Science.gov

Sample records for etrr-2 main pool

  1. Joint Assessment of ETRR-2 Research Reactor Operations Program, Capabilities, and Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bissani, M; O'Kelly, D S

    2006-05-08

    A joint assessment meeting was conducted at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Agency (EAEA) followed by a tour of Egyptian Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) on March 22 and 23, 2006. The purpose of the visit was to evaluate the capabilities of the new research reactor and its operations under Action Sheet 4 between the U.S. DOE and the EAEA, ''Research Reactor Operation'', and Action Sheet 6, ''Technical assistance in The Production of Radioisotopes''. Preliminary Recommendations of the joint assessment are as follows: (1) ETRR-2 utilization should be increased by encouraging frequent and sustained operations. This can be accomplished in part by (a) Improving the supply-chain management for fresh reactor fuel and alleviating the perception that the existing fuel inventory should be conserved due to unreliable fuel supply; and (b) Promulgating a policy for sample irradiation priority that encourages the use of the reactor and does not leave the decision of when to operate entirely at the discretion of reactor operations staff. (2) Each experimental facility in operation or built for a single purpose should be reevaluated to focus on those that most meet the goals of the EAEA strategic business plan. Temporary or long-term elimination of some experimental programs might be necessary to provide more focused utilization. There may be instances of emerging reactor applications for which no experimental facility is yet designed or envisioned. In some cases, an experimental facility may have a more beneficial use than the purpose for which it was originally designed. For example, (a) An effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) program requires nearby high quality medical facilities. These facilities are not available and are unlikely to be constructed near the Inshas site. Further, the BNCT facility is not correctly designed for advanced research and therapy programs using epithermal neutrons. (b) The ETRR-2 is frequently operated to provide color-enhanced gemstones but is

  2. Neutronic conceptual design of the ETRR-2 cold-neutron source using the MCNP code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, M. Y.; Shaat, M. K.; Abdelfattah, A. Y.

    2005-04-01

    A conceptual neutronic design of the cold-neutron source (CNS) for the Egyptian second research reactor (ETRR-2) was done using the MCNP code. Parametric analysis to chose the type and geometry of the moderator, and the required CNS dimensions to maximize the cold neutron production was performed. The moderator cell has a spherical annulus structure containing liquid hydrogen. The cold neutron gain and cold neutron brightness are calculated together with the nuclear heat load of the CNS. Analysis of the estimated performance of the CNS has been done regarding the effect of void fraction in the moderator cell together with the ortho: para ratio.

  3. 23. VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING DIVING AND MAIN POOLS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING DIVING AND MAIN POOLS AND WEST ELEVATION OF OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  4. Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science-policy boundary for Maine vernal pools.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Aram J K; Jansujwicz, Jessica S; Bell, Kathleen P; Hunter, Malcolm L

    2014-07-29

    Vernal pools are far more important for providing ecosystem services than one would predict based on their small size. However, prevailing resource-management strategies are not effectively conserving pools and other small natural features on private lands. Solutions are complicated by tensions between private property and societal rights, uncertainties over resource location and function, diverse stakeholders, and fragmented regulatory authority. The development and testing of new conservation approaches that link scientific knowledge, stakeholder decision-making, and conservation outcomes are important responses to this conservation dilemma. Drawing from a 15-y history of vernal pool conservation efforts in Maine, we describe the coevolution of pool conservation and research approaches, focusing on how research-based knowledge was produced and used in support of management decisions. As management shifted from reactive, top-down approaches to proactive and flexible approaches, research shifted from an ecology-focused program to an interdisciplinary program based on social-ecological systems. The most effective strategies for linking scientific knowledge with action changed as the decision-makers, knowledge needs, and context for vernal pool management advanced. Interactions among stakeholders increased the extent to which knowledge was coproduced and shifted the objective of stakeholder engagement from outreach to research collaboration and development of innovative conservation approaches. New conservation strategies were possible because of the flexible, solutions-oriented collaborations and trust between scientists and decision-makers (fostered over 15 y) and interdisciplinary, engaged research. Solutions to the dilemma of conserving small natural features on private lands, and analogous sustainability science challenges, will benefit from repeated negotiations of the science-policy boundary.

  5. Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science–policy boundary for Maine vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Jansujwicz, Jessica S.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Hunter, Malcolm L.

    2014-01-01

    Vernal pools are far more important for providing ecosystem services than one would predict based on their small size. However, prevailing resource-management strategies are not effectively conserving pools and other small natural features on private lands. Solutions are complicated by tensions between private property and societal rights, uncertainties over resource location and function, diverse stakeholders, and fragmented regulatory authority. The development and testing of new conservation approaches that link scientific knowledge, stakeholder decision-making, and conservation outcomes are important responses to this conservation dilemma. Drawing from a 15-y history of vernal pool conservation efforts in Maine, we describe the coevolution of pool conservation and research approaches, focusing on how research-based knowledge was produced and used in support of management decisions. As management shifted from reactive, top-down approaches to proactive and flexible approaches, research shifted from an ecology-focused program to an interdisciplinary program based on social–ecological systems. The most effective strategies for linking scientific knowledge with action changed as the decision-makers, knowledge needs, and context for vernal pool management advanced. Interactions among stakeholders increased the extent to which knowledge was coproduced and shifted the objective of stakeholder engagement from outreach to research collaboration and development of innovative conservation approaches. New conservation strategies were possible because of the flexible, solutions-oriented collaborations and trust between scientists and decision-makers (fostered over 15 y) and interdisciplinary, engaged research. Solutions to the dilemma of conserving small natural features on private lands, and analogous sustainability science challenges, will benefit from repeated negotiations of the science–policy boundary. PMID:25002496

  6. The Maine Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program: engaging municipal officials and private landowners in community-based citizen science.

    PubMed

    Jansujwicz, Jessica S; Calhoun, Aram J K; Lilieholm, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program (VPMAP) was initiated in 2007 to create a vernal pool database as a planning tool to foster local compliance with new state vernal pool regulations. In the northeastern United States, vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that provide critical breeding habitat for a number of amphibians and invertebrates and provide important resting and foraging habitat for some rare and endangered state-listed species. Using participant observation, interviews, and focus groups, we examined the engagement of municipal officials and private landowners in VPMAP. Important outcomes of municipal and landowner engagement included mobilization of town support for proactive planning, improved awareness and understanding of vernal pools, and increased interactions between program coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners. Challenges to municipal and landowner engagement included an inconsistency in expectations between coordinators and municipal officials and a lack of time and sufficient information for follow-up with landowners participating in VPMAP. Our study highlights the importance of developing relationships among coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners in facilitating positive outcomes for all stakeholders and for effective resource management. We suggest an expanded citizen science model that focuses on improving two-way communication among project coordinators, municipal officials, and local citizens and places communication with private landowners on par with volunteer citizen scientist recruitment and field training. Lessons learned from this research can inform the design and implementation of citizen science projects on private land.

  7. The Maine Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program: Engaging Municipal Officials and Private Landowners in Community-Based Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansujwicz, Jessica S.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Lilieholm, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    The Vernal Pool Mapping and Assessment Program (VPMAP) was initiated in 2007 to create a vernal pool database as a planning tool to foster local compliance with new state vernal pool regulations. In the northeastern United States, vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that provide critical breeding habitat for a number of amphibians and invertebrates and provide important resting and foraging habitat for some rare and endangered state-listed species. Using participant observation, interviews, and focus groups, we examined the engagement of municipal officials and private landowners in VPMAP. Important outcomes of municipal and landowner engagement included mobilization of town support for proactive planning, improved awareness and understanding of vernal pools, and increased interactions between program coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners. Challenges to municipal and landowner engagement included an inconsistency in expectations between coordinators and municipal officials and a lack of time and sufficient information for follow-up with landowners participating in VPMAP. Our study highlights the importance of developing relationships among coordinators, municipal officials, and private landowners in facilitating positive outcomes for all stakeholders and for effective resource management. We suggest an expanded citizen science model that focuses on improving two-way communication among project coordinators, municipal officials, and local citizens and places communication with private landowners on par with volunteer citizen scientist recruitment and field training. Lessons learned from this research can inform the design and implementation of citizen science projects on private land.

  8. The science of pooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.

    1995-10-01

    The pooling of data from radon studies is described. Pooling refers to the analysis of original data from several studies, not meta-analysis in which summary measures from published data are analyzed. A main objective for pooling is to reduce uncertainty and to obtain more precise estimates of risk than would be available from any single study.

  9. Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Housing and Local Government, London (England).

    Technical and engineering data are set forth on the design and construction of swimming pools. Consideration is given to site selection, pool construction, the comparative merits of combining open air and enclosed pools, and alternative uses of the pool. Guidelines are presented regarding--(1) pool size and use, (2) locker and changing rooms, (3)…

  10. Exciting Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  11. Final report: Initial ecosystem response of salt marshes to ditch plugging and pool creation: Experiments at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the response of three salt marshes, associated with the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge (Maine), to the practice of ditch plugging. Drainage ditches, originally dug to drain the marsh for mosquito control or to facilitate salt hay farming, are plugged with marsh peat in an effort to impound water upstream of the plug, raise water table levels in the marsh, and increase surface water habitat. At two study sites, Moody Marsh and Granite Point Road Marsh, ditch plugs were installed in spring 2000. Monitoring of hydrology, vegetation, nekton and bird utilization, and marsh development processes was conducted in 1999, before ditch plugging, and then in 2000 and 2001 (all parameters except nekton), after ditch plugging. Each study site had a control marsh that was monitored simultaneously with the plugged marsh, and thus, we employed a BACI study design (before, after, control, impact). A third site, Marshall Point Road Marsh, was plugged in 1998. Monitoring of the plugged and control sites was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with limited monitoring in 2001, thus there was no ?before? plug monitoring. With ditch plugging, water table levels increased toward the marsh surface and the areal extent of standing water increased. Responding to a wetter substrate, a vegetation change from high marsh species (e.g., Spartina patens) to those more tolerant of flooded conditions (e.g., Spartina alterniflora) was noted at two of the three ditch plugged sites. Initial response of the nekton community (fishes and decapod crustaceans) was evaluated by monitoring utilization of salt marsh pools using a 1m2 enclosure trap. In general, nekton species richness, density, and community structure remained unchanged following ditch plugging at the Moody and Granite Point sites. At Marshall Point, species richness and density (number of individuals per m2) were significantly greater in the experimental plugged marsh than the control marsh (<2% of the control marsh was

  12. Pool Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Caribbean Clear, Inc. used NASA's silver ion technology as a basis for its automatic pool purifier. System offers alternative approach to conventional purification chemicals. Caribbean Clear's principal markets are swimming pool owners who want to eliminate chlorine and bromine. Purifiers in Caribbean Clear System are same silver ions used in Apollo System to kill bacteria, plus copper ions to kill algae. They produce spa or pool water that exceeds EPA Standards for drinking water.

  13. Video camera log used for water isolation in the Main Body B pool, Elk Hills field, Kern Co., California -- Water and oil identification

    SciTech Connect

    Starcher, M.G.; Murphy, J.R.; Alexander, P.D.; Whittaker, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Main Body B reservoir in the Elk Hills Field is a peripherally waterflooded, +400 ft thick series of layered, turbidite Stevens sands. Permeability variation between layers adversely affects the vertical sweep, resulting in production from lower permeability oil sands dominated by production from higher permeability sands. This paper discusses the unique use of various tools to identify water zones to isolate and oil zones to stimulate. Tools used to identify water and oil entry are discussed with respect to their capabilities of identifying oil and water entry into the wellbore.

  14. Swimming pool granuloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  15. Swimming Pool Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to keep my child safe around swimming pools? An adult should actively watch children at ...

  16. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As...

  17. Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Pools for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Three institutions in Ohio now stress hydrotherapy and water recreation as important parts of individual educational programs for the handicapped. Specially designed and adapted pools provide freedom of movement and ego building as well as physical education and recreation. (Author)

  19. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  20. Swimming Pool Chemistry Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jennifer

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a strategy for the teaching of equilibrium in a poolside atmosphere. Illustrates the practical application of knowledge about equilibrium as demonstrated by pool staff as they satisfy the needs of both the swimmers and local health inspectors. (DDR)

  1. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  2. Dominant factors in controlling marine gas pools in South China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, S.; Watney, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    In marine strata from Sinian to Middle Triassic in South China, there develop four sets of regional and six sets of local source rocks, and ten sets of reservoir rocks. The occurrence of four main formation periods in association with five main reconstruction periods, results in a secondary origin for the most marine gas pools in South China. To improve the understanding of marine gas pools in South China with severely deformed geological background, the dominant control factors are discussed in this paper. The fluid sources, including the gas cracked from crude oil, the gas dissolved in water, the gas of inorganic origin, hydrocarbons generated during the second phase, and the mixed pool fluid source, were the most significant control factors of the types and the development stage of pools. The period of the pool formation and the reconstruction controlled the pool evolution and the distribution on a regional scale. Owing to the multiple periods of the pool formation and the reconstruction, the distribution of marine gas pools was complex both in space and in time, and the gas in the pools is heterogeneous. Pool elements, such as preservation conditions, traps and migration paths, and reservoir rocks and facies, also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China. Especially, the preservation conditions played a key role in maintaining marine oil and gas accumulations on a regional or local scale. According to several dominant control factors of a pool, the pool-controlling model can be constructed. As an example, the pool-controlling model of Sinian gas pool in Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin was summed up. ?? Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007.

  3. Vernal Pool Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Nancy; Colburn, Betsy

    This curriculum guide accompanies Certified: A Citizen's Step-by-Step Guide to Protecting Vernal Pools which is designed to train volunteers in the process of identifying vernal pool habitat so that as many of these pools as possible can be certified by the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program. Vernal pools are a kind of…

  4. Swimming Pools for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson, Donald W.; Nixon, John E.

    The increasing interest in swimming instruction and recreation for elementary and secondary school children has resulted in the development of this guide for swimming pool use, design, and construction. Introductory material discussed the need for swimming in the educational program and the organization of swimming programs in the school. Design…

  5. The Future of Pooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter C.; Fone, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses seven propositions underlying the strategies that insurance pools can, will, and must pursue: (1) risk management versus risk financing; (2) elimination of windfall advantages; (3) the maintenance of market-dominant status; (4) cost leadership; (5) client focus; (6) innovation and diversification; and (7) leadership challenges. A sidebar…

  6. NEW APPROACHES: Pool table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Malcolm

    1998-05-01

    This article explains a novel way of demonstrating the principle of conservation of energy. This can be difficult to demonstrate in the laboratory, but if students have been convinced of the conservation of momentum, two-dimensional collisions on a pool table may be used.

  7. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H. Carter

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  8. Allergic to Pool Water

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To identify the allergy problem of a 36-year old swimming instructor, who experiences heavy itching and rashes whenever she comes in contact with pool water. Patch tests were performed with European standard series and materials from the work floor. A positive patch test to aluminum chloride and flocculant was observed. Occupational dermatitis is, based on a contact allergy to aluminum chloride in the flocculant. PMID:22993713

  9. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  10. ECS DAAC Data Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiebuzinski, A. B.; Bories, C. M.; Kalluri, S.

    2002-12-01

    As part of its Earth Observing System (EOS), NASA supports operations for several satellites including Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. ECS (EOSDIS Core System) is a vast archival and distribution system and includes several Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located around the United States. EOSDIS reached a milestone in February when its data holdings exceeded one petabyte (1,000 terabytes) in size. It has been operational since 1999 and originally was intended to serve a large community of Earth Science researchers studying global climate change. The Synergy Program was initiated in 2000 with the purpose of exploring and expanding the use of remote sensing data beyond the traditional research community to the applications community including natural resource managers, disaster/emergency managers, urban planners and others. This included facilitating data access at the DAACs to enable non-researchers to exploit the data for their specific applications. The combined volume of data archived daily across the DAACs is of the order of three terabytes. These archived data are made available to the research community and to general users of ECS data. Currently, the average data volume distributed daily is two terabytes, which combined with an ever-increasing need for timely access to these data, taxes the ECS processing and archival resources for more real-time use than was previously intended for research purposes. As a result, the delivery of data sets to users was being delayed in many cases, to unacceptable limits. Raytheon, under the auspices of the Synergy Program, investigated methods at making data more accessible at a lower cost of resources (processing and archival) at the DAACs. Large on-line caches (as big as 70 Terabytes) of data were determined to be a solution that would allow users who require contemporary data to access them without having to pull it from the archive. These on-line caches are referred to as "Data Pools." In the Data Pool concept

  11. Morphology of drying blood pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  12. 1. OVERVIEW OF POOLE POWERHOUSE COMPLEX SETTING. POOLE POWERHOUSE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW OF POOLE POWERHOUSE COMPLEX SETTING. POOLE POWERHOUSE AND TRIPLEX COTTAGE ARE VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER IN SMALL CLEARING AMONG TREES IN LEE VINING CREEK VALLEY. VIEW TO SOUTH EAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  13. Tidal Pools--Miniature Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Linda Perry

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the biological activity in tidal pools is provided. The importance of environmental factors such as oxygen supply, temperature, salinity, and light is detailed. Plants and animals that might be found in a tidal pool are identified and described. (BT)

  14. Staphylococci in swimming pool water

    PubMed Central

    Crone, P. B.; Tee, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    During a period of five years 1192 water samples from swimming pools were examined for staphylococci and 338 for coliform organisms only. Eighty-nine different pools were sampled. Numbers of staphylococci, estimated by the membrane filtration technique did not bear any significant relation to either bathing load or concentration of free chlorine. Wide variation in the staphylococcal count was observed when different parts of a pool were sampled on the same occasion. The only practicable standard for pool samples in relation to staphylococci would appear to be that these organisms should be absent from 100 ml. water when the pool has been out of use during at least ten hours before sampling if filtration and chlorination are adequate. PMID:4608265

  15. Macroalgal communities of intertidal rock pools in the northwest coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Rita; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Bárbara, I.; Quintino, V.

    2006-09-01

    Macroalgal communities in littoral rock pools of the Northwest coast of Portugal were studied along 60 km of coastline. Thirty-eight pools were sampled twice between March and August 2003. Rhodophyta were the dominant algue group, whether the pools were located lower or upper on the shore, except in pools located between 2 and 3 meters where Rhodophyta share the dominance with Chlorophyta. Species richness increased from pools located at higher levels on the beach to the ones located lower on the shore. The macroalgal communities' species composition was the major source of variability between rock pools. Each pool presented a unique combination of species, forming particular communities. A reduced number of species with high percent cover are the main factor creating the differences between the pools. Also, clear differences could be found between the species compositions of macroalgal communities located in the pools and in the surrounding emergent substrata. The environmental variables considered in this study (tidal height, maximum pool depth, maximum pool width and maximum pool length), were poorly related to the communities' species composition. The results suggest that each pool is unique regarding its macroalgal community structure and that the environmental factors considered in this study were not of major importance in determining the variability between pools.

  16. New England salt marsh pools: A quantitative analysis of geomorphic and geographic features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamowicz, S.C.; Roman, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    New England salt marsh pools provide important wildlife habitat and are the object of on-going salt marsh restoration projects; however, they have not been quantified in terms of their basic geomorphic and geographic traits. An examination of 32 ditched and unditched salt marshes from the Connecticut shore of Long Island Sound to southern Maine, USA, revealed that pools from ditched and unditched marshes had similar average sizes of about 200 m2, averaged 29 cm in depth, and were located about 11 m from the nearest tidal flow. Unditched marshes had 3 times the density (13 pools/ha), 2.5 times the pool coverage (83 m pool/km transect), and 4 times the total pool surface area per hectare (913 m2 pool/ha salt marsh) of ditched sites. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that an increasing density of ditches (m ditch/ha salt marsh) was negatively correlated with pool density and total pool surface area per hectare. Creek density was positively correlated with these variables. Thus, it was not the mere presence of drainage channels that were associated with low numbers of pools, but their type (ditch versus creek) and abundance. Tidal range was not correlated with pool density or total pool surface area, while marsh latitude had only a weak relationship to total pool surface area per hectare. Pools should be incorporated into salt marsh restoration planning, and the parameters quantified here may be used as initial design targets.

  17. Incorporating incorporating economic models into seasonal pool conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, Cyndy; Bell, Kathleen P.; Freeman, Robert C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Massachusetts, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine have adopted regulatory zones around seasonal (vernal) pools to conserve terrestrial habitat for pool-breeding amphibians. Most amphibians require access to distinct seasonal habitats in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because of their complex life histories. These habitat requirements make them particularly vulnerable to land uses that destroy habitat or limit connectivity (or permeability) among habitats. Regulatory efforts focusing on breeding pools without consideration of terrestrial habitat needs will not ensure the persistence of pool-breeding amphibians. We used GIS to combine a discrete-choice, parcel-scale economic model of land conversion with a landscape permeability model based on known habitat requirements of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in Maine (USA) to examine permeability among habitat elements for alternative future scenarios. The economic model predicts future landscapes under different subdivision open space and vernal pool regulatory requirements. Our model showed that even “no build” permit zones extending 76 m (250 ft) outward from the pool edge were insufficient to assure permeability among required habitat elements. Furthermore, effectiveness of permit zones may be inconsistent due to interactions with other growth management policies, highlighting the need for local and state planning for the long-term persistence of pool-breeding amphibians in developing landscapes.

  18. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-04-01

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features.

  19. Pooling techniques for bioassay screening

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Baum, J.W.; Kaplan, E; Moorthy, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    Pooling techniques commonly are used to increase the throughput of samples used for screening purposes. While the advantages of such techniques are increased analytical efficiency and cost savings, the sensitivity of measurements decreases because it is inversely proportional to the number of samples in the pools. Consequently, uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk which are based on the results of pooled samples increase as the number of samples in the pools increases in all applications. However, sensitivities may not be seriously degraded, for example, in urinalysis, if the samples in the pools are of known time duration, or if the fraction of some attribute of the grab urine samples to that in a 24-hour composite is known (e.g., mass, specific gravity, creatinine, or volume, per 24-h interval). This paper presents square and cube pooling schemes that greatly increase throughput and can considerably reduce analytical costs (on a sample basis). The benefit-cost ratios for 5{times}5 square and 5{times}5{times}5 cube pooling schemes are 2.5 and 8.3, respectively. Three-dimensional and higher arrayed pooling schemes would result in even greater economies; however, significant improvements in analytical sensitivity are required to achieve these advantages. These are various other considerations for designing a pooling scheme, where the number of dimensions and of samples in the optimum array are influenced by: (1) the minimal detectable amount (MDA) of the analytical processes, (2) the screening dose-rate requirements, (3) the maximum masses or volumes of the composite samples that can be analyzed, (4) the information already available from results of composite analysis, and (5) the ability of an analytical system to guard against both false negative and false positive results. Many of these are beyond the scope of this paper but are being evaluated.

  20. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  1. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  2. Classification of upper Mississippi River pools based on contiguous aquatic/geomorphic habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koel, Todd M.

    2001-01-01

    Navigation pools of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) vary greatly in terms of available contiguous aquatic/geomorphic habitats. These habitats are critical for the biotic diversity and overall productivity of the floodplain corridor of each pool. In this study, similarities among pools 4-26 and an open river reach (river kilometer 47-129) of the UMR were determined from multivariate analysis of eleven habitat types that were hydrologically-contiguous (non-leveed). Isolated floodplain habitats were not included in final analyses because this isolation limits their contribution to overall riverine productivity, in part due to a lack of hydrological connectivity to the main channel during the flood pulse. Cluster analysis based on simple Euclidean distance was used to produce two major pool groups and five pool subgroups. Important habitat variables in defining pool groups, as interpreted from principal components analysis (PCA) axis 1, were contiguous floodplain shallow aquatic area and contiguous impounded area. The habitat variable most important in defining pool subgroups, as interpreted from PCA axis 2, was tertiary channel. Most notably, pool 6 was more similar to pools 14-24 than other upper pools, and pools 19 and 25 were more similar to pools 4-13 than other lower pools. These results were quite different from those of two previous investigators, primarily because only areas of non-isolated aquatic habitat were considered.

  3. The effect of whitening transformation on pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuhe; Fan, Yangyu; Liu, Weihua

    2015-12-01

    Convolutional autoencoders (CAEs) are unsupervised feature extractors for high-resolution images. In the pre-processing step, whitening transformation has widely been adopted to remove redundancy by making adjacent pixels less correlated. Pooling is a biologically inspired operation to reduce the resolution of feature maps and achieve spatial invariance in convolutional neural networks. Conventionally, pooling methods are mainly determined empirically in most previous work. Therefore, our main purpose is to study the relationship between whitening processing and pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders for image classification. We propose an adaptive pooling approach based on the concepts of information entropy to test the effect of whitening on pooling in different conditions. Experimental results on benchmark datasets indicate that the performance of pooling strategies is associated with the distribution of feature activations, which can be affected by whitening processing. This provides guidance for the selection of pooling methods in convolutional autoencoders and other convolutional neural networks.

  4. Carbon concentrations and transformations in peatland pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Pippa; Holden, Joseph; Baird, Andrew; Turner, Edward; Dooling, Gemma; Billett, Mike; McKenzie, Rebecca; Leith, Fraser; Dinsmore, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    Peatland pools may act as important features for aquatic and gaseous carbon production, transformation and release. Peatland restoration often results in new pools being created. Here we compare aquatic carbon concentrations in nearby natural and artificial pool systems monitored at three sites in northern Scotland over a three-year period. We found significant differences in pool water carbon concentrations between pool types with larger dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in artificial pools. The differences were strong for all sites and occurred in all seasons. Importantly, the DOC outflows from natural pools were markedly lower than the DOC flowing into natural pools showing that processes in these pools were transforming and removing the DOC. These effects were not found in the artificial pools. Data on the composition of the DOC (absorbance ratios, specific ultraviolet absorbance) suggested that natural pools tended to have DOC that had been processed, and was older (radiocarbon dating) while the DOC in artificial pools was young and had not undergone much biochemical processing. Slope position was an important factor influencing pool DOC with those pools with a longer upslope contributing area and collecting water with a longer hillslope residence time having larger DOC concentrations. Dissolved methane (CH4) concentrations were not significantly different between pool types but the concentrations were always above atmospheric levels with values ˜ 200 times atmospheric concentrations not uncommon. Dissolved CO2 concentrations in the artificial pools were extremely large; typically ˜20 times atmospheric levels while those in natural pools were typically only just above atmospheric levels. The pools were strong sources of CH4 and CO2 evasion from the peat system. The smaller size of the artificial pools means that more of their CO2 is stored in the water until it reaches the stream system, while the larger natural pools have

  5. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Certificates. (a) SBA Guarantee of Pool Certificates. SBA guarantees to a Pool Investor the timely payment of... Investor is entitled. If an Obligor misses a scheduled payment pursuant to the terms of the Pool Note... the schedule of interest and principal payments to the Pool Investor. If SBA makes such payments,...

  6. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Certificates. (a) SBA Guarantee of Pool Certificates. SBA guarantees to a Pool Investor the timely payment of... Investor is entitled. If an Obligor misses a scheduled payment pursuant to the terms of the Pool Note... the schedule of interest and principal payments to the Pool Investor. If SBA makes such payments,...

  7. European Swimming Pool Designs Cross the Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskulak, Neil

    1983-01-01

    Conventional swimming pools have been built with the needs of competitive swimmers in mind. Planners in several European countries have greatly increased swimming pool attendance by designing "leisure pools," based primarily on the needs and behavior of recreationists. Design of these pools and their equipment requirements are discussed.…

  8. HYDROLOGY AND LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY OF VERNAL POOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vernal pools are shaped by hydrologic processes which influence many aspects of pool function. The hydrologic budget of a pool can be summarized by a water balance equation that relates changes in the amount of water in the pool to precipitation, ground- and surface-water flows, ...

  9. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  10. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  11. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  12. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  13. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  14. Swimming Pools. Managing School Facilities, Guide 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide for schools with swimming pools offers advice concerning appropriate training for pool managers, the importance of water quality and testing, safety in the handling of chemicals, maintenance and cleaning requirements, pool security, and health concerns. The guide covers both indoor and outdoor pools, explains some technical terms,…

  15. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Gabe V.; Carlson, Nancy M.; Donaldson, Alan D.

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  16. Flame spread across liquid pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard; Miller, Fletcher; Schiller, David; Sirignano, William A.

    1993-01-01

    For flame spread over liquid fuel pools, the existing literature suggests three gravitational influences: (1) liquid phase buoyant convection, delaying ignition and assisting flame spread; (2) hydrostatic pressure variation, due to variation in the liquid pool height caused by thermocapillary-induced convection; and (3) gas-phase buoyant convection in the opposite direction to the liquid phase motion. No current model accounts for all three influences. In fact, prior to this work, there was no ability to determine whether ignition delay times and flame spread rates would be greater or lesser in low gravity. Flame spread over liquid fuel pools is most commonly characterized by the relationship of the initial pool temperature to the fuel's idealized flash point temperature, with four or five separate characteristic regimes having been identified. In the uniform spread regime, control has been attributed to: (1) gas-phase conduction and radiation; (2) gas-phase conduction only; (3) gas-phase convection and liquid conduction, and most recently (4) liquid convection ahead of the flame. Suggestions were made that the liquid convection was owed to both vuoyancy and thermocapillarity. Of special interest to this work is the determination of whether, and under what conditions, pulsating spread can and will occur in microgravity in the absence of buoyant flows in both phases. The approach we have taken to resolving the importance of buoyancy for these flames is: (1) normal gravity experiments and advanced diagnostics; (2) microgravity experiments; and (3) numerical modelling at arbitrary gravitational level.

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=poolpumps.pr_crit_poolpumps

  18. Sustainability of common pool resources

    PubMed Central

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426

  19. Pool power control in remelting systems

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Rodney L [Albuquerque, NM; Melgaard, David K [Albuquerque, NM; Beaman, Joseph J [Austin, TX

    2011-12-13

    An apparatus for and method of controlling a remelting furnace comprising adjusting current supplied to an electrode based upon a predetermined pool power reference value and adjusting the electrode drive speed based upon the predetermined pool power reference value.

  20. Cold Pools in the Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Zhong, Shiyuan; Shaw, William J.; Hubbe, John M.; Bian, Xindi; Mittelstadt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent midwinter cold air pools produce multi-day periods of cold, dreary weather in valleys and basins. Persistent stable stratification leads to the buildup of pollutants and moisture in the pool. Because the pool sometimes has temperatures below freezing while the air above is warmer, freezing precipitation often occurs with consequent effects on transportation and safety. Forecasting the buildup and breakdown of these cold pools is difficult because the physical mechanisms leading to their formation, maintenance, and destruction have received little study. This paper provides a succinct meteorological definition of a cold pool, develops a climatology of Columbia Basin cold pools, and analyzes remote and in situ temperature and wind sounding data for two winter cold pool episodes that were accompanied by fog and stratus, illustrating many of the physical mechanisms affecting cold pool evolution.

  1. Pool Safety: A Few Simple Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents suggestions by the National Swimming Pool Safety Committee on how to keep children safe while swimming. Ideas include maintaining strict adult supervision, pool and spa barriers, and knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (SM)

  2. Swimming Pool Survey, Offutt AFB, Nebraska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    70-RIl9 236 SWIMMING POOL SIEVEY OFFUTT NWD NEURASIR(U) AIR FORCE 1/1 OCCUIPATIONAL AND EIWIRONHENTAL HEALTH LAIDBOOKS NFl TX ft 0 INGY! DEC 87... test in swimming pool evaluations to determine the severity of’ future contamination problems. C. In order to maintain pool water stability...154EQ0146MSB I4 Swimming Pool Survey, Offutt AFB NE ROBERT D. BINOVI, Lt Col, USAF, BSC vTO ELECTEOEC 3 1197 ,: i December 1987 Final Report Distribution

  3. Swimming pools soak up the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Cuoghi, D.; Hesse, P.; Schiller, T.

    1996-05-01

    Solar pool heaters survived the boom and bust solar years of the 1970s and 1980s. Today they are even popular and cost-effective in parts of the country where many people think solar is impractical. This article discusses the following topics: how solar pool heaters work; types of solar pool heater collectors; collector and pump sizing; collector siting and mounting; systems costs and economics; pool covers. 3 figs.

  4. Interior view of main entry facing northeast Fitzsimons General ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main entry facing northeast - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. Detail of main entry on west side facing east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of main entry on west side facing east - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  7. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  8. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  10. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  11. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  12. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  15. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  16. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  17. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  19. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  20. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  1. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  2. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  3. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  4. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  5. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  6. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  7. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  8. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.215 Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of...

  9. Apparatus for heating a swimming pool

    SciTech Connect

    Kremen, R.D.

    1983-09-06

    This disclosure relates to a solar heater apparatus for a swimming pool which incorporates a submersible suspendible black body sheet to serve as a device to absorb solar radiation and transfer the collected energy to the pool water so that the pool water can be efficiently heated.

  10. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  13. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  14. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  15. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  16. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  18. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1005.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  19. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  1. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  2. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  5. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  6. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  7. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  8. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  9. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  10. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1126.7 Section 1126.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1126.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1006.7 Section 1006.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1006.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  12. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  13. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  14. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  15. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  16. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  17. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1007.7 Section 1007.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1007.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, a unit of plants as specified in paragraph (e) of this section, or a plant...

  18. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1131.7 Section 1131.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.7 Pool plant. Pool Plant means a plant or unit of plants specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (g) of this...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  20. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of transmittal must accompany each Pool Certificate which a Pool Investor submits to the CSA for transfer. The Pool Investor must supply the following information in the letter: (1) Pool number; (2) Pool... recovery. At the same time a Pool Investor submits a letter of transmittal for a Pool Certificate...

  1. 13 CFR 120.1709 - Transfers of Pool Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of transmittal must accompany each Pool Certificate which a Pool Investor submits to the CSA for transfer. The Pool Investor must supply the following information in the letter: (1) Pool number; (2) Pool... recovery. At the same time a Pool Investor submits a letter of transmittal for a Pool Certificate...

  2. Solar swimming pool heating: Description of a validated model

    SciTech Connect

    Haaf, W.; Luboschik, U.; Tesche, B. )

    1994-07-01

    In the framework of a European Demonstration Programme, co-financed by CEC and national bodies, a model was elaborated and validated for open-air swimming pools having a minimal surface of 100 m[sup 2] and a minimal depth of 0.5 m. The model consists of two parts, the energy balance of the pool and the solar plant. The theoretical background of the energy balance of an open-air swimming pool was found to be poor. Special monitoring campaigns were used to validate the dynamic model using mathematical parameter identification methods. The final model was simplified in order to shorten calculation time and to improve the user-friendliness by reducing the input values to the most important one. The programme is commercially available. However, it requires the hourly meteorological data of a test reference year (TRY) as an input. The users are mainly designing engineers.

  3. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  4. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  5. Occurrence, origin, and toxicity of disinfection byproducts in chlorinated swimming pools: An overview.

    PubMed

    Manasfi, Tarek; Coulomb, Bruno; Boudenne, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-30

    Disinfection treatments are critical to conserve the microbiological quality of swimming pool water and to prevent water-borne infections. The formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools is an undesirable consequence resulting from reactions of disinfectants (e.g. chlorine) with organic and inorganic matter present in pool water, mainly brought by bathers. A considerable body of occurrence studies has identified several classes of DBPs in swimming pools with more than 100 compounds detected, mainly in chlorinated freshwater pools. Trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are among the major DBPs in swimming pools. Other DBPs such as haloacetonitriles (HAN), haloamines, nitrosamines, and halobenzoquinones have also been detected. Researchers have been interested in identifying the precursors responsible for the formation of DBPs. In swimming pools, anthropogenic organic loads brought by swimmers increase the complexity of pool water chemistry. When human inputs (e.g. sweat, urine, hair, skin and personal care products) containing very diverse organic compounds are introduced to pools by swimmers, they react with chlorine resulting in the formation of complex mixtures of DBPs. The overwhelming majority of the total organic halide (TOX) content is still unknown in swimming pools. Exposure of swimmers to DBPs can take place through multiple routes, depending on the chemical properties of each DBP. Toxicological studies have shown that swimming pool water can be mutagenic with different potencies reported in different studies. Many DBPs have been shown to be genotoxic and carcinogenic. DBPs were also shown to induce reproductive and neurotoxic adverse effects in animal studies. Epidemiologic studies in humans have shown that exposure to DBPs increases the risk of respiratory adverse effects and bladder cancer. Association between DBPs and other health effects are still inconclusive. Data gathered in the present review

  6. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE POOL BUILDING 307 AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE POOL BUILDING 307 AND THE POOL 308, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Pool Building & Swimming Pool, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. Modernizing Main Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    This article features Entrepreneurship Pioneers Initiative (EPI), a nine-month-long educational program targeted to first-generation, small business owners offered through the Rutgers University Center for Urban Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. In its second year, EPI has worked with more than 40 businesses out of an applicant pool of…

  8. Solar powered swimming pool skimmer

    SciTech Connect

    Distinti, J.A.; Fonti, R.G.

    1992-04-21

    This patent describes a swimming pool skimmer assembly. It comprises: a U-shaped housing which includes two spaced-apart pontoons and a leg connecting the pontoons together, a paddle wheel assembly mounted on the housing and including, a motor having an output shaft, a gear reduction assembly connected to the motor output shaft and a paddle wheel means connected to the gear reduction assembly; a debris catcher mounted on the housing adjacent to the paddle wheel; power means on the housing and connected to the motor, including a solar cell array mounted on the housing connecting leg, and electrically connected to the motor, and a solar concentrator mounted on the housing adjacent to the solar cell; and an alarm circuit means connected to the debris catcher.

  9. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  10. Integrated geophysical investigations of Main Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saribudak, By Mustafa; Hauwert, Nico M.

    2017-03-01

    Barton Springs is a major discharge site for the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and is located in Zilker Park, Austin, Texas. Barton Springs actually consists of at least four springs. The Main Barton Springs discharges into the Barton Springs pool from the Barton Springs fault and several outlets along a fault, from a cave, several fissures, and gravel-filled solution cavities on the floor of the pool west of the fault. Surface geophysical surveys [resistivity imaging, induced polarization (IP), self-potential (SP), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR)] were performed across the Barton Springs fault and at the vicinity of the Main Barton Springs in south Zilker Park. The purpose of the surveys was two-fold: 1) locate the precise location of submerged conduits (caves, voids) carrying flow to Main Barton Springs; and 2) characterize the geophysical signatures of the fault crossing Barton Springs pool. Geophysical results indicate significant anomalies to the south of the Barton Springs pool. A majority of these anomalies indicate a fault-like pattern, in front of the south entrance to the swimming pool. In addition, resistivity and SP results, in particular, suggest the presence of a large conduit in the southern part of Barton Springs pool. The groundwater flow-path to the Main Barton Springs could follow the locations of those resistivity and SP anomalies along the newly discovered fault, instead of along the Barton Springs fault, as previously thought.

  11. LinguisticBelief and PoolEvidence

    SciTech Connect

    DARBY, JOHN

    2008-03-11

    LinguisticBelief allows the creation and analysis of combinations of linguistic variables with epistemic uncertainty for decision making. The model is solved using approximate reasoning to implement the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for combinations of variables expressed as purely linguistic fuzzy sets. PoolEvidence pools evidence for linguistic variables from many experts for input into LinguisticBelief.

  12. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  13. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  14. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  15. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  16. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  17. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  18. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  19. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  20. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  1. 10 CFR 36.33 - Irradiator pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purification system designed to be capable of maintaining the water during normal operation at a conductivity..., irradiator pools must either: (1) Have a water-tight stainless steel liner or a liner metallurgically... water level that could allow water to drain out of the pool. Pipes that have intakes more than 0.5...

  2. Camera Would Monitor Weld-Pool Contours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S.; Gutow, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Weld pool illuminated and viewed coaxially along welding torch. Proposed monitoring subsystem for arc welder provides image in which horizontal portions of surface of weld pool highlighted. Monitoring and analyzing subsystems integrated into overall control system of robotic welder. Control system sets welding parameters to adapt to changing conditions, maintaining surface contour giving desired pattern of reflections.

  3. The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The study of chemistry involved in the maintenance of a swimming pool provides a lot of chemical education to the students, including the demonstration of the importance of pH in water chemistry. The various chemical aspects hidden in the maintenance of the pool are being described.

  4. A Training Program for Swimming Pool Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, James R., Jr.; Mihalik, Brian J.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States today, there is a dramatic shortage of qualified public swimming pool operators. This article describes a training program initiated in South Carolina to serve the needs of everyone responsible for and involved in the safe operation and management of a public swimming pool. (MT)

  5. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Peatland Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, E.; Baird, A. J.; Billett, M. F.; Chapman, P. J.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Holden, J.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands contain around one third of the global soil carbon (C) stock. Understanding the processes in peatland C cycling, and in particular those involved in the release of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, is a current research priority. Natural open-water pools are a common feature of many peatlands, and previous research suggests pools can be strong sources of atmospheric GHGs, particularly CH4, and thus have the potential to play an important role in global radiative forcing. The area of open-water in peatlands is rapidly expanding in a warming Arctic (e.g. Walter et al., 2007) while artificially created pools are becoming more commonplace in the recent drive to restore the hydrological functioning of drained peatlands by blocking ditches. We present the results of >2 years of comprehensive field monitoring from pool complexes in the Flow Country of northern Scotland, the largest expanse (c.4000 km2) of blanket bog in Europe. Concentrations and fluxes of CO2 and CH4 are presented from 12 intensively monitored pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. We examined both natural (n = 6) and artificial (n = 6) pools, which allowed us to quantify how pools created during restoration compare to undisturbed sites. C and hydrology budgets were determined for the study pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. Dissolved concentrations of GHGs ranged from 0.08-4.68 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.01-731 µg CH4-C L-1 in natural pools, and 0.29-10.38 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.04-239 µg CH4-C L-1 in artificial pools. GHG fluxes from natural pool surfaces ranged between -2.47-653 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -31.7-14.8 g CO2 m-2 d-1. Artificial pool GHG fluxes were -8.19-581 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -7.66-34.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1. We provide more accurate GHG budgets for peatlands with natural pool complexes by considering their relative importance at the landscape-scale, and outline the potential effect on GHG fluxes when creating artificial pools during peatland restoration

  6. Achieving compliance with pool fencing legislation in New Zealand: how much progress has been made in 10 years?

    PubMed

    Gulliver, Pauline; Chalmers, David; Cousins, Kimberley

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess current levels of enforcement and compliance with the Fencing of Swimming Pools Act 1987, and to determine if enforcement activity and compliance has changed since 1997. A postal questionnaire was sent to all of 73 territorial authorities in New Zealand. Main outcome measures include number and rates of swimming pools (per 1000 dwellings and per 1000 population); mean number of building consents and code compliance certificates issued for pools per territorial authority; mean number of pool inspections made per territorial authority; and the proportion of pools complying with the requirements of the Act. There was around a 9% increase in the prevalence of domestic swimming pools in New Zealand, from 46 pools/1000 dwellings in 1997 to 50 pools/1000 dwellings in 2006 was observed. There has been a 65% increase in the proportion of pools reported as complying with the Act. The proportion of authorities reporting a programme of re-inspection for domestic swimming pools increased from 28% in 1997 to 63% in 2006. There has also been an increase in the proportion of domestic swimming pools recorded as complying with the Act. Finally, a considerable improvement in the enforcement and monitoring activities of territorial authorities in New Zealand was found.

  7. Analysis of an open-air swimming pool solar heating system by using an experimentally validated TRNSYS model

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, Elisa; Martinez, Pedro J.

    2010-01-15

    In the case of private outdoor swimming pools, seldom larger than 100 m{sup 2}, conventional auxiliary heating systems are being installed less and less. Solar heating is an option to extend the swimming season. The temperature evolution of an open-air swimming pool highly depends on the wind speed directly on the water surface, which at the same time is influenced by the surroundings of the pool. In this paper, the TRNSYS model of a private open-air pool with a 50-m{sup 2} surface was validated by registering the water temperature evolution and the meteorological data at the pool site. Evaporation is the main component of energy loss in swimming pools. Six different sets of constants found in literature were considered to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient with the purpose of finding the most suitable one for the TRNSYS pool model. In order to do that, the evolution of the pool water temperature predicted by the TRNSYS pool model was compared with the experimentally registered one. The simulation with TRNSYS of the total system, including the swimming pool and the absorber circuit integrated into the existing filter circuit, provided information regarding the increase of the pool temperature for different collector areas during the swimming season. This knowledge, together with the economic costs, support the decision about the absorber field size. (author)

  8. Difficulties with estimating and interpreting species pools and the implcations for understanding patterns of diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating that species pools play a major role in regulating variations in small-scale diversity. However, our ability to unambiguously estimate and interpret species pools remains a major impediment to understanding the processes that control patterns of diversity. Two main approaches have been employed to evaluate the relationships between species pools and species diversity. The direct approach has been to estimate the actual sizes of species pools by sampling discrete areas at larger spatial scales and then relating these estimates to samples taken at smaller scales. The indirect approach has been to search for correlations between abiotic environmental factors and patterns of diversity that are indicative of gradients in species pools. Both of these approaches have substantial predictive capability but also have limitations that impair our ability to draw unambiguous interpretations about causal factors. A primary difficulty for the direct approach is in deciding which species in the larger pool of potential species are actually capable of living in a sample. In this regard, the indirect approach requires fewer assumptions and has the ability to detect previously unsuspected gradients in species pools. As with the direct approach, assessing the causes for observed gradients in species pools remains a limitation for the indirect approach. Consideration of experimental studies of potential niches suggests that it may be valuable to distinguish between potential and observed species pools if the role of competitive exclusion is to be fully assessed. This paper concludes by arguing for (1) an increased use of multivariate studies that examine the effects of species pools indirectly and (2) further experimental studies designed to determine potential species pools.

  9. A biosignature suite from cave pool precipitates, Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Melim, L A; Liescheidt, R; Northup, D E; Spilde, M N; Boston, P J; Queen, J M

    2009-11-01

    Calcite cave pool precipitates often display a variety of potential biosignatures from the macroscopic to the submicroscopic. A fossil cave pool in Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico, exhibits older stalactites and stalagmites that are completely coated in brown, laminated calcitic crust that extends down as pool fingers and u-loops. The pool fingers and u-loops are mainly micrite to clotted micrite, some recrystallized to microspar, with some isopachous spar layers. Micrite, particularly clotted micrite, is usually interpreted by carbonate workers as microbial in origin. Scanning electron microscopy examination of etched pool fingers, u-loops, and the brown crust revealed abundant calcified microbial filaments and biofilm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that these features have excess carbon, above that found in pure calcite. Independent carbon analysis indicated that these same samples contain up to 0.2% organic carbon. Since pool fingers hang down but form underwater, we hypothesize they are biogenic with hanging microbial filaments or biofilm acting as nuclei for calcite precipitation. Because of the abundance of micrite and fossil filaments, we further hypothesize that these pendant features formed during a period of plentiful nutrients and active hydrological activity when the pool was literally dripping with microbial slime. Although each of these lines of evidence could be interpreted in other ways, their combined weight strongly suggests the cave pool precipitates in Cottonwood Cave are biogenic. These investigations can be used to help inform extraterrestrial life-detection studies.

  10. Economic and Occupational Aspects of Recent Inmigration to Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Louis A.

    Inmigration to Maine was found to have altered population distribution, increased the proportion of younger, highly educated persons, and provided a pool of professional/managerial persons for community involvement. Data gathered from 417 persons moving into Maine during the July through December period of either 1980 or 1983 showed inmigrants to…

  11. Apparatus for draining lower drywell pool water into suppresion pool in boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus which mitigates temperature stratification in the suppression pool water caused by hot water drained into the suppression pool from the lower drywell pool. The outlet of a spillover hole formed in the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool is connected to and in flow communication with one end of piping. The inlet end of the piping is above the water level in the suppression pool. The piping is routed down the vertical downcomer duct and through a hole formed in the thin wall separating the downcomer duct from the suppression pool water. The piping discharge end preferably has an elevation at or near the bottom of the suppression pool and has a location in the horizontal plane which is removed from the point where the piping first emerges on the suppression pool side of the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool. This enables water at the surface of the lower drywell pool to flow into and be discharged at the bottom of the suppression pool.

  12. Pool-riffle Maintenance in Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Pool-riffles are maintained through a combination of at least several mechanisms that operate and interact over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Velocity or shear reversal is subsumed within several of these mechanisms, however a growing body of work suggests that (1) flow convergence into pools, (2) structuring of riffle crest sediments, and (3) local feedbacks between flood stage bedform evolution and hydrodynamics may be disproportionately important. We additionally propose that temporal and spatial patterns of sediment sorting across pool-riffles may also provide some level of bedform maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of these maintenance mechanisms is needed. We will report results of several flume experiments for autogenic pool-riffles. The experiments examined pool-riffle maintenance processes under variable flood and sediment supply conditions. A focus of our work is to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of pool-riffle sediment sorting, and to examine this in relation to temporal patterns of bedform evolution. The experiments represent a 5:1 scale-model of a prototype reach of a pool-riffle stream located within the University of British Columbia Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, Maple Ridge, BC.

  13. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy...

  14. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy...

  15. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy...

  16. Swimming Pools. A Guide to Their Planning, Design and Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsen, M. Alexander, Ed.

    Information is presented regarding all phases of swimming pool development and operation from earliest planning considerations to final programing. This comprehensive book covers--(1) the steps involved in planning a pool, (2) designing the pool, (3) water circulation, filtration, and treatment, (4) community pools, school and agency pools, and…

  17. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool...

  18. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool...

  19. Thermal analysis of five outdoor swimming pools heated by unglazed solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Molineaux, B.; Lachal, B.; Guisan, O. )

    1994-07-01

    We have analysed measurement from five outdoor swimming pools located in Switzerland and heated by unglazed solar collectors. The main contributions to the daily energy balance of the swimming pools are evaluated. They include the active and passive solar gains, as well as the heat losses related to radiation, evaporation, convection, and water renewal (in order of importance). Coherent results are obtained using multilinear regressions in order to determine the best fitting values of the empirical parameters involved in the thermal equations.

  20. Monitoring and simulation of the thermal performance of solar heated outdoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Hahne, E.; Kuebler, R. )

    1994-07-01

    Based on detailed measurements of two outdoor swimming pools (at Leonberg and Moehringen) a computer model has been developed and validated for the simulation of the thermal behaviour of such pools. The subroutine is compatible to TRNSYS 13.1. Correlations for the heat losses due to evaporation, convection, and radiation were taken from literature and tested in the model. It was not possible to select one optimal correlation for the description of the evaporative heat losses of both swimming pools due to the different exposure to wind. Using the most suitable correlation for the evaporative heat losses of each pool allowed for the simulation of the pool temperature with less than 0.5 K standard deviation between measured and simulated temperature. the major problem was the measurement of the relevant wind speed to be used in the correlations describing the evaporative heat losses under real outdoor conditions. A method is described detailing how to calibrate the model using the heating energy requirement and the measured pool temperature during actual operation periods. The analysis of the measured data of two different outdoor swimming pools under the same climatic conditions showed differences of a factor 2 and more in the heat demand per unit pool area. This was mainly caused by the difference in local wind speed which differed by more than a factor 4. The two pools investigated were heated by solar energy with a fraction of 28% and 14%, respectively, and the seasonal efficiency of the solar systems was 37.7% and 33.4%. Simulations show that a reduction of the water temperature from 24[degrees]C to 22[degrees]C during periods with low outdoor temperatures and few visitors, reduces the fuel consumption to less than half and increases the solar fraction from 28% to 50% in one pool.

  1. Dynamics of Inorganic Nutrients in Intertidal Sediments: Porewater, Exchangeable, and Intracellular Pools.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Bohorquez, Julio; Corzo, Alfonso; Jimenez-Arias, Juan L; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: porewater (PW) nutrients and exchangeable (EX) ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB) and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC), highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC, and EX) and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance) and organic matter (OM) contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain). MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an alternative nitrate

  2. Dynamics of Inorganic Nutrients in Intertidal Sediments: Porewater, Exchangeable, and Intracellular Pools

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Bohorquez, Julio; Corzo, Alfonso; Jimenez-Arias, Juan L.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: porewater (PW) nutrients and exchangeable (EX) ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB) and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC), highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC, and EX) and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance) and organic matter (OM) contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain). MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an alternative nitrate

  3. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  4. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electronic Media , Office of Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study ... Calendar Resources Resources Contact Us Frequently Asked Questions CDC Quick Links Data & Statistics Freedom of Information Act ...

  5. The Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1992-11-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed.

  6. Carbon Pool of Permafrost in Kolyma-Indigirka Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, D.; Veremeeva, A.; Kraev, G.; Kholodov, A. L.; Rivkina, E.

    2014-12-01

    The original database of total carbon, bulk density and iciness and new Geological map were compiled for carbon pool permafrost estimating in Quaternary deposits of North East Yakutia. The database was based on original drilling data on the main Quaternary stratigraphic units of Kolyma-Indigirka Lowland (12 key sites, 120 boreholes, 1000 samples). New geological map was created according Landsat-7 Satellite Image (spatial resolution - 30 m), the State Geological map of Quaternary Deposits (2000) and our field investigation for last 30 years in studying region. Studying area was divided into 3 regions according stratigraphy: East of Yana-Indigirka Lowland, Chukochya and Alazeya Rivers basins, East of Kolyma Lowland. Estimating was compiled for upper 25 m thickness.4 main geomorphological levels were selected for calculation: yedoma (12,8% of total area), alasses (48%), river valley (20,9%) and coastal accumulative lowland (16,7%). Our studies shows, that distribution of yedoma was overestimated in 3,5 times by State Geological Map, mainly due to underestimating of allases (increasing area on 60%).According our assessment, inorganic carbon doesn't exceed 10% of total carbon in the studying area. Permafrost stratigraphic units contain 0.6-2.1% of TC, with the highest concentrations found in Cover Layer and Ice Complex (Yedoma). The biggest carbon pool is found in Olyor, which refers to the most widespread sediments studied and high carbon concentration (up to 18 kg*m-3). The TC pool of Yedoma was 1.5-2 times overestimated by previous studies due to less samples and underestimated iciness. The TC pool of Kolyma delta is 5-7 times overestimated because of higher total organic carbon values considered. Taking the morphology into account, the TC pool assessed is 23.4 ± 9.5 Gt at near 95 000 km2 area. Mean specific carbon content is around 9.9 kg*m-3 in Kolyma Lowland permafrost. The stratigraphic unit-based approach used to compile the database and its analysis provides

  7. Profit pools: a fresh look at strategy.

    PubMed

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    In charting strategy, many managers focus on revenue growth, assuming that profits will follow. But that approach is dangerous: today's deep revenue pool may become tomorrow's dry hole. To create strategies that result in profitable growth, managers need to look beyond revenues to see the shape of their industry's profit pool. The authors define an industry's profit pool as the total profits earned at all points along the industry's value chain. Although the concept is simple, the structure of a profit pool is usually quite complex. The pool will be deeper in some segments of the value chain than in others, and depths will vary within an individual segment as well. Segment profitability may, for example, vary widely by customer group, product category, geographic market, and distribution channel. Moreover, the pattern of profit concentration in an industry will often be very different from the pattern of revenue concentration. The authors describe how successful companies have gained competitive advantage by developing sophisticated profit-pool strategies. They explain how U-Haul identified new sources of profit in the consumer-truck-rental industry; how Merck reached beyond its traditional value-chain role to protect its profits in the pharmaceuticals industry; how Dell rebounded from a misguided channel decision by refocusing on its traditional source of profit; and how Anheuser-Busch made a series of astute product, pricing, and operating decisions to dominate the beer industry's profit pool. The companies with the best understanding of their industry's profit pool, the authors argue, will be in the best position to thrive over the long term.

  8. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  9. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  10. Visualization of Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Pools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    flow visualization of Gas Tungsten Arc weld pools for HY-80 steel is presented using a pulsed laser light source and a conventional night~vision...visualization of Gas Tungsten Arc weld pools for HY-80 steel is presented using a pulsed laser light source and a conventional night-vision image-intensifier...effects of electromagnetic stirring on GTA welds in austenitic stainless steel . Changes in shape and solidification structure of welds observed

  11. Electromagnetic Interference in a Private Swimming Pool

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Sandia; Lavu, Madhav; Atoui, Moustapha; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya

    2016-01-01

    Although current lead design and filtering capabilities have greatly improved, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) from environmental sources has been increasingly reported in patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device (CIED) [1]. Few cases of inappropriate intracardiac Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) associated with swimming pool has been described [2]. Here we present a case of 64 year old male who presented with an interesting EMI signal that was subsequently identified to be related to AC current leak in his swimming pool. PMID:27479205

  12. Characterisation of the Permafrost Carbon Pool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhry, P.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J.W.; Hugelius, G.; Koven, C.D.; Ping, C.-L.; Schirrmeister, L.; Tarnocai, C.

    2013-01-01

    The current estimate of the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the northern permafrost region of 1672 Petagrams (Pg) C is much larger than previously reported and needs to be incorporated in global soil carbon (C) inventories. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), extended to include the range 0–300 cm, is now available online for wider use by the scientific community. An important future aim is to provide quantitative uncertainty ranges for C pool estimates. Recent studies have greatly improved understanding of the regional patterns, landscape distribution and vertical (soil horizon) partitioning of the permafrost C pool in the upper 3 m of soils. However, the deeper C pools in unconsolidated Quaternary deposits need to be better constrained. A general lability classification of the permafrost C pool should be developed to address potential C release upon thaw. The permafrost C pool and its dynamics are beginning to be incorporated into Earth System models, although key periglacial processes such as thermokarst still need to be properly represented to obtain a better quantification of the full permafrost C feedback on global climate change.

  13. Pool Boiling Experiment Has Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) is designed to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. Nucleate pool boiling is a process wherein a stagnant pool of liquid is in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the liquid. If the liquid absorbs enough heat, a vapor bubble can be formed. This process occurs when a pot of water boils. On Earth, gravity tends to remove the vapor bubble from the heating surface because it is dominated by buoyant convection. In the orbiting space shuttle, however, buoyant convection has much less of an effect because the forces of gravity are very small. The Pool Boiling Experiment was initiated to provide insight into this nucleate boiling process, which has many Earthbound applications, such as steam-generation power plants, petroleum, and other chemical plants. Also, by using the test fluid R-113, the Pool Boiling Experiment can provide some basic understanding of the boiling behavior of cryogenic fluids without the large cost of an experiment using an actual cryogen.

  14. Pool Boiling Experiment Has Five Successful Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Fran

    1997-01-01

    The Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) is designed to improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that constitute nucleate pool boiling. Nucleate pool boiling is a process wherein a stagnant pool of liquid is in contact with a surface that can supply heat to the liquid. If the liquid absorbs enough heat, a vapor bubble can be formed. This process occurs when a pot of water boils. On Earth, gravity tends to remove the vapor bubble from the heating surface because it is dominated by buoyant convection. In the orbiting space shuttle, however, buoyant convection has much less of an effect because the forces of gravity are very small. The Pool Boiling Experiment was initiated to provide insight into this nucleate boiling process, which has many earthbound applications in steamgeneration power plants, petroleum plants, and other chemical plants. In addition, by using the test fluid R-113, the Pool Boiling Experiment can provide some basic understanding of the boiling behavior of cryogenic fluids without the large cost of an experiment using an actual cryogen.

  15. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  16. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  17. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  18. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  19. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.20 Thousands-block number pooling. (a) Definition. Thousands... number pooling as a mandatory nationwide numbering resource optimization strategy, all carriers,...

  20. 77 FR 76952 - Rescinding Spent Fuel Pool Exclusion Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 Rescinding Spent Fuel Pool Exclusion Regulations AGENCY... fuel pool storage impacts from license renewal environmental reviews. This action is necessary...

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa on vinyl-canvas inflatables and foam teaching aids in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Schets, F M; van den Berg, H H J L; Baan, R; Lynch, G; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-12-01

    Swimming pool-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections mainly result in folliculitis and otitis externa. P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on surfaces in the swimming pool environment. The presence of P. aeruginosa on inflatables and foam teaching aids in 24 public swimming pools in the Netherlands was studied. Samples (n = 230) were taken from 175 objects and analysed for P. aeruginosa by culture. Isolated P. aeruginosa were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion. P. aeruginosa was detected in 63 samples (27%), from 47 objects (27%) in 19 (79%) swimming pools. More vinyl-canvas objects (44%) than foam objects (20%) were contaminated, as were wet objects (43%) compared to dry objects (13%). Concentrations were variable, and on average higher on vinyl-canvas than on foam objects. Forty of 193 (21%) P. aeruginosa isolates from 11 different objects were (intermediate) resistant to one or more of 12 clinically relevant antibiotics, mostly to imipenem and aztreonam. The immediate risk of a P. aeruginosa infection from exposure to swimming pool objects seems limited, but the presence of P. aeruginosa on pool objects is unwanted and requires attention of pool managers and responsible authorities. Strict drying and cleaning policies are needed for infrequently used vinyl-canvas objects.

  2. Biogeochemical hotspots within forested landscapes: quantifying the functional role of vernal pools in ecosystem processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, K. A.; Rancatti, R.; Calhoun, A.; Hunter, M.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical hotspots are characterized as small areas within a landscape matrix that show comparably high chemical reaction rates relative to surrounding areas. For small, natural features to generate biogeochemical hotspots within a landscape, their contribution to nutrient dynamics must be significant relative to nutrient demand of the surrounding landscape. In northeastern forests in the US, vernal pools are abundant, small features that typically fill in spring with snow melt and precipitation and dry by the end of the summer. Ephemeral flooding alters soil moisture and the depth of the oxic/anoxic boundary in the soil, which may affect leaf-litter decomposition rates and nutrient dynamics including denitrification. Additionally, pool-breeding organisms may influence nutrient dynamics via consumer-driven nutrient remineralization. We studied the effects of vernal pools on rates of leaf-litter decomposition and denitrification in forested habitats in Maine. Our results indicate leaf-litter decomposition and denitrification rates in submerged habitats of vernal pools were greater than in upland forest habitat. Our data also suggest pool-breeding organisms, such as wood frogs, may play an important role in nutrient dynamics within vernal pools. Together, the results suggest vernal pools may function as biogeochemical hotspots within forested landscapes.

  3. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  4. Seasonal Patterns of the Insect Community Structure in Urban Rain Pools of Temperate Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fontanarrosa, M. Soledad; Collantes, Marta B.; Bachmann, Axel O.

    2009-01-01

    Temporary aquatic environments are widespread in the world, and although there are considerable regional differences in their type and method of formation they have many physical, chemical and biological properties in common. With the aim to increase knowledge of urban temporary pool fauna, the objectives of this work were to assess the seasonal patterns of species composition, richness, and diversity of the aquatic insect community inhabiting rain pools in urban temperate Argentina, and to identify the environmental variables associated to these patterns. Four temporary pools of an urban green space in Buenos Aires City were studied throughout a 1-year period. Eleven flood cycles with very varied hydroperiods and dry periods, mainly associated with rainfall, were identified. Insect species richness in these temporary urban pools, 86 taxa were documented, was found to be within the range reported for wild temporary water bodies of other regions of the world. The present results provide evidence for the existence of a clear link between habitat and community variability. Hydroperiod and seasonality were the main environmental factors involved in structuring the insect communities of the studied water bodies. Urban pools in green spaces have the potential to act to its dwellers like corridors through the urban matrix. Taking into account these characteristics and their accessibility, urban temporary pools can be considered as promising habitats for the study of ecological processes involving the insect community. PMID:19611261

  5. Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.

    PubMed

    Woodward, John L

    2007-02-20

    Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating.

  6. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool punishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-03-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool punishers as the three competing strategies. Fines and costs of pool punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects a payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single- and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-paper-scissors type of cyclic dominance can emerge in strikingly different ways.

  7. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool punishment.

    PubMed

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-03-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool punishers as the three competing strategies. Fines and costs of pool punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects a payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single- and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-paper-scissors type of cyclic dominance can emerge in strikingly different ways.

  8. Monitoring Physicochemical and Nutrient Dynamics Along a Development Gradient in Maine Ephemeral Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzikowski, L. Y.; Capps, K. A.; Calhoun, A.

    2014-12-01

    Vernal pools are ephemeral wetlands in forested landscapes that fill with snowmelt, precipitation, and/or groundwater in the spring, and characteristically dry down through the summer months. Typically, vernal pool research has focused on the population and community ecology of pool-breeding organisms (amphibians and macroinvertebrates) conducted during their relatively short breeding season. Yet, little is known about the temporal variability of biogeochemical processes within and among vernal pools in urbanizing landscapes. In this study, we monitored physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics in 22 vernal pools in central Maine post thaw in 2014. Four pristine pools were sampled weekly in five locations within the pool for ambient nutrient concentrations (SRP, NH4, NOx) and at three locations for physicochemical characteristics (DO, pH, temperature, conductivity). In the remaining 18 pools, we sampled one location for nutrients and three locations for physicochemical characteristics at least monthly to estimate the influence of increasing urbanization on the physical and chemical environment. Our data suggest most pools found in urbanizing areas have higher conductivity (developed sites ranging 18.52 - 1238 μS cm-1 compared to pristine between 14.08 - 58.4 μS cm-1). Previous work suggests forested pools exhibit dystrophic conditions with high coloration from DOC limiting primary production due to increased light attenuation in pools. However, both pristine and urban pools experienced spikes in DO (>100% saturation) throughout the day, suggesting that high productivity is not a reliable indicator of the effects of urbanization on vernal pools. We argue that continued monitoring of vernal pools along a gradient of urbanization could give insight into the role of ephemeral wetlands as potential biogeochemical hotspots and may also indicate how human development may alter biogeochemical cycling in ephemeral wetlands.

  9. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B. ); Hughes, E.D. )

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases.

  10. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-12-31

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases.

  11. The Maine Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

  12. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important…

  13. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  14. Photolysis of inorganic chloramines and efficiency of trichloramine abatement by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    Soltermann, Fabian; Widler, Tobias; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-06-01

    Trichloramine, one of the three inorganic chloramines (mono-, di- and trichloramine), is a problematic disinfection by-product in recreational pool water since it causes skin and eye irritations as well as irritations of the respiratory tract. The most commonly used chloramine mitigation strategy in pool water is UV treatment. Experiments with membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) confirmed that inorganic chloramines are effectively degraded by UV irradiation with low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps (apparent quantum yields (QY): NH2Cl = 0.50 (LP) and 0.31 (MP) mol einstein(-1), NHCl2: 1.06 (LP) and 0.85 (MP) mol einstein(-1)). Trichloramine showed the fastest depletion with a quantum yield slightly above 2 mol einstein(-1) in purified (LP and MP) and pool water (MP). This high quantum yield can partly be explained by reactions involving OH radicals (purified water) and the reaction of trichloramine with moieties formed during UV irradiation of pool water. The presence of free chlorine affects trichloramine degradation (QY: ∼1.5 mol einstein(-1)) since it scavenges OH radicals and competes with trichloramine for reactive species (e.g. organic amines). Measurements in a pool facility revealed that the installed UV reactors degraded trichloramine by 40-50% as expected from laboratory experiments. However, trichloramine reduction in the pools was less pronounced than in the UV reactors. Model calculations combining pool hydraulics with formation/abatement of trichloramine showed that there was a fast trichloramine formation in the pool from the residual chlorine and nitrogenous precursors. The main factors influencing trichloramine concentrations in pool water are the free chlorine concentration and the UV treatment in combination with the recirculation rate through the water treatment system.

  15. Species pool and dynamics of marine paleocommunities.

    PubMed

    Buzas, M A; Culver, S J

    1994-06-03

    Foraminiferal communities in the Cenozoic shelf deposits of the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain exhibit little unity during almost 55 million years of successive transgressions and regressions. Transgression communities are composed of a dynamic mixture of immigrants and newly evolved species. During regressions, species within these communities either became extinct or emigrated. Some emigrants returned during subsequent transgressions, but many did not. The neritic species of the Atlantic and Gulf continental margins constitute a species pool. Immigrants and emigrants transferred into and out of the species pool, while extinctions and originations repeatedly altered its species composition. While the results indicate a lack of local community unity, at the same time they demonstrate the necessity of a species pool to sustain species diversity.

  16. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  17. Automatic swimming pool identification for fire suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Bo; Buck, Heidi

    2012-09-01

    Southern California experienced some of the largest wildfires ever seen in 2003 and 2007. The Cedar fire in 2003 resulted in 2,820 lost structures and 15 deaths, and the Witch fire in 2007 resulted in 1,650 lost structures and 2 deaths according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE). Fighting fires of this magnitude requires every available resource, and an adequate water supply is vital in the firefighting arsenal. Utilizing the fact that many homes in Southern California have swimming pools, firefighters could have access to strategically placed water supplies. The problem is accurately and quickly identifying which residences have actively filled swimming pools at the time of the emergency. The proposed method approaches the problem by employing satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques. Specifically, swimming pool identification is attempted with Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on multispectral imagery from the Worldview-2 satellite.

  18. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  19. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  20. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  1. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  2. 17 CFR 229.1105 - (Item 1105) Static pool information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1105) Static pool....1105 (Item 1105) Static pool information. (a) For amortizing asset pools, unless the registrant determines that such information is not material: (1) Provide static pool information, to the extent...

  3. A Strategy for Optimizing Item-Pool Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item production to test assembly. A simulation study with…

  4. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter...

  5. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter...

  6. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120.1705 Section 120.1705 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... roles. (d) When the Pool Originator does not own the Pool Loan. When a Pool Originator proposes to...

  7. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool formation requirements. 120.1705 Section 120.1705 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... roles. (d) When the Pool Originator does not own the Pool Loan. When a Pool Originator proposes to...

  8. Comparison of Chemical, Biological and Physical Quality Assessment of Indoor Swimming Pools in Shahrekord City, Iran in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Fadaei, Abdolmajid; Amiri, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mismanaged swimming pools could transmit water-borne diseases. The objective of the present study was the quality assessment of chemical, biological and physical characteristics of swimming pools in Shahrekord city, southwest of Iran. The two main indoor swimming pools of Shahrekord city were considered during the summer and winter of 2013. The number of 459 samples were analysed from swimming pools, showers and dressing rooms for chemical, biological and physical quality assessment. The most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus (48.91%), Penicillium (22.9%), Nocardia (11.31%), Cladosporium (8.41%). Rhizopus (6.18%), Scopulariopsis (6.21%), Fusarium (5.31%), and Mucor (1.38%). The most fungal contamination sites for both swimming pools were showers. Results showed that the values of total faecal coliform, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionalla, Escherichia coli and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) for both swimming pools exceeded the guidelines, except for Staphylococcus aureus. The correlation coefficient between bathers load and total faecal coliform, heterotrophic bacteria was 0.949. The turbidity, free residual chlorine, and hardness of both swimming pools were not compliance with standard guidelines. Therefore, the improvement of disinfection and cleaning procedures is necessary, due to the different users and daily bather loads of each pool, as well as monitoring the water quality and increasing of the knowledge of swimming pool users on the risks of these potential diseases. PMID:25948424

  9. Dynamics of soil organic matter pools after agricultural abandonment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Rühl Rühl, Juliane; La Mantia, Tommaso; Badalucco, Luigi; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Laudicina, Vito Armando

    2014-05-01

    Changes of land use from croplands to natural vegetation usually increase Carbon (C) stocks in soil. However, the contribution of old and new C to various pools still is not clearly analyzed. We measured the δ13C signature of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools after vegetation change from vineyard (C3) to grassland (C4) under Mediterranean climate to assess the changes of old and new C in total SOC, microbial biomass (MB), dissolved organic C (DOC), and CO2 efflux from soil. Development of the perennial grass Hyparrhenia hirta (C4) on vineyard abandoned for 15 or 35 years ago increased C stocks for 13% and 16%, respectively (in the upper 15 cm). This increase was linked to the incorporation of new C in SOC and with exchange of 25% of old C by new C after 35 years. The maximal incorporation of new C was observed in MB, thus reflecting the maximal turnover and availability of this pool. The DOC was produced mainly from old C of soil organic matter (SOM), showing that under Mediterranean climate DOC will be mainly produced not from fresh litter but from old SOM sources. Decomposition of SOM during a 51 days laboratory incubation was higher in cultivated vineyard than H. hirta soils. Based on changes in δ13C values of SOM, MB, DOC and CO2 in C3 soil and in soils after 15 and 35 years of C4 plant colonization, we separated 13C fractionation in soil from changes of isotopic composition by preferential utilization of substrates with different availability. The utilization pattern in this soil under Mediterranean climate was different from that in temperate ecosystems.

  10. IPFR: Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The IPFR (Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor) concept is to place a fusion reactor into a pool of molten Flibe. The Flibe will serve the multiple functions of breeding, cooling, shielding, and moderating. Therefore, the only structural material between the superconducting magnets and the plasma is the first wall. The first wall is a stand-alone structure with no coolant connection and is cooled by Flibe at the atmospheric pressure. There is also no need of the primary coolant loop. The design is expected to improve the safety, reliability, and maintainability aspects of the fusion system.

  11. Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    AD-A270 956 L11L1I~I1 11 11 :1Ji ili! August 1993 AFRRI 93-5 TECHNICAL REPORT Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water L OCT 1 93 John Dickson Robert...COVER~ED I August 1993 Technical Report 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE S.FNDN NUMBERS Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water PE: NWED QAXM 6, AUTHOR(S) Dickson...AVAILABIIY STATEMENT 1 2b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT tMaxtm -um 200 words ) 14. SUBJECTTERMS 1S

  12. 24 CFR 320.9 - Pool administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pool administration. 320.9 Section 320.9 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF...

  13. Contractor's case study: the Petaluma pool

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, J.

    1983-11-01

    The design of a solar heating system for a swim center is discussed. The heating system for the 12,000 ft/sup 2/ municipal pool employs a massive array of solar collectors along with the necessary piping, pumps, and sensors.

  14. The Pool Is Not Just for Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzker, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Participating in water fitness workouts is one way to benefit one's health at very little cost. If the pool at a school is used only for swimming, then the benefits of having one barely causes a ripple. When the properties of water and how humans react to water are understood and applied to water activity programs, health benefits and enjoyment…

  15. Women in Elite Pools and Elite Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Patricia A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Uses characteristic education, occupation, and job experience credentials of current elites in U.S. institutions to approximate the proportion of women in the pool of potential elites. Includes breakdowns for law, Ph.D. programs, managers, accountants, and M.B.A.s. Concludes that women's representation in elite positions is consistent with their…

  16. Swimming Pools, Hot Rods, and Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Dale D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some reactions for the identification and application of cyanuric acid. Suggests students may find this applied chemistry interesting because of the use of cyanuric acid in swimming pools and diesel engines. Lists three tests for cyanate ion and two tests for cyanuric acid. (MVL)

  17. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  18. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  19. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  20. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  1. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  2. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  3. Increasing Accessibility by Pooling Digital Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushion, Steve

    2004-01-01

    There are now many CALL authoring packages that can create interactive websites and a large number of language teachers are writing materials for the whole range of such packages. Currently, each product stores its data in different formats thus hindering interoperability, pooling of digital resources and moving between software packages based in…

  4. The Pool with the Movable Bottom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A major diagnostic, therapeutic, educational, and training center for the handicapped has under construction a swimming pool with a floor that will rise to deck level to enable handicapped persons to roll their wheel chairs on and then float free as the floor is lowered. (Author/MLF)

  5. Weld pool oscillation during pulsed GTA welding

    SciTech Connect

    Aendenroomer, A.J.R.; Ouden, G. den

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with weld pool oscillation during pulsed GTA welding and with the possibility to use this oscillation for in-process control of weld penetration. Welding experiments were carried out under different welding conditions. During welding the weld pool was triggered into oscillation by the normal welding pulses or by extra current pulses. The oscillation frequency was measured both during the pulse time and during the base time by analyzing the arc voltage variation using a Fast Fourier Transformation program. Optimal results are obtained when full penetration occurs during the pulse time and partial penetration during the base time. Under these conditions elliptical overlapping spot welds are formed. In the case of full penetration the weld pool oscillates in a low frequency mode (membrane oscillation), whereas in the case of partial penetration the weld pool oscillates in a high frequency mode (surface oscillation). Deviation from the optimal welding conditions occurs when high frequency oscillation is observed during both pulse time and base time (underpenetration) or when low frequency oscillation is observed during both pulse time and base time (overpenetration). In line with these results a penetration sensing system with feedback control was designed, based on the criterion that optimal weld penetration is achieved when two peaks are observed in the frequency distribution. The feasibility of this sensing system for orbital tube welding was confirmed by the results of experiments carried out under various welding conditions.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of correlation coefficients estimated from pooling heterogeneous microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The synthesis of information across microarray studies has been performed by combining statistical results of individual studies (as in a mosaic), or by combining data from multiple studies into a large pool to be analyzed as a single data set (as in a melting pot of data). Specific issues relating to data heterogeneity across microarray studies, such as differences within and between labs or differences among experimental conditions, could lead to equivocal results in a melting pot approach. Results We applied statistical theory to determine the specific effect of different means and heteroskedasticity across 19 groups of microarray data on the sign and magnitude of gene-to-gene Pearson correlation coefficients obtained from the pool of 19 groups. We quantified the biases of the pooled coefficients and compared them to the biases of correlations estimated by an effect-size model. Mean differences across the 19 groups were the main factor determining the magnitude and sign of the pooled coefficients, which showed largest values of bias as they approached ±1. Only heteroskedasticity across the pool of 19 groups resulted in less efficient estimations of correlations than did a classical meta-analysis approach of combining correlation coefficients. These results were corroborated by simulation studies involving either mean differences or heteroskedasticity across a pool of N > 2 groups. Conclusions The combination of statistical results is best suited for synthesizing the correlation between expression profiles of a gene pair across several microarray studies. PMID:23822712

  7. Assessment of carbon pools in production forest, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azian, M.; Nizam, M. S.; Samsudin, M.; Ismail, P.

    2016-11-01

    Forest is one of the main sources of carbon stock. Forest plays a key role in sustainable management by providing different aspects of forest ecosystem such as source of timber products, provide of clean water, food sources, etc. A study was conducted to assess carbon pools in selected production forest of Pahang, Malaysia. There are five main types of carbon pools that are recognized available in the forest, i.e. aboveground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB), deadwood, litter and soil; that these components of carbon pools can accumulate and release carbon into the atmosphere. Five sites with different years of logging period representing status of the forest were selected (i.e. before logging (PU), immediate after logging (P0), after 10 (P10), 20 (P20) and 30 (P30) years of logging). Twenty plots of 0.25 ha (50 m × 50 m) each were established with a total sampling area of 1.0 ha at each site. All trees with ≥10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were tagged, identified and measured. Soil at 0-30 cm, litter and dead wood were sampled and collected in every each of sub-plots to determine and assess carbon stocks within sites. The results indicated that AGB carbon had highest portion of carbon compared to soil, BGB, deadwood and litter, which comprised about 63% of the total carbon pools. It was followed by soil and BGB that comprised about 22% and 13%, respectively. Deadwood and litter contributes the same percentage which is about 1%. In terms of status of the forest, AGB contained the highest carbon which is range from 110.49 tC ha-1 to 164.49 tC ha-1 compared with soil (33.72 tC ha-1 to 68.51 tC ha-1), BGB tC ha-1 to 34 tC ha-1), deadwood (1.57 tC ha-1 to 5.55 tC ha-1) and litter (1.42 tC ha-1 to 2.19 tC ha-1). Results from this study will be very helpful as baseline of carbon storage in different status of forest from before harvesting to logged-over forest and the impact of harvesting on the carbon stock in Pahang and Peninsular Malaysia as a whole.

  8. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  9. The Tropical Western Hemisphere Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Enfield, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    The paper describes and examines variability of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) of water warmer than 28.5oC. The WHWP is the second-largest tropical warm pool on Earth. Unlike the Eastern Hemisphere warm pool in the western Pacific, which straddles the equator, the WHWP is entirely north of the equator. At various stages of development the WHWP extends over parts of the eastern North Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the western tropical North Atlantic. It has a large seasonal cycle and its interannual fluctuations of area and intensity are significant. Surface heat fluxes warm the WHWP through the boreal spring to an annual maximum of SST and WHWP area in the late summer/early fall, associated with eastern North Pacific and Atlantic hurricane activities and rainfall from northern South America to the southern tier of the United States. Observations suggest that a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback operating through longwave radiation and associated cloudiness seems to operate in the WHWP. During winter preceding large warm pool, there is an alteration of the Walker and Hadley circulation cells that serves as a "tropospheric bridge" for transferring Pacific ENSO effects to the Atlantic sector and inducing initial warming of warm pool. Associated with the warm SST anomalies is a decrease in sea level pressure anomalies and an anomalous increase in atmospheric convection and cloudiness. The increase in convective activity and cloudiness results in less net longwave radiation loss from the sea surface, which then reinforces SST anomalies.

  10. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  11. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  13. Bacterial community structure and dissolved organic matter in repeatedly flooded subsurface karst water pools.

    PubMed

    Shabarova, Tanja; Villiger, Jörg; Morenkov, Oleg; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial diversity, community assembly, and the composition of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) were studied in three temporary subsurface karst pools with different flooding regimes. We tested the hypothesis that microorganisms introduced to the pools during floods faced environmental filtering toward a 'typical' karst water community, and we investigated whether DOM composition was related to floodings and the residence time of water in stagnant pools. As predicted, longer water residence consistently led to a decline of bacterial diversity. The microbial assemblages in the influx water harbored more 'exotic' lineages with large distances to known genotypes, yet these initial communities already appeared to be shaped by selective processes. β-Proteobacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) closely related to microbes from subsurface or surface aquatic environments were mainly responsible for the clustering of samples according to water residence time in the pools. By contrast, several Cytophagaceae and Flavobacteriaceae OTUs were related to different floodings, which were also the main determinants of DOM composition. A subset of compounds distinguishable by molecular mass and O/C content were characteristic for individual floods. Moreover, there was a transformation of DOM in stagnant pools toward smaller and more aromatic compounds, potentially also reflecting microbial utilization.

  14. Postillumination Isoprene Emission: In Vivo Measurements of Dimethylallyldiphosphate Pool Size and Isoprene Synthase Kinetics in Aspen Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Copolovici, Lucian; Laisk, Agu; Niinemets, Ülo

    2009-01-01

    The control of foliar isoprene emission is shared between the activity of isoprene synthase, the terminal enzyme catalyzing isoprene formation from dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP), and the pool size of DMADP. Due to limited in vivo information of isoprene synthase kinetic characteristics and DMADP pool sizes, the relative importance of these controls is under debate. In this study, the phenomenon of postillumination isoprene release was employed to develop an in vivo method for estimation of the DMADP pool size and to determine isoprene synthase kinetic characteristics in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) leaves. The method is based on observations that after switching off the light, isoprene emission continues for 250 to 300 s and that the integral of the postillumination isoprene emission is strongly correlated with the isoprene emission rate before leaf darkening, thus quantitatively estimating the DMADP pool size associated with leaf isoprene emission. In vitro estimates demonstrated that overall leaf DMADP pool was very large, almost an order of magnitude larger than the in vivo pool. Yet, the difference between total DMADP pools in light and in darkness (light-dependent DMADP pool) was tightly correlated with the in vivo estimates of the DMADP pool size that is responsible for isoprene emission. Variation in in vivo DMADP pool size was obtained by varying light intensity and atmospheric CO2 and O2 concentrations. From these experiments, the in vivo kinetic constants of isoprene synthase were determined. In vivo isoprene synthase kinetic characteristics suggested that isoprene synthase mainly operates under substrate limitation and that short-term light, CO2, and O2 dependencies of isoprene emission result from variation in DMADP pool size rather than from modifications in isoprene synthase activity. PMID:19129417

  15. The Poole-Frenkel effect in 6H-SiC diode characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaz, L.; Orantes, J.L.; Vincente, J.; Bailon, L.A.; Barbolla, J. . Dept. de Electricidad y Electronica)

    1994-04-01

    The large bandgap of SiC makes the recombination mechanism the main process in determining the forward current in a large range of temperature. The authors have added the Poole-Frenkel effect to the conventional Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) term of the numerical device simulator MEDICI. This paper shows the influence of this effect on SiC.

  16. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  17. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  18. Exploring Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Larson, S. M.; Whiteley, R.; Fink, U.; Jedicke, R.; Emery, J.; Fevig, R.; Kelley, M.; Harris, A. W.; Ostro, S.; Reed, K.; Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A.; Magri, C.; Bottke, W.; Durda, D.; Walker, R.; Davis, D.; Hartmann, W. K.; Sears, D.; Yano, H.; Granahan, J.; Storrs, A.; Bus, S. J.; Bell, J. F.; Tholen, D.; Cellino, A.

    2001-11-01

    Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of fragments, and significantly depleted of mass as a consequence of dynamical scattering. Yet, these fragments retain a record of the early steps of planet formation and evolution, as well as a record of early solar system conditions and the primordial composition gradient in that region. By exploring main belt asteroids through groundbased observations and spacecraft, modeling and theoretical work, we seek ultimately to recover this information. A single mission to a single target is not sufficient to address, in isolation, these questions. They require a foundation of robust, broad, and continuing groundbased, theoretical, and modeling programs. Such work is funded at a small fraction of a typical mission cost through the NASA Research and Analysis Program. Therefore, within the context of planetary decadal study recommendations to NASA, highest priority needs to be given to maintaining and growing a healthy R&A program over the next ten years and beyond. Missions also have an important role to play. An Earth orbiting remote sensing mission needs to be considered as a means of collecting important data for a large fraction of all main belt asteroids above a sub-kilometer diameter (while also realizing synergistic benefits to astrophysics). Missions to specific main belt targets can provide important new insights and leverage new understanding of existing data, models, and theories, but target definition (and corresponding instrument complement) is critical and must be based on our existing knowledge of these very diverse objects

  19. Platelet storage pool deficiency in Jacobsen syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, James G

    2007-11-01

    Jacobsen syndrome and Paris-Trousseau Syndrome share similar congenital anomalies, thrombocytopenia, giant platelet alpha granules resulting from fusion of smaller organelles, and an 11q terminal deletion at 11q23.3. Similarities in the two cohorts have suggested that the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome is a variant of Jacobsen syndrome, or the same disorder. The present study has pointed out a significant difference between the two syndromes. Platelets from six patients with Jacobsen syndrome were markedly diminished in serotonin adenine nucleotide rich dense bodies, indicating the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency. Since platelet dense bodies are reported to be normal in size, number and distribution in the Paris-Trousseau Syndrome, the presence of platelet storage pool deficiency in six patients evaluated in the present study may distinguish the two disorders.

  20. Conceptual design for spacelab pool boiling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienhard, J. H.; Peck, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A pool boiling heat transfer experiment to be incorporated with a larger two-phase flow experiment on Spacelab was designed to confirm (or alter) the results of earth-normal gravity experiments which indicate that the hydrodynamic peak and minimum pool boiling heat fluxes vanish at very low gravity. Twelve small sealed test cells containing water, methanol or Freon 113 and cylindrical heaters of various sizes are to be built. Each cell will be subjected to one or more 45 sec tests in which the surface heat flux on the heaters is increased linearly until the surface temperature reaches a limiting value of 500 C. The entire boiling process will be photographed in slow-motion. Boiling curves will be constructed from thermocouple and electric input data, for comparison with the motion picture records. The conduct of the experiment will require no more than a few hours of operator time.

  1. The hydrology of natural and artificial bog pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Turner, Ed; McKenzie, Rebecca; Baird, Andy; Billett, Mike; Chapman, Pippa; Dinsmore, Kerry; Dooling, Gemma

    2016-04-01

    Twelve bog pools were monitored over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the Cross Lochs blanket peatland in the Flow Country of northern Scotland. Six pools were located in a natural pool complex while the other six were in an adjacent area where the peat had been ditched in the 1970s. The ditches had been subsequently dammed with peat in 2002 resulting in dozens of artificial pools along each ditch, with one pool upslope of each dam. The natural pools ranged in area from 15 m2 to 850 m2, while the artificial pools are a more uniform size at c.3 - 4 m2. Following a dry first summer, water levels in the 12 pools were lower throughout the subsequent winter and spring than they were in proceeding years showing strong inter-annual variability in pool levels even for winter months. Over the three year study, water level fluctuations in the natural pools were very different to those in the artificial pools. The natural pools showed subdued responses to rainfall and, after rainfall, slow falls in water level dominated by evaporation; the hydraulic conductivity of the peat was very low at depths of 30 and 50 cm below the peat surface around the pools (median values of 2.49 × 10-5 and 1.09 × 10-5 cm s-1 respectively). The artificial pools had much larger monthly interquartile ranges of water levels and a greater rise and fall of pool water level in response to each individual rainfall event compared with the natural pools. Thus the biogeochemistry and carbon cycling processes that occur within the natural pools is not likely to be replicated in the artificial pools as their hydrological behaviour is quite different. Slope position was a factor in terms of hydrological response of pools with those further downslope having higher relative water levels for longer periods of time compared to upslope pools. Thus we anticipate that local biogeochemical processes in and around bog pools may be impacted by slope position and by whether they are natural pools or artificial pools

  2. Poole-frenkel piezoconductive element and sensor

    DOEpatents

    Habermehl, Scott D.

    2004-08-03

    A new class of highly sensitive piezoconductive strain sensor elements and sensors has been invented. The new elements function under conditions such that electrical conductivity is dominated by Poole-Frenkel transport. A substantial piezoconductive effect appears in this regime, allowing the new sensors to exhibit sensitivity to applied strain as much as two orders of magnitude in excess of prior art sensors based on doped silicon.

  3. On pool spreading around tanks: geometrical considerations.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Sara; Manca, Davide

    2008-10-01

    The paper discusses a straightforward approach for evaluating the distance covered by a spreading liquid pool, when the axisymmetric hypothesis is no longer valid. This distance is evaluated by a three-steps methodology: the pre-processing of input data (bund radius, if present, and radial velocity); the simulation of pool spreading by a model based on the axisymmetric hypothesis; and the post-processing of results. The paper reports some geometrical correlations to pre- and post-process the data, with regard to four case-studies. Some numerical examples are also presented to prove that the pre-processed input data and post-processed results differ from those based on the axisymmetric hypothesis. Finally, we validate our modeling approach with the experimental data of Cronin and Evans [P.S. Cronin, J.A. Evans, A series of experiments to study the spreading of liquid pools with different bund arrangements, HSE Contract Research Report 405/2002, Advantica Technologies Limited, 2002].

  4. Amino acid pools in cultured muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Low, R B; Stirewalt, W S; Rittling, S R; Woodworth, R C

    1984-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cellular amino acid pools occurs in cultures of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, but the factors involved in this are not clear. We have further defined this problem by analyzing the intracellular free leucine and the transfer-RNA-(tRNA)-bound leucine pool in cultures of skeletal and cardiac muscle incubated with 3H-leucine in the presence and absence of serum and amino acids. Withdrawal of nitrogen substrates caused substantial changes in leucine pool relationships--in particular, a change in the degree to which intracellular free leucine and tRNA-leucine were derived from the culture medium. In separate experiments, the validity of our tRNA measurements was confirmed by measurements of the specific activity of newly synthesized ferritin after iron induction. We discuss the implications of these findings with regard to factors involved in the control of amino acid flux through the cell, as well as with regard to design of experiments using isotopic amino acids to measure rates of amino acid utilization.

  5. Vesicle Pools: Lessons from Adrenal Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, David R.; Schirra, Claudia; Becherer, Ute; Rettig, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The adrenal chromaffin cell serves as a model system to study fast Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Membrane capacitance measurements in combination with Ca2+ uncaging offers a temporal resolution in the millisecond range and reveals that catecholamine release occurs in three distinct phases. Release of a readily releasable (RRP) and a slowly releasable (SRP) pool are followed by sustained release, due to maturation, and release of vesicles which were not release-ready at the start of the stimulus. Trains of depolarizations, a more physiological stimulus, induce release from a small immediately releasable pool of vesicles residing adjacent to calcium channels, as well as from the RRP. The SRP is poorly activated by depolarization. A sequential model, in which non-releasable docked vesicles are primed to a slowly releasable state, and then further mature to the readily releasable state, has been proposed. The docked state, dependent on membrane proximity, requires SNAP-25, synaptotagmin, and syntaxin. The ablation or modification of SNAP-25 and syntaxin, components of the SNARE complex, as well as of synaptotagmin, the calcium sensor, and modulators such complexins and Snapin alter the properties and/or magnitudes of different phases of release, and in particular can ablate the RRP. These results indicate that the composition of the SNARE complex and its interaction with modulatory molecules drives priming and provides a molecular basis for different pools of releasable vesicles. PMID:21423410

  6. Alpine Valley Flows and Cold Pools during T-REX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, R.; Christman, A.; Retallack, C.; Fernando, H.

    2009-04-01

    Coherent Doppler lidar data and sodar/RASS profiles are used to study the evolution of nocturnal flows and cold pools in an alpine valley. Owens Valley, California was the site of the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) carried out during the months of March and April of 2006. The main objective of this experimental campaign was the observation of mountain wave and rotor activity in the lee of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. However, the opportunity existed during non-rotor events to focus on the stable boundary layer, as well as the creation and depletion of cold air pools. The unique local topography, set between two large and nearly parallel mountain ranges, offered the opportunity to study diurnal flow phenomena in an idealized valley setting. ASU deployed its coherent Doppler lidar during T-REX, in addition to a flux tower and a sodar/RASS. The presence of a second scanning coherent Doppler lidar situated near the ASU Doppler lidar, provided the opportunity to utilize a dual Doppler retrieval technique ("virtual towers") which was developed during the Joint Urban Dispersion Experiment (JU2003). The second Doppler lidar was deployed and operated by the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). Wind directions are frequently along the valley during more quiescent conditions, and several examples are given. In one case, there was a significant night-time drainage flow occuring with wind velocity magnitudes greater than 10m/s on vertical profiles obtained through dual-Doppler analysis. For this case, the velocity profile evolved gradually from a relatively smooth vertical velocity profile to a vertical velocity profile characterized by several local maxima. A low-level jet was seen below 500 m above ground level. Regarding cold pools during T-REX, some differences are noted with the classical expectations due to the complexity of the flow configuration considered here. In particular, classical cold pool destruction scenarios do not usually take into

  7. Aquarius Main Structure Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eremenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory is a joint US-Argentine mission to map the salinity at the ocean surface. This information is critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system - the water cycle and ocean circulation. By measuring ocean salinity from space, the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will provide new insights into how the massive natural exchange of freshwater between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice influences ocean circulation, weather and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the SAC-D spacecraft. It consists of a Passive Microwave Radiometer to detect the surface emission that is used to obtain salinity and an Active Scatterometer to measure the ocean waves that affect the precision of the salinity measurement. The Aquarius Primary Structure houses instrument electronics, feed assemblies, and supports a deployable boom with a 2.5 m Reflector, and provides the structural interface to the SAC-D Spacecraft. The key challenge for the Aquarius main structure configuration is to satisfy the needs of component accommodations, ensuring that the instrument can meet all operational, pointing, environmental, and launch vehicle requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the Aquarius main structure configuration, the challenges of balancing the conflicting requirements, and the major configuration driving decisions and compromises.

  8. Rainbow Pool, Eastern portion of West Potomac Park; bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rainbow Pool, Eastern portion of West Potomac Park; bounded by Elm Walks to the north and south, Seventeenth Street to the east and the Reflecting Pool to the west, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy of 1931 rendering by Alexander, Becker and Schoeppe, architects and engineers - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  10. 2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  11. 3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  12. 1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Swimming Pool, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  13. 18. Photocopy of blueprint (from plans of Blintz Pool in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of blueprint (from plans of Blintz Pool in the Johnson City Village Offices) showing WAITING ROOM SEAT - Charles F. Johnson Pool, Charles F. Johnson Park, Johnson City, Broome County, NY

  14. 1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, AND FROM SANTA ANA RIVER THROUGH TUNNEL #0 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF LODGE, HOT SPRINGS POOL AND ENVIRONS - Hot Springs Lodge, Garfield County, CO

  16. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled..., deceptive, or manipulative with respect to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled...

  17. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled..., deceptive, or manipulative with respect to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled...

  18. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled..., deceptive, or manipulative with respect to any investor or prospective investor in the pooled...

  19. 3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. POOL, DAM, AND INTAKE TO PIPELINE LEADING TO FISH WHEEL, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Interior view of pool facing southeast Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pool facing southeast - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Interior view of pool facing northwest Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pool facing northwest - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. VIEW SHOWING THE CORNER OF THE POOL WITH BUILDING 619 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING THE CORNER OF THE POOL WITH BUILDING 619 AND THE DIVING TOWER (STRUCTURE No. S659) IN THE BACKGROUND - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Swimming Pool, Oakley Road & Cromwell Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Pool area with mezzanine at rear Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area with mezzanine at rear - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING WEST WALL OF BUILDING 22, FACING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Swimming Pool, Reeves Avenue, enclosed by Building No. 22 & Arcade, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Entrance to pool area near northeast end of the building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Entrance to pool area near northeast end of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. Performance Study and Dynamic Optimization Design for Thread Pool Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Dongping

    2004-12-19

    Thread pools have been widely used by many multithreaded applications. However, the determination of the pool size according to the application behavior still remains problematic. To automate this process, in this thesis we have developed a set of performance metrics for quantitatively analyzing thread pool performance. For our experiments, we built a thread pool system which provides a general framework for thread pool research. Based on this simulation environment, we studied the performance impact brought by the thread pool on different multithreaded applications. Additionally, the correlations between internal characterizations of thread pools and their throughput were also examined. We then proposed and evaluated a heuristic algorithm to dynamically determine the optimal thread pool size. The simulation results show that this approach is effective in improving overall application performance.

  8. Hemangioma of the tongue demonstrating a perfusion blood pool mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Groshar, D.; Israel, O.; Robinson, E.

    1986-02-01

    Perfusion blood pool mismatch using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells (RBCs) in a hemangioma of the tongue is described. The method is useful in the evaluation of size of the residual blood pool after irradiation of the tumor.

  9. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  10. Changing scales of hydrological control on dissolved organic matter composition in pools of intermittent streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebers, Andre; Pettit, Neil; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Fellman, Jason; Dogramaci, Shawan; Grierson, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Changes in both the frequency and intensity of flood-drought cycles of intermittent streams, either through changing climate or anthropogenic management, may have significant impacts on stream functioning. However, little is known about how and to what extent droughts already modify the concentration and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and how this relates to local variation in stream hydrology. We hypothesize that with increasing time since flooding, controls on biogeochemical processes in surface water during droughts (isolated pools along main drainage channels) switch from predominantly hydrological at the catchment level to more localized environmental factors. We used δ18O and δ2H values of surface water and groundwater together with DOM fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy to identify: (i) the origin and extent of evaporation of pool water and (ii) the concentration and chemical composition of DOM across four intermittent streams of semi-arid northwest Australia between May 2011 and November 2012. Pool water δ18O and δ2H values showed wide variation both within and among streams, with greater enrichment reflecting pool evaporation as groundwater or shallow alluvial water inputs decreased with time since flooding. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed that DOM fluorescence in pools was generally dominated by humic-like components, most likely derived from terrestrial organic matter. Humic-like fluorescence was linearly related to δ18O and δ2H values, but this relationship weakened as pools dried. However, where pools were isolated from groundwater inputs, protein-like components were often the major contributor to total DOM fluorescence, suggesting greater authochthonous contributions. Complementary principal component analysis of DOM fluorescence identified that with increasing time since flooding, local factors such as channel position, UV exposure, and aquatic vegetation persistence were more important in explaining the

  11. 75 FR 10243 - Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...] Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Filing February 25, 2010. Take notice that on February 22, 2010, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. filed a revision to its Open Access Transmission Tariff to conform the matching.... Power Pool, Inc., 130 FERC ] 61,049 (2010) (January 21 Order). Any person desiring to intervene or...

  12. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  13. Improving the performance of floating solar pool covers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, M.A.; Lowrey, P. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-11-01

    Experimental and analytical analyses are presented for the evaluation of heat transfer through floating solar swimming pool covers. Two improved floating solar swimming pool cover designs are proposed and investigated in this paper. The results conclusively show that both new cover designs should have significantly better performance than conventional floating solar swimming pool covers.

  14. 40 CFR 230.45 - Riffle and pool complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... their hydraulic characteristics. The rapid movement of water over a coarse substrate in riffles results in a rough flow, a turbulent surface, and high dissolved oxygen levels in the water. Pools are deeper... riffle and pool areas and especially riffle/pool ratios, may reduce the aeration and...

  15. 40 CFR 230.45 - Riffle and pool complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... their hydraulic characteristics. The rapid movement of water over a coarse substrate in riffles results in a rough flow, a turbulent surface, and high dissolved oxygen levels in the water. Pools are deeper... riffle and pool areas and especially riffle/pool ratios, may reduce the aeration and...

  16. 40 CFR 230.45 - Riffle and pool complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... their hydraulic characteristics. The rapid movement of water over a coarse substrate in riffles results in a rough flow, a turbulent surface, and high dissolved oxygen levels in the water. Pools are deeper... riffle and pool areas and especially riffle/pool ratios, may reduce the aeration and...

  17. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting to pool participants. 4.22 Section 4.22 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.22 Reporting to...

  18. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting to pool participants. 4.22 Section 4.22 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.22 Reporting to...

  19. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting to pool participants. 4.22 Section 4.22 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.22 Reporting to...

  20. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including interest and dividends earned on funds not paid as premiums or used to margin the pool's commodity... during the reporting period; (v) The net asset value of the pool as of the end of the reporting period; and (vi)(A) The net asset value per outstanding participation unit in the pool as of the end of...

  1. New algebraic constructions for pooling design in DNA library screening.

    PubMed

    Li, Zengti; Gao, Suogang; Du, Hongjie; Shi, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Pooling design is an important mathematical tool in DNA library screening. It has been showed that using pooling design, the number of tests in DNA library screening can be greatly reduced. In this paper, we present some new algebraic constructions for pooling design.

  2. Electrical design of payload G-534: The Pool Boiling Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Payload G-534, the Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE), is a Get Away Special that is scheduled to fly on the shuttle in 1992. This paper will give a brief overall description of the experiment with the main discussion being the electrical design with a detailed description of the power system and interface to the GAS electronics. The batteries used and their interface to the experiment Power Control Unit (PCU) and GAS electronics will be examined. The design philosophy for the PCU will be discussed in detail. The criteria for selection of fuses, relays, power semiconductors and other electrical components along with grounding and shielding policy for the entire experiment will be presented. The intent of this paper is to discuss the use of military tested parts and basic design guidelines to build a quality experiment for minimal additional cost.

  3. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced.

  4. A Three-Pool Model Dissecting Readily Releasable Pool Replenishment at the Calyx of Held

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Ge, Jian-long; Hao, Mei; Sun, Zhi-cheng; Wu, Xin-sheng; Zhu, Jian-bing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Pan-tong; Lin, Wei; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although vesicle replenishment is critical in maintaining exo-endocytosis recycling, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have shown that both rapid and slow endocytosis recycle into a very large recycling pool instead of within the readily releasable pool (RRP), and the time course of RRP replenishment is slowed down by more intense stimulation. This finding contradicts the calcium/calmodulin-dependence of RRP replenishment. Here we address this issue and report a three-pool model for RRP replenishment at a central synapse. Both rapid and slow endocytosis provide vesicles to a large reserve pool (RP) ~42.3 times the RRP size. When moving from the RP to the RRP, vesicles entered an intermediate pool (IP) ~2.7 times the RRP size with slow RP-IP kinetics and fast IP-RRP kinetics, which was responsible for the well-established slow and rapid components of RRP replenishment. Depletion of the IP caused the slower RRP replenishment observed after intense stimulation. These results establish, for the first time, a realistic cycling model with all parameters measured, revealing the contribution of each cycling step in synaptic transmission. The results call for modification of the current view of the vesicle recycling steps and their roles. PMID:25825223

  5. A three-pool model dissecting readily releasable pool replenishment at the calyx of held.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Ge, Jian-long; Hao, Mei; Sun, Zhi-cheng; Wu, Xin-sheng; Zhu, Jian-bing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Pan-tong; Lin, Wei; Xue, Lei

    2015-03-31

    Although vesicle replenishment is critical in maintaining exo-endocytosis recycling, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have shown that both rapid and slow endocytosis recycle into a very large recycling pool instead of within the readily releasable pool (RRP), and the time course of RRP replenishment is slowed down by more intense stimulation. This finding contradicts the calcium/calmodulin-dependence of RRP replenishment. Here we address this issue and report a three-pool model for RRP replenishment at a central synapse. Both rapid and slow endocytosis provide vesicles to a large reserve pool (RP) ~42.3 times the RRP size. When moving from the RP to the RRP, vesicles entered an intermediate pool (IP) ~2.7 times the RRP size with slow RP-IP kinetics and fast IP-RRP kinetics, which was responsible for the well-established slow and rapid components of RRP replenishment. Depletion of the IP caused the slower RRP replenishment observed after intense stimulation. These results establish, for the first time, a realistic cycling model with all parameters measured, revealing the contribution of each cycling step in synaptic transmission. The results call for modification of the current view of the vesicle recycling steps and their roles.

  6. An introduction to mid-Atlantic seasonal pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.J.; Jung, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal pools, also known as vernal ponds, provide important ecological services to the mid-Atlantic region. This publication serves as an introduction to seasonal pool ecology and management; it also provides tools for exploring seasonal pools, including a full-color field guide to wildlife. Seasonal pools are defined as having four distinctive features: surface water isolation, periodic drying, small size and shallow depth, and support of a characteristic biological community. Seasonal pools experience regular drying that excludes populations of predatory fish. Thus, pools in the mid-Atlantic region provide critical breeding habitat for amphibian and invertebrate species (e.g., spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), wood frog (Rana sylvatica), and fairy shrimp (Order Anostraca)) that would be at increased risk of predation in more permanent waters. The distinctive features of seasonal pools also make them vulnerable to human disturbance. In the mid-Atlantic region, land-use changes pose the greatest challenges to seasonal pool conservation. Seasonal pools are threatened by direct loss (e.g., filling or draining of the pool) as well as by destruction and fragmentation of adjoining terrestrial habitat. Many of the species that depend on seasonal pools for breeding spend the majority of their lives in the surrounding lands that extend a radius of 1000 feet or more from the pools; these vital habitats are being transected by roads and converted to other land uses. Other threats to seasonal pools include biological introductions and removals, mosquito control practices, amphibian diseases, atmospheric deposition, and climate change. The authors recommend a three-pronged strategy for seasonal pool conservation and management in the mid-Atlantic region: education and research, inventory and monitoring of seasonal pools, and landscape-level planning and management.

  7. Dystrophin-dependent and -independent AQP4 pools are expressed in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Rossi, Andrea; Nudel, Uri; Svelto, Maria; Frigeri, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that in the plasma membrane AQP4 is organized into several distinct large multisubunit complexes. In this study, we analysed whether these pools are similarly affected in dystrophin-deficient mice and immunolocalized the sites of dystrophin-dependent and -independent AQP4 pools. Western blot performed on two-dimensional Blue Native/SDS-PAGE membranes indicated that, among the AQP4 pools, it was mainly a large multisubunit complex that was specifically affected in dystrophin-deficient mice (DP71 and mdx3cv mice). This dystrophin-dependent AQP4 pool was immunolocalized in perivascular astrocytes, since it was found to be significantly altered in both types of dystrophin-deficient mice. Dystrophin-independent pools were immunolocalized in the granular cell layer of the cerebellum and in the subpial endfoot layer and ependymal cells in the brain. These data provide a better understanding on the association between AQP4 and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in the central nervous system.

  8. Use of mathematical models for assessing the pool and dynamics of carbon in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The contribution of forest soils to the total carbon budget and to the emission of greenhouse gases is an important problem involved in many international programs, including the Kyoto Protocol. Direct measurements of the carbon pool in forest soils and its changes are slow and expensive; therefore, mathematical models are proposed in different countries for describing the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM). The models differ in complexity and consider different processes of SOM mineralization and humification. The input parameters include model coefficients (these are usually the rates of decomposition and humification of different SOM compartments) and the initial values for different SOM pools. The coefficients can be estimated in special laboratory and field experiments, but the characteristics of the initial values for different SOM pools are usually absent. In this case, some assumptions about the character of SOM accumulation, which depends on forest vegetation, are used. The most realistic is the use of databases on the pools of carbon and other elements related to the types of forest or habitat conditions, including the primarily water regime and soil fertility. Under some suppositions, the agreement conditions between the main parameters of the SOM and forest vegetation can be formulated to assess the initial SOM pools in the forest litter and mineral horizons of the soil. An example of assessing the prediction of forest soil dynamics in Leningrad oblast was considered.

  9. [Main parasitic skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Bernigaud, C; Monsel, G; Delaunay, P; Do-Pham, G; Foulet, F; Botterel, F; Chosidow, O

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. They are mainly due to arthropods (insects and mites). Many species of parasites are involved, explaining the diversity of their clinical signs. The most common are caused by ectoparasites such as scabies or pediculosis (head lice, body lice and pubic lice). Clinical signs may be related to the penetration of the parasite under the skin, its development, the inoculation of venom or allergic symptoms. Diagnosis can be easy when clinical signs are pathognomonic (e.g. burrows in the interdigital web spaces in scabies) or sometimes more difficult. Some epidemiological characteristics (diurnal or nocturnal bite, seasonality) and specific clinical presentation (single or multiple bites, linear or grouped lesions) can be a great diagnostic help. Modern non-invasive tools (dermoscopy or confocal microscopy) will play an important role in the future but the eye and experience of the specialist (dermatologist, parasitologist, infectious disease specialist or entomologist) remains for the time the best way to guide or establish a diagnosis. For most skin parasites, therapeutic proposals are rarely based on studies of high level of evidence or randomized trials but more on expert recommendations or personal experience.

  10. Spatial variation in the charcoal pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlson, M.; Bjune, A. E.; Kasin, I.; Nordtug Wist, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mikael Ohlson, Anne E. Bjune, Isabella Kasin and Anveig Nordtug Wist It is well known that the soil charcoal pool varies significantly in size across different types of forest landscapes and regional climates. However, the level of variation on fine spatial scales within a given forest landscape remains poorly known. Here we use a geostatistical approach to describe the spatial structure and variability of the soil charcoal pool in a boreal forest landscape. Our study landscape is a watershed including a small lake and two distinct types of forests, viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. The study is based on 200 forest soil cores and one lake sediment core in which the amount of macroscopic charcoal was measured. The amount of charcoal in the forest soil cores was very variable and ranged from 0 to 3600 g per square meter. The variation was profound also on fine spatial scales, i.e. 0.05 - 0.2 m, and geostatistical analysis revealed only weak spatial structuring on scales from 0.05 up to 200 m. Although weak spatial structuring, there were three significant and general patterns in the soil charcoal pool. First, there was a positive relationship between the amount of charcoal in the soil and the density of the contemporary forest. Second, there was more charcoal in the spruce forest than in the pine forest. Third, the amount of charcoal in the soil increased with increasing distance from the lake. The lake sediment core, which had a depth of 3 m and an age of 11 000 years, recorded a continuous influx of macroscopic charcoal throughout the Holocene. Interestingly, the amount of charcoal in the lake sediment exceeded that in the majority of the forest soil cores, indicating a relatively high degradation rate of charcoal in the forest soil and that charcoal is well preserved in the lake sediment.

  11. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  12. Experience with solar systems for heating swimming pools in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Croy, R.; Peuser, F.A. )

    1994-07-01

    The results of the demonstration programme [open quotes]Efficient Use of Energy in Swimming Pool Construction[close quotes] has had a positive effect on the dissipation of solar systems for swimming pools. Infrared measurements show how a homogeneous flow can be achieved in the absorber field. The fact that solar systems are acceptable can be clearly in evidence that the behaviour of visitors to purely solar-heated pools with variable water temperature does not differ in principle from conventionally-heated pools with constant temperature. Economic considerations of the operation show that swimming pool solar systems are competitive with conventional heating systems.

  13. On Trade-wind cumulus cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, P.; Li, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Shallow, precipitating, cumuli within the easterly trades were investigated using ship-board measurements, scanning radar data, and visible satellite imagery from two weeks in January 2005 of the Rain in Cumulus over Ocean experiment. One focus was to identify the mechanism(s) triggering convection. Shipboard rainfall rates of up to 2 mm hr-1 were recorded almost daily, if only for 10-30 minutes typically, almost always from clouds within mesoscale arcs. The precipitating cumuli, capable of reaching above 4 km, cooled surface air by 1-2 K, in all cases lowered surface specific humidities by up to 1.5 g kg-1, reduced surface equivalent potential temperatures by up to 6 K, and were often associated with short-lived increases in wind speed of up to 4 m s-1. Cohesive downdrafts producing surface air drier than the environment differed from previous observations of moist cold pools under stratocumulus. Upper-level downdrafts were also inferred to explain double-lobed moisture and temperature sounding profiles, as well as multiple inversions in wind profiler data. In two cases investigated further, the precipitating convection propagated faster westward than the mean surface wind by ˜ 2-3 m s-1, consistent with a density current of depth ˜ 200 m. In the cold pool recovery zones of the two cases, the surface air temperatures equilibrated with time to the sea surface temperatures, but the surface air specific humidities stayed relatively constant after initial quick recoveries. This suggested entrainment of drier air from above fully compensated moistening from surface latent heat fluxes as the new surface-based mixed-layer deepened. Recovery zone surface wind speeds and latent heat fluxes were not higher than environmental values. Non-precipitating shallow clouds were observed after the surface buoyancy had sufficiently recovered (barring encroachment of other convection from outside the original cold pool). The mesoscale arcs favored atmospheres with higher water vapor

  14. Combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, D.L.

    1981-07-28

    A combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools comprises a fence shaped for extending about the periphery of the pool to restrict ingress and egress therefrom. A tubular heat exchanger is formed in at least one section of the fence, includes an exterior surface adapted to absorb solar energy, and communicates with the water in the swimming pool. The number of heat exchanger fence sections can be varied in accordance with the climate in which the pool is located. A pump flows the water in the swimming pool through the heat exchanger fence sections during daylight hours, thereby simultaneously heating the water in the pool, and providing an attractive and protective safety barrier about the swimming pool.

  15. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    SciTech Connect

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  16. How to link soil C pools with CO2 fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Y.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of carbon (C) pools and CO2 fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems and especially in soils, as well as many attempts to assign fluxes to specific pools, this challenge remains unsolved. Interestingly, scientists investigating pools are not closely linked with scientists studying fluxes. This review therefore focused on experimental approaches enabling soil C pools to be linked with CO2 flux from the soil. The background, advantages and shortcomings of uncoupled approaches (measuring only pools or fluxes) and of coupled approaches (measuring both pools and fluxes) were evaluated and their prerequisites - steady state of pools and isotopic steady state - described. The uncoupled approaches include: (i) monitoring the decrease of C pools in long-term fallow bare soil lacking C input over decades, (ii) analyzing components of CO2 efflux dynamics by incubating soil without new C input over months or years, and (iii) analyzing turnover rates of C pools based on their 13C and 14C isotopic signature. The uncoupled approaches are applicable for non-steady state conditions only and have limited explanatory power. The more advantageous coupled approaches partition simultaneously pools and fluxes based on one of three types of changes in the isotopic signature of input C compared to soil C: (i) abrupt permanent, (ii) gradual permanent, and (iii) abrupt temporary impacts. I show how the maximal sensitivity of the approaches depends on the differences in the isotopic signature of pools with fast and slow turnover rates. The promising coupled approaches include: (a) δ13C of C pools and CO2 efflux from soil after C3/C4 vegetation changes or in FACE experiments (both corresponding to continuous labeling), (b) addition of 13C or 14C labeled organics (corresponding to pulse labeling), and (c) bomb-14C. I show that physical separation of soil C pools is not a prerequisite to estimate pool size or to link pools with fluxes. Based on simple simulation of C aging in

  17. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  18. Electrohydrodynamic Pool Boiling in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.; Stahl, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research is concerned with studying the effects of applied electric fields on pool boiling in a reduced-gravity environment. Experiments are conducted at the NASA Lewis 2.2 sec Drop tower using a drop rig constructed at UC Davis. In the experiments, a platinum wire is heated while immersed in saturated liquid refrigerants (FC-72 and FC-87), or water, causing vapor formation at the wire surface. Electric fields are applied between the wire surface and an outer screen electrode that surrounds the wire. Preliminary normal-gravity experiments with water have demonstrated that applied electric fields generated by the rig electronics can influence boiling characteristics. Reduced-gravity experiments will be performed in the summer of 1996. The experiments will provide fundamental data on electric field strengths required to disrupt film boiling (for various wire heat generation input rates) in reduced gravity for a cylindrical geometry. The experiments should also shed light on the roles of characteristic bubble generation times and charge relaxation times in determining the effects of electric fields on pool boiling. Normal-gravity comparison experiments will also be performed.

  19. 59. May 1985. DEPENDENCIES NORTHWEST OF MAIN HOUSE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. May 1985. DEPENDENCIES NORTHWEST OF MAIN HOUSE, LOOKING WEST FROM PORTE COCHERE OF NORTH WING (Path in center of view leads to northwestern quadrant of formal garden plan where swimming pool lies. Dependencies, from left to right: Kitchen-Storehouse, tool shed, cistern, pump house, then Smokehouse in right foreground) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  20. Investigation of tidal power, cobscook bay, maine. Reconnaissance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Cobscook Bay is located in Eastern, Maine, near Eastport. The bay experiences an average tide range of 18 feet and has a surface area of about 40 square miles at high tide. Single pool, single effect projects have been analyzed. Two projects, one having an installed capacity of 165 Mw and the other, 195 Mw were found to be economically feasible when forecasted, fuel escalation costs were considered.

  1. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  2. The roles of community biomass and species pools in the regulation of plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Considerable debate has developed over the importance of community biomass and species pools in the regulation of community diversity. Attempts to explain patterns of plant diversity as a function of community biomass or productivity have been only partially successful and in general, have explained only a fraction of the observed variation in diversity. At the same time studies that have focused on the importance of species pools have led some to conclude that diversity is primarily regulated in the short term by the size of the species pool rather than by biotic interactions. In this paper, I explore how community biomass and species pools may work in combination to regulate diversity in herbaceous plant communities. To address this problem, I employ a simple model in which the dynamics of species richness are a function of aboveground community biomass and environmentally controlled gradients in species pools. Model results lead to two main predictions about the role of biomass regulation: (1) Seasonal dynamics of richness will tend to follow a regular oscillation, with richness rising to peak values during the early to middle portion of the growing season and then declining during the latter part of the season. (2.) Seasonal dieback of aboveground tissues facilitates the long-term maintenance of high levels of richness in the community. The persistence of aboveground tissues and accumulation of litter are especially important in limiting the number of species through the suppression of recruitment. Model results also lead to two main predictions about the role of species pools: (1) The height and position of peak richness relative to community biomass will be influenced by the rate at which the species pool increases as available soil resources increase. (2) Variations in nonresource environmental factors (e.g. soil pH or soil salinity) have the potential to regulate species pools in a way that is uncorrelated with aboveground biomass. Under extreme conditions

  3. Mosquito and aquatic predator communities in ground pools on lands deforested for rice field development in central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mogi, M; Sunahara, T; Selomo, M

    1999-06-01

    Aquatic habitats, mosquitoes, and larvivorous predators were studied on deforested lands in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Open ground pools, mainly in depressions made by the treads of bulldozers and other heavy equipment, were numerous but because of their small size, comprised ca. 1% or less of the total area of the deforested lands studied. The dominant mosquitoes in these pools were Anopheles vagus, Culex vishnui, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and Culex gelidus. The 1st 2 species were dominant in clear pools, whereas the latter 2 species were dominant in turbid pools. The dominant metazoans other than mosquitoes were Crustacea, Ephemeroptera, and Chironomidae. Both aquatic and surface predators were abundant. Dominant among aquatic predators were Anisoptera and Zygoptera nymphs, Dytiscidae, and Notonectidae. These results are discussed in relation to mosquito control on deforested lands that transitionally but inevitably appear during the course of rice field development projects in Indonesia.

  4. Soil organic carbon pools in olive groves of different age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaccesi, Luisa; De Feudis, Mauro; Nasini, Luigi; Regni, Luca; D'Ascoli, Rosaria; Castaldi, Simona; Proietti, Primo; Agnelli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, the practices which favor the increase of soil organic carbon in the agroecosystem have been widely studied because of their influence on the reduction of atmospheric CO2 (Lal, 1993; Schlesinger, 2000). The accumulation of the organic carbon into the soil depends to a great extent upon climate and pedological properties (Burke et al., 1989; Miller et al., 1994), although in the agricultural soils the cultivation system also plays a key role. The olive grove might potentially represent a relevant land use to improve C sequestration in soil, but there are few data available to support this hypothesis. In a study site located in central Italy (Deruta, PG), we analyzed the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in two olive groves of different age (7 and 30 years) and, as control, in a site adjacent to the groves cropped with cereals for at least 30 years. With the aim to isolate and quantify the active, intermediate and passive functional SOC pools in the olive groves and in the control, we used a combined physical and chemical fractionation method (Zimmermann et al., 2007). The main results shown that the total organic carbon content in the Ap horizons was the highest in the 30-years-old olive grove, followed by the 7-years-old olive grove, and then by the control soil. The content of active C, in form of particulate organic matter (POM) and water soluble organic matter (WEOM), was greater in the olive grove compared to the control soil and increase with the age of the grove. About the amount of C in the intermediate and passive pools, no significant differences were found among the olive groves and the control. These preliminary results indicated that the greater total organic C content occurred in the 30-year-old olive grove with respect to the 7-years-old grove and the control, has to be ascribed to the greater content of active organic matter (POM and WEOM), and not to the accumulation in soil of organic C in a more stabilised form.

  5. A New Theory of Nucleate Pool Boiling in Arbitrary Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buyevich, Y. A.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    Heat transfer rates specific to nucleate pool boiling under various conditions are determined by the dynamics of vapour bubbles that are originated and grow at nucleation sites of a superheated surface. A new dynamic theory of these bubbles has been recently developed on the basis of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. In contrast to other existing models based on empirically postulated equations for bubble growth and motion, this theory does not contain unwarrantable assumptions, and both the equations are rigorously derived within the framework of a unified approach. The conclusions of the theory are drastically different from those of the conventional models. The bubbles are shown to detach themselves under combined action of buoyancy and a surface tension force that is proven to add to buoyancy in bubble detachment, but not the other way round as is commonly presumed. The theory ensures a sound understanding of a number of so far unexplained phenomena, such as effect caused by gravity level and surface tension on the bubble growth rate and dependence of the bubble characteristics at detachment on the liquid thermophysical parameters and relevant temperature differences. The theoretical predictions are shown to be in a satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement with observations. When being applied to heat transfer at nucleate pool boiling, this bubble dynamic theory offers an opportunity to considerably improve the main formulae that are generally used to correlate experimental findings and to design boiling heat removal in various industrial applications. Moreover, the theory makes possible to pose and study a great deal of new problems of essential impact in practice. Two such problems are considered in detail. One problem concerns the development of a principally novel physical model for the first crisis of boiling. This model allows for evaluating critical boiling heat fluxes under various conditions, and in particular at different

  6. Allocation to carbon storage pools in Norway spruce saplings under drought and low CO2.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Henrik; McDowell, Nate G; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are critical to maintain plant metabolism under stressful environmental conditions, but we do not fully understand how NSC allocation and utilization from storage varies with stress. While it has become established that storage allocation is unlikely to be a mere overflow process, very little empirical evidence has been produced to support this view, at least not for trees. Here we present the results of an intensively monitored experimental manipulation of whole-tree carbon (C) balance (young Picea abies (L.) H Karst.) using reduced atmospheric [CO2] and drought to reduce C sources. We measured specific C storage pools (glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch) over 21 weeks and converted concentration measurement into fluxes into and out of the storage pool. Continuous labeling ((13)C) allowed us to track C allocation to biomass and non-structural C pools. Net C fluxes into the storage pool occurred mainly when the C balance was positive. Storage pools increased during periods of positive C gain and were reduced under negative C gain. (13)C data showed that C was allocated to storage pools independent of the net flux and even under severe C limitation. Allocation to below-ground tissues was strongest in control trees followed by trees experiencing drought followed by those grown under low [CO2]. Our data suggest that NSC storage has, under the conditions of our experimental manipulation (e.g., strong progressive drought, no above-ground growth), a high allocation priority and cannot be considered an overflow process. While these results also suggest active storage allocation, definitive proof of active plant control of storage in woody plants requires studies involving molecular tools.

  7. On kinematics and flow velocity prediction in step-pool channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, V.; Michelini, T.

    2015-06-01

    This paper verifies methods for the prediction of mean flow velocity at the reach scale in mountain streams, investigating the kinematics of a series of two small-scale artificial step-pool sequences and a transitional reach between plane-bed and step-pool under well-controlled hydraulic conditions, and improving the estimation of the energy expenditure between the step crest and the downstream pool. Experimental data were collected using three fish ladder reaches with slopes between 2.6 and 10%. Four types of field measurements were conducted: topographical surveys to extract the thalweg profiles and cross-sectional geometry of reference cross sections; grain size analyses of the bed surface; steady state runs with a given flow rate (0.005-0.234 m3/s), and surveying of the water profile in the most significant cross sections. The following main conclusions were reached: (i) the dominance of spill resistance at the lowest discharge (pool water depth-step height ratios of 0.4) causes primary dimensionless head losses of up to 80%, and these losses progressively decrease to approximately 40% when the water discharge and related pool water depth submerge the upstream step height. A specific predictive equation for the head loss was calibrated and then verified via data from the Rio Cordon. (ii) The verification of literature-sourced equations to predict the reach-averaged flow velocity provided suitable results for several of these equations indicating that the use of a specific step-pool equation does not appear to be crucial to achieving accurate predictions.

  8. Partial Nucleate Pool Boiling at Low Heat Flux: Preliminary Ground Test for SOBER-SJ10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ke; Li, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Li, Hui-Xiong; Li, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Focusing on partial nucleate pool boiling at low heat flux, SOBER-SJ10, one of 27 experiments of the program SJ-10, has been proposed to study local convection and heat transfer around an isolated growing vapor bubble during nucleate pool boiling on a well characterized flat surface in microgravity. An integrated micro heater has been developed. By using a local pulse overheating method in the experimental mode of single bubble boiling, a bubble nucleus can be excited with accurate spatial and temporal positioning on the top-side of a quartz glass substrate with a thickness of 2 mm and an effective heating area of 4.5 mm in diameter, and then grows under an approximate constant heat input provided by the main heater on the back-side of the substrate. Ten thin film micro-RTDs are used for local temperature measurements on the heating surface underneath the growing bubble. Normal pool boiling experiments can also be carried out with step-by-step increase of heating voltage. A series of ground test of the flight module of SOBER-SJ10 have been conducted. Good agreement of the measured data of single phase natural convection with the common-used empirical correlation warrants reasonable confidence in the data. It is found that the values of the incipience superheat of pool boiling at different subcooling are consistent with each others, verifying that the influence of subcooling on boiling incipience can be neglected. Pool boiling curves are also obtained, which shows great influence of subcooling on heat transfer of partial nucleate pool boiling, particularly in lower heat flux.

  9. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  10. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on structured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addy, J.; Olbricht, M.; Müller, B.; Luke, A.

    2016-09-01

    The development in the process and energy sector shows the importance of efficient utilization of available resources to improve thermal devices. To achieve this goal, all thermal components have to be optimized continuously. Various applications of multi-phase heat and mass transfer have to be improved. Therefore, the heat transfer and the influence of surface roughness in nucleate boiling with the working fluid propane is experimentally investigated on structured mild steel tubes, because only few data are available in the literature. The mild steel tube is sandblasted to obtain different surface roughness. The measurements are carried out over wide ranges of heat flux and pressure. The experimental results are compared with correlations from literature and the effect of surface roughness on the heat transfer is discussed. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing surface roughness, heat flux and reduced pressure at nucleate pool boiling.

  11. Weld Pool Stability in the Flat Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Coan, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Soft Plasma Arc (SPA) process was devised to avoid interactions between backshield and full penetration mode plasma jet in welding 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. Occasional sudden and mysterious losses in penetration were encountered in flat position SPA welding. To understand what was happening a model of the dynamics of the molten metal meniscus at the root of the weld was worked out. When the power input to the weld P(sub in) exceeds the power leakage P(sub out) the difference in power is absorbed by an increase in the molten weld pool volume V, Rho X L(SUB m) X (d(V)/dt)) = P(sub in) - P(sub out) where rho is the density and L(sub m) the specific heat of the weld metal.

  12. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  13. Burning of liquid pools in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanury, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    The existing literature on the combustion of liquid fuel pools is reviewed to identify the physical and chemical aspects which require an improved understanding. Among the pre-, trans- and post-ignition processes, a delineation was made of those which seem to uniquely benefit from studies in the essential environment offered by spacelab. The role played by the gravitational constant in analytical and experimental justifications was developed. The analytical justifications were based on hypotheses, models and dimensional analyses whereas the experimental justifications were based on an examination of the range of gravity and gravity-dependent variables possible in the earth-based laboratories. Some preliminary expositions into the questions of feasibility of the proposed spacelab experiment are also reported.

  14. Local structuring factors of invertebrate communities in ephemeral freshwater rock pools and the influence of more permanent water bodies in the region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jocque, M.; Graham, T.; Brendonck, L.

    2007-01-01

    We used three isolated clusters of small ephemeral rock pools on a sandstone flat in Utah to test the importance of local structuring processes on aquatic invertebrate communities. In the three clusters we characterized all ephemeral rock pools (total: 27) for their morphometry, and monitored their water quality, hydrology and community assemblage during a full hydrocycle. In each cluster we also sampled a set of more permanent interconnected freshwater systems positioned in a wash, draining the water from each cluster of rock pools. This design allowed additional testing for the potential role of more permanent water bodies in the region as source populations for the active dispersers and the effect on the community structure in the rock pools. Species richness and community composition in the rock pools correlated with level of permanence and the ammonia concentration. The length of the rock pool inundation cycle shaped community structure, most probably by inhibiting colonization by some taxa (e.g. tadpoles and insect larvae) through developmental constraints. The gradient in ammonia concentrations probably reflects differences in primary production. The more permanent water bodies in each wash differed both environmentally and in community composition from the connected set of rock pools. A limited set of active dispersers was observed in the rock pools. Our findings indicate that aquatic invertebrate communities in the ephemeral rock pools are mainly structured through habitat permanence, possibly linked with biotic interactions and primary production. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools.

    PubMed

    Gentine, Pierre; Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung-Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-28

    The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud-resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection.

  16. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung‐Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud‐resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection. PMID:27134320

  17. The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

    PubMed Central

    Camilli, Richard; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Escartín, Javier; Ridao, Pere; Mallios, Angelos; Kilias, Stephanos P.; Argyraki, Ariadne; Andreani, Muriel; Ballu, Valerie; Campos, Ricard; Deplus, Christine; Gabsi, Taoufic; Garcia, Rafael; Gracias, Nuno; Hurtós, Natàlia; Magí, Lluis; Mével, Catherine; Moreira, Manuel; Palomeras, Narcís; Pot, Olivier; Ribas, David; Ruzié, Lorraine; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Natural CO2 releases from shallow marine hydrothermal vents are assumed to mix into the water column, and not accumulate into stratified seafloor pools. We present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs. This type of hydrothermal seafloor pool, containing highly concentrated CO2, provides direct evidence of shallow benthic CO2 accumulations originating from sub-seafloor releases. Samples taken from within these acidic pools are devoid of calcifying organisms, and channel structures among the pools indicate gravity driven flow, suggesting that seafloor release of CO2 at this site may preferentially impact benthic ecosystems. These naturally occurring seafloor pools may provide a diagnostic indicator of incipient volcanic activity and can serve as an analog for studying CO2 leakage and benthic accumulations from subsea carbon capture and storage sites. PMID:26179858

  18. The Kallisti Limnes, carbon dioxide-accumulating subsea pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    Natural CO2 releases from shallow marine hydrothermal vents are assumed to mix into the water column, and not accumulate into stratified seafloor pools. We present newly discovered shallow subsea pools located within the Santorini volcanic caldera of the Southern Aegean Sea, Greece, that accumulate CO2 emissions from geologic reservoirs. This type of hydrothermal seafloor pool, containing highly concentrated CO2, provides direct evidence of shallow benthic CO2 accumulations originating from sub-seafloor releases. Samples taken from within these acidic pools are devoid of calcifying organisms, and channel structures among the pools indicate gravity driven flow, suggesting that seafloor release of CO2 at this site may preferentially impact benthic ecosystems. These naturally occurring seafloor pools may provide a diagnostic indicator of incipient volcanic activity and can serve as an analog for studying CO2 leakage and benthic accumulations from subsea carbon capture and storage sites.

  19. Installation for a nuclear power station with staggered swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Gigou, R.

    1982-12-28

    In an installation for a nuclear power station comprising a ''reactor building'' with a first swimming pool for handling of fuel units and a fuel building with a second swimming pool for the transfer, storage and deactivation of the units, the second swimming pool is located at a lower level than that of the first and is connected to the first by an intermediate auxiliary chamber filled with water and located under the first swimming pool. The auxiliary chamber is connected by a vertical pipeline to the first swimming pool and by a horizontal connecting pipeline to the second swimming pool. Each of the pipelines is provided with a shut-off valve, with interlocking means which prevents the simultaneous opening of the two valves. There is negligible dead space around a conveyor basket for fuel units when it is in the vertical or horizontal pipelines.

  20. Spread of large LNG pools on the sea.

    PubMed

    Fay, J A

    2007-02-20

    A review of the standard model of LNG pool spreading on water, comparing it with the model and experiments on oil pool spread from which the LNG model is extrapolated, raises questions about the validity of the former as applied to spills from marine tankers. These questions arise from the difference in fluid density ratios, in the multi-dimensional flow at the pool edge, in the effects of LNG pool boiling at the LNG-water interface, and in the model and experimental initial conditions compared with the inflow conditions from a marine tanker spill. An alternate supercritical flow model is proposed that avoids these difficulties; it predicts significant increase in the maximum pool radius compared with the standard model and is partially corroborated by tests of LNG pool fires on water. Wind driven ocean wave interaction has little effect on either spread model.

  1. [Responses of forest soil carbon pool and carbon cycle to the changes of carbon input].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-kui

    2011-04-01

    Litters and plant roots are the main sources of forest soil organic carbon (C). This paper summarized the effects of the changes in C input on the forest soil C pool and C cycle, and analyzed the effects of these changes on the total soil C, microbial biomass C, dissoluble organic C, and soil respiration. Different forests in different regions had inconsistent responses to C input change, and the effects of litter removal or addition and of root exclusion or not differed with tree species and regions. Current researches mainly focused on soil respiration and C pool fractions, and scarce were about the effects of C input change on the changes of soil carbon structure and stability as well as the response mechanisms of soil organisms especially soil fauna, which should be strengthened in the future.

  2. [Normobaric intermittent hypoxia and functional state of the erythrocyte pool].

    PubMed

    Dlusskaia, I G; Stepanov, V K; Radchenko, S N; Dvornikov, M V

    2004-01-01

    Functional state of the pool of erythrocytes was evaluated in ten essentially healthy male subjects before, during and in 2 months after a series of 15 exposures to normobaric intermittent hypoxia (NIH). The erythrocyte pool dynamics, hemoglobin content, low and highly resistive fractions of erythrocytes were analyzed using a modified acidic histogram technique. It was demonstrated that the erythrocyte pool was either in the state of destruction (concurrent to the NIH exposure) or ensuing persistent improvement of the functional characteristics under study.

  3. Mercury bioaccumulation in wood frogs developing in seasonal pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, Cynthia S.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Elskus, Adria; Simon, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal woodland pools contribute significant biomass to terrestrial ecosystems through production of pool-breeding amphibians. The movement of amphibian metamorphs potentially transports toxins bioaccumulated during larval development in the natal pool into the surrounding terrestrial environment. We documented total mercury (THg) in seasonal woodland pool water, sediment, litter, and Lithobates sylvaticus LeConte (Wood Frog) in Acadia National Park, ME. THg concentrations in pool water varied over the study season, increasing during April—June and remaining high in 2 of 4 pools upon October refill. Water in pools surrounded by softwoods had lower pH, greater dissolved organic carbon, and greater THg concentrations than pools surrounded by hardwoods, with seasonal patterns in sediment THg but not litter THg. THg increased rapidly from near or below detection in 1–2 week old embryos (<0.2 ng; 0–0.49 ppb wet weight) to 17.1–54.2 ppb in tadpoles within 6 weeks; 7.2–42.0% of THg was methyl Hg in tadpoles near metamorphosis. Metamorphs emigrating from seasonal pools may transfer mercury into terrestrial food webs.

  4. 48 CFR 873.114 - Best value pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitation. These vendors constitute the best value pool. This determination is within the sole discretion of... the resources available to conduct the source selection. Provided the solicitation notifies...

  5. Suppression Pool Mixing and Condensation Tests in PUMA Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ling Cheng; Kyoung Suk Woo; Mamoru Ishii; Jaehyok Lim; Han, James

    2006-07-01

    Condensation of steam with non-condensable in the form of jet flow or bubbly flow inside the suppression pool is an important phenomenon on determining the containment pressure of a passively safe boiling water reactor. 32 cases of pool mixing and condensation test have been performed in Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility under the sponsor of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate thermal stratification and pool mixing inside the suppression pool during the reactor blowdown period. The test boundary conditions, such as the steam flow rate, the noncondensable gas flow rate, the initial water temperature, the pool initial pressure and the vent opening submergence depth, which covers a wide range of prototype (SBWR-600) conditions during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) were obtained from the RELAP5 calculation. The test results show that steam is quickly condensed at the exit of the vent opening. For pure steam injection or low noncondensable injection cases, only the portion above the vent opening in the suppression pool is heated up by buoyant plumes. The water below the vent opening can be heated up slowly through conduction. The test results also show that the degree of thermal stratification in suppression pool is affected by the vent opening submergence depth, the pool initial pressure and the steam injection rate. And it is slightly affected by the initial water temperature. From these tests it is concluded that the pool mixing is strongly affected by the noncondensable gas flow rate. (authors)

  6. Experiment poseidon: Elemental iodine retention in water pools

    SciTech Connect

    Guentay, S.

    1990-01-01

    Although gaseous fraction of iodine is expected to be small in quantity compared with its other forms such as CsI, because of its radiological consequence, removal of elemental iodine vapor from the gas bubbles in water pools defines an important boundary condition for the severe-accident scenarios that involve water pools. The Muehleberg nuclear power plant (a boiling water reactor Mark 1 type) in Switzerland has a unique feature, namely, a second suppression pool surrounding the reactor building in addition to the regular pressure suppression pool. For those hypothetical accident scenarios that involve the second pool, scrubbing in the second suppression pool would ultimately determine the magnitude and constitution of the release. An experimental program, pool scrubbing effect on iodine decontamination (POSEIDON), was initiated at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland in 1987 to provide a data base on gaseous iodine scrubbing. Bubbles containing elemental iodine vapor and nitrogen as the carrier gas are generated using certain sized orifices immersed in a water pool. Objectives of the experimental program are defined as (a) to understand the iodine removal phenomena from bubbles and (b) to provide a data base for iodine retention under controlled boundary conditions for the development and verification of the BUSCA-PSI pool scrubbing code.

  7. How to link soil C pools with CO2 fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Despite the importance of carbon (C) pools and CO2 fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems and especially in soils, as well as many attempts to assign fluxes to specific pools, this challenge remains unsolved. Interestingly, scientists investigating pools are not closely linked with scientists studying fluxes. This mini-review therefore focused on experimental approaches enabling soil C pools to be linked with CO2 flux from the soil. The background, advantages and shortcomings of uncoupled approaches (measuring only pools or fluxes) and of coupled approaches (measuring both pools and fluxes) were evaluated and their prerequisites - steady state of pools and isotopic steady state - described. The uncoupled approaches include: (i) monitoring the decrease of C pools in long-term fallow bare soil lacking C input over decades, (ii) analyzing components of CO2 efflux dynamics by incubating soil without new C input over months or a few years, and (iii) analyzing turnover rates of C pools based on their 13C and 14C isotopic signature. The uncoupled approaches are applicable for non steady state conditions only and have limited explanatory power. The more advantageous coupled approaches partition simultaneously pools and fluxes and are based on one of three types of changes in the isotopic signature of input C compared to soil C: (i) abrupt permanent, (ii) gradual permanent, and (iii) abrupt temporary impacts. I show how the maximal sensitivity of the approaches depends on the differences in the isotopic signature of pools with fast and slow turnover rates. The promising coupled approaches include: (a) &delta13C of C pools and CO2 efflux from soil after C3/C4 vegetation changes or in FACE experiments (both corresponding to continuous labeling), (b) addition of 13C or 14C labeled organics (corresponding to pulse labeling), and (c) bomb-14C. I show that physical separation of soil C pools is not a~prerequisite to estimate pool size or to link pools with fluxes. The future challenges

  8. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K.

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  9. Control of Gas Tungsten Arc welding pool shape by trace element addition to the weld pool

    DOEpatents

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1984-03-13

    An improved process for Gas Tungsten Arc welding maximizes the depth/width ratio of the weld pool by adding a sufficient amount of a surface active element to insure inward fluid flow, resulting in deep, narrow welds. The process is especially useful to eliminate variable weld penetration and shape in GTA welding of steels and stainless steels, particularly by using a sulfur-doped weld wire in a cold wire feed technique.

  10. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  11. 6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. Nucleotide pools dictate the identity and frequency of ribonucleotide incorporation in mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hoberg, Emily; Szilagyi, Zsolt; Taylor, Robert W.; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Falkenberg, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the presence of ribonucleotides in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in the present study we use a genome-wide approach to precisely map the location of these. We find that ribonucleotides are distributed evenly between the heavy- and light-strand of mtDNA. The relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides reflect that DNA polymerase γ discriminates the four ribonucleotides differentially during DNA synthesis. The observed pattern is also dependent on the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools and disease-causing mutations that change these pools alter both the absolute and relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides. Our analyses strongly suggest that DNA polymerase γ-dependent incorporation is the main source of ribonucleotides in mtDNA and argues against the existence of a mitochondrial ribonucleotide excision repair pathway in human cells. Furthermore, we clearly demonstrate that when dNTP pools are limiting, ribonucleotides serve as a source of building blocks to maintain DNA replication. Increased levels of embedded ribonucleotides in patient cells with disturbed nucleotide pools may contribute to a pathogenic mechanism that affects mtDNA stability and impair new rounds of mtDNA replication. PMID:28207748

  13. Both synthesis and reuptake are critical for replenishing the releasable serotonin pool in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Borue, Xenia; Condron, Barry; Venton, B. Jill

    2010-01-01

    The two main sources of serotonin available for release are expected to be newly synthesized serotonin and serotonin recycled after reuptake by the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, their relative importance for maintaining release and the time course of regulation are unknown. We studied serotonin signaling in the ventral nerve cord of the larval Drosophila central nervous system. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at implanted microelectrodes was used to detect serotonin elicited by channelrhodopsin2-mediated depolarization. The effects of reuptake were probed by incubating in cocaine, which is selective for the serotonin transporter in Drosophila. p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase2, was used to investigate the effects of synthesis. Stimulations were repeated at various intervals to assess the time course of recovery of the releasable pool. Reuptake is important for the rapid replenishment of the releasable pool, on the 1 minute time scale. Synthesis is critical to the longer-term replenishment (10 min) of the releasable pool, especially when reuptake is also inhibited. Concurrent synthesis and reuptake inhibition decreased both serotonin tissue content measured by immunohistochemistry (by 50%) and the initial amount of evoked serotonin (by 65%). Decreases in evoked serotonin are rescued by inhibiting action potential propagation with tetrodotoxin, implicating endogenous activity in the depletion. These results show synthesis is necessary to replenish part of the releasable serotonin pool that is depleted after reuptake inhibition, suggesting that regulation of synthesis may modulate the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:20070864

  14. Macroinvertebrate community assembly in pools created during peatland restoration.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lee E; Ramchunder, Sorain J; Beadle, Jeannie M; Holden, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Many degraded ecosystems are subject to restoration attempts, providing new opportunities to unravel the processes of ecological community assembly. Restoration of previously drained northern peatlands, primarily to promote peat and carbon accumulation, has created hundreds of thousands of new open water pools. We assessed the potential benefits of this wetland restoration for aquatic biodiversity, and how communities reassemble, by comparing pool ecosystems in regions of the UK Pennines on intact (never drained) versus restored (blocked drainage-ditches) peatland. We also evaluated the conceptual idea that comparing reference ecosystems in terms of their compositional similarity to null assemblages (and thus the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic assembly) can guide evaluations of restoration success better than analyses of community composition or diversity. Community composition data highlighted some differences in the macroinvertebrate composition of restored pools compared to undisturbed peatland pools, which could be used to suggest that alternative end-points to restoration were influenced by stochastic processes. However, widely used diversity metrics indicated no differences between undisturbed and restored pools. Novel evaluations of restoration using null models confirmed the similarity of deterministic assembly processes from the national species pool across all pools. Stochastic elements were important drivers of between-pool differences at the regional-scale but the scale of these effects was also similar across most of the pools studied. The amalgamation of assembly theory into ecosystem restoration monitoring allows us to conclude with more certainty that restoration has been successful from an ecological perspective in these systems. Evaluation of these UK findings compared to those from peatlands across Europe and North America further suggests that restoring peatland pools delivers significant benefits for aquatic fauna by

  15. Chlorate as an inorganic disinfection by product in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Erdinger, L; Kirsch, F; Sonntag, H G

    1999-06-01

    Chlorate and chlorite concentrations were determined in water samples taken from 33 swimming pools. In the pools under investigation, disinfection of the water is carried out either by gaseous chlorine (n = 14) or hypochlorite solution in conjunction with flocculation and sand filtration. A number of the pools also use ozone treatment to augment the disinfection process. Chlorite was not detectable in any of the samples (detection limit 1 mg/l). High concentrations of chlorate were detected in samples from a number of the pools; in one case as high as 40 mg/l. Higher chlorate concentrations were found to be associated with those pools using hypochlorite solution as a disinfecting agent. In contrast, relatively low chlorate concentrations were found in pools treated with gaseous chlorine. In order to elucidate any relationship between the chlorate content of pool water and that of the respective hypochlorite stock solution, chlorate and bromate concentrations were determined in the hypochlorite stock solutions of nine pools. Bromate concentration in the stock solutions were not found to exceed 1.2 g/l, chlorate was measured in concentrations of up to 44.5 g/l. The additional use of ozone as part of the water purification process appears to have no significant influence on chlorate concentration. Chlorate has no bactericidal properties and does not interfere with the measurement of certain parameters relevant to hygiene in swimming pools such as free and combined chlorine, pH or redox potential. At present, the effects of high chlorate concentrations in swimming pool water are unclear. Our initial investigations indicate that chlorate has no cytotoxic (Neutral-Red assay) or irritating properties (HET-CAM assay). However, both chlorate and chlorite are known to interfere with the haematopoetic system. In Germany, the MCL for chlorite in drinking water is 0.2 mg/l. It is therefore strongly recommended that measures should be taken to reduce chlorate concentrations in

  16. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    PubMed Central

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-01-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics. PMID:26837464

  17. Leidenfrost drops on a heated liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, L.; Sobac, B.; Darbois-Texier, B.; Duchesne, A.; Brandenbourger, M.; Rednikov, A.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that a volatile liquid drop placed at the surface of a nonvolatile liquid pool warmer than the boiling point of the drop can be held in a Leidenfrost state even for vanishingly small superheats. Such an observation points to the importance of the substrate roughness, negligible in the case considered here, in determining the threshold Leidenfrost temperature. A theoretical model based on the one proposed by Sobac et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.053011] is developed in order to rationalize the experimental data. The shapes of the drop and of the liquid substrate are analyzed. The model notably provides scalings for the vapor film thickness profile. For small drops, these scalings appear to be identical to the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For large drops, in contrast, they are different, and no evidence of chimney formation has been observed either experimentally or theoretically in the range of drop sizes considered in this study. Concerning the evaporation dynamics, the radius is shown to decrease linearly with time whatever the drop size, which differs from the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For high superheats, the characteristic lifetime of the drops versus the superheat follows a scaling law that is derived from the model, but, at low superheats, it deviates from this scaling by rather saturating.

  18. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  19. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    SciTech Connect

    Cranston, J.S.; Taglianetti, J.N.; Schaeffer, D.G.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities` specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost.

  20. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    PubMed

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  1. 46 CFR 401.300 - Authorization for establishment of pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorization for establishment of pools. 401.300 Section 401.300 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES... § 401.300 Authorization for establishment of pools. (a) Voluntary associations of U.S. registered...

  2. IRT Item Parameter Scaling for Developing New Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Lu, Ying; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Increasing use of item pools in large-scale educational assessments calls for an appropriate scaling procedure to achieve a common metric among field-tested items. The present study examines scaling procedures for developing a new item pool under a spiraled block linking design. The three scaling procedures are considered: (a) concurrent…

  3. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  4. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-8 - Pooled investment vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pooled investment vehicles... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-8 Pooled investment vehicles. (a) Prohibition. It shall constitute a fraudulent, deceptive, or manipulative...

  5. 47 CFR 90.20 - Public Safety Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Public Safety Radio Pool § 90.20 Public Safety Pool. (a) Eligibility. The following... basic or advanced life support services on an ongoing basis are eligible to hold authorization...

  6. 17 CFR 229.1111 - (Item 1111) Pool assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including a description of any differences from the criteria used to select the current asset pool. (8... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1111) Pool assets. 229... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1111...

  7. 17 CFR 229.1111 - (Item 1111) Pool assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., including a description of any differences from the criteria used to select the current asset pool. (8... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1111) Pool assets. 229... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1111...

  8. 49 CFR 1184.2 - Contents of a pooling application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is a lessening of such alternatives, an estimate of the public benefits that will accrue from... would affect the public and the national transportation system; (k) If any known non-pooling carriers authorized to transport the subject traffic are not included in the pooling arrangement explain why,...

  9. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  10. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  11. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  12. 76 FR 54764 - Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that, on August 24, 2011, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. filed to supplement its May 24, 2011 filing of revisions to its...

  13. Suggested Ordinance and Regulations Covering Public Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Public Health Association, Inc., New York, NY.

    In preparing this publication, the Joint Committee on Swimming Pools and Bathing Places intended to promote the proper installation of public swimming pool facilities and their efficient operation. Objectives were--(1) to be concerned with the development of realistic and reasonable minimum standards to safeguard the health and safety of swimmers…

  14. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  15. 36 CFR 21.6 - Use of therapeutic pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of therapeutic pools. 21.6 Section 21.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.6 Use of therapeutic pools. Persons...

  16. In-Class Simulation of Pooling Safety Stock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, D. Brent

    2005-01-01

    In managing business process flows, safety stock can be used to protect against stockouts due to demand variability. When more than one location is involved, the concept of aggregation enables the pooling of demands and associated inventories, resulting in improved service levels without increasing the total level of safety stock. This pooling of…

  17. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  18. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  19. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  20. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  1. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  2. DROWNING IN DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS? ASSESSING SWIMMING POOL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of treated water for swimming pools has made swimming a year round activity, widely enjoyed for leisure as well as exercise. Swimming pools can be found in different kinds and sizes in public areas, hotels and spas, or at private homes. In Germany ~250-300 million...

  3. Drowning in Disinfection Byproducts? Swimming Pool Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection is mandatory for swimming pools, because transmission of disease by bacteria, virus and protozoa is the most significant health issue. However another issue arises, and care should be taken to minimize the risks from disinfection by-products (DBPs). Public pools are ...

  4. Assessing Water Quality: Staphylococci as Microbial Indicators in Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Jo. Bechaida T.; Adera, Tilahun

    1991-01-01

    This study suggests that staphylococci may be the preferred microbial indicators of swimming pool water quality because these organisms met all criteria for best microbial indicators in terms of amount of recovery, resistance to disinfectants, and risk to bathers using water samples from nine swimming pools in Linn and Benton Counties, Oregon. (30…

  5. 2. OVERVIEW OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE IN POOLE POWERHOUSE SETTING. TRIPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERVIEW OF TRIPLEX COTTAGE IN POOLE POWERHOUSE SETTING. TRIPLEX COTTAGE IS VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT. POOLE POWERHOUSE IS ADJACENT TRIPLEX COTTAGE AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT. SWITCHRACKS ARE VISIBLE ADJACENT TO POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  6. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  7. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  10. 41 CFR 109-27.5106 - Precious metals pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precious metals pool. 109-27.5106 Section 109-27.5106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5106 Precious metals pool....

  11. How are large western hemisphere warm pools formed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enfield, David B.; Lee, Sang-Ki; Wang, Chunzai

    2006-08-01

    During the boreal summer the Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) stretches from the eastern North Pacific to the tropical North Atlantic and is a key feature of the climate of the Americas and Africa. In the summers following nine El Niño events during 1950-2000, there have been five instances of extraordinarily large warm pools averaging about twice the climatological annual size. These large warm pools have induced a strengthened divergent circulation aloft and have been associated with rainfall anomalies throughout the western hemisphere tropics and subtropics and with more frequent hurricanes. However, following four other El Niño events large warm pools did not develop, such that the mere existence of El Niño during the boreal winter does not provide the basis for predicting an anomalously large warm pool the following summer. In this paper, we find consistency with the hypothesis that large warm pools result from an anomalous divergent circulation forced by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Pacific, the so-called atmospheric bridge. We also find significant explanations for why large warm pools do not always develop. If the El Niño event ends early in the eastern Pacific, the Pacific warm anomaly lacks the persistence needed to force the atmospheric bridge and the Atlantic portion of the warm pool remains normal. If SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific do not last much beyond February of the following year, then the eastern North Pacific portion of the warm pool remains normal. The overall strength of the Pacific El Niño does not appear to be a critical factor. We also find that when conditions favor a developing atmospheric bridge and the winter atmosphere over the North Atlantic conforms to a negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern (as in 1957-58 and 1968-69), the forcing is reinforced and the warm pool is stronger. On the other hand, if a positive NAO pattern develops the warm pool may remain normal even if other circumstances

  12. Habitat species pools for phylogenetic structure in microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Soininen, Janne; Shen, Ji

    2013-06-01

    The processes underlying the phylogenetic structure of the biotic communities are typically scale-dependent and thus often poorly resolved. Illustrated by the study of macroorganisms, it is suggested that the relative influence of ecological processes on the phylogenetic structure of the communities can be inferred by the geographical definition of the species pools. However, given the high dispersal ability of microbes, the spatial delineation of the species pool may not be that practical for microbial taxa. This idea is supported by the observational data on bacteria along an elevational gradient. Significant negative values of standardized effect size of the mean nearest taxon distance were consistently observed for different sized species pools considered. Reviewing the reports on microbial phylogenetic structure so far, we suggested that the 'habitat species pools' are perhaps more important for microbes than spatial delineated 'regional species pools'.

  13. Inventory of Anchialine Pools in Hawaii's National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, David

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anchialine (?near the sea?) pools are rare and localized brackish waters along coastal lava flows that exhibit tidal fluctuations without a surface connection with the ocean (Fig. 1). In Hawai`i, these pools were frequently excavated or otherwise modified by Hawaiians to serve as sources of drinking water, baths and fish ponds. National Parks in Hawai`i possess the full spectrum of pool types, from walled fish ponds to undisturbed pools in collapsed lava tubes, cracks and caves. Pools contain relatively rare and unique fauna threatened primarily by invasive species and habitat loss. In collaboration with the National Park Service?s Inventory and Monitoring Program, the U.S. Geological Survey?s Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center undertook inventories of these unique ecosystems in two National Parks on the island of Hawai`i: Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park.

  14. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  15. The ecology of southern California vernal pools: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Zedler, P.H.

    1987-05-01

    Vernal pools are shallow temporary bodies of water that form in winter and spring in the Mediterranean climate region of the Pacific coast. They occur in a diversity of natural settings, often in association with mounded topography. The origin of this mounded topography is still controversial. The short duration of pools and the extreme variation from standing water to severe drought favor a unique fauna and flora. The organisms of vernal pools have special life history features that fit them to this environment. Some of the plants and many of the animals have cosmopolitan distribution, and are found in temporary wetlands at widely scattered locations. Others are extremely restricted in distribution and many are endemic to clusters of pools within the California biotic province. Vernal pools have disappeared at an increasing rate over the past 100 years; because of this, several plant taxa associated with them are listed as rare and endangered by the Federal Government and the State of California.

  16. Pooled exposure assessment for matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2011-09-01

    Exposure assessment using biologic specimens is important for epidemiology but may become impracticable if assays are expensive, specimen volumes are marginally adequate, or analyte levels fall below the limit of detection. Pooled exposure assessment can provide an effective remedy for these problems in unmatched case-control studies. We extend pooled exposure strategies to handle specimens collected in a matched case-control study. We show that if a logistic model applies to individuals, then a logistic model also applies to an analysis using pooled exposures. Consequently, the individual-level odds ratio can be estimated while conserving both cost and specimen. We discuss appropriate pooling strategies for a single exposure, with adjustment for multiple, possibly continuous, covariates (confounders) and assessment of effect modification by a categorical variable. We assess the performance of the approach via simulations and conclude that pooled strategies can markedly improve efficiency for matched as well as unmatched case-control studies.

  17. Chemical contaminants in swimming pools: Occurrence, implications and control.

    PubMed

    Teo, Tiffany L L; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-03-01

    A range of trace chemical contaminants have been reported to occur in swimming pools. Current disinfection practices and monitoring of swimming pool water quality are aimed at preventing the spread of microbial infections and diseases. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when the disinfectants used react with organic and inorganic matter in the pool. Additional chemicals may be present in swimming pools originating from anthropogenic sources (bodily excretions, lotions, cosmetics, etc.) or from the source water used where trace chemicals may already be present. DBPs have been the most widely investigated trace chemical contaminants, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), halobenzoquinones (HBQs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), N-nitrosamines, nitrite, nitrates and chloramines. The presence and concentrations of these chemical contaminants are dependent upon several factors including the types of pools, types of disinfectants used, disinfectant dosages, bather loads, temperature and pH of swimming pool waters. Chemical constituents of personal care products (PCPs) such as parabens and ultraviolet (UV) filters from sunscreens have also been reported. By-products from reactions of these chemicals with disinfectants and UV irradiation have been reported and some may be more toxic than their parent compounds. There is evidence to suggest that exposure to some of these chemicals may lead to health risks. This paper provides a detailed review of various chemical contaminants reported in swimming pools. The concentrations of chemicals present in swimming pools may also provide an alternative indicator to swimming pool water quality, providing insights to contamination sources. Alternative treatment methods such as activated carbon filtration and advanced oxidation processes may be beneficial in improving swimming pool water quality.

  18. Formation of the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Umasankar; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Behara, Ambica

    2016-09-01

    A pool of relatively cooler water, called here as the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool, exists around Sri Lanka and southern tip of India during the summer monsoon. This cold pool is enveloped by the larger Indian Ocean warm pool and is believed to affect the intraseasonal variations of summer monsoon rainfall. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the cold pool using a combination of both satellite data sets and a general circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Sea surface temperature (SST) within the cold pool, after the steady increase during the February-April period, decreases first during a pre-monsoon spell in April and then with the monsoon onset during May. The onset cooling is stronger (~1.8°C) than the pre-monsoon cooling (~0.8°C) and culminates in the formation of the cold pool. Analysis of the model temperature equation shows that SST decrease during both events is primarily due to a decrease in incoming solar radiation and an increase in latent heat loss. These changes in the net heat flux are brought about by the arrival of cloud bands above the cold pool during both periods. During the pre-monsoon period, a cloud band originates in the western equatorial Indian Ocean and subsequently arrives above the cold pool. Similarly, during the monsoon onset, a band of clouds originating in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean comes over the cold pool region. A lead-lag correlation calculation between daily SST and rainfall anomalies suggest that cooling in SST occurs in response to rainfall events with a lag of 5 days. These sequence of events occur every year with certain amount of interannual variability.

  19. Dual pools of actin at presynaptic terminals.

    PubMed

    Bleckert, Adam; Photowala, Huzefa; Alford, Simon

    2012-06-01

    We investigated actin's function in vesicle recycling and exocytosis at lamprey synapses and show that FM1-43 puncta and phalloidin-labeled filamentous actin (F-actin) structures are colocalized, yet recycling vesicles are not contained within F-actin clusters. Additionally, phalloidin also labels a plasma membrane-associated cortical actin. Injection of fluorescent G-actin revealed activity-independent dynamic actin incorporation into presynaptic synaptic vesicle clusters but not into cortical actin. Latrunculin-A, which sequesters G-actin, dispersed vesicle-associated actin structures and prevented subsequent labeled G-actin and phalloidin accumulation at presynaptic puncta, yet cortical phalloidin labeling persisted. Dispersal of presynaptic F-actin structures by latrunculin-A did not disrupt vesicle clustering or recycling or alter the amplitude or kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). However, it slightly enhanced release during repetitive stimulation. While dispersal of presynaptic actin puncta with latrunculin-A failed to disperse synaptic vesicles or inhibit synaptic transmission, presynaptic phalloidin injection blocked exocytosis and reduced endocytosis measured by action potential-evoked FM1-43 staining. Furthermore, phalloidin stabilization of only cortical actin following pretreatment with latrunculin-A was sufficient to inhibit synaptic transmission. Conversely, treatment of axons with jasplakinolide, which induces F-actin accumulation but disrupts F-actin structures in vivo, resulted in increased synaptic transmission accompanied by a loss of phalloidin labeling of cortical actin but no loss of actin labeling within vesicle clusters. Marked synaptic deficits seen with phalloidin stabilization of cortical F-actin, in contrast to the minimal effects of disruption of a synaptic vesicle-associated F-actin, led us to conclude that two structurally and functionally distinct pools of actin exist at presynaptic sites.

  20. Observations of Brine Pool Surface Characteristics and Internal Structure Through Remote Acoustic and Structured Light Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, C.; Roman, C.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the surface characteristics and internal structure of deep-sea brine pools are currently limited to discrete in-situ observations. Complementary acoustic and structured light imaging sensors mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) have demonstrated the ability systematically detect variations in surface characteristics of a brine pool, reveal internal stratification and detect areas of active hydrocarbon activity. The presented visual and acoustic sensors combined with a stereo camera pair are mounted on the 4000m rated ROV Hercules (Ocean Exploration Trust). These three independent sensors operate simultaneously from a typical 3m altitude resulting in visual and bathymetric maps with sub-centimeter resolution. Applying this imaging technology to 2014 and 2015 brine pool surveys in the Gulf of Mexico revealed acoustic and visual anomalies due to the density changes inherent in the brine. Such distinct changes in acoustic impedance allowed the high frequency 1350KHz multibeam sonar to detect multiple interfaces. For instance, distinct acoustic reflections were observed at 3m and 5.5m below the vehicle. Subsequent verification using a CDT and lead line indicated the acoustic return from the brine surface was the signal at 3m, while a thicker muddy and more saline interface occurred at 5.5m, the bottom of the brine pool was not located but is assumed to be deeper than 15m. The multibeam is also capable of remotely detecting emitted gas bubbles within the brine pool, indicative of active hydrocarbon seeps. Bubbles associated with these seeps were not consistently visible above the brine while using the HD camera on the ROV. Additionally, while imaging the surface of brine pool the structured light sheet laser became diffuse, refracting across the main interface. Analysis of this refraction combined with varying acoustic returns allow for systematic and remote detection of the density, stratification and activity levels within and

  1. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  2. Swimming pool immersion accidents: an analysis from the Brisbane Drowning Study

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, John H; Nixon, James

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of a consecutive series of 66 swimming pool immersion accidents is presented; 74% of these occurred in in-ground swimming pools. The estimated accident rate per pool is fives times greater for in-ground pools compared with above-ground pools, where pools are inadequately fenced. Backyard swimming pools account for 74% of pool accidents. Motel and caravan park pools account for 9% of childhood immersion accidents, but the survival rate (17%) is very low. Fifty per cent of pool accidents occur in the family's own backyard pool, and 13.6% in a neighbour's pool; in the latter the survival rate is still low at only 33%. In only one of the 66 cases was there an adequate safety fence; in 76% of cases there was no fence or barrier whatsoever. Tables of swimming pool accidents by age, season, site, and outcome are presented. PMID:9493630

  3. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  4. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  5. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

  6. Study on velocity distribution in a pool by submersible mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, F.; Shi, W. D.; Jiang, H.; Lu, X. N.; Chen, B.

    2012-11-01

    To study the distribution of submersible mixers and agitating effect in the sewage treatment pool, Pro/E software was utilized to build the three-dimensional model. Then, the large-scale computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT6.3 was used. ICEM software was used to build unstructured grid of sewage treatment pool. After that, the sewage treatment pool was numerically simulated by dynamic coordinate system technology and RNG k-ε turbulent model and PIOS algorithm. The macro fluid field and each section velocity flow field distribution were analyzed to observe the efficiency of each submersible mixer. The average velocity and mixing area in the sewage pool were studied simultaneously. Results show that: the preferred project B, two submersible mixers speed is 980 r/min, and setting angles are all 30°. Fluid mixing area in the pool has reached more than 95%. Under the action of two mixers, the fluid in the sewage pool form a continuous circulating water flow. The fluid is mixed adequately and average velocity of fluid in the pool is at around 0.241m/s, which agreed with the work requirements. Consequently it can provide a reference basis for practical engineering application of submersible mixers by using this method.

  7. [Juvenile fish in a tidal pool, Térraba-Sierpe Forest Reserve, Puntarenas, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chicas, F A

    2001-12-01

    Juvenile fish were sampled with a 10 m long net in a tide pool (17,000 m2) on the West margin of Boca Guarumal, Térraba-Sierpe Forest Reserve, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, from October 1992 through January 1994. Water temperature and surface salinity were recorded in each visit. The specimens were fixed in 5% formaldehyde and preserved in 70% ethanol. Abundance and size data were pooled based on precipitation, a main ecological influence in the Reserve. A total of 13,494 individuals from 18 species were captured. Eucinostomus currani, Gobionellus sagittula, Diapterus peruvianus, Agonostomus monticola and Atherinella sp. represented more than 97% of the captures. Although many species presented the tendency of concentrating during the dry season, significant differences in temporal abundance were found. The fish entered the estuary when their body length was between 20 and 60 mm.

  8. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A.

    1997-05-01

    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  9. Pooled CRISPR screening with single-cell transcriptome readout.

    PubMed

    Datlinger, Paul; Rendeiro, André F; Schmidl, Christian; Krausgruber, Thomas; Traxler, Peter; Klughammer, Johanna; Schuster, Linda C; Kuchler, Amelie; Alpar, Donat; Bock, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    CRISPR-based genetic screens are accelerating biological discovery, but current methods have inherent limitations. Widely used pooled screens are restricted to simple readouts including cell proliferation and sortable marker proteins. Arrayed screens allow for comprehensive molecular readouts such as transcriptome profiling, but at much lower throughput. Here we combine pooled CRISPR screening with single-cell RNA sequencing into a broadly applicable workflow, directly linking guide RNA expression to transcriptome responses in thousands of individual cells. Our method for CRISPR droplet sequencing (CROP-seq) enables pooled CRISPR screens with single-cell transcriptome resolution, which will facilitate high-throughput functional dissection of complex regulatory mechanisms and heterogeneous cell populations.

  10. Aquatic Studies of the Main Channel Border Habitat of Pool 5A on the Upper Mississippi River,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Table 4-1). Of the ten phyla present, Annelida (especially Naididae and Tubificidae) and Arthropoda (primarily Insecta) yielded the greatest number of...Urnatella gracilis Pharyngobdel lida Annelida Erpo bdel li da e Oligochaeta Erpobdella punctata Pleslopora Arthropo da E nchyt raei da e Cru stacea...Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, 22 p. Hiltunen, J.K. and D.J. Klemm. 1980. A guide to the Naididae ( Annelida : Clitellata: Oligochaeta) of North

  11. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  12. Maine Indians: A Brief Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The Indians of Maine, descendants of Algonquian linguistic stock, number approximately 1800 and reside on 3 reservations totalling 22,600 acres of land. Most of the reservation land is forested, with important economic and recreational advantages in terms of timber production and hunting and fishing opportunities. In 1965, Maine became the first…

  13. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  14. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  15. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF POOL No. 1, SPRINGHILL LAKE, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF POOL No. 1, SPRINGHILL LAKE, AND 6220 SPRINGHILL DRIVE (FORMERLY KNOWN AS THE FOUNTAIN LODGE/COMMUNITY CENTER, NOW A LEASING OFFICE). - Springhill Lake Apartments, 9230 Edmonston Road, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  16. [Labile iron pool formation in rat's blood under rhabdomyolysis].

    PubMed

    Shandrenko, S H

    2012-01-01

    The labile nonheme iron pool formation in blood under glycerol induced rhabdomyolysis in rats has been investigated. This iron is not included in transferrin, thereby it is redox-active. Rhabdomyolysis was caused by intramuscular injection of 50% glycerol in a dose of 10 ml/kg. In the first day it has been registered that the blood plasma free heme content increased 10 times and the liver heme-oxigenase activity increased 6 times. Plasma redox-active iron pool formation has been registered by EPR method. Such iron was absent in the control group. This iron pool content in the interval from the 1st to the 6st day was more than 2 mg/l and significantly higher than the transferrin iron level. The plasma iron pool unshielded by transferrin may be one of oxidative stress causes.

  17. 13 CFR 120.1715 - Seller's Pool Loan liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1715 Seller... Regulations, and with SBA approval of a liquidation plan and any litigation plan, and any amendment of...

  18. 13 CFR 120.1715 - Seller's Pool Loan liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1715 Seller... Regulations, and with SBA approval of a liquidation plan and any litigation plan, and any amendment of...

  19. 41 CFR 109-25.109-2 - Equipment pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effectiveness of equipment pools shall be submitted to the head of the DOE office at the discretion of that... by appropriate contractor management, DOE offices, and audit teams. (e) Heads of field...

  20. A 2D histogram representation of images for pooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinnan; Zhang, Yu-Jin

    2011-03-01

    Designing a suitable image representation is one of the most fundamental issues of computer vision. There are three steps in the popular Bag of Words based image representation: feature extraction, coding and pooling. In the final step, current methods make an M x K encoded feature matrix degraded to a K-dimensional vector (histogram), where M is the number of features, and K is the size of the codebook: information is lost dramatically here. In this paper, a novel pooling method, based on 2-D histogram representation, is proposed to retain more information from the encoded image features. This pooling method can be easily incorporated into state-of- the-art computer vision system frameworks. Experiments show that our approach improves current pooling methods, and can achieve satisfactory performance of image classification and image reranking even when using a small codebook and costless linear SVM.

  1. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  2. 1. FIRST SECTION OF PIPELINE BETWEEN CONFLUENCE POOL AND FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FIRST SECTION OF PIPELINE BETWEEN CONFLUENCE POOL AND FISH SCREEN. NOTE RETAINING WALL BESIDE PIPE. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Pipeline to Fish Screen, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. North side Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. South side facing north Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side facing north - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. South side Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. Contextual view facing southeast Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view facing southeast - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. North side facing south Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side facing south - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. Rear (east) side Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (east) side - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. East side facing west Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side facing west - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. 4. LOWER TERRACE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING POOL AND PRESIDENT BUCHANAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOWER TERRACE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING POOL AND PRESIDENT BUCHANAN MEMORIAL, February 1976 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 30. CORNER OF PLUNGE POOL, AND 'MOTHER AND CHILD' BRONZE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. CORNER OF PLUNGE POOL, AND 'MOTHER AND CHILD' BRONZE SCULPTURE BY JACQUES LIPCHITZ LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO BRIDGE ACROSS BEAR RUN. - Fallingwater, State Route 381 (Stewart Township), Ohiopyle, Fayette County, PA

  12. 75 FR 76975 - 2015 Resource Pool-Sierra Nevada Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... specifies the terms and conditions under which Western markets power from the Central Valley Project and the... allocation from the 2015 Resource Pool. One commentor stated the cost of electricity is critical to...

  13. 2. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, BUILDING 305 AND THE TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Storage Shed & Tank, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  14. 1. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF THE STORAGE SHED LOCATED NEAR THE POOL, BUILDING 305 AND THE TANK, LOOKING EAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Storage Shed & Tank, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  15. Linking soil organic carbon pools with measured fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, M.; Welp, G.; Amelung, W.; Vereecken, H.

    2011-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pools play an important role for the understanding and the predictive modelling of heterotrophic respiration. One of the major issues concerning model carbon pools is their purely conceptual definition. They are just defined by a turnover rate. Despite some attempts to link the conceptual model pools to measurable SOC fractions, this challenge basically remains unsolved. In this study we introduce an empirical approach to link the model pools of RothC with measured particulate organic matter fractions and an inert carbon fraction. For 63 topsoil samples from arable fields a mid-infrared spectroscopic approach was applied to determine the carbon contents in three particle-size fractions (POM1: 2000-250 μm, POM2: 250-53 μm and POM3: 53-20 μm) and a black carbon fraction. To provide the model pools for the 63 sampling sites RothC was run into equilibrium based on site-specific soil properties and meteorological data ranging from 1961 to present. It was possible to prove a link between soil organic matter fractions and pools of RothC. The coefficient of correlation between fPOM (POM1+POM2) and the resistant plant material (RPM) pool was 0.73. However, establishing multiple linear regressions based on all measured fractions instead of using just the fraction between 2000 and 53 μm significantly improved the prediction of the RPM pool. The resultant adjusted coefficient of determination using all fractions to predict RPM was 0.94. A stepwise regression algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion retained all measured fractions in the regression, pointing to the relevance of all fractions. The same was observed when linking the humic fraction of RothC (HUM) to the measured humic fractions, which were calculated as the difference between TOC and the sum of particulate and black carbon. The adjusted coefficient of determination was 0.84. Using again all measured fractions as explanatory variables for HUM increased the coefficient of

  16. Linking soil organic carbon pools with measured fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, M.; Welp, G.; Amelung, W.; Weihermueller, L.; Vereecken, H.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pools play an important role for the understanding and the predictive modelling of heterotrophic respiration. One of the major issues concerning model carbon pools is their purely conceptual definition. They are just defined by a turnover rate. Despite some attempts to link the conceptual model pools to measurable SOC fractions, this challenge basically remains unsolved. In this study we introduce an empirical approach to link the model pools of RothC with measured particulate organic matter fractions and an inert carbon fraction. For 63 topsoil samples from arable fields a mid-infrared spectroscopic approach was applied to determine the carbon contents in three particle-size fractions (POM1: 2000-250 μm, POM2: 250-53 μm and POM3: 53-20 μm) and a black carbon fraction. To provide the model pools for the 63 sampling sites RothC was run into equilibrium based on site-specific soil properties and meteorological data ranging from 1961 to present. It was possible to prove a link between soil organic matter fractions and pools of RothC. The coefficient of correlation between fPOM (POM1+POM2) and the resistant plant material (RPM) pool was 0.73. However, establishing multiple linear regressions based on all measured fractions instead of using just the fraction between 2000 and 53 μm significantly improved the prediction of the RPM pool. The resultant adjusted coefficient of determination using all fractions to predict RPM was 0.94. A stepwise regression algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion retained all measured fractions in the regression, pointing to the relevance of all fractions. The same was observed when linking the humic fraction of RothC (HUM) to the measured humic fractions, which were calculated as the difference between TOC and the sum of particulate and black carbon. The adjusted R2 was 0.84. Using again all measured fractions as explanatory variables for HUM increased the R2 to 0.99. From these observations we

  17. Comparative evaluation of pooling strategy in soil metaproteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Keiblinger, Katharina Maria; Fuchs, Stephan; Wegner, Uwe; Hentschker, Christian; Becher, Dörthe; Riedel, Kathrin; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    Metaproteomics allow the simultaneous mapping of peptides of all known genomes and proteomes to disclose the identity of different organisms present in a sample; the simultaneous examination of microbial community structure and various protein functions is possible. However, metaproteomic studies of soils present a major challenge since (i) sample complexity hamper protein identification, and (ii) soil contains high microbial diversity but low protein amounts. The soil matrix is heterogeneous over diverse scales in space and time. Within the present study we test a pooling strategy for standardization of soil sample protein extraction. To this end we conducted a pooling experiment to evaluate the applicability and suitability for metaproteome analysis of the soil samples. Five individual replicate soil samples from small plots (1 m x 1 m size) on the larger plot scale (with the size of approximately 10 m x 10 m in a mature common beech stand) were analyzed and for pooling purposes a fraction of each individual sample was used to create a pooled soil sample prior to extraction. Extracted soil proteins were subject to protein separation on a 1D-SDS-PAGE, to remove interfering substances and reduce soil sample complexity. After trypsin digestion, the resulting peptide mixtures were analyzed on a LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Comparison of peptide mass spectra to protein groups for individual and pooled soil samples resulted in similar abundances of microbial taxa and functions. Our results indicate that pooling is a time- and cost-efficient practice for proteomic analyses of soils if the research questions are focusing on the variability of most abundant taxa and functions. In general, we think it will be necessary to test soils from each site or experiment individually if pooling is not suitable. We conclude that, the application of pooling for extraction purposes should be considered for metaproteomics from field studies that do not focus on within

  18. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    SciTech Connect

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources

  19. Predicting DNAPL mass discharge from pool-dominated source zones.

    PubMed

    Christ, John A; Ramsburg, C Andrew; Pennell, Kurt D; Abriola, Linda M

    2010-05-20

    Models that link simplified descriptions of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone architecture with predictions of mass flux can be effective screening tools for evaluation of source zone management strategies. Recent efforts have focused on the development and implementation of upscaled models to approximate the relationship between mass removal and flux-averaged, down-gradient contaminant concentration (or mass flux) reduction. The efficacy of these methods has been demonstrated for ganglia-dominated source zones. This work extends these methods to source zones dominated by high-saturation DNAPL pools. An existing upscaled mass transfer model was modified to reproduce dissolution behavior in pool-dominated scenarios by employing a two-domain (ganglia and pools) representation of the source zone. The two-domain upscaled model is parameterized using the initial fraction of the source zone that exists as pool regions, the initial fraction of contaminant eluting from these pool regions, and the flux-averaged down-gradient contaminant concentration. Comparisons of model predictions with a series of three-dimensional source zone numerical simulations and data from two-dimensional aquifer cell experiments demonstrate the ability of the model to predict DNAPL dissolution from ganglia- and pool-dominated source zones for all levels of mass recovery.

  20. Correlates of vernal pool occurrence in the Massachusetts USA, landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, E.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Vernal pool wetlands are at risk of destruction across the northeast United States, due in part to their diminutive size and short hydroperiods. These characteristics make it difficult to locate vernal pool habitats in the landscape during much of the year, and no efficient method exists for predicting their occurrence. A logistic regression procedure was used to identify large-scale variables that influence the presence of a potential vernal pool, including surficial geology, land use and land cover, soil classification, topography, precipitation, and surficial hydrologic features. The model was validated with locations of field-verified vernal pools. The model demonstrated that the probability of potential vernal pool occurrence is positively related to slope, negatively related to till/bedrock surficial geology, and negatively related to the proportion of cropland, urban/commercial, and high density residential development in the landscape. The relationship between vernal pool occurrence and large-scale variables suggests that these habitats do not occur at random in the landscape, and thus, protection in situ should be considered.

  1. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  2. Rates of evaporation from swimming pools in active use

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.C.; Loef, G.O.G.; Jones, R.W.

    1998-10-01

    The rates of water evaporation from indoor and outdoor swimming pools in active use have been measured and compared with evaporation rates from unoccupied pools and with values calculated by the equation W = (95 + 0.425 v) (pw-pa)Y, where W is evaporation rate, lb/h ft{sup 2}; v is air velocity at water surface, ft/min.; pw is saturation vapor pressure at water temperature, in. Hg; pa is saturation vapor pressure at air dewpoint, in. Hg; and Y is latent heat at pool temperature, Btu/lb. In undisturbed pools, evaporation rates were measured and found to be 74% of the rates obtained by use of the equation. Rates of evaporation from pools in active use increase with the number of swimmers, rising 40--70% above the rates from a quiet water surface. Measurements of evaporation from a pool in use by 15--20 swimmers per 1,000 ft{sup 2} were found to average 26% higher than the rate calculated by the equation.

  3. Heated birthing pools as a source of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, S L; Afshar, B; Walker, J T; Aird, H; Naik, F; Parry-Ford, F; Phin, N; Harrison, T G; Chalker, V J; Sorrell, S; Cresswell, T

    2016-03-01

    In June 2014 Public Health England confirmed a case of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in a neonate following birth at home in a hired birthing pool incorporating a heater and a recirculation pump which had been filled in advance of labour. The case triggered a public health investigation and a microbiological survey of an additional ten heated birthing pools hired or recently hired to the general public across England. The birthing pool used by the parent of the confirmed case was identified as the source of the neonate's infection following detection of Legionella pneumophila ST48 in both patient and environmental samples. Legionella species were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction but not culture in a further three pools together with other opportunistic pathogens identified by culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. A Patient Safety Alert from NHS England and Public Health England was issued stating that heated birthing pools filled in advance of labour should not be used for home births. This recommendation remains in place. This investigation in conjunction with other recent reports has highlighted a lack of awareness regarding the microbiological safety of heated birthing pools and their potential to be a source of LD and other opportunistic infections. Furthermore, the investigation raised important considerations with regards to microbiological sampling and testing in such incidents. Public health authorities and clinicians should consider LD in the differential diagnosis of severe respiratory infection in neonates within 14 days of a water birth.

  4. Weld pool oscillation during GTA welding of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Y.H.; Ouden, G. den . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    In this paper the results are reported of a study dealing with the oscillation behavior of weld pools in the case of GTA bead-on-plate welding of mild steel, Fe 360. During welding, the weld pool was brought into oscillation by applying short current pulses, and the oscillation frequency and amplitude were measured by monitoring the arc voltage. It was found that the oscillation of the partially penetrated weld pool is dominated by one of two different oscillation modes (Mode 1 and Mode 2) depending on the welding conditions, whereas the oscillation of the fully penetrated weld pool is characterized by a third oscillation mode (Mode 3). It is possible to maintain partially penetrated weld pool oscillation in Mode 1 by choosing appropriate welding conditions. Under these conditions, an abrupt decrease in oscillation frequency occurs when the weld pool transfers from partial penetration to full penetration. Thus, weld penetration can be in-process controlled by monitoring the oscillation frequency during welding.

  5. Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

  6. Bubble formation in a quiescent pool of gold nanoparticle suspension.

    PubMed

    Vafaei, Saeid; Wen, Dongsheng

    2010-08-11

    This paper begins with an extensive review of the formation of gas bubbles, with a particular focus on the dynamics of triple lines, in a pure liquid and progresses into an experimental study of bubble formation on a micrometer-sized nozzle immersed in a quiescent pool of aqueous gold nanofluid. Unlike previous studies of triple line dynamics in a nanofluid under evaporation or boiling conditions, which are mainly caused by the solid surface modification due to particle sedimentation, this work focuses on the roles of nanoparticles suspended in the liquid phase. The experiments are conducted under a wide range of flow rates and nanoparticle concentrations, and many interesting phenomena are revealed. It is observed that nanofluids prevent the spreading of the triple line during bubble formation, i.e. the triple line is pinned somewhere around the middle of the tube wall during the rapid bubble formation stage whereas it spreads to the outer edge of the tube for pure water. A unique 'stick-slip' movement of the triple line is also observed for bubbles forming in nanofluids. At a given bubble volume, the radius of the contact line is found to be smaller for higher particle concentrations, but a reverse trend is found for the dynamic bubble contact angle. With the increase of particle concentration, the bubble frequency is raised and the bubble departure volume is decreased. The bubble shape is found to be in a good agreement with the prediction from Young-Laplace equation for given flow rates. The influence of nanoparticles on other detailed characteristics related to bubble growth inside, including the variation of bubble volume expansion rate, the radius of the curvature at the apex, the bubble height and bubble volume, is revealed. It is suggested that the variation of surface tensions and the resultant force balance at the triple line might be responsible for the modified dynamics of the triple line.

  7. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance.

  8. Lyophilized combination pools of enterovirus equine antisera: new LBM pools prepared from reserves of antisera stored frozen for two decades

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Joseph L.; Wimberly, Ira L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and test procedures for a second batch of lyophilized LBM combination antiserum pools, A through H, used for identifying 42 enteroviruses. Each pool is selectively composed of 10 or 11 of 42 individual enterovirus equine sera so that it contains 500 antibody units of each serum component per 0.1 ml. The new pools have been constituted from equine monovalent antisera that were prepared during the period 1962-67 and then evaluated and standardized in a series of collaborative international studies. An essential aspect of preparing the new pools was ensuring that the individual sera had retained high antibody titres through the long period of storage. At the time of retesting, the original stocks of these monovalent sera had been stored frozen at -20°C for periods ranging from 16 to 20 years. PMID:2994900

  9. Size and age of the non structural carbohydrate pool in boreal trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Trumbore, S.

    2005-12-01

    Autotrophic respiration of trees is supposed to be closely linked to CO2 uptake by photosynthesis on a time scale of days. However, several studies have indicated that roots of boreal trees do not respired carbon (C) with a radiocarbon signature Δ14C similar to that of CO2 in the atmosphere, but C that is 3-4 years old. Also, estimates of gross primary productivity obtained by eddy covariance flux measurements do often not correlate with tree ring width (growth). Both these findings point to the presences of a large non-structural C (NSC) pool within the tree, mainly sugars and starches. The concentration of NSC in tree tissue is considered a measure of C shortage or surplus for growth. Studies indicate that the NSC pool in trees is usually large and relatively constant throughout the year, not affected by e.g. leaf flushing. While estimates of the size of the NSC pool are available for a number of trees from various ecosystems, estimated of its turnover time are lacking. We tested if our finding that boreal trees respire 3-4 year old C is an artifact resulting from the depletion of the NSC pool in excised roots over time. We incubated roots with a diameter of 2-4 mm while they were still attached to the tree, and excised roots after 3 hours, and 1 to 4 days. We sampled CO2 for Δ14C analysis of intact roots, freshly excised roots, and after 1 and 3 days. To obtain an estimate of the NSC pool size and its turnover time in roots of various diameter, we excised and incubated roots of 3 diameters: root hairs with mycorrhizal fungi, 2-4 mm, and 1-2 cm. We followed their respiration over the course of one full day. We will also compare the Δ14C of respired CO2 of freshly root hairs to that of the NSC in the roots. To obtain an estimate of the size and turnover of the whole tree NSC pool, we will measure the Δ14C of NSC in wood. Preliminary results indicate that CO2 fluxes were not correlated to temperature or the initial CO2 concentration in the chamber. While CO2

  10. Broca’s area network in language function: a pooling-data connectivity study

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Modern neuroimaging developments have demonstrated that cognitive functions correlate with brain networks rather than specific areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of Broca’s area based on language tasks. Methods: A connectivity modeling study was performed by pooling data of Broca’s activation in language tasks. Fifty-seven papers that included 883 subjects in 84 experiments were analyzed. Analysis of Likelihood Estimates of pooled data was utilized to generate the map; thresholds at p < 0.01 were corrected for multiple comparisons and false discovery rate. Resulting images were co-registered into MNI standard space. Results: A network consisting of 16 clusters of activation was obtained. Main clusters were located in the frontal operculum, left posterior temporal region, supplementary motor area, and the parietal lobe. Less common clusters were seen in the sub-cortical structures including the left thalamus, left putamen, secondary visual areas, and the right cerebellum. Conclusion: Broca’s area-44-related networks involved in language processing were demonstrated utilizing a pooling-data connectivity study. Significance, interpretation, and limitations of the results are discussed. PMID:26074842

  11. Identifying Genetic Signatures of Natural Selection Using Pooled Population Sequencing in Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas; Ma, Xiao-Fei; Zaina, Giusi; Morgante, Michele; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The joint inference of selection and past demography remain a costly and demanding task. We used next generation sequencing of two pools of 48 Norway spruce mother trees, one corresponding to the Fennoscandian domain, and the other to the Alpine domain, to assess nucleotide polymorphism at 88 nuclear genes. These genes are candidate genes for phenological traits, and most belong to the photoperiod pathway. Estimates of population genetic summary statistics from the pooled data are similar to previous estimates, suggesting that pooled sequencing is reliable. The nonsynonymous SNPs tended to have both lower frequency differences and lower FST values between the two domains than silent ones. These results suggest the presence of purifying selection. The divergence between the two domains based on synonymous changes was around 5 million yr, a time similar to a recent phylogenetic estimate of 6 million yr, but much larger than earlier estimates based on isozymes. Two approaches, one of them novel and that considers both FST and difference in allele frequencies between the two domains, were used to identify SNPs potentially under diversifying selection. SNPs from around 20 genes were detected, including genes previously identified as main target for selection, such as PaPRR3 and PaGI. PMID:27172202

  12. Regulation and Maintenance of an Adoptive T-Cell Dependent Memory B Cell Pool

    PubMed Central

    Anson, Marie; Amado, Inês; Mailhé, Marie-Pierre; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Garcia, Sylvie; Huetz, François; Freitas, Antonio A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the ability of monoclonal B cells to restore primary and secondary T-cell dependent antibody responses in adoptive immune-deficient hosts. Priming induced B cell activation and expansion, AID expression, antibody production and the generation of IgM+IgG- and IgM-IgG+ antigen-experienced B-cell subsets that persisted in the lymphopenic environment by cell division. Upon secondary transfer and recall the IgM-IgG+ cells responded by the production of antigen-specific IgG while the IgM+ memory cells secreted mainly IgM and little IgG, but generated new B cells expressing germinal center markers. The recall responses were more efficient if the antigenic boost was delayed suggesting that a period of adaptation is necessary before the transferred cells are able to respond. Overall these findings indicate that reconstitution of a functional and complete memory pool requires transfer of all different antigen-experienced B cell subsets. We also found that the size of the memory B cell pool did not rely on the number of the responding naïve B cells, suggesting autonomous homeostatic controls for naïve and memory B cells. By reconstituting a stable memory B cell pool in immune-deficient hosts using a monoclonal high-affinity B cell population we demonstrate the potential value of B cell adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27880797

  13. The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Lu, Shouxiang

    2014-04-30

    The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire was experimentally studied in an open fire test space of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science. A 30 cm × 30 cm square pool filled with n-heptane and ethanol blended fuel was employed. Flame images, burning rate and temperature distribution were collected and recorded in the whole combustion process. Results show that azeotropism obviously dominates the combustion behavior of n-heptane/ethanol blended fuel pool fire. The combustion process after ignition exhibits four typical stages: initial development, azeotropic burning, single-component burning and decay stage. Azeotropism appears when temperature of fuel surface reaches azeotropic point and blended fuel burns at azeotropic ratio. Compared with individual pure fuel, the effect of azeotropism on main fire parameters, such as flame height, burning rate, flame puffing frequency and centerline temperature were analyzed. Burning rate and centerline temperature of blended fuel are higher than that of individual pure fuel respectively at azeotropic burning stage, and flame puffing frequency follows the empirical formula between Strouhal and Froude number for pure fuel.

  14. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge organic matter pools as a driving force of their fate during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Aemig, Quentin; Chéron, Claire; Delgenès, Nadine; Jimenez, Julie; Houot, Sabine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The fate of organic matter during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was studied in batch systems thanks to a sequential chemical fractionation of the particulate phase coupled to fluorescence spectroscopy. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) distribution within the organic pools was characterized from their analysis in the residual fraction after each extraction. Both methods were combined to understand the link between PAHs presence in organic pools and their spectral characterization after extraction. Two batch systems (sludge and inoculum mixture) were set up to study the impact of PAHs spiking on their fate and distribution. The sequential fractionation allowed us to extract and characterize about 50% of total Chemical Oxygen Demand. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy helped us to understand the organic pools evolution: the most easily extracted pools composed of protein-like molecules were highly degraded meaning that chemical accessibility mimics the bioaccessibility to degrading microorganisms. PAHs were present in all pools of organic matter but native PAHs were mainly present in low accessible (hardly extractable) fractions and during anaerobic digestion, they accumulated in the non-accessible (non extractable) fraction. Spiked PAHs were more dissipated during anaerobic digestion since spiking made them present in more accessible fractions. During the anaerobic digestion, contrary to native PAHs, spiked ones relocated toward less accessible organic fractions confirming the ageing phenomenon. PCA analysis showed that, in spiked mixture, PAHs presence in organic pools is linked to both PAHs physical-chemical properties and quality/quantity of the associated organic pools.

  15. Pool-hmm: a Python program for estimating the allele frequency spectrum and detecting selective sweeps from next generation sequencing of pooled samples

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, Simon; Kofler, Robert; Françoise, Pierre; Robelin, David; Schlötterer, Christian; Futschik, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Due to its cost effectiveness, next generation sequencing of pools of individuals (Pool-Seq) is becoming a popular strategy for genome-wide estimation of allele frequencies in population samples. As the allele frequency spectrum provides information about past episodes of selection, Pool-seq is also a promising design for genomic scans for selection. However, no software tool has yet been developed for selection scans based on Pool-Seq data. We introduce Pool-hmm, a Python program for the estimation of allele frequencies and the detection of selective sweeps in a Pool-Seq sample. Pool-hmm includes several options that allow a flexible analysis of Pool-Seq data, and can be run in parallel on several processors. Source code and documentation for Pool-hmm is freely available at https://qgsp.jouy.inra.fr/. PMID:23311589

  16. Variability and Expansion of the Tropical Ocean Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, C. D.; Webster, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    The tropical warm pool plays a determining role in the global climate since it acts as a sorce of thermodynamic forcing for the atmospheric general circulation. The warm pools (SST>28°C) extend from the Indian Ocean, across the Indonesian Archipelago into the western Pacific with a secondary area crossing Central America into the Caribbean and the central Atlantic ocean. The heating in the atmosphere above the warm pool influences climate over wide ranges of the planet. As there are zonal asymmetries in the extent of the warm pool, and hence variations in the locations of total heating of the atmospheric column, the warm pools also create centers of diabatic heating along the equator which set up the position and strength of the east-west Circulations which play integral roles in the coupled ocean-atmosphere tropical climate. In fact, almost all of the global vertically integrated heating resides over waters >27°C. The tropical warm pool is characterized by large-scale variations of SST on time scales that range from intraseasonal to interdecadal, considerably altering the forcing to the atmosphere. In addition to the existence of the large variability of the tropical warm pool SST, there is an upward trend in the tropical warm pool area, which is evident in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans with the area encompassed by the 28C isotherm groewing by 67% since 1920. Changes in the zonal and meridional circulation associated with the variability and expansion of the warm pool are studied using NCEP-NCAR and ERA40 reanalsysis. It is found that the impacts extend around the tropics and are associated with a slowing down of the Asian monsoon circulation and modulation of the of the equatorial Walker cells. Analysis of the IPCC-CMIP3 models for the 20th century show similar changes in the warm pool extent suggesting that changes that occur under different future emission scenarios may poossess credence. With greenhouse warming it is found that the warm pool

  17. Concentration levels of urea in swimming pool water and reactivity of chlorine with urea.

    PubMed

    De Laat, Joseph; Feng, Wentao; Freyfer, Diab Adams; Dossier-Berne, Florence

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the reactivity of chlorine with urea which is the main nitrogen contaminant introduced into swimming pool water by bathers. In the first part of this study, analyses showed that the mean concentrations of urea and TOC determined from 50 samples of municipal swimming pool were equal to 18.0 μM (s.d. 11.7) and 3.5 mg C L(-1) (s.d. 1.6), respectively. The mean value for the urea contribution to the TOC content was 6.3% (s.d. 3.3). The rate of decomposition of urea in swimming pool water measured during the closure time of the facility was very slow (decay at the rate of ≈ 1% per hour in the presence of 1.6-1.8 mg L(-1) of free chlorine). In the second part of this work, experiments carried out with phosphate buffered solutions of urea ([Urea](0) = 1 mM; [Cl(2)](0)/[Urea](0): 0.5-15 mol/mol; pH 7.4 ± 0.2; reaction time: 0-200 h) showed that long term chlorine demand of urea was about 5 mol Cl(2)/mol of urea. Chlorination led to a complete mineralization of organic carbon into CO(2) for a chlorine dose of 3.5 mol/mol and to the formation of 0.7-0.8 mol NO(3)(-)/mol of urea for chlorine dose of 8-10 mol/mol. Experiments conducted with dilute solutions of urea ([Urea](0) = 50 μM; pH ≈ 7.3) confirmed that the degradation rate of urea by chlorine is very slow under conditions simulating real swimming pool water.

  18. Magnitude and Uncertainty of Carbon Pools and Fluxes in the US Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, N.; Saatchi, S. S.; Fore, A.; Yu, Y.; Woodall, C. W.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.; Hagen, S.; Birdsey, R.; Brown, S.; Salas, W.; Johnson, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sassan Saatchi1,2, Stephan Hagen3, Christopher Woodall4 , Sangram Ganguly,5 Nancy Harris6, Sandra Brown7, Timothy Pearson7, Alexander Fore1, Yifan Yu1, Rama Nemani5, Gong Zhang5, William Salas4, Roger Cooke81 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA2 Institute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA3 Applied Geosolutions, 55 Main Street Suit 125, Newmarket, NH 03857, USA4 USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA5 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA6 Forests Program, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 20002, USA7 Winrock International, Ecosystem Services Unit, Arlington, VA 22202, USA8 Risk Analysis Resources for the Future, Washington DC 20036-1400Assessment of the carbon sinks and sources associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes across the US forestlands is a priority of the national climate mitigation policy. However, estimates of fluxes from the land sector are less precise compared to other sectors because of the large sources of uncertainty in quantifying the carbon pools, emissions, and removals associated with anthropogenic (land use) and natural changes in the US forestlands. As part of the NASA's Carbon Monitoring System, we developed a methodology based on a combination of ground inventory and space observations to develop spatially refined carbon pools and fluxes including the gross emissions and sequestration of carbon at each 1-ha land unit across the forestlands in the continental United States (CONUS) for the period of 2006-2010. Here, we provide the magnitude and uncertainty of multiple pools and fluxes of the US forestlands and outline the observational requirements to reduce the uncertainties for developing national climate mitigation policies based on the carbon sequestration capacity of the US forest lands. Keywords: forests, carbon pools, greenhouse gas, land use, attribution

  19. Conditions inside Water Pooled in a Failed Nuclear Waste Container and its Effect on Radionuclide Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J. C.; Woocay, A.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power use is expected to expand in the future, as part of the global clean energy initiative, to meet the world’s surging energy demand, and attenuate greenhouse gas emissions, which are mainly caused by fossil fuels. As a result, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will accumulate. SNF disposal has major environmental (radiation exposure) and security (nuclear proliferation) concerns. Storage in unsaturated zone geological repositories is a reasonable solution for dealing with SNF. One of the key factors that determine the performance of the geological repository is the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system. Over time, the nuclear waste containers are expected to fail gradually due to general and localized corrosions and eventually infiltrating water will have access to the nuclear waste. Once radionuclides are released, they will be transported by water, and make their way to the accessible environment. Physical and chemical disturbances in the environment over the container will lead to different corrosion rates, causing different times and locations of penetration. One possible scenario for waste packages failure is the bathtub model, where penetrations occur on the top of the waste package and water pools inside it. In this paper the bathtub-type failed waste container is considered. We shed some light on chemical and physical processes that take place in the pooled water inside a partially failed waste container (bathtub category), and the effects of these processes on radionuclide release. Our study considers two possibilities: temperature stratification of the pooled water versus mixing process. Our calculations show that temperature stratification of the pooled water is expected when the waste package is half (or less) filled with water. On the other hand, when the waste package is fully filled (or above half) there will be mixing in the upper part of water. The effect of

  20. Antioxidant pool in beer and kinetics of EPR spin-trapping.

    PubMed

    Kocherginsky, Nikolai M; Kostetski, Yuri Yu; Smirnov, Alex I

    2005-08-24

    The kinetics of spin-trap adduct formation in beer oxidation exhibits an induction period if the reaction is carried out at elevated temperatures and in the presence of air. This lag period lasts until the endogenous antioxidants are almost completely depleted, and its duration is used as an indicator of the flavor stability and shelf life of beer. This paper demonstrates that the total kinetics of the process can be characterized by three parameters-the lag period, the rate of spin-trap adduct formation, and, finally, the steady-state spin-adduct concentration. A steady-state chain reaction mechanism is described, and quantitative estimates of the main kinetic parameters such as the initiation rate, antioxidant pool, effective content of organic molecules participating in the chain reactions, and the rate constant of the 1-hydroxyethyl radical EtOH(*) spin-adduct disappearance are given. An additional new dimensionless parameter is suggested to characterize the antioxidant pool-the product of the lag time and the rate of spin-trap radical formation immediately after the lag time, normalized by the steady-state concentration of the adducts. The results of spin-tapping EPR experiments are compared with the nitroxide reduction kinetics measured in the same beer samples. It is shown that although the kinetics of nitroxide reduction in beer can be used to evaluate the reducing power of beer, the latter parameter does not correlate with the antioxidant pool. The relationship of free radical processes, antioxidant pool, reducing power, and beer staling is discussed.

  1. Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Dorado Liñán, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Helle, Gerhard; Heinrich, Ingo; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Planells, Octavi; Leuenberger, Markus; Bürger, Carmen; Schleser, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    δ(13)C and δ(18)O of tree rings contain time integrated information about the environmental conditions weighted by seasonal growth dynamics and are well established as sources of palaeoclimatic and ecophysiological data. Annually resolved isotope chronologies are frequently produced by pooling dated growth rings from several trees prior to the isotopic analyses. This procedure has the advantage of saving time and resources, but precludes from defining the isotopic error or statistical uncertainty related to the inter-tree variability. Up to now only a few studies have compared isotope series from pooled tree rings with isotopic measurements from individual trees. We tested whether or not the δ(13)C and the δ(18)O chronologies derived from pooled and from individual tree rings display significant differences at two locations from the Iberian Peninsula to assess advantages and constraints of both methodologies. The comparisons along the period 1900-2003 reveal a good agreement between pooled chronologies and the two mean master series which were created by averaging raw individual values (Mean) or by generating a mass calibrated mean (MassC). In most of the cases, pooled chronologies show high synchronicity with averaged individual samples at interannual scale but some differences also show up especially when comparing δ(18)O decadal to multi-decadal variations. Moreover, differences in the first order autocorrelation among individuals may be obscured by pooling strategies. The lack of replication of pooled chronologies prevents detection of a bias due to a higher mass contribution of one sample but uncertainties associated with the analytical process itself, as sample inhomogeneity, seems to account for the observed differences.

  2. Darwinian Behavior in a Cold, Sporadically Fed Pool of Ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A testable, explicit origin for Darwinian behavior, feasible on a chaotic early Earth, would aid origins discussion. Here I show that a pool receiving unreliable supplies of unstable ribonucleotide precursors can recurrently fill this role. By using numerical integration, the differential equations governing a sporadically fed pool are solved, yielding quantitative constraints for the proliferation of molecules that also have a chemical phenotype. For example, templated triphosphate nucleotide joining is >104 too slow, suggesting that a group more reactive than pyrophosphate activated primordial nucleotides. However, measured literature rates are sufficient if the Initial Darwinian Ancestor (IDA) resembles a 5′-5′ cofactor-like dinucleotide RNA, synthesized via activation with a phosphorimidazolide-like group. A sporadically fed pool offers unforeseen advantages; for example, the pool hosts a novel replicator which is predominantly unpaired, even though it replicates. Such free template is optimized for effective selection during its replication. Pool nucleotides are also subject to a broadly based selection that impels the population toward replication, effective selection, and Darwinian behavior. Such a primordial pool may have left detectable modern traces. A sporadically fed ribonucleotide pool also fits a recognizable early Earth environment, has recognizable modern descendants, and suits the early shape of the phylogenetic tree of Earthly life. Finally, analysis points to particular data now needed to refine the hypothesis. Accordingly, a kinetically explicit chemical hypothesis for a terran IDA can be justified, and informative experiments seem readily accessible. Key Words: Cofactor—RNA—Origin of life—Replication—Initial Darwinian Ancestor (IDA). Astrobiology 12, 870–883. PMID:22946838

  3. Process-Based Species Pools Reveal the Hidden Signature of Biotic Interactions Amid the Influence of Temperature Filtering.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Weinstein, Ben G; Borregaard, Michael K; Marske, Katharine A; Martin, Danny R; McGuire, Jimmy A; Parra, Juan L; Rahbek, Carsten; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    A persistent challenge in ecology is to tease apart the influence of multiple processes acting simultaneously and interacting in complex ways to shape the structure of species assemblages. We implement a heuristic approach that relies on explicitly defining species pools and permits assessment of the relative influence of the main processes thought to shape assemblage structure: environmental filtering, dispersal limitations, and biotic interactions. We illustrate our approach using data on the assemblage composition and geographic distribution of hummingbirds, a comprehensive phylogeny and morphological traits. The implementation of several process-based species pool definitions in null models suggests that temperature-but not precipitation or dispersal limitation-acts as the main regional filter of assemblage structure. Incorporating this environmental filter directly into the definition of assemblage-specific species pools revealed an otherwise hidden pattern of phylogenetic evenness, indicating that biotic interactions might further influence hummingbird assemblage structure. Such hidden patterns of assemblage structure call for a reexamination of a multitude of phylogenetic- and trait-based studies that did not explicitly consider potentially important processes in their definition of the species pool. Our heuristic approach provides a transparent way to explore patterns and refine interpretations of the underlying causes of assemblage structure.

  4. Possible effect of biotechnology on plant gene pools in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid developments in biotechnology have made great contributions to the study of plant gene pools. The application of in vitro methods in freeze storage and DNA protection techniques in fast production studies has made major advances. From that aspect, biotechnology is an indispensable means for the protection of plant gene pools, which includes the insurance of sustainable agriculture and development of species. Besides all the positive developments, one of the primary risks posed by the uncontrolled spreading of genetically modified organisms is the possibility for other non-target organisms to be negatively affected. Genes of plant origin should be given priority in this type of studies by taking into consideration such negative effects that may result in disruption of ecological balance and damage to plant genetic pools. Turkey, due to its ecological conditions and history, has a very important position in terms of plant gene pools. This richness ought to be protected without corrupting its natural quality and natural evolution process in order to provide the sources of species that will be required for future sustainable agricultural applications. Thus, attention should be paid to the use of biotechnological methods, which play an important role especially in the protection and use of local and original plant gene pools. PMID:26019612

  5. Identification of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Variables in Pooled Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xin; Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pooled analyses integrate data from multiple studies and achieve a larger sample size for enhanced statistical power. When heterogeneity exists in variables’ effects on the outcome across studies, the simple pooling strategy fails to present a fair and complete picture of the effects of heterogeneous variables. Thus, it is important to investigate the homogeneous and heterogeneous structure of variables in pooled studies. In this paper, we consider the pooled cohort studies with time-to-event outcomes and propose a penalized Cox partial likelihood approach with adaptively weighted composite penalties on variables’ homogeneous and heterogeneous effects. We show that our method can characterize the variables as having heterogeneous, homogeneous, or null effects, and estimate non-zero effects. The results are readily extended to high-dimensional applications where the number of parameters is larger than the sample size. The proposed selection and estimation procedure can be implemented using the iterative shooting algorithm. We conduct extensive numerical studies to evaluate the performance of our proposed method and demonstrate it using a pooled analysis of gene expression in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:25732747

  6. Estimating Disease Prevalence Using Inverse Binomial Pooled Testing

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Nicholas A.; Tebbs, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring populations of hosts as well as insect vectors is an important part of agricultural and public health risk assessment. In applications where pathogen prevalence is likely low, it is common to test pools of subjects for the presence of infection, rather than to test subjects individually. This technique is known as pooled (group) testing. In this paper, we revisit the problem of estimating the population prevalence p from pooled testing, but we consider applications where inverse binomial sampling is used. Our work is unlike previous research in pooled testing, which has largely assumed a binomial model. Inverse sampling is natural to implement when there is a need to report estimates early on in the data collection process and has been used in individual testing applications when disease incidence is low. We consider point and interval estimation procedures for p in this new pooled testing setting, and we use example data sets from the literature to describe and to illustrate our methods. PMID:21743789

  7. [ATP pool and bioluminescence in psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum].

    PubMed

    Alekserova, L É; Alenina, K A; Efremenko, E N; Mazhul', M M; Piskunova, N F; Ismailov, A D

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescence activity and ATP pool were investigated in the culture of psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum collected-from the exponential and stationary growth phases, as well as immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. In liquid culture, ATP pool remained at an almost a constant level throughout the luminescence cycle (over 100 h). The ATP pool in the stationary-phase and PVA-immobilizedl cells remained constant throughout their incubation in the medium (over 200 h) and in 3% NaCl solution (over 100 h): Quantitative assessment of integral photon yield and ATP pool indicated that bioluminescence decay in growing or stationary cells was not caused by limitation by the energy substrates of the luciferase reaction. Kinetic and quantitative parameters of emission activity and ATP pool excluded the possibility of formation of the aldehyde substrate for luciferase via reduction of the relevant fatty acids in NADPH and ATP-dependent reductase reaction and its oxidation in the monooxygenase reaction. Our results indicate that the aliphatic aldehyde is not utilized in the process of light emission.

  8. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  9. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  10. Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazere, Edward B.

    Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

  11. Maine's Approach to Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broyles, India L.; Krawic, Joanne

    This study of Maine schools inquires into efforts that have been made to internationalize the curriculum. Specifically, the researchers were interested in how curricular goals and organization contribute to an understanding of global society. The efforts to internationalize the curriculum upon which the researchers focused included the…

  12. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Maine Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Maine state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  13. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  14. Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis - Maine, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-09-25

    Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are rickettsial tickborne diseases that have had at least a twofold increase in prevalence in the United States since 2000. Despite similar clinical presentations, the causative organisms are carried by different ticks with distinct geographic and ecologic associations. Surveillance efforts are complicated by ambiguous terminology and serologic testing with antibody cross-reactivity. Although anaplasmosis historically has been reported in Maine, ehrlichiosis has been reported infrequently. During 2007-2008, the number of physician-reported anaplasmosis cases nearly doubled in Maine, and ehrlichiosis cases increased more than fourfold. To examine this increase, the Maine Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) analyzed available data on tick burden and physician-reported cases of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis during 2000-2008. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that Ixodes scapularis (the tick vector for Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was broadly distributed in Maine, whereas Amblyomma americanum (the tick vector for Erhlichia chaffeenisis) was scarce. Moreover, 95% of physician-reported ehrlichiosis cases lacked a concurrent serologic assessment to exclude anaplasmosis, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity might have resulted in misclassification. In 2008, Maine modified case classification to enhance specificity; ehrlichiosis cases that lack a concurrent test for anaplasmosis are now classified as suspect rather than probable and therefore are not included in national surveillance summaries. The accuracy of case classification and surveillance can be improved by educating health-care providers regarding 1) the expected geographic distribution of tick vectors and 2) recommendations for confirmatory testing to distinguish between the causative organisms of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis.

  15. Effect of plant cover on distribution of soil organic matter pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Ryzhova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    ) because of the identical texture of soil parent material. The portion of biochemically protected C was maximal in agricultural soil - 27%, whereas on forest plots it was 2 times less. The amount of C in this pool did not strongly differ among the investigated soils, but C/N ratio was lower under agricultural crops than under forests. This indicates deeper degradation of organics in cultivated soil, N addition by fertilization, and a growing contribution of microbially-derived C to the biochemically protected pool. Wide C/N ratio in biochemically protected pool in the forest soils reflects the accumulation of primary recalcitrant plant substances with high C/N such as lignin and cellulose. Thus, forest vegetation contributes mainly to the SOM sequestration in the spatial inaccessible pool and is source of the high amount of non-protected C. Under agricultural crops however, the most of SOM is stabilized by interactions with silt and clay and is stabilized biochemically.

  16. Human parvovirus PARV4 in plasma pools of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y-Y; Guo, Y; Zhao, X; Wang, Z; Lv, M-M; Yan, Q-P; Zhang, J-G

    2012-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is present in blood and blood products. As the presence and levels of PARV4 in Chinese source plasma pools have never been determined, we implemented real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the presence of PARV4 in source plasma pools in China. Results showed that 26·15% (51/195) of lots tested positive for PARV4. The amounts of DNA ranged from 2·83 × 10(3) copies/ml to 2·35×10(7) copies/ml plasma. The high level of PARV4 in plasma pools may pose a potential risk to recipients. Further studies on the pathogenesis of PARV4 are urgently required.

  17. Statistical properties of the USP dissolution test with pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Carlos D; Meneces, Nora S; Tessore, Julio

    2005-01-01

    The Montecarlo simulation method is used to study the statistical properties of the USP pooled dissolution test. In this paper, the statistical behavior of the dissolution test for pooled samples is studied, including: a) the operating characteristic curve showing the probability of passing the test versus the mean amount dissolved, b) the influence of measurement uncertainty on the result of the test, c) an analysis of the dependence of the statistical behavior on the underlying distribution of the individual amounts dissolved, d) a comparison of the statistical behavior of the unit dissolution test versus the pooled dissolution test, e) the average number of stages needed to reach a decision presented as a function of parameters of the lot, f) the relative influence of the three stages of the test on the probability of acceptance.

  18. Lin28a regulates germ cell pool size and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Gen; de Soysa, T. Yvanka; Seligson, Marc T.; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Huang, Pei Yi; Hagan, John P.; Gregory, Richard I.; Moss, Eric G.; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of LIN28A is associated with human germ cell tumors and promotes primordial germ cell (PGC) development from embryonic stem cells in vitro and in chimeric mice. Knockdown of Lin28a inhibits PGC development in vitro, but how constitutional Lin28a deficiency affects the mammalian reproductive system in vivo remains unknown. Here, we generated Lin28a knockout (KO) mice and found that Lin28a deficiency compromises the size of the germ cell pool in both males and females by affecting PGC proliferation during embryogenesis. Interestingly however, in Lin28a KO males the germ cell pool partially recovers during postnatal expansion, while fertility remains impaired in both males and females mated to wild type mice. Embryonic overexpression of let-7, a microRNA negatively regulated by Lin28a, reduces the germ cell pool, corroborating the role of the Lin28a/let-7 axis in regulating the germ lineage. PMID:23378032

  19. [Appropriate concentrations of antimicrobial agents in used cadaver pools].

    PubMed

    Sarsilmaz, M; Arifoğlu, Y; Tuncer, S; Akşit, D

    1992-10-01

    Samples for microbiologic culture were taken from 17 cadaver and 4 cadaver pools in the Department of Anatomy of Gülhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Military Faculty of Medicine. Samples were inoculated on bacteriologic and mycologic media and were incubated in aerobic and 10% CO2 atmosphere conditions. From 3 of 4 pools containing different concentration of phenol and formalin, pathogenic bacteria that might be present in normal flora and saprophytic fungi were isolated. In the guidance of these results, in order to keep the cadavers for a long time and laboratory safety, use of formalin and phenol not less than 5% and 4% concentrations of the cadavers respectively and the pools should be taken into consideration.

  20. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent.

    PubMed

    Elbehery, Ali H A; Aziz, Ramy K; Siam, Rania

    2017-03-01

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world's largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  1. HYDROLOGY AND LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY OF VERNAL POOLS OF THE GLACIATED NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrologic budget of a vernal pool influences many aspects of pool function and is the basis for pool life. Although alternating wet and dry periods occur in most wetlands, vernal pools can experience extreme moisture fluctuations. This variability results from intra- and i...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  7. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  8. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  9. Certified: A Citizen's Step-by-Step Guide to Protecting Vernal Pools. 6th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colburn, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    The objective of this manual is to train volunteers in the process of identifying vernal pool habitat so that as many of these pools as possible can be certified by the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program. Vernal pools are a kind of temporary pond in which salamanders and other animals breed. The pools are unique…

  10. 76 FR 19355 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy... attend the meeting of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Markets Operations Policy Committee (MOPC), as... No. ER06-451, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket No. ER08-1419, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket...

  11. Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

  12. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  13. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

  14. The central equipment pool, an opportunity for improved technology management.

    PubMed

    Gentles, W M

    2000-01-01

    A model for a central equipment pool managed by a clinical engineering department has been presented. The advantages to patient care and to the clinical engineering department are many. The distribution of portable technology that has been traditionally managed by the materials management function is a logical match to the expanding role of clinical engineering departments in technology management. Accurate asset management tools have allowed us to provide reliable measures of infusion pump utilization, permitting us to predict future needs as programs expand. Thus we are more actively involved in strategic technology planning. The central equipment pool is an excellent opportunity for the clinical engineering department to increase its technology management activities.

  15. Software for the Design of Swimming Pool Dehumidifiers Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubina, Aleš; Blasinski, Petr; Tesař, Zdeněk

    2013-06-01

    The article deals with the description and solution of physical phenomena taking place during evaporation of water. The topicality of the theme is given a number of built indoor swimming pool and wellness centers at present. In addressing HVAC systems serving these areas, it is necessary to know the various design parameters in the interior including the water temperature as the pool temperature and humidity. Following is a description of the calculation module, air handling units, including optimizing the settings of the physical changes in order to ensure the lowest energy consumption for air treatment and required maintaining internal microclimate parameters.

  16. Optically thin cirrus clouds - Radiative impact on the warm pool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Kratz, D. P.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.; Vernekar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The role of the radiative effects of thin cirrus clouds in the energy balance of the 'warm pool' region is examined with reference to data obtained by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) flown on the Nimbus 4 satellite in 1970. First, the IRIS observations and a method for deriving the thin cirrus information are briefly discussed. A simple radiative energy balance model is then developed which is applicable to the mesoscale convective systems in the 'warm pool'. The radiative energy balance model, which does not explicitly account for the transports, is used to demonstrate the net radiative heating produced by the thin cirrus clouds.

  17. Carbon dynamics in peatland pool systems: the role of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, Amy; Heal, Kate; McLeod, Andy; Dinsmore, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    Open-water pools are widespread in peatlands and are considered to represent biogeochemical hotspots within the peatland landscape. However the contribution of pool systems to wider peatland C cycling has not been quantified fully and there is a lack of knowledge of the role of photochemical processes in such environments. In this study, light exposure experiments were conducted in two contrasting pools to test the reactivity of aquatic C. The first study site was located at Cross Lochs (CL), Forsinard, in the Flow Country of Northern Scotland, in a 412 m2 pool characterised by low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (˜15 mg C L-1). The second site was located at Red Moss of Balerno (RM), a raised bog in central Scotland, in a 48 m2 pool with high DOC concentrations (˜35 mg C L-1). Experiments took place over 9 days in situ at each pool in mid-summer 2015, with 500 mL water samples contained in bags transparent to sunlight and in opaque control bags. After field exposure, optical, chemical and stable C isotope analyses were conducted on the samples. Significant differences in biogeochemical cycling of DOC were detected between the two systems, with DOC losses as a percentage of the total C pool 15% higher at RM than at CL after light exposure. The mean DOC concentration of light exposed samples at RM declined steeply initially, with 83% observed DOC degradation occurring by day 3 of the experiment. Total losses of 7.9 mg DOC L-1were observed in light exposed samples at RM, along with decreasing E4:E6 ratios, suggesting that material remaining at the end of the experiment was humified. Depletion of DOC was positively correlated with production of CO2 at both sites, with concentrations of up to 4.3 mg CO2-C L-1 recorded at RM. Stable C isotope signatures at both sites were altered under light treatment, as demonstrated by the production of enriched δ13C-DOC (+0.46 ‰ relative to opaque bags) and depleted δ13C-DIC (-0.97 ‰ relative to opaque bags) at

  18. Expanding the donor pool: donation after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Elgharably, Haytham; Shafii, Alexis E; Mason, David P

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is the definitive treatment of patients with end-stage lung disease. Availability of donor lungs remains the primary limitation and leads to substantial wait-list mortality. Efforts to expand the donor pool have included a resurgence of interest in the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. Unique in its physiology, lung viability seems more tolerant to the variable durations of ischemia that occur in DCD donors. Initial experience with DCD LTx is promising and, in combination with ex vivo lung perfusion systems, seems a valuable opportunity to expand the lung donor pool.

  19. Oblique drop impact onto a deep liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Marise V.; Sleutel, Pascal; Benschop, Jos; Riepen, Michel; Voronina, Victoria; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacco H.; Versluis, Michel; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2016-11-01

    While perpendicular drop impact onto a deep liquid pool is widely studied, the dynamics after oblique drop impact remain to be quantified. Here we study, for the first time, oblique drop impact experiments onto a deep liquid pool using ultrafast imaging. We quantify the splashing behavior and derive a model to describe the splashing threshold based on the impact angle and Weber number of the impacting drop. In addition, we study the cavity formation below the water surface and quantify the cavity depth and displacement. Based on the asymmetric cavity dynamics, we develop a method to predict the direction in which a jetted droplet can escape the cavity.

  20. The rendition of the Atlantic Warm Pool in the reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Stroman, Ashley; DiNapoli, Steven

    2013-07-01

    The Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) region, which is comprised of the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and parts of the northwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean, is one of the most poorly observed parts of the global oceans. This study compares three ocean reanalyses, namely the Global Ocean Data Assimilation System of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) of NCEP, and the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) for its AWP variation. The surface temperature in these ocean reanalyses is also compared with that from the Extended Range SST version 3 and Optimally Interpolated SST version 2 SST analyses. In addition we also compare three atmospheric reanalyses: NCEP-NCAR (R1), NCEP-DOE (R2), and CFSR for the associated atmospheric variability with the AWP. The comparison shows that there are important differences in the climatology of the AWP and its interannual variations. There are considerable differences in the subsurface ocean manifestation of the AWP with SODA (CFSR) showing the least (largest) modulation of the subsurface ocean temperatures. The remote teleconnections with the tropical Indian Ocean are also different across the reanalyses. However, all three oceanic reanalyses consistently show the absence of any teleconnection with the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. The influence of the AWP on the tropospheric temperature anomalies last for up to a one season lead and it is found to be relatively weak in R1 reanalyses. A simplified SST anomaly equation initially derived for diagnosing El Niño Southern Oscillation variability is adapted for the AWP variations in this study. The analysis of this equation reveals that the main contribution of the SST variation in the AWP region is from the variability of the net heat flux. All three reanalyses consistently show that the role of the ocean advective terms, including that associated with upwelling in the AWP region, is comparatively much smaller. The covariance of

  1. What’s in the Pool? A Comprehensive Identification of Disinfection By-Products and Assessment of Mutagenicity of Chlorinated and Brominated Swimming Pool Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swimming pool disinfectants and disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been linked to human health effects, including asthma and bladder cancer, but no studies have provided a comprehensive identification of DBPs in pool water and related those DBPs to the mutagenicity of pool wate...

  2. Regulation of the xanthophyll cycle pool size in duckweed (Lemna minor) plants.

    PubMed

    García-Plazaola, José Ignacio; Hernández, Antonio; Artetxe, Unai; Becerril, José María

    2002-09-01

    Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) plants grown under high light are characterized, when compared to low light acclimated plants, by a higher xanthophyll cycle (VAZ) pool content, but also by a higher proportion of photoconvertible violaxanthin and a superior ability to synthesize VAZ pigments. When duckweed plants were transferred to a high light environment a general response was the quick adjustment of the carotenoid composition, mainly xanthophyll cycle pigments. These changes resulted from a balance between a process of continuous light-independent carotenoid degradation and a light-induced accumulation. The use of norflurazon, an inhibitor of carotenogenesis, allowed us to demonstrate that the observed light induced increase of the VAZ pool was mainly caused by de novo synthesis through carotenogenesis. The extent of light-induced carotenogenesis was proportional to the light treatment and also to the operation of the VAZ cycle since it was partly abolished by treatments leading to a low activity of the VAZ cycle, such as low light, DTT or DCMU. These results suggest that not only the light itself, but also a mechanism triggered by a factor associated with the de-epoxidation state of the VAZ cycle controls carotenogenesis at some point before phytoene formation in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

  3. YNPS main coolant system decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, E.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) located in Rowe, Massachusetts, is a four-loop pressurized water reactor that permanently ceased power operation on February 26, 1992. Decommissioning activities, including steam generator removal, reactor internals removal, and system dismantlement, have been in progress since the shutdown. One of the most significant challenges for YNPS in 1996 was the performance of the main coolant system chemical decontamination. This paper describes the objectives, challenges, and achievements involved in the planning and implementation of the chemical decontamination.

  4. Animal and vegetation patterns in natural and man-made bog pools: implications for restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Poulin, M.; Lavoie, C.; Rochefort, L.; Desrochers, A.; Drolet, B.

    2006-01-01

    1. Peatlands have suffered great losses following drainage for agriculture, forestry, urbanisation, or peat mining, near inhabited areas. We evaluated the faunal and vegetation patterns after restoration of a peatland formerly mined for peat. We assessed whether bog pools created during restoration are similar to natural bog pools in terms of water chemistry, vegetation structure and composition, as well as amphibian and arthropod occurrence patterns. 2. Both avian species richness and peatland vegetation cover at the site increased following restoration. Within bog pools, however, the vegetation composition differed between natural and man-made pools. The cover of low shrubs, Sphagnum moss, submerged, emergent and floating vegetation in man-made pools was lower than in natural pools, whereas pH was higher than in typical bog pools. Dominant plant species also differed between man-made and natural pools. 3. Amphibian tadpoles, juveniles and adults occurred more often in man-made pools than natural bog pools. Although some arthropods, including Coleoptera bog specialists, readily colonised the pools, their abundance was two to 26 times lower than in natural bog pools. Plant introduction in bog pools, at the stocking densities we applied, had no effect on the occurrence of most groups. 4. We conclude that our restoration efforts were partially successful. Peatland-wide vegetation patterns following restoration mimicked those of natural peatlands, but 4 years were not sufficient for man-made pools to fully emulate the characteristics of natural bog pools.

  5. Habitat use and movements of shovelnose sturgeon in Pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River during extreme low flow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Gary L.; Ramsey, John S.; Scarnecchia, Dennis L.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored habitat use and movement of 27 adult shovelnose sturgeon in Pool 13 of the upper Mississippi River, Iowa-Illinois, by radio-telemetry in April through August 1988. Our objective was to determine the response of this species to unusually low water conditions in the upper Mississippi River in 1988. Most (94%) telemetry contacts were made in 3 habitat types: main channel (50%), main channel border where wing dams were present (29%), and tailwaters of Lock and Dam 12 (15%). Habitat use in spring was affected by the extreme low flows. We often found tagged shovelnose sturgeon in the main channel and tailwaters during the spring period (11 March–20 May) where water velocities were highest. This was in contrast to other studies where shovelnose sturgeon did not occupy those areas during years with normal spring flows. Shovelnose sturgeon were typically found in areas with a sand bottom, mean water depth of 5.8 m, and mean bottom current velocity of 0.23 m sec-1. They occupied areas of swifter current but were not always found in the fastest current in their immediate vicinity. Tagged shovelnose sturgeon tended to remain in the upper, more riverine portion of the pool, and we observed no emigration from the study pool. Linear total range of movement from the tagging site ranged from 1.9 to 54.6 km during the study period.

  6. Crowdlearning: 8 Districts Pool Resources to Focus on Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Paula; Erkens, Cassandra; Sanna, Diane; Savastano, Linda F.

    2015-01-01

    Eight school districts in Rhode Island formed the East Bay Professional Learning Community to launch a joint effort to develop a culture of assessment literacy through ongoing professional learning focused on team-specific action plans tightly aligned to school, district, and state initiatives. To accomplish this, the districts pooled their…

  7. 3. FOREMAN'S HOUSE, TENSTALL GARAGE, AND STEPS TO SWIMMING POOL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOREMAN'S HOUSE, TEN-STALL GARAGE, AND STEPS TO SWIMMING POOL. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  8. How to Stay Afloat in the Academic Library Job Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Teresa Y., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There's never been a more challenging time to find a position as an academic librarian, especially for those who have recently completed their library education. Whether job-hunters are jumping into the job pool for the very first time, or back in the water after a dry spell, Neely and her crack team of expert contributors have the information…

  9. A Computer-based Approach to Analyzing a Patient Pool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Ruth K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer system for analyzing a patient pool used by the division of dental hygiene at Virginia Commonwealth University is presented as a model for evaluating patient profiles. Descriptions of the various patient parameters are provided, and guidelines are presented to assist institutions considering such a system. (Author/MLW)

  10. 12. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ascending to the rock garden, and the Belvedere (more distant view). The view includes the bronze sculpture "Bather at the Seine" by Maillol (Ca. 1921), and a honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  11. 13. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of the swimming pool retaining wall, the steps, ascending to the rock garden, and the Belvedere (less distant view). The view includes the bronze sculpture "Bather at the Seine" by Maillol (Ca. 1921), and a honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  12. Using pool noodles to teach mitosis and meiosis.

    PubMed

    Locke, John; McDermid, Heather E

    2005-05-01

    Although mitosis and meiosis are fundamental to understanding genetics, students often find them difficult to learn. We suggest using common "pool noodles" as teaching aids to represent chromatids in classroom demonstrations. Students use these noodles to demonstrate the processes of synapsis, segregation, and recombination. Student feedback has been overwhelmingly positive.

  13. Biochar effects on phosphorus pools in three soils from Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This greenhouse study was set up to assess the changes in the soil phosphorus (P) pools of three soils used for agricultural production in Minnesota as a result of biochar application and crop nutrient uptake. The soils included: excessively well-drained Hubbard loamy sand; poorly drained, calcareou...

  14. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SPENT FUEL POOL DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Demmer

    2011-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  15. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: (1) The operation of a commercial activity; (2) The operation of educational, philanthropic, or.... Industrial/Business Pool spectrum many not be utilized for the purposes set forth in § 90.20(a). (b... normally assigned, the specific assignment limitations which are explained in paragraph (b) of this...

  16. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: (1) The operation of a commercial activity; (2) The operation of educational, philanthropic, or.... Industrial/Business Pool spectrum many not be utilized for the purposes set forth in § 90.20(a). (b... normally assigned, the specific assignment limitations which are explained in paragraph (b) of this...

  17. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) The operation of a commercial activity; (2) The operation of educational, philanthropic, or.... Industrial/Business Pool spectrum many not be utilized for the purposes set forth in § 90.20(a). (b... normally assigned, the specific assignment limitations which are explained in paragraph (b) of this...

  18. 40 CFR 96.143 - Compliance supplement pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance supplement pool. 96.143 Section 96.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION...

  19. 40 CFR 96.143 - Compliance supplement pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance supplement pool. 96.143 Section 96.143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION...

  20. Convective cooling in a pool-type research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sipaun, Susan; Usman, Shoaib

    2016-01-22

    A reactor produces heat arising from fission reactions in the nuclear core. In the Missouri University of Science and Technology research reactor (MSTR), this heat is removed by natural convection where the coolant/moderator is demineralised water. Heat energy is transferred from the core into the coolant, and the heated water eventually evaporates from the open pool surface. A secondary cooling system was installed to actively remove excess heat arising from prolonged reactor operations. The nuclear core consists of uranium silicide aluminium dispersion fuel (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}Al) in the form of rectangular plates. Gaps between the plates allow coolant to pass through and carry away heat. A study was carried out to map out heat flow as well as to predict the system’s performance via STAR-CCM+ simulation. The core was approximated as porous media with porosity of 0.7027. The reactor is rated 200kW and total heat density is approximately 1.07+E7 Wm{sup −3}. An MSTR model consisting of 20% of MSTR’s nuclear core in a third of the reactor pool was developed. At 35% pump capacity, the simulation results for the MSTR model showed that water is drawn out of the pool at a rate 1.28 kg s{sup −1} from the 4” pipe, and predicted pool surface temperature not exceeding 30°C.