2007-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is considered to be one of the most important viral pathogens of finfish and is listed as reportable by many nations and international organizations (Office International des Epizooties 2006). Prior to 1988, VHSV was thought to be limited to Europe (Wolf 1988; Smail 1999). Subsequently, it was shown that the virus is endemic among many marine and anadromous fish species in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005). Genetic analysis reveals that isolates of VHSV can be divided into four genotypes that generally correlate with geographic location with the North American isolates generally falling into VHSV Genotype IV (Snow et al. 2004). In 2005-2006, reports from the Great Lakes region indicated that wild fish had experienced disease or, in some cases, very large die-offs from VHSV (Elsayed et al. 2006, Lumsden et al. 2007). The new strain from the Great Lakes, now identified as VHSV Genotype IVb, appears most closely related to isolates of VHSV from mortalities that occurred during 2000-2004 in rivers and near-shore areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada (Gagne et al. 2007). The type IVb isolate found in the Great Lakes region is the only strain outside of Europe that has been associated with significant mortality in freshwater species.

  6. Etiological agents causing leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: A review.

    PubMed

    Naotunna, Chamidri; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala

    2016-04-01

    To systematically review the etiological agent causing human leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. Published articles on leptospirosis and Leptospira in Sri Lanka were all reviewed to determine serovar, strain and species level identification of Leptospira. After screening process, 74 full text articles/reports were reviewed and among of them, 12 published papers describing isolation of Leptospira from Sri Lankan patients/animals, 5 molecular epidemiology papers on newer typing methods citing Sri Lanka isolates, with a descriptions of the isolates and 6 published papers reporting PCR based species level identification were identified. Published literature showed that more than 40 strains classified under at least 20 serovars and 10 serogroups have been isolated from Sri Lanka. These isolates belong to four species, namely, Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira kirschneri, Leptospira borgpetersenii, and Leptospira santarosai. In addition, recent studies on direct patient samples without culture and isolation showed Leptospira from Leptospira weilli is also circulating in Sri Lanka. Multi locus sequence typing showed 13 genotypes of Leptospira from Sri Lankan isolates. This review shows the diversity of Leptospira in Sri Lanka, but culture isolation data has not been published in Sri Lanka during last 30 years. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Etiology of nephrocalcinosis in northern Indian children.

    PubMed

    Mantan, Mukta; Bagga, Arvind; Virdi, Virenderjeet Singh; Menon, Shina; Hari, Pankaj

    2007-06-01

    This retrospective survey examines the etiology of nephrocalcinosis (NC) in 40 patients (26 boys), over an 8-year period. The median age at onset of symptoms and presentation was 36 months and 72 months, respectively. Clinical features included marked failure to thrive (82.5%), polyuria (60%) and bony deformities (52.5%). The etiology of NC included distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in 50% patients and idiopathic hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria in 7.5% each. Other causes were Bartter syndrome, primary hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria, severe hypothyroidism and vitamin D excess. No cause for NC was found in 12.5% patients. Specific therapy, where possible, ameliorated the biochemical aberrations, although the extent of NC remained unchanged. At a median (range) follow up of 35 (14-240) months, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) had declined from 82.0 (42-114) ml/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area to 70.8 (21.3-126.5) ml/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area (P = 0.001). Our findings confirm that, even with limited diagnostic facilities, protocol-based evaluation permits determination of the etiology of NC in most patients.

  8. Different etiologies of acquired torticollis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Per, Hüseyin; Canpolat, Mehmet; Tümtürk, Abdülfettah; Gumuş, Hakan; Gokoglu, Abdulkerim; Yikilmaz, Ali; Özmen, Sevgi; Kaçar Bayram, Ayşe; Poyrazoğlu, Hatice Gamze; Kumandas, Sefer; Kurtsoy, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Torticollis can be congenital or may be acquired in childhood. Acquired torticollis occurs because of another problem and usually presents in previously normal children. The causes of acquired torticollis include ligamentous, muscular, osseous, ocular, psychiatric, and neurologic disorders. We performed this study to evaluate the underlying causes of torticollis in childhood. Ten children presented with complaints of torticollis between April 2007 and April 2012 were enrolled in this study. The additional findings of physical examination included neck pain, twisted neck, walking disorder, imbalance, and vomiting The identified etiologies of the enrolled children was acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in a 2.5-year-old boy, posterior fossa tumor in a 10-month-old boy, spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a 5-year-old hemophiliac boy, cervical osteoblastoma in a 3-year-old boy, arachnoid cyst located at posterior fossa in a 16-month-old boy, aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery in a 6-year-old girl, pontine glioma in a 10-year-old girl, and a psychogenic torticollis in a 7-year-old boy were presented. There is a wide differential diagnosis for a patient with torticollis, not just neurological in etiology which should be considered in any patient with acquired torticollis. Moreover, early diagnosis of etiological disease will reduce mortality and morbidity. Therefore, clinicians managing children with torticollis must be vigilant about underlying neurological complications.

  9. Gene expression in the etiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nicholas J

    2008-05-01

    Gene expression represents a fundamental interface between genes and environment in the development and ongoing plasticity of the human brain. Individual differences in gene expression are likely to underpin much of human diversity, including psychiatric illness. In the past decade, the development of microarray and proteomic technology has enabled global description of gene expression in schizophrenia. However, it is difficult on the basis of gene expression assays alone to distinguish between those changes that constitute primary etiology and those that reflect secondary pathology, compensatory mechanisms, or confounding influences. In this respect, tests of genetic association with schizophrenia will be instructive because changes in gene expression that result from gene variants that are associated with the disorder are likely to be of primary etiological significance. However, regulatory polymorphism is extremely difficult to recognize on the basis of sequence interrogation alone. Functional assays at the messenger RNA and/or protein level will be essential in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic association with schizophrenia and are likely to become increasingly important in the identification of regulatory variants with which to test for association with the disorder and related traits. Once established, etiologically relevant changes in gene expression can be recapitulated in model systems in order to elucidate the molecular and physiological pathways that may ultimately give rise to the condition.

  10. Seizures etiology in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Malik, Bushra Abdul; Butt, Muhammad Asghar; Shamoon, Muhammad; Tehseen, Zahida; Fatima, Ayesha; Hashmat, Nadeem

    2005-12-01

    To determine the causes of seizures in the newborn period. Cross-sectional analytical study. Neonatal Unit, Paediatric Department, Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, from April 2003 to June 2004. A total of 200 neonates of either gender who presented with seizures or developed seizures during hospital stay were evaluated for the possible etiological factors. Blood glucose, serum calcium, blood counts, cerebrospinal fluid examination and cranial ultrasound were done in all patients while blood culture, serum creatinine, CT scan, metabolic screening and Torch antibody titre were done in selected patients guided by history, examination and initial investigations. Results were analysed using SPSS software and Chi-square test. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Birth asphyxia was the commonest cause of seizures in the newborn period present in 35% (n = 70) cases. Other commonly identified causes were septicaemia with or without CNS infections 34% (n = 68), metabolic abnormalities 12.5% (n = 25), and intracranial bleed 9.5% (n = 19) cases. Less common causes were kernicterus 4.5% (n = 9), hydrocephalus 1.5% (n = 3), brain malformations 1% (n = 2) and lignocaine toxicity 1% (n = 2) cases. Seizure with presumed idiopathic etiology i.e. 5th day fit was found in only 1% (n = 2) cases. Etiology of neonatal seizures was identified in 99% cases. It is concluded that neonatal seizures are rarely idiopathic, therefore, an extensive diagnostic work up is needed to establish the cause of seizures in the newborn period.

  11. Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients. PMID:11153410

  12. Development of a symptom score for clinical studies to identify children with a documented viral upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James A; Weber, Wendy J; Martin, Emily T; McCarty, Rachelle L; Englund, Janet A

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a symptom scoring system for use in clinical studies that differentiates children with cold symptoms who have an identifiable viral etiology for their upper respiratory tract infection (URI) from those in whom no virus is detected. Nasal swabs for PCR testing for identification of respiratory viruses were obtained on children aged 2-11 y at baseline and when parents thought their child was developing a cold. Parental-recorded severity of specific symptoms in children with and without a documented viral URI were compared. Nasal swabs were obtained on 108 children whose parents reported their child was developing a cold. A viral etiology was identified in 62 of 108 (57.4%) samples. Symptom measures that best differentiated children with a viral etiology from those without were significant runny nose and significant cough on days 1-4 of the illness. A URI symptom score was developed based on these symptoms, with a sensitivity of 81.4%, specificity of 61.9%, and accuracy of 73.3%. Parental impression is only a moderately accurate predictor of viral URI in children. Our URI symptom score provided a more accurate method for identifying children with viral URIs for clinical studies.

  13. Development of a symptom score for clinical studies to identify children with a documented viral upper respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James A.; Weber, Wendy J.; Martin, Emily T.; McCarty, Rachelle L.; Englund, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a symptom scoring system for use in clinical studies that differentiates children with cold symptoms who have an identifiable viral etiology for their upper respiratory tract infection (URI) from those in whom no virus is detected. Nasal swabs for PCR testing for identification of respiratory viruses were obtained on children 2–11 years old at baseline and when parents thought their child was developing a cold. Parental-recorded severity of specific symptoms in children with and without a documented viral URI were compared. Nasal swabs were obtained on 108 children whose parents reported their child was developing a cold. A viral etiology was identified in 62/108 (57.4%) samples. Symptom measures that best differentiated children with a viral etiology from those without were significant runny nose and significant cough on day 1 through day 4 of the illness. A URI symptom score was developed based on these symptoms, with a sensitivity of 81.4%, specificity of 61.9% and accuracy of 73.3%. Parental impression is only a moderately accurate predictor of viral URI in children. Our URI symptom score provided a more accurate method for identifying children with viral URIs for clinical studies. PMID:20520584

  14. Viral Hepatitis Surveillance--India, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tripurari; Shrivastava, Aakash; Kumar, Anil; Laserson, Kayla F; Narain, Jai P; Venkatesh, Srinivasaraghavan; Chauhan, Lakhbir S; Averhoff, Francisco

    2015-07-24

    The burden of viral hepatitis in India is not well characterized. In 2009, the national Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) began conducting surveillance across all Indian states for epidemic-prone diseases, including foodborne and waterborne forms of viral hepatitis (e.g., hepatitis A and E). Information on outbreaks of all forms of viral hepatitis, including A, B, C, and E, also is collected. This report summarizes viral hepatitis surveillance and outbreak data reported to IDSP during 2011-2013. During this period, 804,782 hepatitis cases and 291 outbreaks were reported; the virus type was unspecified in 92% of cases. Among 599,605 cases tested for hepatitis A, 44,663 (7.4%) were positive, and among 187,040 tested for hepatitis E, 19,508 (10.4%) were positive. At least one hepatitis outbreak report was received from 23 (66%) of 35 Indian states. Two-thirds of outbreaks were reported from rural areas. Among 163 (56%) outbreaks with known etiology, 78 (48%) were caused by hepatitis E, 54 (33%) by hepatitis A, 19 (12%) by both hepatitis A and E, and 12 (7%) by hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Contaminated drinking water was the source of most outbreaks. Improvements in water quality and sanitation as well as inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in childhood immunization programs should be considered to reduce the public health burden of hepatitis in India. Efforts to decrease the proportion of cases for which the etiology is unspecified, including expanding the IDSP to support hepatitis B and C testing, might help further elucidate the epidemiology of these diseases.

  15. Liver Failure due to Acute Viral Hepatitis (A-E).

    PubMed

    Manka, Paul; Verheyen, Jens; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Viral hepatitis is still one of the key causes of acute liver failure (ALF) in the world. A selective literature search of the PubMed database was conducted, including current studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and guidelines. We obtained an overview of ALF due to viral hepatitis in terms of epidemiology, course, and treatment options. Most fulminant viral courses are reported after infection with hepatitis A, B, and B/D, but not with hepatitis C. Hepatitis E is also known to cause ALF but has not gained much attention in recent years. However, more and more autochthonous hepatitis E virus infections have been recently observed in Europe. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) under immunosuppressive conditions, such as after intensive chemotherapy, is also an increasing problem. For most viral-induced cases of ALF, liver transplantation represented the only therapeutic option in the past. Today, immediate treatment of HBV-induced ALF with nucleotide or nucleoside analogs is well tolerated and beneficially affects the course of the disease. Although numbers in Western European countries are decreasing rapidly, reliable diagnostic screening for hepatitis A-E is necessary to identify the etiology and to determine those most at risk of developing ALF.

  16. Liver Failure due to Acute Viral Hepatitis (A-E)

    PubMed Central

    Manka, Paul; Verheyen, Jens; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis is still one of the key causes of acute liver failure (ALF) in the world. Methods A selective literature search of the PubMed database was conducted, including current studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and guidelines. We obtained an overview of ALF due to viral hepatitis in terms of epidemiology, course, and treatment options. Results Most fulminant viral courses are reported after infection with hepatitis A, B, and B/D, but not with hepatitis C. Hepatitis E is also known to cause ALF but has not gained much attention in recent years. However, more and more autochthonous hepatitis E virus infections have been recently observed in Europe. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) under immunosuppressive conditions, such as after intensive chemotherapy, is also an increasing problem. For most viral-induced cases of ALF, liver transplantation represented the only therapeutic option in the past. Today, immediate treatment of HBV-induced ALF with nucleotide or nucleoside analogs is well tolerated and beneficially affects the course of the disease. Conclusion Although numbers in Western European countries are decreasing rapidly, reliable diagnostic screening for hepatitis A-E is necessary to identify the etiology and to determine those most at risk of developing ALF. PMID:27413724

  17. Viral Hepatitis: Retrospective Review in a Canadian Pediatric Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cybulska, Paulina; Ni, Andy; Jimenez-Rivera, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clinical presentation of viral hepatitis ranges from mild symptoms to fulminant hepatitis. Our aim is to describe clinical presentation and outcomes of children with viral hepatitis from the Eastern Ontario/Western Quebec regions of Canada. Methods. Retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with viral hepatitis at our institution from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2007. Results. There were 261 charts reviewed, only 64 had a confirmed viral etiology: 34 (53%) hepatitis B (HBV), 16 (25%) hepatitis C (HCV), 4 (6.3%) hepatitis A (HAV), 7 (11%) cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 3 (4.7%) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Children with HBV presented at a mean age of 6.4 ± 4.6 years. Spontaneous seroconversion (appearance of HBVeAb and loss of HBVeAg) occurred in 21/34 (61.7%). Children with acute hepatitis (HAV, CMV, and EBV) presented with mild abdominal pain, jaundice, and fevers. Overall outcome was excellent. Conclusion. Acute and chronic hepatitis in children has a benign course; moreover, HBV spontaneous seroconversion is common in pediatric patients. PMID:22482064

  18. Viral quasispecies evolution.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Esteban; Sheldon, Julie; Perales, Celia

    2012-06-01

    Evolution of RNA viruses occurs through disequilibria of collections of closely related mutant spectra or mutant clouds termed viral quasispecies. Here we review the origin of the quasispecies concept and some biological implications of quasispecies dynamics. Two main aspects are addressed: (i) mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic variants for virus adaptability and (ii) the internal interactions that are established within mutant spectra that render a virus ensemble the unit of selection. The understanding of viruses as quasispecies has led to new antiviral designs, such as lethal mutagenesis, whose aim is to drive viruses toward low fitness values with limited chances of fitness recovery. The impact of quasispecies for three salient human pathogens, human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B and C viruses, is reviewed, with emphasis on antiviral treatment strategies. Finally, extensions of quasispecies to nonviral systems are briefly mentioned to emphasize the broad applicability of quasispecies theory.

  19. Viral Quasispecies Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Julie; Perales, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Evolution of RNA viruses occurs through disequilibria of collections of closely related mutant spectra or mutant clouds termed viral quasispecies. Here we review the origin of the quasispecies concept and some biological implications of quasispecies dynamics. Two main aspects are addressed: (i) mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic variants for virus adaptability and (ii) the internal interactions that are established within mutant spectra that render a virus ensemble the unit of selection. The understanding of viruses as quasispecies has led to new antiviral designs, such as lethal mutagenesis, whose aim is to drive viruses toward low fitness values with limited chances of fitness recovery. The impact of quasispecies for three salient human pathogens, human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B and C viruses, is reviewed, with emphasis on antiviral treatment strategies. Finally, extensions of quasispecies to nonviral systems are briefly mentioned to emphasize the broad applicability of quasispecies theory. PMID:22688811

  20. Dengue viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing this disease. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. This review outlines aspects of the epidemiology of dengue infections, the dengue virus and its mosquito vector, clinical features and pathogenesis of dengue infections, and the management and control of these infections. PMID:15466994

  1. [Viral hemorrhagic fever].

    PubMed

    Kager, P A

    1998-02-28

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers, such as Lassa fever and yellow fever, cause tens of thousands of deaths annually outside the Netherlands. The viruses are mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks or via excreta of rodents. Important to travellers are yellow fever, dengue and Lassa and Ebola fever. For yellow fever there is an efficacious vaccine. Dengue is frequently observed in travellers; prevention consists in avoiding mosquito bites, the treatment is symptomatic. Lassa and Ebola fever are extremely rare among travellers; a management protocol can be obtained from the Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. Diagnostics of a patient from the tropics with fever and haemorrhagic diathesis should be aimed at treatable disorders such as malaria, typhoid fever, rickettsiosis or bacterial sepsis, because the probability of such a disease is much higher than that of Lassa or Ebola fever.

  2. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Racsa, Lori D.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Olinger, Gene G.; Hensley, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  3. Viral causes of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Goodgame, R W

    2001-09-01

    Viruses are important causes of diarrhea. In healthy adults, the main clinical manifestation is acute, self-limited gastroenteritis. Advances in molecular diagnostics have shown that epidemics of acute gastroenteritis most frequently are due to caliciviruses spread through contaminated food or through person-to-person contact. Application of similar technology is needed to make a definitive statement about the role of such candidate viruses as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus as the cause of nonepidemic acute gastroenteritis in adults. Rarely a previously healthy adult gets acute CMV colitis. CMV and EBV mainly cause diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, however. Advances in prophylaxis and treatment have reduced the frequency and severity of these diseases. Acute infantile gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus, calcivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus. These viral diseases of the gut are seen by the physician as routine and rare clinical problems.

  4. The Class II/1 anomaly of hereditary etiology vs. Thumb-sucking etiology

    PubMed Central

    Pădure, H; Negru, AR; Stanciu, D

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The etiology of class II division 1 Angle anomaly comprises many entities, including heredity and the vicious habit of sucking the finger. A close connection between the etiology and the clinical features needs to be outlined, in order to have a more appropriate treatment approach. Aim: This study aims to find common clinical features for two groups of Class II division 1 etiological factors (heredity and the vicious habit of sucking the finger), outlining a characteristic dento-facial pattern for each etiological factor. Materials and methods: 160 orthodontic cases were studied, taken randomly from the Department of Orthodontics in "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, between 2005 and 2011. From a total of 46 diagnosed with Class II/1, the following data were noted for each subject in a table: age, sex, etiology, facial symmetry, profile, size of the lower face, stage lip, labiomentonier ditch, menton, form of arches, palate, occlusion in the three plans, Spee curve, other dental anomalies. Discussions: The facial asymmetry was found in a greater proportion within the finger-sucking group. Subjects in the finger sucking group have 100% pronounced convex profile, with pronounced lip stage and sharp curve of Spee, being known that the thumb-sucking stops the mandible growth and stimulates the upper jaw protrusion. Conclusions: The predominant etiological factor is heredity and the clinical features obvious for II/1 Angle anomaly are present in the highest proportion in the thumb-sucking group, but no significant differences were observed between the groups studied according to etiology. PMID:22802900

  5. Independence of Herpesvirus-Induced T Cell Lymphoma from Viral Cyclin D Homologue

    PubMed Central

    Ensser, Armin; Glykofrydes, Diana; Niphuis, Henk; Kuhn, Eva M.; Rosenwirth, Brigitte; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Niedobitek, Gerald; Müller-Fleckenstein, Ingrid; Fleckenstein, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    Cyclin D family members are cellular protooncogenes, and their viral homologues in the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus type 8 [HHV-8]) and the closely related Herpesvirus saimiri have been implicated as putative cofactors of viral transformation and pathogenesis. KSHV is regularly found in Kaposi's sarcoma and in the primary effusion B cell lymphoma and Castleman's disease associated with immunosuppression and AIDS. H. saimiri strain C488 transforms human and marmoset T cells in vitro and causes polyclonal T cell lymphoma in New World monkeys. The viral cyclins stimulate cell cycle progression of quiescent fibroblasts, and they form active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)6 complexes of broad substrate specificity that can resist and downregulate cellular CDK inhibitors. This study shows that the viral cyclin of H. saimiri strain C488 is not required for viral replication, T cell transformation, and pathogenicity in New World primates. PMID:11238594

  6. Independence of herpesvirus-induced T cell lymphoma from viral cyclin D homologue.

    PubMed

    Ensser, A; Glykofrydes, D; Niphuis, H; Kuhn, E M; Rosenwirth, B; Heeney, J L; Niedobitek, G; Müller-Fleckenstein, I; Fleckenstein, B

    2001-03-05

    Cyclin D family members are cellular protooncogenes, and their viral homologues in the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus type 8 [HHV-8]) and the closely related Herpesvirus saimiri have been implicated as putative cofactors of viral transformation and pathogenesis. KSHV is regularly found in Kaposi's sarcoma and in the primary effusion B cell lymphoma and Castleman's disease associated with immunosuppression and AIDS. H. saimiri strain C488 transforms human and marmoset T cells in vitro and causes polyclonal T cell lymphoma in New World monkeys. The viral cyclins stimulate cell cycle progression of quiescent fibroblasts, and they form active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)6 complexes of broad substrate specificity that can resist and downregulate cellular CDK inhibitors. This study shows that the viral cyclin of H. saimiri strain C488 is not required for viral replication, T cell transformation, and pathogenicity in New World primates.

  7. Zika viral dynamics and shedding in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Christa E; Lim, So-Yon; Deleage, Claire; Griffin, Bryan D; Stein, Derek; Schroeder, Lukas T; Omange, Robert Were; Best, Katharine; Luo, Ma; Hraber, Peter T; Andersen-Elyard, Hanne; Ojeda, Erwing Fabian Cardozo; Huang, Scott; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen; Perelson, Alan S; Estes, Jacob D; Safronetz, David; Lewis, Mark G; Whitney, James B

    2017-01-01

    Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions. Although viral RNA during primary infection was cleared from blood plasma and urine within 10 d, viral RNA was detectable in saliva and seminal fluids until the end of the study, 3 weeks after the resolution of viremia in the blood. The control of primary Zika virus infection in the blood was correlated with rapid innate and adaptive immune responses. We also identified Zika RNA in tissues, including the brain and male and female reproductive tissues, during early and late stages of infection. Re-infection of six animals 45 d after primary infection with a heterologous strain resulted in complete protection, which suggests that primary Zika virus infection elicits protective immunity. Early invasion of Zika virus into the nervous system of healthy animals and the extent and duration of shedding in saliva and semen underscore possible concern for additional neurologic complications and nonarthropod-mediated transmission in humans. PMID:27694931

  8. Acetylsalicylic acid reduces viral shedding induced by thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Bryan M; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on ocular shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Mice that were latent for the McKrae strain of HSV-1 were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, a nonspecific inhibitor of cyclooxygenases, either prophylactically or at the time of heat stress-induced viral reactivation. The effect of the drug on viral shedding in the tear film, infectious virus in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion, and viral DNA in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion was determined. Acetylsalicylic acid inhibited heat stress-induced shedding of virus in the tears and reduced the numbers of corneal and trigeminal ganglion homogenates containing virus. Intraperitoneal therapeutic and oral prophylactic plus therapeutic treatments were similar in their ability to inhibit reactivation. The results indicate that a cyclooxygenase inhibitor such as acetylsalicylic acid can reduce recurrent viral infection in mice. These findings may implicate prostaglandins as agents in the viral reactivation process and suggest that therapy to suppress viral reactivation using nontoxic inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis may be effective in humans.

  9. Zika viral dynamics and shedding in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Osuna, Christa E.; Lim, So -Yon; Deleage, Claire; Griffin, Bryan D.; Stein, Derek; Schroeder, Lukas T.; Omange, Robert; Best, Katharine; Luo, Ma; Hraber, Peter Thomas; Andersen-Elyard, Hanne; Ojeda, Erwing Fabian Cardozo; Huang, Scott; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Higgs, Stephen; Perelson, Alan S.; Estes, Jacob D.; Safronetz, David; Lewis, Mark G.; Whitney, James B.

    2016-10-03

    Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions. Although viral RNA during primary infection was cleared from blood plasma and urine within 10 d, viral RNA was detectable in saliva and seminal fluids until the end of the study, 3 weeks after the resolution of viremia in the blood. The control of primary Zika virus infection in the blood was correlated with rapid innate and adaptive immune responses. We also identified Zika RNA in tissues, including the brain and male and female reproductive tissues, during early and late stages of infection. Re-infection of six animals 45 d after primary infection with a heterologous strain resulted in complete protection, which suggests that primary Zika virus infection elicits protective immunity. Finally, early invasion of Zika virus into the nervous system of healthy animals and the extent and duration of shedding in saliva and semen underscore possible concern for additional neurologic complications and nonarthropod-mediated transmission in humans.

  10. Zika viral dynamics and shedding in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Christa E; Lim, So-Yon; Deleage, Claire; Griffin, Bryan D; Stein, Derek; Schroeder, Lukas T; Omange, Robert; Best, Katharine; Luo, Ma; Hraber, Peter T; Andersen-Elyard, Hanne; Ojeda, Erwing Fabian Cardozo; Huang, Scott; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen; Perelson, Alan S; Estes, Jacob D; Safronetz, David; Lewis, Mark G; Whitney, James B

    2016-12-01

    Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions. Although viral RNA during primary infection was cleared from blood plasma and urine within 10 d, viral RNA was detectable in saliva and seminal fluids until the end of the study, 3 weeks after the resolution of viremia in the blood. The control of primary Zika virus infection in the blood was correlated with rapid innate and adaptive immune responses. We also identified Zika RNA in tissues, including the brain and male and female reproductive tissues, during early and late stages of infection. Re-infection of six animals 45 d after primary infection with a heterologous strain resulted in complete protection, which suggests that primary Zika virus infection elicits protective immunity. Early invasion of Zika virus into the nervous system of healthy animals and the extent and duration of shedding in saliva and semen underscore possible concern for additional neurologic complications and nonarthropod-mediated transmission in humans.

  11. Zika viral dynamics and shedding in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Osuna, Christa E.; Lim, So -Yon; Deleage, Claire; Griffin, Bryan D.; Stein, Derek; Schroeder, Lukas T.; Omange, Robert; Best, Katharine; Luo, Ma; Hraber, Peter Thomas; Andersen-Elyard, Hanne; Ojeda, Erwing Fabian Cardozo; Huang, Scott; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Higgs, Stephen; Perelson, Alan S.; Estes, Jacob D.; Safronetz, David; Lewis, Mark G.; Whitney, James B.

    2016-10-03

    Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions. Although viral RNA during primary infection was cleared from blood plasma and urine within 10 d, viral RNA was detectable in saliva and seminal fluids until the end of the study, 3 weeks after the resolution of viremia in the blood. The control of primary Zika virus infection in the blood was correlated with rapid innate and adaptive immune responses. We also identified Zika RNA in tissues, including the brain and male and female reproductive tissues, during early and late stages of infection. Re-infection of six animals 45 d after primary infection with a heterologous strain resulted in complete protection, which suggests that primary Zika virus infection elicits protective immunity. Finally, early invasion of Zika virus into the nervous system of healthy animals and the extent and duration of shedding in saliva and semen underscore possible concern for additional neurologic complications and nonarthropod-mediated transmission in humans.

  12. Zika viral dynamics and shedding in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

    DOE PAGES

    Osuna, Christa E.; Lim, So -Yon; Deleage, Claire; ...

    2016-10-03

    Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions. Although viral RNA during primary infection wasmore » cleared from blood plasma and urine within 10 d, viral RNA was detectable in saliva and seminal fluids until the end of the study, 3 weeks after the resolution of viremia in the blood. The control of primary Zika virus infection in the blood was correlated with rapid innate and adaptive immune responses. We also identified Zika RNA in tissues, including the brain and male and female reproductive tissues, during early and late stages of infection. Re-infection of six animals 45 d after primary infection with a heterologous strain resulted in complete protection, which suggests that primary Zika virus infection elicits protective immunity. Finally, early invasion of Zika virus into the nervous system of healthy animals and the extent and duration of shedding in saliva and semen underscore possible concern for additional neurologic complications and nonarthropod-mediated transmission in humans.« less

  13. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  14. Etiology of acute respiratory disease in fattening pigs in Finland.

    PubMed

    Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Hälli, Outi; Laurila, Tapio; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Nokireki, Tiina; Laine, Taina; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Pelkola, Kirsti; Segales, Joaquim; Sibila, Marina; Oliviero, Claudio; Peltoniemi, Olli; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our study was to clinically and etiologically investigate acute outbreaks of respiratory disease in Finland. Our study also aimed to evaluate the clinical use of various methods in diagnosing respiratory infections under field conditions and to describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of the main bacterial pathogen(s) found during the study. A total of 20 case herds having finishing pigs showing acute respiratory symptoms and eight control herds showing no clinical signs suggesting of respiratory problems were enrolled in the study. Researchers visited each herd twice, examining and bleeding 20 pigs per herd. In addition, nasal swab samples were taken from 20 pigs and three pigs per case herd were necropsied during the first visit. Serology was used to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to investigate the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in serum and SIV in the nasal and lung samples. Pathology and bacteriology, including antimicrobial resistance determination, were performed on lung samples obtained from the field necropsies. According to the pathology and bacteriology of the lung samples, APP and Ascaris suum were the main causes of respiratory outbreaks in 14 and three herds respectively, while the clinical signs in three other herds had a miscellaneous etiology. SIV, APP and PCV2 caused concurrent infections in certain herds but they were detected serologically or with PCR also in control herds, suggesting possible subclinical infections. APP was isolated from 16 (80%) case herds. Marked resistance was observed against tetracycline for APP, some resistance was detected against trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin, and no resistance against florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tulathromycin or

  15. Complete genome sequence of Yersinia ruckeri str. CSF007-82, etiologic agent of enteric redmouth disease in salmonid fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present the complete, closed and finished chromosomal and extra-chromosomal genome sequences of Y. ruckeri strain CSF007-82, etiologic agent of enteric red mouth disease in salmonid fish. The chromosome is 3,799,036 bp with a G+C content of 47.5% and encodes 3,530 predicted CDS, 7 ribosomal opero...

  16. Mechanical Properties of Viral Capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandi, Roya; Reguera, David

    2005-03-01

    Viral genomes, whether they involve RNA or DNA molecules, are invariably protected by a rigid, single-protein-thick, shell referred to as ``capsid.'' Viral capsids are known to tolerate wide ranges of pH and salt conditions and to withstand internal pressures as high as 100 atms. We study the mechanical properties of viral capsids, calling explicit attention to the inhomogeneity of the shells that is inherent in their being discrete/polyhedral rather than continuous/spherical. We analyze the distribution of stress in these capsids due to isotropic internal pressure (arising, for instance, from genome confinement and/or osmotic activity), and compare the results with appropriate generalizations of classical elasticity theory. We also examine the competing mechanisms for viral shell failure, e.g., in-plane crack formation vs radial bursting. The biological consequences of the special stabilities and stress distributions of viral capsids are also discussed.

  17. Confined aquifers as viral reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Renee J; Jeffries, Thomas C; Roudnew, Ben; Seymour, Justin R; Fitch, Alison J; Simons, Keryn L; Speck, Peter G; Newton, Kelly; Brown, Melissa H; Mitchell, James G

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about viral diversity and abundance in deep groundwater reserves is limited. We found that the viral community inhabiting a deep confined aquifer in South Australia was more similar to reclaimed water communities than to the viral communities in the overlying unconfined aquifer community. This similarity was driven by high relative occurrence of the single-stranded DNA viral groups Circoviridae, Geminiviridae and Microviridae, which include many known plant and animal pathogens. These groups were present in a 1500-year-old water situated 80 m below the surface, which suggests the potential for long-term survival and spread of potentially pathogenic viruses in deep, confined groundwater. Obtaining a broader understanding of potentially pathogenic viral communities within aquifers is particularly important given the ability of viruses to spread within groundwater ecosystems.

  18. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D.; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G.; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M.; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1–77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light

  19. Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Gendreau, Linda; Loewy, Zvi G

    2011-06-01

    Denture stomatitis, a common disorder affecting denture wearers, is characterized as inflammation and erythema of the oral mucosal areas covered by the denture. Despite its commonality, the etiology of denture stomatitis is not completely understood. A search of the literature was conducted in the PubMed electronic database (through November 2009) to identify relevant articles for inclusion in a review updating information on the epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis and the potential role of denture materials in this disorder. Epidemiological studies report prevalence of denture stomatitis among denture wearers to range from 15% to over 70%. Studies have been conducted among various population samples, and this appears to influence prevalence rates. In general, where reported, incidence of denture stomatitis is higher among elderly denture users and among women. Etiological factors include poor denture hygiene, continual and nighttime wearing of removable dentures, accumulation of denture plaque, and bacterial and yeast contamination of denture surface. In addition, poor-fitting dentures can increase mucosal trauma. All of these factors appear to increase the ability of Candida albicans to colonize both the denture and oral mucosal surfaces, where it acts as an opportunistic pathogen. Antifungal treatment can eradicate C. albicans contamination and relieve stomatitis symptoms, but unless dentures are decontaminated and their cleanliness maintained, stomatitis will recur when antifungal therapy is discontinued. New developments related to denture materials are focusing on means to reduce development of adherent biofilms. These may have value in reducing bacterial and yeast colonization, and could lead to reductions in denture stomatitis with appropriate denture hygiene.

  20. Natural Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a consistent and thorough development of the strain and strain-rate measures affiliated with Hencky. Natural measures for strain and strain-rate, as I refer to them, are first expressed in terms of of the fundamental body-metric tensors of Lodge. These strain and strain-rate measures are mixed tensor fields. They are mapped from the body to space in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations, and then transformed from general to Cartesian fields. There they are compared with the various strain and strain-rate measures found in the literature. A simple Cartesian description for Hencky strain-rate in the Lagrangian state is obtained.

  1. Etiologies and Management of Aseptic Meningitis in Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Irène; Sellier, Pierre; Lopes, Amanda; Morgand, Marjolaine; Makovec, Tamara; Delcey, Veronique; Champion, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Green, Andrew; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Lloret-Linares, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the clinical and biological characteristics of meningitis in order to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis in the emergency setting. However, little is known about the etiologies and outcomes of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to Internal Medicine.The aim of the study is to describe the etiologies, characteristics, and outcomes of aseptic meningitis with or without encephalitis in adults admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of the Lariboisière Hospital in Paris, France, from January 2009 to December 2011. Clinical and biological characteristics of aseptic meningitis were recorded. These included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, results of polymerase chain reaction testing, final diagnoses, and therapeutic management.The cohort included 180 patients fulfilling the criteria for aseptic meningitis with (n = 56) or without (n = 124) encephalitis. A definitive etiological diagnosis was established in 83 of the 180 cases. Of the cases with a definitive diagnosis, 73 were due to infectious agents, mainly enteroviruses, Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and Varicella Zoster Virus (43.4%, 16.8%, and 14.5% respectively). Inflammatory diseases were diagnosed in 7 cases. Among the 97 cases without definitive diagnoses, 26 (26.8%) remained free of treatment throughout their management whereas antiviral or antibiotic therapy was initiated in the emergency department for the remaining 71 patients. The treatment was discontinued in only 10 patients deemed to have viral meningitis upon admission to Internal Medicine.The prevalence of inflammatory diseases among patients admitted to internal medicine for aseptic meningitis is not rare (4% of overall aseptic meningitis). The PCR upon admission to the emergency department is obviously of major importance for the prompt optimization of therapy and management. However, meningitis due to viral agents or

  2. Etiologies and Management of Aseptic Meningitis in Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jarrin, Irène; Sellier, Pierre; Lopes, Amanda; Morgand, Marjolaine; Makovec, Tamara; Delcey, Veronique; Champion, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Green, Andrew; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Lloret-Linares, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have focused on the clinical and biological characteristics of meningitis in order to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis in the emergency setting. However, little is known about the etiologies and outcomes of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to Internal Medicine. The aim of the study is to describe the etiologies, characteristics, and outcomes of aseptic meningitis with or without encephalitis in adults admitted to an Internal Medicine Department. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of the Lariboisière Hospital in Paris, France, from January 2009 to December 2011. Clinical and biological characteristics of aseptic meningitis were recorded. These included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, results of polymerase chain reaction testing, final diagnoses, and therapeutic management. The cohort included 180 patients fulfilling the criteria for aseptic meningitis with (n = 56) or without (n = 124) encephalitis. A definitive etiological diagnosis was established in 83 of the 180 cases. Of the cases with a definitive diagnosis, 73 were due to infectious agents, mainly enteroviruses, Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and Varicella Zoster Virus (43.4%, 16.8%, and 14.5% respectively). Inflammatory diseases were diagnosed in 7 cases. Among the 97 cases without definitive diagnoses, 26 (26.8%) remained free of treatment throughout their management whereas antiviral or antibiotic therapy was initiated in the emergency department for the remaining 71 patients. The treatment was discontinued in only 10 patients deemed to have viral meningitis upon admission to Internal Medicine. The prevalence of inflammatory diseases among patients admitted to internal medicine for aseptic meningitis is not rare (4% of overall aseptic meningitis). The PCR upon admission to the emergency department is obviously of major importance for the prompt optimization of therapy and management. However, meningitis due to

  3. [Guideline-based diagnosis of dementia etiology].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W

    2012-12-01

    Dementia encompasses a variety of underlying conditions among which Alzheimer's disease represents the most common cause and in addition, vascular and Parkinson's disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. All the current guidelines specify a two-step procedure for the diagnostics of dementia. The first step entails performing a comprehensive description, diagnosis and confirmation of the syndrome. The presented article focuses on the second step: diagnosis of the etiology. This review gives an overview of the current diagnostic approaches including the new proposals of the biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid.

  4. Exercise addiction: symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology.

    PubMed

    Berczik, Krisztina; Szabó, Attila; Griffiths, Mark D; Kurimay, Tamás; Kun, Bernadette; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-03-01

    Regular physical activity plays a crucial role in health maintenance and disease prevention. However, excessive exercise has the potential to have adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The scholastic and empirical discussion of excessive physical activity focuses on obsessive and compulsive exercising, and uses several labels. However, in this review, we argue that the most appropriate term for this phenomenon is exercise addiction, emphasizing that excessive physical exercise fits the typical and most common characteristics of behavioral addictions. The aim of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on symptomology, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology of exercise addiction.

  5. Etiology of breast cancer I. Genetic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Damodar V.; Morgan, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    The subject of breast cancer is reviewed with particular emphasis on the genetic aspect of its etiology. A number of studies using various approaches gave the same results: the familial form occurs earlier and there is a higher risk in female members of the breast-cancer families. An association between breast cancer and cancer of certain other sites among women is reported. Cytogenetic studies of “cancer families” revealed increased frequency of aneuploidy in some members. However, the role of chromosome abnormalities in carcinogenesis is still not clear. PMID:4577599

  6. Treacher Collins syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Paul A; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare congenital disorder of craniofacial development that arises as the result of mutations in the TCOF1 gene, which encodes a nucleolar phosphoprotein known as Treacle. Individuals diagnosed with TCS frequently undergo multiple reconstructive surgeries, which are rarely fully corrective. Identifying potential avenues for rescue and/or repair of TCS depends on a profound appreciation of the etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome. Recent research using animal models has not only determined the cellular basis of TCS but also, more importantly, unveiled a successful avenue for therapeutic intervention and prevention of the craniofacial anomalies observed in TCS. PMID:19107148

  7. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipović, Sanja Kurecić; Nemeth-Blazić, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunović, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radić, Ivan; Pavlić, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis

  8. Persistent Tachypnea and Alveolar Hemorrhage in an Infant: An Unexpected Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Angela; Valsamis, Christina; Halaby, Claudia; Pirzada, Melodi

    2016-01-01

    Persistent tachypnea and failure to thrive during infancy have a broad differential diagnosis which includes pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare entity in children. DAH requires an extensive work-up as certain conditions may need chronic therapy. Cardiovascular disorders are included in the etiology of DAH. We present a case of an 8-month-old female with a moderate, restrictive patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) admitted to the hospital with respiratory distress and failure to thrive. An extensive work-up into tachypnea including multiple echocardiograms did not find an etiology. Open lung biopsy was performed and consistent with pulmonary hypertension. After closure of the PDA, patient's tachypnea improved, and she was discharged home with periodic follow-up showing a growing, thriving child. When an infant presents with tachypnea, a respiratory viral illness is often a common cause. The diagnosis of persistent tachypnea requires further investigation. Echocardiography, although readily available, may not always be sensitive in detecting clinically significant pulmonary hypertension. A clinician must have a heightened index of suspicion to proceed in evaluating for causes of tachypnea with a nonrespiratory etiology. PMID:27895951

  9. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    MedlinePlus

    Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused ...

  10. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  11. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    PubMed

    Torres-Flores, Jesús M; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-09-23

    Tight junctions (TJs) are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells.

  12. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy.

  13. Gastric Enterovirus Infection: A Possible Causative Etiology of Gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Jodie A; Czul, Frank; Barkin, Jamie S; Klimas, Nancy G; Rey, Irma R; Moshiree, Baharak

    2016-08-01

    Gastroparesis (GP) is a disabling chronic gastroenterologic disorder with high morbidity that severely impacts patients' quality of life. GP can present acutely after a viral-like gastrointestinal illness resulting in speculation that in some patients, neurologic damage caused by the infection might underlie the pathogenesis of idiopathic gastroparesis (IGP). The aim of this study is to document case reports of Enterovirus (EV) infection as a possible cause of IGP. Eleven patients referred with a diagnosis of GP underwent workup to exclude known causes of GP. Those with a history of flu-like symptoms or gastroenteritis prior to onset of GP symptoms had gastric biopsies taken during upper endoscopy to assess for the presence of gastric mucosal EV infection. Data on presenting symptoms, extra-intestinal symptoms and conditions, prior nutritional support requirements, upper endoscopy findings, and response to therapy were cataloged. Eleven patients were diagnosed as IGP. Nine had active EV infection on gastric biopsies and were included (7/9 female, mean age 43 years). Eight out of nine received EV treatment with antivirals and/or immune therapies, with a wide degree of variability in treatment regimens. Four out of eight who received EV treatment had symptomatic improvement. One patient had stable symptoms. Three patients are currently undergoing therapy. Gastric EV infection was frequently detected (82 %) in patients undergoing investigation for IGP. Antiviral and/or immune therapies against EV seem to be favorable, as most of our patients had resolution of their GP symptoms after treatment. This is the first study to identify EV as a possible infectious etiology of IGP.

  14. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

  15. [Etiology and pathogenesis of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2017-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism(pHPT)is a frequent endocrine disease in which abnormal calcium(Ca)regulation leads to hypercalcemia. The most frequent cause of pHPT in more than 80% of patients is an adenoma, followed by hyperplasia in about 15%, and cancer in 1~5%. Although most cases of pHPT are sporadic, a few are familial(hereditary), and this is known as familial hyperparathyroidism(FHPT). Gene abnormalities that affect cyclin D1 signaling(CCND1, CDC73, CDKN1B), Wnt/β-catenin signaling(MEN1), and calcium-sensing receptor signaling(CaSR, GNA11, AP2S1)play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of pHPT. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and CaSR dysfunction also play a role in pHPT severity. Continued elucidation of the etiology and pathogenesis of pHPT may lead to development of new treatments for pHPT as well as further understanding of Ca regulation.

  16. The epidemiology and etiology of azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Cocuzza, Marcello; Alvarenga, Conrado; Pagani, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The misconception that infertility is typically associated with the female is commonly faced in the management of infertile men. It is uncommon for a patient to present for an infertility evaluation with an abnormal semen analysis report before an extensive female partner workup has been performed. Additionally, a man is usually considered fertile based only on seminal parameters without a physical exam. This behavior may lead to a delay in both the exact diagnosis and in possible specific infertility treatment. Moreover, male factor infertility can result from an underlying medical condition that is often treatable but could possibly be life-threatening. The responsibility of male factor in couple's infertility has been exponentially rising in recent years due to a comprehensive evaluation of reproductive male function and improved diagnostic tools. Despite this improvement in diagnosis, azoospermia is always the most challenging topic associated with infertility treatment. Several conditions that interfere with spermatogenesis and reduce sperm production and quality can lead to azoospermia. Azoospermia may also occur because of a reproductive tract obstruction. Optimal management of patients with azoospermia requires a full understanding of the disease etiology. This review will discuss in detail the epidemiology and etiology of azoospermia. A thorough literature survey was performed using the Medline, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and Cochrane databases. We restricted the survey to clinical publications that were relevant to male infertility and azoospermia. Many of the recommendations included are not based on controlled studies. PMID:23503951

  17. Etiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of vulvodynia

    PubMed Central

    Sadownik, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic vulvar pain or discomfort for which no obvious etiology can be found, ie, vulvodynia, can affect up to 16% of women. It may affect girls and women across all age groups and ethnicities. Vulvodynia is a significant burden to society, the health care system, the affected woman, and her intimate partner. The etiology is multifactorial and may involve local injury or inflammation, and peripheral and or central sensitization of the nervous system. An approach to the diagnosis and management of a woman presenting with chronic vulvar pain should address the biological, psychological, and social/interpersonal factors that contribute to her illness. The gynecologist has a key role in excluding other causes for vulvar pain, screening for psychosexual and pelvic floor dysfunction, and collaborating with other health care providers to manage a woman’s pain. An important component of treatment is patient education regarding the pathogenesis of the pain and the negative impact of experiencing pain on a woman’s overall quality of life. An individualized, holistic, and often multidisciplinary approach is needed to effectively manage the woman’s pain and pain-related distress. PMID:24833921

  18. The Developmental Etiology of High IQ

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Corley, Robin P.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Hewitt, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic and environmental trends in IQ development were assessed in 483 same-sex twin pairs in the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study using maximum-likelihood model-fitting analysis. The twins were assessed periodically from ages 1 to 16. Results show a decreasing influence of shared environment and an increasing influence of heritability across development, with large and increasing age to age stability of genetic influences. Non-shared environment contributes almost exclusively to age to age change. Similar analyses were conducted designating the top 15% of the sample as having high IQ at each age. The developmental etiology of high IQ did not significantly differ from that found for the continuous measure in this relatively novel analysis. These results demonstrate relatively early stability in etiological influences on IQ and have potential implications for gene-finding efforts, suggesting that samples selected for high IQ can be used to find genetic variation that will be applicable to the full range of the IQ distribution, although conclusive demonstration that the same genes are indeed involved was beyond the scope of this study. PMID:19377873

  19. The developmental etiology of high IQ.

    PubMed

    Brant, Angela M; Haberstick, Brett C; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Hewitt, John K

    2009-07-01

    The genetic and environmental trends in IQ development were assessed in 483 same-sex twin pairs in the Colorado longitudinal twin study using maximum-likelihood model-fitting analysis. The twins were assessed periodically from ages 1 to 16. Results show a decreasing influence of shared environment and an increasing influence of heritability across development, with large and increasing age to age stability of genetic influences. Non-shared environment contributes almost exclusively to age to age change. Similar analyses were conducted designating the top 15% of the sample as having high IQ at each age. The developmental etiology of high IQ did not significantly differ from that found for the continuous measure in this relatively novel analysis. These results demonstrate early stability in etiological influences on IQ and have potential implications for gene-finding efforts, suggesting that samples selected for high IQ can be used to find genetic variation that will be applicable to the full range of the IQ distribution, although conclusive demonstration that the same genes are indeed involved was beyond the scope of this study.

  20. [About etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Vitruk, S K

    2013-01-01

    On the ground own researches and researches of other authors etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis are proved and refuted existing concept about leading role of disturbance of lipid exchange and atherogenicity of lipoproteins of low and very low density. Established basic etiological factors of damage intima of artery and reason of penetration of lipoproteins in intima after her damage. Is determined that development and progression of atherosclerosis do not depend also from quantitative content of lipoproteins of low density in blood and from normalization of them under influence of drugs. According to our researches atherosclerosis is the polyetiological chronic disease basis of pathogeny which is infringement of blood supply (chronic microcirculatory insufficiency) in arterial wall causing damage of it, and in first place, damage of intima with her most vulnerable microcirculation; inflammation intima hence influence of endogenous and exogenous factors; destruction of antiaggregatic and fibrinolytic properties of intima in places of her damage; formation atherosclerotic plaque with level-by-level imposing of lipoproteins in result of cyclic process of restoration or balance between coagulation and anticoagulation of blood systems.

  1. [Hormonal factors in etiology of common acne].

    PubMed

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2004-05-01

    Common acne is steatorrhoeic chronic disease, to which specific is, among others, the presence of blackheads, papulopustular eruptions, purulent cysts and cicatrices. Such hormonal factors belong to elements inherent in etiology of the affection. Sebaceous glands have cell receptors on their surface for androgens. In etiopathogenesis of common/simple acne, a decisive role is played by a derivative of testosterone, i.e. 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, some experts are of opinion that there is no correlation between the increased intensity of common acne and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism. Numerous authors assume, however, that common acne-affected patients may be sometimes subjected to intense reactions caused by sebaceous glands against physiological androgens concentrations. Naturally, estrogens can inhibit release of such androgens. Under physiological conditions, natural progesterone does not conduct to intensification of the seborrhea, but the activity of sebum secretion may be triggered off by its synthetic counterparts. Hormonal etiology can be very distinctly visible in the steroid, androgenic, premenstrual, menopausal acne, as well as in juvenile acne and acne neonatorum. In case of females affected by acne, hormonal therapy should be persistently supported and consulted with dermatologists, endocrinologists and gynecologists. Antiandrogenic preparations are applied, such as: cyproterone acetate concurrently administered with estrogens and, as well as not so frequently with chlormadinone acetate (independently or during estrogenic therapy).

  2. Recurring waterbird mortalities and unusual etiologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, R.A.; Franson, J.C.; Boere, Gerard C.; Galbraith, Colin A.; Stroud, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade, the National Wildlife Health Center of the United States Geological Survey has documented various largescale mortalities of birds caused by infectious and non-infectious disease agents. Some of these mortality events have unusual or unidentified etiologies and have been recurring. While some of the causes of mortalities have been elucidated, others remain in various stages of investigation and identification. Two examples are discussed: 1) Leyogonimus polyoon (Class: Trematoda), not found in the New World until 1999, causes severe enteritis and has killed over 15 000 American Coot Fulica americana in the upper mid-western United States. The geographic range of this parasite within North America is predicted to be limited to the Great Lakes Basin. 2) In the early 1990s, estimates of up to 6% of the North American population of the Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis died at Salton Sea, California, with smaller mortalities occurring throughout the 1990s. Birds were observed to have unusual preening behaviour, and to congregate at freshwater drains and move onto land. Suggested etiologies included interactions of contaminants, immuno-suppression, an unusual form of a bacterial disease, and an unknown biotoxin. During studies carried out from 2000 to 2003, Eared Grebe mortality did not approach the level seen in the early 1990s and, although bacteria were identified as minor factors, the principal cause of mortality remains undetermined. The potential population impact of these emerging and novel disease agents is currently unknown.

  3. Diabetes mellitus and renal involvement in chronic viral liver disease.

    PubMed

    Iovanescu, V F; Streba, C T; Ionescu, M; Constantinescu, A F; Vere, C C; Rogoveanu, I; Moța, E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral liver disease is often associated with other conditions. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported in this context and may play a role in the progression of the liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Renal disease is also an important extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis viral infection and its presence is associated with poor prognosis and management issues. Our study had multiple purposes: to determine the frequency of the association between chronic viral liver disease and diabetes mellitus, evaluate the potential of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for HCC and assess an eventual renal involvement. We included in our study a number of 246 patients with chronic liver disease, from whom 136 were diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis and 110 with viral liver cirrhosis. These patients were assessed by using a clinical examination and a series of tests, including serum transaminase levels, serum bilirubin, serum albumin, markers of cholestasis, fasting plasma glucose levels, serum creatinine, urea, albuminuria, Addis-Hamburger test, electrophoresis of urinary proteins, abdominal ultrasound and, in some cases, CT examination. We obtained the following results: diabetes mellitus is often associated with chronic liver disease of viral etiology, having been identified in 18.29% of the patients in our study. Age above 60 in patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.013<0.05) and presence of hepatitis C virus were particularly correlated with the presence of diabetes mellitus. Renal disease was present in 13.4% of the patients with chronic liver disease and it was especially associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus. The most common form of renal injury was glomerulonephritis. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed only in cirrhotic patients as hepatorenal syndrome, occurring in 7.27% of the subjects, while chronic kidney disease was identified only in two cases of chronic viral hepatitis. Four patients in our study were diagnosed with

  4. Hepatitis C viral life cycle.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tetsuro; Ishii, Koji; Aizaki, Hideki; Wakita, Takaji

    2007-10-10

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognized as a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. Molecular studies of the virus became possible with the successful cloning of its genome in 1989. Although much work remains to be done regarding early and late stages of the HCV life cycle, significant progress has been made with respect to the molecular biology of HCV, especially the viral protein processing and the genome replication. This review summarizes our current understanding of genomic organization of HCV, features of the viral protein characteristics, and the viral life cycle.

  5. Viral BLIP dynamics during HAART.

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, M.; Louie, M.; Hurley, A.; Ho, David D.; Perelson, Alan S.,; Di Mascio, M.

    2001-01-01

    Intermittent episodes of low-level viremia (blips) are often observed in well-suppressed, HAART-treated patients. It has been reported that viral blips do not correlate with the emergence of new HAART-related mutations; however, increased frequency of blips correlates with slower decay of latently infected cells. Since blips are transient and unpredictable, detailed knowledge about them is difficult to obtain. We present an analysis of the dynamics of viral blips from viral load (VL) measurements on 123 patients for a period of 809k480d (21-1817d) and sampled every 31{+-}12d for a total of 26{+-}15 samples per patient.

  6. Genome sequence of Haemophilus parasuis strain 29755

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Haemophilus parasuis is a member of the family Pasteurellaceae and is the etiologic agent of Glasser's disease in pigs, a systemic syndrome associated with only a subset of isolates. The genetic basis for virulence and systemic spread of particular H. parasuis isolates is currently unknown. Strain 2...

  7. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyomyositis, psoas abscess, Staphylococcus aureus myositis, group A streptococcal necrotizing myositis, group B streptococcal myositis, clostridial gas gangrene, and nonclostridial myositis. Fungal myositis is rare and usually occurs among immunocompromised hosts. Parasitic myositis is most commonly a result of trichinosis or cystericercosis, but other protozoa or helminths may be involved. A parasitic cause of myositis is suggested by the travel history and presence of eosinophilia. Viruses may cause diffuse muscle involvement with clinical manifestations, such as benign acute myositis (most commonly due to influenza virus), pleurodynia (coxsackievirus B), acute rhabdomyolysis, or an immune-mediated polymyositis. The diagnosis of myositis is suggested by the clinical picture and radiologic imaging, and the etiologic agent is confirmed by microbiologic or serologic testing. Therapy is based on the clinical presentation and the underlying pathogen. PMID:18625683

  8. Viral-bacterial associations in acute apical abscesses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dennis C; Rôças, Isabela N; Paiva, Simone S M; Carmo, Flávia L; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Rosado, Alexandre S; Santos, Kátia R N; Siqueira, José F

    2011-08-01

    Viral-bacterial and bacterial synergism have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. This study sought to investigate the possible associations between 9 candidate endodontic bacterial pathogens and 9 human viruses in samples from acute apical abscesses. DNA extracts from purulent exudate aspirates of 33 cases of acute apical abscess were surveyed for the presence of 9 selected bacterial species using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Single or nested PCR assays were used for detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpesviruses types 1 to 8. Two-thirds of the abscess samples were positive for at least one of the target viruses. Specifically, the most frequently detected viruses were HHV-8 (54.5%); HPV (9%); and varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 (6%). Bacterial DNA was present in all cases and the most prevalent bacterial species were Treponema denticola (70%), Tannerella forsythia (67%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (67%), Dialister invisus (61%), and Dialister pneumosintes (57.5%). HHV-8 was positively associated with 7 of the target bacterial species and HPV with 4, but all these associations were weak. Several bacterial pairs showed a moderate positive association. Viral coinfection was found in 6 abscess cases, but no significant viral association could be determined. Findings demonstrated that bacterial and viral DNA occurred concomitantly in two-thirds of the samples from endodontic abscesses. Although this may suggest a role for viruses in the etiology of apical abscesses, the possibility also exists that the presence of viruses in abscess samples is merely a consequence of the bacterially induced disease process. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these viral-bacterial interactions, if any, in the pathogenesis of acute apical abscesses. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    PubMed

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Cepko, Constance L; Born, Richard T; Beier, Kevin T

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic spread, and extending

  10. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    PubMed Central

    Nassi, Jonathan J.; Cepko, Constance L.; Born, Richard T.; Beier, Kevin T.

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist’s toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic spread, and

  11. Cytokine determinants of viral tropism

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Grant; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Bartee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The specificity of a given virus for a ceil type, tissue or species — collectively known as viral tropism — is an important factor in determining the outcome of viral infection in any particular host. Owing to the increased prevalence of zoonotic infections and the threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, gaining a better understanding of the factors that determine viral tropism has become particularly important. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the central role of antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly the interferons and tumour necrosis factor, in dictating viral tropism and how these cytokine pathways can be exploited therapeutically for cancer treatment and to better counter future threats from emerging zoonotic pathogens. PMID:19696766

  12. Cytokine determinants of viral tropism.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Grant; Mohamed, Mohamed R; Rahman, Masmudur M; Bartee, Eric

    2009-09-01

    The specificity of a given virus for a cell type, tissue or species - collectively known as viral tropism - is an important factor in determining the outcome of viral infection in any particular host. Owing to the increased prevalence of zoonotic infections and the threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, gaining a better understanding of the factors that determine viral tropism has become particularly important. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the central role of antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly the interferons and tumour necrosis factor, in dictating viral tropism and how these cytokine pathways can be exploited therapeutically for cancer treatment and to better counter future threats from emerging zoonotic pathogens.

  13. Viral infections of the face.

    PubMed

    Avci, Oktay; Ertam, Ilgen

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections affecting the face may cause significant morbidity, cosmetic disfigurement, and psychological distress. The success of therapy needs whole and correct evaluation of the clinical signs and symptoms. Some viruses such as Papillomaviridae, Herpesviridae, and Polyomaviridae primarily infect the facial skin, whereas others affect the face infrequently, as in parapox virus infections. Sometimes, involvement of the face can be a part of more generalized eruption and systemic symptoms in viral infections caused by Todaviridae, Flaviviridae, Arenaviridiae, and Flaviviridae. Clinical diagnosis can be challenging in various viral diseases when they occur in nonendemic geographic areas. The objective of this review was to concentrate on epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the viral illnesses with facial skin involvement.

  14. Statistical Mechanics of Viral Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses that have lipid-membrane envelopes infect cells by fusing with the cell membrane to release viral genes. Membrane fusion is known to be hindered by high kinetic barriers associated with drastic structural rearrangements—yet viral infection, which occurs by fusion, proceeds on remarkably short time scales. Here, we present a quantitative framework that captures the principles behind the invasion strategy shared by all enveloped viruses. The key to this strategy—ligand-triggered conformational changes in the viral proteins that pull the membranes together—is treated as a set of concurrent, bias field-induced activated rate processes. The framework results in analytical solutions for experimentally measurable characteristics of virus-cell fusion and enables us to express the efficiency of the viral strategy in quantitative terms. The predictive value of the theory is validated through simulations and illustrated through recent experimental data on influenza virus infection.

  15. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  16. Viral hepatitis and the surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A. J.; Assy, N.; Moser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by one or more of six known (HAV-HGV) hepatotropic viruses. It is a common problem among health care workers and their patients. Surgeons are at particular risk of both acquiring and transmitting some of these viruses from and to their patients. Unfortunately, specific immunoprophylaxis for viral hepatitis is presently limited to protecting against the spread of hepatitis A and B viral infections, leaving a high degree of vigilance and careful surgical technique as the only means available to prevent the transmission of other viruses relative to the surgeon. The purpose of this paper is to review the various forms of viral hepatitis including the nature of the virus, serologic testing, clinical features, epidemiology (with specific reference to those issues that arise in surgical practice), treatment and prevention. PMID:18333162

  17. Viral genome RNA serves as messenger early in the infectious cycle of murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Shurtz, R; Dolev, S; Aboud, M; Salzberg, S

    1979-01-01

    When NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts were infected with the Moloney strain of murine leukemia virus, part of the viral genome RNA molecules were detected in polyribosomes of the infected cells early in the infectious cycle. The binding appears to be specific, since we could demonstrate the release of viral RNA from polyribosomes with EDTA. Moreover, when infection occurred in the presence of cycloheximide, most viral RNA molecules were detected in the free cytoplasm. Size analysis on polyribosomal viral RNA molecules indicated that two size class molecules, 38S and 23S, are present in polyribosomes at 3 h after infection. Analysis of the polyriboadenylate [poly(rA)] content of viral RNA extracted from infected polyribosomes demonstrated that such molecules bind with greatest abundance at 3 h after infection, as has been detected with total viral RNA. No molecules lacking poly(rA) stretches could be detected in polyribosomes. Furthermore, when a similar analysis was performed on unbound molecules present in the free cytoplasm, identical results were obtained. We conclude that no selection towards poly(rA)-containing viral molecules is evident on binding to polyribosomes. These findings suggest that the incoming viral genome of the Moloney strain of murine leukemia virus may serve as a messenger for the synthesis of one or more virus-specific proteins early after infection of mouse fibroblasts. PMID:117118

  18. Viral RNAs Are Unusually Compact

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Ajaykumar; Egecioglu, Defne E.; Yoffe, Aron M.; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; Rao, Ayala L. N.; Knobler, Charles M.; Gelbart, William M.

    2014-01-01

    A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly. PMID:25188030

  19. Viral RNAs are unusually compact.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Ajaykumar; Egecioglu, Defne E; Yoffe, Aron M; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; Rao, Ayala L N; Knobler, Charles M; Gelbart, William M

    2014-01-01

    A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly.

  20. Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, R D; Fetherston, J D

    1997-01-01

    Plague is a widespread zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and has had devastating effects on the human population throughout history. Disappearance of the disease is unlikely due to the wide range of mammalian hosts and their attendant fleas. The flea/rodent life cycle of Y. pestis, a gram-negative obligate pathogen, exposes it to very different environmental conditions and has resulted in some novel traits facilitating transmission and infection. Studies characterizing virulence determinants of Y. pestis have identified novel mechanisms for overcoming host defenses. Regulatory systems controlling the expression of some of these virulence factors have proven quite complex. These areas of research have provide new insights into the host-parasite relationship. This review will update our present understanding of the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and public health issues of plague. PMID:8993858

  1. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-26

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS.

  2. Etiology of breast cancer. II. Epidemiologic aspects *

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Damodar V.; Morgan, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    The epidemiology of breast cancer is reviewed with particular emphasis on its etiology. A number of studies suggest that differences in breast cancer incidence are associated with differences in marital status, number of pregnancies, age at menarche, age at menopause, height and weight, socioeconomic status, geographic location and residence. However, in no case is the evidence adequate to establish a “cause and effect” relationship. The genetic component of these associations may be of primary importance, while other conditions such as marital status are probably indirect reflections of the operation of more fundamental factors. There is a general consensus that endocrine factors play an important part in mammary cancer occurrence. At present, the association between breast cancer and the presence of the virus-like (type B) particles in human milk is not established. PMID:4353980

  3. [Breast feeding in the etiology of diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Hurtado, E

    1989-09-01

    Information derived from different anthropological studies carried out in Guatemala as part of the activities of the maternal and child health and nutrition project reveal that, according to popular beliefs, maternal milk plays a definite role in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in the lactating child. This paper presents information on popular classification of diarrheal diseases that differ from biomedical definitions of same. Different factors that may alter the quality of mothers' breast milk and that may cause gastrointestinal diseases in the lactating child are given in detail. The possibilities and limitations of the popular concept frame of "hot-cold", so common in the popular medical beliefs in Latin American populations, are also pointed out as an explanatory model. Lastly, implications of findings in this study are suggested for public health programs, especially for the communication and education programs on breast feeding, and for the application of the high-risk focus.

  4. Perspectives on the etiology of Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mozar, H.N.; Bal, D.G.; Howard, J.T.

    1987-03-20

    There is a lack of consensus among investigators concerning the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Clues are lacking, however, and the authors have assessed them in a broad biologic context. This inquiry has led us to regard Alzheimer's disease as a multifactorial disorder in which a putative infective agent is an essential element. Despite seeming competition among current hypotheses, there is overall unity. The concept that Down's syndrome is a congenital form of Alzheimer's disease and that both conditions are the result of a ubiquitous infective pathogen that affects genetically susceptible individuals offers the broadest unification. In both conditions slow infections develops against the background of aging. Indirect evidence involving immunologic and other biologic phenomena supports the postulated infectious origin. Overlapping pathologic and clinical features of Alzheimer's disease and the known transmissible encephalopathies suggest a similar pathogenesis.

  5. Fecal Incontinence: Etiology, Evaluation, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Dana M.; Weiss, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a debilitating problem facing ~2.2% of the U.S. general population over 65 years of age. Etiologic factors include traumatic, neurologic, congenital, and iatrogenic. Most commonly, obstetric trauma causes fecal incontinence as well as poorly performed anorectal surgery or pelvic radiation. Several severity scores and quality of life indexes have been developed to quantify incontinent symptoms. There are several nonsurgical and surgical options for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Biofeedback is among the most successful nonoperative strategies. Depending on the cause, anal sphincter repair, artificial bowel sphincter, and sacral nerve stimulation are used to treat fecal incontinence with some success. Unfortunately, fecal incontinence is an extremely difficult problem to manage: there has not been one, single treatment option that has proven to be both safe and effective in long-term studies. PMID:22379407

  6. [Peptic ulcer disease etiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy; Płaneta-Małecka, Izabela

    2004-01-01

    Authors in this article present etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures and treatment of peptic ulcer disease in children and adults. Increased gastric acid output, Helicobacter pylori, NSAIDs and stress are the basic risk factors in peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori infection is a widely known risk factor in peptic ulcer disease and influences diagnostic and treatment procedures. Primary ulcer disease concerns mainly duodenum and is accompanied by H. pylori infection. Gastroscopy and Helicobacter tests are the only reliable procedures to diagnose peptic ulcer disease. Nowadays the most important aim in peptic ulcer treatment is the H. pylori eradication. Therapy with two antibiotics and a protein pomp inhibitor eradicates the bacteria, treats the ulceration and lowers the number of ulcer recurrence. In non-infected H. pylori ulcers or in a long-term treatment protein pomp inhibitors and H2-inhibitors are effective as well in gastroprotective therapy.

  7. Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Sant, Grannum R

    2002-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a bladder syndrome of unknown etiology. The cause of IC is most likely multifactorial and includes genetic and environmental factors. Various pathophysiological changes in the bladder, pelvis, and peripheral and central nervous systems have been identified, and this has led to the emergence of biologically specific treatment modalities. Interstitial cystitis is being diagnosed with increasing frequency; however, current diagnostic criteria are non-uniform, and there is significant overlap between chronic pelvic pain syndromes in men and women, interstitial cystitis, recurrent “cystitis,” and the overactive bladder syndrome. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis can be made clinically and by cystoscopy and hydrodistension. The sensitivity and specificity of urinary markers and the potassium sensitivity test have not been prospectively studied. PMID:16986036

  8. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Pazos-López, Pablo; García-Rodríguez, Cristina; Guitián-González, Alba; Paredes-Galán, Emilio; Álvarez-Moure, María Ángel De La Guarda; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Marta; Baz-Alonso, José Antonio; Teijeira-Fernández, Elvis; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco Eugenio; Íñiguez-Romo, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques (transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS. PMID:26839659

  9. Use of computer algorithms to reduce viral quasispecies sequence space.

    PubMed

    Epperson, E S; Tyrer, H W

    1995-01-01

    A virus may express multiple simple mutations producing a set of viral subspecies called quasispecies: the quasispecies are considered the same species as the original virus. We are interested in reducing the point mutation space to enumerate that sequence space. We form a point mutation by applying a single bit mutation to a strand of viral DNA. How many differing viruses are possible if we allow any of the base pairs to change along the strand? For a strand of arbitrary length n we see that there is a possible sequence space of 4n-1.4 = 4n combinations. We can further remove identical sequences due to redundant amino acid codon encoding. This requires the use of a computer, but this time the complexity is a product: the number of possible amino acids times the number of codons. This substantial reduction from an exponential complexity O(4n) to a product O(n.amino-acid-number) gives us the complete list of mutant viral entities which are one mutation away from the original. Further reduction is possible, but requires biological insight regarding the viability of the mutation. By recognizing the possible sequence space, prediction can be made toward identifying future viral strains of HIV and influenza (to name two important viral particles), and perhaps develop a predictive intervention.

  10. Viral Hepatitis the US Military: A Study of Hospitalization Records from 1974 to 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    inpatient health care provided worldwide in U.S. militaryV iral hepatitis remains.a health threat for military forces. treatment facilities. Social Security...25. Pueschel M: VHA hepatitis C costs placed at $250 million. US Med 1999; 35: 2, 2. Lemon SM, Lednar WM, Bancroft WH: Etiology of viral hepatitis in... Hepatitis in the U.S. Military: A Study of Hospitalization Records from 1974 to 1999 Guarantor: CAPT Kenneth C. Hyams, MC USN Contributors: CAPT Kenneth C

  11. [Etiology of pediatric inpatients with pneumonia--analysis of clinical symptoms, physical examination and simple laboratory findings].

    PubMed

    Ishiwada, N; Kurosaki, T; Toba, T; Niimi, H

    1995-03-01

    In pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia, most of the patients have received antibiotics before admission. In this study, we tried to determine whether we could identify the etiology of pneumonia by clinical and laboratory findings on admission. The etiology of acute pneumonia was studied in 596 pediatric inpatients. A pathogen was identified in 384 (64.4%) episodes of pneumonia. These 384 episodes were divided into six groups as follows; I: pneumonia with blood culture positive or pneumonia with bacterial antigen positive in urine, II: pneumonia with dominant bacterial pathogens in washed sputum. III: Mycoplasma pneumonia, IV: viral pneumonia, V: bacterial (I, II) + viral pneumonia, VI: bacterial (I, II) + Mycoplasma pneumonia. These groups were analyzed by clinical symptoms, physical examination and simple laboratory findings on admission. Patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia have increased blood sedimentation rate, high value of positive C-reactive protein and normal white blood cell count. It was difficult to distinguish bacterial pneumonia from viral pneumonia only based upon clinical symptoms, physical examination and simple laboratory findings.

  12. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, Theodore R; Winton, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The first detections of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in North America were in Washington State from adult coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon in 1988. Subsequently, VHSV was isolated from adult coho salmon returning to hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest in 1989, 1991 and 1994. These isolates represented a strain of VHSV that was genetically different from European VHSV as determined by DNA sequence analysis and T1 ribonuclease fingerprinting. The North American strain of VHSV was also isolated from skin lesions of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) taken from Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in 1990, 1991 and 1993. In 1993 and 1994, the virus was isolated from Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) in Alaskan waters of PWS, Kodiak Island, Auke Bay and Port Frederick. During 1993 and 1994 the herring fishery in PWS failed from a probable complex of environmental stressors but VHSV isolates were associated with hemorrhages of the skin and fins in fish that returned to spawn. Also in 1993 and 1994, VHSV was isolated from apparently healthy stocks of herring in British Columbia, Canada and Puget Sound, Washington. Thus, the North American strain of VHSV is enzootic in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean among Pacific herring stocks with Pacific cod serving as a secondary reservoir. Although the North American strain of the virus appears to be moderately pathogenic for herring, causing occasional self-limiting epizootics, it was shown to be relatively avirulent for several species of salmonids. Pacific herring are common prey for cod and salmon and were most probably the source of the VHSV isolates from the adult salmon returning to spawn in rivers or at hatcheries in Washington State. Compelling circumstances involving the European isolates of VHSV suggest that this strain of the virus also is enzootic among marine fish in the Atlantic Oean. The highly pathogenic nature of the European strain of VHSV for salmonid fish may be the

  13. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis: An unusual presentation of dengue viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajah, Jeyaseelan; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Vikram, Naval Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a common viral infection worldwide with presentation varying from clinically silent infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and severe fulminant dengue shock syndrome. Neurological manifestation usually results from multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leak. Presentation as hemorrhagic encephalitis is very rare. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old female admitted with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Plain computed tomography (CT) scan of head revealed hypodensities in bilateral deep gray matter nuclei and right posterior parietal lobe without any hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serology were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue viral antigen. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities in bilateral cerebral parenchyma including basal ganglia. No hemorrhage was seen. She was managed with steroids. As her clinical condition deteriorated, after being stable for 2 days, repeat MRI was done which revealed development of hemorrhage within the lesions, and diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis of dengue viral etiology was made. PMID:25709166

  14. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis: An unusual presentation of dengue viral infection.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Jeyaseelan; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Vikram, Naval Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a common viral infection worldwide with presentation varying from clinically silent infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and severe fulminant dengue shock syndrome. Neurological manifestation usually results from multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leak. Presentation as hemorrhagic encephalitis is very rare. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old female admitted with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Plain computed tomography (CT) scan of head revealed hypodensities in bilateral deep gray matter nuclei and right posterior parietal lobe without any hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serology were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue viral antigen. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities in bilateral cerebral parenchyma including basal ganglia. No hemorrhage was seen. She was managed with steroids. As her clinical condition deteriorated, after being stable for 2 days, repeat MRI was done which revealed development of hemorrhage within the lesions, and diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis of dengue viral etiology was made.

  15. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Encodes a Viral Deubiquitinase▿

    PubMed Central

    González, Carlos M.; Wang, Ling; Damania, Blossom

    2009-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomas, and multicentric Castleman's disease. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV can exist in either a lytic or a latent phase during its life cycle. We report that the lytic protein encoded by KSHV open reading frame 64 (Orf64) is a viral deubiquitinase (DUB) enzyme capable of deubiquitinating cellular proteins in vitro and in vivo. Orf64 DUB activity is effective against lysine 48 (K48)- and lysine 63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin chains. Thus, KSHV Orf64 is a viral DUB that does not show specificity toward K48 or K63 ubiquitin linkages. Orf64 DUB activity lies within the first 205 residues of the protein, and deubiquitination is dependent on a cysteine at position 29, since mutation of this residue ablated this activity. Cell fractionation studies revealed that the N terminus and the full-length protein localized to both the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. The function of Orf64 was tested by short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown studies on latently infected cells that were induced into lytic replication. We found that depletion of Orf64 by siRNA resulted in decreased viral lytic transcription and lytic protein expression. These experiments indicate that Orf64 plays a role in KSHV lytic replication. PMID:19640989

  16. Hepatitis B virus: pathogenesis, viral intermediates, and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-Yee; Locarnini, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    Although HBV has the potential to generate an almost limitless spectrum of quasispecies during chronic infection, the viability of the majority of these quasispecies is almost certainly impaired due to constraints imposed by the remarkably compact organization of the HBV genome. On the other hand, single mutations may affect more than one gene and result in complex and unpredictable effects on viral phenotype. Better understanding of the constraints imposed by gene overlap and of genotype-phenotype relationships should help in the development of improved antiviral strategies and management approaches. Although the probability of developing viral resistance is directly proportional to the intensity of selection pressure and the diversity of quasispecies, potent inhibition of HBV replication should be able to prevent development of drug resistance because mutagenesis is replication dependent. If viral replication can be suppressed for a sufficient length of time, viral load should decline to a point where the continued production of quasispecies with the potential to resist new drug treatments no longer occurs. Clinical application of this concept will require optimization of combination therapies analogous to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection. Total cure of hepatitis B will require elimination of the intranuclear pool of viral minichromosomes, which will probably only be achieved by normal cell turnover, reactivation of host immunity, or elucidation of the antiviral mechanisms operating during cytokine clearance in acute hepatitis B (see Fig. 1).

  17. Ball python nidovirus: a candidate etiologic agent for severe respiratory disease in Python regius.

    PubMed

    Stenglein, Mark D; Jacobson, Elliott R; Wozniak, Edward J; Wellehan, James F X; Kincaid, Anne; Gordon, Marcus; Porter, Brian F; Baumgartner, Wes; Stahl, Scott; Kelley, Karen; Towner, Jonathan S; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2014-09-09

    A severe, sometimes fatal respiratory disease has been observed in captive ball pythons (Python regius) since the late 1990s. In order to better understand this disease and its etiology, we collected case and control samples and performed pathological and diagnostic analyses. Electron micrographs revealed filamentous virus-like particles in lung epithelial cells of sick animals. Diagnostic testing for known pathogens did not identify an etiologic agent, so unbiased metagenomic sequencing was performed. Abundant nidovirus-like sequences were identified in cases and were used to assemble the genome of a previously unknown virus in the order Nidovirales. The nidoviruses, which were not previously known to infect nonavian reptiles, are a diverse order that includes important human and veterinary pathogens. The presence of the viral RNA was confirmed in all diseased animals (n = 8) but was not detected in healthy pythons or other snakes (n = 57). Viral RNA levels were generally highest in the lung and other respiratory tract tissues. The 33.5-kb viral genome is the largest RNA genome yet described and shares canonical characteristics with other nidovirus genomes, although several features distinguish this from related viruses. This virus, which we named ball python nidovirus (BPNV), will likely establish a new genus in Torovirinae subfamily. The identification of a novel nidovirus in reptiles contributes to our understanding of the biology and evolution of related viruses, and its association with lung disease in pythons is a promising step toward elucidating an etiology for this long-standing veterinary disease. Ball pythons are popular pets because of their diverse coloration, generally nonaggressive behavior, and relatively small size. Since the 1990s, veterinarians have been aware of an infectious respiratory disease of unknown cause in ball pythons that can be fatal. We used unbiased shotgun sequencing to discover a novel virus in the order Nidovirales that was

  18. Topology of viral evolution.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joseph Minhow; Carlsson, Gunnar; Rabadan, Raul

    2013-11-12

    The tree structure is currently the accepted paradigm to represent evolutionary relationships between organisms, species or other taxa. However, horizontal, or reticulate, genomic exchanges are pervasive in nature and confound characterization of phylogenetic trees. Drawing from algebraic topology, we present a unique evolutionary framework that comprehensively captures both clonal and reticulate evolution. We show that whereas clonal evolution can be summarized as a tree, reticulate evolution exhibits nontrivial topology of dimension greater than zero. Our method effectively characterizes clonal evolution, reassortment, and recombination in RNA viruses. Beyond detecting reticulate evolution, we succinctly recapitulate the history of complex genetic exchanges involving more than two parental strains, such as the triple reassortment of H7N9 avian influenza and the formation of circulating HIV-1 recombinants. In addition, we identify recurrent, large-scale patterns of reticulate evolution, including frequent PB2-PB1-PA-NP cosegregation during avian influenza reassortment. Finally, we bound the rate of reticulate events (i.e., 20 reassortments per year in avian influenza). Our method provides an evolutionary perspective that not only captures reticulate events precluding phylogeny, but also indicates the evolutionary scales where phylogenetic inference could be accurate.

  19. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: genetic aspects of etiology

    PubMed Central

    Szponar, Elżbieta; Kowalska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS; recurrent aphthous ulcers – RAU; canker sores) is a chronic inflammatory, ulcerative condition of the oral mucosa. Its prevalence in the general population ranges between 5% and 20%, depending on the method and group studied. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is considered to be multifactorial, but remains still not fully understood. In patients with RAS, an enhanced immunologic response occurs to some trigger factors that may include: mechanical injury, stress or bacterial and viral antigens. Higher prevalence of aphthae in relatives may also indicate the genetic background of the condition. The inheritance of some specific gene polymorphisms, especially those encoding proinflammatory cytokines, which play a role in the formation of aphthous ulcer, may predispose family members to RAS. The purpose of this paper was to present the main clinical features of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, epidemiologic data and crucial etiopathogenetic factors with a special emphasis on genetic background of the condition. PMID:24278055

  20. [Pathology and viral metagenomics, a recent history].

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Pauline; Albina, Emmanuel; Eloit, Marc; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Human, animal and plant viral diseases have greatly benefited from recent metagenomics developments. Viral metagenomics is a culture-independent approach used to investigate the complete viral genetic populations of a sample. During the last decade, metagenomics concepts and techniques that were first used by ecologists progressively spread into the scientific field of viral pathology. The sample, which was first for ecologists a fraction of ecosystem, became for pathologists an organism that hosts millions of microbes and viruses. This new approach, providing without a priori high resolution qualitative and quantitative data on the viral diversity, is now revolutionizing the way pathologists decipher viral diseases. This review describes the very last improvements of the high throughput next generation sequencing methods and discusses the applications of viral metagenomics in viral pathology, including discovery of novel viruses, viral surveillance and diagnostic, large-scale molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  1. SIRT1 activating compounds reduce oxidative stress mediated neuronal loss in viral induced CNS demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Reas S; Dine, Kimberly; Das Sarma, Jayasri; Shindler, Kenneth S

    2014-01-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by central nervous system inflammation and demyelination, and increasing evidence demonstrates significant neuronal damage also occurs and is associated with permanent functional impairment. Current MS therapies have limited ability to prevent neuronal damage, suggesting additional neuroprotective therapies are needed. Compounds that activate the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase prevent neuronal loss in an autoimmune-mediated MS model, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown, and it is unclear whether SIRT1 activating compounds exert similar effects in demyelinating disease induced by other etiologies. We measured neuronal loss in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus, MHV-A59, that induces an MS-like disease. Oral treatment with the SIRT1 activating compound SRTAW04 significantly increased SIRT1 activity within optic nerves and prevented neuronal loss during optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve lesion that occurs in MS and its animal models. MHV-A59 induced neuronal loss was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and SRTAW04 treatment significantly reduced ROS levels while promoting increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial function and reduction of ROS. SRTAW04 exerted similar protective effects in EAE spinal cords, with decreased demyelination. Results demonstrate that SIRT1 activating compounds prevent neuronal loss in viral-induced demyelinating disease similar to their effects in autoimmune-mediated disease. One mechanism of this neuroprotective effect involves increasing mitochondrial biogenesis with reduction of oxidative stress. SIRT1 activators represent a potential neuroprotective therapy for MS. Understanding common mechanisms of these effects in distinct disease models will help identify targets for more specific therapies.

  2. Viral metagenomics and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, V; Eloit, M

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of the human blood-associated viral community (also called blood virome) is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. Currently, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) can be considered as under control in high-resource countries. However, other viruses unknown or unsuspected may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. This is particularly relevant considering that a significant proportion of transfused patients are immunocompromised and more frequently subjected to fatal outcomes. Several measures to prevent transfusion transmission of unknown viruses have been implemented including the exclusion of at-risk donors, leukocyte reduction of donor blood, and physicochemical treatment of the different blood components. However, up to now there is no universal method for pathogen inactivation, which would be applicable for all types of blood components and, equally effective for all viral families. In addition, among available inactivation procedures of viral genomes, some of them are recognized to be less effective on non-enveloped viruses, and inadequate to inactivate higher viral titers in plasma pools or derivatives. Given this, there is the need to implement new methodologies for the discovery of unknown viruses that may affect blood transfusion. Viral metagenomics combined with High Throughput Sequencing appears as a promising approach for the identification and global surveillance of new and/or unexpected viruses that could impair blood transfusion safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Viral infections of nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Kalter, S S; Heberling, R L; Cooke, A W; Barry, J D; Tian, P Y; Northam, W J

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 53,000 serologic tests and viral isolation studies were performed on 1,700 nonhuman primate specimens for evidence of past and/or current viral infection. Information, other than the requested test, generally was not provided with the specimen. This lack of information does not permit any attempt at interpretation of results. Requested testing included a large number of diverse viral agents in approximately 40 primate species. The resulting data are in keeping with those of previous studies and offer an insight into the needs of colony management, as well as some general information on the overall frequency of infection with the indicated viruses. Inasmuch as the results represent testing of single specimens, they are not to be construed as "diagnostic," and simply indicate past infection as represented by the presence of antibody in the test animal. Viral isolation results are listed, and the number of positive results versus the number of animals tested emphasizes the limitations of the procedure. Investigations such as these continue to assist in the maintenance of healthy nonhuman primate colonies. This information also supports continued use of nonhuman primates for research in human viral infections and may be helpful in terms of animal selection for use in xenotransplants.

  4. Postoperative Delayed Cervical Palsies: Understanding the Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, Ryan F.; Maloney, Patrick R.; Mallory, Grant W.; Puffer, Ross C.; Spinner, Robert J.; Nassr, Ahmad; Fogelson, Jeremy L.; Krauss, William E.; Clarke, Michelle J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design  Retrospective study. Objective  This study reviews 1,768 consecutive cervical decompressions with or without instrumented fusion to identify patient-specific and procedural risk factors significantly correlated with the development of delayed cervical palsy (DCP). Methods  Baseline demographic and procedural information was collected from the electronic medical record. Particular attention was devoted to reviewing each chart for recognized risk factors of postsurgical inflammatory neuropathy: autoimmune disease, blood transfusions, diabetes, and smoking. Results  Of 1,669 patients, 56 (3.4%) developed a DCP. Although 71% of the palsies involved C5, 55% of palsies were multimyotomal and 18% were bilateral. Significant risk factors on univariate analysis included age (p = 0.0061, odds ratio [OR] = 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.008 to 1.050), posterior instrumented fusion (p < 0.0001, OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.920 to 5.653), prone versus semisitting/sitting position (p = 0.0036, OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.451 to 11.881), number of operative levels (p < 0.0001, OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.247 to 1.605), intraoperative transfusions (p = 0.0231, OR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.152 to 5.132), and nonspecific autoimmune disease (p = 0.0107, OR = 3.83, 95% CI 1.418 to 8.730). On multivariate analysis, number of operative levels (p = 0.0053, OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.075 to 1.496) and nonspecific autoimmune disease (p = 0.0416, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.047 to 7.092) remained significant. Conclusions  Although this study partially supports a mechanical etiology in the pathogenesis of a DCP, we also describe a notable correlation with autoimmune risk factors. Bilateral and multimyotomal involvement provides additional support that some DCPs may result from an inflammatory response and thus an underlying multifactorial etiology for this complication. PMID:27555999

  5. Understanding HIV resistance, fitness, replication capacity and compensation: targeting viral fitness as a therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Buckheit, Robert W

    2004-08-01

    The increasingly prevalent emergence of drug-resistant virus strains in patients being treated with highly active antiretroviral regimens and the increasing rates of transmission of drug-resistant virus strains have focused attention on the critical need for additional antiretroviral agents with novel mechanisms of action and enhanced potency. Furthermore, novel means of employing highly active antiretroviral therapy are needed to reduce or eliminate the virological treatment failures that currently occur. Over the past several years, evidence has mounted supporting the fact that the emergence of resistant strains is associated with reductions in viral fitness, yielding decreases in plasma virus load in treated patients harbouring resistant populations of the virus. Additional mutations that serve to modify fitness (compensatory mutations) and mutations that impact the viral replication capacity also emerge under the selective pressure of drug treatment, and have both negative and positive effects on virus growth. Fitness is generally accepted to refer to the ability of HIV to replicate in a defined environment and thus is used to describe the viral replication potential in the absence of the drug. Although viral fitness and replication capacity are related in some ways, it is important to recognise that viral fitness is not the same as viral replication capacity. This review will assess the recent literature on antiviral drug resistance, viral fitness and viral replication capacity, and discuss means by which the adaptability of HIV to respond rapidly to antiviral treatment through mutation may be used against it. This would be done by treating patients with an aim to lock the deleterious mutations into the resistant virus genome, resulting in a positive therapeutic outcome despite the presence of resistance to the selecting agents. The review will specifically discuss the literature on nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease

  6. The ULb′ Region of the Human Cytomegalovirus Genome Confers an Increased Requirement for the Viral Protein Kinase UL97

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Depeng; Li, Gang; Schauflinger, Martin; Nguyen, Christopher C.; Hall, Ellie D.; Yurochko, Andrew D.; von Einem, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We report a requirement for the viral protein kinase UL97 in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication that maps to the ULb′ region of the viral genome. A UL97-null (Δ97) mutant of strain TB40/E, which encodes a full-length ULb′ region, exhibited replication defects, particularly in production of cell-free virus, that were more severe than those seen with a Δ97 mutant of laboratory strain AD169, which harbors extensive deletions in its ULb′ region. These differences were recapitulated with additional HCMV strains by treatment with a UL97 kinase inhibitor, 1-(β-l-ribofuranosyl)-2-isopropylamino-5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole (maribavir). We observed lower levels of viral DNA synthesis and an increased requirement for UL97 in viral late gene expression in strains with full-length ULb′ regions. Analysis of UL97-deficient TB40/E infections by electron microscopy revealed fewer C-capsids in nuclei, unusual viral particles in the cytoplasmic assembly compartment, and defective viral nuclear egress. Partial inhibition of viral DNA synthesis caused defects in production of cell-free virus that were up to ∼100-fold greater than those seen with cell-associated virus in strains TB40/E and TR, suggesting that UL97-dependent defects in cell-free virus production in strains with full-length ULb′ regions were secondary to DNA synthesis defects. Accordingly, a chimeric virus in which the ULb′ region of TB40/E was replaced with that of AD169 showed reduced effects of UL97 inhibition on viral DNA synthesis, late gene expression, and production of cell-free virus compared to parental TB40/E. Together, these results argue that the ULb′ region encodes a factor(s) which invokes an increased requirement for UL97 during viral DNA synthesis. PMID:23536674

  7. Recovery of divergent avian bornaviruses from cases of proventricular dilatation disease: Identification of a candidate etiologic agent

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Amy L; Gancz, Ady; Clubb, Susan; Skewes-Cox, Peter; Fischer, Kael; Sorber, Katherine; Chiu, Charles Y; Lublin, Avishai; Mechani, Sara; Farnoushi, Yigal; Greninger, Alexander; Wen, Christopher C; Karlene, Scott B; Ganem, Don; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2008-01-01

    Background Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a fatal disorder threatening domesticated and wild psittacine birds worldwide. It is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the ganglia of the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to central nervous system disorders as well as disordered enteric motility and associated wasting. For almost 40 years, a viral etiology for PDD has been suspected, but to date no candidate etiologic agent has been reproducibly linked to the disease. Results Analysis of 2 PDD case-control series collected independently on different continents using a pan-viral microarray revealed a bornavirus hybridization signature in 62.5% of the PDD cases (5/8) and none of the controls (0/8). Ultra high throughput sequencing was utilized to recover the complete viral genome sequence from one of the virus-positive PDD cases. This revealed a bornavirus-like genome organization for this agent with a high degree of sequence divergence from all prior bornavirus isolates. We propose the name avian bornavirus (ABV) for this agent. Further specific ABV PCR analysis of an additional set of independently collected PDD cases and controls yielded a significant difference in ABV detection rate among PDD cases (71%, n = 7) compared to controls (0%, n = 14) (P = 0.01; Fisher's Exact Test). Partial sequence analysis of a total of 16 ABV isolates we have now recovered from these and an additional set of cases reveals at least 5 distinct ABV genetic subgroups. Conclusion These studies clearly demonstrate the existence of an avian reservoir of remarkably diverse bornaviruses and provide a compelling candidate in the search for an etiologic agent of PDD. PMID:18671869

  8. Recovery of divergent avian bornaviruses from cases of proventricular dilatation disease: identification of a candidate etiologic agent.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Amy L; Gancz, Ady; Clubb, Susan; Skewes-Cox, Peter; Fischer, Kael; Sorber, Katherine; Chiu, Charles Y; Lublin, Avishai; Mechani, Sara; Farnoushi, Yigal; Greninger, Alexander; Wen, Christopher C; Karlene, Scott B; Ganem, Don; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2008-07-31

    Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a fatal disorder threatening domesticated and wild psittacine birds worldwide. It is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the ganglia of the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to central nervous system disorders as well as disordered enteric motility and associated wasting. For almost 40 years, a viral etiology for PDD has been suspected, but to date no candidate etiologic agent has been reproducibly linked to the disease. Analysis of 2 PDD case-control series collected independently on different continents using a pan-viral microarray revealed a bornavirus hybridization signature in 62.5% of the PDD cases (5/8) and none of the controls (0/8). Ultra high throughput sequencing was utilized to recover the complete viral genome sequence from one of the virus-positive PDD cases. This revealed a bornavirus-like genome organization for this agent with a high degree of sequence divergence from all prior bornavirus isolates. We propose the name avian bornavirus (ABV) for this agent. Further specific ABV PCR analysis of an additional set of independently collected PDD cases and controls yielded a significant difference in ABV detection rate among PDD cases (71%, n = 7) compared to controls (0%, n = 14) (P = 0.01; Fisher's Exact Test). Partial sequence analysis of a total of 16 ABV isolates we have now recovered from these and an additional set of cases reveals at least 5 distinct ABV genetic subgroups. These studies clearly demonstrate the existence of an avian reservoir of remarkably diverse bornaviruses and provide a compelling candidate in the search for an etiologic agent of PDD.

  9. Viral diseases affecting the pleura.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Jennings; Huggins, Terrill; Kummerfeldt, Carlos; DiVietro, Matthew; Walters, Kenneth; Sahn, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Viruses affect the human body in multiple ways producing various disease states. The infections of the pulmonary parenchyma have been well described. However, there has been no current review of the literature pertaining to the pleura. To review the available literature pertaining to diseases of the pleura that are caused by viral infections. A Medline search was performed and available research and review articles relating to