Science.gov

Sample records for etre tires sur

  1. Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  2. ETR WASTE GAS EXITED THE ETR COMPLEX FROM THE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR WASTE GAS EXITED THE ETR COMPLEX FROM THE NORTH SIDE THROUGH A TUNNEL AND THEN TO A FILTER PIT. TUNNEL EXIT IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION WHILE CONTROL BUILDING IS BEING FORMED BEYOND. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1238. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Tire Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The workshop was organized into six sessions dealing with finite element developments, applications to tire dynamic problems, solution techniques for tire contact problems, experimental data, tire thermal studies, and current design practices.

  4. Spring Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  5. Scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Scrap tires, one small part of the country's massive solid waste problem, are causing a disproportional headache. A city the size of Newark, N.J., for example, can pay up to $700,000 a year just to bury its waste tires, assuming it can find landfills to accept them. Many landfills no longer do, and in some areas, it is actually illegal. So stockpiles of scrap tires mount up and illegal dumping runs rampant. Scrap tires represent less than 1 percent of the nation's total solid waste. While we generate approximately a ton of solid waste per year per person, or 250,000,000 tons, we generate only one 20-pound tire per person, or 2,500,000 tons. Despite this small percentage, these tires present a special disposal/reuse challenge because of their size, shape, and physicochemical nature. Classified as a special waste, they are not generally collected with household waste by municipal authorities. Notwithstanding the unique disposal/reuse challenges of scrap tires, it must be stressed that a tire is essentially a petrochemical product than can be reused, can be a source of recoverable petrochemicals, or can be used as a fuel with a higher Btu value than coal. Thus what appears as a waste disposal challenge is also a resource recovery opportunity. Unfortunately, at present, only 30 percent of the country's scrap tires are being reclaimed or recycled. In terms of options, there are three viable areas in which to approach the waste tire problem: whole tire applications; physically processed tire applications; and physicochemical processes.

  6. ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO TOP: MTR, MTR SERVICE BUILDING, ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO ETR), ETR BUILDING (HIGH-BAY), COMPRESSOR BUILDING (ATTACHED AT LEFT OF ETR), HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (JUST BEYOND COMPRESSOR BUILDING), COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. OTHER BUILDINGS ARE CONTRACTORS' CONSTRUCTION BUILDINGS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4105. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: ETRCRITICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: ETR-CRITICAL FACILITY BUILDING, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO HIGH-BAY ETR), ETR, ONE-STORY SECTION OF ETR BUILDING, ELECTRICAL BUILDING, COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. COMPRESSOR AND HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING ARE PARTLY IN VIEW ABOVE ETR. DARK-COLORED DUCTS PROCEED FROM GROUND CONNECTION TO ETR WASTE GAS STACK. OTHER STACK IS MTR STACK WITH FAN HOUSE IN FRONT OF IT. RECTANGULAR STRUCTURE NEAR TOP OF VIEW IS SETTLING BASIN. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4102. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  9. ETR BUILDING, TRA642. CLOSER VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF ETR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642. CLOSER VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF ETR BUILDING AND COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-37-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. ETR, TRA642. ON GROUND FLOOR. THE 60TON ETR REACTOR VESSEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON GROUND FLOOR. THE 60-TON ETR REACTOR VESSEL IS DROPPED INTO PLACE OVER PIT. KAISER USED TWO MULTI-BLOCK DRUM PULLEYS WITH A COMBINED CAPACITY OF 100 TONS AND A 100-TON DRUM HOIST. THE VESSEL WAS 35 1/2 FEET LONG. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4149. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 12/18/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Markets for scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    It is the goal of the EPA to eliminate illegal dumping altogether and to reduce the stockpiling and landfilling of discarded tires as much as possible. Interestingly enough, over the last 40 years, tires have been somewhat of a success story for source reduction. The advent of the 40,000-mile tire means that tires last longer before they wear out. Potential source reduction measures for tires include the design of longer lived tires, reuse of tires removed from vehicles, and retreading. These practices all extend the useful life of tires before they are discarded. In the report, tire utilization methods are described and the market barriers to their utilization. Also discussed are options to address the waste tire problem.

  12. ETR, TRA642. ETR COMPLEX NEARLY COMPLETE. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST, PROBABLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ETR COMPLEX NEARLY COMPLETE. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST, PROBABLY FROM TOP DECK OF COOLING TOWER. SHADOW IS CAST BY COOLING TOWER UNITS OFF LEFT OF VIEW. HIGH-BAY REACTOR BUILDING IS SURROUNDED BY ITS ATTACHED SERVICES: ELECTRICAL (TRA-648), HEAT EXCHANGER (TRA-644 WITH U-SHAPED YARD), AND COMPRESSOR (TRA-643). THE CONTROL BUILDING (TRA-647) ON THE NORTH SIDE IS HIDDEN FROM VIEW. AT UPPER RIGHT IS MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3798. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Turning tires into electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Tikalsky, S.

    1991-05-01

    Nationally, nearly one million tires a day are retired from vehicles. With landfill space at a premium, old tires are usually heaped in growing piles across the country. Old tires have not only become a highly visible environmental problem, but a health menace as well. Mounds of discarded tires are perfect breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other insects. In addition, hazards to air and water quality from tire fires are well documented. At Wisconsin Power and Light Co, the author has been experimenting with using scrap tires as fuel to create electricity. In 1990, the utility burned 130,000 tons of tire chips in a cyclone furnace, saving about $75,000 in fuel cost. The project is a joint experiment with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources to determine the feasibility of using old tires to create electricity.

  14. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  15. Tire/wheel concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, P. M., Sr. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tire and wheel assembly is disclosed in which a low profile pneumatic tire (having sidewalls which deflect inwardly under load) and a wheel (having a rim featuring a narrow central channel and extended rim flanges) form the combination. The extended rim flanges support the tire sidewalls under static and dynamic loading conditions to produce a combination particularly suited to aircraft applications.

  16. Computational Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Tanner, John A. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Modeling of Tires. The workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air force, tire companies, commercial software developers, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the computational modeling of tires and to provide guidelines for future research.

  17. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  19. Tire footprint studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-08-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  20. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  1. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  2. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  3. Structural modeling of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Lackey, J. I.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the feasibility of determining the mechanical properties of aircraft tires from small-scale model tires was accomplished. The theoretical results indicate that the macroscopic static and dynamic mechanical properties of aircraft tires can be accurately determined from the scale model tires although the microscopic and thermal properties of aircraft tires can not. The experimental investigation was conducted on a scale model of a 40 x 12, 14 ply rated, type 7 aircraft tire with a scaling factor of 8.65. The experimental results indicate that the scale model tire exhibited the same static mechanical properties as the prototype tire when compared on a dimensionless basis. The structural modeling concept discussed in this report is believed to be exact for mechanical properties of aircraft tires under static, rolling, and transient conditions.

  4. ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM BOTTOM TO TOP: ETR COOLING TOWER, ELECTRICAL BUILDING AND LOW-BAY SECTION OF ETR BUILDING, HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (WITH U SHAPED YARD), COMPRESSOR BUILDING. MTR REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING IS ATTACHED TO SOUTH WALL OF MTR. WING A IS ATTACHED TO BALCONY FLOOR OF MTR. NEAR UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF VIEW IS MTR PROCESS WATER BUILDING. WING B IS AT FAR WEST END OF COMPLEX. NEAR MAIN GATE IS GAMMA FACILITY, WITH "COLD" BUILDINGS BEYOND: RAW WATER STORAGE TANKS, STEAM PLANT, MTR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE AND COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4101. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA-645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ON LEFT. AT LEFT OF VIEW, HIGH-BAY BUILDING IS ETR. ONE STORY ATTACHMENT IS ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING. STACK AT RIGHT IS ETR STACK; MTR STACK IS TOWARD LEFT. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3799. Jack L. Anderson, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Fruit quality of transgenic tomatoes with suppressed expression of LeETR1 and LeETR2 genes.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bili; Ke, Leqin; Jiang, Jianmei; Ying, Tiejin

    2007-01-01

    Tomato fruit is renowned for its high concentration of phyto-nutrients such as lycopene and carotenoids, overall contribution to nutrition and human health. The effect of antisense suppression of ethylene receptor genes LeETR1 and LeETR2 over the quality of tomato fruit was investigated in this paper. During the different stages of ripening, the fruit of antisense transgenic tomatoes of ale1 and ale2, compared to their wild type B1, showed higher total soluble solids, acidity and electrolytes accumulations and color development; lower fruit firmness, fruit viscosity and fruit elasticity. However, no significant difference of Vc content, total sugar, fruit pH value and fruit pigments between transgenic lines and B1 were noticed. ale1 and ale2 showed shortened shelf life. The data suggest that fruit with suppressed LeETR1 and LeETR2 genes expression have stronger ethylene response, which accelerate fruit ripening and greatly altered tomato variety characteristics.

  7. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  8. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  9. Building with Tires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eugenio, Terrance

    Text, drawings, and photographs show how tires, no longer usable for transportation, were assembled in a variety of ways to make swings, climbers, tunnels, and walls for a homemade playground. With the support of community representatives and a local high school class, a playground in Brockton, Massachusetts, was built in four days from tires…

  10. Tire deflation device

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  11. Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

  12. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  13. ETR, TRA642. BASEMENT SPACE ALLOCATION FOR EXPERIMENTERS CA. 1966, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. BASEMENT SPACE ALLOCATION FOR EXPERIMENTERS CA. 1966, SOUTHEAST QUADRANT OF FLOOR. WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DIVISION (WAPD) AND BETTIS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY (BAPL) CONSUME MOST OF THE QUADRANT. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-E-2256, 12/1966. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-021256, REV. F. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. ETR, TRA642 AND TRA647. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST AND SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642 AND TRA-647. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS OF THE OFFICE AND CONTROL BUILDING ALONG THE NORTH WALL OF THE ETR BUILDING. HEALTH PHYSICS, OPERATIONS, AND CONTROL ROOM. AIRLOCK DOOR. OFFICES. STAIRWAY LOCATIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-3, 10/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-100911, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE POURED CONCRETE WALLS. ETR IS AT LEFT OF VIEW. NOTE DRIVEWAY INSET AT RIGHT FORMED BY DEMINERALIZER WING AT RIGHT. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF ETR, TRA-642, IN VIEW AT UPPER LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-36-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR (ETR) BUILDING, TRA642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR (ETR) BUILDING, TRA-642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING EAST. VERTICAL METAL SIDING. ROOF IS SLIGHTLY ELEVATED AT CENTER LINE FOR DRAINAGE. WEST SIDE OF ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643, PROJECTS TOWARD LEFT AT FAR END OF ETR BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-37-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA-654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACING SOUTH. ETR AND ITS COOLANT BUILDING AT UPPER PART OF VIEW. ETR COOLING TOWER NEAR TOP EDGE OF VIEW. EXCAVATION AT CENTER IS FOR ETR CF. CENTER OF WHICH WILL CONTAIN POOL FOR REACTOR. NOTE CHOPPER TUBE PROCEEDING FROM MTR IN LOWER LEFT OF VIEW, DIAGONAL TOWARD LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4227. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. "Tired" Professors Can Be Rejuvenated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    At a recent national conference, colleagues from different academic disciplines but all worked in college or university teaching-improvement programs found that the subject most frequently discussed was how to improve the teaching of "tired" faculty members. Tired faculty members are most often senior professors who have worked at their…

  19. Subcellular co-localization of Arabidopsis RTE1 and ETR1 supports a regulatory role for RTE1 in ETR1 ethylene signaling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Hai; Rivarola, Maximo; Resnick, Josephine S; Maggin, Benjamin D; Chang, Caren

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene is an important plant growth regulator perceived by membrane-bound ethylene receptors. The ETR1 ethylene receptor is positively regulated by a predicted membrane protein, RTE1, based on genetic studies in Arabidopsis. RTE1 homologs exist in plants, animals and protists, but the molecular function of RTE1 is unknown. Here, we examine RTE1 expression and subcellular protein localization in order to gain a better understanding of RTE1 and its function in relation to ETR1. Arabidopsis plants transformed with the RTE1 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene revealed that RTE1 expression partly correlates with previously described sites of ETR1 expression or sites of ethylene response, such as the seedling root, root hairs and apical hook. RTE1 transcript levels are also enhanced by ethylene treatment, and reduced by the inhibition of ethylene signaling. For subcellular localization of RTE1, a functional RTE1 fusion to red fluorescent protein (RFP) was expressed under the control of the native RTE1 promoter. Using fluorescence microscopy, RTE1 was observed primarily at the Golgi apparatus and partially at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in stably transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts, roots and root hairs. Next, a functional ETR1 fusion to a 5xMyc epitope tag was expressed under the control of the native ETR1 promoter. Immunohistochemistry of root hairs not only showed ETR1 residing at the ER as previously reported, but revealed substantial localization of ETR1 at the Golgi apparatus. Lastly, we demonstrated the subcellular co-localization of RTE1 and ETR1. These findings support and enhance the genetic model that RTE1 plays a role in regulating ETR1.

  20. TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR AREAS SOUTH OF PERCH AVENUE. "COLD" SERVICES NORTH OF PERCH. ADVANCED TEST REACTOR IN NEW SECTION WEST OF COLD SERVICES SECTION. NEW PERIMETER FENCE ENCLOSES BETA RAY SPECTROMETER, TRA-669, AN ATR SUPPORT FACILITY, AND ATR STACK. UTM LOCATORS HAVE BEEN DELETED. IDAHO NUCLEAR CORPORATION, FROM A BLAW-KNOX DRAWING, 3/1968. INL INDEX NO. 530-0100-00-400-011646, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... register online at . (5) Include the sentence: “Do it today.” (C) Include space for recording tire... for it by a designee, a record of each tire distributor and dealer that purchases tires directly from the manufacturer and sells them to tire purchasers, the number of tires purchased by each...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  4. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  5. ETR, TRA642. BENCH MARK AND ELEVATION LOCATIONS, FLOOR LOADING DATA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. BENCH MARK AND ELEVATION LOCATIONS, FLOOR LOADING DATA, CRANE WORKING AREAS. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1584, 5/1959. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020323, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. ETR, TRA642. CONSOLE FLOOR ALLOCATION PLAN CA. 1958. GENERAL ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. CONSOLE FLOOR ALLOCATION PLAN CA. 1958. GENERAL ELECTRIC (GEFP) AND KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY (KAPL) CONSUME MOST OF THE SPACE. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1293, 1958. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020209, REV. K. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. ETR, TRA642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTORGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTOR-GENERATOR SETS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1781, 7/1960. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020384, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP CUBICLES WITH PUMP MOTORS OUTSIDE CUBICLES. HEAT EXCHANGER EQUIPMENT. COOLANT PIPE TUNNEL ENTERS FROM REACTOR BUILDING. KAISER ETR-5582-MTR-644-A-3, 2/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0644-00-486-101294, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. SOUTH SIDE OF ETR REACTOR, CAMERA FACING NORTH. CABINET CONTAINING "NUCLEAR INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS" IS RESTRICTED. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-18-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND BASEMENT. SECTIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-2, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101402, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. ROOF PLAN. DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. ROOF PLAN. DOOR SCHEDULE. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-3, 1/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101403, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CABLE TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CABLE TUNNEL. CAMERA FACING SOUTH INTO ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING (TRA-648). INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-20-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. ETR, TRA642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL BUILDING, OFFICE BUILDING, AND ROOF. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-A-13, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100920, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. ETR, TRA642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA647) AND ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA-647) AND ELECTRICAL BUILDING (TRA-648) ATTACHED. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-11, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100919, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. ETR CRITICAL FACILITY (ETRCF), TRA654. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CRITICAL FACILITY (ETR-CF), TRA-654. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH AND ROLL-UP DOOR. ORIGINAL SIDING HAS BEEN REPLACED WITH STUCCO-LIKE MATERIAL. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-40-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647. FLOOR PLANS FOR BASEMENT, FIRST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647. FLOOR PLANS FOR BASEMENT, FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS. METAL PANEL WALL. NAMES OF ROOMS. STAIRWAYS. WALL CONSTRUCTION LEGEND. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-647-A-6, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0647-00-486-101357, REV. 9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA645. PUMP HOUSE TAKES SHAPE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-645. PUMP HOUSE TAKES SHAPE. CAMERA FACES NORTH TOWARD ETR CONSTRUCTION AND MTR BEYOND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2041. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/14/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ETR, TRA642. NORTHSOUTH SECTION, LOOKING EAST. ROOF PLAN. STAIRWELLS, ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. NORTH-SOUTH SECTION, LOOKING EAST. ROOF PLAN. STAIRWELLS, ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM. PIPE TUNNEL. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-9, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100917, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  20. Frictionless contact of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure for the solution of frictionless contact problems of spacecraft tires was developed using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory incorporating the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities to model the nose-gear tire of a space shuttle. Numerical results are presented for the case when the nose-gear tire is subjected to inflation pressure and pressed against a rigid pavement. The results are compared with experimental results obtained at NASA Langley, demonstrating a high accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the computational procedure.

  1. A tire contact solution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating the contact boundary and interfacial pressure distribution was developed. This solution technique utilizes the discrete Fourier transform to establish an influence coefficient matrix for the portion of the pressurized tire surface that may be in the contact region. This matrix is used in a linear algebra algorithm to determine the contact boundary and the array of forces within the boundary that are necessary to hold the tire in equilibrium against a specified contact surface. The algorithm also determines the normal and tangential displacements of those points on the tire surface that are included in the influence coefficient matrix. Displacements within and outside the contact region are calculated. The solution technique is implemented with a finite-element tire model that is based on orthotropic, nonlinear shell of revolution elements which can respond to nonaxisymmetric loads. A sample contact solution is presented.

  2. New uses for old tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The creative juices of large and small companies alike are flowing in efforts to help solve the U.S. solid waste problem. One product that has received a great deal of attention is tires. Two Pennsylvania companies, Air Products and Chemicals of Allentown and a new company headed by John Kuc of Chester, have developed technologies that utilize the rubber from tires in conjunction with plastic to make new products. In the Air Products method, tires are finely ground and treated with a mixture of flourine and other gases, prior to bonding with a polymer such as epoxy. The resulting material can be used to make gaskets and hoses. Huc's methods rely on grinding tires to a powder and adding it to plastic. The mixture is heated and extruded under high pressure. According to Leslie Sandor of Widener Univ., who is working on the project, the final products cost less than a quarter as much as conventional PVC piping.

  3. Tire and runway surface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    The condition of aircraft tires and runway surfaces can be crucial in meeting the stringent demands of aircraft ground operations, particularly under adverse weather conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing the tire/pavement interface is the aim of several ongoing NASA Langley research programs which are described in this paper. Results from several studies conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and some recent aircraft accident investigations are summarized to indicate effects of different tire and runway properties. The Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program is described together with some preliminary test findings. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed towards solving aircraft ground operational problems related to the tire/pavement interface is given.

  4. Traction of Pneumatic Tires on Wet Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Walter B.; Joyner, Upshur T.

    1965-01-01

    Recent work on the traction of pneumatic tires on wet runways is discussed, and it is shown that a loss of tire traction adversely affects cross-wind landings. The effect of runway surface texture is discussed,, and a simple method for measuring surface texture is described. A preliminary correlation of tire traction with surface texture is shown. Results of work at Langley Research Center on the use of air jets to improve tire traction on wet or flooded runways indicate that this is a promising approach for alleviating the large losses in tire braking and sideways traction that occur when tire hydroplaning occurs on a flooded runway.

  5. Developing flexibility within the Employer Trip Reduction Program: Developing a VMT credit for ETR

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Employer Trip Reduction Program (ETR) was established in Texas to comply with requirements of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The federal program on which the ETR program is based is called Employer Commute Options (ECO). The ETR program has had no provisions for including work trip distance as a method of meeting the program`s mandate, although various states have proposed ways by which trip length could be considered. Recently the US Environmental Protection Agency has indicated its interest in providing additional flexibility to states in meeting ECO requirements. The following examines a method by which mileage credit could be included in the Texas ETR program. This method would give a vehicle miles traveled (VMT) credit to employers who have achieved shorter average commute distances. There are two basic approaches that were examined which can be used to calculate a VMT credit for the ETR program; one based on average work trip distance and one based on work trip emissions. The first would simply adjust the ETR requirements in direct proportion with mileage. The second would calculate comparable emissions as the basis for offsetting ETR requirements. Both are explained.

  6. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are...

  7. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 97-311, 96 Stat. 1619 (15 U.S.C. 1418); and delegation of authority at 49 CFR 1.50) ..., new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name...

  8. Sequence and Genetic Characterization of etrA, an fnr Analog that Regulates Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffarini, Daad A.; Nelson, Kenneth H.

    1993-01-01

    An electron transport regulatory gene, etrA, has been isolated and characterized from the obligate respiratory bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens MR-l. The deduced amino acid sequence of etrA (EtrA) shows a high degree of identity to both the Fnr of Escherichia coli (73.6%) and the analogous protein (ANR) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (50.8%). The four active cysteine residues of Fnr are conserved in EtrA, and the amino acid sequence of the DNA-binding domains of the two proteins are identical. Further, S.putrefaciens etrA is able to complement an fnr mutant of E.coli. In contrast to fnr, there is no recognizable Fnr box upstream of the etrA sequence. Gene replacement etr.A mutants of MR-1 were deficient in growth on nitrite, thiosulfate, sulfite, trimethylamine-N-oxide, dimethyl sulfoxide, Fe(III), and fumarate, suggesting that EtrA is involved in the regulation of the corresponding reductase genes. However, the mutants were all positive for reduction of and growth on nitrate and Mn(IV), indicating that EtrA is not involved in the regulation of these two systems. Southern blots of S.putrefaciens DNA with use of etrA as a probe revealed the expected etrA bands and a second set of hybridization signals whose genetic and functional properties remain to be determined.

  9. Radial fryers. [Used tire power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlicki, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Experience has shown that tires have their limits as a primary power generation fuel. As a supplemental fuel, however, they may prove to be cost effective. This article discusses the use of tires as a alternate fuel source.

  10. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  11. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reactions in paragraph (b) of this section, on the nose wheel tire, except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section. (b) The applicable ground reactions for nose wheel tires are as follows: (1) The static ground reaction for the tire corresponding to the most critical combination...

  12. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the beginning of each trip and each time the vehicle is parked. (b) If, as the result of an examination pursuant... inflated, the driver must cause the tire to be repaired, replaced, or properly inflated before the...

  13. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PARKING RULES General § 397.17 Tires. (a) A driver must examine each tire on a motor vehicle at the beginning of each trip and each time the vehicle is parked. (b) If, as the result of an examination pursuant... inflated, the driver must cause the tire to be repaired, replaced, or properly inflated before the...

  14. Occupational dermatitis from IPPD in tires.

    PubMed

    Ancona, A; Monroy, F; Fernández-Diez, J

    1982-03-01

    A tire assembler developed contact dermatitis from IPPD, a rubber antioxidant. The lichenoid clinical pattern corresponded histologically to lichenified dermatitis. Tire assemblers appear to acquire contact dermatitis to this aromatic amine more frequently than any other workers in the tire manufacturing industry. Possible adjuvant factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  15. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  16. Results from recent NASA tire thermal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The testing technique and some results from an experimental study to determine tire temperature profiles to aid in defining the strength and fatigue limitations of the tire carcass structure are described. This effort is part of a program to explore analytically and through experiment the temperature distribution in an aircraft tire during free roll and braked and yawed rolling conditions.

  17. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... circumference of the tire at the area of greatest wear. (b) Type. Vehicles should be equipped with tires on...

  18. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... circumference of the tire at the area of greatest wear. (b) Type. Vehicles should be equipped with tires on...

  19. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. BATTERY ROOM. INL NEGATIVE NO. 563785. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. BATTERY ROOM. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3785. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648, INTERIOR. SWITCHGEAR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 563794. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648, INTERIOR. SWITCHGEAR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3794. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. ETR, TRA642. EASTWEST SECTION, LOOKING NORTH. PATH OF COOLING WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. EAST-WEST SECTION, LOOKING NORTH. PATH OF COOLING WATER PIPE TUNNEL. WORKING AND STORAGE CANAL. SUB-PILE ROOM. CONTROL ROD ACCESS ROOM. FLOOR NAMES. (THIS WAS A CONCEPT DRAWING.) KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-5, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100913. REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. CAMERA IS NORTHEAST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. CAMERA IS NORTHEAST OF REACTOR FACING NORTH WALL, THE COMMON WALL WITH TRA-647, ETR CONTROL/OFFICE BUILDING. DOORS LEAD TO ROOMS IN CONTROL BUILDING. HATCH TO CONSOLE FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-46-14-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID33G101, ANOTHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID-33-G-101, ANOTHER VIEW. PERSONNEL DOORWAY INTO CHAMBER IDENTIFIES SODIUM HAZARD AND POSSIBILITY OF INERT GAS. LIQUID SODIUM COOLANT WAS USED IN A SPECIAL ETR LOOP ADAPTED FOR IT IN 1972. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. ETR BUILDING, TRA642. SOUTH SIDE VIEW INCLUDES SOUTH SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642. SOUTH SIDE VIEW INCLUDES SOUTH SIDES OF ETR BUILDING (HIGH ROOF LINE); ELECTRICAL BUILDING (ONE-STORY, MADE OF PUMICE BLOCKS), TRA-648; AND HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (WITH BUILDING NUMBERS), TRA-644. NOTE PROJECTION OF ELECTRICAL BUILDING AT LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. CAMERA FACES NORTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-37-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF ETR BUILDING, TRA-642. NORTH SIDE IS IN SHADOW. ORIGINAL PUMICE BLOCK SIDING HAS BEEN COVERED WITH INSULATED HORIZONTAL METAL LAP SIDING. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-6. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647, INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM, CONTEXTUAL VIEW. INSTRUMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647, INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM, CONTEXTUAL VIEW. INSTRUMENT PANELS AT REAR OF OPERATOR'S CONSOLE GAVE OPERATOR STATUS OF REACTOR PERFORMANCE, COOLANT-WATER CHARACTERISTICS AND OTHER INDICATORS. WINDOWS AT RIGHT LOOKED INTO ETR BUILDING FIRST FLOOR. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-6. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE UP AGAINST WALL, TO BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH ETR EXPERIMENTS. EACH HAD A HEAT OUTPUT OF 8 MILLION BTU PER HOUR, OPERATED AT 1260 DEGREES F. AND A PRESSURE OF 320 PSI. NOTE METAL WALLS AND ROOF. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3709. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  9. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  10. New tire black sidewall composition

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D.D.; Fusco, J.V.; Gursky, L.J.; Young, D.G.

    1991-08-01

    This article describes a new isobutylene-based polymer with improved functionality, completely saturated to provide ozone, oxidation and flex fatigue resistance. This new polymer, in combination with appropriate blends of general purpose rubbers, gives a sidewall composition to meet current and future needs while retaining all other basic performance requirements for the tire sidewall.

  11. Arabidopsis RTE1 is essential to ethylene receptor ETR1 amino-terminal signaling independent of CTR1.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liping; Xie, Fang; Yu, Jing; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-07-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ethylene receptor Ethylene Response1 (ETR1) can mediate the receptor signal output via its carboxyl terminus interacting with the amino (N) terminus of Constitutive Triple Response1 (CTR1) or via its N terminus (etr1¹⁻³⁴⁹ or the dominant ethylene-insensitive etr1-1¹⁻³⁴⁹) by an unknown mechanism. Given that CTR1 is essential to ethylene receptor signaling and that overexpression of Reversion To Ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) promotes ETR1 N-terminal signaling, we evaluated the roles of CTR1 and RTE1 in ETR1 N-terminal signaling. The mutant phenotype of ctr1-1 and ctr1-2 was suppressed in part by the transgenes etr1¹⁻³⁴⁹ and etr1-1¹⁻³⁴⁹, with etr1-1 conferring ethylene insensitivity. Coexpression of 35S:RTE1 and etr1¹⁻³⁴⁹ conferred ethylene insensitivity in ctr1-1, whereas suppression of the ctr1-1 phenotype by etr1¹⁻³⁴⁹ was prevented by rte1-2. Thus, RTE1 was essential to ETR1 N-terminal signaling independent of the CTR1 pathway. An excess amount of the CTR1 N terminus CTR1⁷⁻⁵⁶⁰ prevented ethylene receptor signaling, and the CTR1⁷⁻⁵⁶⁰ overexpressor CTR1-Nox showed a constitutive ethylene response phenotype. Expression of the ETR1 N terminus suppressed the CTR1-Nox phenotype. etr1¹⁻³⁴⁹ restored the ethylene insensitivity conferred by dominant receptor mutant alleles in the ctr1-1 background. Therefore, ETR1 N-terminal signaling was not mediated by full-length ethylene receptors; rather, full-length ethylene receptors acted cooperatively with the ETR1 N terminus to mediate the receptor signal independent of CTR1. ETR1 N-terminal signaling may involve RTE1, receptor cooperation, and negative regulation by the ETR1 carboxyl terminus.

  12. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  13. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  14. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  15. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  16. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  17. Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Garza, Claribel; Murray, Alison E.; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; McCue, Lee Ann; Romine, Margaret F.; Loffler, F. E.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-03-30

    EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing regulators Fnr in E. coli and Anr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively; however, its regulatory role of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella spp. is not well understood. The expression of the nap genes, nrfA, cymA and hcp was significantly reduced in etrA deletion mutant EtrA7-1; however, limited anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction occurred, suggesting that multiple regulators control nitrate reduction in this strain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and fumarate reductase gene expression was down regulated at least 2-fold and the EtrA7-1 mutant grew poorly with fumarate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), suggesting both respiratory pathways are under EtrA control. Transcript analysis further suggested a role of EtrA in prophage activation and down regulation of genes implicated in aerobic metabolism. In contrast to previous studies that attributed a minor regulatory role to EtrA in Shewanella spp., this study demonstrates that EtrA acts as a global transcriptional regulator and confers physiological advantages to strain MR-1 under certain growth conditions. In conjunction with other regulators, EtrA fine-tunes the expression of genes involved in anaerobic metabolism in S. oneidensis strain MR-1.

  18. Involvement of RTE1 in conformational changes promoting ETR1 ethylene receptor signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Josephine S; Rivarola, Maximo; Chang, Caren

    2008-11-01

    Ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis perceives ethylene through five homologous receptors that negatively regulate ethylene responses. RTE1, a novel gene conserved in plants, animals and some protists, was recently identified as a positive regulator of the ETR1 ethylene receptor. Here, we genetically analyze the dependence of ETR1 on RTE1 in order to obtain further insight into RTE1 function. The function of RTE1 was found to be independent and distinct from that of RAN1, which encodes a copper transporter required for ethylene receptor function. We tested the ability of an rte1 loss-of-function mutation to suppress 11 etr1 ethylene-binding domain mis-sense mutations, all of which result in dominant ethylene insensitivity due to constitutive signaling. This suppression test uncovered two classes of etr1 mutations -RTE1-dependent and RTE1-independent. The nature of these mutations suggests that the ethylene-binding domain is a possible target of RTE1 action. Based on these findings, we propose that RTE1 promotes ETR1 signaling through a conformational effect on the ethylene-binding domain.

  19. Design of highway embankments using tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Bosscher, P.J.; Edil, T.B.; Kuraoka, S.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes research undertaken to develop design procedures for using shredded scrap tires as a lightweight fill material in highway construction. The benefits of using scrap tires are particularly enhanced if they can be used to replace virgin construction materials made from nonrenewable resources. This paper addresses the use of tire chips as a highway embankment material. Design parameters for embankments constructed using discarded shredded tires are presented based on laboratory model studies, numerical analyses, and field performance of test fills. The conclusions of this report support the use of tire chips as an environmentally acceptable lightweight fill in highway applications if properly confined. Recommendations for design procedures and construction specifications for the use of tire chips in highway fills are provided.

  20. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)) unless: (1) The vehicle is being operated under the... in FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)). (h) Tire inflation pressure. (1) No motor vehicle shall... Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.75 Tires. (a) No motor vehicle shall be operated on any tire that—...

  1. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)) unless: (1) The vehicle is being operated under the... in FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)). (h) Tire inflation pressure. (1) No motor vehicle shall... Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.75 Tires. (a) No motor vehicle shall be operated on any tire that—...

  2. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to the number of plies and types of ply... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition...

  3. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  4. Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Caveny, B.; Ashford, D.; Garcia, J.G.; Hammack, R.

    1998-08-31

    In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

  5. Predictive Power of ETRE Polymorphism and Katg463 Mutation to INH-Resistance of M.tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    WEN, Yu-feng; JIANG, Chao; CHENG, Xian-feng; ZHANG, Zhi-ping; Chen, Bai-feng; ZHU, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The MIRU-VNTR polymorphism and katG463 mutation are used to genotype the mycobacterium tuberculosis, but the correlation between them and INH-resistance were unknown. This study was aimed to explore whether ETRE polymorphism and katG463 mutation could predict the INH-resistance, and the relationship between ETRE polymorphism and katG463 mutation. Methods: The ETRE, katG463 mutation and drug resistance information of 109 M. tuberculosis strains were collected from online public database. We constructed the predictive diagnostic tool of ETRE polymorphism and katG463 mutation. Chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between ETRE polymorphism, katG463 mutation and INH-resistance. ROC curve analysis and Z-test were used to evaluate the predictive ability of ETRE and katG463. The relationship between ETRE polymorphism and katG463 mutation was analyzed with Spearman correlation analysis. Results: The mutation rate of katG463 was 27.50%, and the h value of ETRE polymorphism was 0.67. KatG463 mutation was associated with INH resistance (OR=3.72). The INH drug resistance rate in VNTR≧5 group was 3.43 times higher than that in VNTR≦3 group (χ2=24.77, P<0.01), and there was no significant difference of INH resistance between the VNTR=4 group and VNTR≦3 group. The areas under the ROC curve of two loci prediction diagnostic tools were 0.64 and 0.70 respectively. The katG463 mutation was significantly related to the ETRE polymorphism (r=0.79, P<0.01). Conclusion: Both katG463 mutation and the ETRE polymorphism can predict the INH-resistance of tuberculosis. The katG463 mutation was associated with ETRE VNTR polymorphism. PMID:25905061

  6. Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

  7. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  8. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. WORKERS CHECK INTERIOR OF ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. WORKERS CHECK INTERIOR OF ONE OF THE TWELVE HEAT EXCHANGER UNITS. COOLANT FROM ETR WILL ENTER EXCHANGERS AT TEMPERATURE OF 137.5 DEGREES F. AND LEAVE THE SYSTEM AT 110 DEGREES F. SECONDARY WATER WILL ENTER AT 78 DEGREES F. AND LEAVE SYSTEM AT 110 DEGREES F. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3712. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Tire blow-outs and motorway accidents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Laumon, Bernard

    2005-03-01

    During the period from 1996 to 2002, 60,397 vehicles were involved in crashes with property damage and/or injury on a French motorway network of 2000 km. It was observed that 6.7% of these accidents involved tire blow-outs. In 87% of cases, only one vehicle was involved in the accident. Tire blow-outs occurred in 6.5% of cars that represented more than 80% of the vehicles involved in crashes. The occurrence of this phenomenon is very high for vans (22%), though it concerns trucks less (2.5%). The proportion of tire blow-outs decreased from 1997, when it was 8.0%, to 5.9% in 2002. However, two main facts require examination: (1) On inter-urban motorways, crashes involving blow-outs of rear tires occur four times more frequently than for blow-outs of front tires. (2) The frequency of tire blow-outs is especially high for vans, and almost always involves rear tires. This higher frequency for rear tires is the result of two phenomena, which are indistinguishable given the data available: firstly, a four-wheel vehicle is more difficult to control if a blow-out occurs on a rear tire (confirmed experimentally); secondly, rear tires may be in poor condition more often than front tires, and so more prone to blow-outs. Consequently, users are strongly recommended to install the best tires on rear wheels. In practice, if only the front tires are replaced, which often occurs because they tend to be worn out more quickly than the rear ones (especially for front wheel drive vehicles), it is necessary to move the rear tires to the front and fit the new ones on the rear wheels. Very interesting technological developments are in progress that should reduce the number of tire blow-outs. However, considering the time necessary to renew the number of cars on the roads, this very simple and inexpensive recommendation should apply to all cars and especially to vans. PMID:15823875

  10. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum weight... rating approved for such tires) equal to the reaction obtained at the nose wheel, assuming the mass of... downward and 0.31 W forward (where W is the design maximum weight), with the reactions distributed to...

  11. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  12. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum weight... rating approved for such tires) equal to the reaction obtained at the nose wheel, assuming the mass of... downward and 0.31 W forward (where W is the design maximum weight), with the reactions distributed to...

  13. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  14. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  15. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  16. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraph (g) of this section) shall be operated with tires that carry a weight greater than that marked on the sidewall of the tire or, in the absence of such a marking, a weight greater than that specified... Safety Standard No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)) unless: (1) The vehicle is being operated under...

  17. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  18. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of 10,000 Pounds or Less... vehicles other than passenger cars, it may be necessary to measure tread depth with a tread gauge. (b) Type. Vehicle shall be equipped with tires on the same axle that are matched in tire size...

  19. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of 10,000 Pounds or Less... vehicles other than passenger cars, it may be necessary to measure tread depth with a tread gauge. (b) Type. Vehicle shall be equipped with tires on the same axle that are matched in tire size...

  20. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Trevor

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  1. Computational strategies for tire monitoring and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Kent T.; Noor, Ahmed K.; Green, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Computational strategies are presented for the modeling and analysis of tires in contact with pavement. A procedure is introduced for simple and accurate determination of tire cross-sectional geometric characteristics from a digitally scanned image. Three new strategies for reducing the computational effort in the finite element solution of tire-pavement contact are also presented. These strategies take advantage of the observation that footprint loads do not usually stimulate a significant tire response away from the pavement contact region. The finite element strategies differ in their level of approximation and required amount of computer resources. The effectiveness of the strategies is demonstrated by numerical examples of frictionless and frictional contact of the space shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire. Both an in-house research code and a commercial finite element code are used in the numerical studies.

  2. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. ROLLUP DOOR TO CUBICLE POSTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. ROLLUP DOOR TO CUBICLE POSTS CAUTION SIGNS BECAUSE OF SODIUM HAZARD WITHIN. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. LIQUID SODIUM PIPING INSIDE CUBICLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. LIQUID SODIUM PIPING INSIDE CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID-33-G-101. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS AT MIDPOINT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS AT MIDPOINT OF SOUTH WALL AND FACES WEST. SAMPLING CABINET. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-30-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. WORKERS ARE INSTALLING HEAT EXCHANGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. WORKERS ARE INSTALLING HEAT EXCHANGER PIPING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3122. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 9/21/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES UP IN BACKGROUND AS WORKERS PLACE A SECTION OF WATER LINE THAT WILL CARRY SECONDARY COOLANT BETWEEN HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING AND THE COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2205. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/28/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. ETR, TRA642. ON GROUND FLOOR. OUTER RING OF FOUR THERMAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON GROUND FLOOR. OUTER RING OF FOUR THERMAL SHIELD RINGS IS TO BE LOWERED INTO REACTOR PIT. COOLING WATER WILL FLOW UPWARD THROUGH THE GAPS BETWEEN THE RINGS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2033. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/14/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. REACTOR IS IN CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. REACTOR IS IN CENTER OF VIEW. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST. NOTE CRANE RAILS AND DANGLING ELECTRICAL CABLE AT UPPER PART OF VIEW FOR "MOFFETT 2 TON" CRANE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-14-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. INSIDE UTILITY CORRIDOR ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. INSIDE UTILITY CORRIDOR ALONG SOUTH PERIMETER WALL (COMMON TO ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648). CAMERA FACES WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-16-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. ETR BUILDING, TRA642. NORTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. SMALL PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642. NORTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. SMALL PART OF COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-646, AT LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-37-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. METAL ROOF AND PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3708. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Citations of "ETR&D" and Related Journals, 1990-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, James E.; Ku, Heng-Yu; Gurney, Keyleigh; Tseng, Hung-Wei; Yeh, Hsin-Te; Chen, Qin

    2010-01-01

    Scientific communication in the field of educational technology was examined by analyzing references from and citations to articles published in "Educational Technology Research and Development" ("ETR&D") for the period 1990-2004 with particular emphasis on other journals found in the citation record. Data were collected on the 369 core articles…

  13. ETR, TRA642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. REACTOR VESSEL WILL BE PLACED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. REACTOR VESSEL WILL BE PLACED WITHIN THE INNER METAL FORM. WHEN CONCRETE IS POURED OUTSIDE THIS FORM, CONDUIT HOLES WILL BE PRESERVE SPACE THROUGH HOLES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1507. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 5/8/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. The Landscape of Educational Technology Viewed from the "ETR&D" Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung; Jo, Sung Jun; Suh, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a citation network analysis of "Educational Technology Research and Development" ("ETR&D") to examine the trends and issues of the educational technology field's scholarly community that have evolved in the past two decades. The distinctive features of citation network analysis…

  15. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CAMERA FACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CAMERA FACES EAST ALONG CORRIDOR. DATA CABINETS ON LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-18-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, NORTH HALF. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, NORTH HALF. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF INSTRUMENT PANELS, DATA CONSOLES, AND OTHER INDICATOR DISPLAYS. CAMERA FACES EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-17-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA645. FOUR SECONDARY COOLANT PUMPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-645. FOUR SECONDARY COOLANT PUMPS ARE ARRANGED IN A ROW. IN REAR ARE THREE SHUTDOWN EMERGENCY PUMPS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4176. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/21/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ETR, TRA642. ON GROUND FLOOR. WITH OUTER THERMAL RING IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON GROUND FLOOR. WITH OUTER THERMAL RING IN PLACE AND CONDUIT PRESERVED, HIGH-DENSITY CONCRETE IS PLACED BETWEEN THE THERMAL RING AND THE OUTER REACTOR FORM. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2400. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/10/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. ETR, TRA642. CAMERA IS ON SCAFFOLD OR CATWALK ABOVE GROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. CAMERA IS ON SCAFFOLD OR CATWALK ABOVE GROUND FLOOR FOR A CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF REACTOR PIT AND CANAL. CAMERA FACING WESTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3717. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Transmission Sur Fibres Optiques Dans Un Systeme D'Archivage Et De Communication D'Images Pour Des Applications Medicales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Gilles; Bonnard, Rene

    1984-03-01

    Dans l'hOpital, le besoin d'un reseau de communication electronique ne cesse de crottre au fur et a mesure de la numerisation des images. Ce reseau local a pour but de relier quelques sources d'images telles la radiologie numerique, la tomodensitometrie, la resonance magnetique nucleaire, l'echographie ultraso-nore etc..., a un systme d'archivage. Des consoles de visualisation interacti-ves peuvent etre utilisees dans les salles d'examens, les bureaux des medecins et les services de soins. Dans un tel systme, trois caracteristiques princi-pales doivent etre prises en compte le debit, la longueur du cable et le nombre de connexions. - Le debit est tr?)s important, en effet, un temps de reponse maxima de quel-ques secondes doit etre garanti pour des images de plusieurs millions d'ele-ments binaires. - La distance entre connexions peut etre de quelques km dans certains grands hopitaux. - Le nombre de connexions au reseau ne depasse jamais quelques dizaines car les sources d'images et les unites de traitement representent des materiels importants, par ailleurs les consoles de visualisation simples peuvent etre groupees en grappe. Toutes ces conditions sont remplies par les transmissions sur fibres optiques. Selon la topologie et la methode d'accNs, deux solutions peuvent etre envisa-gees : - Anneau actif - Etoile active ou passive Enfin, les developpements de Thomson-CSF en composants pour transmissions optiques pour les grands reseaux de tel4distribution nous apportent un support technologique et une production de masse qui diminuera les collts du materiel.

  1. Characterization and genetic analysis of an EIN4-like sequence (CaETR-1) located in QTL ARI implicated in Ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two different alleles of an ethylene receptor gene (CaETR-1) of chickpea (Cicer aritinum) were isolated and characterized through synteny analysis with genome sequences of Medicago truncatula. The full length of CaETR-1 in cultivar FLIP84-92C (CaETR-1a) is 4,428 bp including the polyadenylation sig...

  2. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  3. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  4. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  5. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  6. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  7. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  8. Scrap tire management in the mid south region

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

  9. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-03-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests.

  10. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  11. Magmatic evolution of the Early Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyan, Vural; Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Sharkov, Evgenii V.

    2016-07-01

    The Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, located in the northeast of Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia; Turkey), is one of the important volcanic centres in the Eastern Anatolian collision zone. Mt. Etrüsk overlies a widespread volcanic plateau, consisting of basaltic and hawaiitic lavas formed by fissure eruptions between 4.9-4.5 Ma. These basic lavas contain a phenocryst phase consisting of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Trace element ratio diagrams imply that these basic magmas were generated from a mantle that contained a clear subduction component that is related to the subducted sediments rather than fluids or altered oceanic crust. Results of the melting models on the basaltic plateau lavas indicate that there was a marked variation both in the mantle source mineralogy (i.e. the ratio of garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite in the source varies between 60/40% and 40/60%) and the degree of melting (i.e. F between 0.8-4%). This can be explained by a model in which magmas were generated by partial melting of both metasomatised lithospheric and deeper asthenospheric mantle sources in an extensional setting in response to the partial delamination of the lithospheric mantle of Eastern Anatolia and then mixed with each other during Pliocene times. Central eruptions that formed the Etrüsk volcano lasted ~ 600 kyr between 4.3-3.7 Ma during Zanclean times. The estimated depth of the Etrüsk magma chamber is ~ 9-12 km. The volcano erupted lavas with a rather narrow compositional range from latite to rhyolite, which are either transitional or mildly alkaline in character. The Etrüsk lavas contain plagioclase, clino- and orthopyroxene, biotite, K-feldspar and rarely, minor amounts of olivine and amphibole in the phenocryst phase. A composite chemo-stratigraphic section of the volcano and petrological models indicate that the evolved lavas of the Etrüsk volcano differentiated from a parental magma composition, which is similar to that of the most primitive plateau

  12. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the airplane to be concentrated at the most critical center of gravity and exerting a force of 1.0 W... and critical center of gravity; and (2) By a load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the...

  13. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the airplane to be concentrated at the most critical center of gravity and exerting a force of 1.0 W... and critical center of gravity; and (2) By a load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the...

  14. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the airplane to be concentrated at the most critical center of gravity and exerting a force of 1.0 W... and critical center of gravity; and (2) By a load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the...

  15. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  16. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA-642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. CAMERA IS ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACES DUE SOUTH. MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER. STEEL FRAMES SHOW BUILDINGS TO BE ATTACHED TO ETR BUILDING. HIGH-BAY SECTION IN CENTER IS REACTOR BUILDING. TWO-STORY CONTROL ROOM AND OFFICE BUILDING, TRA-647, IS BETWEEN IT AND MTR SERVICE BUILDING. STRUCTURE TO THE LEFT (WITH NO FRAMING YET) IS COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643, AND BEYOND IT WILL BE HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644, GREAT SOUTHERN BUTTE ON HORIZON. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2382. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/10/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Experiments on spray from a rolling tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovich, Charles Anthony

    A novel laboratory apparatus has been built to understand the key mechanisms behind spray emerging from a rolling tire. Several researchers have assessed the performance of spray suppression devices; however, there are no known efforts that address the question "what needs to be suppressed?" This investigation into how water in a tire groove evolves into a droplet field will ultimately contribute to driver safety. Using high-speed imaging, water passing through a single circumferential groove was observed to leave the tire patch in the form of a thin liquid sheet, connecting the roadway and the tire. The sheet disintegrates into a droplet field and the breakup modes associated with this decay were identified with respect to Weber number. Weber numbers based on the properties of water, tire speed and tire groove width were tested at 2700, 10900 and 24400. Measurements for the breakup length of the liquid sheet showed a dependence on Weber number proportional to We-1/6. The lateral displacement of the water exiting the tire patch was also measured. These tests showed the overall size of the spray field grows with We; however, the maximum water volume for all We's was delivered to the same distance from the road. Downstream from the tire patch, a determination of the droplet field was performed. From this study, the distribution of droplet sizes was determined as a function of Weber number. At We = 2,700, droplet sizes between 80 and 9000 microm were detected, with a mean diameter near 800 microm. Both the range of droplet sizes and the mean diameter were found to decrease with Weber number by approximately We-1/2. Based on these size distributions, Correlation Image Velocimetry (CIV) was used to estimate the distribution of droplet velocities as function of their size. These results reveal a strong correlation between droplet diameter and velocity which is comparable to that predicted for a simple sphere.

  18. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  19. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  20. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  1. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  2. ETR BASEMENT, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID33G101 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BASEMENT, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID-33-G-101 AND ID-33-G-102) WITH TANK AND SODIUM-RELATED APPARATUS. CAMERA STANDS BEFORE ROLL-UP DOOR SHOWN IN PHOTO ID-33-G-101. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ETR, TRA642. CONSOLE FLOOR. CAMERA IS ON WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. CONSOLE FLOOR. CAMERA IS ON WEST SIDE OF FLOOR AND FACES NORTH. OUTER WALL OF STORAGE CANAL IS AT RIGHT. SHIELDING IS THICKER AT LOWER LEVEL, WHERE SPENT FUEL ELEMENTS WILL COOL AFTER REMOVAL FROM REACTOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1401. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 5/1/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. CAMERA IS NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. CAMERA IS NORTH OF THE REACTOR FACING NORTHEAST CORNER OF THE BUILDING. BRIDGE CRANE AND OPERATOR'S CAB IS AT UPPER PART OF VIEW. NOTE ROUNDED CURB EDGE SURROUNDING REACTOR AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-14-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA654. SCIENTISTS STAND AT EDGE OF TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA-654. SCIENTISTS STAND AT EDGE OF TANK AND LIFT REMOVABLE BRIDGE ABOVE THE REACTOR. CONTROL RODS AND FUEL RODS ARE BELOW ENOUGH WATER TO SHIELD WORKERS ABOVE. NOTE CRANE RAILS ALONG WALLS, PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 57-3690. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 7/29/1957 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. WATER HEAT EXCHANGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. WATER HEAT EXCHANGER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. A PARTIALLY ASSEMBLED PLANT AIR CONDITIONER IS AT CENTER. WORKERS AT RIGHT ASSEMBLE 4000 HORSEPOWER COMPRESSOR DRIVE MOTOR AT RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3714. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. ETR, TRA642. ON GROUND FLOOR, CAMERA LOOKS SOUTHWEST INTO PIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON GROUND FLOOR, CAMERA LOOKS SOUTHWEST INTO PIT. CANAL STRUCTURE IS AT RIGHT OF CENTER WITH RECTANGULAR OPENING TO BE MATED WITH THE DE-FUELING MECHANISM THAT WILL DEPOSIT FUEL RODS INTO THE WORKING CANAL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3710. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA FACES SOUTH AND LOOKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA FACES SOUTH AND LOOKS AT DOOR TO M-3 CUBICLE. CUBICLE WALLS ARE MADE OF LEAD SHIELDING BRICKS. VALVE HANDLES AND STEMS PERTAIN TO SAMPLING. METAL SHIELDING DOOR. NOTE GLOVE BOX TO RIGHT OF CUBICLE DOOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-46-21-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.

  10. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  11. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are exempt... to have included in the database of information available to consumers on NHTSA's Web site....

  12. A study of the dynamic tire properties over a range of tire constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Dodge, R. N.; Clark, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    The dynamic properties of four model aircraft tires of various construction were evaluated experimentally and compared with available theory. The experimental investigation consisted of measuring the cornering force and the self-aligning torque developed by the tires undergoing sinusoidal steering inputs while operating on a small scale, road-wheel tire testing apparatus. The force and moment data from the different tires are compared with both finite- and point-contact patch string theory predictions. In general, agreement between finite contact patch theory and experimental observation is good. A modified string theory is also presented in which coefficients for cornering force and self-aligning torque are determined separately. This theory improves the correspondence between the experimental and analytical data, particularly on tires with relatively high self-aligning torques.

  13. Reduction technique for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1995-01-01

    A reduction technique and a computational procedure are presented for predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of the reduction technique, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface.

  14. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter; Kornish, Brian

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  15. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for use on passenger cars. However, this section does not apply to deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or to... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having...

  16. Phosphorylation Alters the Interaction of the Arabidopsis Phosphotransfer Protein AHP1 with Its Sensor Kinase ETR1

    PubMed Central

    Scharein, Benjamin; Groth, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The ethylene receptor ethylene response 1 (ETR1) and the Arabidopsis histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein 1 (AHP1) form a tight complex in vitro. According to our current model ETR1 and AHP1 together with a response regulator form a phosphorelay system controlling the gene expression response to the plant hormone ethylene, similar to the two-component signaling in bacteria. The model implies that ETR1 functions as a sensor kinase and is autophosphorylated in the absence of ethylene. The phosphoryl group is then transferred onto a histidine at the canonical phosphorylation site in AHP1. For phosphoryl group transfer both binding partners need to form a tight complex. After ethylene binding the receptor is switched to the non-phosphorylated state. This switch is accompanied by a conformational change that decreases the affinity to the phosphorylated AHP1. To test this model we used fluorescence polarization and examined how the phosphorylation status of the proteins affects formation of the suggested ETR1−AHP1 signaling complex. We have employed various mutants of ETR1 and AHP1 mimicking permanent phosphorylation or preventing phosphorylation, respectively. Our results show that phosphorylation plays an important role in complex formation as affinity is dramatically reduced when the signaling partners are either both in their non-phosphorylated form or both in their phosphorylated form. On the other hand, affinity is greatly enhanced when either protein is in the phosphorylated state and the corresponding partner in its non-phosphorylated form. Our results indicate that interaction of ETR1 and AHP1 requires that ETR1 is a dimer, as in its functional state as receptor in planta. PMID:21912672

  17. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  18. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  19. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  20. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  1. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  2. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may not have tires with a minimum thickness less than that indicated in the table in this paragraph (d). When retaining rings are used, measurements of tires to be taken from the outside circumference of the ring,...

  3. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  4. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  5. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  6. Coliquefaction of waste rubber tires with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, E.C.; Tuntawiroon, W.

    1994-12-31

    There is an interest in the conversion of coal to liquid fuels because of the abundant supply of coal and the diminishing reserves of petroleum. Standard coal liquefaction techniques utilize H{sub 2} gas as a source of hydrogen to cap the radical species produced during liquefaction. Waste materials such as plastics, oils, and rubber tires with a high hydrogen content could be an alternative source of hydrogen that, in principle, could be transferred from the waste materials to the coal during liquefaction. An added benefit of such a program of waste material utilization would be a diminution in materials disposed of in landfills or incinerators. Rubber tires are approximately one third by weight carbon black. Farcasiu and Smith have shown that carbon black increases yields in coal liquefaction. Since carbon black is one of the top fifty chemicals produced in America during 1993 (3.22 billion pounds) the recovery and reuse of carbon black from tires could become economically attractive. Giavarini has shown in recent work that carbon black could be reclaimed and activated to produce quality carbon blacks after pyrolyzing waste rubber tires. Rubber tires also contain zinc oxide which is added as a filler and also aids in the vulcanization of the rubber. Waste plastics contain many metals used for coloring, waste oils contain metals acquired while used as a lubricant, and waste rubber tires contain zinc. A past investigation suggested that coal undergoing liquefaction may act as a {open_quotes}scavenger{close_quotes} for heavy metals. The ability of coal to trap metals will be discussed in the present paper. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique which can map the dispersion of an element within a sample by the detection of characteristic X-rays. Using EPMA, samples of the insoluble fraction produced by the coliquefaction experiments were analyzed to determine whether several heavy elements of interest were trapped in coal particles.

  7. ETR, TRA642, CAMERA IS BELOW, BUT NEAR THE CEILING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642, CAMERA IS BELOW, BUT NEAR THE CEILING OF THE GROUND FLOOR, AND LOOKS DOWN TOWARD THE CONSOLE FLOOR. CAMERA FACES WESTERLY. THE REACTOR PIT IS IN THE CENTER OF THE VIEW. BEYOND IT TO THE LEFT IS THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE WORKING CANAL. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE RIGHT IS THE SHIELDING FOR THE PROCESS WATER TUNNEL AND PIPING. SPIRAL STAIRCASE AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2237. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 7/6/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, S.

    1995-10-01

    Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

  9. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and 0.007 inches thick; (C) Be not more than 41/4 inches high, 6 inches long, and 0.016 inch thick...: “In case of a recall, we can reach you only if we have your name and address.” (3) Indicate that... tire manufacturer voluntarily provides a Web site or other means by which its tires can be...

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana responses to mechanical stimulation do not require ETR1 or EIN2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. A.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Plants exposed to repetitive touch or wind are generally shorter and stockier than sheltered plants. These mechanostimulus-induced developmental changes are termed thigmomorphogenesis and may confer resistance to subsequent stresses. An early response of Arabidopsis thaliana to touch or wind is the up-regulation of TCH (touch) gene expression. The signal transduction pathway that leads to mechanostimulus responses is not well defined. A role for ethylene has been proposed based on the observation that mechanostimulation of plants leads to ethylene evolution and exogenous ethylene leads to thigmomorphogenetic-like changes. To determine whether ethylene has a role in plant responses to mechanostimulation, we assessed the ability of two ethylene-insensitive mutants, etr1-3 and ein2-1, to undergo thigmomorphogenesis and TCH gene up-regulation of expression. The ethylene-insensitive mutants responded to wind similarly to the wild type, with a delay in flowering, decrease in inflorescence elongation rate, shorter mature primary inflorescences, more rosette paraclades, and appropriate TCH gene expression changes. Also, wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis responded to vibrational stimulation, with an increase in hypocotyl elongation and up-regulation of TCH gene expression. We conclude that the ETR1 and EIN2 protein functions are not required for the developmental and molecular responses to mechanical stimulation.

  11. Yawed-Rolling Tire Mechanical Properties Testing of the Navy T-45 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    The T-45 Goshawk is a United States Navy Jet aircraft used primarily as a trainer. The aircraft design makes use of "off the shelf" hardware as much as possible and was found to have unusual directional control issues during around operations. The aircraft was involved in numerous pilot-induced-oscillation incidents as well as observed to have unusual directional control reactions to failed main gear tires, a condition that is normally handled relatively easily by conventional aircraft steering control techniques. The behavior of the aircraft's tires had previously been modeled in simulators as a result of approximations provided in 40-year-old reference publications. Since knowledge of the true tire cornering and braking behavior is essential to modeling, understanding, and fixing directional control problems, the United States Navy requested assistance from the NASA Langley Research Center's (LARC) Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the yawed-rolling mechanical properties of the T-45 aircraft tires. The purpose of this report is to document the results of testing the subject tires at the NASA LaRC ALDF in September 1998. Brief descriptions of the Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) are included to familiarize the reader with the ITTV capabilities, data acquisition system, test and measurement techniques, data accuracy, and analysis and presentation of the testing results.

  12. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  13. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  14. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  15. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  16. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor... remanufactured; or (2) The motor vehicle generates a maximum sound level reading of 90 dB(A) or less when measured at a standard test site for highway operations at a distance of 15.3 meters (50 feet) and...

  17. Chlorinolysis reclaims rubber of waste tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.; Tervet, J. H.; Hull, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Process reclaims rubber and reduces sulfur content by using chlorine gas to oxidize sulfur bonds in preference to other bonds. Rubber does not have poor hysteresis and abrasion resistance like conventionally reclaimed rubber and is suitable for premium radial tires. Chlorinated rubber is less susceptible to swelling by oils and may be used as paint ingredient.

  18. How Do Tubeless Tires Support an Auto?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, John; Jones, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Provides an explanation of how tubeless tires support the weight of an automobile with reference to the use of free body diagrams in physics. Presents a second activity in which an inexpensive laser pointer is used to obtain diffraction photographs. Offers project ideas for students. (ZWH)

  19. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (up to maximum weight) and center of gravity position, and (2) The loads corresponding to the ground... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g acting downward at the center of gravity. This load may not exceed the load rating of the tire. (2) The...

  20. 40 CFR 1037.650 - Tire manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tire manufacturers. 1037.650 Section 1037.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... that choose to provide test data or emission warranties for purposes of this part. (a) Testing. You...

  1. Tires and Tracks. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on tires and tracks servicing is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The…

  2. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the lock ring of a multi-piece wheel rim. (b) To prevent injury from wheel rims during tire inflation, one of the following shall be used: (1) A wheel cage or other restraining device that will constrain all wheel rim components during an explosive separation of a multi-piece wheel rim, or during...

  8. Michelin Tire Company Workplace Literacy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This packet provides generic versions of curriculum developed for the Michelin Tire Corporation workplace literacy program, specifically the mathematics portion. Altered material included in the packet protects proprietary information; some lessons include lines that take the place of deleted information. Other companies are recommended to use…

  9. Monitoring Temperatures of Tires Using Luminescent Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J

    2006-01-01

    A method of noncontact, optical monitoring of the surface temperature of a tire has been devised to enable the use of local temperature rise as an indication of potential or impending failures. The method involves the use of temperature-sensitive paint (or filler): Temperature-sensitive luminescent dye molecules or other luminescent particles are incorporated into a thin, flexible material coating the tire surface of interest. (Alternatively, in principle, the luminescent material could be incorporated directly into the tire rubber, though this approach has not yet been tested.) The coated surface is illuminated with shorter-wavelength light to excite longer-wavelength luminescence, which is observed by use of a charge-coupled-device camera or a photodetector (see Figure 1). If temporally constant illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the intensity response of the luminescence. If pulsed illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the time or frequency response of the luminescence. If sinusoidally varying illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the phase response of the luminescence. Unlike a prior method of monitoring the temperature at a fixed spot on a tire by use of a thermocouple, this method is not restricted to one spot and can, therefore, yield information on the spatial distribution of temperature: in particular, it enables the discovery of newly forming hot spots where damage may be starting. Also unlike in the thermocouple method, the measurements in this method are not vulnerable to breakage of wires in repeated flexing of the tire. Moreover, unlike in another method in which infrared radiation is monitored as an indication of surface temperature, the luminescence measurements in this method are not significantly affected by changes in infrared emissivity. This method has been

  10. Loss of the ETR1 ethylene receptor reduces the inhibitory effect of far-red light and darkness on seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca L; Bakshi, Arkadipta; Binder, Brad M

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to far-red light followed by darkness, wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seeds fail to germinate or germinate very poorly. We have previously shown that the ethylene receptor ETR1 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE1) inhibits and ETR2 stimulates seed germination of Arabidopsis during salt stress. This function of ETR1 requires the full-length receptor. These roles are independent of ethylene levels and sensitivity and are mainly mediated by a change in abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity. In the current study we find that etr1-6 and etr1-7 loss-of-function mutant seeds germinate better than wild-type seeds after illumination with far-red light or when germinated in the dark indicating an inhibitory role for ETR1. Surprisingly, this function of ETR1 does not require the receiver domain. No differences between these mutants and wild-type are seen when germination proceeds after treatment with white, blue, green, or red light. Loss of any of the other four ethylene receptor isoforms has no measurable effect on germination after far-red light treatment. An analysis of the transcript abundance for genes encoding ABA and gibberellic acid (GA) metabolic enzymes indicates that etr1-6 mutants may produce more GA and less ABA than wild-type seeds after illumination with far-red light which correlates with the better germination of the mutants. Epistasis analysis suggests that ETR1 may genetically interact with the phytochromes (phy), PHYA and PHYB to control germination and growth. This study shows that of the five ethylene receptor isoforms in Arabidopsis, ETR1 has a unique role in modulating the effects of red and far-red light on plant growth and development. PMID:25221561

  11. Loss of the ETR1 ethylene receptor reduces the inhibitory effect of far-red light and darkness on seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca L; Bakshi, Arkadipta; Binder, Brad M

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to far-red light followed by darkness, wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seeds fail to germinate or germinate very poorly. We have previously shown that the ethylene receptor ETR1 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE1) inhibits and ETR2 stimulates seed germination of Arabidopsis during salt stress. This function of ETR1 requires the full-length receptor. These roles are independent of ethylene levels and sensitivity and are mainly mediated by a change in abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity. In the current study we find that etr1-6 and etr1-7 loss-of-function mutant seeds germinate better than wild-type seeds after illumination with far-red light or when germinated in the dark indicating an inhibitory role for ETR1. Surprisingly, this function of ETR1 does not require the receiver domain. No differences between these mutants and wild-type are seen when germination proceeds after treatment with white, blue, green, or red light. Loss of any of the other four ethylene receptor isoforms has no measurable effect on germination after far-red light treatment. An analysis of the transcript abundance for genes encoding ABA and gibberellic acid (GA) metabolic enzymes indicates that etr1-6 mutants may produce more GA and less ABA than wild-type seeds after illumination with far-red light which correlates with the better germination of the mutants. Epistasis analysis suggests that ETR1 may genetically interact with the phytochromes (phy), PHYA and PHYB to control germination and growth. This study shows that of the five ethylene receptor isoforms in Arabidopsis, ETR1 has a unique role in modulating the effects of red and far-red light on plant growth and development.

  12. Raison d'Etre: Embodying Design History and Rationale in Hypermedia Folklore--An Experiment in Reflective Design Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Raison d'Etre, a hypermedia design history application, provides access to a database of video clips containing perspectives of design team members during the course of a project. Describes the user needs analysis; methods of collecting information and organizing the database; and the implications for design education, research, and practice. (AEF)

  13. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light....” If the production plant is located outside the United States, the full plant name must be...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  16. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  17. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  19. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  20. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-2 Exemption of tires...

  2. Waste tires: A future source of activated carbon?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Millions of used tires are disposed in the United States each year, causing major environmental problems and representing a loss of valuable resources. Currently, over 80% of discarded tires are landfilled (approximately 200 million per year). Because tires disposed in municipal landfills rarely stay buried, regulators, landfill operators, and even the general public are constantly reminded of this problem. These ever-surfacing tires can serve as a breeding ground for disease-causing mosquitoes; in addition, large mounds of tires often catch fire, causing significant air pollution. Recent research indicates that used tires may soon represent a source of carbon-based adsorbents and energy-rich liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Details of this research are discussed briefly in this paper. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Orbiter post-tire failure and skid testing results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the post-tire failure drag characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main tire and wheel assembly. Skid tests on various materials were also conducted to define their friction and wear rate characteristics under higher speed and bearing pressures than any previous tests. The skid tests were conducted to support a feasibility study of adding a skid to the orbiter strut between the main tires to protect an intact tire from failure due to overload should one of the tires fail. Roll-on-rim tests were conducted to define the ability of a standard and a modified orbiter main wheel to roll without a tire. Results of the investigation are combined into a generic model of strut drag versus time under failure conditions for inclusion into rollout simulators used to train the shuttle astronauts.

  4. Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Denhof, D.

    1993-03-01

    For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

  5. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  6. Quasi-Static Viscoelasticity Loading Measurements of an Aircraft Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Angela J.; Tanner, John A.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    1997-01-01

    Stair-step loading, cyclic loading, and long-term relaxation tests were performed on an aircraft tire to observe the quasi-static viscoelastic response of the tire. The data indicate that the tire continues to respond viscoelastically even after it has been softened by deformation. Load relaxation data from the stair-step test at the 15,000-lb loading was fit to a monotonically decreasing Prony series.

  7. Heat generation in aircraft tires under free rolling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  8. Exploiting symmetries in the modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, Carl M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple and efficient computational strategy for reducing both the size of a tire model and the cost of the analysis of tires in the presence of symmetry-breaking conditions (unsymmetry in the tire material, geometry, or loading) is presented. The strategy is based on approximating the unsymmetric response of the tire with a linear combination of symmetric and antisymmetric global approximation vectors (or modes). Details are presented for the three main elements of the computational strategy, which include: use of special three-field mixed finite-element models, use of operator splitting, and substantial reduction in the number of degrees of freedom. The proposed computational stategy is applied to three quasi-symmetric problems of tires: linear analysis of anisotropic tires, through use of semianalytic finite elements, nonlinear analysis of anisotropic tires through use of two-dimensional shell finite elements, and nonlinear analysis of orthotropic tires subjected to unsymmetric loading. Three basic types of symmetry (and their combinations) exhibited by the tire response are identified.

  9. Robot Drills Holes To Relieve Excess Tire Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrott, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive, remotely controlled robot called "tire assault vehicle" (TAV) developed to relieve excess tire pressures to protect ground crew, aircraft equipment, and nearby vehicles engaged in landing tests of CV-990 Landing System Research Aircraft. Reduces costs and saves time in training, maintenance, and setup related to "yellow" and "red" tire conditions. Adapted to any heavy-aircraft environment in which ground-crew safety at risk because of potential for tire explosions. Also ideal as scout vehicle for performing inspections in hazardous locations.

  10. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-02-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests.

  11. Zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Emily P; Ren, Zhiyong; Mays, David C

    2012-12-01

    Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 h. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber.

  12. Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.M.; Mueller, G. ); Hemphill, D.C. )

    1994-08-01

    Cover is important to aquatic habitat and fisheries often try to improve habitats by addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments and to a lesser extent in freshwater and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material benefiting fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation have quantified the importance of tire reefs to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are placed in canals. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the past because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are inert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is in the literature. Stone demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. found no harmful substances leached from tire material soaked in fresh water. Because there are few data on toxicity associated with tires, this became the focus of our study. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures developed by the EPA were used to evaluate water quality impacted by tires. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse.

  14. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. PMID:25712610

  15. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542; Docket No. NHTSA-2008- 0121). The new consumer..., and treadwear (75 FR 15894; Docket No. NHTSA- 2010-0036). The final rule did not include any of the... test machine(s) for the TFECIP. This would allow tire manufacturers to know the identity of the...

  16. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, 74 FR 49454 (Sept. 28, 2009... Program, 74 FR 29542 (June 22, 2009); Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0121-0014 (hereinafter ``Tire Fuel Efficiency... Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency...

  17. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ..., and proposed to require manufacturers to report various data concerning replacement tires to NHTSA..., Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 74 FR 29542 (June 22, 2009); Docket No. NHTSA-2008... Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 75 FR 15894 (Mar. 30, 2010); Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0036- 001....

  18. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... sidewall of each tire it retreads by permanently molding or branding into or onto the sidewall, in...

  19. 75 FR 11806 - Notice of Public Meeting; Tire Fuel Efficiency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) proposing a new consumer information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542). The new consumer information program responded to a... union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register at 65 FR...

  20. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  1. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  2. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  3. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  4. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  5. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor... the demonstration is conducted at the highway speed limit in effect at the inspection location, or,...

  6. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  7. Dynamic Tire Pressure Sensor for Measuring Ground Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application. PMID:23202206

  8. Application of tire dynamics to aircraft landing gear design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The tire plays a key part in many analyses used for design of aircraft landing gear. Examples include structural design of wheels, landing gear shimmy, brake whirl, chatter and squeal, complex combination of chatter and shimmy on main landing gear (MLG) systems, anti-skid performance, gear walk, and rough terrain loads and performance. Tire parameters needed in the various analyses are discussed. Two tire models are discussed for shimmy analysis, the modified Moreland approach and the von Schlippe-Dietrich approach. It is shown that the Moreland model can be derived from the Von Schlippe-Dietrich model by certain approximations. The remaining analysis areas are discussed in general terms and the tire parameters needed for each are identified. Accurate tire data allows more accurate design analysis and the correct prediction of dynamic performance of aircraft landing gear.

  9. Dimensionally stable PET fibers for tire reinforcement. [Polyethylene terephthalate (POLYESTERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rim, P.B.; Nelson, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    High-modulus, high-tenacity polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers have gained wide acceptance in reinforcement for rubber products such as tires and hoses; in geotextiles, and in ropes and cordage. Accordingly, a great deal of fundamental research has been conducted on how the processing and resulting morphology of these thermoplastic fibers affect their physical properties. The translation of these starting fiber properties to those in the final end-use product has received much less attention. This article compares the structure-property relationships of recently-developed PET yarns possessing high dimensional stability (i.e., high modulus and low shrinkage) with conventional PET tire yarn. Interest in these materials is stimulated by their ability to improve tire uniformity and, for some tire manufacturers, eliminate the need for post-cure inflation during tire manufacturing. Where possible, cause and effect relationships will be developed.

  10. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  11. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  12. 46 CFR 12.611 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as electro-technical rating (ETR) on vessels...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as electro-technical rating (ETR) on vessels powered by main propulsion machinery of 750 kW/1,000 HP or more... propulsion machinery of 750 kW/1,000 HP or more. (a) To qualify for an STCW endorsement as an...

  13. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... car tires to meet safety criteria similar to those for new pneumatic passenger car tires. S3... 1948. S4. Definitions. S4.1Casing means a used tire to which additional tread may be attached for...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  18. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube... pollutants resulting from the production of pneumatic tires and inner tubes in tire and inner tube plants....

  19. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube... pollutants resulting from the production of pneumatic tires and inner tubes in tire and inner tube plants....

  20. Influence of ETR-p1/f1 antisense peptide on endothelin-induced constriction in rat renal arcuate arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaochun; Richards, Nicholas T; Johns, Edward J; Kohsaka, Takeo; Nakamura, Akio; Okada, Hidechika

    1997-01-01

    This study set out to examine the endothelin receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in the rat renal arcuate artery. This was done in isolated vessels 120–200 μm in diameter, incubated with a selective agonist and the novel ‘antisense' peptide to part of the human endothelinA receptor. Groups of vessels (n=6) were incubated with increasing concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1), from 1 to 100 nM, which caused a 65% maximal contraction at the highest dose with an pEC50 of 8.16±0.11 M. By contrast, in six other vessels sarafotoxin 6c over the same dose range gave a minimal contraction (around 5% of maximum). Preincubation of six vessels with the antisense peptide ETR p1/f1 at 1 μM had no effect on the ET-1 induced vasoconstriction, in terms of displacement of the concentration-response curve or the maximal tension achieved by the agonist. In the six vessels exposed to 4 μM ETR p1/f1, there was a significant shift of the concentration-response curve and a lower pEC50 at 7.78±0.09 M (P<0.05). At the highest concentrations of ETR p1/f1, there was a marked suppression of all responses to ET-1, which at the maximal concentrations tested, 0.1 μM, only reached some 10% of the maximal achievable contraction. Increasing ET-1 concentrations up to 2 μM in vessels incubated with 40 μM ETR-p1/f1 showed that the blockade could be overcome and that the relationship was shifted to the right (P<0.001) by approximately one log unit with a pEC50 of 7.13±0.11 M. A Schild plot of the data indicated the antagonist to be acting competitively at a single population of receptors. At the highest concentrations tested, 40 μM, ETR-p1/f1 had no effect on noradrenaline-induced contractions, indicating a lack of non-specific actions. Together, these data suggest that at the rat renal arcuate artery the endothelinA receptor is the predominant functional receptor mediating contraction. Furthermore, this study has shown the potential usefulness of this novel

  1. Rolling resistance of electric vehicle tires from track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Special low-rolling-resistance tires were made for DOE's ETV-1 electric vehicle. Tests were conducted on these tires and on a set of standard commercial automotive tires to determine the rolling resistance as a function of time during both constant-speed tires and SAE J227a driving cycle tests. The tests were conducted on a test track at ambient temperatures that ranged from 15 to 32 C (59 to 89 F) and with tire pressures of 207 to 276 kPa (30 to 40 psi). At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi) the rolling resistances of the electric vehicle tires and the standard commercial tires, respectively, were 0.0102 and 0.0088 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight. At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 276 kPa (40 psi) the rolling resistances were 0.009 and 0.0074 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight, respectively.

  2. Extraction of tire size code using local phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; He, Jin; Huang, Zhanhua

    2009-11-01

    Tire size code (TSC) specifies the dimensions of the tire, and some of its key limitations, such as load-bearing ability and maximum speed. The key challenge of vision based TSC identification is the low contrast of TSC to tire background. In order to extract TSC from low-contrast tire images, this paper proposed to consider the contours of TSC as the symmetry axes of the neighbor pixels along the contours. The symmetry axes were detected using local phase information which is robust to image brightness and contrast. Firstly, the ring shaped tire region was segmented and then expanded to a rectangular region, where all characters were upright. Due to the intensity values of the neighbor pixels along the contours of TSC were symmetric, the contours in low-contrast tire image were enhanced using local phase information, which is computed by Log-Gabor wavelets. Finally, the thin contours were extracted by non-maxima suppression and thresholding with hysteresis. Experiments on real tire images showed that, in comparison with intensity based algorithms, the proposed algorithm were robust to uneven illumination and low-contrast.

  3. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories. PMID:18697324

  4. 75 FR 62505 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's.../exporters of OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires From the People's...

  5. 76 FR 6603 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic...

  6. 76 FR 14906 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic...

  7. Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, S. M.; Mueller, G.; Hemphill, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    Cover is an important component of aquatic habitat and fisheries management. Fisheries biologists often try to improve habitats through the addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs using sophisticated artificial habitat modules. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments (D'Itri 1985) and to a lesser extent in freshwater (Johnson and Stein 1979) and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material which benefits fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Mueller and Liston 1991) have quantified the importance of tire reeds to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fisheries and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are places in canals. Potential benefits to fishermen are great in the form of recreational fishing. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the part because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are intert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is contained in the literature. Stone et al. (1975) demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's (1991) freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. (1973) found no harmful substances leached from tire

  8. STS-70 Mission Commander Henricks inspects tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-70 Mission Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks inspects the nose wheel landing gear tires of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery along with Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber after the spaceplane touched down on KSC's Runway 33 to successfully conclude the nearly nine-day space flight. Main gear touchdown was unofficially listed at 8:02 a.m. EDT on July 22, 1995 on the second landing attempt after the first opportunity was waved off. The orbiter was originally scheduled to land on the 21st, but fog and low visibility at the Shuttle Landing Facility led to the one-day extension. This was the 24th landing at KSC and the 70th Space Shuttle mission. During the space flight, the five-member crew deployed the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G (TDRS- G). The other crew members were Pilot Kevin R. Kregel and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie and Donald A. Thomas.

  9. 12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  10. MSC products for the simulation of tire behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskivitch, John C.

    1995-08-01

    The modeling of tires and the simulation of tire behavior are complex problems. The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation (MSC) has a number of finite element analysis products that can be used to address the complexities of tire modeling and simulation. While there are many similarities between the products, each product has a number of capabilities that uniquely enable it to be used for a specific aspect of tire behavior. This paper discusses the following programs: (1) MSC/NASTRAN - general purpose finite element program for linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis; (2) MSC/ADAQUS - nonlinear statics and dynamics finite element program; (3) MSC/PATRAN AFEA (Advanced Finite Element Analysis) - general purpose finite element program with a subset of linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis capabilities with an integrated version of MSC/PATRAN for pre- and post-processing; and (4) MSC/DYTRAN - nonlinear explicit transient dynamics finite element program.

  11. MSC products for the simulation of tire behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muskivitch, John C.

    1995-01-01

    The modeling of tires and the simulation of tire behavior are complex problems. The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation (MSC) has a number of finite element analysis products that can be used to address the complexities of tire modeling and simulation. While there are many similarities between the products, each product has a number of capabilities that uniquely enable it to be used for a specific aspect of tire behavior. This paper discusses the following programs: (1) MSC/NASTRAN - general purpose finite element program for linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis; (2) MSC/ADAQUS - nonlinear statics and dynamics finite element program; (3) MSC/PATRAN AFEA (Advanced Finite Element Analysis) - general purpose finite element program with a subset of linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis capabilities with an integrated version of MSC/PATRAN for pre- and post-processing; and (4) MSC/DYTRAN - nonlinear explicit transient dynamics finite element program.

  12. Exploiting symmetries in the modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, C. M.; Tanner, John A.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for reducing the size of the analysis models of tires having unsymmetric material, geometry and/or loading. The two key elements of the procedure when applied to anisotropic tires are: (1) decomposition of the stiffness matrix into the sum of an orthotropic and nonorthotropic parts; and (2) successive application of the finite-element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite-element method is first used to generate few global approximation vectors (or modes). Then the amplitudes of these modes are computed by using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The proposed technique has high potential for handling practical tire problems with anisotropic materials, unsymmetric imperfections and asymmetric loading. It is also particularly useful for use with three-dimensional finite-element models of tires.

  13. Temperature distribution in an aircraft tire at low ground speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to define temperature profiles of 22 x 5.5, type 7, bias ply aircraft tires subjected to freely rolling, yawed rolling, and light braking conditions. Temperatures along the inner wall of freely rolling tires were greater than those near the outer surface. The effect of increasing tire deflection was to increase the temperature within the shoulder and sidewall areas of the tire carcass. The effect of cornering and braking was to increase the treat temperature. For taxi operations at fixed yaw angles, temperature profiles were not symmetric. Increasing the ground speed produced only moderate increases in tread temperature, whereas temperatures in the carcass shoulder and sidewall were essentially unaffected.

  14. Advances in contact algorithms and their application to tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Currently used techniques for tire contact analysis are reviewed. Discussion focuses on the different techniques used in modeling frictional forces and the treatment of contact conditions. A status report is presented on a new computational strategy for the modeling and analysis of tires, including the solution of the contact problem. The key elements of the proposed strategy are: (1) use of semianalytic mixed finite elements in which the shell variables are represented by Fourier series in the circumferential direction and piecewise polynomials in the meridional direction; (2) use of perturbed Lagrangian formulation for the determination of the contact area and pressure; and (3) application of multilevel iterative procedures and reduction techniques to generate the response of the tire. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of a proposed procedure for generating the tire response associated with different Fourier harmonics.

  15. Aircraft tire behavior during high-speed operations in soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Smith, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine aircraft tire behavior and operating problems in soil of different characteristics was conducted at the Langley landing-loads track with a 29 x 110.0-10, 8-ply-rating, type 3 tire. Four clay test beds of different moisture content and one sand test bed were used to explore the effects on axle drag loads developed during operation at different tire inflation pressures in free rolling, locked-wheel braking, and yawed (cornering) modes, all at forward speeds up to 95 knots. The test results indicated a complicated drag-load--velocity relationship, with a peak in the drag-load curve occurring near 40 knots for most test conditions. The magnitude of this peak was found to vary with tire inflation pressure and soil character and, in certain cases, might prove large enough to make take-off hazardous.

  16. Time domain BEM for sound radiation of tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banz, Lothar; Gimperlein, Heiko; Nezhi, Zouhair; Stephan, Ernst P.

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates a time domain boundary element method for the acoustic wave equation in an exterior domain in the half-space mathbb {R}^3_+. The Neumann problem is formulated as a boundary integral equation of the second kind, and the convergence and stability of conforming Galerkin approximations is studied in the complex geometry of a car or truck tire above a street. After a validation experiment, numerical results are presented in time or frequency domain for realistic benchmarks in traffic noise: the sound emission of vibrating tires, noise amplification in the horn-like geometry between the tire and the road, as well as the Doppler effect of a moving tire. The results are compared with calculations in frequency domain.

  17. Environmental health implications of heavy metal pollution from car tires.

    PubMed

    Horner, J M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential for environmental pollution by heavy metals from the disposal of used car tires and describes laboratory work and field research exploring the magnitude of the problem. The metals considered here are cadmium, lead, and zinc; their respective mean concentrations for ten makes of tires used in the United Kingdom ranged from 0-3.0, 8.1-22.3, and 2524-6012 ppm. The metals were extracted from tires by simulated acid-rain solutions (pH 2.5); zinc concentrations of the leachate ranged from 169-463 ppm, but cadmium and lead concentrations were negligible. A significant increase in surface soil concentrations of all three metals was measured with increasing proximity to a tire dump in West London. The respective mean concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in soil at the base of the dump were 22, 1160, and 1235 ppm, indicating contamination by each metal.

  18. 10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE), LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATOR HALL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  19. Test method to measure resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viman, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the Nordic countries most cars are equipped with studded tires during the winter. The studs increase the wear on the road surfaces and a special test method has been developed to measure the aggregates' resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires. The method has proven to correlate very well with the actual wear on the road surfaces. The Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland have agreed to propose this method as a European Standard test method. One reason is to be able to set requirements on aggregates to be used in countries where studded tires are allowed. A cross-testing project regarding this Nordic abrasion test for studded tires was set up in order to determine the repeatability and the reproducibility of the methods to become European Standard.

  20. Laser triangulation to measure the carcass deflections of a rolling tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2011-12-01

    Tire sensors are powerful tools to study tire behavior and to evaluate the tire operating state. A laser tire sensor (LTS) is introduced in this paper. It is based on a laser triangulation sensor, which can measure the carcass deflections of a rolling tire. The sensor principle is explained and a special tire sensor module is introduced. The results are shown for several wheel loads and inflation pressures, which have linear influence on both the tire radius mean value and radius amplitude. Results from more complex driving situations are also covered, including soil deformation and aquaplaning. It was possible to observe tire penetration into the soft soil. An aquaplaning study shows significant influence of hydrodynamics forces on tire carcass behavior. Also the influence of inflation pressure on aquaplaning is shown.

  1. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction

    SciTech Connect

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Goekhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-15

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  2. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a... tires of its size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a width within... Register citations affecting § 575.104, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...

  3. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a... tires of its size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having a width within... Register citations affecting § 575.104, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...

  4. Tech Transfer Office discusses the finer points of tire recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis worked with a tire recycling company in St. Francisville, La., to help the company make better use of the cryogenics, or supercold fluids, in its recycling process. The process separates the rubber from the steel belts and other particles. The rubber is broken down into a material called crumb. Other parts of the tire particle removed is called fluff.

  5. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    PubMed

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  6. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  7. Molecular characterization of an ethylene receptor gene (CcETR1) in coffee trees, its relationship with fruit development and caffeine content.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Porras, José; Campa, Claudine; Poncet, Valérie; Noirot, Michel; Leroy, Thierry; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    To understand the importance of ethylene receptor genes in the quality of coffee berries three full-length cDNAs corresponding to a putative ethylene receptor gene (ETR1) were isolated from Coffea canephora cDNA libraries. They differed by their 3'UTR and contained a main ORF and a 5'UTR short ORF putatively encoding a small polypeptide. The CcETR1 gene, present as a single copy in the C. canephora genome, contained five introns in the coding region and one in its 5'UTR. Alternative splicing can occur in C. canephora and C. pseudozanguebariae, leading to a truncated polypeptide. C. pseudozanguebariae ETR1 transcripts showed various forms of splicing alterations. This gene was equally expressed at all stages of fruit development. A segregation study on an inter-specific progeny showed that ETR1 is related to the fructification time, the caffeine content of the green beans, and seed weight. Arabidopsis transformed etiolated seedlings, which over-expressed CcETR1, displayed highly reduced gravitropism, but the triple response was observed in an ethylene enriched environment. These plants behaved like a low-concentration ethylene-insensitive mutant thus confirming the receptor function of the encoded protein. This gene showed no induction during the climacteric crisis but some linkage with traits related to quality.

  8. Wheelbarrow tire explosion causing trauma to the forearm and hand: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tire explosion injuries are rare, but they may result in a severe injury pattern. Case reports and statistics from injuries caused by exploded truck tires during servicing are established, but trauma from exploded small tires seems to be unknown. Case presentation A 47-year-old german man inflated a wheelbarrow tire. The tire exploded during inflation and caused an open, multiple forearm and hand injury. Conclusion Even small tires can cause severe injury patterns in the case of an explosion. High inflating pressures and low safety distances are the main factors responsible for this occurrence. Broad safety information and suitable filling devices are indispensable for preventing these occurrences. PMID:19946543

  9. Physiological roles of ArcA, Crp, and EtrA and their interactive control on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Yang, Zamin K; Chen, Jingrong; Liang, Yili; Chen, Haijiang; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-12-28

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.

  10. Physiological roles of ArcA, Crp, and EtrA and their interactive control on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Chen, Jingrong; Liang, Yili; Chen, Haijiang; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.

  11. Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

  12. 78 FR 51209 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Trading Co., LLC of TX; Tire & Wheel Master, Inc. of CA; Simple Tire of TN; WTD Inc. of CA; Guangzhou..._filing.pdf . Any person desiring to submit a document to the Commission in ] confidence must...

  13. Static and yawed-rolling mechanical properties of two type 7 aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Mccarty, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of 18 x 5.5 and 49 x 17 size, type 7 aircraft tires were evaluated. The tires were subjected to pure vertical loads and to combined vertical and lateral loads under both static and rolling conditions. Parameters for the static tests consisted of tire load in the vertical and lateral directions, and parameters for the rolling tests included tire vertical load, yaw angle, and ground speed. Effects of each of these parameters on the measured tire characteristics are discussed and, where possible, compared with previous work. Results indicate that dynamic tire properties under investigation were generally insensitive to speed variations and therefore tend to support the conclusion that many tire dynamic characteristics can be obtained from static and low speed rolling tests. Furthermore, many of the tire mechanical properties are in good agreement with empirical predictions based on earlier research.

  14. An evaluation of some unbraked tire cornering force characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effects of pavement surface condition on the cornering forces developed by a group of 6.50x13 automobile tires of different tread design was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The tests were made at fixed yaw angles of 3,4.5, and 6 deg at forward speeds up to 80 knots on two concrete surfaces of different texture under dry, damp, and flooded conditions. The results showed that the cornering forces were extremely sensitive to tread pattern and runway surface texture under all conditions and that under flooded conditions tire hydroplaning and complete loss of cornering force occurred at a forward velocity predicted from an existing formula based on tire inflation pressure. Futher, tests on the damp concrete with a smooth tire and a four-groove tire showed higher cornering forces at a yaw angle of 3 deg than at 4.5 deg; this indicated that maximum cornering forces are developed at extremely small steering angles under these conditions.

  15. Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

  16. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  17. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  18. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....1Retreaded tires. S5.1.1Except as specified in S5.1.3, each retreaded tire, when mounted on a test rim of the....3, each retreaded tire, when mounted on a test rim of the width specified for the tire's size... requirements of S5.1.1 and S5.1.2 when mounted on any rim in accordance with those sections. S5.1.4No...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  3. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., plant where manufactured, and model year of tire manufactured during the reporting period and the four... of tires with the same SKU, plant where manufactured, and year for which the volume produced or imported is less than 15,000, or are deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use...

  4. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd... complainants are: Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd., 1-17-18 Edobori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550- 8661, Japan Toyo Tire... Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd., The West of JinGuang Street, Chenming Industrial Park, Shouguang...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10579 - Carbon black derived from the pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). 721.10579 Section 721.10579 Protection of Environment... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... rubber tire shreds (PMN P-10-367) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... person selling or leasing the defective or noncompliant tire: (i) A statement that the report is being submitted pursuant to 49 CFR 573.10(a) (sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires); (ii) The name, address and phone number of the person who purchased or leased the tire; (iii) The name of...

  11. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to provide information indicating the relative performance of replacement passenger car tires in the... consumers in making better educated choices in the purchase of passenger car tires. (c) Application. This... achieve the level of performance represented by each rating. (A) Ratings. Each tire shall be rated...

  12. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.

  13. Award-winning cooperation: Missouri's waste tire to energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, E.; Fester, D.

    1999-07-01

    Cooperation and planning among two state agencies and the University of Missouri produced benefits for all and gained national recognition for innovation. Abandoned waste Tire facilities in Missouri Pose a significant health threat to nearby residents. In addition to being mosquito breeding grounds, facilities have been set on fire. These fires have released enormous quantities of air toxics and particulate matter to the surrounding communities. Three Missouri institutions have created a unique partnership to begin cleaning up these facilities. The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Department of Correction, and the University of Missouri- Columbia have transformed a waste stream into an emission reducing fuel stream. An air emission test at the university's coal fired power plant demonstrate that tire derived fuel (TDF) reduces emissions. Data presented will demonstrate a new method of reducing emission at coal-fired power plants while removing abandoned tires from the environment.

  14. Technique distribuee de gestion de la charge sur le reseau electrique et ring-tree: Un nouveau systeme de communication P2P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Simon

    Le reseau de distribution et de transport de l'electricite se modernise dans plusieurs pays dont le Canada. La nouvelle generation de ce reseau que l'on appelle smart grid, permet entre autre l'automatisation de la production, de la distribution et de la gestion de la charge chez les clients. D'un autre cote, des appareils domestiques intelligents munis d'une interface de communication pour des applications du smart grid commencent a apparaitre sur le marche. Ces appareils intelligents pourraient creer une communaute virtuelle pour optimiser leurs consommations d'une facon distribuee. La gestion distribuee de ces charges intelligentes necessite la communication entre un grand nombre d'equipements electriques. Ceci represente un defi important a relever surtout si on ne veut pas augmenter le cout de l'infrastructure et de la maintenance. Lors de cette these deux systemes distincts ont ete concus : un systeme de communication peer-to-peer, appele Ring-Tree, permettant la communication entre un nombre important de noeuds (jusqu'a de l'ordre de grandeur du million) tel que des appareils electriques communicants et une technique distribuee de gestion de la charge sur le reseau electrique. Le systeme de communication Ring-Tree inclut une nouvelle topologie reseau qui n'a jamais ete definie ou exploitee auparavant. Il inclut egalement des algorithmes pour la creation, l'exploitation et la maintenance de ce reseau. Il est suffisamment simple pour etre mis en oeuvre sur des controleurs associes aux dispositifs tels que des chauffe-eaux, chauffage a accumulation, bornes de recharges electriques, etc. Il n'utilise pas un serveur centralise (ou tres peu, seulement lorsqu'un noeud veut rejoindre le reseau). Il offre une solution distribuee qui peut etre mise en oeuvre sans deploiement d'une infrastructure autre que les controleurs sur les dispositifs vises. Finalement, un temps de reponse de quelques secondes pour atteindre 1'ensemble du reseau peut etre obtenu, ce qui est

  15. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  16. 75 FR 28567 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice... antidumping duty order on New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China... Administrative Review, 74 FR 45179 (September 1, 2009). On September 28, 2009, Guizhou Tire I&E...

  17. 75 FR 46914 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1... Jinyu. \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China:...

  18. 75 FR 49459 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ..., 73 FR 40485 (July 15, 2008) (``Final Determination''); Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from... International Trade Administration A-570-912 Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic... determination in the antidumping investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'')...

  19. 75 FR 31422 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-912 Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic... antidumping investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's... Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Determination of...

  20. 75 FR 64268 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the- road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China... (CVD) order on OTR tires from the People's Republic of China. See Certain New Pneumatic...

  1. 75 FR 62504 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China...''). See Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires from the People's Republic of China: Final...

  2. 75 FR 76956 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission, in Part...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period January 1... Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

  3. 76 FR 23286 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final... certain new pneumatic off-the- road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the.... See New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  4. 77 FR 4996 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires... Pneumatic Off-the-road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Respondent Selection,'' dated December...

  5. 78 FR 22513 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires...''). \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China:...

  6. 75 FR 22742 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China... shipper review. See New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

  7. 78 FR 33341 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty new shipper review of certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the... merchandise at less than normal value. \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the...

  8. 75 FR 34098 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... new pneumatic off-the- road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China, Request for Changed Circumstances...

  9. 78 FR 14267 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China... covered by this order includes new pneumatic tires designed for off-the-road and off-highway use,...

  10. 78 FR 78814 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Initiation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended Final...

  11. 75 FR 46917 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration (A-570-912) New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission...

  12. 76 FR 7816 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires... Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Countervailing...

  13. Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement interface and effect on aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    A finite-difference analysis was performed on temperature records obtained from a free rolling automotive tire and from pavement surface. A high thermal contact conductance between tire and asphalt was found on a statistical basis. Average slip due to squirming between tire and asphalt was about 1.5 mm. Consequent friction heat was estimated as 64 percent of total power absorbed by bias-ply, belted tire. Extrapolation of results to aircraft tire indicates potential braking improvement by even moderate increase of heat absorbing capacity of runway surface.

  14. Scrap tire management in the New York/Mid Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, M.

    1995-05-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufactures sponsored, advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. The primary goal of the Council is to assist in the creation of demand for 100 percent of the annually generated scrap tires in the United States. Based on current market demand and projected market growth, we envision the primary goal to be met by the turn of the century. A national overview of the scrap tire situation is presented, and then the situations in New York/Mid Atlantic region are discussed.

  15. A laser-based sensor system for tire tread deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yi; Tuononen, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Optical tire sensors are powerful engineering tools that can reveal the mechanisms behind tire-road interactions. This paper presents a laser-based sensor system to measure tire-tread block deformation. The methodology and corresponding procedure for the system are introduced. Practical issues, such as tire sensor localization, are discussed. Validation experiments were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, and an asymmetric tire tread deformation along the contact patch was observed. It is proposed that asymmetric tread deformation is due to rolling resistance. The measurements under different operational conditions, including the rolling direction, wheel load, rolling velocity, and inflation pressure, were analyzed in the context of rolling resistance.

  16. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.

  17. Geotechnical investigation of the potential use of shredded scrap tires in soil stabilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shakoor, A.; Chu, C.J.

    1998-11-01

    Silt-tire and clay-tire mixtures, containing 0% to 100% shredded tire material by weight, with tire chips ranging in size from 7mm--13mm, 13mm--25mm, and 25mm--38mm, were tested for a series of engineering properties including compaction characteristics, permeability, unconfined compressive strength, friction angle, cohesion, and compression index. In addition, the leachate samples from shredded tire material, soil-tire mixtures, and a test embankment, containing 70% clay and 30% shredded tire material by weight, were analyzed for chemical composition. The results show that density and unconfined compressive strength decrease, and permeability increases, with increasing shredded tire content for both soil types and all three tire sizes used in the study. In general, the addition of shredded tire material improves the friction angle for both silt and clay by a few degrees but also increases their compression index values. The results of leachate analyses show that concentrations of trace elements from soil-tire mixtures are less than the maximum allowed contaminant levels specified in United States Environmental Protection Agency`s regulations.

  18. Tests to Determine the Adhesive Power of Passenger-Car Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foerster, B.

    1956-01-01

    The concept of the adhesive power of a tire with respect to the road involves several properties which result from the purpose of the tire; namely, connecting link between vehicle and road: (1) The tire must transfer the tractive and braking forces acting in the direction of travel (tractive and braking adhesion); (2) The tire is to prevent lateral deviations of the vehicle from the desired direction of travel (track adhesion). Moreover, the rubber tire provides part of the springing of the vehicle. Above all, it has to level out the minor road irregularities; thus it smoothes, as it were, the road and simultaneously reduces the noise of driving. The springing properties of the tire affect the adhesive power. The tests described below comprise a determination of the braking and track adhesion of individual tires. The adhesion of driven wheels has not been investigated so far.

  19. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  20. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  1. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  2. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier Operations Standards §...

  3. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier Operations Standards §...

  4. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier Operations Standards §...

  5. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS MOTOR CARRIERS ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE Interstate Motor Carrier Operations Standards §...

  6. 32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO GIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. NORTHWEST PAST BENCH WITH TIRE BENDER (USED TO GIVE CURVATURE TO WHEEL RIMS ON ELI WINDMILLS) TO BINS ALONG NORTH INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY WITH NEW OLD STOCK UNASSEMBLED PARTS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  7. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  8. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... measured from tread to the top of the flange. (i) Tires less than 11/2 inches thick. (j) Rims less than 1 inch thick on a locomotive in road service or less than 3/4 inch on a locomotive in yard service. (k)...

  9. The energy saving research of the flat tire vulcanization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; He, J.-Y.; Zhang, J. Y.; An, Y.; Yang, W.-M.; Tan, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vulcanization was an important step in tire production process, directly determining the mechanical properties of the tire which was the most energy-intensive link. The traditional vulcanization process of a flat tire did not consider the post curing effect, which may result in a waste of energy. Early finite element simulation showed that the traditional process caused excessive vulcanization. In order to find ways to improve the curing process, in the paper effect of process parameters on the flat tire vulcanization had been studied. Curing parameters included heating temperature, curing time and preheating temperature. Corresponding to these three factors, the three-dimensional model was established by ABAQUS finite element software to carry out three groups of simulation. Result showed that heat source temperature on the maximum temperature was the largest, effect of preheating temperature was the lowest; heat source temperature on the curing degree was the largest, effect of the curing time was lowest. According to the data analysis the optimal process parameters had been raised.

  10. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... runs northwest to Water Valley, northeast toward Robert Lee and returns via Texas 208 to the vicinity... of Water Valley (11). Turn right onto FM2034 and proceed north to Texas 208 (12). Turn right onto... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having...

  11. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... runs northwest to Water Valley, northeast toward Robert Lee and returns via Texas 208 to the vicinity... of Water Valley (11). Turn right onto FM2034 and proceed north to Texas 208 (12). Turn right onto... specified for tires of that size in accordance with 49 CFR 571.109, S4.4.1 (a) or (b), or a rim having...

  12. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Confidential Business... 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) and concluded that no additional consultation with States, local... information about the treadwear, traction, and temperature resistance of passenger car tires. To ensure...

  13. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  14. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... molded, be laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 1, during the... laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 2, during the retreading...

  15. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... molded, be laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 1, during the... laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 2, during the retreading...

  16. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... molded, be laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 1, during the... laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 2, during the retreading...

  17. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... molded, be laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 1, during the... laser etched into or onto the sidewall in the location specified in Figure 2, during the retreading...

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF TIRE BEAD BREAKER (LEFT) AND PRESSURE MONITOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF TIRE BEAD BREAKER (LEFT) AND PRESSURE MONITOR PANEL (RIGHT), ROOM 1M9, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  20. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  1. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  2. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  3. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  4. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek; Kaiser, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire.

  5. Measurements of Flow Rate and Trajectory of Aircraft Tire-Generated Water Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray generated by an aircraft tire operating on a flooded runway. Tests were conducted in the Hydrodynamics Research Facility and made use of a partial airframe and a nose tire from a general aviation aircraft. Nose tires from a commercial transport aircraft were also used. The effects of forward speed, tire load, and water depth on water spray patterns were evaluated by measuring the amount and location of water captured by an array of tubes mounted behind the test tire. Water ejected from the side of the tire footprint had the most significant potential for ingestion into engine inlets. A lateral wake created on the water surface by the rolling tire can dominate the shape of the spray pattern as the distance aft of the tire is increased. Forward speed increased flow rates and moved the spray pattern inboard. Increased tire load caused the spray to become less dense. Near the tire, increased water depths caused flow rates to increase. Tests using a fuselage and partial wing along with the nose gear showed that for certain configurations, wing aerodynamics can cause a concentration of spray above the wing.

  6. A study of the cornering forces generated by aircraft tires on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the cornering forces produced by a rolling aircraft tire installed on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear. The parameters studied included tilt angle, trial, tire inflation pressure, rake angle, vertical load, and whether or not a twin tire configuration corotates. These parameters were evaluated by measuring the cornering force produced by an aircraft tire installed on the nose gear of a modified vehicle as it was towed slowly. Cornering force coefficient increased with increasing tilt angle. Increasing trial or rake angle decreased the magnitude of the cornering force coefficient. Tire inflation pressure had no effect on the cornering force coefficient. Increasing vertical load decreased the cornering force coefficient. When the tires of a twin tire system rotated independently, the cornering force coefficients were the same as those for the single-tire configuration. When the twin tire system was made to corotate, however, the cornering force coefficients increased significantly.

  7. Les torsions sur testicules cryptorchides

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Amri, Najmeddine; Chambeh, Wahib; Braiek, Salem; Kamel, Rafik El

    2010-01-01

    Résumé But : La cryptorchidie est une pathologie assez fréquente en urologie. Elle est associée à un risque élevé d’infertilité et de dégénérescence. Elle semble aussi être associée à un risque important de torsion. Cette entité est très peu abordée dans la littérature. Nous rapportons tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide observés à notre service dans le but de mieux caractériser cette pathologie et de réduire ainsi le taux d’orchidectomies. Méthodologie : Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide opérés dans notre service d’urologie entre 1999 et 2007. Les patients ont fait l’objet d’une description basée sur le résumé de leurs observations. Résultats : Les patients étaient âgés de 7 mois à 39 ans. La torsion touchait le testicule droit dans 53 % des cas. Le tableau clinique comportait une douleur au niveau de la région inguinale d’apparition soudaine avec une masse sous-cutanée inflammatoire et douloureuse à ce niveau et surtout un hémiscrotum homolatéral vide. Dans 60 % des cas, le diagnostic était tardif et une orchidectomie a été réalisée. Dans les autre cas, un abaissement du testicule a été réalisé avec orchidopexie controlatéral dans le même temps opératoire. Conclusion : Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une pathologie peu courante, la torsion sur testicule cryptorchide doit être étudiée davantage. Le diagnostic précoce permettra de sauver et d’abaisser le testicule et faciliter ainsi le dépistage d’une éventuelle dégénérescence. PMID:21191497

  8. Toxicological evaluation for the hazard assessment of tire crumb for use in public playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Detlef A; Belton, Kathy L; Guidotti, Tee L

    2003-07-01

    Disposal of used tires has been a major problem in solid waste management. New uses will have to be found to consume recycled tire products. One such proposed use is as ground cover in playgrounds. However, concern has been expressed regarding exposure of children to hazardous chemicals and the environmental impact of such chemicals. We designed a comprehensive hazard assessment to evaluate and address potential human health and environmental concerns associated with the use of tire crumb in playgrounds. Human health concerns were addressed using conventional hazard analyses, mutagenicity assays, and aquatic toxicity tests of extracted tire crumb. Hazard to children appears to be minimal. Toxicity to all aquatic organisms (bacteria, invertebrates, fish, and green algae) was observed; however, this activity disappeared with aging of the tire crumb for three months in place in the playground. We conclude that the use of tire crumb in playgrounds results in minimal hazard to children and the receiving environment.

  9. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  10. Instrumentation pour la spectroscopie laser sur faisceau d'ions rapides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, Marc

    laser, l'etude spectroscopique des etats de predissociation des molecules, l'analyse en energie cinetique des fragments moleculaires sont autant d'approches spectroscopiques qui ont pu etre appliquees avec succes avec notre instrument. Suite aux transformations que nous y avons apportees, l'instrument a acquis encore plus de souplesse en permettant l'etude spectroscopique des atomes ou molecules neutres ou charges selon deux modes de detection rapidement commutables. Un programme de controle a ete entierement concu pour automatiser le travail d'acquisition du signal et le gerer au moyen d'une interface utilisateur conviviale. Cet instrument est aujourd'hui pret pour effectuer efficacement des mesures systematiques sur de nombreuses molecules simples.

  11. Metals associated with stormwater-relevant brake and tire samples

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Money, Jon E.; Green, Peter G.; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Properly apportioning the loads of metals in highway stormwater runoff to the appropriate sources requires accurate data on source composition, especially regarding constituents that help to distinguish among sources. Representative tire and brake samples were collected from privately owned vehicles and aqueous extracts were analyzed for twenty-eight elements. Correlation principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that tires were most influenced by Zn, Pb, and Cu, while brakes were best characterized by Na and Fe followed by Ba, Cu, Mg, Mn, and K; the latter three may be due to roadside soil contributions. Notably elevated Cd contributions were found in several brake samples. A targeted Cd-plated brake rotor was sampled, producing results consistent with the elevated levels found in the larger sample population. This enriched source of Cd is of particular concern due to high toxicity of Cd in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19709720

  12. Evaluation of synergy in tire rubber-coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.; Garcia, T.; Tejero, M.P.; Torres, N.

    1998-09-01

    The tire rubber-coal synergy is evaluated through the different roles that rubber can have in coprocessing systems. For that, two different experimental designs were used: a swept fixed-bed reactor and tubing bomb minireactors. In this way, coal was coprocessed with rubber liquids from rubber pyrolysis and rubber hydrogenation, in a hydrogen atmosphere at 400 C. Coal was mixed as well with rubber in different proportions and hydrogenated at 375, 400, and 425 C, and oils obtained were characterized by thin-layer chromatography to obtain hydrocarbon type composition. Rubber behavior was compared to each of the main components of tires, and all the results indicated that the slight synergy found can be due to the small free radicals from vulcanized rubber decomposition, which are able to stabilize coal radicals to light products.

  13. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  14. Effect of fines on mechanical properties of soil-tire chip mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tatlisoz, N.; Benson, C.H.; Edil, T.B.

    1997-12-31

    Large quantities of waste tires can be beneficially used by incorporating them into structural fill employed in earthwork projects such as highway embankments and backfills for retaining structures. These applications require knowledge of the bulk mechanical properties of tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures. The objective of the study described in this paper was to evaluate the mechanical properties and behavior of waste tire chips and their mixtures with fine- and coarse-grained soils. Large-scale laboratory testing equipment was used to conduct the study. Tests were conducted to evaluate shear strength, deformability, and compressibility. Mixtures made with typical backfill soils such as clean sand, sandy silt, and clay were tested. Results of the tests show that tire chips and soil-tire chip mixtures behave like soils, but are more compressible and also require more deformation to mobilize their ultimate shear strength. Incorporation of tire chips in the backfill results in a reduction in unit weight and, for mixtures containing sand or sandy silt, an increase in shear strength. In contrast, clay-tire chip mixtures have the same or lower shear strength as clay alone. Strength envelopes for sand-tire chip mixtures can be non-linear, and have virtually no cohesion intercept. Mixtures containing sandy silt behave similar to mixtures made with sand, except the shear strength envelope for the sandy silt-tire chip mixture is linear and has a cohesion intercept. Sand-tire chip and sandy silt-tire chip mixtures exhibit similar long-term compression behavior.

  15. Polymer concrete reinforced with recycled-tire fibers: Mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Cruz, E.; Martínez-Barrera, G.; Martínez-López, M.

    2013-06-01

    Polymer Concrete was reinforced with recycled-tire fibers in order to improve the compressive and flexural strength. Polymer concrete specimens were prepared with 70% of silicious sand, 30% of polyester resin and various fiber concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 vol%). The results show increment of 50% in average of the compressive and flexural strength as well as on the deformation when adding 1.2 vol% of recycled-fibers.

  16. Numerical analysis of tire/contact pressure using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Hidayat, Royan; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between the road surface and vehicle's tire may significantly determine the stability of a vehicle. We could study the tire contact-pressure to road surfaces through a numerical simulation in this present study. In particular, the main purpose of the study was to present an illustration of the effect of the varied loads to the tire, which would affect the contact pressure on the road surface sand stress distribution on the tire by employing a commercial ABAQUS software, based on the finite element method. To make the process of data analysis easier, the tire was assumed to be made from natural rubber which composition consisted of 2 layers of the inner tire and 1 layer of carcass. In pre-conditions, the tire was given air pressure as much as 17 psi, and loads as much as 2 KN, 6 KN, and 10 KN; then, the air pressure was increased to be 30 psi; consequently, the simulation results of stress distribution and deformation on each of loads condition would be acquired. The simulation results indicated that the loads carried by the tire on the vehicle were an important factor to determine the tire-stress profile.

  17. Application of a pattern recognition technique to the prediction of tire noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jinn-Tong; Tu, Fu-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Tire treads are one of the main sources of car noise. To meet the EU's tire noise regulation ECE-R117, a new method using a pattern recognition technique is adopted in this paper to predict noise from tire tread patterns, thus facilitating the design of low-noise tires. When tires come into contact with the road surface, air pumping may occur in the grooves of tire tread patterns. Using the image of a tread pattern, a matrix is constructed by setting the patterns of tire grooves and tread blocks. The length and width of the contact patch are multiplied by weight functions. The resulting sound pressure as a function of time is subjected to a Fourier transform to simulate a 1/3-octave-band sound pressure level. A particle swarm algorithm is adopted to optimize the weighting parameters for the sound pressure in the frequency domain so that simulated values approach the measured noise level. Two sets of optimal weighting parameters associated with the length and width of the contact patch are obtained. Finally, the weight function is used to predict the tread pattern noise of tires in the same series. A comparison of the prediction and experimental results reveals that, in the 1/3-octave band of frequency (800-2000 Hz), average errors in sound pressure are within 2.5 dB. The feasibility of the proposed application of the pattern recognition technique in predicting noise from tire treads is verified.

  18. Efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent Aedes breeding in tires.

    PubMed

    Pettit, William J; Whelan, Peter I; McDonnell, Joseph; Jacups, Susan P

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (Cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in Darwin, Australia. Insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. All mosquito larvae, pupae, and dead adults were collected from the treatment and control tires weekly over the 24-wk study period and were later identified to species in the laboratory. Control tires were colonized by Aedes notoscriptus in wk 2 and by Culex quinquefasciatus in wk 4. Aedes notoscriptus failed to colonize any alpha-cypermethrin-treated tires until wk 22 and did not colonize any lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires during the 24-wk trial. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires from wk 11 and wk 15, respectively. These results indicate both insecticides using either application method can prevent colonization of Ae. notoscriptus for at least 20 wk and demonstrate great potential for the prevention of breeding in receptacles for other receptacle-breeding Aedes species, such as the dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  19. NASA evaluation of Type 2 chemical depositions. [effects of deicer deposition on aircraft tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Howell, W. Edward; Webb, Granville L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type 2 chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32 - 96 km/hr (20 - 60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.

  20. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative.

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    PubMed

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties.

  2. Etude du stockage de l'hydrogene sur des nanostructures de carbone microporeuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Le stockage de l'hydrogene par adsorption sur des adsorbants nano-structures a ete etudie sous differentes conditions de pression et de temperature. Les adsorbants etudies sont principalement des nanotubes de carbone a simple paroi ainsi que des structures metallo-organiques. Les mesures ont ete realisees a l'aide de systemes gravimetriques et volumetriques tres sensibles specialement mis au point pour de petits echantillons necessitant un degazage in situ. Les appareils developpes, au nombre de quatre, comprennent deux systemes gravimetriques et deux systemes volumetriques. Ensemble, ces systemes couvrent la plage de pressions (0-100) bars ainsi que la plage de temperatures (77-295) K. Les differentes analyses montrent que l'adsorption d'hydrogene sur les adsorbants nano-structures etudies est maximale a 77 K et varie entre environ (1.5 et 4) % masse. A temperature ambiante, l'adsorption croit lineairement avec la pression et demeure sous les 1% masse pour des pressions inferieures a 100 bars. L'adsorption d'hydrogene sur ces materiaux dans ces conditions se compare notamment a celle obtenue sur des charbons actives. La modelisation de l'adsorption a egalement ete realisee dans des conditions cryogeniques a l'aide du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov sous une forme adaptee pour l'adsorption supercritique. Les enthalpies d'adsorption calculees a partir de ce modele varient sous les 6 kJ/mole et sont donc consistantes avec des processus de physisorption. L'applicabilite du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov suggere que l'adsorption d'hydrogene puisse etre representee par un processus de remplissage des pores par un pseudo-liquide. Ces travaux s'inscrivent dans un contexte ou la capacite d'adsorption reelle des nanostructures de carbone est sujette a la controverse. En consequence, l'approche experimentale adoptee se distingue par les differentes demarches mises de l'avant pour l'obtention de mesures fiables sur des echantillons de faibles masses ainsi que par son caractere

  3. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  4. 77 FR 26508 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... shipper review.\\5\\ \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... Request of Trelleborg Wheel Systems (Xingtai) China, Co. Ltd.: New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from...

  5. 77 FR 10476 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``off-the-road tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period, September 1,...

  6. 76 FR 31584 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... new pneumatic off-the-road tires from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). This review covers the... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires from the PRC....

  7. 77 FR 14495 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China...-2010 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires... International Co., Ltd. (``TUTRIC''). \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the...

  8. 75 FR 74003 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period January 1... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 53635 (September 1, 2010). Guizhou...

  9. 76 FR 14919 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires...; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 53635 (September 1, 2010). On September 17, 2010,...

  10. 75 FR 846 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period December... Administrative Review, 74 FR 45179 (September 1, 2009). GPX timely requested an administrative review of...

  11. 78 FR 46607 - Certain Off-The-Road Tires From China Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Off-The-Road Tires From China Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on certain off-the-road tires... published antidumping and countervailing duty orders on imports of certain off-the-road tires from China...

  12. 75 FR 32376 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road (``OTR'') tires from the People's... New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

  13. 75 FR 24884 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period December...., Tianjin Wanda Tyre Co., Ltd., and Triangle Tyre Co., Ltd. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road...

  14. 75 FR 32158 - New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR Tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). This review... Revocation in Part, 74 FR 54956 (October 26, 2009). The preliminary results of this review are currently...

  15. 77 FR 6536 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``off-the-road... administrative review of the antidumping order on off- the-road tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic......

  16. 78 FR 33059 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China...'' of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires from the People's Republic... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires, with respect...

  17. 3 CFR - Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tires From the People's Republic of China Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China Memorandum for the Secretary of Commerce the Secretary... vehicle and light truck tires from the People's Republic of China (China) are being imported into...

  18. 77 FR 69541 - Technical Report Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . Please send two paper copies... Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in Proper Tire Pressure Maintenance AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... its existing Safety Standard 138, Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems. The report's title is:...

  19. Pathology of non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE)-induced ablation of the canine brain.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H; Garcia, Paulo A; Roberston, John L; Ellis, Thomas L; Davalos, Rafael V

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the neuropathologic features of normal canine brain ablated with non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE). The parietal cerebral cortices of four dogs were treated with N-TIRE using a dose-escalation protocol with an additional dog receiving sham treatment. Animals were allowed to recover following N-TIRE ablation and the effects of treatment were monitored with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Brains were subjected to histopathologic and ultrastructural assessment along with Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 immunohistochemical staining following sacrifice 72 h post-treatment. Adverse clinical effects of N-TIRE were only observed in the dog treated at the upper energy tier. MRI and neuropathologic examinations indicated that N-TIRE ablation resulted in focal regions of severe cytoarchitectural and blood-brain-barrier disruption. Lesion size correlated to the intensity of the applied electrical field. N-TIRE-induced lesions were characterized by parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage; however, large blood vessels were preserved. A transition zone containing parenchymal edema, perivascular inflammatory cuffs, and reactive gliosis was interspersed between the necrotic focus and normal neuropil. Apoptotic labeling indices were not different between the N-TIRE-treated and control brains. This study identified N-TIRE pulse parameters that can be used to safely create circumscribed foci of brain necrosis while selectively preserving major vascular structures. PMID:23820168

  20. Pathology of non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE)-induced ablation of the canine brain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Roberston, John L.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the neuropathologic features of normal canine brain ablated with non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE). The parietal cerebral cortices of four dogs were treated with N-TIRE using a dose-escalation protocol with an additional dog receiving sham treatment. Animals were allowed to recover following N-TIRE ablation and the effects of treatment were monitored with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Brains were subjected to histopathologic and ultrastructural assessment along with Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 immunohistochemical staining following sacrifice 72 h post-treatment. Adverse clinical effects of N-TIRE were only observed in the dog treated at the upper energy tier. MRI and neuropathologic examinations indicated that N-TIRE ablation resulted in focal regions of severe cytoarchitectural and blood-brain-barrier disruption. Lesion size correlated to the intensity of the applied electrical field. N-TIRE-induced lesions were characterized by parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage; however, large blood vessels were preserved. A transition zone containing parenchymal edema, perivascular inflammatory cuffs, and reactive gliosis was interspersed between the necrotic focus and normal neuropil. Apoptotic labeling indices were not different between the N-TIRE-treated and control brains. This study identified N-TIRE pulse parameters that can be used to safely create circumscribed foci of brain necrosis while selectively preserving major vascular structures. PMID:23820168

  1. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all comments received... noncompliance is that, due to a mold labeling error, the sidewall marking on the reference side of the tires... has corrected the affected tire molds and all future production will have the correct material...

  2. 77 FR 2775 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... with a 30- day public comment period, on March 18, 2011, in the Federal Register (76 FR 15045). No... that the noncompliance is that, due to a mold labeling error, the sidewall marking on the tires... has corrected the affected tire molds and all future production will have the correct material...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at the tire cord... affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds per ton) of fabric... exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of total coatings used at the tire cord...

  4. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Statement is available for review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of Petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined...

  5. 78 FR 47050 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... (78 FR 9775.) No comments were received. To view the petition and all supporting documents log onto... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision...: Grant of petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper) \\1\\ has determined that certain...

  6. 78 FR 54369 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Register (77 FR 71678). One comment was received from Goodyear stating that after further review it now... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for.... ACTION: Notice of Petition Mootness. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear),\\1\\...

  7. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all comments received... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of petition. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has...

  8. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... FR 12869, 12870 (March 7, 1977). b. Physical Dimensions Test The purpose of the physical dimensions... (which is the metric equivalent of 60 psi) \\6\\ for the physical dimensions test.\\7\\ \\5\\ 74 FR 56166... test pressure for the physical dimensions test for T-type tires (temporary use spare tires) from...

  9. Additive effect of waste tire on the hydrogenolysis reaction of coal liquefaction residue

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyuki Sugano; Daigorou Onda; Kiyoshi Mashimo

    2006-12-15

    A numerous amount of waste tire is landfilled or dumped all over the world, which causes environmental problems, such as destruction of natural places and the risk of fires. On the other hand, the coal liquefaction residue (CLR) is produced in 30% yield through the process supporting unit (PSU) of the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. Therefore, the investigation on an effective method for utilization of waste tire and CLR is required. In this study, the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and pulverized waste tire was carried out by using tetralin. The yields in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis were compared with algebraic sum of the yields of the individual hydrogenolyses of waste tire alone and coal alone. In the simultaneous hydrogenolysis, the synergistic effects to upgrading, such as an increase in the yield of the oil constituent and a decrease in the yield of the asphaltene constituent, occurred because of the stabilization of asphaltenic radicals from CLR with aliphatic radicals from tire. The decrease in asphaltene yield in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis was pronounced with the increase in the tire:CLR ratio because the solvent effects of liquefied tire, such as stabilization of radicals, hydrogen shuttling, and heat transfer, were enhanced. Accordingly, it is estimated that the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and waste tire is an effective method for processing both materials. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 76 FR 73007 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition...

  11. 75 FR 17827 - Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... name of each cord material used in the plies (both sidewall and tread area) of the tire; * * * Goodyear explains that the noncompliance is that the sidewall marking incorrectly identifies the generic material of... number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers...

  12. 77 FR 71679 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting...),\\1\\ has determined that certain Bridgestone brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011 and March... Wide Oval AS size 245/40R19 and 245/35R20 brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011, and March...

  13. 78 FR 47049 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... comment period, on December 3, 2012 in the Federal Register (77 FR 71679). No comments were received. To...\\ has determined that certain Bridgestone brand replacement tires manufactured between June 19, 2011 and... approximately 1,102 Firestone Firehawk Wide Oval AS size 245/40R19 and 245/35R20 brand tires...

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must not exceed 280 grams HAP per megagram (0.56 pounds per ton) of fabric processed at the tire cord... affected source Emissions must not exceed 220 grams HAP per megagram (0.43 pounds per ton) of fabric... exceed 1,000 grams HAP per megagram (2 pounds per ton) of total coatings used at the tire cord...

  15. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  17. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submitted pursuant to 49 CFR 573.10(a) (sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires); (ii) The name... noncompliant tires. 573.10 Section 573.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... AND NONCOMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITY AND REPORTS § 573.10 Reporting the sale or lease of defective...

  18. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges of...

  19. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges of...

  20. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges of...

  1. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standard tire. Groove means the space between two adjacent tread ribs. Innerliner means the layer(s... listing for a tire must include dimensional specifications and a diagram of the rim and must be in one of... dimensional specifications or a diagram of a rim whose dimensional specifications and diagram are contained...

  2. Properties and potential environmental applications of carbon adsorbents from waste tire rubber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rameriz, D.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The properties of tire-derived carbon adsorbents (TDCA) produced from select tire chars were compared with those derived from an Illinois coal and pistachio nut shells. Chemical analyses of the TDCA indicated that these materials contain metallic elements not present in coal-and nut shell-derived carbons. These metals, introduced during the production of tire rubber, potentially catalyze steam gasification reactions of tire char. TDCA carbons contained larger meso-and macopore volumes than their counterparts derived from coal and nut shell (on the moisture-and ash-free-basis). Adsorptive properties of the tire-derived adsorbent carbons for air separation, gas storage, and gas clean up were also evaluated and compared with those of the coal-and nut shell derived carbons as well as a commercial activated carbon. The results revealed that TDCA carbons are suitable adsorbents for removing vapor-phase mercury from combustion flue gases and hazardous organic compounds from industrial gas streams.

  3. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  4. Simulation research of the tire Basic Relaxation Model in conditions of the wheel cornering angle oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luty, W.

    2016-09-01

    - A description of the tire Basic Relaxation Model (BRM) is presented in this paper. Simulation research of the tire BRM model in conditions of oscillatory changes of the wheel cornering angle were performed. During the simulation tests the courses of changes in the value of lateral reaction force, transmitted by the wheel, as a response to the sinusoidal changes in the value of the wheel cornering angle have been presented. There have been compared the simulation results obtained for the model of tire-road interaction in two modes: including and not including the BRM. The simulation results allowed to verify prepared BRM and also to determine the influence of the tire relaxation process on the tire behavior in conditions of dynamic changes of the wheel cornering angle.

  5. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  6. Removal of polychlorinated phenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.S.; Yoo, K.S.; Park, J.K.

    1999-05-01

    Scrap vehicle tire chips were used as packing material for sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors to remove persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Adsorption capacity of scrap tires was greater under acidic conditions than under basic conditions. However, it was only approximately 0.04 to 0.3% of that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of scrap tires was 3.16 and 3.72 mg volatile suspended solids/cm{sup 2} after 14 and 37 days, respectively. Two laboratory-scale, down-flow anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips were operated to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP). More than 98% of DCP was dehalogenated to CP in the anaerobic reactor, 70 to 98% of which was subsequently degraded in the aerobic reactor. Scrap tires did not cause any operational problems when used as biofilter media.

  7. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae.

    PubMed

    Camponelli, Kimberly M; Casey, Ryan E; Snodgrass, Joel W; Lev, Steven M; Landa, Edward R

    2009-02-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg(-1)) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. PMID:18995883

  8. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Definition of Tire Properties Required for Landing System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Luchini, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The data bank constructed provided two basic advantages for the user of aircraft tire information. First, computerization of the data bank allowed mechanical property data to be stored, corrected, updated, and revised quickly and easily as more reliable tests and measurements were carried out. Secondly, the format of the book which can be printed from the computerized data bank can be easily adjusted to suit the needs of the users without the great expense normally associated with reprinting and editing books set by ordinary typography.

  10. Recent studies of tire braking performance. [for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results from recent studies of some factors affecting tire braking and cornering performance are presented together with a discussion of the possible application of these results to the design of aircraft braking systems. The first part of the paper is concerned with steady-state braking, that is, results from tests conducted at a constant slip ratio or steering angle or both. The second part deals with cyclic braking tests, both single cycle, where brakes are applied at a constant rate until wheel lockup is achieved, and rapid cycling of the brakes under control of a currently operational antiskid system.

  11. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J

    2015-08-05

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  12. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators †

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J.

    2015-01-01

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. PMID:26251914

  13. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J

    2015-01-01

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. PMID:26251914

  14. Expression and interaction of the mango ethylene receptor MiETR1 and different receptor versions of MiERS1.

    PubMed

    Winterhagen, Patrick; Hagemann, Michael H; Wünsche, Jens N

    2016-05-01

    Different versions of the mango ethylene receptor MiERS1 were identified and the analysis indicates that, in addition to MiERS1, two short versions of this receptor (MiERS1m, MiERS1s), representing truncated proteins with central deletions of functional domains, are present in mango. The short receptor versions reveal a different expression pattern compared to MiERS1, and they are highly variably transcribed. With transient expression assays using fluorescent fusion proteins, the localisation and the interaction of the receptors were determined in leaf cells of the tobacco model. MiERS1, MiETR1, and the short MiERS1 receptor versions are anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and co-localise with each other and with an ER-marker. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the mango receptors appears to induce a re-organisation of the ER resulting in accumulation of ER bodies. Interaction assays suggest that both short MiERS1 receptor versions can bind to proteins located in the ER. Bi-molecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays indicate, that MiERS1m may dimerise with itself and can also interact with MiERS1, but not with MiETR1. Further, it as found that MiETR1 can interact with MiERS1. Interaction of MiERS1s with the other ethylene receptors could not be detected, although it was located in the ER membrane system. PMID:26993233

  15. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  18. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  19. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  20. Friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type 7, aircraft tires constructed with different tread rubber compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Yager, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to evaluate the friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type, aircraft tires constructed with experimental cut-resistant, tread rubber compounds. These compounds consisted of different blends of natural rubber (NR) and an alfin catalyzed styrene-butadiene copolymer rubber (SBR). One tire having a blend of 30 SBR and 70 NR and another having a blend of 60 SBR and 40 NR in the tread were tested together with a standard production tire with no SBR content in the tread rubber. The results of this investigation indicated that the test tires constructed with the special cut-resistant tread rubber compositions did not suffer any significant degradation in tire friction capability when compared with the standard tire. In general, tire friction capability decreased with increasing speed and surface wetness condition. As yaw angle increased, tire braking capability decreased while tire cornering capability increased. Tread-wear data based on number of brake cycles, however, suggested that the tires with alfin SBR blends experienced significantly greater wear than the standard production tire.

  1. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  2. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    PubMed

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.

  3. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  4. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    PubMed

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted <2% of the sum of the 15 analyzed HMW PAHs. These findings show that automobile tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  5. Advantage of SBR/carbon black masterbatch for tire tread application

    SciTech Connect

    Sone, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Akimoto, H.; Ishida, M.

    1992-04-01

    The performance required of tire tread is becoming more severe and more various year by year, as social demands on tires have been changing. To improve wear resistance, driving safety and good drive feeling, new HP tires (high performance passenger car tires) are developed intensively. In addition, good fuel efficiency is required to satisfy the CAFE rule, which was proposed for a better global environment. To support this movement of the tire industry, material suppliers are making an effort to supply better materials. Mitsubishi Kasei has been improving the quality and production process of WMB, a SBR/carbon black master-batch produced by co-coagulation of SBR latex, carbon black and extender oil under the wet dispersion process. Compared to the tire tread made from dry-mixing compounds, that made from the WMB shows the following characteristics: (1) the abrasion resistance and the durability are higher; (2) from the viscoelastic properties, skid performance and driving stability are expected to be improved. These characteristics are remarkable when WMB is compounded in the recipes for HP and racing tires using fine carbon black. In this article, these features of WMB are studied from the view point of carbon black dispersion and polymer-carbon black interaction. Furthermore, the changes of carbon black structure during abrasion and fatigue process are analyzed and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

  6. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions.

  7. X-ray characterization of tire derived particles resulting from different solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, R.C.; Smithhart, C.B.; Quin, J.; Wertz, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, 200 million scrap tires are being annually stockpiled, landfilled, or illegally dumped, with ca. 50 million scrap tires being recycled in a variety of ways. The current disposal methods are causing numerous short-term environmental problems. Whole tires occupy large amounts of space and may {open_quotes}float{close_quotes} or rise to the top of landfills, causing puncturing of the landfill cover. In an attempt to prevent floating, many landfills require that the scrap tires be shredded, a process which is energy intensive and wasteful. Scrap tire stock piles produce large health risks by providing a place for rodents and mosquitos to breed -- aiding in the spread of diseases. Large stockpile fires have also broken out in major cities in Florida, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. These fires are long lasting and produce unwanted smoke into the environment. For many reasons, the recycling of scrap tires is desirable. This paper describes the processing of scrap tires by several liquids and acids.

  8. Stress investigation on the rolling tires across the speed bump using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Royan; Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between road surface and tire on a vehicle may strongly determine the vehicle's stability. This study was conducted to find out the stress distribution as a result of pressure on the tires rolling across the speed bumps. This study used Abaqus software to simulate the movement of the tire, which rolls across the speed bump to determine the stress distribution that may occur. The tire component material used was a full path rubber on a speed bump. For the boundary conditions of the study, it was assumed that the tires had load variations as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN, as well as pressure variations as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi. The tires were then rolled 8 km/h crossing the speed bump. Modeling speed bumps also varied i.e. the first variation of speed bumps that have a height of 50 mm with a width of 250 mm, the second variation of height 75 mm with a width of 300 mm, and a third variation of height 100 mm with a width of 400 mm. The simulation was done by giving the tire pressures as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi and loads as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN. Further, the tires were rolled three times. It was rolled crossing the first speed bump, the second, and the third, respectively. Results showed stress distribution's fig and graphs. From the analysis results and simulation, it was shown that the greater the load received by the tires, the higher stress they produced.

  9. Interaction of In-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor with tire dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyou; Li, Jianqiu; Wei, Yintao; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao

    2015-05-01

    Drive wheel systems combined with the in-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor (I-PMSM) and the tire are highly electromechanical-coupled. However, the deformation dynamics of this system, which may influence the system performance, is neglected in most existing literatures. For this reason, a deformable tire and a detailed I-PMSM are modeled using Matlab/Simulink. Furthermore, the influence of tire/road contact interface is accurately described by the non-linear relaxation length-based model and magic formula pragmatic model. The drive wheel model used in this paper is closer to that of a real tire in contrast to the rigid tire model which is widely used. Based on the near-precise model mentioned above, the sensitivity of the dynamic tire and I-PMSM parameters to the relative error of slip ratio estimation is analyzed. Additionally, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations of the drive wheel are presented both in time and frequency domains when a quarter vehicle is started under conditions of a specific torque curve, which includes an abrupt torque change from 30 N · m to 200 N · m. The parameters sensitivity on drive wheel vibrations is also studied, and the parameters include the mass distribution ratio of tire, the tire torsional stiffness, the tire damping coefficient, and the hysteresis band of the PMSM current control algorithm. Finally, different target torque curves are compared in the simulation, which shows that the estimation error of the slip ratio gets violent, and the longitudinal force includes more fluctuation components with the increasing change rate of the torque. This paper analyzes the influence of the drive wheel deformation on the vehicle dynamic control, and provides useful information regarding the electric vehicle traction control.

  10. Correlations of Different Surface Tests: Tire Behavior Math Model for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Michelin Tire Properties Tests for Boeing 777

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Ivan

    1995-01-01

    In the surfaces correlation study, several different volumetric and drainage measurement techniques for classifying surface texture were evaluated as part of a major study to develop and improve methods for predicting tire friction performance on all types of pavement. The objective of the evaluation was to seek relationships between the different techniques, and to relate those results to surface frictional characteristics. We needed to know how each of the tests could be related to each other. Another of my assigned projects was to make a tire behavior math model for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) using the same methods used for the space shuttle a few years ago. A provided third order equation with two variables was used. This model will also be used for studies with the Boeing 777. Only a few changes will be necessary to adapt it for this other aircraft, which is the newest offered by Boeing. In my final project I was involved with testing the tires for this new aircraft using the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) test carriage within the carriage house at LaRC. A 50 inch diameter radial tire manufactured by Michelin Aircraft Tire Corporation had to be tested to double overload of 114,000 pounds. The rated load of each tire is 57,000 pounds, but Boeing required tests assuming failure of a companion tire that could have cost Michelin approximately $12 million to build a facility to provide the required test capability. Here at LaRC, only minimum modifications to the facility were required to perform this specific test.

  11. ET-1 Promotes Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells into Osteoblasts through ETR, MAPK, and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways under Inflammatory Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Nan; Yu, Jifeng; Liu, Hongchen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a kind of chronic inflammatory disease that affects the tooth-supporting tissues. ET-1 is related to periodontitis and involved in the regulation of cytokines, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate how ET-1 affects proinflammatory cytokine expression and differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). PDLSCs were isolated from the periodontal ligament tissues of periodontitis patients and then treated with ET-1 (1, 10, or 100 nM) for 12 h, 24 h, or 72 h. The osteogenic potential of PDLSCs was tested using ALP staining. TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were evaluated by ELISA and western blot. Runx2, OCN, and COL1 mRNA and western levels were detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. To examine the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in ET-1-mediated cytokine expression and osteogenic differentiation, ETR pathway, MAPKs pathway, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and Wnt/Ca(2+) pathway were detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. ET-1 promoted differentiation of PDLSCs into osteoblasts by increasing secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ET-1 also increased expression of Runx2, OCN, and COL1. ET-1 promotes differentiation of PDLSCs into osteoblasts through ETR, MAPK, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways under inflammatory microenvironment.

  12. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  13. Reduced basis technique for evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the nonlinear tire response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1992-01-01

    An efficient reduced-basis technique is proposed for calculating the sensitivity of nonlinear tire response to variations in the design variables. The tire is modeled using a 2-D, moderate rotation, laminated anisotropic shell theory, including the effects of variation in material and geometric parameters. The vector of structural response and its first-order and second-order sensitivity coefficients are each expressed as a linear combination of a small number of basis vectors. The effectiveness of the basis vectors used in approximating the sensitivity coefficients is demonstrated by a numerical example involving the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire, which is subjected to uniform inflation pressure.

  14. Test burning of tire-derived fuel in solid fuel combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    This study was commissioned to determine the overall viability of utilizing scrap tire chips, known as tire-derived fuel (TDF), as a supplemental fuel in conventional coal-fired boilers. The study involved actual tests at Monsanto Company`s W.G. Krummrich Plant in Sauget, Illinois, as well as general extrapolations as to the feasibility of using TDF at other sites. This report will show that TDF can be an excellent supplemental fuel supply, providing a cost-effective fuel source while helping to alleviate the dilemma of scrap tire disposal.

  15. Pockmarks off Big Sur, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N.; Greene, H. Gary; Rehder, G.; Lorenson, T.; Lee, H.

    2002-01-01

    A pockmark field was discovered during EM-300 multi-beam bathymetric surveys on the lower continental slope off the Big Sur coast of California. The field contains ??? 1500 pockmarks which are between 130 and 260 m in diameter, and typically are 8-12 m deep located within a 560 km2 area. To investigate the origin of these features, piston cores were collected from both the interior and the flanks of the pockmarks, and remotely operated vehicle observation (ROV) video and sampling transects were conducted which passed through 19 of the pockmarks. The water column within and above the pockmarks was sampled for methane concentration. Piston cores and ROV collected push cores show that the pockmark field is composed of monotonous fine silts and clays and the cores within the pockmarks are indistinguishable from those outside the pockmarks. No evidence for either sediment winnowing or diagenetic alteration suggestive of fluid venting was obtained. 14C measurements of the organic carbon in the sediments indicate continuous sedimentation throughout the time resolution of the radiocarbon technique ( ??? 45000 yr BP), with a sedimentation rate of ??? 10 cm per 1000 yr both within and between the pockmarks. Concentrations of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfate, chloride, and ammonium in pore water extracted from within the cores are generally similar in composition to seawater and show little change with depth, suggesting low biogeochemical activity. These pore water chemical gradients indicate that neither significant accumulations of gas are likely to exist in the shallow subsurface ( ??? 100 m) nor is active fluid advection occurring within the sampled sediments. Taken together the data indicate that these pockmarks are more than 45000 yr old, are presently inactive, and contain no indications of earlier fluid or gas venting events. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmetli, Gulnare Gungor, Ahmet Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  17. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. |

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  18. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  19. Are you tired? Overcoming leadership styles that create leader fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2013-01-01

    Part of the culture of nursing is convincing everyone you are perpetually overworked and overwhelmed. The leadership style the leader chooses will determine whether he or she will be energized or overwhelmed. When the leader is unable and unwilling to surround him or herself with people who are more knowledgeable and astute, the level of stress and worry becomes unbearable. Relationships thrive when a structure is present. Your staff will be energized and empowered, and will reach incredible levels of productivity and the highest level of achievement possible. Doing "nothing" allows your staff to grow as people and as a team, and you will be free to do the work of the leader, and not be tired. PMID:23923244

  20. Energy saving tire with silica-rich tread

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Schaefer, R. J.

    1985-05-28

    A pneumatic radial tire is provided with a tread having from 1 part by weight of hydrated amorphous fine-particle silica per 3 parts of carbon black tread reinforcing filler, to about 3 parts by weight of the silica to 1 part of the carbon black. The amount of silica present is preferably in the range from about 18 parts to about 50 parts by weight per 100 parts of natural or synthetic rubber. When such a tread is compounded with a mercaptosilane in which the mercapto group is reversibly blocked, the tread provides reduced rolling resistance without loss of traction. Such reduction in rolling resistance without loss of traction is not observed when the silica is not coupled with the mercaptosilane coupling agent.

  1. Are you tired? Overcoming leadership styles that create leader fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2013-01-01

    Part of the culture of nursing is convincing everyone you are perpetually overworked and overwhelmed. The leadership style the leader chooses will determine whether he or she will be energized or overwhelmed. When the leader is unable and unwilling to surround him or herself with people who are more knowledgeable and astute, the level of stress and worry becomes unbearable. Relationships thrive when a structure is present. Your staff will be energized and empowered, and will reach incredible levels of productivity and the highest level of achievement possible. Doing "nothing" allows your staff to grow as people and as a team, and you will be free to do the work of the leader, and not be tired.

  2. Overview of the rubber industry and tire manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R

    1999-01-01

    The production of rubber and rubber products is a large and diverse industry. Natural rubber, obtained from plantations in Africa and Asia, accounts for only about 25% of the rubber used in industry. Synthetic alternatives, developed during World War II, are the primary sources of raw materials today. Health hazards in synthetic rubber production are primary related to exposure to monomers. An excess incidence of leukemia has been observed in styrene/butadiene rubber production, attributed to exposure to 1,3-butadiene. Excesses of cancer and respiratory disease have been reported, although specific causative agents are rarely identified. Exposures have varied greatly over the years, based on changes in materials used, work practices, and ventilation. In modern industry, exposures to noise, skin and respiratory irritants, and ergonomic stressors remain important. The tire industry, in particular, has been studied extensively over the past 50 years.

  3. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  4. Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Blau

    2000-04-26

    This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35 % fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and materials.

  5. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  6. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  7. Modeling and analysis of the space shuttle nose-gear tire with semianalytic finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of aircraft tires. The Space Shuttle Orbiter nose gear tire was modeled by using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in material and geometric parameters included. The four key elements of the procedure are: (1) semianalytic finite elements in which the shell variables are represented by Fourier series in the circumferential direction and piecewise polynominals in the meridional direction; (2) a mixed formulation with the fundamental unknowns consisting of strain parameters, stress-resultant parameters, and generalized displacements; (3) multilevel operator splitting to effect successive simplifications, and to uncouple the equations associated with different Fourier harmonics; and (4) multilevel iterative procedures and reduction techniques to generate the response of the shell. Numerical results of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose gear tire model are compared with experimental measurements of the tire subjected to inflation loading.

  8. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. 78 FR 35357 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... a 30-day public comment period, on April 4, 2012 in the Federal Register (77 FR 20482). No comments... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 139, New Pneumatic Radial Tires for Light...

  10. Uses of recycled rubber tires in highways: A synthesis of highway practice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Epps, J.A.; Mason, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis on the use of recycled rubber tires in highways will be of interest to administrators and policymakers; pavement, materials, geotechnical, environmental, and traffic operations engineers; and research engineers involved with highway design and construction issues. Information is provided on the uses of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials as well as other uses, such as on fills and embankments, for erosion control and on railroad grade crossings. Specifically, information is included which identifies the highway agencies using or implementing applications for recycled rubber tires and defines the design parameters, technical and construction limitations, performance, costs, benefits, environmental limitations, specifications, and availability. This synthesis of information defines the use of recycled rubber tires in highways and is based on a review of nearly 500 references and on information recorded from state highway agency responses to a 1991 survey of practice.

  11. 75 FR 68855 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting... inspection of mold branding at the plant that produced the subject tires. Pirelli then examined...

  12. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-04-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how the Goodyear Tire Plant saves approx. 93,000 MMBtu and $875,000 annually after increasing steam system energy efficiency in the Union City, TN, plant.

  13. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how the Goodyear Tire Plant saves approx. 93,000 MMBtu and $875,000 annually after increasing steam system energy efficiency in the Union City, TN, plant.

  14. Upgrade of Compressed Air Control System Reduces Energy Costs at Michelin Tire Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights the upgraded compressed air system at a Michelin tire manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The controls upgrade project enabled multiple compressor operation without blow-off, and significantly reduced energy costs.

  15. Camera that takes pictures of aircraft and ground vehicle tires can save lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Yair

    2013-10-01

    Damaged tires cause many fatal car accidents that claim lives worldwide. The use of a regular digital camera that can generate JPEG images, so as to become aware of damaged tires, is proposed. The digital camera repeatedly takes pictures of the car's tires. When there is a drastic change in a particular block of JPEG, the value of many of its frequency coefficients will be high and it will be compressed into many more bits; therefore, if the image is overly large, an embedded computer system will turn on a noticeable light-emitting diode in the car. The driver will be aware of the damaged tire before a severe accident would possibly happen.

  16. Formation of dl-limonene in used tire vacuum pyrolysis oils. [dipentene

    SciTech Connect

    Pakdel, H.; Roy, C.; Aubin, H.; Jean, G. ); Coulombe, S. )

    1991-09-01

    Tire recycling has become an important environmental issue recently due to the huge piles of tires that threaten the environment. Thermal decomposition of tire, a synthetic rubber material, enables the recovery of carbon black and liquid hydrocarbon oils. Both have potential economic values. Pyrolysis oils obtained under vacuum conditions contain a significant portion of a volatile, naptha-like fraction with an octane number similar to petroleum naphtha fraction, in addition, contains approximately 15% limonene. Potential applications of vacuum pyrolysis oil and carbon black have been investigated. However, the process economics is greatly influenced by the quality of the oil and carbon black products. This paper discusses limonene formation during used tire vacuum pyrolysis and its postulated reaction mechanism. The limonene separation method from pyrolysis oil, as well as its purification in laboratory scale, and structural characterization are discussed. Large-scale limonene separation and purification is under investigation.

  17. Mutagenicity and chemical analysis of emissions from the open burning of scrap rubber tires

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V.; Brooks, L.R.; Williams, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Salmonella mutagenicity assay and chemical analyses were used to evaluate the emissions from the open burning of scrap rubber tires that had been cut into either of two sizes, CHUNK or SHRED. The mutagenic potencies in strain TA98 of the dichloromethane-extractable particulate organics were generally greater than that of the semivolatiles. In addition, the open burning of CHUNK tires produced a higher burn rate and more potent organics in the presence of S9 than did SHRED tires. These results demonstrate for the first time that the open burning of scrap rubber tires produces a high mutagenic emission factor, posing potential environmental and health effects. (Copyright (c) 1993 American Chemical Society.)

  18. 77 FR 3031 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Register (75 FR 81712). No comments were received. To view the petition and all supporting documents log... Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds) and...

  19. Group photo to show NASA GRC's collaboration with Goodyear tires; The facility is called the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Group photo to show NASA GRC's collaboration with Goodyear tires; The facility is called the Simulated Lunar Operations (SLOPE) Laboratory and the test-vehicle is called Modular Mobility-Technology Demonstrator (MMTD)

  20. Characterization of air pollutants emitted from a simulated scrap tire fire

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M. ); Ryan, J.V. )

    1993-08-01

    Discarded automobile tires have become a concern to the general public, largely because the growing number of stockpile fires has focused attention on the potentially harmful combustion products as well as products of incomplete combustion (PICs) emitted into the atmosphere from uncontrolled burning of scrap tires. This paper describes a small-scale combustion study that was designed to collect, identify, and quantify the products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. During the study, it was found that total estimated emissions of semivolatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg of tire material burned. Alkyl-substituted mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant emission products identified. Elevated levels of zinc and lead were also measured. 17 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF THE TIRE INFLATION CAGE, ROOM 1M8, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE TIRE INFLATION CAGE, ROOM 1M8, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. Computational Methods for Frictional Contact With Applications to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Nose-Gear Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for the solution of frictional contact problems for aircraft tires. A Space Shuttle nose-gear tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory which includes the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse-shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities. Contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with both contact and friction conditions. The contact-friction algorithm is based on a modified Coulomb friction law. A modified two-field, mixed-variational principle is used to obtain elemental arrays. This modification consists of augmenting the functional of that principle by two terms: the Lagrange multiplier vector associated with normal and tangential node contact-load intensities and a regularization term that is quadratic in the Lagrange multiplier vector. These capabilities and computational features are incorporated into an in-house computer code. Experimental measurements were taken to define the response of the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire to inflation-pressure loads and to inflation-pressure loads combined with normal static loads against a rigid flat plate. These experimental results describe the meridional growth of the tire cross section caused by inflation loading, the static load-deflection characteristics of the tire, the geometry of the tire footprint under static loading conditions, and the normal and tangential load-intensity distributions in the tire footprint for the various static vertical loading conditions. Numerical results were obtained for the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire subjected to inflation pressure loads and combined inflation pressure and contact loads against a rigid flat plate. The experimental measurements and the numerical results are compared.

  3. Wear, friction, and temperature characteristics of an aircraft tire undergoing braking and cornering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Yager, T. J.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation to evaluate the wear, friction, and temperature characteristics of aircraft tire treads fabricated from different elastomers is presented. The braking and cornering tests performed on aircraft tires retreaded with currently employed and experimental elastomers are described. The tread wear rate is discussed in relation to the slip ratio during braking and yaw angle during cornering. The extent of wear in either operational mode is examined in relation to the runway surface.

  4. Prediction of bead area contact load at the tire-wheel interface using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H. S.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical prediction of the bead area contact load at the tire wheel interface using NASTRAN is reported. The application of the linear code to a basically nonlinear problem results in excessive deformation of the structure and the tire-wheel contact conditions become impossible to achieve. A psuedo-nonlinear approach was adopted in which the moduli of the cord reinforced composite are increased so that the computed key deformations matched that of the experiment. Numerical results presented are discussed.

  5. Tractor tire aspect ratio effects on soil bulk density and cone index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 580/70R38 tractor drive tire with an aspect ratio of 0.756 and a 650/75R32 tire with an aspect ratio of 0.804 were operated at two dynamic loads and two inflation pressures on a sandy loam and a clay loam with loose soil above a hardpan. Soil bulk density and cone index were measured just above t...

  6. AirMSPI PODEX BigSur Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-13

    ... from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target (Big Sur, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   Select ...   Version number   For more information, see the Data Product Specifications (DPS)   ...

  7. Steel Slag and Shredded Tires as Media for Blind Inlets to Improve Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Smith, D. R.; Livingston, S.

    2015-12-01

    Off-site transport of contaminants through surface runoff affects water quality. Blind inlets are proven conservation practices for reducing surface runoff, and consequently reducing nutrient loadings from small agricultural closed depressions to water bodies. Gravel is the most widely used blind inlet media to reduce flow, but not to sorb contaminants from the water. Readily available byproducts, such as steel slag and shredded tires, could be used as alternative media in blind inlets to sorb nutrients and pesticides from surface runoff. Sorption isotherms were performed to investigate the sorption capabilities of steel slag and shredded tires for phosphate and atrazine in electrolyte background solutions containing either 10 mM CaCl2 or KCl. Results of this research demonstrated that phosphate and atrazine were irreversibly sorbed by the steel slag and shredded tires. The steel slag increased the pH solution increased about 4 pH units after the sorption step; while the pH of the solution with shredded tires remained the same. Desorption of the phosphate and atrazine was low from the steel slag and shredded tires, respectively. Thus, the above results suggest that the steel slag and shredded tires can potentially be used as media to sorb phosphate and atrazine, respectively.

  8. Influence of tire damping on mixed H2/H∞ synthesis of half-car active suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçay, Hüseyin; Türkay, Semiha

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, multi-objective control of a half-car suspension system using linear matrix inequalities is studied. It is observed that when tire damping is precisely known, road-holding quality of the suspension system can be improved to some extent by the design procedure while ride comfort and compactness of suspension rattling space are only slightly affected as tire damping coefficients are increased. In the absence of tire damping information, a robust controller is designed for a suspension system with polytopic tire damping uncertainties. In contrast to multi-objective control of quarter-car models with polytopic tire damping uncertainties, this robust design does not offer any advantage over an active suspension system designed by neglecting tire damping. The results, based on the assumption that the front and the rear road velocity inputs are uncorrelated white-noise processes, demonstrate that the body pitch significantly impacts the closed-loop performance of the active suspension system. This implies that decomposition of a half-car model into two independent quarter-car models by a linear transformation is not realistic for a study of the performance limitations and the trade-offs.

  9. Treatment of domestic wastewater by subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with gravel and tire chip media.

    PubMed

    Richter, A Y; Weaver, R W

    2003-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) are becoming increasingly common in on-site treatment of wastewater. Gravel is the most popular form of wetland fill medium, but tire chips provide more porosity, are less dense, and less expensive. This study determines the treatment efficiency of SFCWs filled with gravel or tire chip media to treat domestic wastewater. The influent and effluent of six SFCWs filled with tire chip medium and six SFCWs filled with gravel were monitored for 5 to 16 consecutive months. Parameters measured included pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total and volatile suspended solids, NH4, P, and fecal and total coliforms. The only clear difference between medium types in wetland performance was for P. Soluble P in the effluent averaged 1.6 +/- 1.0 mg l(-1) in the tire chip-filled wetlands and 4.8 +/- 3.2 mg l(-1) in the gravel-filled wetlands. Most likely, Fe from exposed wires in shredded steel-belted tires complexed with P to create an insoluble compound. Tire chips may be a better fill medium for SFCWs than gravel because of higher porosity, lower cost, and greater reduction of P in effluent.

  10. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications. PMID:19110410

  11. Multi-objective optimization of tire carcass contours using a systematic aspiration-level adjustment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J. R.; Jeong, H. S.; Yoo, W. S.

    While forming a basic tire configuration and supporting most static and dynamic loads of automobiles, tire carcass influences major tire performances according to its contour. Among significant tire performances, we in this study intend to improve the automobile maneuverability and the tire durability by optimizing the sidewall carcass contour. In order to effectively maximize these multi-objectives, we refine the conventional satisficing trade-off methods (STOM) which were proposed originally for the multi-objective structural optimization, by introducing a systematic aspiration-level adjustment procedure. According to the systematic procedure, we perform the sidewall contour optimization that ideally distributes the sidewall carcass tension and minimizes strain-energy density at the belt edge. Since the tire analysis is highly nonlinear problem we employ an incremental analysis scheme, together with the finite-difference sensitivity scheme. Through the numerical experiment, we confirmed that the refined multi-objective optimization technique systematically leads to a final optimum sidewall contour, together with the stable and rapid convergence.

  12. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications.

  13. Treatment of domestic wastewater by subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with gravel and tire chip media.

    PubMed

    Richter, A Y; Weaver, R W

    2003-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) are becoming increasingly common in on-site treatment of wastewater. Gravel is the most popular form of wetland fill medium, but tire chips provide more porosity, are less dense, and less expensive. This study determines the treatment efficiency of SFCWs filled with gravel or tire chip media to treat domestic wastewater. The influent and effluent of six SFCWs filled with tire chip medium and six SFCWs filled with gravel were monitored for 5 to 16 consecutive months. Parameters measured included pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total and volatile suspended solids, NH4, P, and fecal and total coliforms. The only clear difference between medium types in wetland performance was for P. Soluble P in the effluent averaged 1.6 +/- 1.0 mg l(-1) in the tire chip-filled wetlands and 4.8 +/- 3.2 mg l(-1) in the gravel-filled wetlands. Most likely, Fe from exposed wires in shredded steel-belted tires complexed with P to create an insoluble compound. Tire chips may be a better fill medium for SFCWs than gravel because of higher porosity, lower cost, and greater reduction of P in effluent. PMID:14977152

  14. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time.

  15. A Model for Space Shuttle Orbiter Tire Side Forces Based on NASA Landing Systems Research Aircraft Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.; Nagy, Christopher J.; Barnicki, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Forces generated by the Space Shuttle orbiter tire under varying vertical load, slip angle, speed, and surface conditions were measured using the Landing System Research Aircraft (LSRA). Resulting data were used to calculate a mathematical model for predicting tire forces in orbiter simulations. Tire side and drag forces experienced by an orbiter tire are cataloged as a function of vertical load and slip angle. The mathematical model is compared to existing tire force models for the Space Shuttle orbiter. This report describes the LSRA and a typical test sequence. Testing methods, data reduction, and error analysis are presented. The LSRA testing was conducted on concrete and lakebed runways at the Edwards Air Force Flight Test Center and on concrete runways at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Wet runway tire force tests were performed on test strips made at the KSC using different surfacing techniques. Data were corrected for ply steer forces and conicity.

  16. Concurrent Monitoring of In-plane Strain and Out-of-plane Displacement of Tire Using Digital Image Correlation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    In order to improve performance of anti lock brake system (ABS) and detect condition of road surface, intelligent tires that monitor strain of interior surface and rolling radius of tire are demanded. However, the high stiffness of an attached sensor like a strain gauge causes debonding of sensors from tire rubber. In the present study, noncontact concurrent monitoring method is proposed using digital image correlation method (DICM) and spotlight projection. In-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement (rolling radius) are calculated by using image processing with an image of interior surface of tire that is taken with a single CCD camera fixed on wheel rim. New monitoring system is applied to Al beam and commercially available radial tire. As a result, this monitoring system is proved to be able to measure in-plane strain and out-of-plane displacement with high accuracy, and confirmed to be effective for concurrent monitoring of tires.

  17. Laboratory study on the use of tire shreds and rubber-sand in backfills and reinforced soil applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, A.; Lovell, C.W.; Salgado, R.

    1996-12-20

    Millions of scrap tires are discarded annually in the United States, the bulk of which are currently landfilled or stockpiled. This consumes valuable landfill space, or, if improperly disposed, creates a fire hazard and provides a prolific breeding ground for rates and mosquitoes. The use of tire shreds as lightweight fill material can sharply reduce the tire disposal problem. The present study, based on laboratory testing and numerical modeling, examines the feasibility of incorporating tire shreds and rubber-sand mixtures as lightweight geomaterial in embankments and backfills.

  18. Constitutive model development for lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoi, Wa Yeung

    2005-11-01

    Rubber-soil (lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips) is a promising solution for the global scrap tire problem. It is also a promising material for various geotechnical engineering applications because of its advantageous properties such as lightweight, high permeability, high ductility and ease to cast. Intensive laboratory studies, mostly under triaxial testing, are conducted and a constitutive model is proposed. Firstly, the effective stress principle is proven applicable for Rubber-soil under normal engineering stress level although the inter-particle contact area is large. Secondly, because of the gravel-sized surface voids on the testing samples, membrane penetration is serious so an integrated remedy method is proposed, where the surface voids are patched up first and then a lubricated reinforced membrane is dressed on. It is found that the volumetric deformation of Rubber-soil is very recoverable even after 20% volume contraction but the over consolidation results illustrate a decreasing stiffness, which is believed due to volumetric damage. Shearing on the sample gives typical results as sands where clear phase transformation is observed, but the strains involved are higher and more recoverable. Besides, shear stiffness is observed decreasing with deformation, which is believed due to shear damage. There are other observations such as the difference in the curvatures of unloading and reloading curves in CD tests, which might be a frictional phenomenon. Based on the laboratory observations and on the analogy of a continuum spring-block system, a constitutive model termed as Analogical Model is proposed. Fifteen model parameters are involved but most of them are typical soil parameters. The remaining ones have clear physical meanings and can be easily calibrated. It is found that the model can satisfactorily capture many features observed from the experiments, such as hardening, softening, apparent permanent deformations, stiffness decay due to damage

  19. Rubber and collagen-fiber blends for studless winter tire applications

    SciTech Connect

    Takino, II.; Kamamizu, K.; Komai, M.; Hiramatsu, K.; Okazaki, T.

    1991-05-01

    The all season tire which primarily requires mud and snow performance for use in winter has been developed mainly in the USA. In Japan, tires which primarily require comparable ice performance with studded tires have been developed in this field, but the authors have not accomplished satisfying performance of a so-called studless tire. Now it is said that the average ice performance of commercial studless ties is 90 index relative to 100 for studded tire in official reports. So it is considered to be a big effect to improve the ice performance more than 10%. In this article, first, the authors practiced the measurements of skid resistances on ice and on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to analyze each factor of effective contact area and hysteresis loss affecting the friction of rubber compound on ice. Second, they took notice that the very high polarity of collagen, consisting of amino group, carboxyl group and active hydrogen, gives high adhesion under the hydrophilic state, the collagen shows a very unique devitrification phenomenon which has been said to show a softening at the temperature of approximately 0C, and also the collagen has micro and complicated fiber shape, receiving an idea from the ecology of animals in cold climates. And they tried to investigate whether an interface bond strength other than the effective contact area and the hysteresis loss might exist for the factor affecting to the friction of rubber compound on ice at the same time with improving it by blending a leather powder consisting of collagen fiber to rubber. Third, they investigated the various types of powder shaped fillers compared with leather powder, and also some kinds of polymers compared with S-SBR. Finally, they investigated whether a rubber compound blended with leather powder is effective for studless tire tread in an actual tire test on ice.

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXV, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM D-8 AND 824 MODELS, II--TIRES AND TIRE HARDWARE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND TO PROVIDE A DESCRIPTION OF HEAVY TIRES AND WHEELS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THEORY OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) MAINTENANCE TIPS (COOLING SYSTEM), (4)…