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Sample records for etre tires sur

  1. Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  2. ETR WASTE GAS EXITED THE ETR COMPLEX FROM THE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR WASTE GAS EXITED THE ETR COMPLEX FROM THE NORTH SIDE THROUGH A TUNNEL AND THEN TO A FILTER PIT. TUNNEL EXIT IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION WHILE CONTROL BUILDING IS BEING FORMED BEYOND. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1238. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ETR WASTE GAS STACK. ABOVE GROUND DUCTWORK AND ETR STACK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR WASTE GAS STACK. ABOVE GROUND DUCTWORK AND ETR STACK, CLOSER VIEW. PERSONNEL LADDER AND CIRCULAR WORK PLATFORM MIDWAY UP STACK. CAMERA FACES NORTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-7-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Tire Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The workshop was organized into six sessions dealing with finite element developments, applications to tire dynamic problems, solution techniques for tire contact problems, experimental data, tire thermal studies, and current design practices.

  5. Spring Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  6. ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO TOP: MTR, MTR SERVICE BUILDING, ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO ETR), ETR BUILDING (HIGH-BAY), COMPRESSOR BUILDING (ATTACHED AT LEFT OF ETR), HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (JUST BEYOND COMPRESSOR BUILDING), COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. OTHER BUILDINGS ARE CONTRACTORS' CONSTRUCTION BUILDINGS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4105. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: ETRCRITICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: ETR-CRITICAL FACILITY BUILDING, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO HIGH-BAY ETR), ETR, ONE-STORY SECTION OF ETR BUILDING, ELECTRICAL BUILDING, COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. COMPRESSOR AND HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING ARE PARTLY IN VIEW ABOVE ETR. DARK-COLORED DUCTS PROCEED FROM GROUND CONNECTION TO ETR WASTE GAS STACK. OTHER STACK IS MTR STACK WITH FAN HOUSE IN FRONT OF IT. RECTANGULAR STRUCTURE NEAR TOP OF VIEW IS SETTLING BASIN. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4102. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  9. ETR, TRA642. ETR REACTOR VESSEL ARRIVES FROM BOSTON TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ETR REACTOR VESSEL ARRIVES FROM BOSTON TO THE GANTRY CRANE AT CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA OF NRTS. BOTTOM OF VESSEL FACES CAMERA, HAS OVER THIRTY OPENINGS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4055. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 12/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. All-Metal Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Sword, Lee F.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    1994-01-01

    Tires used where elastomeric and pneumatic tires would not function. Metal tires withstand extreme temperatures. Used on Earth for vehicles and robots that fight fires or clean up dangerous chemicals.

  11. ETR, TRA642. ON GROUND FLOOR. THE 60TON ETR REACTOR VESSEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON GROUND FLOOR. THE 60-TON ETR REACTOR VESSEL IS DROPPED INTO PLACE OVER PIT. KAISER USED TWO MULTI-BLOCK DRUM PULLEYS WITH A COMBINED CAPACITY OF 100 TONS AND A 100-TON DRUM HOIST. THE VESSEL WAS 35 1/2 FEET LONG. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4149. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 12/18/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. ETR, TRA642. ETR COMPLEX NEARLY COMPLETE. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST, PROBABLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ETR COMPLEX NEARLY COMPLETE. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST, PROBABLY FROM TOP DECK OF COOLING TOWER. SHADOW IS CAST BY COOLING TOWER UNITS OFF LEFT OF VIEW. HIGH-BAY REACTOR BUILDING IS SURROUNDED BY ITS ATTACHED SERVICES: ELECTRICAL (TRA-648), HEAT EXCHANGER (TRA-644 WITH U-SHAPED YARD), AND COMPRESSOR (TRA-643). THE CONTROL BUILDING (TRA-647) ON THE NORTH SIDE IS HIDDEN FROM VIEW. AT UPPER RIGHT IS MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3798. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  14. Auxiliares "avoir" and "etre" approche psychosystematique (The Auxiliaries "avoir" and "etre," a Psychosystematic Approach)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joly, Andre

    1977-01-01

    A brief psychosystematic analysis of the problem of auxiliaries in French, and of the solution offered by the internal psychomechanism of the language as found in Gustave Guillaume's research. "Avoir" and "etre"" are studied in some detail from several aspects. There is a short bibliography. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  15. Computational Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Tanner, John A. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Modeling of Tires. The workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air force, tire companies, commercial software developers, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the computational modeling of tires and to provide guidelines for future research.

  16. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  18. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined...\\ Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company (Cooper) is a replacement equipment manufacturer incorporated in...

  19. Tire footprint studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-08-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  20. Tire footprint studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-01-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  1. Sur la reponse en frequence du tissu nerveux dans le cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, Claude

    Dans cette These de Physique, nous avons etudie la dependance en frequence du champ electrique du tissu nerveux dans le cortex. Ce champ est aussi designe par "Local field Potential" LFP dans la litterature scientifique. Cette etude est fondee sur la theorie du champ electromagnetisme de Maxwell et sur de l'information tiree de la donne experimentale. Le resultat essentiel de cette These est que la grandeur enorme du temps de relaxation de Maxwell des membranes cellulaires semble etre la cause principale de la dependance en frequence des LFPs. Cette dependance en frequence causee par chaque membrane cellulaire est l'analogue d'un circuit RC ou la resistance R est la resistivite parallele d'une membrane cellulaire, et ou la capacite C est la permittivite electrique de la membrane. L'effet resultant d'un tres grand nombre de cellules donne un spectre de Fourier dont l'enveloppe est tres pres d'un signal en 1/f. Le modele physique propose dans cette These permet de lier les mesures prises a l'interieur d'une dendrite des variations de potentiel electrique a celles prises dans le liquide extracellulaire. De plus, cette These semble ouvrir la possibilite de mesurer le temps de relaxation de Maxwell des membranes cellulaires a l'aide de la mesure de la reponse en frequence du potentiel electrique extracellulaire (LFP). Enfin, cette These permet de lever le voile sur un sujet peu etudie, principalement en raison de la difficulte que represente l'etude des phenomenes electriques dans des milieux complexes comme les tissus vivants. En particulier, le probleme du filtrage frequentiel du potentiel electrique extracellulaire est une propriete fondamentale du tissu nerveux et son origine n'est pas connue.

  2. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-21

    measures the three dimensional deformation of the inside of a tire as it rolls over the terrain. The system is designed to work in conjunction with...the inside of a tire as it rolls over the terrain. The system is designed to work in conjunction with the previously developed Vehicle Dynamics Group...tire. The complete T2-CAM system, in conjunction with the VDG wheel force transducer, is mounted on a test vehicle as indicated in Figure 6. Several

  3. The Ethylene Receptor ETR2 Delays Floral Transition and Affects Starch Accumulation in Rice[W

    PubMed Central

    Wuriyanghan, Hada; Zhang, Bo; Cao, Wan-Hong; Ma, Biao; Lei, Gang; Liu, Yun-Feng; Wei, Wei; Wu, Hua-Jun; Chen, Li-Juan; Chen, Hao-Wei; Cao, Yang-Rong; He, Si-Jie; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2009-01-01

    Ethylene regulates multiple aspects of plant growth and development in dicotyledonous plants; however, its roles in monocotyledonous plants are poorly known. Here, we characterized a subfamily II ethylene receptor, ETHYLENE RESPONSE2 (ETR2), in rice (Oryza sativa). The ETR2 receptor with a diverged His kinase domain is a Ser/Thr kinase, but not a His kinase, and can phosphorylate its receiver domain. Mutation of the N box of the kinase domain abolished the kinase activity of ETR2. Overexpression of ETR2 in transgenic rice plants reduced ethylene sensitivity and delayed floral transition. Conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) plants exhibited early flowering and the ETR2 T-DNA insertion mutant etr2 showed enhanced ethylene sensitivity and early flowering. The effective panicles and seed-setting rate were reduced in the ETR2-overexpressing plants, while thousand-seed weight was substantially enhanced in both the ETR2-RNAi plants and the etr2 mutant compared with controls. Starch granules accumulated in the internodes of the ETR2-overexpressing plants, but not in the etr2 mutant. The GIGANTEA and TERMINAL FLOWER1/CENTRORADIALIS homolog (RCN1) that cause delayed flowering were upregulated in ETR2-overexpressing plants but downregulated in the etr2 mutant. Conversely, the α-amylase gene RAmy3D was suppressed in ETR2-overexpressing plants but enhanced in the etr2 mutant. Thus, ETR2 may delay flowering and cause starch accumulation in stems by regulating downstream genes. PMID:19417056

  4. Rolling tires into rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-06-01

    For Envirotire (Lillington, North Carolina), producing quality crumb rubber this summer is all in a night`s work. The tire recycling facility has operated in Lillington, which is about an hour south of Raleigh, North Carolina, for about a year and a half, since October 1995. In the summer, the plant runs at night to save money in electricity costs by operating during off-peak hours; in the winter, daytime hours also can be off-peak. In contrast to the cryogenic systems used elsewhere to recycle tires, Envirotire`s system works on mechanical principles. Before the tires are even shredded, a worker cuts the white-walls out of the tires manually, so the white does not contaminate the black end-product. A worker places the tires manually on a conveyor, which feed them up to an initial shredder that sections them quickly into pieces. While the tires are on the conveyor, dividing strips on the conveyor mark off a place for each tire. The system takes nine new tires per minute.

  5. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  6. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-12-09

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  7. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed. PMID:27873979

  8. ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM BOTTOM TO TOP: ETR COOLING TOWER, ELECTRICAL BUILDING AND LOW-BAY SECTION OF ETR BUILDING, HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (WITH U SHAPED YARD), COMPRESSOR BUILDING. MTR REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING IS ATTACHED TO SOUTH WALL OF MTR. WING A IS ATTACHED TO BALCONY FLOOR OF MTR. NEAR UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF VIEW IS MTR PROCESS WATER BUILDING. WING B IS AT FAR WEST END OF COMPLEX. NEAR MAIN GATE IS GAMMA FACILITY, WITH "COLD" BUILDINGS BEYOND: RAW WATER STORAGE TANKS, STEAM PLANT, MTR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE AND COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4101. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA-645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ON LEFT. AT LEFT OF VIEW, HIGH-BAY BUILDING IS ETR. ONE STORY ATTACHMENT IS ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING. STACK AT RIGHT IS ETR STACK; MTR STACK IS TOWARD LEFT. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3799. Jack L. Anderson, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  11. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  12. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  13. Building with Tires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eugenio, Terrance

    Text, drawings, and photographs show how tires, no longer usable for transportation, were assembled in a variety of ways to make swings, climbers, tunnels, and walls for a homemade playground. With the support of community representatives and a local high school class, a playground in Brockton, Massachusetts, was built in four days from tires…

  14. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  15. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  16. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  17. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  18. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  19. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... the vehicle or tire manufacturer, is a cause for rejection. On a dual-tire arrangement the diameter of... allowable on tires other than front-mounted tires. (1) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for...

  20. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... the vehicle or tire manufacturer, is a cause for rejection. On a dual-tire arrangement the diameter of... allowable on tires other than front-mounted tires. (1) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for...

  1. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... the vehicle or tire manufacturer, is a cause for rejection. On a dual-tire arrangement the diameter of... allowable on tires other than front-mounted tires. (1) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for...

  2. New approaches to recycling tires

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.

    1991-03-01

    Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

  3. Tire deflation device

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  4. Heat generation in aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  5. Heat generation in aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  6. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  7. ETR, TRA642 AND TRA647. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST AND SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642 AND TRA-647. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS OF THE OFFICE AND CONTROL BUILDING ALONG THE NORTH WALL OF THE ETR BUILDING. HEALTH PHYSICS, OPERATIONS, AND CONTROL ROOM. AIRLOCK DOOR. OFFICES. STAIRWAY LOCATIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-3, 10/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-100911, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR (ETR) BUILDING, TRA642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR (ETR) BUILDING, TRA-642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING EAST. VERTICAL METAL SIDING. ROOF IS SLIGHTLY ELEVATED AT CENTER LINE FOR DRAINAGE. WEST SIDE OF ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643, PROJECTS TOWARD LEFT AT FAR END OF ETR BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-37-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. ETR, TRA642. BASEMENT SPACE ALLOCATION FOR EXPERIMENTERS CA. 1966, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. BASEMENT SPACE ALLOCATION FOR EXPERIMENTERS CA. 1966, SOUTHEAST QUADRANT OF FLOOR. WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DIVISION (WAPD) AND BETTIS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY (BAPL) CONSUME MOST OF THE QUADRANT. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-E-2256, 12/1966. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-021256, REV. F. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR AREAS SOUTH OF PERCH AVENUE. "COLD" SERVICES NORTH OF PERCH. ADVANCED TEST REACTOR IN NEW SECTION WEST OF COLD SERVICES SECTION. NEW PERIMETER FENCE ENCLOSES BETA RAY SPECTROMETER, TRA-669, AN ATR SUPPORT FACILITY, AND ATR STACK. UTM LOCATORS HAVE BEEN DELETED. IDAHO NUCLEAR CORPORATION, FROM A BLAW-KNOX DRAWING, 3/1968. INL INDEX NO. 530-0100-00-400-011646, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA-654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACING SOUTH. ETR AND ITS COOLANT BUILDING AT UPPER PART OF VIEW. ETR COOLING TOWER NEAR TOP EDGE OF VIEW. EXCAVATION AT CENTER IS FOR ETR CF. CENTER OF WHICH WILL CONTAIN POOL FOR REACTOR. NOTE CHOPPER TUBE PROCEEDING FROM MTR IN LOWER LEFT OF VIEW, DIAGONAL TOWARD LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4227. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name...

  13. Traction Boot for Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-08

    34AD-D0 15 390 IN THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Patent Application NAME Or INVENTOR : Joseph G. Warner DLECTI TITLE Of INVENTION...this nature include tiro chains or a loop of track connecting fore and aft wh#ls of a tandem axle assembly. There are disadvqstages with these known...vehicles with tandeo axles . o ed imfd pubr𔃾fl1a 99214-255191 92 9 14 085 SUNMARX My invention ii a boot or temporary recap for a tire that can be

  14. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 325.93 Section 325.93 Transportation Other... Systems and Tires § 325.93 Tires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a motor vehicle does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  17. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 570.9 Section 570.9 Transportation Other... § 570.9 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread on each tire shall be not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch deep. (1) Inspection procedure. Passenger car tires have tread depth indicators that...

  18. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  19. Energy dissipation in a rolling aircraft tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, John T.

    1988-01-01

    The project is extending an existing finite element tire model to calculate the energy dissipation in a free-rolling aircraft tire and temperature buildup in the tire carcass. The model will provide a means of calculating the influence of tire design on the distribution of tire temperature. Current focus is on energy loss measurements of aircraft tire material. The feasibility of taking test specimens directly from the tire carcass for measurements of viscoelastic properties was demonstrated. The interaction of temperature and frequency effects on material loss properties was studied. The tire model was extended to calculate the cyclic energy change in a tire during rolling under load. Input data representing the 40 by 14 aircraft tire whose material loss properties were measured are being used.

  20. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP CUBICLES WITH PUMP MOTORS OUTSIDE CUBICLES. HEAT EXCHANGER EQUIPMENT. COOLANT PIPE TUNNEL ENTERS FROM REACTOR BUILDING. KAISER ETR-5582-MTR-644-A-3, 2/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0644-00-486-101294, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. PLAN AND SECTIONS. GRATECOVERED TRENCHES LAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. PLAN AND SECTIONS. GRATE-COVERED TRENCHES LAY ALONG FLOOR FROM EAST TO WEST AND AROUND MAIN COMPRESSORS. LOCKER ROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-643-A-3, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0643-00-486-101269, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. ETR, TRA642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA647) AND ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA-647) AND ELECTRICAL BUILDING (TRA-648) ATTACHED. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-11, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100919, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647. FLOOR PLANS FOR BASEMENT, FIRST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647. FLOOR PLANS FOR BASEMENT, FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS. METAL PANEL WALL. NAMES OF ROOMS. STAIRWAYS. WALL CONSTRUCTION LEGEND. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-647-A-6, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0647-00-486-101357, REV. 9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. ETR, TRA642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL BUILDING, OFFICE BUILDING, AND ROOF. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-A-13, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100920, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. SOUTH SIDE OF ETR REACTOR, CAMERA FACING NORTH. CABINET CONTAINING "NUCLEAR INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS" IS RESTRICTED. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-18-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Linguistic Change in Endangered Dialects: The Case of Alternation between "Avoir" and "Etre" in Vermont French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Marijke; Roberts, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Examines the pattern of variation of the auxiliary "avoir" and "etre" in the passe compose tense in Vermont French in 22 adult speakers who immigrated from Quebec or are first-generation Franco-Americans. The purpose of the study was to determine if the process of replacement of "etre" by "avoir" in progress…

  7. ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA645. PUMP HOUSE TAKES SHAPE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-645. PUMP HOUSE TAKES SHAPE. CAMERA FACES NORTH TOWARD ETR CONSTRUCTION AND MTR BEYOND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2041. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/14/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. ETR, TRA642. REACTOR FLOOR. TOP PLATES AND PLUGS ARE REMOVED. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. REACTOR FLOOR. TOP PLATES AND PLUGS ARE REMOVED. CAMERA LOOKS INTO ETR TANK. TEST LOOP APPARATUS DESCENDS THROUGH REACTOR'S TEST HOLES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 60-1930. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. ETR CRITICAL FACILITY (ETRCF), TRA654. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CRITICAL FACILITY (ETR-CF), TRA-654. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH AND ROLL-UP DOOR. ORIGINAL SIDING HAS BEEN REPLACED WITH STUCCO-LIKE MATERIAL. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-40-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. ETR, TRA642. REACTOR FLOOR. EXPERIMENTAL GEAR AND TEST LOOP APPARATUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. REACTOR FLOOR. EXPERIMENTAL GEAR AND TEST LOOP APPARATUS SURROUND ETR. A WORKER STANDS OVER STORAGE POOL AND MANIPULATES CONTENTS WITH A LONG-HANDLED TOOL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 59-6015. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. ETR, TRA642. CONSOLE FLOOR ALLOCATION PLAN CA. 1958. GENERAL ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. CONSOLE FLOOR ALLOCATION PLAN CA. 1958. GENERAL ELECTRIC (GEFP) AND KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY (KAPL) CONSUME MOST OF THE SPACE. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1293, 1958. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020209, REV. K. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. ETR, TRA642. BENCH MARK AND ELEVATION LOCATIONS, FLOOR LOADING DATA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. BENCH MARK AND ELEVATION LOCATIONS, FLOOR LOADING DATA, CRANE WORKING AREAS. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1584, 5/1959. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020323, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. ETR, TRA642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTORGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTOR-GENERATOR SETS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1781, 7/1960. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020384, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Frictionless contact of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure for the solution of frictionless contact problems of spacecraft tires was developed using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory incorporating the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities to model the nose-gear tire of a space shuttle. Numerical results are presented for the case when the nose-gear tire is subjected to inflation pressure and pressed against a rigid pavement. The results are compared with experimental results obtained at NASA Langley, demonstrating a high accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the computational procedure.

  15. New uses for old tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The creative juices of large and small companies alike are flowing in efforts to help solve the U.S. solid waste problem. One product that has received a great deal of attention is tires. Two Pennsylvania companies, Air Products and Chemicals of Allentown and a new company headed by John Kuc of Chester, have developed technologies that utilize the rubber from tires in conjunction with plastic to make new products. In the Air Products method, tires are finely ground and treated with a mixture of flourine and other gases, prior to bonding with a polymer such as epoxy. The resulting material can be used to make gaskets and hoses. Huc's methods rely on grinding tires to a powder and adding it to plastic. The mixture is heated and extruded under high pressure. According to Leslie Sandor of Widener Univ., who is working on the project, the final products cost less than a quarter as much as conventional PVC piping.

  16. Tire and runway surface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    The condition of aircraft tires and runway surfaces can be crucial in meeting the stringent demands of aircraft ground operations, particularly under adverse weather conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing the tire/pavement interface is the aim of several ongoing NASA Langley research programs which are described in this paper. Results from several studies conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and some recent aircraft accident investigations are summarized to indicate effects of different tire and runway properties. The Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program is described together with some preliminary test findings. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed towards solving aircraft ground operational problems related to the tire/pavement interface is given.

  17. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  18. Developing flexibility within the Employer Trip Reduction Program: Developing a VMT credit for ETR

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Employer Trip Reduction Program (ETR) was established in Texas to comply with requirements of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The federal program on which the ETR program is based is called Employer Commute Options (ECO). The ETR program has had no provisions for including work trip distance as a method of meeting the program`s mandate, although various states have proposed ways by which trip length could be considered. Recently the US Environmental Protection Agency has indicated its interest in providing additional flexibility to states in meeting ECO requirements. The following examines a method by which mileage credit could be included in the Texas ETR program. This method would give a vehicle miles traveled (VMT) credit to employers who have achieved shorter average commute distances. There are two basic approaches that were examined which can be used to calculate a VMT credit for the ETR program; one based on average work trip distance and one based on work trip emissions. The first would simply adjust the ETR requirements in direct proportion with mileage. The second would calculate comparable emissions as the basis for offsetting ETR requirements. Both are explained.

  19. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner.... (ii) On the address side of the form, be addressed with the name and address of the manufacturer...

  20. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... considered. Although tire construction affects the strength and durability, neither the agency nor the tire industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to the number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers and customers should consider the...

  1. Sequence and Genetic Characterization of etrA, an fnr Analog that Regulates Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffarini, Daad A.; Nelson, Kenneth H.

    1993-01-01

    An electron transport regulatory gene, etrA, has been isolated and characterized from the obligate respiratory bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens MR-l. The deduced amino acid sequence of etrA (EtrA) shows a high degree of identity to both the Fnr of Escherichia coli (73.6%) and the analogous protein (ANR) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (50.8%). The four active cysteine residues of Fnr are conserved in EtrA, and the amino acid sequence of the DNA-binding domains of the two proteins are identical. Further, S.putrefaciens etrA is able to complement an fnr mutant of E.coli. In contrast to fnr, there is no recognizable Fnr box upstream of the etrA sequence. Gene replacement etr.A mutants of MR-1 were deficient in growth on nitrite, thiosulfate, sulfite, trimethylamine-N-oxide, dimethyl sulfoxide, Fe(III), and fumarate, suggesting that EtrA is involved in the regulation of the corresponding reductase genes. However, the mutants were all positive for reduction of and growth on nitrate and Mn(IV), indicating that EtrA is not involved in the regulation of these two systems. Southern blots of S.putrefaciens DNA with use of etrA as a probe revealed the expected etrA bands and a second set of hybridization signals whose genetic and functional properties remain to be determined.

  2. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  3. Radial fryers. [Used tire power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlicki, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Experience has shown that tires have their limits as a primary power generation fuel. As a supplemental fuel, however, they may prove to be cost effective. This article discusses the use of tires as a alternate fuel source.

  4. Effect of Tire Material on the Prediction of Optimum Tire-Tread Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, S. K. Deb; Reaz Ahmed, S.; Kim, S.-G.; Wong, C. H.

    2011-11-01

    The effect of tire material on the prediction of optimum shapes of tire treads is analyzed using the displacement potential based finite-difference technique. From the distribution of no-slip shearing stress along the contact surface of tire treads a relationship is established between the tire-tread sections and the frictional resistance required to keep the contact surface free from lateral slippage. Three different tire materials, such as natural rubber, original truck-tire rubber, and commercially available retreading tire-rubber, are considered for the present study. From the comparison of the calculated coefficient of friction with that available between the tire and road surface, optimum values of tire-tread sections are determined for three different tire materials, which ensure no lateral slippage of the contact surface on the road.

  5. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) The tire did not have that type of tread pattern when it was originally manufactured or newly... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emissions Standards, if inspection of any tire on which the vehicle is operating...

  6. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  7. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reactions in paragraph (b) of this section, on the nose wheel tire, except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section. (b) The applicable ground reactions for nose wheel tires are as follows: (1) The static ground reaction for the tire corresponding to the most critical combination...

  8. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  9. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  10. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  11. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  12. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  13. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTH. AIR HEATERS LINE UP AGAINST WALL, TO BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH ETR EXPERIMENTS. EACH HAD A HEAT OUTPUT OF 8 MILLION BTU PER HOUR, OPERATED AT 1260 DEGREES F. AND A PRESSURE OF 320 PSI. NOTE METAL WALLS AND ROOF. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3709. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. ETR BUILDING, TRA642. SOUTH SIDE VIEW INCLUDES SOUTH SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642. SOUTH SIDE VIEW INCLUDES SOUTH SIDES OF ETR BUILDING (HIGH ROOF LINE); ELECTRICAL BUILDING (ONE-STORY, MADE OF PUMICE BLOCKS), TRA-648; AND HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (WITH BUILDING NUMBERS), TRA-644. NOTE PROJECTION OF ELECTRICAL BUILDING AT LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. CAMERA FACES NORTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-37-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF ETR BUILDING, TRA-642. NORTH SIDE IS IN SHADOW. ORIGINAL PUMICE BLOCK SIDING HAS BEEN COVERED WITH INSULATED HORIZONTAL METAL LAP SIDING. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-6. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID33G101, ANOTHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID-33-G-101, ANOTHER VIEW. PERSONNEL DOORWAY INTO CHAMBER IDENTIFIES SODIUM HAZARD AND POSSIBILITY OF INERT GAS. LIQUID SODIUM COOLANT WAS USED IN A SPECIAL ETR LOOP ADAPTED FOR IT IN 1972. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. CAMERA IS NORTHEAST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. CAMERA IS NORTHEAST OF REACTOR FACING NORTH WALL, THE COMMON WALL WITH TRA-647, ETR CONTROL/OFFICE BUILDING. DOORS LEAD TO ROOMS IN CONTROL BUILDING. HATCH TO CONSOLE FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-46-14-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647, INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM, CONTEXTUAL VIEW. INSTRUMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647, INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM, CONTEXTUAL VIEW. INSTRUMENT PANELS AT REAR OF OPERATOR'S CONSOLE GAVE OPERATOR STATUS OF REACTOR PERFORMANCE, COOLANT-WATER CHARACTERISTICS AND OTHER INDICATORS. WINDOWS AT RIGHT LOOKED INTO ETR BUILDING FIRST FLOOR. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-6. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Measurement of whole tire profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongyue; Jiao, Wenguang

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a precision measuring device is developed for obtaining characteristic curve of tire profile and its geometric parameters. It consists of a laser displacement measurement unit, a closed-loop precision two-dimensional coordinate table, a step motor control system and a fast data acquisition and analysis system. Based on the laser trigonometry, a data map of tire profile and coordinate values of all points can be obtained through corresponding data transformation. This device has a compact structure, a convenient control, a simple hardware circuit design and a high measurement precision. Experimental results indicate that measurement precision can meet the customer accuracy requirement of +/-0.02 mm.

  20. Orbiter wheel and tire certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The orbiter wheel and tire development has required a unique series of certification tests to demonstrate the ability of the hardware to meet severe performance requirements. Early tests of the main landing gear wheel using conventional slow roll testing resulted in hardware failures. This resulted in a need to conduct high velocity tests with crosswind effects for assurance that the hardware was safe for a limited number of flights. Currently, this approach and the conventional slow roll and static tests are used to certify the wheel/tire assembly for operational use.

  1. Survivability Enhanced Run-Flat Variable Footprint Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-17

    This run-flat technology is built directly into the tire, yet maintains the normal variable footprint of a normal pneumatic tire. This makes the tire...footprint of a normal pneumatic tire. This makes the tire/wheel assembly much lighter and far more survivable than normal military run-flat technology...carcass severely damaged/punctured, provide the same dynamic deflection as the normal pneumatic tire, and provide similar tread life. Could a tire be

  2. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  3. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type.

  4. L'Alternance entre les auxiliaires "avoir" et "etre" en francais parle a Montreal (Alternation between the Auxiliaries "Avoir" and "Etre" in Spoken French in Montreal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankoff, Gillian; Thibault, Pierrette

    1977-01-01

    A study of the spoken French of 120 residents of Montreal. The researchers were interested in the linguistic and social factors influencing the use of "avoir" and "etre." Results show that this usage corresponds to a tendancy to regularize conjugations. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  5. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  6. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  7. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  8. Fnr (EtrA) acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Garza, Claribel; Murray, Alison E.; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; McCue, Lee Ann; Romine, Margaret F.; Loffler, F. E.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-03-30

    EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing regulators Fnr in E. coli and Anr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively; however, its regulatory role of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella spp. is not well understood. The expression of the nap genes, nrfA, cymA and hcp was significantly reduced in etrA deletion mutant EtrA7-1; however, limited anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction occurred, suggesting that multiple regulators control nitrate reduction in this strain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and fumarate reductase gene expression was down regulated at least 2-fold and the EtrA7-1 mutant grew poorly with fumarate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), suggesting both respiratory pathways are under EtrA control. Transcript analysis further suggested a role of EtrA in prophage activation and down regulation of genes implicated in aerobic metabolism. In contrast to previous studies that attributed a minor regulatory role to EtrA in Shewanella spp., this study demonstrates that EtrA acts as a global transcriptional regulator and confers physiological advantages to strain MR-1 under certain growth conditions. In conjunction with other regulators, EtrA fine-tunes the expression of genes involved in anaerobic metabolism in S. oneidensis strain MR-1.

  9. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  10. Tire condition and drivers' practice in maintaining tires in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ratrout, Nedal T

    2005-01-01

    Tire blowouts and tread separation are a very hot safety issue in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Recent statistics compiled by the special forces for road security in the kingdom revealed that in the year 2001, 13% of the traffic accidents they attended to resulted from tire failure. This paper aims to assess the extent to which drivers are aware of the correct procedure for selecting and maintaining tires on their vehicles and evaluate the in-use condition of these tires. This was fulfilled via a field study in which a random sample of vehicles was stopped to check the condition of their tires and at the same time to interview their drivers on tire-related issues. It was concluded that drivers need proper education on how to select, use, and maintain tires. Hopefully, this will reduce the percentage of under-inflated tires and other incorrect practices found in this study.

  11. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems, Controls and.... \\5\\ See National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NHTSA Tire Rolling Resistance Rating System... Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency...

  12. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  13. LSRA landing with tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  14. Properties of aircraft tire materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of measured elastomeric composite response suitable for linear structural and thermoelastic analysis in aircraft tires. Both real and loss properties are presented for a variety of operating conditions including the effects of temperature and frequency. Suitable micro-mechanics models are used for predictions of these properties for other material combinations and the applicability of laminate theory is discussed relative to measured values.

  15. Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Caveny, B.; Ashford, D.; Garcia, J.G.; Hammack, R.

    1998-08-31

    In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

  16. Efficient Computation Of Behavior Of Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1989-01-01

    NASA technical paper discusses challenging application of computational structural mechanics to numerical simulation of responses of aircraft tires during taxing, takeoff, and landing. Presents details of three main elements of computational strategy: use of special three-field, mixed-finite-element models; use of operator splitting; and application of technique reducing substantially number of degrees of freedom. Proposed computational strategy applied to two quasi-symmetric problems: linear analysis of anisotropic tires through use of two-dimensional-shell finite elements and nonlinear analysis of orthotropic tires subjected to unsymmetric loading. Three basic types of symmetry and combinations exhibited by response of tire identified.

  17. Aircraft radial-belted tire evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Davis, Pamela A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.

  18. Wet Traction Tests - Marcy Siped Tire.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Force vs Slip Angle, Dry Test Surface, Tire Code Number 11-N (Siped 5/32" Deep X 1/8" Spacing) 67 26 Lateral Force vs Slip Angle, Damp Test Surface, 5...Slip Angle, Dry Test Surface, 5 MPH, Tire Code Number 24-N (Siped 8/32" Deep X 3/16" Spacing) 73 32 Lateral Force vs Slip Angle, Dry Test Surface, 10...MPH, Tire Code Number 24-N (Siped 8/32" Deep X 3/16" Spacing) 74 33 Lateral Force vs Slip Angle, Dry Test Surface, 30 MPH, Tire Code Number 24-N

  19. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. WORKERS CHECK INTERIOR OF ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. WORKERS CHECK INTERIOR OF ONE OF THE TWELVE HEAT EXCHANGER UNITS. COOLANT FROM ETR WILL ENTER EXCHANGERS AT TEMPERATURE OF 137.5 DEGREES F. AND LEAVE THE SYSTEM AT 110 DEGREES F. SECONDARY WATER WILL ENTER AT 78 DEGREES F. AND LEAVE SYSTEM AT 110 DEGREES F. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3712. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  1. Tire blow-outs and motorway accidents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Laumon, Bernard

    2005-03-01

    During the period from 1996 to 2002, 60,397 vehicles were involved in crashes with property damage and/or injury on a French motorway network of 2000 km. It was observed that 6.7% of these accidents involved tire blow-outs. In 87% of cases, only one vehicle was involved in the accident. Tire blow-outs occurred in 6.5% of cars that represented more than 80% of the vehicles involved in crashes. The occurrence of this phenomenon is very high for vans (22%), though it concerns trucks less (2.5%). The proportion of tire blow-outs decreased from 1997, when it was 8.0%, to 5.9% in 2002. However, two main facts require examination: (1) On inter-urban motorways, crashes involving blow-outs of rear tires occur four times more frequently than for blow-outs of front tires. (2) The frequency of tire blow-outs is especially high for vans, and almost always involves rear tires. This higher frequency for rear tires is the result of two phenomena, which are indistinguishable given the data available: firstly, a four-wheel vehicle is more difficult to control if a blow-out occurs on a rear tire (confirmed experimentally); secondly, rear tires may be in poor condition more often than front tires, and so more prone to blow-outs. Consequently, users are strongly recommended to install the best tires on rear wheels. In practice, if only the front tires are replaced, which often occurs because they tend to be worn out more quickly than the rear ones (especially for front wheel drive vehicles), it is necessary to move the rear tires to the front and fit the new ones on the rear wheels. Very interesting technological developments are in progress that should reduce the number of tire blow-outs. However, considering the time necessary to renew the number of cars on the roads, this very simple and inexpensive recommendation should apply to all cars and especially to vans.

  2. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a...) The loads on the main wheel tire, corresponding to the most critical combination of airplane weight... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g...

  3. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a...) The loads on the main wheel tire, corresponding to the most critical combination of airplane weight... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g...

  4. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a...) The loads on the main wheel tire, corresponding to the most critical combination of airplane weight... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g...

  5. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a...) The loads on the main wheel tire, corresponding to the most critical combination of airplane weight... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g...

  6. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  7. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper... gravity. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at the maximum size of...

  8. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper... gravity. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at the maximum size of...

  9. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  10. ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA645. FOUR SECONDARY COOLANT PUMPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-645. FOUR SECONDARY COOLANT PUMPS ARE ARRANGED IN A ROW. IN REAR ARE THREE SHUTDOWN EMERGENCY PUMPS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4176. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/21/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. A PRIMARY COOLANT PUMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. A PRIMARY COOLANT PUMP AND 24-INCH CHECK VALVE ARE MOUNTED IN A SHIELDED CUBICLE. NOTE CONNECTION AT RIGHT THROUGH SHIELD WALL TO PUMP MOTOR ON OTHER SIDE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4177. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/21/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, NORTH HALF. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, NORTH HALF. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF INSTRUMENT PANELS, DATA CONSOLES, AND OTHER INDICATOR DISPLAYS. CAMERA FACES EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-17-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CAMERA FACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CAMERA FACES EAST ALONG CORRIDOR. DATA CABINETS ON LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-18-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. METAL ROOF AND PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3708. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. LIQUID SODIUM PIPING INSIDE CUBICLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. LIQUID SODIUM PIPING INSIDE CUBICLE SHOWN IN ID-33-G-101. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. ROLLUP DOOR TO CUBICLE POSTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. ROLLUP DOOR TO CUBICLE POSTS CAUTION SIGNS BECAUSE OF SODIUM HAZARD WITHIN. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. ETR, TRA642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. REACTOR VESSEL WILL BE PLACED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. REACTOR VESSEL WILL BE PLACED WITHIN THE INNER METAL FORM. WHEN CONCRETE IS POURED OUTSIDE THIS FORM, CONDUIT HOLES WILL BE PRESERVE SPACE THROUGH HOLES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1507. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 5/8/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. COMPRESSORS AND OTHER EQUIPMENT INSTALLED. METAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. COMPRESSORS AND OTHER EQUIPMENT INSTALLED. METAL ROOF AND CONCRETE BLOCK WALLS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 61-4536. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1961. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CAMERA IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CAMERA IS NEAR SOUTHWEST CORNER AND FACING EAST. SOUTH WALL OF BASEMENT IS ALONG RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. METAL STAIRWAY LEADS TO MEZZANINE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-18-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR, NORTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. METAL LIFTING DOOR LEADS OUTSIDE. FREIGHT AND PERSONNEL ELEVATORS ARE SIDE BY SIDE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-15-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. ETR, TRA642. BEFORE BASEMENT FLOOR IS PLACED, WORKERS LAY CONDUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. BEFORE BASEMENT FLOOR IS PLACED, WORKERS LAY CONDUIT RUNS THAT WILL LIE BELOW IT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-541. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 2/15/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Citations of "ETR&D" and Related Journals, 1990-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, James E.; Ku, Heng-Yu; Gurney, Keyleigh; Tseng, Hung-Wei; Yeh, Hsin-Te; Chen, Qin

    2010-01-01

    Scientific communication in the field of educational technology was examined by analyzing references from and citations to articles published in "Educational Technology Research and Development" ("ETR&D") for the period 1990-2004 with particular emphasis on other journals found in the citation record. Data were collected on the 369 core articles…

  3. The Landscape of Educational Technology Viewed from the "ETR&D" Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung; Jo, Sung Jun; Suh, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a citation network analysis of "Educational Technology Research and Development" ("ETR&D") to examine the trends and issues of the educational technology field's scholarly community that have evolved in the past two decades. The distinctive features of citation network analysis…

  4. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES UP IN BACKGROUND AS WORKERS PLACE A SECTION OF WATER LINE THAT WILL CARRY SECONDARY COOLANT BETWEEN HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING AND THE COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2205. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/28/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETR, TRA642. ON GROUND FLOOR. WITH OUTER THERMAL RING IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON GROUND FLOOR. WITH OUTER THERMAL RING IN PLACE AND CONDUIT PRESERVED, HIGH-DENSITY CONCRETE IS PLACED BETWEEN THE THERMAL RING AND THE OUTER REACTOR FORM. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2400. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/10/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Perception of the Raison d'Etre in Anchored Instruction: An Ecological Psychology Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Barab, Sasha A.

    1999-01-01

    Anchored instruction calls for the establishment of a macrocontext to "anchor" instruction within a realistic situation. Evidence is provided that video anchors encourage students to adopt certain contrived goals over their more naturalistic goals. Suggests that goals that enable the problem solver to detect the "raison d'etre"…

  7. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647, INTERIOR. DETAIL OF CONTROL CONSOLE. OPERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647, INTERIOR. DETAIL OF CONTROL CONSOLE. OPERATOR COULD SEE OVER TOP TO INSTRUMENT PANELS BEYOND. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-6. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Trevor

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  9. Computational strategies for tire monitoring and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Kent T.; Noor, Ahmed K.; Green, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Computational strategies are presented for the modeling and analysis of tires in contact with pavement. A procedure is introduced for simple and accurate determination of tire cross-sectional geometric characteristics from a digitally scanned image. Three new strategies for reducing the computational effort in the finite element solution of tire-pavement contact are also presented. These strategies take advantage of the observation that footprint loads do not usually stimulate a significant tire response away from the pavement contact region. The finite element strategies differ in their level of approximation and required amount of computer resources. The effectiveness of the strategies is demonstrated by numerical examples of frictionless and frictional contact of the space shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire. Both an in-house research code and a commercial finite element code are used in the numerical studies.

  10. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  11. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may...

  12. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... measured from tread to the top of the flange. (i) Tires less than 11/2 inches thick. (j) Rims less than...

  13. Tests of two new polyurethane foam wheelchair tires.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1989-01-01

    The performance characteristics of four 24-inch wheelchair tires are considered; one pneumatic and three airless. Specifically, two new airless polyurethane foam tires (circular and tapered cross-section) were compared to both a molded polyisoprene tire and a rubber pneumatic tire. Rolling resistance, coefficient of static friction, spring rate, tire roll-off, impact absorption, wear resistance, and resistance to compression set were the characteristics considered for the basis of comparison. Although the pneumatic tire is preferred by many wheelchair users, the two new polyurethane foam tires were found to offer a performance similar to the high-pressure pneumatic tire. In addition, the foam tires are less expensive and lighter in weight than the other tires tested.

  14. The Type Three Secretion System 2-Encoded Regulator EtrB Modulates Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Luzader, Deborah H.; Willsey, Graham G.; Wargo, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a foodborne pathogen that causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome throughout the world. A defining feature of EHEC pathogenesis is the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on colonic epithelial cells. Most of the genes that code for AE lesion formation, including a type three secretion system (T3SS) and effectors, are carried within a chromosomal pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this study, we report that a putative regulator, which is encoded in the cryptic E. coli type three secretion system 2 (ETT2) locus and herein renamed EtrB, plays an important role in EHEC pathogenesis. The etrB gene is expressed as a monocistronic transcript, and EtrB autoregulates expression. We provide evidence that EtrB directly interacts with the ler regulatory region to activate LEE expression and promote AE lesion formation. Additionally, we mapped the EtrB regulatory circuit in EHEC to determine a global role for EtrB. EtrB is regulated by the transcription factor QseA, suggesting that these proteins comprise a regulatory circuit important for EHEC colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27324484

  15. Generation mechanisms of tire-pavement noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Tyler P.

    Tire-pavement noise is the dominant source of traffic noise at highway speeds. It is the result of a combination of several noise generation mechanisms, including tire carcass vibration and tread block vibration. Because multiple mechanisms are involved, it is difficult to predict the effects of changes in pavement parameters on tire-pavement noise. In this research, a set of experimental techniques were developed to decompose a measured tire-pavement noise spectrum into a set of constituent spectra relating to each generation mechanism. Three principal mechanisms were identified: treadband vibration, sidewall vibration, and tangential tread block vibration. By combining the constituent spectra associated with these mechanisms, it was possible to accurately predict the total tire-pavement noise spectrum. The constituent spectra were fit to tire-pavement noise data measured on asphalt and concrete pavements at highway speeds. It was found that the constituent spectra fit the measured data well, and a two-parameter model was developed to predict tire-pavement noise levels from pavement texture data.

  16. Magmatic evolution of the Early Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyan, Vural; Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Sharkov, Evgenii V.

    2016-07-01

    The Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, located in the northeast of Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia; Turkey), is one of the important volcanic centres in the Eastern Anatolian collision zone. Mt. Etrüsk overlies a widespread volcanic plateau, consisting of basaltic and hawaiitic lavas formed by fissure eruptions between 4.9-4.5 Ma. These basic lavas contain a phenocryst phase consisting of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Trace element ratio diagrams imply that these basic magmas were generated from a mantle that contained a clear subduction component that is related to the subducted sediments rather than fluids or altered oceanic crust. Results of the melting models on the basaltic plateau lavas indicate that there was a marked variation both in the mantle source mineralogy (i.e. the ratio of garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite in the source varies between 60/40% and 40/60%) and the degree of melting (i.e. F between 0.8-4%). This can be explained by a model in which magmas were generated by partial melting of both metasomatised lithospheric and deeper asthenospheric mantle sources in an extensional setting in response to the partial delamination of the lithospheric mantle of Eastern Anatolia and then mixed with each other during Pliocene times. Central eruptions that formed the Etrüsk volcano lasted ~ 600 kyr between 4.3-3.7 Ma during Zanclean times. The estimated depth of the Etrüsk magma chamber is ~ 9-12 km. The volcano erupted lavas with a rather narrow compositional range from latite to rhyolite, which are either transitional or mildly alkaline in character. The Etrüsk lavas contain plagioclase, clino- and orthopyroxene, biotite, K-feldspar and rarely, minor amounts of olivine and amphibole in the phenocryst phase. A composite chemo-stratigraphic section of the volcano and petrological models indicate that the evolved lavas of the Etrüsk volcano differentiated from a parental magma composition, which is similar to that of the most primitive plateau

  17. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  18. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA-642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. CAMERA IS ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACES DUE SOUTH. MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER. STEEL FRAMES SHOW BUILDINGS TO BE ATTACHED TO ETR BUILDING. HIGH-BAY SECTION IN CENTER IS REACTOR BUILDING. TWO-STORY CONTROL ROOM AND OFFICE BUILDING, TRA-647, IS BETWEEN IT AND MTR SERVICE BUILDING. STRUCTURE TO THE LEFT (WITH NO FRAMING YET) IS COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643, AND BEYOND IT WILL BE HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644, GREAT SOUTHERN BUTTE ON HORIZON. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2382. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/10/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. WATER HEAT EXCHANGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. WATER HEAT EXCHANGER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. A PARTIALLY ASSEMBLED PLANT AIR CONDITIONER IS AT CENTER. WORKERS AT RIGHT ASSEMBLE 4000 HORSEPOWER COMPRESSOR DRIVE MOTOR AT RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3714. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, NORTH HALF. CAMERA IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, NORTH HALF. CAMERA IS NEAR NORTHWEST CORNER AND FACING SOUTH ALONG WEST CORRIDOR. STORAGE CANAL IS ALONG LEFT OF VIEW; PERIMETER WALL, ALONG RIGHT. CORRIDOR WAS ONE MEANS OF WALKING FROM NORTH TO SOUTH SIDE OF CONSOLE FLOOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-18-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA654. SCIENTISTS STAND AT EDGE OF TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA-654. SCIENTISTS STAND AT EDGE OF TANK AND LIFT REMOVABLE BRIDGE ABOVE THE REACTOR. CONTROL RODS AND FUEL RODS ARE BELOW ENOUGH WATER TO SHIELD WORKERS ABOVE. NOTE CRANE RAILS ALONG WALLS, PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 57-3690. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 7/29/1957 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. ETR, TRA642. CONSOLE FLOOR. CAMERA IS ON WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. CONSOLE FLOOR. CAMERA IS ON WEST SIDE OF FLOOR AND FACES NORTH. OUTER WALL OF STORAGE CANAL IS AT RIGHT. SHIELDING IS THICKER AT LOWER LEVEL, WHERE SPENT FUEL ELEMENTS WILL COOL AFTER REMOVAL FROM REACTOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1401. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 5/1/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ETR BASEMENT, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID33G101 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BASEMENT, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID-33-G-101 AND ID-33-G-102) WITH TANK AND SODIUM-RELATED APPARATUS. CAMERA STANDS BEFORE ROLL-UP DOOR SHOWN IN PHOTO ID-33-G-101. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. ETR, TRA642. ON GROUND FLOOR, CAMERA LOOKS SOUTHWEST INTO PIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ON GROUND FLOOR, CAMERA LOOKS SOUTHWEST INTO PIT. CANAL STRUCTURE IS AT RIGHT OF CENTER WITH RECTANGULAR OPENING TO BE MATED WITH THE DE-FUELING MECHANISM THAT WILL DEPOSIT FUEL RODS INTO THE WORKING CANAL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3710. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA FACES SOUTH AND LOOKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA FACES SOUTH AND LOOKS AT DOOR TO M-3 CUBICLE. CUBICLE WALLS ARE MADE OF LEAD SHIELDING BRICKS. VALVE HANDLES AND STEMS PERTAIN TO SAMPLING. METAL SHIELDING DOOR. NOTE GLOVE BOX TO RIGHT OF CUBICLE DOOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-46-21-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is driven. However, the vehicle may be driven to the nearest safe place to perform the required... overheated tire to be removed and placed at a safe distance from the vehicle. The driver shall not...

  7. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  8. Structural model of the cytosolic domain of the plant ethylene receptor 1 (ETR1).

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Hubert; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Kaljunen, Heidi; Tuukkanen, Anne; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2015-01-30

    Ethylene initiates important aspects of plant growth and development through disulfide-linked receptor dimers located in the endoplasmic reticulum. The receptors feature a small transmembrane, ethylene binding domain followed by a large cytosolic domain, which serves as a scaffold for the assembly of large molecular weight complexes of different ethylene receptors and other cellular participants of the ethylene signaling pathway. Here we report the crystallographic structures of the ethylene receptor 1 (ETR1) catalytic ATP-binding and the ethylene response sensor 1 dimerization histidine phosphotransfer (DHp) domains and the solution structure of the entire cytosolic domain of ETR1, all from Arabidopsis thaliana. The isolated dimeric ethylene response sensor 1 DHp domain is asymmetric, the result of different helical bending angles close to the conserved His residue. The structures of the catalytic ATP-binding, DHp, and receiver domains of ethylene receptors and of a homologous, but dissimilar, GAF domain were refined against experimental small angle x-ray scattering data, leading to a structural model of the entire cytosolic domain of the ethylene receptor 1. The model illustrates that the cytosolic domain is shaped like a dumbbell and that the receiver domain is flexible and assumes a position different from those observed in prokaryotic histidine kinases. Furthermore the cytosolic domain of ETR1 plays a key role, interacting with all other receptors and several participants of the ethylene signaling pathway. Our model, therefore, provides the first step toward a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanics of this important signal transduction process in plants.

  9. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  10. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  11. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  12. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  13. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  14. Experiments on spray from a rolling tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovich, Charles Anthony

    A novel laboratory apparatus has been built to understand the key mechanisms behind spray emerging from a rolling tire. Several researchers have assessed the performance of spray suppression devices; however, there are no known efforts that address the question "what needs to be suppressed?" This investigation into how water in a tire groove evolves into a droplet field will ultimately contribute to driver safety. Using high-speed imaging, water passing through a single circumferential groove was observed to leave the tire patch in the form of a thin liquid sheet, connecting the roadway and the tire. The sheet disintegrates into a droplet field and the breakup modes associated with this decay were identified with respect to Weber number. Weber numbers based on the properties of water, tire speed and tire groove width were tested at 2700, 10900 and 24400. Measurements for the breakup length of the liquid sheet showed a dependence on Weber number proportional to We-1/6. The lateral displacement of the water exiting the tire patch was also measured. These tests showed the overall size of the spray field grows with We; however, the maximum water volume for all We's was delivered to the same distance from the road. Downstream from the tire patch, a determination of the droplet field was performed. From this study, the distribution of droplet sizes was determined as a function of Weber number. At We = 2,700, droplet sizes between 80 and 9000 microm were detected, with a mean diameter near 800 microm. Both the range of droplet sizes and the mean diameter were found to decrease with Weber number by approximately We-1/2. Based on these size distributions, Correlation Image Velocimetry (CIV) was used to estimate the distribution of droplet velocities as function of their size. These results reveal a strong correlation between droplet diameter and velocity which is comparable to that predicted for a simple sphere.

  15. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.

  16. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  17. Lignes directrices pour le suivi des cardiostimulateurs au canada : consensus du groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation

    PubMed

    D Fraser JD; M Gillis AM; Irwin; Nishimura; Tyers; Philippon

    2000-03-01

    Un sondage sur les pratiques de cardiostimulation au Canada effectue en 1997 a revele un profond desir pour des lignes directrices nationales sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs. Ces lignes directrices sur le suivi des cardiostimulateurs representent une declaration de consensus du Groupe de travail canadien sur la cardiostimulation. Le suivi des patients en personne plutot que par moyens transtelephoniques est preferable. Les patients devraient etre examines au minimum dans les 72 heures suivant l'implantation, 2 a 12 semaines et 6 mois apres l'implantation, et annuellement par la suite. Des examens plus frequents peuvent etre requis pour certains patients. Ceci dependra des problemes cardiovasculaires associes et des appareils en particulier. Une visite de suivi typique devrait comprendre un examen cardiovasculaire oriente, l'interrogation du systeme de cardiostimulation et une revue des donnees de telemetrie, un examen du rythme sous-jacent, un examen des seuils de stimulation et de detection et une reprogrammation adequate des parametres pour optimaliser le fonctionnement et la longevite de l'appareil.

  18. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are exempt... to have included in the database of information available to consumers on NHTSA's Web site....

  19. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are exempt... to have included in the database of information available to consumers on NHTSA's Web site....

  20. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are exempt... to have included in the database of information available to consumers on NHTSA's Web site....

  1. Measurement Of Water Sprays Generated By Airplane Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental investigation conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to measure rate of flow and trajectory of water spray generated by tire operating on flooded runway. Potential application to both aircraft and automotive industries, with particular application to manufacturers of tires.

  2. Federal Research on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ground rubber is recovered from scrap tires or from the tire retreading process. It is used in road construction and in athletic and recreational applications,like ground cover under playground equipment, running track material, and as a soil additive.

  3. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or...

  4. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter; Kornish, Brian

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  5. Reduction technique for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1995-01-01

    A reduction technique and a computational procedure are presented for predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of the reduction technique, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface.

  6. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  7. 49 CFR 569.9 - Labeling of regroovable tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling of regroovable tires. 569.9 Section 569.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY...) Regroovable tires. After August 30, 1969, each tire designed and constructed for regrooving shall be...

  8. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS AT MIDPOINT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS AT MIDPOINT OF SOUTH CORRIDOR AND FACES EAST, OPPOSITE DIRECTION FROM VIEWS ID-33-G-98 AND ID-33-G-99. STEEL DOOR AT LEFT OPENS BY ROLLING IT INTO CORRIDOR ON RAILS. TANK AT FAR END OF CORRIDOR IS EMERGENCY CORE COOLING CATCH TANK FOR A TEST LOOP. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-30-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Tuberculosis transmission in Northwest of Iran: using MIRU-VNTR, ETR-VNTR and IS6110-RFLP methods.

    PubMed

    Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Roudsary, Ali Amoghi; Hanifi, Gholam Reza

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the main cause for adults' death from a single infectious agent killing about 2 million people every year. Identifying the source of transmission infection is necessary to decrease tuberculosis. In this study we used IS6110-RFLP, MIRU-VNTR and ETR-VNTR methods to determine transmission dynamic of tuberculosis in Northwest of Iran from March 2004 to March 2005. 156 culture positive isolates (51 from Orumieh and 105 from Tabriz) were collected. IS6110-RFLP was done by standardized method and MIRU-VNTR was done by 12 primers specific for 12 MIRU-VNTR loci by polymerase chain reaction and ETR was carried out by primers specific for ETR-A, ETR-B and ETR-C as well. Genetic relationship analyses were performed by MVSP software and MIRU-VNTRplus website. The results revealed that the copy number of IS6110 in isolates ranged from 0 to 17. One hundred and seven unique patterns and 16 shared patterns by 2-10 isolates were determined by IS6110-RFLP, and 116 distinct patterns were identified by MIRU-VNTR including 21 clustered patterns and 95 unique patterns. Having combined MIRU-VNTR and ETR-VNTR data, we increased the discriminatory power of typing method, thus 25 clusters were identified. Loci 10, 26, 40 in MIRU and ETR-A were highly discriminatory. Distribution of lineages in our study according to tentative data in MIRU-VNTRplus database was multi-matches 9.09%, Bovis 9.74%, S 8.44%, New-1 0.65%, Uganda I 0.65%, Haarlem 0.65%, Cameroon 0.65% and X 0.65%. The minimum estimate for tuberculosis proportion due to transmission was 20.1% with IS6110-RFLP and was 18.8% with MIRU and ETR. In conclusion, tuberculosis sanitation status in northwest of Iran due to minimum estimate of tuberculosis transmission was satisfactory, and the reactivation of tuberculosis was responsible for more than 80% of new tuberculosis. According to the results and drawbacks of IS6110-RFLP method we strongly recommend MIRU-VNTRplus ETR-VNTR as an easy, reliable, reproducible and highly

  10. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  11. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  12. Finite element modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Predicting the response of tires under various loading conditions using finite element technology is addressed. Some of the recent advances in finite element technology which have high potential for application to tire modeling problems are reviewed. The analysis and modeling needs for tires are identified. Reduction methods for large-scale nonlinear analysis, with particular emphasis on treatment of combined loads, displacement-dependent and nonconservative loadings; development of simple and efficient mixed finite element models for shell analysis, identification of equivalent mixed and purely displacement models, and determination of the advantages of using mixed models; and effective computational models for large-rotation nonlinear problems, based on a total Lagrangian description of the deformation are included.

  13. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  14. CATL (Cooperative Approval Tire List) Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) TACOM/TARDEC 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 20567RC 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved...Company Group Expiration Date Test Reference Bridgestone/Firestone (USA) Inc. 1 28-Oct- 10 ACTS-CATL-T1-1/98-051 Bridgestone/Firestone (USA) Inc. 3 12-Jan... 10 ACTS-CATL-T1-1/98-009 Continental Tire North America 1 1-Aug- 10 ACTS-CATL-T1-1//98-021 Continental Tire North America 3 15-Dec- 10 ACTS-CATL-T1-1

  15. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-02-10

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana responses to mechanical stimulation do not require ETR1 or EIN2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. A.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Plants exposed to repetitive touch or wind are generally shorter and stockier than sheltered plants. These mechanostimulus-induced developmental changes are termed thigmomorphogenesis and may confer resistance to subsequent stresses. An early response of Arabidopsis thaliana to touch or wind is the up-regulation of TCH (touch) gene expression. The signal transduction pathway that leads to mechanostimulus responses is not well defined. A role for ethylene has been proposed based on the observation that mechanostimulation of plants leads to ethylene evolution and exogenous ethylene leads to thigmomorphogenetic-like changes. To determine whether ethylene has a role in plant responses to mechanostimulation, we assessed the ability of two ethylene-insensitive mutants, etr1-3 and ein2-1, to undergo thigmomorphogenesis and TCH gene up-regulation of expression. The ethylene-insensitive mutants responded to wind similarly to the wild type, with a delay in flowering, decrease in inflorescence elongation rate, shorter mature primary inflorescences, more rosette paraclades, and appropriate TCH gene expression changes. Also, wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis responded to vibrational stimulation, with an increase in hypocotyl elongation and up-regulation of TCH gene expression. We conclude that the ETR1 and EIN2 protein functions are not required for the developmental and molecular responses to mechanical stimulation.

  17. Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, S.

    1995-10-01

    Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

  18. Yawed-Rolling Tire Mechanical Properties Testing of the Navy T-45 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    The T-45 Goshawk is a United States Navy Jet aircraft used primarily as a trainer. The aircraft design makes use of "off the shelf" hardware as much as possible and was found to have unusual directional control issues during around operations. The aircraft was involved in numerous pilot-induced-oscillation incidents as well as observed to have unusual directional control reactions to failed main gear tires, a condition that is normally handled relatively easily by conventional aircraft steering control techniques. The behavior of the aircraft's tires had previously been modeled in simulators as a result of approximations provided in 40-year-old reference publications. Since knowledge of the true tire cornering and braking behavior is essential to modeling, understanding, and fixing directional control problems, the United States Navy requested assistance from the NASA Langley Research Center's (LARC) Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the yawed-rolling mechanical properties of the T-45 aircraft tires. The purpose of this report is to document the results of testing the subject tires at the NASA LaRC ALDF in September 1998. Brief descriptions of the Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) are included to familiarize the reader with the ITTV capabilities, data acquisition system, test and measurement techniques, data accuracy, and analysis and presentation of the testing results.

  19. Recovery and disposal of discarded tires in the Taiwan area.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J S; Roam, G D

    1994-12-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has resulted in a vast amount of artificial water containers in Taiwan, especially discarded automobile tires. 3.5 million automobile tires and several million motorcycle tires are discarded annually. The discarded tires contaminate the environment and also become a substantial number of breeding sites for the dengue vector mosquitoes. In order to establish a sound system for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires and to control dengue fever through source reduction, it has been emphasized that users must pay for their waste. It is necessary to recover and properly dispose of these discarded tired. The commercial firms which sell or manufacture tires are therefore advised to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Administration of the Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and follow the "Regulations of Recovery and Disposal of Discarded Tires". They are requested to establish foundations for the recovery of discarded tires. Those who are willing to join should prepay a deposit or related charge by the size of tire, which is imported or locally manufactured. The foundation utilizes the deposits for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires. From 1991 to 1993 the commercial tire firms had already achieved the 80% recovery rates declared by the authorities concerned. Some of the tires, after having been recovered, were recycled in the original form and the rest were cut into small pieces for recycling after physical treatment. It should be mentioned that the Department of Environmental Protection of Kaohsiung City has collected 80 thousand discarded automobile tires to be used as ocean jetty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper rating. (b) The maximum static load rating of each tire must equal or exceed the static ground reaction obtained at its wheel, assuming— (1) The design maximum weight; and (2) The most unfavorable center...

  1. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper rating. (b) The maximum static load rating of each tire must equal or exceed the static ground reaction obtained at its wheel, assuming— (1) The design maximum weight; and (2) The most unfavorable center...

  2. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper rating. (b) The maximum static load rating of each tire must equal or exceed the static ground reaction obtained at its wheel, assuming— (1) The design maximum weight; and (2) The most unfavorable center...

  3. How Do Tubeless Tires Support an Auto?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, John; Jones, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Provides an explanation of how tubeless tires support the weight of an automobile with reference to the use of free body diagrams in physics. Presents a second activity in which an inexpensive laser pointer is used to obtain diffraction photographs. Offers project ideas for students. (ZWH)

  4. Michelin Tire Company Workplace Literacy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This packet provides generic versions of curriculum developed for the Michelin Tire Corporation workplace literacy program, specifically the mathematics portion. Altered material included in the packet protects proprietary information; some lessons include lines that take the place of deleted information. Other companies are recommended to use…

  5. Chlorinolysis reclaims rubber of waste tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.; Tervet, J. H.; Hull, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Process reclaims rubber and reduces sulfur content by using chlorine gas to oxidize sulfur bonds in preference to other bonds. Rubber does not have poor hysteresis and abrasion resistance like conventionally reclaimed rubber and is suitable for premium radial tires. Chlorinated rubber is less susceptible to swelling by oils and may be used as paint ingredient.

  6. Tires and Tracks. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on tires and tracks servicing is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The…

  7. Monitoring Temperatures of Tires Using Luminescent Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J

    2006-01-01

    A method of noncontact, optical monitoring of the surface temperature of a tire has been devised to enable the use of local temperature rise as an indication of potential or impending failures. The method involves the use of temperature-sensitive paint (or filler): Temperature-sensitive luminescent dye molecules or other luminescent particles are incorporated into a thin, flexible material coating the tire surface of interest. (Alternatively, in principle, the luminescent material could be incorporated directly into the tire rubber, though this approach has not yet been tested.) The coated surface is illuminated with shorter-wavelength light to excite longer-wavelength luminescence, which is observed by use of a charge-coupled-device camera or a photodetector (see Figure 1). If temporally constant illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the intensity response of the luminescence. If pulsed illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the time or frequency response of the luminescence. If sinusoidally varying illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the phase response of the luminescence. Unlike a prior method of monitoring the temperature at a fixed spot on a tire by use of a thermocouple, this method is not restricted to one spot and can, therefore, yield information on the spatial distribution of temperature: in particular, it enables the discovery of newly forming hot spots where damage may be starting. Also unlike in the thermocouple method, the measurements in this method are not vulnerable to breakage of wires in repeated flexing of the tire. Moreover, unlike in another method in which infrared radiation is monitored as an indication of surface temperature, the luminescence measurements in this method are not significantly affected by changes in infrared emissivity. This method has been

  8. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle's tires is significantly under-inflated and illuminates a low tire pressure warning telltale... system must: (a) Illuminate a low tire pressure warning telltale not more than 20 minutes after the... type of tire, whichever is higher; (b) Continue to illuminate the low tire pressure warning telltale...

  9. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle's tires is significantly under-inflated and illuminates a low tire pressure warning telltale... system must: (a) Illuminate a low tire pressure warning telltale not more than 20 minutes after the... type of tire, whichever is higher; (b) Continue to illuminate the low tire pressure warning telltale...

  10. Raison d'Etre: Embodying Design History and Rationale in Hypermedia Folklore--An Experiment in Reflective Design Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Raison d'Etre, a hypermedia design history application, provides access to a database of video clips containing perspectives of design team members during the course of a project. Describes the user needs analysis; methods of collecting information and organizing the database; and the implications for design education, research, and practice. (AEF)

  11. 76 FR 6603 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic...

  12. 75 FR 36472 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined... 573, Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber...

  13. 75 FR 81712 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear) \\1\\ has determined... Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports, dated August 12, 2010. \\1\\ The Goodyear Tire & Rubber...

  14. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of Petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that..., Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, is a...

  15. Dispersal of 10-14-mesh corncob granules in stacked tires.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J P; Cieslik, R; Thennisch, J; Clarke, L; Novak, R J

    1996-06-01

    Dispersal of 10-14-mesh corncob granules was evaluated in 2 random-stacked tire piles, one shingle-stacked tire pile, and one column-stacked tire pile located in a used-tire storage facility in Chicago, IL. Ninety percent and 98%, respectively, of the tires in the 2 random-stacked piles contained granules. In the shingle-stacked tire pile 87% of the tires sampled contained granules, and the number of granules per tire was dependent on depth. The 2 bottom rows of tires were 73.9% less likely to contain granules than the 5 rows above them. In the column-stacked tire pile 91.2% of the tires contained granules and the relationship between granule recovery and tire depth was logarithmic. Overall, the dispersal of 10-14-mesh corncob granules was comparable to that of 8-mesh corncob granules evaluated in a previous study at this site.

  16. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  17. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  18. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  19. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  20. Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Denhof, D.

    1993-03-01

    For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

  1. Orbiter post-tire failure and skid testing results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the post-tire failure drag characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main tire and wheel assembly. Skid tests on various materials were also conducted to define their friction and wear rate characteristics under higher speed and bearing pressures than any previous tests. The skid tests were conducted to support a feasibility study of adding a skid to the orbiter strut between the main tires to protect an intact tire from failure due to overload should one of the tires fail. Roll-on-rim tests were conducted to define the ability of a standard and a modified orbiter main wheel to roll without a tire. Results of the investigation are combined into a generic model of strut drag versus time under failure conditions for inclusion into rollout simulators used to train the shuttle astronauts.

  2. Vehicle Tire and Wheel Creation in BRL-CAD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    when raytracing . Creating more complex models to better approximate the tire’s shape almost always requires more resources than can be justified...patterns can slow down a raytrace considerably. A strategy for models that will have a variety of uses is to include both treaded and slick (nontreaded...insert the default tire model. 12 8. Structure of a Tire Model Although it is not visible to the eye in normal raytracing , the tire models do include

  3. Quasi-Static Viscoelasticity Loading Measurements of an Aircraft Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Angela J.; Tanner, John A.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    1997-01-01

    Stair-step loading, cyclic loading, and long-term relaxation tests were performed on an aircraft tire to observe the quasi-static viscoelastic response of the tire. The data indicate that the tire continues to respond viscoelastically even after it has been softened by deformation. Load relaxation data from the stair-step test at the 15,000-lb loading was fit to a monotonically decreasing Prony series.

  4. Comparison of three Parse method studies on feeling very tired.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2003-10-01

    This article compares three human becoming studies on feeling very tired. The studies were conducted by Dr. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Dr. Mary H. Huch and Dr. Debra A. Bournes, and Dr. Steven Baumann. The comparison is conducted through the lens of the following questions: What have we learned about feeling very tired from these studies? What are similarities in the three studies? What are differences in the three studies? And, what new questions can be posed concerning feeling very tired? Unique knowledge for nursing is explicated on feeling very tired as a universal lived experience of health.

  5. Exploiting symmetries in the modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, Carl M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple and efficient computational strategy for reducing both the size of a tire model and the cost of the analysis of tires in the presence of symmetry-breaking conditions (unsymmetry in the tire material, geometry, or loading) is presented. The strategy is based on approximating the unsymmetric response of the tire with a linear combination of symmetric and antisymmetric global approximation vectors (or modes). Details are presented for the three main elements of the computational strategy, which include: use of special three-field mixed finite-element models, use of operator splitting, and substantial reduction in the number of degrees of freedom. The proposed computational stategy is applied to three quasi-symmetric problems of tires: linear analysis of anisotropic tires, through use of semianalytic finite elements, nonlinear analysis of anisotropic tires through use of two-dimensional shell finite elements, and nonlinear analysis of orthotropic tires subjected to unsymmetric loading. Three basic types of symmetry (and their combinations) exhibited by the tire response are identified.

  6. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... information about the treadwear, traction, and temperature resistance of passenger car tires. To ensure the..., and temperature resistance. This information aids consumers in making informed choices in the...

  7. Robot Drills Holes To Relieve Excess Tire Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrott, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive, remotely controlled robot called "tire assault vehicle" (TAV) developed to relieve excess tire pressures to protect ground crew, aircraft equipment, and nearby vehicles engaged in landing tests of CV-990 Landing System Research Aircraft. Reduces costs and saves time in training, maintenance, and setup related to "yellow" and "red" tire conditions. Adapted to any heavy-aircraft environment in which ground-crew safety at risk because of potential for tire explosions. Also ideal as scout vehicle for performing inspections in hazardous locations.

  8. Zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Emily P; Ren, Zhiyong; Mays, David C

    2012-12-04

    Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 h. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber.

  9. LSRA STS Tire Test - on rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    From 1993 to 1995, in conjunction with other NASA centers, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, used a Convair CV-990 airplane as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) to perform Space Shuttle tire tests. The results provided the Space Shuttle Program with data to support its flight rules and enabled it to resurface a grooved runway at Kennedy Space Center that had added unnecessary wear to the Space Shuttle tires. Tests were done using a unique fixture mounted in the center of the CV-990 fuselage, between the main landing gear. Landing gear systems from other aircraft could be attached to the test fixture, which lowered them to the runway surface during actual landings. The LSRA had the ability to reproduce the loads and speeds of the other aircraft, as well as simulate crosswind landing conditions in a safe, controlled environment. The video clip shows a landing on the concrete runway at Edwards, California on August 11, 1995, which concluded the Space Shuttle gear research program. As the Space Shuttle tire was lowered onto the surface, it was destroyed almost instantly. The rim scraped on the concrete, and stopped rolling as it became flat. It heated up and left a flaming trail of hot rubber and aluminum alloy particles. Notice how the fire quickly went out as the test gear was raised, indicating a safer condition than prevailed in a lakebed landing.

  10. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  11. Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.M.; Mueller, G. ); Hemphill, D.C. )

    1994-08-01

    Cover is important to aquatic habitat and fisheries often try to improve habitats by addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments and to a lesser extent in freshwater and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material benefiting fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation have quantified the importance of tire reefs to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are placed in canals. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the past because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are inert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is in the literature. Stone demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. found no harmful substances leached from tire material soaked in fresh water. Because there are few data on toxicity associated with tires, this became the focus of our study. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures developed by the EPA were used to evaluate water quality impacted by tires. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse.

  13. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic. PMID:28208631

  14. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-10

    UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Cleared for public release A PLANAR QUASI- STATIC CONSTRAINT MODE TIRE MODEL Rui Maa John B. Ferris...demands efficiency in the simulation of suspension loads. Toward that end, a computationally efficient, linear, planar, quasi- static tire model is...bridging properties via component mode synthesis originated by Hurty and Gladwell and the Guyan static reduction method decouples active constraints

  15. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  16. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any...

  17. A new tire model for aircraft landing gear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsley, Ned J.

    1999-12-01

    The aircraft landing gear is, by nature of its function and subsequent design, a complex, multi-degree-of-freedom system. The stability of such a system requires further study, particularly at the tire-runway boundary condition. Presented here is an extensive literature search on previous work concerning the shimmy phenomenon, followed by a course of work defining the role which the tire plays. The tasks performed included deriving and discretizing the equations of motion for the tire, developing an empirical model for the tire's inflation loading characteristics, loading and rolling the tire in the vertical plane, laterally deflecting and twisting the tire's vertical plane, and discussing interaction of the tire model with landing gear dynamics models. Given identical inflation pressure and target vertical load, the dominant factor on out-of-plane stability response is the nonlinear softening effect of increasing air vehicle velocity. The most significant contribution of this work is the development of the tire model into a physically accurate, computationally inexpensive and fast desktop computer product for use as a landing gear system component in air vehicle ground operations simulations.

  18. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  19. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  20. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  1. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  2. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  3. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  4. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  5. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  6. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  7. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  8. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... differences in the fuel efficiency (rolling resistance), safety (wet traction), and durability (treadwear) of... test methods for rolling resistance (fuel efficiency), and the existing uniform tire quality grading... measure three aspects of tire performance: rolling resistance, wet traction, and treadwear life.\\3\\...

  9. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    34.2255 36.4 34.69769 37.83 REFERENCES [1] T. G. Ebbott, R. L. Hohman, J. P. Jeusette, V. Kerchman,“Tire Temperatureand Rolling Resistance ... Prediction with Finite Element Analysis,” Tire Sci Technol, Vol. 27, 1999, pp. 2-21. [2] Wong, J. Y., Theory of Ground Vehicles, 3rd Ed., Wiley

  10. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for tires. 1512.10 Section 1512.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.10 Requirements for tires. The...

  11. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  12. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 RIN 2127-AK76 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer... final rule specifying the test methods to be used for a new tire fuel efficiency consumer information... treadwear. The final rule did not include any of the requirements for the consumer information and...

  13. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  14. Dynamic Tire Pressure Sensor for Measuring Ground Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application. PMID:23202206

  15. Preliminary measurements on heat balance in pneumatic tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Collart, D. Y.; Staples, R. J.; Lackey, J. I.; Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of tests was undertaken to determine the nature of heat generation associated with a pneumatic tire operating under various conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the magnitude and distribution of internally generated heat caused by hysteresis in the rubber and ply fabric in an automobile tire operating under conditions of load, pressure, and velocity representative of normal operating conditions. These included tests at various yaw angles and tests with braking applied. In other tests, temperature sensors were mounted on a road to measure the effect of a tire rolling over and an attempt was made to deduce the magnitude and nature of interfacial friction from the resulting information. In addition, tests were performed using the scratch plate technique to determine the nature of the motion between the tire and road. Finally, a model tire was tested on a roadwheel, the surface covering which could be changed, and an optical pyrometer was used to measure rubber surface temperatures.

  16. 46 CFR 12.611 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as electro-technical rating (ETR) on vessels...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as electro-technical rating (ETR) on vessels powered by main propulsion machinery of 750 kW/1,000 HP or more... propulsion machinery of 750 kW/1,000 HP or more. (a) To qualify for an STCW endorsement as an...

  17. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  18. STS-84 Crew inspect tires after Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FL - STS-84 crew members, from left, Mission Specialist Carlos I. Noriega, Commander Charles J. Precourt and Mission Specialist Jean-Francois Clervoy examine the tires of the Space Shuttle Atlantis after landing. Atlantis traveled about 3.6 million miles during the nine-day mission, which was the sixth of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. The mission also included the exchange of STS-84 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale for astronaut and Mir 23 crew member, Jerry M. Linenger, who spent the last four months on the Russian space station.

  19. STS-77 crew examine tires after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-77 Mission Specialists Daniel W. Bursch, Andrew S. W. Thomas and Marc Garneau (who represents the Canadian Space Agency) examine the orbiter Endeavour's tires after an end-of-mission landing at 7:09:18 a.m. EDT, May 29, on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Assisting them at left is Lockheed Martin Space Operations mechanical technician Mark Seawright, who as a member of the Orbiter Recovery Convoy team is involved with post-landing safety assessments and landing gear checkout.

  20. 49 CFR 574.8 - Information requirements-tire distributors and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tire(s) sold or leased to the tire purchaser, and (B) The distributor's or dealer's name and street... address or Web site may be recorded. Other means of identifying the distributor or dealer known to the... tire purchaser and within 30 days of the date of sale or lease: (A) The purchaser's name and...

  1. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  2. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  3. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  4. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  5. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  6. 78 FR 78384 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... September 20, 2013, based on a complaint filed by Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd. of Japan; Toyo Tire Holdings... Tire Co., Ltd. of Guangzhou, China; Weifang Shunfuchang Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd. of Shouguang City... China Tire and Rubber Co., Ltd. of Guangzhou City, China; American Omni Trading Co., LLC of...

  7. 76 FR 71434 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... recycling industries must also be considered. Although tire construction affects the strength and durability, neither the agency nor the tire industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to the number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers...

  8. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... noncompliant tires. 573.10 Section 573.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... noncompliant tires. (a) Reporting requirement. Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, any person who knowingly and willfully sells or leases for use on a motor vehicle a defective tire or a tire that is...

  9. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube... pollutants resulting from the production of pneumatic tires and inner tubes in tire and inner tube plants....

  10. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  14. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube... pollutants resulting from the production of pneumatic tires and inner tubes in tire and inner tube plants....

  15. Study of heat production and transfer in shredded tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellassie, Kassahun G.

    The purpose of this study is to determine the cause(s) of initial exothermic reactions in shredded tire. The primary hypothesis was that the oxidation of exposed steel wires, the oxidation of rubber, or sulfur causes the exothermic reactions in shredded tire. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the heat transfer properties of the shredded tires by using a hot-plate apparatus. The experiments were conducted by varying the physical and environmental conditions as follows: (1) Tire size, (2) Wire content, (3) Water content, (4) Effective stress, (5) Air supply, (6) pH, (7) Humic Acid. First, laboratory testing was conducted to determine the effects of tire size on the heat transfer properties of shredded tires. The heat coefficient and diffusivity ranged from 3.0 to 3.5 W/m-K and 0.0002 to 0.00084 m 2/hour, respectively. Next, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wire content on the exothermic reaction rate of tire shreds. When various amounts of wire (i.e., 5% to 15%) were exposed, the reaction rate increased, 2800 Btu for every lb of iron that is oxidized. In comparison, tire shreds with no wire were also tested under the same experimental conditions as above, however, no exothermic reaction occurred. These tests (i.e., with no wire) illustrate that carbon black in rubber molecule considers not oxidize. It was postulated that the reaction between iron in the wire and sulfur in the tire may be a potential cause of the exothermic reaction under low oxygen conditions. Experiments without air supply yielded no exothermic reaction. Thus, sulfur did not cause exotherm, because it is at low energy level and immobilized in the vulcanization process. In addition, experiments were conducted as the air supply was varied from 0 to 4 psi. With air pressure of less than 4-psi, no reaction occurred until 4-psi air was provided for the experiment. In conclusion, the design of an embankment with tire shreds should include shredded tires of bigger size

  16. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  17. Discussion of and reply to ``Processing of scrap tires: Technology and market applications``

    SciTech Connect

    Cosulich, J.; Smisko, J.; Niessen, W.R.; Blumenthal, M.H.

    1995-11-01

    Publication of this paper by Michael H. Blumenthal provides an excellent overview of scrap tire market opportunities, processing options, and some legislative background. The authors present some comments and areas that need addition coverage or clarification. These include the following: durability of new tires made from recycled rubber; cost data; tire derived fuel; landfilling of tires; composition of tires; processing equipment; and processing problems. This article also contains Mr. Blumenthal`s reply to the comments and questions.

  18. On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data.

  19. Rolling resistance of electric vehicle tires from track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Special low-rolling-resistance tires were made for DOE's ETV-1 electric vehicle. Tests were conducted on these tires and on a set of standard commercial automotive tires to determine the rolling resistance as a function of time during both constant-speed tires and SAE J227a driving cycle tests. The tests were conducted on a test track at ambient temperatures that ranged from 15 to 32 C (59 to 89 F) and with tire pressures of 207 to 276 kPa (30 to 40 psi). At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi) the rolling resistances of the electric vehicle tires and the standard commercial tires, respectively, were 0.0102 and 0.0088 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight. At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 276 kPa (40 psi) the rolling resistances were 0.009 and 0.0074 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight, respectively.

  20. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories.

  1. [Contamination of solid-cast rubber tires by microscopic fungi].

    PubMed

    Chuienko, A I; Subbota, A H; Olishevs'ka, S V; Zaslavs'kyĭ, V A; Zhdanova, N M

    2010-01-01

    The main peculiarities of fungal resistance of two types of unit cast rubber tires of domestic manufacture have been investigated. Rubber tires which contained synthetic plasticizer were non-resistant to fungal contamination in contrast to ones with natural plasticizer. Using the method of confocal laser-scanning microscopy, it was shown that inner layers of two types of rubber tires were contaminated with fungal mycelium. Our findings indicate that the investigation of microscopic fungi resistance of new materials is necessary for general mechanical rubber goods, especially exported to tropical climate countries.

  2. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment.

  3. Study of the use of truck tire beads as drainage pipe and analysis of the economics of tire disposal in Oklahoma. Part 1. Culverts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.W.; Gattis, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    In an attempt to find alternate ways of dealing with waste truck tires, a private tire recycling company developed a pipe from the tire bead and sidewall. The tire-pipe has seen limited use as a roadway drainage culvert. To encourage wider use of this product, an evaluation of pipe performance was performed. The evaluation consisted of (1) inspections of existing installations; (2) structural tests; and (3) leakage tests. The study found that the majority of installations were performing well. Compared with corrugated steel and fiberglass pipes, the tire-pipe exhibited favorable structural performance. An individual tire-pipe section was found to be watertight. However, when tested in the open-air (not in the ground), the tire-pipe joints were found to leak. Development of an improved end connection would improve the utility of the tire-pipe.

  4. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-28

    phenomenon is known as Mullin’s effect.  Instead of having a hysteresis loop in the stress-strain curves of the loading cycle, the hyperelastic... simulation results are plotted versus the test data across the entire simulation time span. Next, a linear line is curve -fitted to the resulted data points...commercially available vehicle simulation packages. Model parameters are obtained using a validated finite element tire model, modal analysis, and other

  5. 76 FR 14906 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of... the administrative review of the antidumping order on OTR tires from the PRC, resulting in a...

  6. Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, S. M.; Mueller, G.; Hemphill, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    Cover is an important component of aquatic habitat and fisheries management. Fisheries biologists often try to improve habitats through the addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs using sophisticated artificial habitat modules. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments (D'Itri 1985) and to a lesser extent in freshwater (Johnson and Stein 1979) and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material which benefits fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Mueller and Liston 1991) have quantified the importance of tire reeds to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fisheries and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are places in canals. Potential benefits to fishermen are great in the form of recreational fishing. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the part because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are intert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is contained in the literature. Stone et al. (1975) demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's (1991) freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. (1973) found no harmful substances leached from tire

  7. STS-70 Mission Commander Henricks inspects tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-70 Mission Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks inspects the nose wheel landing gear tires of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery along with Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber after the spaceplane touched down on KSC's Runway 33 to successfully conclude the nearly nine-day space flight. Main gear touchdown was unofficially listed at 8:02 a.m. EDT on July 22, 1995 on the second landing attempt after the first opportunity was waved off. The orbiter was originally scheduled to land on the 21st, but fog and low visibility at the Shuttle Landing Facility led to the one-day extension. This was the 24th landing at KSC and the 70th Space Shuttle mission. During the space flight, the five-member crew deployed the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G (TDRS- G). The other crew members were Pilot Kevin R. Kregel and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie and Donald A. Thomas.

  8. The tether inspection and repair experiment (TIRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M.; Loria, Alberto; Harrison, James K.

    1988-01-01

    The successful development and deployment of reusable tethers for space applications will require methods for detecting, locating, and repairing damage to the tether. This requirement becomes especially important whenever the safety of the STS or the Space Station may be diminished or when critical supplies or systems would be lost in the event of a tether failure. A joint NASA/PSN study endeavor has recently been initiated to evaluate and address the problems to be solved for such an undertaking. The objectives of the Tether Inspection and Repair Experiment (TIRE) are to develop instrumentation and repair technology for specific classes of tethers defined as standards, and to demonstrate the technologies in ground-based and in-flight testing on the STS.

  9. Exploiting symmetries in the modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, C. M.; Tanner, John A.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for reducing the size of the analysis models of tires having unsymmetric material, geometry and/or loading. The two key elements of the procedure when applied to anisotropic tires are: (1) decomposition of the stiffness matrix into the sum of an orthotropic and nonorthotropic parts; and (2) successive application of the finite-element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite-element method is first used to generate few global approximation vectors (or modes). Then the amplitudes of these modes are computed by using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The proposed technique has high potential for handling practical tire problems with anisotropic materials, unsymmetric imperfections and asymmetric loading. It is also particularly useful for use with three-dimensional finite-element models of tires.

  10. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  11. Time domain BEM for sound radiation of tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banz, Lothar; Gimperlein, Heiko; Nezhi, Zouhair; Stephan, Ernst P.

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates a time domain boundary element method for the acoustic wave equation in an exterior domain in the half-space mathbb {R}^3_+. The Neumann problem is formulated as a boundary integral equation of the second kind, and the convergence and stability of conforming Galerkin approximations is studied in the complex geometry of a car or truck tire above a street. After a validation experiment, numerical results are presented in time or frequency domain for realistic benchmarks in traffic noise: the sound emission of vibrating tires, noise amplification in the horn-like geometry between the tire and the road, as well as the Doppler effect of a moving tire. The results are compared with calculations in frequency domain.

  12. Aircraft tire behavior during high-speed operations in soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Smith, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine aircraft tire behavior and operating problems in soil of different characteristics was conducted at the Langley landing-loads track with a 29 x 110.0-10, 8-ply-rating, type 3 tire. Four clay test beds of different moisture content and one sand test bed were used to explore the effects on axle drag loads developed during operation at different tire inflation pressures in free rolling, locked-wheel braking, and yawed (cornering) modes, all at forward speeds up to 95 knots. The test results indicated a complicated drag-load--velocity relationship, with a peak in the drag-load curve occurring near 40 knots for most test conditions. The magnitude of this peak was found to vary with tire inflation pressure and soil character and, in certain cases, might prove large enough to make take-off hazardous.

  13. Temperature distribution in an aircraft tire at low ground speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to define temperature profiles of 22 x 5.5, type 7, bias ply aircraft tires subjected to freely rolling, yawed rolling, and light braking conditions. Temperatures along the inner wall of freely rolling tires were greater than those near the outer surface. The effect of increasing tire deflection was to increase the temperature within the shoulder and sidewall areas of the tire carcass. The effect of cornering and braking was to increase the treat temperature. For taxi operations at fixed yaw angles, temperature profiles were not symmetric. Increasing the ground speed produced only moderate increases in tread temperature, whereas temperatures in the carcass shoulder and sidewall were essentially unaffected.

  14. Advances in contact algorithms and their application to tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Currently used techniques for tire contact analysis are reviewed. Discussion focuses on the different techniques used in modeling frictional forces and the treatment of contact conditions. A status report is presented on a new computational strategy for the modeling and analysis of tires, including the solution of the contact problem. The key elements of the proposed strategy are: (1) use of semianalytic mixed finite elements in which the shell variables are represented by Fourier series in the circumferential direction and piecewise polynomials in the meridional direction; (2) use of perturbed Lagrangian formulation for the determination of the contact area and pressure; and (3) application of multilevel iterative procedures and reduction techniques to generate the response of the tire. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of a proposed procedure for generating the tire response associated with different Fourier harmonics.

  15. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  16. Heat generation in Aircraft tires under yawed rolling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model was developed for approximating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire operating under conditions of yawed rolling. The model employs an assembly of elements to represent the tire cross section and treats the heat generated within the tire as a function of the change in strain energy associated with predicted tire flexure. Special contact scrubbing terms are superimposed on the symmetrical free rolling model to account for the slip during yawed rolling. An extensive experimental program was conducted to verify temperatures predicted from the analytical model. Data from this program were compared with calculation over a range of operating conditions, namely, vertical deflection, inflation pressure, yaw angle, and direction of yaw. Generally the analytical model predicted overall trends well and correlated reasonably well with individual measurements at locations throughout the cross section.

  17. A Probability Problem from Real Life: The Tire Exploded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the probability of seeing a tire explode or disintegrate while traveling down the highway. Suggests that a person observing 10 hours a day would see a failure on the average of once every 300 years. (MVL)

  18. Ground discarded tires remove naphthalene, toluene, and mercury from water.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, A S; Donovan, J A; Xing, B

    2000-10-01

    Ground discarded tires adsorb naphthalene, toluene, and mercury ions (Hg2+) from aqueous solutions. Their sorption properties and kinetics were determined by batch equilibration techniques at 20 degrees C. The isotherms were linear for naphthalene and toluene and their sorption coefficients were about 1340 and 255 (ml/g), respectively. Sorption of the organic compounds by the ground rubber particles was relatively fast (within 30 min). However, the mercury isotherms were non-linear, and its sorption was slow as compared to the sorption of the organics. The rubber particles had a strong affinity for Hg2+. These results show that ground discarded tires are effective in removing organic compounds and Hg2+ from wastewater and other contaminated environments. In addition it would be a useful, environmentally friendly use of discarded tires (one tire per year per capita is discarded in the United States).

  19. MSC products for the simulation of tire behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muskivitch, John C.

    1995-01-01

    The modeling of tires and the simulation of tire behavior are complex problems. The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation (MSC) has a number of finite element analysis products that can be used to address the complexities of tire modeling and simulation. While there are many similarities between the products, each product has a number of capabilities that uniquely enable it to be used for a specific aspect of tire behavior. This paper discusses the following programs: (1) MSC/NASTRAN - general purpose finite element program for linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis; (2) MSC/ADAQUS - nonlinear statics and dynamics finite element program; (3) MSC/PATRAN AFEA (Advanced Finite Element Analysis) - general purpose finite element program with a subset of linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis capabilities with an integrated version of MSC/PATRAN for pre- and post-processing; and (4) MSC/DYTRAN - nonlinear explicit transient dynamics finite element program.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Waste Tires Utilization in Cement Kilns.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Michèle; Cernuschi, Stefano; Ghezzi, Umberto; Grosso, Mario

    1999-12-01

    The present work outlines the main results of a full-scale study conducted on the utilization of waste tires as auxiliary fuel in cement production. Experimental tests were conducted for determining the influence of shredded tires on combustion conditions, emissions produced, and the characteristics of clinker obtained, for feeding ratios over 35% in terms of total heat input. The addition of tire chips did not lead to any appreciable modification in either the whole process or the quality of clinker produced; gaseous emissions were mostly unaffected, with significant improvements related to the reductions obtained in nitrogen and sulfur oxides concentrations. Experimental findings from tests conducted with tire chips exposed to kiln combustion flue gases compare favorably with the typical burnout times derived from theoretical approaches. These experimental data and calculations to estimate particle trajectories beyond the injection point, through proper theoretical analysis of the kinetic behavior, result in important indications for the shredding operation and for optimum injection modes.

  1. 12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  2. 10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE), LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATOR HALL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  3. Advances and trends in the development of computational models for tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Tanner, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Status and some recent developments of computational models for tires are summarized. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects of tire modeling and analysis including: tire materials and their characterization; evolution of tire models; characteristics of effective finite element models for analyzing tires; analysis needs for tires; and impact of the advances made in finite element technology, computational algorithms, and new computing systems on tire modeling and analysis. An initial set of benchmark problems has been proposed in concert with the U.S. tire industry. Extensive sets of experimental data will be collected for these problems and used for evaluating and validating different tire models. Also, the new Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) at NASA Langley Research Center is described.

  4. The generation of tire cornering forces in aircraft with a free-swiveling nose gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the cornering forces produced by a rolling aircraft tire installed on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear. The parameters studied included tilt angle, trial, tire inflation pressure, rake angle, vertical load, and whether or not a twin tire configuration corotates. These parameters were evaluated by measuring the cornering force produced by an aircraft tire installed on the nose gear of a modified vehicle as it was towed slowly. Cornering force coefficient increased with increasing tilt angle. Increasing trial or rake angle decreased the magnitude of the cornering force coefficient. Tire inflation pressure had no effect on the cornering force coefficient. Increasing vertical load decreased the cornering force coefficient. When the tires of a twin tire system rotated independently, the cornering force coefficients were the same as those for the single-tire configuration. When the twin tire system was made to corotate, however, the cornering force coefficients increased significantly.

  5. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    PubMed

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  6. Tech Transfer Office discusses the finer points of tire recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis worked with a tire recycling company in St. Francisville, La., to help the company make better use of the cryogenics, or supercold fluids, in its recycling process. The process separates the rubber from the steel belts and other particles. The rubber is broken down into a material called crumb. Other parts of the tire particle removed is called fluff.

  7. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires

    PubMed Central

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly. PMID:28327533

  8. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires.

    PubMed

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-03-22

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly.

  9. Molecular characterization of an ethylene receptor gene (CcETR1) in coffee trees, its relationship with fruit development and caffeine content.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Porras, José; Campa, Claudine; Poncet, Valérie; Noirot, Michel; Leroy, Thierry; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    To understand the importance of ethylene receptor genes in the quality of coffee berries three full-length cDNAs corresponding to a putative ethylene receptor gene (ETR1) were isolated from Coffea canephora cDNA libraries. They differed by their 3'UTR and contained a main ORF and a 5'UTR short ORF putatively encoding a small polypeptide. The CcETR1 gene, present as a single copy in the C. canephora genome, contained five introns in the coding region and one in its 5'UTR. Alternative splicing can occur in C. canephora and C. pseudozanguebariae, leading to a truncated polypeptide. C. pseudozanguebariae ETR1 transcripts showed various forms of splicing alterations. This gene was equally expressed at all stages of fruit development. A segregation study on an inter-specific progeny showed that ETR1 is related to the fructification time, the caffeine content of the green beans, and seed weight. Arabidopsis transformed etiolated seedlings, which over-expressed CcETR1, displayed highly reduced gravitropism, but the triple response was observed in an ethylene enriched environment. These plants behaved like a low-concentration ethylene-insensitive mutant thus confirming the receptor function of the encoded protein. This gene showed no induction during the climacteric crisis but some linkage with traits related to quality.

  10. Developpement d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur le cyclage thermique des hydrures metalliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurencelle, Francois

    La compression de l'hydrogene est une etape incontournable de son utilisation dans l'industrie actuelle et dans les nouvelles applications energetiques de l'hydrogene (stockage stationnaire et transport). Les compresseurs mecaniques traditionnellement utilises posent plusieurs problemes d'ingenierie, de securite et de maintenance qui pourraient etre contournes en developpant de nouvelles technologies mieux adaptees a l'hydrogene. Dans cette these, notre objectif est de developper d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur les hydrures metalliques pouvant etre connecte a la sortie d'un electrolyseur fonctionnant a basse pression et d'ainsi repondre au besoin de productioncompression d'hydrogene decentralisee. La methodologie du projet comprend plusieurs etapes. Premierement, nous faisons la revue bibliographique des projets impliquant des compresseurs a hydrures metalliques. Deuxiemement, a travers des travaux experimentaux, nous recherchons des hydrures permettant une compression efficace entre 20 et 80°C. Les materiaux sont synthetises par fusion a arc electrique et caracterises sur bancs d'essais d'hydrogenation. La structure de certains materiaux est aussi investiguee par rayons X, methode de B.E.T. et microscopie electronique. Troisiemement, un reacteur d'hydrures est concu de maniere a promouvoir des echanges de chaleur rapides et efficaces. Quatriemement, le prototype et son interface de controle sont construits. Cinquiemement, le compresseur est caracterise pour en evaluer les performances en termes de debit et de capacite. Les resultats obtenus sont presentes dans trois articles publies et dans le chapitre 5 de cette these. Le compresseur (article I) est base sur trois hydrures (LaNi 4.8Sn0.2, LaNi5 et MMNi4.7Al0.3 ). Celui-ci permet d'atteindre un debit de compression de 10 a 20 L d'hydrogene par heure et son efficacite est, estimee a ˜5% par rapport a un compresseur adiabatique ideal. Il a ete demontre que l'efficacite pourrait etre augmentee en utilisant un

  11. Transcriptome Changes Associated with Delayed Flower Senescence on Transgenic Petunia by Inducing Expression of etr1-1, a Mutant Ethylene Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Zhen; Chang, Youhong; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1), a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1-1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic plants grew and developed normally without a chemical inducer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the abundance of transcripts of Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene was substantially induced in flowers with 30 μM dexamethasone (DEX). Consequently, t he life of the flowers was almost doubled and the peak of ethylene production was delayed. We compared gene expression changes of petals with DEX to those without DEX at 24 h and 48 h by microarray. Our results indicated that transcripts of many putative genes encoding transcription factors were down-regulated by etr1-1 induced expression at the early stage. In addition, putative genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, response to jasmonic acid/gibberellins stimulus, cell wall modification, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death were down-regulated associating with etr1-1 induced expression. We investigated time-course gene expression profiles and found two profiles which displayed totally opposite expression patterns under these two treatments. In these profiles, ‘the regulation of transcription’ was predominant in GO categories. Taking all results together, we concluded those transcription factors down-regulated at early stage might exert a major role in regulating the senescence process which were consequently characterized by cell wall modification and cell death. PMID:23874385

  12. Transcriptome changes associated with delayed flower senescence on transgenic petunia by inducing expression of etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Stier, Genevieve; Lin, Jing; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Zhen; Chang, Youhong; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1), a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1-1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic plants grew and developed normally without a chemical inducer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the abundance of transcripts of Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene was substantially induced in flowers with 30 μM dexamethasone (DEX). Consequently, t he life of the flowers was almost doubled and the peak of ethylene production was delayed. We compared gene expression changes of petals with DEX to those without DEX at 24 h and 48 h by microarray. Our results indicated that transcripts of many putative genes encoding transcription factors were down-regulated by etr1-1 induced expression at the early stage. In addition, putative genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, response to jasmonic acid/gibberellins stimulus, cell wall modification, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death were down-regulated associating with etr1-1 induced expression. We investigated time-course gene expression profiles and found two profiles which displayed totally opposite expression patterns under these two treatments. In these profiles, 'the regulation of transcription' was predominant in GO categories. Taking all results together, we concluded those transcription factors down-regulated at early stage might exert a major role in regulating the senescence process which were consequently characterized by cell wall modification and cell death.

  13. Physiological roles of ArcA, Crp, and EtrA and their interactive control on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Yang, Zamin K; Chen, Jingrong; Liang, Yili; Chen, Haijiang; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-12-28

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.

  14. Physiological roles of ArcA, Crp, and EtrA and their interactive control on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Chen, Jingrong; Liang, Yili; Chen, Haijiang; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.

  15. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchon, A.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  16. Static and yawed-rolling mechanical properties of two type 7 aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Mccarty, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of 18 x 5.5 and 49 x 17 size, type 7 aircraft tires were evaluated. The tires were subjected to pure vertical loads and to combined vertical and lateral loads under both static and rolling conditions. Parameters for the static tests consisted of tire load in the vertical and lateral directions, and parameters for the rolling tests included tire vertical load, yaw angle, and ground speed. Effects of each of these parameters on the measured tire characteristics are discussed and, where possible, compared with previous work. Results indicate that dynamic tire properties under investigation were generally insensitive to speed variations and therefore tend to support the conclusion that many tire dynamic characteristics can be obtained from static and low speed rolling tests. Furthermore, many of the tire mechanical properties are in good agreement with empirical predictions based on earlier research.

  17. Evaluation of wheelchair tire rolling resistance using dynamometer-based coast-down tests.

    PubMed

    Kwarciak, Andrew M; Yarossi, Mathew; Ramanujam, Arvind; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Sisto, Sue Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the rolling resistance of four common manual wheelchair tires (two pneumatic and two airless solid) and the solid tires used on a commercially available force- and moment-sensing wheel. Coast-down tests were performed with a wheelchair positioned on a two-drum dynamometer. Within each of three load conditions, tire type had a significant effect on rolling resistance (p < 0.001). The pneumatic tires had smaller rolling resistances and were less affected by load increases than the solid tires. Within the two tire types, higher air pressure or firmness and lower profile tread corresponded to less rolling resistance. Wheelchair users, clinicians, and researchers must consider the effect of tire type on wheelchair rolling resistance when selecting a manual wheelchair tire.

  18. Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

  19. A lateral dynamics of a wheelchair: identification and analysis of tire parameters.

    PubMed

    Silva, L C A; Corrêa, F C; Eckert, J J; Santiciolli, F M; Dedini, F G

    2017-02-01

    In vehicle dynamics studies, the tire behaviour plays an important role in planar motion of the vehicle. Therefore, a correct representation of tire is a necessity. This paper describes a mathematical model for wheelchair tire based on the Magic Formula model. This model is widely used to represent forces and moments between the tire and the ground; however some experimental parameters must be determined. The purpose of this work is to identify the tire parameters for the wheelchair tire model, implementing them in a dynamic model of the wheelchair. For this, we developed an experimental test rig to measure the tires parameters for the lateral dynamics of a wheelchair. This dynamic model was made using a multi-body software and the wheelchair behaviour was analysed and discussed according to the tire parameters. The result of this work is one step further towards the understanding of wheelchair dynamics.

  20. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  3. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  4. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes. PMID:28287503

  5. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  6. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  7. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  8. Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

  9. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  10. Tiree to Canada: How Information Technology Recreates Links from the Past and Develops Historical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Explores how the CD-ROM "Tiree, Famine and Clearance 1840-1900" facilitates the development of inquiry skills. Recreates the history of Tiree (Scotland) between 1840 and 1900, and describes the experiences of Tiree emigrants in Canada. Features a range of historical sources including photographs, archival film, and personal…

  11. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... internal wire fastening. The tax does not apply to sales of tires of any size or dimension manufactured from extruded tiring that is fastened or held together by means of internal wire or other...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... internal wire fastening. The tax does not apply to sales of tires of any size or dimension manufactured from extruded tiring that is fastened or held together by means of internal wire or other...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... internal wire fastening. The tax does not apply to sales of tires of any size or dimension manufactured from extruded tiring that is fastened or held together by means of internal wire or other...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... internal wire fastening. The tax does not apply to sales of tires of any size or dimension manufactured from extruded tiring that is fastened or held together by means of internal wire or other...

  15. 77 FR 69541 - Technical Report Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in Proper Tire Pressure Maintenance AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... its existing Safety Standard 138, Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems. The report's title is: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of TPMS in Proper Tire Pressure Maintenance. DATES: Comments must be received...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  19. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd... complainants are: Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd., 1-17-18 Edobori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550- 8661, Japan Toyo Tire... Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd., The West of JinGuang Street, Chenming Industrial Park, Shouguang...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  1. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of petition. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has determined... to 49 CFR part 573, Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire &...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10579 - Carbon black derived from the pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). 721.10579 Section 721.10579 Protection of Environment... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... rubber tire shreds (PMN P-10-367) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10579 - Carbon black derived from the pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). 721.10579 Section 721.10579 Protection of Environment... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... rubber tire shreds (PMN P-10-367) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has... Responsibility and Reports, dated December 16, 2010. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Goodyear) is...

  5. 49 CFR 571.109 - Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sidewall rubber. Chunking means the breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the... visual evidence of tread, sidewall, ply, cord, innerliner, or bead separation, chunking, broken cords... the tire. S4.2.2.4Tire strength. Each tire shall meet the requirements for minimum breaking...

  6. 49 CFR 571.109 - Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sidewall rubber. Chunking means the breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the... visual evidence of tread, sidewall, ply, cord, innerliner, or bead separation, chunking, broken cords... the tire. S4.2.2.4Tire strength. Each tire shall meet the requirements for minimum breaking...

  7. 76 FR 73007 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... have the correct material shown on the sidewall. In summation, Goodyear believes that the described... recycling industries must also be considered. Although tire construction affects the strength and durability, neither the agency nor the tire industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to...

  8. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  9. 49 CFR 574.8 - Information requirements-tire distributors and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-tire distributors and...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) TIRE IDENTIFICATION AND RECORDKEEPING § 574.8 Information requirements—tire distributors and dealers. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire...

  11. 75 FR 28319 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Yokohama Tire Corporation, (YTC) \\1\\, has determined that approximately 8,238 of its P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger car replacement tires, manufactured...

  12. 41 CFR 101-25.110 - Tire identification/registration program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tire identification...-General Policies § 101-25.110 Tire identification/registration program. The regulations issued by the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR part 574, Tire Identification and Recordkeeping, require that...

  13. Traction and braking force on three surfaces of agricultural tire lug

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine the performance of an agricultural tractor drive tire on soil and in particular, to investigate performance aspects of tire lugs. A 160/85R14 radial-ply tractor drive tire was used. Pressure sensors were mounted in the leading lug side and the traili...

  14. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  15. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  16. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  17. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  18. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.

  19. Award-winning cooperation: Missouri's waste tire to energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, E.; Fester, D.

    1999-07-01

    Cooperation and planning among two state agencies and the University of Missouri produced benefits for all and gained national recognition for innovation. Abandoned waste Tire facilities in Missouri Pose a significant health threat to nearby residents. In addition to being mosquito breeding grounds, facilities have been set on fire. These fires have released enormous quantities of air toxics and particulate matter to the surrounding communities. Three Missouri institutions have created a unique partnership to begin cleaning up these facilities. The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Department of Correction, and the University of Missouri- Columbia have transformed a waste stream into an emission reducing fuel stream. An air emission test at the university's coal fired power plant demonstrate that tire derived fuel (TDF) reduces emissions. Data presented will demonstrate a new method of reducing emission at coal-fired power plants while removing abandoned tires from the environment.

  20. Triaxial determination of shear strength of tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.Y.; Benda, C.C.; Cauley, R.F.

    1997-05-01

    Triaxial compression tests following stress paths of constant {sigma}{sub 1} were conducted to determine the shear strength of five processed scrap tire products having different gradations and particle shapes. The interparticle frictional component was separated from the total shear strength according to the energy correction concept proposed by researchers. The experimental results show that all five tire chip products have ultimate internal friction angles of 45{degree} to over 60{degree}. The interparticle frictional component of the strength was fully mobilized and nearly reached a constant value after approximately 5% axial strain. The experimental results confirmed that the strength parameter obtained with constant {sigma}{sub 1} was more reasonable. This finding is supported by field observation in which the tire chips have an angle of repose ranging from 37{degree} to 43{degree} (loosely stock piled) and up to 85{degree} (compacted). The engineering applications of the experimental results are discussed.

  1. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  2. Tire shreds as lightweight retaining wall backfill: Active conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tweedie, J.J.; Humphrey, D.N.; Sandford, T.C.

    1998-11-01

    A 4.88-m-high retaining wall test facility was constructed to test tire shreds as retaining wall backfill. The front wall of the facility could be rotated outward away from the fill and was instrumented to measure the horizontal stress. Measurement of movement within the backfill and settlement of the backfill surface during wall rotation allowed estimation of the pattern of movement within the fill. Tests were conducted with tire shreds from three suppliers. Moreover, horizontal stress at this rotation for tire shreds was about 35% less than the active stress expected for conventional granular backfill. Design parameters were developed using two procedures; the first used the coefficient of lateral earth pressure and the other was based on equivalent fluid pressure. The inclination of the sliding plane with respect to horizontal was estimated to range from 61{degree} to 70{degree} for the three types of shreds.

  3. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  4. A kinematically driven anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model applied to tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Tanner, John A.; Mason, Angela J.

    1995-08-01

    Aircraft tires are composite structures manufactured with viscoelastic materials such as carbon black filled rubber and nylon cords. When loaded they experience large deflections and moderately large strains. Detailed structural models of tires require the use of either nonlinear shell or nonlinear three dimensional solid finite elements. Computational predictions of the dynamic response of tires must consider the composite viscoelastic material behavior in a realistic fashion. We describe a modification to a nonlinear anisotropic shell finite element so it can be used to model viscoelastic stresses during general deformations. The model is developed by introducing internal variables of the type used to model elastic strain energy. The internal variables are strains, curvatures, and transverse shear angles which are in a one-to-one correspondence with the generalized coordinates used to model the elastic strain energy for nonlinear response. A difference-relaxation equation is used to relate changes in the observable strain field to changes in the internal strain field. The internal stress state is introduced into the equilibrium equations by converting it to nodal loads associated with the element's displacement degrees of freedom. In this form the tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson solution algorithm is not modified from its form for the nonlinear statics problem. Only the gradient vector is modified and the modification is not computationally costly. The existing finite element model for the Space Shuttle nose gear tire is used to provide examples of the algorithm. In the first example, the tire's rim is displaced at a constant rate up to a fixed value. In the second example, the tire's rim is enforced to follow a saw tooth load and unload curve to generate hysteresis loops.

  5. A kinematically driven anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model applied to tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Tanner, John A.; Mason, Angela J.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft tires are composite structures manufactured with viscoelastic materials such as carbon black filled rubber and nylon cords. When loaded they experience large deflections and moderately large strains. Detailed structural models of tires require the use of either nonlinear shell or nonlinear three dimensional solid finite elements. Computational predictions of the dynamic response of tires must consider the composite viscoelastic material behavior in a realistic fashion. We describe a modification to a nonlinear anisotropic shell finite element so it can be used to model viscoelastic stresses during general deformations. The model is developed by introducing internal variables of the type used to model elastic strain energy. The internal variables are strains, curvatures, and transverse shear angles which are in a one-to-one correspondence with the generalized coordinates used to model the elastic strain energy for nonlinear response. A difference-relaxation equation is used to relate changes in the observable strain field to changes in the internal strain field. The internal stress state is introduced into the equilibrium equations by converting it to nodal loads associated with the element's displacement degrees of freedom. In this form the tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson solution algorithm is not modified from its form for the nonlinear statics problem. Only the gradient vector is modified and the modification is not computationally costly. The existing finite element model for the Space Shuttle nose gear tire is used to provide examples of the algorithm. In the first example, the tire's rim is displaced at a constant rate up to a fixed value. In the second example, the tire's rim is enforced to follow a saw tooth load and unload curve to generate hysteresis loops.

  6. Regulated Ethylene Insensitivity through the Inducible Expression of the Arabidopsis etr1-1 Mutant Ethylene Receptor in Tomato1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Ethylene serves as an important hormone controlling several aspects of plant growth and development, including fruit ripening and leaf and petal senescence. Ethylene is perceived following its binding to membrane-localized receptors, resulting in their inactivation and the induction of ethylene responses. Five distinct types of receptors are expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and mutant receptors have been described that repress ethylene signaling in a dominant negative manner. One such mutant, ethylene resistant1-1 (etr1-1), results in a strong ethylene-insensitive phenotype in Arabidopsis. In this study, regulated expression of the Arabidopsis etr1-1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was achieved using an inducible promoter. In the absence of the inducer, transgenic seedlings remained sensitive to ethylene, but in its presence, a state of ethylene insensitivity was induced, resulting in the elongation of the hypocotyl and root in dark-grown seedlings in the presence of ethylene, a reduction or absence of an apical hook, and repression of ethylene-inducible E4 expression. The level of ethylene sensitivity could be controlled by the amount of inducer used, demonstrating a linear relationship between the degree of insensitivity and etr1-1 expression. Induction of etr1-1 expression also repressed the epinastic response to ethylene as well as delayed fruit ripening. Restoration of ethylene sensitivity was achieved following the cessation of the induction. These results demonstrate the ability to control ethylene responses temporally and in amount through the control of mutant receptor expression. PMID:20181754

  7. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Y.; Ji, Q.

    1995-12-31

    Coal liquefaction is highly dependent upon the type of coal liquefaction solvent used. The solvent must readily solubilize the coal and must act as an effective hydrogen donor or shuttler. Oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of used rubber tires has recently been used as a coal solvent with good conversion of coal to liquids in a hydrogen atmosphere. All experiments were completed in shaken tubing reactors at 450{degrees}C utilizing a bituminous coal. Results show the effectiveness of the pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal liquefaction solvent depends upon hydrogen pressure. Electron probe microanalysis data reveal good dispersion of the molybdenum catalyst in coal particles taken from liquefaction experiments.

  8. 75 FR 49459 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-912 Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic... determination in the antidumping investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from.... See Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires from the People's Republic of China: Final...

  9. 75 FR 31422 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-912 Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic... antidumping investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's... Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Determination of...

  10. 75 FR 24884 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...., Tianjin Wanda Tyre Co., Ltd., and Triangle Tyre Co., Ltd. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period...

  11. 41 CFR 101-25.110-2 - Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tires obtained through... REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-2 Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts. When tire manufacturers ship tires direct...

  12. 77 FR 26508 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China...-the-road tires (``tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), received on March 30, 2012... notice announcing the antidumping duty order on tires from the PRC was published in the Federal...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5999 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5999 Section 63.5999 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5999 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  14. 75 FR 56991 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire Distribution and Wheel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire... for activity related to tire and tire accessories warehousing and distribution and wheel assembly at..., including Section 400.28, and further subject to the following condition: Tires subject to temporary...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  16. 40 CFR 63.6006 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.6006 Section 63.6006... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord... tire cord production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate continuous compliance with...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  1. Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement interface and effect on aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    A finite-difference analysis was performed on temperature records obtained from a free rolling automotive tire and from pavement surface. A high thermal contact conductance between tire and asphalt was found on a statistical basis. Average slip due to squirming between tire and asphalt was about 1.5 mm. Consequent friction heat was estimated as 64 percent of total power absorbed by bias-ply, belted tire. Extrapolation of results to aircraft tire indicates potential braking improvement by even moderate increase of heat absorbing capacity of runway surface.

  2. Analytical studies of the Space Shuttle orbiter nose-gear tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.; Peters, Jeanne M.; Robinson, Martha P.

    1991-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for evaluating the analytic sensitivity derivatives of the tire response with respect to material and geometrical properties of the tire. The tire is modeled by using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in material and geometric parameters included. The computational procedure is applied to the case of the Space Shuttle orbiter nose-gear tire subjected to uniform inflation pressure. Numerical results are presented which show the sensitivity of the different tire response quantities to variations in the material characteristics of both the cord and rubber.

  3. A laser-based sensor system for tire tread deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yi; Tuononen, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Optical tire sensors are powerful engineering tools that can reveal the mechanisms behind tire-road interactions. This paper presents a laser-based sensor system to measure tire-tread block deformation. The methodology and corresponding procedure for the system are introduced. Practical issues, such as tire sensor localization, are discussed. Validation experiments were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, and an asymmetric tire tread deformation along the contact patch was observed. It is proposed that asymmetric tread deformation is due to rolling resistance. The measurements under different operational conditions, including the rolling direction, wheel load, rolling velocity, and inflation pressure, were analyzed in the context of rolling resistance.

  4. Passenger vehicle tire rolling resistance can be predicted from a flat-belt test rig

    SciTech Connect

    Ivens, J.

    1989-01-01

    The rolling resistance of fifteen different types of tire was determined on-road by coastdown tests, using several vehicles variously fitted with 14 and 15 inch wheels. Corrections for tire pressure, and for external temperature, were deduced by data regression. The rolling resistance of the same tires was measured on a flat-belt tire test machine, and correction for tire pressure was determined in a like manner. In this paper, the results, in terms of the characteristic rolling resistance, are compared between rig and road. The various test procedures are discussed.

  5. Rate of Dissipation of the Energy of Low-Frequency Mechanical Disturbances in a Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinchuk, P. S.; Fisenko, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    An expression for the rate of dissipation of the energy of low-frequency mechanical disturbances in a tire, accounting for the tired wheel radius, velocity of motion, and loading, has been derived. After processing experimental data on heating the tread rubber of an oversize tire by the proposed method, it has been revealed that about 30% of the energy of deformations appearing in motion of a loaded tire is converted into heat, and the coefficient of heat transfer between the tire and air has been derived.

  6. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.

  7. Cyanide is an adequate agonist of the plant hormone ethylene for studying signalling of sensor kinase ETR1 at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Melanie M A; Groth, Georg

    2012-06-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in many developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses in plants. Although the elements of the signalling cascade and the receptors operating the ethylene pathway have been identified, a detailed understanding of the molecular processes related to signal perception and transfer is still lacking. Analysis of these processes using purified proteins in physical, structural and functional studies is complicated by the gaseous character of the plant hormone. In the present study, we show that cyanide, a π-acceptor compound and structural analogue of ethylene, is a suitable substitute for the plant hormone for in vitro studies with purified proteins. Recombinant ethylene receptor protein ETR1 (ethylene-resistant 1) showed high level and selective binding of [(14)C]cyanide in the presence of copper, a known cofactor in ethylene binding. Replacement of Cys(65) in the ethylene-binding domain by serine dramatically reduced binding of radiolabelled cyanide. In contrast with wild-type ETR1, autokinase activity of the receptor is not reduced in the ETR1-C65S mutant upon addition of cyanide. Additionally, protein-protein interaction with the ethylene signalling protein EIN2 (ethylene-insensitive 2) is considerably sustained by cyanide in wild-type ETR1, but is not affected in the mutant. Further evidence for the structural and functional equivalence of ethylene and cyanide is given by the fact that the ethylene-responsive antagonist silver, which is known to allow ligand binding but prevent intrinsic signal transduction, also allows specific binding of cyanide, but shows no effect on autokinase activity and ETR1-EIN2 interaction.

  8. Technique distribuee de gestion de la charge sur le reseau electrique et ring-tree: Un nouveau systeme de communication P2P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Simon

    Le reseau de distribution et de transport de l'electricite se modernise dans plusieurs pays dont le Canada. La nouvelle generation de ce reseau que l'on appelle smart grid, permet entre autre l'automatisation de la production, de la distribution et de la gestion de la charge chez les clients. D'un autre cote, des appareils domestiques intelligents munis d'une interface de communication pour des applications du smart grid commencent a apparaitre sur le marche. Ces appareils intelligents pourraient creer une communaute virtuelle pour optimiser leurs consommations d'une facon distribuee. La gestion distribuee de ces charges intelligentes necessite la communication entre un grand nombre d'equipements electriques. Ceci represente un defi important a relever surtout si on ne veut pas augmenter le cout de l'infrastructure et de la maintenance. Lors de cette these deux systemes distincts ont ete concus : un systeme de communication peer-to-peer, appele Ring-Tree, permettant la communication entre un nombre important de noeuds (jusqu'a de l'ordre de grandeur du million) tel que des appareils electriques communicants et une technique distribuee de gestion de la charge sur le reseau electrique. Le systeme de communication Ring-Tree inclut une nouvelle topologie reseau qui n'a jamais ete definie ou exploitee auparavant. Il inclut egalement des algorithmes pour la creation, l'exploitation et la maintenance de ce reseau. Il est suffisamment simple pour etre mis en oeuvre sur des controleurs associes aux dispositifs tels que des chauffe-eaux, chauffage a accumulation, bornes de recharges electriques, etc. Il n'utilise pas un serveur centralise (ou tres peu, seulement lorsqu'un noeud veut rejoindre le reseau). Il offre une solution distribuee qui peut etre mise en oeuvre sans deploiement d'une infrastructure autre que les controleurs sur les dispositifs vises. Finalement, un temps de reponse de quelques secondes pour atteindre 1'ensemble du reseau peut etre obtenu, ce qui est

  9. Tests to Determine the Adhesive Power of Passenger-Car Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foerster, B.

    1956-01-01

    The concept of the adhesive power of a tire with respect to the road involves several properties which result from the purpose of the tire; namely, connecting link between vehicle and road: (1) The tire must transfer the tractive and braking forces acting in the direction of travel (tractive and braking adhesion); (2) The tire is to prevent lateral deviations of the vehicle from the desired direction of travel (track adhesion). Moreover, the rubber tire provides part of the springing of the vehicle. Above all, it has to level out the minor road irregularities; thus it smoothes, as it were, the road and simultaneously reduces the noise of driving. The springing properties of the tire affect the adhesive power. The tests described below comprise a determination of the braking and track adhesion of individual tires. The adhesion of driven wheels has not been investigated so far.

  10. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  11. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  12. 75 FR 11806 - Notice of Public Meeting; Tire Fuel Efficiency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... and consumer education program for replacement tires. The program would inform consumers about the... proposed in the NPRM. After the NPRM was issued, NHTSA conducted an internet survey to further explore what... consumers. To further refine the consumer education portion of this new program, NHTSA intends to...

  13. Proceedings of Four Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-25

    Command AMSTA-RKMT Warren, Ml 48090 Yarnall, Chandler P. Aircraft Tire Group Naval Air Development Center Warminster, PA 18974 Voshida, Dr. David M...grabbing brakes. 100. Uneven wear due to wobbly wheel. 101. Heel and toe wear. 102. Angle wear. 103. Edge compression. 104. Rasp wear. 105. Trend

  14. 77 FR 52203 - Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0881; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-029-AD; Amendment 39-17164; AD 2012-17-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for...

  15. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  16. Test of Narrow Tires on M198 Towed Howitzer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    following road opera- tions. 3. The proposed tires shall not experience any abnormal wear, tread splitting, stone cutting, bead chaffing, or rubber...c],t (’r iorlt ion , falt i(tle I i fe shortened, strenqth properties lcx rcdi, 42 tread w.er increased, a reduction in tonsil strcnqIth of body

  17. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  18. Recycling tires? Reversible crosslinking of poly(butadiene).

    PubMed

    Trovatti, Eliane; Lacerda, Talita M; Carvalho, Antonio J F; Gandini, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Furan-modified poly(butadiene) prepared by the thiol-ene click reaction is crosslinked with bismaleimides through the Diels-Alder reaction, giving rise to a novel recyclable elastomer. This is possible because of the thermal reversibility of the adducts responsible for the formation of the network. The use of this strategy provides the possibility to produce recyclable tires.

  19. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  20. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  1. The energy saving research of the flat tire vulcanization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; He, J.-Y.; Zhang, J. Y.; An, Y.; Yang, W.-M.; Tan, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vulcanization was an important step in tire production process, directly determining the mechanical properties of the tire which was the most energy-intensive link. The traditional vulcanization process of a flat tire did not consider the post curing effect, which may result in a waste of energy. Early finite element simulation showed that the traditional process caused excessive vulcanization. In order to find ways to improve the curing process, in the paper effect of process parameters on the flat tire vulcanization had been studied. Curing parameters included heating temperature, curing time and preheating temperature. Corresponding to these three factors, the three-dimensional model was established by ABAQUS finite element software to carry out three groups of simulation. Result showed that heat source temperature on the maximum temperature was the largest, effect of preheating temperature was the lowest; heat source temperature on the curing degree was the largest, effect of the curing time was lowest. According to the data analysis the optimal process parameters had been raised.

  2. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives...

  3. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    PubMed

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  4. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek; Kaiser, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire.

  5. Measurements of Flow Rate and Trajectory of Aircraft Tire-Generated Water Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray generated by an aircraft tire operating on a flooded runway. Tests were conducted in the Hydrodynamics Research Facility and made use of a partial airframe and a nose tire from a general aviation aircraft. Nose tires from a commercial transport aircraft were also used. The effects of forward speed, tire load, and water depth on water spray patterns were evaluated by measuring the amount and location of water captured by an array of tubes mounted behind the test tire. Water ejected from the side of the tire footprint had the most significant potential for ingestion into engine inlets. A lateral wake created on the water surface by the rolling tire can dominate the shape of the spray pattern as the distance aft of the tire is increased. Forward speed increased flow rates and moved the spray pattern inboard. Increased tire load caused the spray to become less dense. Near the tire, increased water depths caused flow rates to increase. Tests using a fuselage and partial wing along with the nose gear showed that for certain configurations, wing aerodynamics can cause a concentration of spray above the wing.

  6. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  7. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction.

  8. Tread wear and footprint geometrical characters of truck bus radial tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chen; Wang, Guolin; An, Dengfeng; Ma, Yinwei

    2013-05-01

    Wear and mileage performance are the foremost performances for truck bus radial (TBR) tires. There are a lot of researches about the tire wear performance as well as the contact patch phenomenon by using finite element analysis (FEA) method or testing. But there is little published data on the correlations between the footprint geometry and the tread wear performance of tires. In this paper, an experiment on tire-ground performance of TBR tires is carried out by using Tekscan. The real-time changes of contact-area pressure distribution that occurred during the process of continuous load and unload are recorded. Three types of tires that act differently in behavior under normal usage are analyzed. A new method of researching in tire tread wear, which focuses on the geometrical characters of the footprint, is put forward. The experimental results of the three tires are described by using footprint geometrical characters. On the basis of studying the changing laws of footprint geometrical characters during the loading process and considering consumer survey and factory feedback information, the correlations between the geometrical character of footprints and tread destruction form are built. The analyzed results show that a greater contact area coefficient and a steady coefficient of contact result in a better wear performance for TBR tires. The footprint-shape coefficient changing laws in the process of loading are found to have a very good coincidence with the tread wear of the three types of tires. Tires with a smaller footprint-shape coefficient are likely to have an average tread wear while avoiding the shoulder wear first. The proposed research provides a new solution to predict tire-ground performance at the point of footprint and several useful references for improving tire design.

  9. The analysis of tire rubber traces collected after braking incidents using Pyrolysis-GasChromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sarkissian, Garry

    2007-09-01

    Automobile tire marks can routinely be found at the scenes of crime, particularly hit-and-run accidents and are left on road surfaces because of sudden braking or the wheels spinning. The tire marks are left due to the friction between the tire rubber and the solid road surface, and do not always demonstrate the tire tread pattern. However, the tire mark will contain traces of the tire. In this study, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze 12 tires from different manufacturer's and their traces collected after braking incidents. Tire marks were left on a conglomerate road surface with sudden braking. The samples were pyrolysed without removal of contaminant in a micro-furnace type pyrolyser. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were performed on all the samples. All 12 samples were distinguished from each other. Each of the tire traces were identified as coming from there original source.

  10. A study of the cornering forces generated by aircraft tires on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the cornering forces produced by a rolling aircraft tire installed on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear. The parameters studied included tilt angle, trial, tire inflation pressure, rake angle, vertical load, and whether or not a twin tire configuration corotates. These parameters were evaluated by measuring the cornering force produced by an aircraft tire installed on the nose gear of a modified vehicle as it was towed slowly. Cornering force coefficient increased with increasing tilt angle. Increasing trial or rake angle decreased the magnitude of the cornering force coefficient. Tire inflation pressure had no effect on the cornering force coefficient. Increasing vertical load decreased the cornering force coefficient. When the tires of a twin tire system rotated independently, the cornering force coefficients were the same as those for the single-tire configuration. When the twin tire system was made to corotate, however, the cornering force coefficients increased significantly.

  11. Latex allergens in tire dust and airborne particles.

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in debris deposited from the atmosphere near a freeway, and in airborne particulate matter samples representative of the entire year 1993 at two sites in the Los Angeles basin (California). After extraction of the samples with phosphate buffered saline, a modified-ELISA inhibition assay was used to measure relative allergen potency and Western blot analyses were used to identify latex allergens. The inhibition studies with the human IgE latex assay revealed inhibition by the tire tread source samples and ambient freeway dust, as well as by control latex sap and latex glove extracts. Levels of extractable latex allergen per unit of protein extracted were about two orders of magnitude lower for tire tread as compared to latex gloves. Western blot analyses using binding of human IgE from latex-sensitive patients showed a band at 34-36 kDa in all tire and ambient samples. Long Beach and Los Angeles, California, air samples showed four additional bands between 50 and 135 kDa. Alternative Western blot analyses using rabbit IgG raised against latex proteins showed a broad band at 30-50 kDa in all samples, with additional bands in the urban air samples similar to the IgE results. A latex cross-reactive material was identified in mountain cedar. In conclusion, the latex allergens or latex cross-reactive material present in sedimented and airborne particulate material, derived from tire debris, and generated by heavy urban vehicle traffic could be important factors in producing latex allergy

  12. Les torsions sur testicules cryptorchides

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Amri, Najmeddine; Chambeh, Wahib; Braiek, Salem; Kamel, Rafik El

    2010-01-01

    Résumé But : La cryptorchidie est une pathologie assez fréquente en urologie. Elle est associée à un risque élevé d’infertilité et de dégénérescence. Elle semble aussi être associée à un risque important de torsion. Cette entité est très peu abordée dans la littérature. Nous rapportons tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide observés à notre service dans le but de mieux caractériser cette pathologie et de réduire ainsi le taux d’orchidectomies. Méthodologie : Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide opérés dans notre service d’urologie entre 1999 et 2007. Les patients ont fait l’objet d’une description basée sur le résumé de leurs observations. Résultats : Les patients étaient âgés de 7 mois à 39 ans. La torsion touchait le testicule droit dans 53 % des cas. Le tableau clinique comportait une douleur au niveau de la région inguinale d’apparition soudaine avec une masse sous-cutanée inflammatoire et douloureuse à ce niveau et surtout un hémiscrotum homolatéral vide. Dans 60 % des cas, le diagnostic était tardif et une orchidectomie a été réalisée. Dans les autre cas, un abaissement du testicule a été réalisé avec orchidopexie controlatéral dans le même temps opératoire. Conclusion : Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une pathologie peu courante, la torsion sur testicule cryptorchide doit être étudiée davantage. Le diagnostic précoce permettra de sauver et d’abaisser le testicule et faciliter ainsi le dépistage d’une éventuelle dégénérescence. PMID:21191497

  13. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  14. Cloning, expression and purification of orthologous membrane proteins: a general protocol for preparation of the histidine sensor kinase ETR1 from different species.

    PubMed

    Classen, Elisa; Groth, Georg

    2012-03-01

    Orthologous proteins do not necessarily share the same function in all species and those sharing the same function might employ a modified catalytic mechanism. Thus, comparative analysis of homologous or orthologous proteins from different organisms can provide detailed information on the function and the mechanism of an entire protein family. The sensor kinase ETR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana has been well characterized by genetic, physiological and biochemical studies. However, as further model plants are coming into focus for plant hormone research, a general protocol for isolation and purification of orthologous ETR1 proteins seems instrumental for a detailed molecular analysis of this protein family. In this study, we describe the native purification of recombinant ETR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana by mild solubilization with the zwitter-ionic detergent Fos-Choline-14 and single-step purification by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. The same protocol was successfully applied for the purification of the orthologous proteins from the moss Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens and the tomato Lycopersicon esculentum. The successful transfer of the purification protocol to proteins of the same family which share sequence identity of 63-80% only suggests that this protocol presents a general purification strategy which is likely to apply also to the purification of other members of the sensor histidine kinase family.

  15. Real-Time Dispatching of Rubber Tired Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    OF RUBBER TIRED GANTRY CRANES IN CONTAINER TERMINALS by Bradley S. McNary March 2008 Thesis Advisor: Johannes O. Royset Second Reader...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Real-Time Dispatching of Rubber Tired Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals 6. AUTHOR(S...Efficiently managing of rubber tired gantry cranes and planning container placement within the terminal are two ways to increase the overall

  16. 26 x 6.6 radial-belted aircraft tire performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Martinson, Veloria J.; Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results from testing of 26 x 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. The 26 x 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 x 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.

  17. Tires as habitats for mosquitoes: a review of studies within the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A

    2008-07-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for a variety of container mosquito species. I reviewed the literature from the last 50 yr on mosquitoes collected within tires in the eastern United States with four objectives: to examine the historical and contemporary issues of tires as a habitat for mosquitoes, to identify tire-inhabiting species, to summarize findings from studies that focused on biotic and abiotic characteristics of tires, and to offer future directions to aid our understanding of tire-inhabiting mosquitoes. Thirty-two species have been documented, including seven invasives, with the most frequently encountered being Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Anopheles punctipennis, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. The proclivity of these species to occupy small containers is one possible explanation for their occurrence in tires. The native species Ae. triseriatus was abundant and the most often collected, particularly in central and northern regions, whereas the invasive Ae. albopictus was most abundant in the south. One half of the studies investigating aspects of the tire environment compared mosquito populations between sunlit and shaded tires, with the general finding that this factor alone led to dramatic differences in larval species composition and abundance patterns. Less frequently investigated factors, e.g., tire orientation, detritus, and proximity to humans, also were found to affect patterns of occupancy by mosquitoes. For the future, I suggest more surveys are needed in understudied areas, as well as quantitative experiments to determine habitat associations and community dynamics in tires, which are especially necessary to assist in understanding invasions. Discarded tires are important for studies of vector dynamics, because of their abundance near human populations and because they expand the habitat range of mosquitoes that vector pathogens.

  18. Prompt remedial action at Canadian tire fire mitigates environmental damage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In February of 1990 about 20 percent of an estimated 14 million tires were burned during a fire at a tire yard in Canada sending clouds of fumes over the surrounding rural area and forcing the evacuation of area residents. Since tens of thousands of gallons of oil were released each day during the 17-day-long fire, one of the first of the actions by the remediation team was to contain the oils. In addition, it was necessary to capture the fire water and other surface water run-off caused by the fire. Oil released by the fire was sold to a major oil company to be re-used as fuel in combustion chambers. Since fumes from the fire were presumed to be toxic, field crews required special procedures and physicians provided guidance for protecting worker health and safety. The team also advised on air quality monitoring and community involvement programs.

  19. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  20. Metals associated with stormwater-relevant brake and tire samples

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Money, Jon E.; Green, Peter G.; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Properly apportioning the loads of metals in highway stormwater runoff to the appropriate sources requires accurate data on source composition, especially regarding constituents that help to distinguish among sources. Representative tire and brake samples were collected from privately owned vehicles and aqueous extracts were analyzed for twenty-eight elements. Correlation principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that tires were most influenced by Zn, Pb, and Cu, while brakes were best characterized by Na and Fe followed by Ba, Cu, Mg, Mn, and K; the latter three may be due to roadside soil contributions. Notably elevated Cd contributions were found in several brake samples. A targeted Cd-plated brake rotor was sampled, producing results consistent with the elevated levels found in the larger sample population. This enriched source of Cd is of particular concern due to high toxicity of Cd in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19709720

  1. Analysis of aircraft tires via semianalytic finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of aircraft tires. The tire was modeled by using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in material and geometric parameters included. The four key elements of the procedure are: (1) semianalytic finite elements in which the shell variables are represented by Fourier series in the circumferential direction and piecewise polynomials in the meridional direction; (2) a mixed formulation with the fundamental unknowns consisting of strain parameters, stress-resultant parameters, and generalized displacements; (3) multilevel operator splitting to effect successive simplifications, and to uncouple the equations associated with different Fourier harmonics; and (4) multilevel iterative procedures and reduction techniques to generate the response of the shell.

  2. Flight Test Evaluation of Airborne Tire Pressure Indicating Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    reasons they were not selected follows: Aoproaeh/Concent 1. Differential Valve - Discrete (Concept I, Part I Report) Differential valve opens when...system sensors are closed loop servo inclinometers, mounted on the bogie beam for main gear and inside the axle for the nose gear. 5. Go-No-Go Discrete...is an indication of a lack of symmetry between wheels of the same category. The differential level is set at 35 psi. If the particular tire is 35 psi

  3. Polymer concrete reinforced with recycled-tire fibers: Mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Cruz, E.; Martínez-Barrera, G.; Martínez-López, M.

    2013-06-01

    Polymer Concrete was reinforced with recycled-tire fibers in order to improve the compressive and flexural strength. Polymer concrete specimens were prepared with 70% of silicious sand, 30% of polyester resin and various fiber concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 vol%). The results show increment of 50% in average of the compressive and flexural strength as well as on the deformation when adding 1.2 vol% of recycled-fibers.

  4. Evaluation of the Brazilian Run-Flat Tire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-01

    a In er as*.. * . bl COPY Best AvailabeCp 3.0 CONCLUSIONS The run-flat aspect of the Brazilian combat tire svstem el J successfully. The... Ello "lce frmNAOORl 2_ ~ 4~4.4.,~~4 ,. .:444~.4..... ~ ....,..,,.44... .. . .,d,...~4\\ ’. 4~~,4 ~4 U 4 8.0 DISCUSSION (Contd.) 8.5 Durability Testing

  5. FOD (Foreign Object Damage) Generation by Aircraft Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    rodcs/spot. SRocks Have Paint Baked "N. 1tom 1)% Coverage - Actually 9% - 2 rocks/ spot - one wheel at a tint,•No. 10% Coverage - Actually 9% (16 spots...Nom 10% Coverage - A.--tualiy 9% - 2 %m 0Cv grocks/ spot - one wheel 3t a tiu.S.d[cm 10% Coverage - Actually 9% j16 spots/tire with 6 rocks/spot). Color

  6. The space shuttle program from challenge to achievement: Space exploration rolling on tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Transportation System is the first space program to employ the pneumatic tire as a part of space exploration. For aircraft tires, this program establishes new expectations as to what constitutes acceptable performance within a set of tough environmental and operational conditions. Tire design, stresses the usual low weight, high load, high speed, and excellent air retention features but at extremes well outside industry standards. Tires will continue to be an integral part of the Shuttle's landing phase in the immediate future since they afford a unique combination of directional control, braking traction, flotation and shock absorption not available by other systems.

  7. Static and Dynamic Evaluation of A-37 Cast and Cast Carcass/Integral Tread Tires.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    LIESCRIPTIGN OF TESi TIRES 7 IV TEST EQUiPMENT 9 1. Tire Force Machine (TFM) 9 ? 120 Inch Programmable Dynamometer 9 3. 84 jnch (onventional Dynamometer 9 TL...wh4ch are processed in numerous manufacturing stages and vulcanized into a tire shape. Variations and inconsistencies in manufacture are very difficult...Contact Prints (Footprints) 208 AFWAL-TR-80-3055 TESI iRL FOOTPRINT: TIRE SILE ... 7...00-8 ........ MFR 44P S.W 0.P NO1.........RETREAD bi

  8. Numerical analysis of tire/contact pressure using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Hidayat, Royan; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between the road surface and vehicle's tire may significantly determine the stability of a vehicle. We could study the tire contact-pressure to road surfaces through a numerical simulation in this present study. In particular, the main purpose of the study was to present an illustration of the effect of the varied loads to the tire, which would affect the contact pressure on the road surface sand stress distribution on the tire by employing a commercial ABAQUS software, based on the finite element method. To make the process of data analysis easier, the tire was assumed to be made from natural rubber which composition consisted of 2 layers of the inner tire and 1 layer of carcass. In pre-conditions, the tire was given air pressure as much as 17 psi, and loads as much as 2 KN, 6 KN, and 10 KN; then, the air pressure was increased to be 30 psi; consequently, the simulation results of stress distribution and deformation on each of loads condition would be acquired. The simulation results indicated that the loads carried by the tire on the vehicle were an important factor to determine the tire-stress profile.

  9. NASA evaluation of Type 2 chemical depositions. [effects of deicer deposition on aircraft tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Howell, W. Edward; Webb, Granville L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type 2 chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32 - 96 km/hr (20 - 60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.

  10. Sensitivity of tire response to variations in material and geometric parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1992-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for evaluating the analytic sensitivity derivatives of the tire response with respect to material and geometric parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled by using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in material and geometric parameters included. The computational procedure is applied to the case of uniform inflation pressure on the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire when subjected to uniform inflation pressure. Numerical results are presented showing the sensitivity of the different response quantities to variations in the material characteristics of both the cord and the rubber.

  11. Efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent Aedes breeding in tires.

    PubMed

    Pettit, William J; Whelan, Peter I; McDonnell, Joseph; Jacups, Susan P

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (Cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in Darwin, Australia. Insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. All mosquito larvae, pupae, and dead adults were collected from the treatment and control tires weekly over the 24-wk study period and were later identified to species in the laboratory. Control tires were colonized by Aedes notoscriptus in wk 2 and by Culex quinquefasciatus in wk 4. Aedes notoscriptus failed to colonize any alpha-cypermethrin-treated tires until wk 22 and did not colonize any lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires during the 24-wk trial. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires from wk 11 and wk 15, respectively. These results indicate both insecticides using either application method can prevent colonization of Ae. notoscriptus for at least 20 wk and demonstrate great potential for the prevention of breeding in receptacles for other receptacle-breeding Aedes species, such as the dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  12. Vein-style air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Robert Leon; Gobinath, Thulasiram; Lin, Cheng-Hsiung; Lamgaday, Robin; Losey, Robert Allen; Griffoin, Jean-Claude Patrice Philippe

    2017-01-03

    An air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembling is provided in which a tire groove is formed to extend into a flexing region of a tire sidewall and a complementary air pumping tube inserts into the tire groove. In the green, uncured air pumping tube condition, one or more check valves are assembled into the air pumping tube through access shafts and align with an internal air passageway of the air pumping tube. Plug components of the system enclose the check valves in the air pumping tube and the check valve-containing green air pumping tube is then cured.

  13. Application of a pattern recognition technique to the prediction of tire noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jinn-Tong; Tu, Fu-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Tire treads are one of the main sources of car noise. To meet the EU's tire noise regulation ECE-R117, a new method using a pattern recognition technique is adopted in this paper to predict noise from tire tread patterns, thus facilitating the design of low-noise tires. When tires come into contact with the road surface, air pumping may occur in the grooves of tire tread patterns. Using the image of a tread pattern, a matrix is constructed by setting the patterns of tire grooves and tread blocks. The length and width of the contact patch are multiplied by weight functions. The resulting sound pressure as a function of time is subjected to a Fourier transform to simulate a 1/3-octave-band sound pressure level. A particle swarm algorithm is adopted to optimize the weighting parameters for the sound pressure in the frequency domain so that simulated values approach the measured noise level. Two sets of optimal weighting parameters associated with the length and width of the contact patch are obtained. Finally, the weight function is used to predict the tread pattern noise of tires in the same series. A comparison of the prediction and experimental results reveals that, in the 1/3-octave band of frequency (800-2000 Hz), average errors in sound pressure are within 2.5 dB. The feasibility of the proposed application of the pattern recognition technique in predicting noise from tire treads is verified.

  14. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative.

  15. Instrumentation pour la spectroscopie laser sur faisceau d'ions rapides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, Marc

    laser, l'etude spectroscopique des etats de predissociation des molecules, l'analyse en energie cinetique des fragments moleculaires sont autant d'approches spectroscopiques qui ont pu etre appliquees avec succes avec notre instrument. Suite aux transformations que nous y avons apportees, l'instrument a acquis encore plus de souplesse en permettant l'etude spectroscopique des atomes ou molecules neutres ou charges selon deux modes de detection rapidement commutables. Un programme de controle a ete entierement concu pour automatiser le travail d'acquisition du signal et le gerer au moyen d'une interface utilisateur conviviale. Cet instrument est aujourd'hui pret pour effectuer efficacement des mesures systematiques sur de nombreuses molecules simples.

  16. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  17. Mesures experimentales de l'impact des revetements hydrophobeset superhydrophobes sur la trainee et la portance d'un profil aerodynamique propre et glace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Eric

    Ce projet, realise a la demande du Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre, a pour but de mesurer et definir experimentalement l'impact de revetements hydrophobes sur les coefficients de trainee et de portance d'un profil NACA 0012. Pour ce faire, la balance aerodynamique du LIMA devait tout d'abord etre amelioree afin d'offrir une sensibilite suffisante pour realiser le projet. Plusieurs ameliorations ont ete faites, comme le changement des cellules de charge, la diminution du nombre de cellules de charge, le changement du cadre de la balance, etc. Une fois ces ameliorations terminees, la reproductibilite, l'exactitude et la sensibilite ont ete valides afin de s'assurer de la fiabilite des resultats offerts par la balance. Pour les angles d'attaque etudies avec les revetements, soient -6° et 0°, la balance a une reproductibilite de +/-2,06% a 360 000 de nombre de Reynolds. Pour valider la sensibilite, des essais a -6° et 0° d'angle d'attaque et des nombres de Reynolds de 360 000 et 500 000 ont ete faits avec des papiers sables. Les resultats de ces essais ont permis de, tracer des courbes de tendances du coefficient de trainee du NACA 0012 en fonction de la rugosite de surface et d'etablir la valeur de la sensibilite de la balance a +/-8 mu m. Cinq revetements populaires ont ete choisis pour l'experimentation, soient le Wearlon, le Staclean, le Hirec, le Phasebreak ainsi que le Nusil. Les revetements sont soumis aux memes conditions experimentales que les papiers sables, et une rugosite equivalente est trouvee par extrapolation des resultats. Cependant, les rugosites equivalentes de surfaces different entre -6° et 0°. Les essais avec le Staclean et le Hirec donnent des coefficients de trainee equivalent a ceux avec l'aluminium, alors que le Wearlon, le Nusil et le Phasebreak donnent une augmentation du coefficient de trainee de 13%, 17% et 25% respectivement par rapport a l'aluminium. Pour les coefficients de portance, la balance ne detecte pas l

  18. The effects on accidents of studded tires and laws banning their use: a meta-analysis of evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Elvik, R

    1999-01-01

    Studies that have evaluated the effects on accidents of studded tires are reviewed. There are two types of evaluation studies with respect to the safety effects of studded tires: (1) Studies of the effect on automobile accident rates of using studded tires; and (2) studies of the effect on accidents of banning the use of studded tires. The results of studies of the effects of studded tires on automobile accident rates are found to vary substantially, depending on the quality of the study design. Recent studies employing multivariate techniques of analysis to control for confounding factors, attribute to studded tires minor declines in automobile accident rates of 5% for snow- or ice-covered roads, 2% for bare roads and 4% for all road surfaces combined. The results of these studies are consistent with the most recent estimates of the effect on accidents of banning studded tires. It is concluded that studded tires probably confer a slight safety benefit during wintertime.

  19. Etude du stockage de l'hydrogene sur des nanostructures de carbone microporeuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Le stockage de l'hydrogene par adsorption sur des adsorbants nano-structures a ete etudie sous differentes conditions de pression et de temperature. Les adsorbants etudies sont principalement des nanotubes de carbone a simple paroi ainsi que des structures metallo-organiques. Les mesures ont ete realisees a l'aide de systemes gravimetriques et volumetriques tres sensibles specialement mis au point pour de petits echantillons necessitant un degazage in situ. Les appareils developpes, au nombre de quatre, comprennent deux systemes gravimetriques et deux systemes volumetriques. Ensemble, ces systemes couvrent la plage de pressions (0-100) bars ainsi que la plage de temperatures (77-295) K. Les differentes analyses montrent que l'adsorption d'hydrogene sur les adsorbants nano-structures etudies est maximale a 77 K et varie entre environ (1.5 et 4) % masse. A temperature ambiante, l'adsorption croit lineairement avec la pression et demeure sous les 1% masse pour des pressions inferieures a 100 bars. L'adsorption d'hydrogene sur ces materiaux dans ces conditions se compare notamment a celle obtenue sur des charbons actives. La modelisation de l'adsorption a egalement ete realisee dans des conditions cryogeniques a l'aide du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov sous une forme adaptee pour l'adsorption supercritique. Les enthalpies d'adsorption calculees a partir de ce modele varient sous les 6 kJ/mole et sont donc consistantes avec des processus de physisorption. L'applicabilite du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov suggere que l'adsorption d'hydrogene puisse etre representee par un processus de remplissage des pores par un pseudo-liquide. Ces travaux s'inscrivent dans un contexte ou la capacite d'adsorption reelle des nanostructures de carbone est sujette a la controverse. En consequence, l'approche experimentale adoptee se distingue par les differentes demarches mises de l'avant pour l'obtention de mesures fiables sur des echantillons de faibles masses ainsi que par son caractere

  20. Reduction of the shimmy tendency of tail and nose-wheel landing gears by installation of specially designed tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrode, H

    1955-01-01

    Shimmy of tail and nose wheels may be eliminated by installation of dampers and use of large trail; however, this produces construction and operational disadvantages. It is more favorable to employ, instead of the customary tail-wheel tires, tires with lesser shimmy tendency. A description of the best possible form for these tires follows: furthermore, a few general concepts regarding the effects of the condition of the tire, of the type of rolling motion, and of the landing, are discussed.

  1. 77 FR 6536 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``off-the-road... administrative review of the antidumping order on off- the-road tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic...

  2. 75 FR 846 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period December 17, 2007 through December 31, 2008, with respect to the following six companies: 1. Aeolus Tyre...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected... to determine the mass percent of HAP in cements and solvents. To determine the HAP content in the cements and solvents used at your tire production affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5994 - How do I conduct tests and procedures for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected... to determine the mass percent of HAP in cements and solvents. To determine the HAP content in the cements and solvents used at your tire production affected source, use EPA Method 311 of appendix A...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for...

  6. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in §...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5986 - What emission limits must I meet for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire cord production affected sources? 63.5986 Section 63.5986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5986 What emission limits must...

  8. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources As stated in § 63.5999,...

  9. Pathology of non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE)-induced ablation of the canine brain

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Roberston, John L.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the neuropathologic features of normal canine brain ablated with non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE). The parietal cerebral cortices of four dogs were treated with N-TIRE using a dose-escalation protocol with an additional dog receiving sham treatment. Animals were allowed to recover following N-TIRE ablation and the effects of treatment were monitored with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Brains were subjected to histopathologic and ultrastructural assessment along with Bcl-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 immunohistochemical staining following sacrifice 72 h post-treatment. Adverse clinical effects of N-TIRE were only observed in the dog treated at the upper energy tier. MRI and neuropathologic examinations indicated that N-TIRE ablation resulted in focal regions of severe cytoarchitectural and blood-brain-barrier disruption. Lesion size correlated to the intensity of the applied electrical field. N-TIRE-induced lesions were characterized by parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage; however, large blood vessels were preserved. A transition zone containing parenchymal edema, perivascular inflammatory cuffs, and reactive gliosis was interspersed between the necrotic focus and normal neuropil. Apoptotic labeling indices were not different between the N-TIRE-treated and control brains. This study identified N-TIRE pulse parameters that can be used to safely create circumscribed foci of brain necrosis while selectively preserving major vascular structures. PMID:23820168

  10. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... resale. Lab alignment tires or LATs means the reference tires which the reference lab will test to be used to align other rolling resistance machines with the reference lab in accordance with the machine... less. Reference lab means the laboratory or laboratories that the National Highway Traffic...

  11. 77 FR 71679 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...),\\1\\ has determined that certain Bridgestone brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011 and March... Wide Oval AS size 245/40R19 and 245/35R20 brand tires manufactured between June 19, 2011, and March 17... no limit to the length of necessary attachments to the comments. If comments are submitted in...

  12. 75 FR 32536 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...Meter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company... drive) and 295/75R-22.5 14 ply (steer and drive) ProMeter brand medium truck radial tires manufactured..., although there is no limit to the length of necessary attachments to the comments. If comments...

  13. 78 FR 27476 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Nero M+S and Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico replacement tires produced between September 2, 2007, and... approximately 30,881 Pirelli Pzero Nero M+S and Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico replacement tires produced between... Load, Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico 295/30ZR22 103W Extra Load, Scorpion Zero Asimmetrico 305/35ZR23...

  14. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... consumers in making better educated choices in the purchase of passenger car tires. (c) Application. This...-numeric designation assigned by a manufacturer that identifies a tire's size. This can include... unit or SKU means the alpha-numeric designation assigned by a manufacturer to uniquely identify a...

  15. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  16. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  17. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  18. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  19. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  20. Additive effect of waste tire on the hydrogenolysis reaction of coal liquefaction residue

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyuki Sugano; Daigorou Onda; Kiyoshi Mashimo

    2006-12-15

    A numerous amount of waste tire is landfilled or dumped all over the world, which causes environmental problems, such as destruction of natural places and the risk of fires. On the other hand, the coal liquefaction residue (CLR) is produced in 30% yield through the process supporting unit (PSU) of the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. Therefore, the investigation on an effective method for utilization of waste tire and CLR is required. In this study, the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and pulverized waste tire was carried out by using tetralin. The yields in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis were compared with algebraic sum of the yields of the individual hydrogenolyses of waste tire alone and coal alone. In the simultaneous hydrogenolysis, the synergistic effects to upgrading, such as an increase in the yield of the oil constituent and a decrease in the yield of the asphaltene constituent, occurred because of the stabilization of asphaltenic radicals from CLR with aliphatic radicals from tire. The decrease in asphaltene yield in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis was pronounced with the increase in the tire:CLR ratio because the solvent effects of liquefied tire, such as stabilization of radicals, hydrogen shuttling, and heat transfer, were enhanced. Accordingly, it is estimated that the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and waste tire is an effective method for processing both materials. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. An algorithm for the kinetics of tire pyrolysis under different heating rates.

    PubMed

    Quek, Augustine; Balasubramanian, Rajashekhar

    2009-07-15

    Tires exhibit different kinetic behaviors when pyrolyzed under different heating rates. A new algorithm has been developed to investigate pyrolysis behavior of scrap tires. The algorithm includes heat and mass transfer equations to account for the different extents of thermal lag as the tire is heated at different heating rates. The algorithm uses an iterative approach to fit model equations to experimental data to obtain quantitative values of kinetic parameters. These parameters describe the pyrolysis process well, with good agreement (r(2)>0.96) between the model and experimental data when the model is applied to three different brands of automobile tires heated under five different heating rates in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. The model agrees with other researchers' results that frequencies factors increased and time constants decreased with increasing heating rates. The model also shows the change in the behavior of individual tire components when the heating rates are increased above 30 K min(-1). This result indicates that heating rates, rather than temperature, can significantly affect pyrolysis reactions. This algorithm is simple in structure and yet accurate in describing tire pyrolysis under a wide range of heating rates (10-50 K min(-1)). It improves our understanding of the tire pyrolysis process by showing the relationship between the heating rate and the many components in a tire that depolymerize as parallel reactions.

  2. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Pneumatic Tyres For Passenger-Use Motor Vehicles, Annex, 1-2-5. We believed that existing 60-psi T-type... Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 109, New pneumatic and certain specialty tires, to change...

  3. An Instructional Playground for the Handicapped Using Tires as Inexpensive Playground Equipment: Activity and Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Special Education Instructional Materials Center.

    The manual explains how special education students in an occupational program used tires to construct an inexpensive instructional playground for handicapped elementary school pupils. Presented in two sections with accompanying pictures or diagrams are activity ideas for using the tires in a variety of configurations (Part 1) and construction and…

  4. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... passenger car tires. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic...

  5. Evaluation of bifenthrin applications in tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy T; Whelan, Peter I; Shortus, Matthew S; Jacups, Susan P

    2009-03-01

    The efficacy of maximum label rates of bifenthrin applications to dry tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding was investigated by field colonization and bioassay trials in shaded and unshaded locations. Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were the most abundant species present in the field colonization trial. Colonization and survival of Ae. notoscriptus larvae to the late instar occurred significantly earlier in treated tires in shaded compared with unshaded locations (P = 0.002). Bifenthrin applications in shaded tires only prevented early instar survival for approximately 2.6 wk. Aedes notoscriptus late instars did not appear in the treated unshaded tires. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized treated tires from the 2nd wk in both shaded and unshaded treatments. In the bioassay, water from bifenthrin-treated tires, through extrapolation, was found to kill approximately 100% of late instar Ae. notoscriptus for only approximately 2.0-2.2 wk in shaded and unshaded tires. Under conditions optimal for Aedes breeding, such as shaded locations, high ambient temperatures, high relative humidity, and high amounts of leaf/organic matter accumulations, bifenthrin may not be effective as a larval control measure in tires for greater than 2.0-2.6 wk.

  6. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges of...

  7. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges of...

  8. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges of...

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  10. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  11. Properties and potential environmental applications of carbon adsorbents from waste tire rubber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rameriz, D.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The properties of tire-derived carbon adsorbents (TDCA) produced from select tire chars were compared with those derived from an Illinois coal and pistachio nut shells. Chemical analyses of the TDCA indicated that these materials contain metallic elements not present in coal-and nut shell-derived carbons. These metals, introduced during the production of tire rubber, potentially catalyze steam gasification reactions of tire char. TDCA carbons contained larger meso-and macopore volumes than their counterparts derived from coal and nut shell (on the moisture-and ash-free-basis). Adsorptive properties of the tire-derived adsorbent carbons for air separation, gas storage, and gas clean up were also evaluated and compared with those of the coal-and nut shell derived carbons as well as a commercial activated carbon. The results revealed that TDCA carbons are suitable adsorbents for removing vapor-phase mercury from combustion flue gases and hazardous organic compounds from industrial gas streams.

  12. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  13. Cornering and wear characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Vogler, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Tests of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire have been completed at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. The purpose of these tests was to determine the cornering and wear characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire under realistic operating conditions. The tire was tested on a simulated Kennedy Space Center runway surface at speeds from 100 to 180 kts. The results of these tests defined the cornering characteristics which included side forces and associated side force friction coefficient over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 12 deg. Wear characteristics were defined by tire tread and cord wear over a yaw angle range of 0 deg to 4 deg under dry and wet runway conditions. Wear characteristics were also defined for a 15 kt crosswind landing with two blown right main-gear tires and nose-gear steering engaged.

  14. Cornering and wear behavior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1987-01-01

    One of the factors needed to describe the handling characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the landing rollout is the response of the vehicle's tires to variations in load and yaw angle. An experimental investigation of the cornering characteristics of the Orbiter main gear tires was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. This investigation compliments earlier work done to define the Orbiter nose tire cornering characteristics. In the investigation, the effects of load and yaw angle were evaluated by measuring parameters such as side load and drag load, and obtaining measurements of aligning torque. Because the tire must operate on an extremely rough runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), tests were also conducted to describe the wear behavior of the tire under various conditions on a simulated KSC runway surface. Mathematical models for both the cornering and the wear behavior are discussed.

  15. Simulation research of the tire Basic Relaxation Model in conditions of the wheel cornering angle oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luty, W.

    2016-09-01

    - A description of the tire Basic Relaxation Model (BRM) is presented in this paper. Simulation research of the tire BRM model in conditions of oscillatory changes of the wheel cornering angle were performed. During the simulation tests the courses of changes in the value of lateral reaction force, transmitted by the wheel, as a response to the sinusoidal changes in the value of the wheel cornering angle have been presented. There have been compared the simulation results obtained for the model of tire-road interaction in two modes: including and not including the BRM. The simulation results allowed to verify prepared BRM and also to determine the influence of the tire relaxation process on the tire behavior in conditions of dynamic changes of the wheel cornering angle.

  16. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  17. Dynamic rolling process of tires as layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, F.

    1996-11-01

    Due to inner pressure the tire is a prestressed system of cord layers. The cord layers are covered by rubber layers. The whole structure is coated by a wear-resistive thread and a soft side wall coating. Serving as a boundary condition at the cord ends is a steel ring at both sides of the wheel rim. To stiffen the thread the structure has a steel cord belt with a ply angle of ±20° to the circumferential direction. The rolling system works like a spring with changing contact forces, and to compute the car dynamics it is necessary to take into account a high frequency and nonlinear varying contact. The forces between tire and road are limited by friction which gives rise to high frequency friction oscillations. Also the structural dynamics of the tire is nonconservative and self-excited, and an appropriate damping of cords and rubber is needed to stabilize the system dynamically. The computing static equilibrium and equations of motion of a continuum mechanics membrane model are treated, and the discretization to a multi-masspoint model is shown. The resulting nonlinear system of Newtonian equations is solved by using the predictor-corrector integration method in time. The time step of integration is due to the highest frequency of the system, and it is ten times shorter than the minimum of oscillation time in the system. All the nonlinearities, the hysteretic damping, and small bending moments of the rubber layers are taken into account to compute the nonstationary rolling with slip and spin on uneven roads or soft ground.

  18. Le Point sur... Astronomie IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    Cet ouvrage regroupe des articles de mise au point sollicités par le rédacteur en chef de la rubrique Astronomie des Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Les textes se proposent de faire découvrir aux lecteurs, dans les principales disciplines de l'astronomie, les résultats les plus remarquables des dernières années.Leurs auteurs sont des spécialistes participant activement à l'accroissement des connaissances dans des domaines faisant l'objet de recherches intensives. Ces mises au point sur des questions particulièrement importantes de l'astronomie sont rédigées soit en français, soit en anglais et accompagnées d'une bibliographie détaillée.

  19. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Recycling of car tires by means of Waterjet technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holka, Henryk; Jarzyna, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    An increasing number of used car tires poses a threat to the environment. Therefore they need to be recycled. In this work a decomposition method that involves applying a stream of water at very high pressure (to 600MPa) is presented. This method is based on the authors' own patent from 2010 and the results have been provided from two year-long tests and calculations This study includes many diagrams, images and calculations that have been used to develop the discussed method which is competitive for currently used ones.

  1. Definition of Tire Properties Required for Landing System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Luchini, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The data bank constructed provided two basic advantages for the user of aircraft tire information. First, computerization of the data bank allowed mechanical property data to be stored, corrected, updated, and revised quickly and easily as more reliable tests and measurements were carried out. Secondly, the format of the book which can be printed from the computerized data bank can be easily adjusted to suit the needs of the users without the great expense normally associated with reprinting and editing books set by ordinary typography.

  2. Optical scattering (TAOS) by tire debris particles: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Camatini, Marina C.; Zomer, Simeone; Holler, Stephen; Pan, Yongle; Bhaskara, Praveena; Muangchareon, Pongphisanu; Sung, Changmo; Cencetti, Simone; Regazzoni, Claudia

    2001-03-01

    Tire debris particles from low severity laboratory wear tests have been investigated by the TAOS optical scattering facility at Yale University. The incident wavelength is 532 nm. After the TAOS event some particle samples have been imaged by a scanning electron microscope and microanalyzed. The TAOS intensity patterns recorded within a solid angle in the backward sector have been processed by cluster analysis and compared with the patterns computed by a T-matrix code. Preliminary agreement has been found between TAOS data and the particle models (size, shape, refractive index). The purpose of the investigation is to obtain signatures of the material, based on its TAOS pattern.

  3. Optical scattering (TAOS) by tire debris particles: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Crosta, G; Camatini, M; Zomer, S; Holler, S; Pan, Y; Bhaskara, P; Muangchareon, P; Sung, C; Cencetti, S; Regazzoni, C

    2001-03-12

    Tire debris particles from low severity laboratory wear tests have been investigated by the TAOS optical scattering facility at Yale University. The incident wavelength is 532 nm. After the TAOS event some particle samples have been imaged by a scanning electron microscope and microanalyzed. The TAOS intensity patterns recorded within a solid angle in the backward sector have been processed by cluster analysis and compared with the patterns computed by a T-matrix code. Preliminary agreement has been found between TAOS data and the particle models (size, shape, refractive index). The purpose of the investigation is to obtain signatures of the material, based on its TAOS pattern.

  4. [Occupational exposure to chemicals in the manufacture of rubber tires].

    PubMed

    Szadkowska-Stańczyk, I; Wilczyńska, U; Sobala, W; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

    2001-01-01

    The work environment of the rubber industry company, producing various types of tires, was assessed and the workers of the plant were included in a cohort study of mortality. Concentrations of twenty chemical substances at 137 workposts were measured by employees of the plant laboratory and the sanitary and epidemiological station in 1981-1996. The mean values and concentration ranges were determined by departments and workposts. The excess of threshold limit values was analyzed. The workposts with exposure to agents possibly carcinogenic to humans were identified. The analysis performed will render it possible to calculate doses of cumulative exposure to given compounds among workers covered by the epidemiological study.

  5. Recent studies of tire braking performance. [for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results from recent studies of some factors affecting tire braking and cornering performance are presented together with a discussion of the possible application of these results to the design of aircraft braking systems. The first part of the paper is concerned with steady-state braking, that is, results from tests conducted at a constant slip ratio or steering angle or both. The second part deals with cyclic braking tests, both single cycle, where brakes are applied at a constant rate until wheel lockup is achieved, and rapid cycling of the brakes under control of a currently operational antiskid system.

  6. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators †

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J.

    2015-01-01

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. PMID:26251914

  7. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  11. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  12. Friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type 7, aircraft tires constructed with different tread rubber compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Yager, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to evaluate the friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type, aircraft tires constructed with experimental cut-resistant, tread rubber compounds. These compounds consisted of different blends of natural rubber (NR) and an alfin catalyzed styrene-butadiene copolymer rubber (SBR). One tire having a blend of 30 SBR and 70 NR and another having a blend of 60 SBR and 40 NR in the tread were tested together with a standard production tire with no SBR content in the tread rubber. The results of this investigation indicated that the test tires constructed with the special cut-resistant tread rubber compositions did not suffer any significant degradation in tire friction capability when compared with the standard tire. In general, tire friction capability decreased with increasing speed and surface wetness condition. As yaw angle increased, tire braking capability decreased while tire cornering capability increased. Tread-wear data based on number of brake cycles, however, suggested that the tires with alfin SBR blends experienced significantly greater wear than the standard production tire.

  13. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    PubMed

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.

  14. Characterization and photo-Fenton treatment of used tires leachate.

    PubMed

    Sarasa, Judith; Llabrés, Tomás; Ormad, Peña; Mosteo, Rosa; Ovelleiro, José Luis

    2006-08-25

    In this study the leachates derived from used tires were firstly characterized by means of the evaluation of their organic matter content. The leachate from tire powder presented a COD value of 508 mg O(2) l(-1) and a TOC of 214 mg Cl (-1). The main identified organic substances were constituents of the rubber structure: benzothiazole derivatives, phthalates, phenolic derivatives, hydrocarbons and fatty acids. The application of photo-Fenton treatment was investigated in order to obtain the maximum organic matter removal. When a solar chamber as light source was used (light intensity=500 Wm(-2)), the best operational conditions were the following: [H(2)O(2)]=3703 mg l(-1), [Fe(2+)]=92.1 mg l(-1), initial pH 2.7-3.0, reaction time=100 min. After the photo-Fenton treatment at optimum conditions, the reached COD and TOC reduction was 64% and 48%, respectively. The main initial organic substances were eliminated after the reaction and no significant by-products were identified. A complementary treatment consisted of coagulation-flocculation carried out with FeCl(3) x 6H(2)O at pH 12 produced a maximum organic matter removal of 43% as COD and 39% as TOC. A combination of photo-Fenton followed by coagulation-flocculation enhanced the organic matter removal: a reduction of 77% of COD and 64% of TOC was attained.

  15. Close-up of Shuttle tire after LSRA test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    One of the final tests of the CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) in August, 1995 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, resulted in the destruction of the wheel, following a fire caused by a mixture of heat, aluminum particles, and rubber. Following successful tests of tire wear at Edwards and the Kennedy Space Center, Fl., this series of roll-on-rim tests determined the failure modes ofwheels for the space shuttle. The aluminum wheel locked in postion and was ground to within four inches of the axle before the test concluded. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy. Project engineer Christopher J. Nagy said, 'NASA pilots Gordon Fullerton and Terry Rager did a superb job of flying the aircraft in many difficult test situations, at speeds higher than the aircraft was intended to land, without once losing a single flight.'

  16. Close-up of Shuttle tire after LSRA test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    One of the final tests of the CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) in August, 1995 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, resulted in the destruction of the wheel, following a fire caused by a mixture of heat, aluminum particles, and rubber. Following successful tests of tire wear at Edwards and the Kennedy Space Center, Fla., this series of roll-on-rim tests determined the failure modes of wheels for the space shuttle. In one test, the aluminum wheel locked in position and was ground to within four inches of the axle before the test concluded. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy. Project engineer Christopher J. Nagy said, 'NASA pilots Gordon Fullerton and Terry Rager did a superb job of flying the aircraft in many difficult test situations, at speeds higher than the aircraft was intended to land, without once losing a single test flight.'

  17. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  18. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    PubMed

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted <2% of the sum of the 15 analyzed HMW PAHs. These findings show that automobile tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  19. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified “magic formula” tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method. PMID:28178332

  20. Measurement of tire tread in urban air by pyrolysis-gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Man Goo; Yagawa, Kazuo; Inoue, Hidenari; Lee, Yong Keun; Shirai, Tsuneo

    The concentration of tire tread in suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured by a new method based on benzothiazole generated by pyrolysis of vulcanization accelerator. The variation of production yields of benzothiazole was examined for 24 kinds of tire treads currently used in Japan Pyrolysis was carried out at 670°C using a Curie-point pyrolyzer. The vertical profile and diurnal pattern of tire tread were investigated with 4-h samples continuously collected for 24 h at a heavy traffic density area in Tokyo. The diurnal percentage of tire tread in SPM at the sampling site of 86 m height showed two peaks following the trend of traffic density throughout the day. The concentration of tire tread collected at the 86 m level was about 30% of that at the 0 m level during the daytime. The seasonal variation of concentration of tire tread in SPM was measured at the sampling site located 20 km SW of Tokyo. The weight percentage of tire tread in SPM varied between 1.3 and 3% in winter with NE-NW wind and varied between 0.5 and 1.5% in spring with SE-SW wind.